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Sample records for pathogen campylobacter lari

  1. Comparative genomics of the Campylobacter lari group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Campylobacter lari group is a phylogenetic clade within the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria and is part of the thermotolerant campylobacters, a division within the genus that includes the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The lari group is currently composed of five validly-named sp...

  2. Genome Sequence of a Urease-positive Campylobacter lari Strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter lari is frequently isolated from shore birds and can cause illness in humans. Here we report the draft whole genome sequence of an urease-positive strain of C. lari that was isolated in estuarial water on the coast of Delaware, USA....

  3. Gyr B versus 16s rDNA sequencing for the identification of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species of the genus Campylobacter are the causative agents of a sizable number of the cases of food-borne illness in the developed world. The majority of this disease is caused by three of the thermotolerant Campylobacter species: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. ...

  4. Composite sequence proteomic analysis of protein biomarkers of Campylobacter coli, C. lari and C. concisus for bacterial identification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins biomarkers observed in the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectra (MALDI-TOF-MS) of cell lysates of three strains of Campylobacter coli, two strains of C. lari and one strain of C. concisus have been identified by "bottom-up" proteomic techniques. The signif...

  5. A PCR-RFLP assay for the detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, C. lari, C. helveticus and C. upsaliensis.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Kazumasa; Asakura, Masahiro; Somroop, Srinuan; Hatanaka, Noritoshi; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Nagita, Akira; Misawa, Naoaki; Matsuda, Motoo; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2014-05-01

    Although Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial causes of human gastrointestinal diseases, other Campylobacter species are also involved in human and animal infections. In this study, we developed a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based PCR-RFLP assay for the detection and differentiation of C. jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, C. lari, C. helveticus and C. upsaliensis. Previously designed common primers, which can amplify the cdtB gene of C. jejuni, C. coli and C. fetus, were used for detecting seven Campylobacter species and differentiating between them by restriction digestion. The PCR-RFLP assay was validated with 277 strains, including 35 C. jejuni, 19 C. coli, 20 C. fetus, 24 C. hyointestinalis, 13 C. lari, 2 C. helveticus, 22 C. upsaliensis, 3 other Campylobacter spp. and 17 other species associated with human diseases. Sensitivity and specificity of the PCR-RFLP assay were 100 % except for C. hyointestinalis (88 % sensitivity). Furthermore, the PCR-RFLP assay successfully detected and differentiated C. jejuni, C. coli and C. fetus in clinical and animal samples. The results indicate that the PCR-RFLP assay is useful for the detection and differentiation of seven Campylobacter species important for human and animal diseases. PMID:24568882

  6. Validation according to ISO 16140:2003 of a commercial real-time PCR-based method for detecting Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari in foods.

    PubMed

    Vencia, W; Nogarol, C; Bianchi, D M; Gallina, S; Zuccon, F; Adriano, D; Gramaglia, M; Decastelli, L

    2014-05-01

    Campylobacteriosis was the most frequently reported zoonosis in the European Union (EU) in 2010, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari as the most frequently reported species in foodborne outbreaks (FBOs). Relatively sensitive to environmental factors, these species may be present in low numbers. In line with EU policy for food control and FBO detection and in view of the need to reduce response time, we validated an alternative molecular method according to ISO 16140:2003 which establishes the general principle and technical protocol for the validation of alternative methods in the microbiological analysis of food. We used a qualitative real-time PCR commercial kit for the detection of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari in two food categories "fruit and vegetable-based products" and "dairy products". The validation protocol comprises two phases: the first is a method comparison study of the alternative method against the reference method, and the second is an interlaboratory study of each of the two methods. In the first step, ISO 16140:2003 validation examines the following parameters: limit of detection (LOD); relative accuracy, relative specificity and sensitivity; relative detection level (RDL); and inclusivity and exclusivity. Except for LOD, inclusivity and exclusivity, the other steps were performed against the reference method (ISO 10272:2006). The LOD of the real-time PCR method was set at 4CFU/25g or mL for both food categories. Relative accuracy (98.33%), specificity (96.77%), and sensitivity (100%) were recorded for the food category "fruit and vegetable-based products" and 93.3%, 88.24%, 100%, respectively, for "dairy products". The RDL according to Fisher's exact test was p=1 for both food categories, for each level, and each food/strain combination. The interlaboratory study results showed correct identification of all 24 blind samples with both methods by all the participating laboratories. The results show that this

  7. Post-genome Analysis of the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Emily J.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Wren, Brendan

    The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is part of the genus Campylobacter that lies within the epsilon proteobacteria subclass of bacteria. The nearest family in phylogenetic terms is the Helicobacteraceae which includes the Helicobacter and Wolinella genuses. Campylobacter species are Gram-negative, curved rod shaped or spiral and are motile (via polar flagella).

  8. Detection of Campylobacter species using monoclonal antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Colin R.; Lee, Alice; Stanker, Larry H.

    1999-01-01

    A panel of species specific monoclonal antibodies were raised to Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lari. The isotypes, and cross-reactivity profiles of each monoclonal antibody against an extensive panel of micro- organisms, were determined.

  9. Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging for Detecting a Foodborne Pathogen: Campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper is concerned with the development of a hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for detecting and identifying one of the most common foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter. Direct plating using agars is an effective tool for laboratory tests and analyses of microorganisms. The morphology (...

  10. Specific pathogen-free pig herds also free from Campylobacter?

    PubMed

    Kolstoe, E M; Iversen, T; Østensvik, Ø; Abdelghani, A; Secic, I; Nesbakken, T

    2015-03-01

    As Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) pig herds are designed and managed to prevent specific pig diseases, it might be feasible to expand the list of micro-organisms also including zoonotic pathogens such as Campylobacter coli as this agent has its origin in pigs. In a previous survey, 15 of 16 of SPF herds were found free from human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica. Accordingly, three nucleus and seven multiplying herds were surveyed for Campylobacter to investigate whether the Norwegian SPF pig pyramid also might be free from this agent. In conclusion, the intervention of Campylobacter at the herd level might be possible as four of 10 SPF herds tested negative in two sets of samples from both autumn 2008 and summer/early autumn 2010. The four negative herds were all located in remote areas several kilometres away from conventional pig farming while the positive SPF farms were all situated in neighbourhoods with conventional pig production. It seems more difficult to control Campylobacter than some specific animal disease agents and another significant zoonotic agent, Y. enterocolitica, in pig herds. PMID:24798507

  11. Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari naturally present in Leghorn laying hens and the antibiotic resistance profiles of these organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are present in the intestinal tract and internal tissues of broiler breeder and broiler chickens. Campylobacter spp. are known to cause acute bacterial gastroenteritis in humans and raw poultry products have been implicated as a significant source of these infections. The object...

  12. Temporal variation in the prevalence and species richness of Campylobacter spp. in a prairie watershed impacted by urban and agricultural mixed inputs.

    PubMed

    Tambalo, Dinah D; Boa, Tyler; Aryal, Bijaya; Yost, Christopher K

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a substantial cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Human infection can result from ingestion of contaminated food or water from a variety of sources, including the consumption of fresh produce that is contaminated with the pathogen via the use of contaminated irrigation water. Using molecular methods, we investigated the occurrence of Campylobacter in the Qu'Appelle River watershed, an important source of irrigation water for vegetable producers in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. Water samples were collected from 7 sampling sites from April to September 2009 (145 samples), and from 5 sampling sites from May to October 2013 (116 samples). Campylobacter was detected in 57% and 16% of the samples collected in 2009 and 2013, respectively. Campylobacter detection was highest in May and June for both sampling years. In 2009, the predominant species were Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter jejuni, with prevalences of 84% and 41%, respectively. Other Campylobacter spp. were detected less frequently. Only C. lari was detected in 2013. The results in 2009 demonstrate the species richness of Campylobacter in water sources within the watershed. The occurrence of Campylobacter in the study area also underscores the importance of monitoring irrigation water used to irrigate fresh produce from a public health prospective. PMID:27003220

  13. Genomic Evidence for the Emergence and Evolution of Pathogenicity and Niche Preferences in the Genus Campylobacter

    PubMed Central

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Pastor, Eugenia; Valenzuela, Sebastián; Calleros, Lucía; Velilla, Alejandra; Hernández, Martín; Morsella, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The genus Campylobacter includes some of the most relevant pathogens for human and animal health; the continuous effort in their characterization has also revealed new species putatively involved in different kind of infections. Nowadays, the available genomic data for the genus comprise a wide variety of species with different pathogenic potential and niche preferences. In this work, we contribute to enlarge this available information presenting the first genome for the species Campylobacter sputorum bv. sputorum and use this and the already sequenced organisms to analyze the emergence and evolution of pathogenicity and niche preferences among Campylobacter species. We found that campylobacters can be unequivocally distinguished in established and putative pathogens depending on their repertory of virulence genes, which have been horizontally acquired from other bacteria because the nonpathogenic Campylobacter ancestor emerged, and posteriorly interchanged between some members of the genus. Additionally, we demonstrated the role of both horizontal gene transfers and diversifying evolution in niche preferences, being able to distinguish genetic features associated to the tropism for oral, genital, and gastrointestinal tissues. In particular, we highlight the role of nonsynonymous evolution of disulphide bond proteins, the invasion antigen B (CiaB), and other secreted proteins in the determination of niche preferences. Our results arise from assessing the previously unmet goal of considering the whole available Campylobacter diversity for genome comparisons, unveiling notorious genetic features that could explain particular phenotypes and set the basis for future research in Campylobacter biology. PMID:25193310

  14. A LARI Experience (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) In 2012, Lowell Observatory launched The Lowell Amateur Research Initiative (LARI) to formally involve amateur astronomers in scientific research by bringing them to the attention of and helping professional astronomers with their astronomical research. One of the LARI projects is the BVRI photometric monitoring of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs), wherein amateurs obtain observations to search for new outburst events and characterize the colour evolution of previously identified outbursters. A summary of the scientific and organizational aspects of this LARI project, including its goals and science motivation, the process for getting involved with the project, a description of the team members, their equipment and methods of collaboration, and an overview of the programme stars, preliminary findings, and lessons learned is presented.

  15. Genomic Investigation into Strain Heterogeneity and Pathogenic Potential of the Emerging Gastrointestinal Pathogen Campylobacter ureolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Bullman, Susan; Lucid, Alan; Corcoran, Daniel; Sleator, Roy D.; Lucey, Brigid

    2013-01-01

    The recent detection and isolation of C. ureolyticus from patients with diarrhoeal illness and inflammatory bowel diseases warrants further investigation into its role as an emerging pathogen of the human gastrointestinal tract. Regarding the pathogenic mechanisms employed by this species we provide the first whole genome analysis of two C. ureolyticus isolates including the type strain. Comparative analysis, subtractive hybridisation and gene ontology searches against other Campylobacter species identifies the high degree of heterogenicity between C. ureolyticus isolates, in addition to the identification of 106 putative virulence associated factors, 52 of which are predicted to be secreted. Such factors encompass each of the known virulence tactics of pathogenic Campylobacter spp. including adhesion and colonisation (CadF, PEB1, IcmF and FlpA), invasion (ciaB and 16 virB-virD4 genes) and toxin production (S-layer RTX and ZOT). Herein, we provide the first virulence catalogue for C. ureolyticus, the components of which theoretically provide this emerging species with sufficient arsenal to establish pathology. PMID:24023611

  16. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. relative to other enteric pathogens in grow-finish pigs with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Burrough, Eric; Terhorst, Samantha; Sahin, Orhan; Zhang, Qijing

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella spp., Lawsonia intracellularis, and Brachyspira spp. are pathogens commonly associated with diarrhea in growing and finishing pigs. Brachyspira spp. infection has recently reemerged as a significant concern due to an increase in the incidence of swine dysentery; however, the mechanisms underlying this increase in dysentery remain largely unknown. Pigs are also well-recognized as potential carriers of Campylobacter spp., particularly Campylobacter coli, yet enteric disease in swine associated with infection by these bacteria is considered uncommon and diagnosis has historically been based upon exclusion of other causes. Accordingly, Campylobacter culture is often excluded in routine diagnostic testing of cases of porcine enterocolitis and the incidence of infection is therefore largely unknown. In this study, feces from 155 cases of clinical diarrhea in grow-finish pigs submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory were cultured for Campylobacter spp. in addition to other testing as indicated for routine diagnostic investigation. Campylobacter culture was positive from 82.6% (128/155) of samples with C. coli accounting for 75% of isolates and Campylobacter jejuni for the remaining 25%. In 14.8% (23/155) of cases a Campylobacter spp. was the sole infectious agent detected; however, there was no association with any particular Campylobacter spp. Interestingly, for those cases with a laboratory diagnosis of Brachyspira-associated disease, 100% (15/15) were also culture positive for Campylobacter spp. suggesting a possible interrelationship between these bacteria in the pig gut. No association was noted between Campylobacter culture results and infection with either Salmonella spp. or L. intracellularis. PMID:23792232

  17. Campylobacter spp. as a Foodborne Pathogen: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Joana; Leite, Daniela; Fernandes, Mariana; Mena, Cristina; Gibbs, Paul Anthony; Teixeira, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide. Symptoms can range from mild to serious infections of the children and the elderly and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry. Intestinal colonization results in healthy animals as carriers. In contrast with the most recent published reviews that cover specific aspects of Campylobacter/campylobacteriosis, this broad review aims at elucidating and discussing the (i) genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; (ii) detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; (iii) campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors; and (iv) colonization of poultry and control strategies. PMID:21991264

  18. Effect of environmental parameters on the inactivation of the waterborne pathogen Campylobacter in a Mediterranean river.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, S; Araujo, R

    2012-03-01

    Campylobacter is a major waterborne pathogen that can be found in rivers of the Mediterranean area. Characteristics of these rivers change throughout the seasons due to variations in environmental parameters. As these variations may affect water survival of Campylobacter, we analyzed it in the Llobregat River using three approaches whose complexity increase progressively: (i) river water microcosms in the laboratory subjected to varying temperatures; (ii) in situ experiments carried out in the river, in which bacteria were exposed to varying levels of environmental parameters; and (iii) monitoring of thermotolerant Campylobacter in the river over two years. Campylobacter was quantified using the most probable number (MPN) method. The results showed that an increase in water temperature accelerates Campylobacter inactivation, measured as the loss of culturability. In situ experiments revealed that inactivation rates were also affected by sunlight, but not by pH, oxygen concentration or water conductivity. These observations are supported by the seasonality detected in Llobregat River. Campylobacter inactivation was fastest in spring and summer, when temperature and solar radiation were at their highest. The results highlight the importance of considering the inactivation rates in natural conditions to improve the monitoring of this pathogen and thus evaluate properly the health risk associated to water. PMID:22361705

  19. Prevalence and Pathogenic Potential of Campylobacter Isolates from Free-Living, Human-Commensal American Crows

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Allison M.; Miller, Woutrina A.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Chouicha, Nadira; Boyce, Walter M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested a potential role for wild birds in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. In this study, we detected Campylobacter spp. in 66.9% (85/127) of free-ranging American crows (Corvus brachyrhyncos) sampled in the Sacramento Valley of California in 2012 and 2013. Biochemical testing and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA revealed that 93% of isolates (n = 70) were C. jejuni, with cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) and flagellin A genes detected by PCR in 20% and 46% of the C. jejuni isolates (n = 59), respectively. The high prevalence of C. jejuni, coupled with the occurrence of known virulence markers CDT and flagellin A, demonstrates that crows shed Campylobacter spp. in their feces that are potentially pathogenic to humans. Crows are abundant in urban, suburban, and agricultural settings, and thus further study to determine their role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter will inform public health. PMID:24375131

  20. Culture of pathogenic campylobacter species at Mymensingh Medical College.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, S R; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Mahmud, M C; Ahmed, S; Ray, N C; Hoque, S M; Haq, J A; Yasmin, T

    2014-04-01

    Childhood diarrhea represents a major public health problem in developing countries, where campylobacteriosis is widespread and causes significant morbidity and mortality in infants and children. Despite the increasing importance of campylobacteriosis, most developing countries and even many developed countries do not have surveillance systems to measure the health and economic burden of human campylobacteriosis, nor detect trends in outbreaks. The present study was carried out to diagnose etiology of diarrhea caused by Campylobacter species. A total of 150 clinically diagnosed diarrheal pediatric patients were included in this study, of which 98(65.3%) were male and 52(34.6%) female from the Department of Pediatrics, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2011 to April 2012. Stool specimens were collected from each of the cases. The specimens were cultured in appropriate media and Campylobacters were isolated and identified by recommended tests. Among 150 cases, 17(11.3%) were culture positive for Campylobacter species, of which 15(88.2%) were C. jejuni and 02(11.7%) were C. coli. Of the cases, below 1 year of age group were 106(70.6%) cases showing 12(70.5%) positive for Campylobacters and 44(29.33%) cases were above 1 year of age group showing 05(29.41%) positive. The prevalence of Campylobacter infection found in the present study was higher below 1 year age group and was very much close to other countries of this subcontinent. PMID:24858144

  1. Monitoring chicken flock behaviour provides early warning of infection by human pathogen Campylobacter

    PubMed Central

    Colles, Frances M.; Cain, Russell J.; Nickson, Thomas; Smith, Adrian L.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Lunn, Daniel; Dawkins, Marian Stamp

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is the commonest bacterial cause of gastrointestinal infection in humans, and chicken meat is the major source of infection throughout the world. Strict and expensive on-farm biosecurity measures have been largely unsuccessful in controlling infection and are hampered by the time needed to analyse faecal samples, with the result that Campylobacter status is often known only after a flock has been processed. Our data demonstrate an alternative approach that monitors the behaviour of live chickens with cameras and analyses the ‘optical flow’ patterns made by flock movements. Campylobacter-free chicken flocks have higher mean and lower kurtosis of optical flow than those testing positive for Campylobacter by microbiological methods. We show that by monitoring behaviour in this way, flocks likely to become positive can be identified within the first 7–10 days of life, much earlier than conventional on-farm microbiological methods. This early warning has the potential to lead to a more targeted approach to Campylobacter control and also provides new insights into possible sources of infection that could transform the control of this globally important food-borne pathogen. PMID:26740618

  2. Monitoring chicken flock behaviour provides early warning of infection by human pathogen Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Colles, Frances M; Cain, Russell J; Nickson, Thomas; Smith, Adrian L; Roberts, Stephen J; Maiden, Martin C J; Lunn, Daniel; Dawkins, Marian Stamp

    2016-01-13

    Campylobacter is the commonest bacterial cause of gastrointestinal infection in humans, and chicken meat is the major source of infection throughout the world. Strict and expensive on-farm biosecurity measures have been largely unsuccessful in controlling infection and are hampered by the time needed to analyse faecal samples, with the result that Campylobacter status is often known only after a flock has been processed. Our data demonstrate an alternative approach that monitors the behaviour of live chickens with cameras and analyses the 'optical flow' patterns made by flock movements. Campylobacter-free chicken flocks have higher mean and lower kurtosis of optical flow than those testing positive for Campylobacter by microbiological methods. We show that by monitoring behaviour in this way, flocks likely to become positive can be identified within the first 7-10 days of life, much earlier than conventional on-farm microbiological methods. This early warning has the potential to lead to a more targeted approach to Campylobacter control and also provides new insights into possible sources of infection that could transform the control of this globally important food-borne pathogen. PMID:26740618

  3. [The study of influence of stresses on virulence genes expression in foodborne pathogens Campylobacter jejuni].

    PubMed

    Efimochkina, N R; Bykova, I B; Markova, Yu M; Korotkevich, Yu V; Sheveleva, S A

    2016-01-01

    The study of the responses to cold exposure in Campylobacterjejuni (C. jejuni)--one of the most common foodborne pathogens is important for elucidating the mechanisms of acquisition of products contaminated with campylobacter, hazardous properties. These data are also necessary to create effective systems of microbiological controls at all stages of production and storage of food. 5 pairs of oligonucleotide primers were selected for detecting of genes cadF, cdtB, ciaB, flaA, iamA, encoding the main factors of pathogenicity of foodborne pathogens Campylobacter jejuni--adhesion and invasion of epithelial cells, production of CDT-toxin and mobility. To quantify the expression levels of target genes of C. jejuni a comparative method of determining the amount of amplification products of genes encoding pathogenicity factors of Campylobacter spp. has been developed using real-time PCR with intercalating dyes. To calculate and quantify gene expression the mathematical models have been obtained that allow extrapolation of threshold cycles of amplification to the initial number of copies of RNA/DNA in the tested samples. It has been established that exposure of C. jejuni at low temperatures +4 degrees C did not lead to increased levels of expression of genes cdtB and ciaB. However, in the populations of C. jejuni subjected to freezing, followed by incubation at optimum for the pathogen temperature of +42 degrees C, the increase in expression of mRNA encoding protein subunit B of CDT-toxin and antigenic marker of invasion took place. The number of copies of RNA in C. jejuni after stress exposure increased by 1.14-2.6 lg in comparison with intact cultures. CdtB and ciaB gene expression in C. jejuni can serve as an indicator of cell response to stress and helps to restore the functions of the bacterial cells after the termination of cold exposure and return of the pathogen in conditions favourable to the realization of its pathogenic potential. PMID:27228703

  4. Regulation of oxidative stress resistance in Campylobacter jejuni, a microaerophilic foodborne pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Chul; Oh, Euna; Kim, Jinyong; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis. Due to the increasing rates of human campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is considered as a serious public health concern worldwide. C. jejuni is a microaerophilic, fastidious bacterium. C. jejuni must overcome a wide range of stress conditions during foodborne transmission to humans, such as food preservation and processing conditions, and even in infection of the gastrointestinal tracts of humans. Particularly, this microaerophilic foodborne pathogen must survive in the atmospheric conditions prior to the initiation of infection. C. jejuni possesses unique regulatory mechanisms for oxidative stress resistance. Lacking OxyR and SoxRS that are highly conserved in other Gram-negative foodborne pathogens, C. jejuni modulates the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress resistance mainly via the peroxide resistance regulator and Campylobacter oxidative stress regulator. Based on recent findings of ours and others, in this review, we described how C. jejuni regulates the expression of oxidative stress defense. PMID:26284041

  5. Application of high throughout sequencing to measure performance of commonly used selective cultivation methods for the food-borne pathogen campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is an important food-borne human pathogen which has traditionally been studied using a variety of selective cultivation methods. Here we use next-generation sequencing to ask: 1) How selective are commonly-used Campylobacter cultivation methods relative to the initial community being ...

  6. Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses Reveal Key Innate Immune Signatures in the Host Response to the Gastrointestinal Pathogen Campylobacter concisus

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Nandan P.; Man, Si Ming; Burgos-Portugal, Jose A.; Khattak, Faisal A.; Raftery, Mark J.; Wilkins, Marc R.; Mitchell, Hazel M.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic species within the genus Campylobacter are responsible for a considerable burden on global health. Campylobacter concisus is an emergent pathogen that plays a role in acute and chronic gastrointestinal disease. Despite ongoing research on Campylobacter virulence mechanisms, little is known regarding the immunological profile of the host response to Campylobacter infection. In this study, we describe a comprehensive global profile of innate immune responses to C. concisus infection in differentiated THP-1 macrophages infected with an adherent and invasive strain of C. concisus. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), quantitative PCR (qPCR), mass spectrometry, and confocal microscopy, we observed differential expression of pattern recognition receptors and robust upregulation of DNA- and RNA-sensing molecules. In particular, we observed IFI16 inflammasome assembly in C. concisus-infected macrophages. Global profiling of the transcriptome revealed the significant regulation of a total of 8,343 transcripts upon infection with C. concisus, which included the activation of key inflammatory pathways involving CREB1, NF-κB, STAT, and interferon regulatory factor signaling. Thirteen microRNAs and 333 noncoding RNAs were significantly regulated upon infection, including MIR221, which has been associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. This study represents a major advance in our understanding of host recognition and innate immune responses to infection by C. concisus. PMID:25486993

  7. Intestinal microbiota and species diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in migrating shorebirds in Delaware Bay.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hodon; Grond, Kirsten; Verheijen, Bram; Elk, Michael; Buehler, Deborah M; Santo Domingo, Jorge W

    2014-03-01

    Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in red knot (Calidris canutus; n = 40), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres; n = 35), and semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla; n = 22) fecal samples collected during a migratory stopover in Delaware Bay. Additionally, we studied the occurrence of Campylobacter spp., enterococci, and waterfowl fecal source markers using quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Of 3,889 16S rRNA clone sequences analyzed, the bacterial community was mostly composed of Bacilli (63.5%), Fusobacteria (12.7%), Epsilonproteobacteria (6.5%), and Clostridia (5.8%). When epsilonproteobacterium-specific 23S rRNA gene clone libraries (i.e., 1,414 sequences) were analyzed, the sequences were identified as Campylobacter (82.3%) or Helicobacter (17.7%) spp. Specifically, 38.4%, 10.1%, and 26.0% of clone sequences were identified as C. lari (>99% sequence identity) in ruddy turnstone, red knot, and semipalmated sandpiper clone libraries, respectively. Other pathogenic species of Campylobacter, such as C. jejuni and C. coli, were not detected in excreta of any of the three bird species. Most Helicobacter-like sequences identified were closely related to H. pametensis (>99% sequence identity) and H. anseris (92% sequence identity). qPCR results showed that the occurrence and abundance of Campylobacter spp. was relatively high compared to those of fecal indicator bacteria, such as Enterococcus spp., E. faecalis, and Catellicoccus marimammalium. Overall, the results provide insights into the complexity of the shorebird gut microbial community and suggest that these migratory birds are important reservoirs of pathogenic Campylobacter species. PMID:24413599

  8. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hodon; Grond, Kirsten; Verheijen, Bram; Elk, Michael; Buehler, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in red knot (Calidris canutus; n = 40), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres; n = 35), and semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla; n = 22) fecal samples collected during a migratory stopover in Delaware Bay. Additionally, we studied the occurrence of Campylobacter spp., enterococci, and waterfowl fecal source markers using quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Of 3,889 16S rRNA clone sequences analyzed, the bacterial community was mostly composed of Bacilli (63.5%), Fusobacteria (12.7%), Epsilonproteobacteria (6.5%), and Clostridia (5.8%). When epsilonproteobacterium-specific 23S rRNA gene clone libraries (i.e., 1,414 sequences) were analyzed, the sequences were identified as Campylobacter (82.3%) or Helicobacter (17.7%) spp. Specifically, 38.4%, 10.1%, and 26.0% of clone sequences were identified as C. lari (>99% sequence identity) in ruddy turnstone, red knot, and semipalmated sandpiper clone libraries, respectively. Other pathogenic species of Campylobacter, such as C. jejuni and C. coli, were not detected in excreta of any of the three bird species. Most Helicobacter-like sequences identified were closely related to H. pametensis (>99% sequence identity) and H. anseris (92% sequence identity). qPCR results showed that the occurrence and abundance of Campylobacter spp. was relatively high compared to those of fecal indicator bacteria, such as Enterococcus spp., E. faecalis, and Catellicoccus marimammalium. Overall, the results provide insights into the complexity of the shorebird gut microbial community and suggest that these migratory birds are important reservoirs of pathogenic Campylobacter species. PMID:24413599

  9. Discrimination among thermophilic Campylobacter species by polymerase chain reaction amplification of 23S rRNA gene fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Eyers, M; Chapelle, S; Van Camp, G; Goossens, H; De Wachter, R

    1993-01-01

    By comparing nucleic acid sequences determined for one of the most variable areas of 23S rRNA genes of 23 Campylobacter strains, we were able to identify regions specific for thermophilic Campylobacter strains. Oligonucleotide primers corresponding to these unique regions were synthesized and used in the polymerase chain reaction. One primer pair selectively detected all thermophilic Campylobacter species, while four other primer pairs allowed discrimination among the thermophilic species Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni, Campylobacter lari, and Campylobacter upsaliensis. All primer sets were tested successfully on a large number of clinical isolates. Images PMID:7508460

  10. A cross-sectional study examining Campylobacter and other zoonotic enteric pathogens in dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario and risk factors for shedding of Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M

    2014-05-01

    An estimated 6 million pet dogs live in Canadian households with the potential to transmit zoonotic pathogens to humans. Dogs have been identified as carriers of Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp., particularly Campylobacter upsaliensis, but little is known about the prevalence and risk factors for these pathogens in pet dogs that visit dog parks. This study examined the prevalence of these organisms in the faeces of dogs visiting dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, as well as risk factors for shedding Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in the cities of Guelph and Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Owners were asked to complete a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including age, diet and activities in which the dog participates. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 questionnaires were completed. Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp. were present in 1.2%, 6.4% and 43.0% of faecal samples, respectively. Of the Campylobacter spp. detected, 86.1% were C. upsaliensis, 13% were C. jejuni and 0.9% were C. coli. Statistically significant sparing factors associated with the shedding of Campylobacter spp. included the feeding of a commercial dry diet and the dog's exposure to compost. Age of dog had a quadratic effect, with young dogs and senior dogs having an increased probability of shedding Campylobacter spp. compared with adult dogs. The only statistically significant risk factor for shedding C. upsaliensis was outdoor water access including lakes and ditches, while dogs >1 year old were at a lower risk than young dogs. Understanding the pet-related risk factors for Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis shedding in dogs may help in the development of awareness and management strategies to potentially reduce the risk of transmitting this pathogen from dogs to humans. PMID:23802765

  11. Campylobacter ureolyticus

    PubMed Central

    O'Donovan, Dylan; Corcoran, Gerard D; Lucey, Brigid; Sleator, Roy D

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we provide a brief overview of the emerging bacterial pathogen Campylobacter ureolyticus. We describe the identification of the pathogen by molecular as opposed to classical culture based diagnostics and discuss candidate reservoirs of infection. We also review the available genomic data, outlining some of the major virulence factors, and discuss how these mechanisms likely contribute to pathogenesis of the organism. PMID:24717836

  12. Campylobacter spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., noroviruses, and indicator organisms in surface water in southwestern Finland, 2000-2001.

    PubMed

    Hörman, Ari; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska; Maunula, Leena; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Torvela, Niina; Heikinheimo, Annamari; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2004-01-01

    A total of 139 surface water samples from seven lakes and 15 rivers in southwestern Finland were analyzed during five consecutive seasons from autumn 2000 to autumn 2001 for the presence of various enteropathogens (Campylobacter spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and noroviruses) and fecal indicators (thermotolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and F-RNA bacteriophages) and for physicochemical parameters (turbidity and temperature); this was the first such systematic study. Altogether, 41.0% (57 of 139) of the samples were positive for at least one of the pathogens; 17.3% were positive for Campylobacter spp. (45.8% of the positive samples contained Campylobacter jejuni, 25.0% contained Campylobacter lari, 4.2% contained Campylobacter coli, and 25.0% contained Campylobacter isolates that were not identified), 13.7% were positive for Giardia spp., 10.1% were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., and 9.4% were positive for noroviruses (23.0% of the positive samples contained genogroup I and 77.0% contained genogroup II). The samples were positive for enteropathogens significantly (P < 0.05) less frequently during the winter season than during the other sampling seasons. No significant differences in the prevalence of enteropathogens were found when rivers and lakes were compared. The presence of thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, and C. perfringens had significant bivariate nonparametric Spearman's rank order correlation coefficients (P < 0.001) with samples that were positive for one or more of the pathogens analyzed. The absence of these indicators in a logistic regression model was found to have significant predictive value (odds ratios, 1.15 x 10(8), 7.57, and 2.74, respectively; P < 0.05) for a sample that was negative for the pathogens analyzed. There were no significant correlations between counts or count levels for thermotolerant coliforms or E. coli or the presence of F-RNA phages and pathogens in the samples analyzed. PMID

  13. Detection of Bacteroidales fecal indicators and the zoonotic pathogens E. coli 0157:H7, salmonella, and campylobacter in river water.

    PubMed

    Walters, Sarah P; Gannon, Victor P J; Field, Katharine G

    2007-03-15

    Bacteroidales host-specific PCR offers a rapid method of diagnosing fecal pollution in water and identifying sources of input. To assess human health risks from exposure to fecal pathogens, however, Bacteroidales markers should be detectable when pathogens are present. To determine if Bacteroidales general, human-, ruminant-, and swine-specific markers correlate with certain fecal pathogens, we conducted a retrospective study on water samples for which the presence of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Campylobacter spp. had been determined. We found a positive relationship between detection of the Bacteroidales general fecal marker and presence of the pathogens. Detection of ruminant-specific markers predicted E. coli O157: H7 occurrence. There was a significant increase in the likelihood of detecting Salmonella when a ruminant marker was present, and Campylobacter spp. when human markers were present. For pathogens such as E. coli O157: H7 that are strongly associated with particular hosts, Bacteroidales host-specific markers can estimate the likelihood of pathogen occurrence, enabling more accurate health risk assessments. PMID:17410775

  14. The Pathogenic Potential of Campylobacter concisus Strains Associated with Chronic Intestinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Deshpande, Nandan P.; Wilkins, Marc R.; Tan, Chew Gee; Burgos-Portugal, Jose A.; Raftery, Mark J.; Day, Andrew S.; Lemberg, Daniel A.; Mitchell, Hazel

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter concisus has garnered increasing attention due to its association with intestinal disease, thus, the pathogenic potential of strains isolated from different intestinal diseases was investigated. A method to isolate C. concisus was developed and the ability of eight strains from chronic and acute intestinal diseases to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells was determined. Features associated with bacterial invasion were investigated using comparative genomic analyses and the effect of C. concisus on host protein expression was examined using proteomics. Our isolation method from intestinal biopsies resulted in the isolation of three C. concisus strains from children with Crohn's disease or chronic gastroenteritis. Four C. concisus strains from patients with chronic intestinal diseases can attach to and invade host cells using mechanisms such as chemoattraction to mucin, aggregation, flagellum-mediated attachment, “membrane ruffling”, cell penetration and damage. C. concisus strains isolated from patients with chronic intestinal diseases have significantly higher invasive potential than those from acute intestinal diseases. Investigation of the cause of this increased pathogenic potential revealed a plasmid to be responsible. 78 and 47 proteins were upregulated and downregulated in cells infected with C. concisus, respectively. Functional analysis of these proteins showed that C. concisus infection regulated processes related to interleukin-12 production, proteasome activation and NF-κB activation. Infection with all eight C. concisus strains resulted in host cells producing high levels of interleukin-12, however, only strains capable of invading host cells resulted in interferon-γ production as confirmed by ELISA. These findings considerably support the emergence of C. concisus as an intestinal pathogen, but more significantly, provide novel insights into the host immune response and an explanation for the heterogeneity observed in the

  15. The pathogenic potential of Campylobacter concisus strains associated with chronic intestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Deshpande, Nandan P; Wilkins, Marc R; Tan, Chew Gee; Burgos-Portugal, Jose A; Raftery, Mark J; Day, Andrew S; Lemberg, Daniel A; Mitchell, Hazel

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter concisus has garnered increasing attention due to its association with intestinal disease, thus, the pathogenic potential of strains isolated from different intestinal diseases was investigated. A method to isolate C. concisus was developed and the ability of eight strains from chronic and acute intestinal diseases to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells was determined. Features associated with bacterial invasion were investigated using comparative genomic analyses and the effect of C. concisus on host protein expression was examined using proteomics. Our isolation method from intestinal biopsies resulted in the isolation of three C. concisus strains from children with Crohn's disease or chronic gastroenteritis. Four C. concisus strains from patients with chronic intestinal diseases can attach to and invade host cells using mechanisms such as chemoattraction to mucin, aggregation, flagellum-mediated attachment, "membrane ruffling", cell penetration and damage. C. concisus strains isolated from patients with chronic intestinal diseases have significantly higher invasive potential than those from acute intestinal diseases. Investigation of the cause of this increased pathogenic potential revealed a plasmid to be responsible. 78 and 47 proteins were upregulated and downregulated in cells infected with C. concisus, respectively. Functional analysis of these proteins showed that C. concisus infection regulated processes related to interleukin-12 production, proteasome activation and NF-κB activation. Infection with all eight C. concisus strains resulted in host cells producing high levels of interleukin-12, however, only strains capable of invading host cells resulted in interferon-γ production as confirmed by ELISA. These findings considerably support the emergence of C. concisus as an intestinal pathogen, but more significantly, provide novel insights into the host immune response and an explanation for the heterogeneity observed in the

  16. Construction, Expression, and Characterization of Flagellar Proteins for the Food-borne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative bacterium, is the leading etiologic agent of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The source of this bacterium for human infection has been implicated as consumption and handling of poultry where Campylobacter jejuni is a commensal in th...

  17. Detection of pathogenic Campylobacter, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in wastewater by PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Bonetta, Si; Pignata, C; Lorenzi, E; De Ceglia, M; Meucci, L; Bonetta, Sa; Gilli, G; Carraro, E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the occurrence of pathogenic Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, E. coli virulence genes and Salmonella spp. in different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) using a method based on an enrichment step and PCR. This method was sensitive enough to detect low levels (∼2 CFU100 ml(-1) of raw sewage) of all the investigated pathogens. In the WWTP samples, E. coli O157:H7 DNA and the eae gene were never found, but 33 % of influents and effluents exhibited amplicons corresponding to Shiga-like toxin I. Twenty-five percent of the influent and 8 % of the effluent exhibited the presence of Shiga-like toxin II. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli DNA were identified in 50 and 25 % of the influents and in 8 and 25 % of the effluents, respectively. Salmonella spp. DNA was present in all the samples. Considering the results obtained, the method tested here offers a reliable and expeditious tool for evaluating the efficiency of the effluent treatment in order to mitigate contamination risk. Influent contamination by Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. provides indirect information about their circulation; moreover, their presence in effluents underlines the role of WWTPs in the contamination of the receiving surface waters, which affects public health directly or indirectly. PMID:27106076

  18. Antibacterial activity of three medicinal Thai plants against Campylobacter jejuni and other foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Dholvitayakhun, Achara; Cushnie, T P Tim; Trachoo, Nathanon

    2012-01-01

    Leaves of Adenanthera pavonina, Moringa oleifera and Annona squamosa are used in traditional Thai medicine to treat dysentery and other diseases. This study investigated the antibacterial activity of these plants against six species of foodborne pathogen. Methods and solvents employed to extract active constituents were optimised using the disc diffusion assay. Phytochemical analysis of the optimised extracts was performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined by broth microdilution. A. pavonina contained flavonoids, terpines and tannins, and was the most active extract against Campylobacter jejuni, inhibiting growth at 62.5-125 µg mL(-1). The A. squamosa extract contained flavonoids, terpines, tannins and alkaloids, and had the broadest spectrum of antibacterial activity, inhibiting Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and C. jejuni between 62.5 and 500 µg mL(-1). MBCs were 2- to 4-fold higher than MICs against C. jejuni and B. cereus, suggesting the extracts are bactericidal against these species. Negligible activity was detected from M. oleifera. The data presented here show that A. pavonina and A. squamosa could potentially be used in modern applications aimed at the treatment or prevention of foodborne diseases. PMID:21878033

  19. Novel Drug Targets for Food-Borne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni: An Integrated Subtractive Genomics and Comparative Metabolic Pathway Study

    PubMed Central

    Mehla, Kusum

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Campylobacters are a major global health burden and a cause of food-borne diarrheal illness and economic loss worldwide. In developing countries, Campylobacter infections are frequent in children under age two and may be associated with mortality. In developed countries, they are a common cause of bacterial diarrhea in early adulthood. In the United States, antibiotic resistance against Campylobacter is notably increased from 13% in 1997 to nearly 25% in 2011. Novel drug targets are urgently needed but remain a daunting task to accomplish. We suggest that omics-guided drug discovery is timely and worth considering in this context. The present study employed an integrated subtractive genomics and comparative metabolic pathway analysis approach. We identified 16 unique pathways from Campylobacter when compared against H. sapiens with 326 non-redundant proteins; 115 of these were found to be essential in the Database of Essential Genes. Sixty-six proteins among these were non-homologous to the human proteome. Six membrane proteins, of which four are transporters, have been proposed as potential vaccine candidates. Screening of 66 essential non-homologous proteins against DrugBank resulted in identification of 34 proteins with drug-ability potential, many of which play critical roles in bacterial growth and survival. Out of these, eight proteins had approved drug targets available in DrugBank, the majority serving crucial roles in cell wall synthesis and energy metabolism and therefore having the potential to be utilized as drug targets. We conclude by underscoring that screening against these proteins with inhibitors may aid in future discovery of novel therapeutics against campylobacteriosis in ways that will be pathogen specific, and thus have minimal toxic effect on host. Omics-guided drug discovery and bioinformatics analyses offer the broad potential for veritable advances in global health relevant novel therapeutics. PMID:26061459

  20. Novel Drug Targets for Food-Borne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni: An Integrated Subtractive Genomics and Comparative Metabolic Pathway Study.

    PubMed

    Mehla, Kusum; Ramana, Jayashree

    2015-07-01

    Campylobacters are a major global health burden and a cause of food-borne diarrheal illness and economic loss worldwide. In developing countries, Campylobacter infections are frequent in children under age two and may be associated with mortality. In developed countries, they are a common cause of bacterial diarrhea in early adulthood. In the United States, antibiotic resistance against Campylobacter is notably increased from 13% in 1997 to nearly 25% in 2011. Novel drug targets are urgently needed but remain a daunting task to accomplish. We suggest that omics-guided drug discovery is timely and worth considering in this context. The present study employed an integrated subtractive genomics and comparative metabolic pathway analysis approach. We identified 16 unique pathways from Campylobacter when compared against H. sapiens with 326 non-redundant proteins; 115 of these were found to be essential in the Database of Essential Genes. Sixty-six proteins among these were non-homologous to the human proteome. Six membrane proteins, of which four are transporters, have been proposed as potential vaccine candidates. Screening of 66 essential non-homologous proteins against DrugBank resulted in identification of 34 proteins with drug-ability potential, many of which play critical roles in bacterial growth and survival. Out of these, eight proteins had approved drug targets available in DrugBank, the majority serving crucial roles in cell wall synthesis and energy metabolism and therefore having the potential to be utilized as drug targets. We conclude by underscoring that screening against these proteins with inhibitors may aid in future discovery of novel therapeutics against campylobacteriosis in ways that will be pathogen specific, and thus have minimal toxic effect on host. Omics-guided drug discovery and bioinformatics analyses offer the broad potential for veritable advances in global health relevant novel therapeutics. PMID:26061459

  1. Evidence of land-sea transfer of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter to a wildlife marine sentinel species.

    PubMed

    Baily, Johanna L; Méric, Guillaume; Bayliss, Sion; Foster, Geoffrey; Moss, Simon E; Watson, Eleanor; Pascoe, Ben; Mikhail, Jane; Pizzi, Romain; Goldstone, Robert J; Smith, David G E; Willoughby, Kim; Hall, Ailsa J; Sheppard, Samuel K; Dagleish, Mark P

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution often accompanies the expansion and urbanization of human populations where sewage and wastewaters commonly have an impact on the marine environments. Here, we explored the potential for faecal bacterial pathogens, of anthropic origin, to spread to marine wildlife in coastal areas. The common zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter was isolated from grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), an important sentinel species for environmental pollution, and compared to isolates from wild birds, agricultural sources and clinical samples to characterize possible transmission routes. Campylobacter jejuni was present in half of all grey seal pups sampled (24/50 dead and 46/90 live pups) in the breeding colony on the Isle of May (Scotland), where it was frequently associated with histological evidence of disease. Returning yearling animals (19/19) were negative for C. jejuni suggesting clearance of infection while away from the localized colony infection source. The genomes of 90 isolates from seals were sequenced and characterized using a whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approach and compared to 192 published genomes from multiple sources using population genetic approaches and a probabilistic genetic attribution model to infer the source of infection from MLST data. The strong genotype-host association has enabled the application of source attribution models in epidemiological studies of human campylobacteriosis, and here assignment analyses consistently grouped seal isolates with those from human clinical samples. These findings are consistent with either a common infection source or direct transmission of human campylobacter to grey seals, raising concerns about the spread of human pathogens to wildlife marine sentinel species in coastal areas. PMID:25401947

  2. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) methods for the emerging Campylobacter species C. hyointestinalis, C. lanienae, C. sputorum, C. concisus and C. curvus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) systems have been reported previously for multiple food- and food animal-associated Campylobacter species (e.g. C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus) to both differentiate strains and identify clonal lineages. These MLST methods focused primarily on campylobact...

  3. Diversity in the Protein N-Glycosylation Pathways Within the Campylobacter Genus*

    PubMed Central

    Nothaft, Harald; Scott, Nichollas E.; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Liu, Xin; Hu, Rui; Beadle, Bernadette; Fodor, Christopher; Miller, William G.; Li, Jianjun; Cordwell, Stuart J.; Szymanski, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    The foodborne bacterial pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni, possesses an N-linked protein glycosylation (pgl) pathway involved in adding conserved heptasaccharides to asparagine-containing motifs of >60 proteins, and releasing the same glycan into its periplasm as free oligosaccharides. In this study, comparative genomics of all 30 fully sequenced Campylobacter taxa revealed conserved pgl gene clusters in all but one species. Structural, phylogenetic and immunological studies showed that the N-glycosylation systems can be divided into two major groups. Group I includes all thermotolerant taxa, capable of growth at the higher body temperatures of birds, and produce the C. jejuni-like glycans. Within group I, the niche-adapted C. lari subgroup contain the smallest genomes among the epsilonproteobacteria, and are unable to glucosylate their pgl pathway glycans potentially reminiscent of the glucosyltransferase regression observed in the O-glycosylation system of Neisseria species. The nonthermotolerant Campylobacters, which inhabit a variety of hosts and niches, comprise group II and produce an unexpected diversity of N-glycan structures varying in length and composition. This includes the human gut commensal, C. hominis, which produces at least four different N-glycan structures, akin to the surface carbohydrate diversity observed in the well-studied commensal, Bacteroides. Both group I and II glycans are immunogenic and cell surface exposed, making these structures attractive targets for vaccine design and diagnostics. PMID:22859570

  4. ISOLATION AND MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIALLY PATHOGENIC Escherichia coli AND Campylobacter jejuni IN FERAL PIGEONS FROM AN URBAN AREA IN THE CITY OF LIMA, PERU

    PubMed Central

    CABALLERO, Moisés; RIVERA, Isabel; JARA, Luis M.; ULLOA-STANOJLOVIC, Francisco M.; SHIVA, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) live in close contact with humans and other animals. They can transmit potentially pathogenic and zoonotic agents. The objective of this study was to isolate and detect strains of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni of urban feral pigeons from an area of Lima, Peru. Fresh dropping samples from urban parks were collected for microbiological isolation of E. coli strains in selective agar, and Campylobacter by filtration method. Molecular identification of diarrheagenic pathotypes of E.coli and Campylobacter jejuni was performed by PCR. Twenty-two parks were sampled and 16 colonies of Campylobacter spp. were isolated. The 100% of isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. Furthermore, 102 colonies of E. coliwere isolated and the 5.88% resulted as Enteropathogenic (EPEC) type and 0.98% as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The urban feral pigeons of Lima in Peru can act as a reservoir or carriers of zoonotic potentially pathogenic enteric agents. PMID:26603225

  5. ISOLATION AND MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIALLY PATHOGENIC Escherichia coli AND Campylobacter jejuni IN FERAL PIGEONS FROM AN URBAN AREA IN THE CITY OF LIMA, PERU.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Moisés; Rivera, Isabel; Jara, Luis M; Ulloa-Stanojlovic, Francisco M; Shiva, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) live in close contact with humans and other animals. They can transmit potentially pathogenic and zoonotic agents. The objective of this study was to isolate and detect strains of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni of urban feral pigeons from an area of Lima, Peru. Fresh dropping samples from urban parks were collected for microbiological isolation of E. coli strains in selective agar, and Campylobacter by filtration method. Molecular identification of diarrheagenic pathotypes of E.coli and Campylobacter jejuni was performed by PCR. Twenty-two parks were sampled and 16 colonies of Campylobacter spp. were isolated. The 100% of isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. Furthermore, 102 colonies of E. coli were isolated and the 5.88% resulted as Enteropathogenic (EPEC) type and 0.98% as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The urban feral pigeons of Lima in Peru can act as a reservoir or carriers of zoonotic potentially pathogenic enteric agents. PMID:26603225

  6. Campylobacter insulaenigrae Isolates from Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in California▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Robyn A.; Miller, William G.; Foley, Janet E.; Lawrence, Judy; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Byrne, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    There are only two reports in the literature demonstrating the presence of Campylobacter spp. in marine mammals. One report describes the isolation of a new species, Campylobacter insulaenigrae sp. nov., from three harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Scotland, and the other describes the isolation of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari, and an unknown Campylobacter species from northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in California. In this study, 72 presumptive C. lari and unknown Campylobacter species strains were characterized using standard phenotypic methods, 16S rRNA PCR, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Phenotypic characterization of these isolates showed them to be variable in their ability to grow either at 42°C or on agar containing 1% glycine and in their sensitivity to nalidixic acid and cephalothin. Based on both 16S rRNA PCR and MLST, all but 1 of the 72 isolates were C. insulaenigrae, with one isolate being similar to but distinct from both Campylobacter upsaliensis and Campylobacter helveticus. Phylogenetic analysis identified two C. insulaenigrae clades: the primary clade, containing exclusively California strains, and a secondary clade, containing some California strains and all of the original Scottish strains. This study demonstrates the inability of phenotypic characterization to correctly identify all Campylobacter species and emphasizes the importance of molecular characterization via 16S rRNA sequence analysis or MLST for the identification of Campylobacter isolates from marine mammals. PMID:17259365

  7. Molecular evidence for zoonotic transmission of an emergent, highly pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni clone in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Orhan; Fitzgerald, Collette; Stroika, Steven; Zhao, Shaohua; Sippy, Rachel J; Kwan, Patrick; Plummer, Paul J; Han, Jing; Yaeger, Michael J; Zhang, Qijing

    2012-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen. A highly virulent, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone (clone SA) has recently emerged in ruminant reservoirs and has become the predominant cause of sheep abortion in the United States. To determine whether clone SA is associated with human disease, we compared the clinical isolates of clone SA from sheep abortions with the human isolates of the PulseNet National Campylobacter databases at the CDC and the FDA using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and serotyping. The combined SmaI and KpnI PFGE pattern designations of clone SA from sheep were indistinguishable from those of 123 (9.03%) human C. jejuni isolates (total, 1,361) in the CDC database, among which 56 were associated with sporadic infections and 67 were associated with outbreaks that occurred in multiple states from 2003 to 2010. Most of the outbreaks were attributed to raw milk, while the sources for most of the sporadic cases were unknown. All clone SA isolates examined, including PFGE-matched human isolates, belong to sequence type 8 (ST-8) by MLST and serotype HS:1,8, further indicating the clonality of the related isolates from different host species. Additionally, C. jejuni clone SA was identified in raw milk, cattle feces, the feces and bile of healthy sheep, and abortion cases of cattle and goats, indicating the broad distribution of this pathogenic clone in ruminants. These results provide strong molecular and epidemiological evidence for zoonotic transmission of this emergent clone from ruminants to humans and indicate that C. jejuni clone SA is an important threat to public health. PMID:22189122

  8. Cytokine responses in birds challenged with the human food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni implies a Th17 response

    PubMed Central

    Reid, William D. K.; Close, Andrew J.; Humphrey, Suzanne; Chaloner, Gemma; Lacharme-Lora, Lizeth; Rothwell, Lisa; Kaiser, Pete; Williams, Nicola J.; Humphrey, Tom J.; Wigley, Paul; Rushton, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Development of process orientated understanding of cytokine interactions within the gastrointestinal tract during an immune response to pathogens requires experimentation and statistical modelling. The immune response against pathogen challenge depends on the specific threat to the host. Here, we show that broiler chickens mount a breed-dependent immune response to Campylobacter jejuni infection in the caeca by analysing experimental data using frequentist and Bayesian structural equation models (SEM). SEM provides a framework by which cytokine interdependencies, based on prior knowledge, can be tested. In both breeds important cytokines including pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1β, , IL-4, IL-17A, interferon (IFN)-γ and anti-inflammatory IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β4 were expressed post-challenge. The SEM revealed a putative regulatory pathway illustrating a T helper (Th)17 response and regulation of IL-10, which is breed-dependent. The prominence of the Th17 pathway indicates the cytokine response aims to limit the invasion or colonization of an extracellular bacterial pathogen but the time-dependent nature of the response differs between breeds. PMID:27069644

  9. A Genomic Island Defines Subspecies-Specific Virulence Features of the Host-Adapted Pathogen Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Kienesberger, Sabine; Schober, Caroline; Scheicher, Sylvia R.; Gülly, Christian; Zechner, Rudolf; Zechner, Ellen L.

    2010-01-01

    The pathogen Campylobacter fetus comprises two subspecies, C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Although these taxa are highly related on the genome level, they are adapted to distinct hosts and tissues. C. fetus subsp. fetus infects a diversity of hosts, including humans, and colonizes the gastrointestinal tract. In contrast, C. fetus subsp. venerealis is largely restricted to the bovine genital tract, causing epidemic abortion in these animals. In light of their close genetic relatedness, the specific niche preferences make the C. fetus subspecies an ideal model system to investigate the molecular basis of host adaptation. In this study, a subtractive-hybridization approach was applied to the genomes of the subspecies to identify different genes potentially underlying this specificity. The comparison revealed a genomic island uniquely present in C. fetus subsp. venerealis that harbors several genes indicative of horizontal transfer and that encodes the core components necessary for bacterial type IV secretion. Macromolecular transporters of this type deliver effector molecules to host cells, thereby contributing to virulence in various pathogens. Mutational inactivation of the putative secretion system confirmed its involvement in the pathogenicity of C. fetus subsp. venerealis. PMID:19897645

  10. Analysis of evolutionary patterns of genes in campylobacter jejuni and C. coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In order to investigate the population genetics structure of thermophilic Campylobacter spp., we extracted a set of 1029 core gene families (CGF) from 25 sequenced genomes of C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari. Based on these CGFs we employed different approaches to reveal the evolutionary ...

  11. The hyperosmotic stress response of Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hyperosmotic stress response of Campylobacter jejuni: The diarrheal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni and other gastrointestinal bacteria encounter changes in osmolarity in the environment, through exposure to food processing, or upon entering host organisms, where osmotic adaptation can be associa...

  12. Specific detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Oyofo, B A; Thornton, S A; Burr, D H; Trust, T J; Pavlovskis, O R; Guerry, P

    1992-01-01

    Development of a routine detection assay for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in clinical specimens was undertaken by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An oligonucleotide primer pair from a conserved 5' region of the flaA gene of C. coli VC167 was used to amplify a 450-bp region by PCR. The primer pair specifically detected 4 strains of C. coli and 47 strains of C. jejuni; but it did not detect strains of Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter lari, Campylobacter upsaliensis, Campylobacter cryaerophila, Campylobacter butzleri, Campylobacter hyointestinalis, Wolinella recta, Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholerae, Citrobacter freundii, or Aeromonas spp. By using a nonradioactively labeled probe internal to the PCR product, the assay could detect as little as 0.0062 pg of purified C. coli DNA, or the equivalent of four bacteria. In stools seeded with C. coli cells, the probe could detect between 30 and 60 bacteria per PCR assay. The assay was also successfully used to detect C. coli in rectal swab specimens from experimentally infected rabbits and C. jejuni in human stool samples. Images PMID:1400961

  13. A transferable plasticity region in Campylobacter coli allows isolates of an otherwise non-glycolytic food-borne pathogen to catabolize glucose.

    PubMed

    Vorwerk, Hanne; Huber, Claudia; Mohr, Juliane; Bunk, Boyke; Bhuju, Sabin; Wensel, Olga; Spröer, Cathrin; Fruth, Angelika; Flieger, Antje; Schmidt-Hohagen, Kerstin; Schomburg, Dietmar; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Hofreuter, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Thermophilic Campylobacter species colonize the intestine of agricultural and domestic animals commensally but cause severe gastroenteritis in humans. In contrast to other enteropathogenic bacteria, Campylobacter has been considered to be non-glycolytic, a metabolic property originally used for their taxonomic classification. Contrary to this dogma, we demonstrate that several Campylobacter coli strains are able to utilize glucose as a growth substrate. Isotopologue profiling experiments with (13) C-labeled glucose suggested that these strains catabolize glucose via the pentose phosphate and Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathways and use glucose efficiently for de novo synthesis of amino acids and cell surface carbohydrates. Whole genome sequencing of glycolytic C. coli isolates identified a genomic island located within a ribosomal RNA gene cluster that encodes for all ED pathway enzymes and a glucose permease. We could show in vitro that a non-glycolytic C. coli strain could acquire glycolytic activity through natural transformation with chromosomal DNA of C. coli and C. jejuni subsp. doylei strains possessing the ED pathway encoding plasticity region. These results reveal for the first time the ability of a Campylobacter species to catabolize glucose and provide new insights into how genetic macrodiversity through intra- and interspecies gene transfer expand the metabolic capacity of this food-borne pathogen. PMID:26259566

  14. Vaccines for viral and bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis: Part II: Vaccines for Shigella, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) enterohemorragic E. coli (EHEC) and Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Vidal, Roberto; del Canto, Felipe; Carlos Salazar, Juan; Montero, David

    2015-01-01

    In Part II we discuss the following bacterial pathogens: Shigella, Salmonella (non-typhoidal), diarrheogenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic and enterohemorragic) and Campylobacter jejuni. In contrast to the enteric viruses and Vibrio cholerae discussed in Part I of this series, for the bacterial pathogens described here there is only one licensed vaccine, developed primarily for Vibrio cholerae and which provides moderate protection against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (Dukoral(®)), as well as a few additional candidates in advanced stages of development for ETEC and one candidate for Shigella spp. Numerous vaccine candidates in earlier stages of development are discussed. PMID:25715096

  15. Vaccines for viral and bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis: Part II: Vaccines for Shigella, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) enterohemorragic E. coli (EHEC) and Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    O’Ryan, Miguel; Vidal, Roberto; del Canto, Felipe; Carlos Salazar, Juan; Montero, David

    2015-01-01

    In Part II we discuss the following bacterial pathogens: Shigella, Salmonella (non-typhoidal), diarrheogenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic and enterohemorragic) and Campylobacter jejuni. In contrast to the enteric viruses and Vibrio cholerae discussed in Part I of this series, for the bacterial pathogens described here there is only one licensed vaccine, developed primarily for Vibrio cholerae and which provides moderate protection against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (Dukoral®), as well as a few additional candidates in advanced stages of development for ETEC and one candidate for Shigella spp. Numerous vaccine candidates in earlier stages of development are discussed. PMID:25715096

  16. Decreased competiveness of the foodborne pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni, co-culture with the hyper-ammonia anaerobe, Clostridium aminophilum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are a leading bacterial cause of human foodborne illness. When co-cultured in anaerobic Bolton broth with the hyper-ammonia-producing bacterium, Clostridium aminophilum, ammonia accumulation was greater (P 1...

  17. Eleutherine americana: a candidate for the control of Campylobacter species.

    PubMed

    Sirirak, T; Voravuthikunchai, S P

    2011-04-01

    The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of selected Thai medicinal plants (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk., Quercus infectoria G. Olivier, and Eleutherine americana Merr.) against Campylobacter spp. was investigated. Sixty-five Campylobacter, including 39 isolates from humans and 26 isolates from chicken samples, were tested. Reference Campylobacter spp. that are commonly encountered in gastroenteritis were included. The ethanolic extract of E. americana demonstrated good antibacterial activity against all the tested isolates. Inhibition zones ranged from 10 to 37 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract against Campylobacter isolates from humans and chicken samples ranged from 31.25 to 500 μg/mL and 62.50 to 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 31.25 to 1,000 μg/mL for isolates from humans and 125 to 1,000 μg/mL from chicken isolates. The bactericidal activity of the ethanolic extracts of E. americana against important Campylobacter spp., including Campylobacter coli MUMT 18630, Campylobacter fetus ATCC 27374, Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 81176, Campylobacter lari ATCC 43675, and Campylobacter upsaliensis DMST 19055, were assessed at MIC, 2 MIC, and 4 MIC by counting viable cells after various time intervals. At 4 MIC, the level of the tested isolates decreased by 2 to 5 log-fold within 8 h. The ethanolic extract of E. americana demonstrated antibacterial activity against all Campylobacter spp. from both human and chicken isolates. Further investigation of this plant species may provide an alternative medicine for Campylobacter infection and an effective food additive to prevent the infection. PMID:21406364

  18. Molecular subtyping methods for campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause worldwide of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis. The continued development of more effective and informative typing methods is necessary to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and population dynamics of this important pathogen. Comparative genome ind...

  19. Evaluation of a Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Detecting Major Bacterial Enteric Pathogens in Fecal Specimens: Intestinal Inflammation and Bacterial Load Are Correlated in Campylobacter Infections.

    PubMed

    Wohlwend, Nadia; Tiermann, Sacha; Risch, Lorenz; Risch, Martin; Bodmer, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    A total of 1,056 native or Cary-Blair-preserved stool specimens were simultaneously tested by conventional stool culturing and by enteric bacterial panel (EBP) multiplex real-time PCR for Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Salmonella spp., and shigellosis disease-causing agents (Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli [EIEC]). Overall, 143 (13.5%) specimens tested positive by PCR for the targets named above; 3 coinfections and 109 (10.4%) Campylobacter spp., 17 (1.6%) Salmonella spp., and 20 (1.9%) Shigella spp./EIEC infections were detected. The respective positive stool culture rates were 75 (7.1%), 14 (1.3%), and 7 (0.7%). The median threshold cycle (CT) values of culture-positive specimens were significantly lower than those of culture-negative ones (CT values, 24.3 versus 28.7; P < 0.001), indicating that the relative bacterial load per fecal specimen was significantly associated with the culture results. In Campylobacter infections, the respective median fecal calprotectin concentrations in PCR-negative/culture-negative (n = 40), PCR-positive/culture-negative (n = 14), and PCR-positive/culture-positive (n = 15) specimens were 134 mg/kg (interquartile range [IQR], 30 to 1,374 mg/kg), 1,913 mg/kg (IQR, 165 to 3,813 mg/kg), and 5,327 mg/kg (IQR, 1,836 to 18,213 mg/kg). Significant differences were observed among the three groups (P < 0.001), and a significant linear trend was identified (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the fecal calprotectin concentrations and CT values were found to be correlated (r = -0.658). Our results demonstrate that molecular screening of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp./EIEC using the BD Max EBP assay will result in timely diagnosis and improved sensitivity. The determination of inflammatory markers, such as calprotectin, in fecal specimens may aid in the interpretation of PCR results, particularly for enteric pathogens associated with mucosal damage and colonic inflammation. PMID:27307458

  20. Campylobacter jejuni, other campylobacters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For approximately three decades, the genus Campylobacter has had increased focus as a threat to food safety, due to the rise in enteritis in humans caused by consumption or handling of foods contaminated with the organism. For this reason, numerous research studies have been conducted and books wri...

  1. Distribution and seasonality of microbial indicators and thermophilic campylobacters in two freshwater bathing sites on the River Lune in northwest England.

    PubMed

    Obiri-Danso, K; Jones, K

    1999-12-01

    Two freshwater bathing sites, the Crook O'Lune and the University Boathouse, on the River Lune in the north-west of England, were monitored over a 2 year period for the faecal indicators, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci, the pathogens, Salmonella and Campylobacter, and compliance with the EU Directive on Bathing Water Quality. Faecal indicator numbers showed no seasonal variation, with numbers in the bathing season similar to those in the non-bathing season. They were consistently above the EU Guideline and Imperative standards so that if the EU Bathing Water Quality Directive (76/160/EEC) were applied, neither site would comply. Faecal indicator numbers in the sediments were an order of magnitude higher than in the overlying water. Campylobacter numbers showed seasonal variation in the water with higher counts in winter than in the summer, although numbers were low. Higher numbers were found in the sediments but there was no seasonal variation. Analysis of various inputs showed that indicators and campylobacters came from a mixture of sources, namely a sewage treatment works, agricultural run-off, streams and mallards. Microbial numbers in the water at the Crook O'Lune, which is closer to the sources of pollution, were twice those at the Boathouse. In the sediments they were six to eight times higher. Faecal coliforms were all identified as Escherichia coli of which 80% were a single biotype. Faecal streptococci were all enterococci of which 55% were E. avium, 38% E. faecalis and 7% E. durans. Salmonella was not isolated from either the water column or the sediments. Campylobacters were mainly Camp. jejuni, followed by Camp. coli, UPTC and Camp. lari. PMID:10664907

  2. Biofilm spatial organization by the emerging pathogen Campylobacter jejuni: comparison between NCTC 11168 and 81-176 strains under microaerobic and oxygen-enriched conditions

    PubMed Central

    Turonova, Hana; Briandet, Romain; Rodrigues, Ramila; Hernould, Mathieu; Hayek, Nabil; Stintzi, Alain; Pazlarova, Jarmila; Tresse, Odile

    2015-01-01

    During the last years, Campylobacter has emerged as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne infections in developed countries. Described as an obligate microaerophile, Campylobacter has puzzled scientists by surviving a wide range of environmental oxidative stresses on foods farm to retail, and thereafter intestinal transit and oxidative damage from macrophages to cause human infection. In this study, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to explore the biofilm development of two well-described Campylobacter jejuni strains (NCTC 11168 and 81-176) prior to or during cultivation under oxygen-enriched conditions. Quantitative and qualitative appraisal indicated that C. jejuni formed finger-like biofilm structures with an open ultrastructure for 81-176 and a multilayer-like structure for NCTC 11168 under microaerobic conditions (MAC). The presence of motile cells within the biofilm confirmed the maturation of the C. jejuni 81-176 biofilm. Acclimation of cells to oxygen-enriched conditions led to significant enhancement of biofilm formation during the early stages of the process. Exposure to these conditions during biofilm cultivation induced an even greater biofilm development for both strains, indicating that oxygen demand for biofilm formation is higher than for planktonic growth counterparts. Overexpression of cosR in the poorer biofilm-forming strain, NCTC 11168, enhanced biofilm development dramatically by promoting an open ultrastructure similar to that observed for 81-176. Consequently, the regulator CosR is likely to be a key protein in the maturation of C. jejuni biofilm, although it is not linked to oxygen stimulation. These unexpected data advocate challenging studies by reconsidering the paradigm of fastidious requirements for C. jejuni growth when various subpopulations (from quiescent to motile cells) coexist in biofilms. These findings constitute a clear example of a survival strategy used by this emerging human pathogen. PMID:26217332

  3. Ability of lactate and pyruvate to stimulate aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with fumarate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are human, foodborne, and bacterial pathogens that are frequently isolated from live poultry and processed poultry products. These pathogens are classified as microaerophiles; therefore, Campylobacter cultures are generally grown in atmospheres with reduced oxygen levels and elev...

  4. Occurrence of campylobacter species in healthy well-nourished and malnourished children

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Heriberto; Vera, Fernando; Villanueva, María Paz; García, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of Campylobacter species in healthy, well-nourished and healthy, malnourished children of low socioeconomic level in Southern Chile was determined. Campylobacter carriers were significantly most frequent among malnourished (31.4%) than among well-nourished (9.9%) children. Six species were isolated from malnourished children whereas four were found among well-nourished children. C. upsaliensis was the most frequent (13.3%) species isolated from malnourished children, followed by C. lari (7.6%) and C. fetus ssp. fetus (1.9%). PMID:24031178

  5. Effect of Incubation Temperature on the Detection of Thermophilic Campylobacter Species from Freshwater Beaches, Nearby Wastewater Effluents, and Bird Fecal Droppings

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Stephen; Nowak, Eva; Edge, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    This large-scale study compared incubation temperatures (37°C versus 42°C) to study the detection of thermophilic Campylobacter species, including Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, in various surface water samples and bird fecal droppings around Hamilton Harbor, Lake Ontario. The putative culture isolates obtained from incubation temperatures of 37 and 42°C were confirmed by Campylobacter genus- and species-specific triplex PCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. A total of 759 water, wastewater, and bird fecal dropping samples were tested. Positive amplification reactions for the genus Campylobacter were found for 454 (60%) samples incubated at 37°C, compared to 258 (34%) samples incubated at 42°C. C. jejuni (16%) and C. lari (12%) were detected significantly more frequently at the 42°C incubation temperature than at 37°C (8% and 5%, respectively). In contrast, significantly higher rates of C. coli (14%) and other Campylobacter spp. (36%) were detected at the 37°C incubation temperature than at 42°C (8% and 7%, respectively). These results were consistent across surface water, wastewater, and bird fecal dropping samples. At times, Campylobacter spp. were recovered and detected at 37°C (3% for C. jejuni, 10% for C. coli, and 3% for C. lari) when the same samples incubated at 42°C were negative. A significantly higher rate of other Campylobacter spp. was detected only at 37°C (32%) than only at 42°C (3%). These results indicate that incubation temperature can significantly influence the culturability and detection of thermophilic and other fastidious Campylobacter spp. and that a comprehensive characterization of the Campylobacter spp. in surface water, wastewaters, or bird fecal droppings will require incubation at both 37 and 42°C. PMID:24077717

  6. DETECTION OF CAMPYLOBACTER FROM POULTRY CARCASSES AT SLAUGHTER AND DIFFERENTIATION OF CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI AND CAMPYLOBACTER COLI BY MULTIPLEX PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is a major food-borne pathogen responsible for acute gastroenteritis characterized by diarrhea, which is sometimes bloody, fever, cramps, and vomiting. Campylobacter species are carried in the intestinal tract of mammals and birds, and sources of human infection include contaminated wa...

  7. Colonization properties of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Pielsticker, C.; Glünder, G.; Rautenschlein, S.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to colonize the chicken varies significantly not only between Campylobacter strains but also depending on the original source of the infecting isolate. The data provides circumstantial evidence that early immune mechanisms in the gut may play an important role in the fate of Campylobacter in the host. PMID:24611122

  8. Peptidoglycan ld-Carboxypeptidase Pgp2 Influences Campylobacter jejuni Helical Cell Shape and Pathogenic Properties and Provides the Substrate for the dl-Carboxypeptidase Pgp1*

    PubMed Central

    Frirdich, Emilisa; Vermeulen, Jenny; Biboy, Jacob; Soares, Fraser; Taveirne, Michael E.; Johnson, Jeremiah G.; DiRita, Victor J.; Girardin, Stephen E.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Gaynor, Erin C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of Campylobacter jejuni as a pathogen, little is known about the fundamental aspects of its peptidoglycan (PG) structure and factors modulating its helical morphology. A PG dl-carboxypeptidase Pgp1 essential for maintenance of C. jejuni helical shape was recently identified. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the CJJ81176_0915 gene product as co-occurring with Pgp1 in several organisms. Deletion of cjj81176_0915 (renamed pgp2) resulted in straight morphology, representing the second C. jejuni gene affecting cell shape. The PG structure of a Δpgp2 mutant showed an increase in tetrapeptide-containing muropeptides and a complete absence of tripeptides, consistent with ld-carboxypeptidase activity, which was confirmed biochemically. PG analysis of a Δpgp1Δpgp2 double mutant demonstrated that Pgp2 activity is required to generate the tripeptide substrate for Pgp1. Loss of pgp2 affected several pathogenic properties; the deletion strain was defective for motility in semisolid agar, biofilm formation, and fluorescence on calcofluor white. Δpgp2 PG also caused decreased stimulation of the human nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (Nod1) proinflammatory mediator in comparison with wild type, as expected from the reduction in muropeptide tripeptides (the primary Nod1 agonist) in the mutant; however, these changes did not alter the ability of the Δpgp2 mutant strain to survive within human epithelial cells or to elicit secretion of IL-8 from epithelial cells after infection. The pgp2 mutant also showed significantly reduced fitness in a chick colonization model. Collectively, these analyses enhance our understanding of C. jejuni PG maturation and help to clarify how PG structure and cell shape impact pathogenic attributes. PMID:24394413

  9. Presence of antibodies against campylobacter flagellar capping proteins versus campylobacter jejuni isolation in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading foodborne pathogen that causes human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Human cases have been linked to consumption and/or handling of contaminated poultry products. Although Campylobacter jejuni is commonly regarded as a commensal in broiler cecal micro...

  10. Better Campylobacter Detection: Furthering our understanding of Campylobacter ecology in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is an important human pathogen and consumption of undercooked poultry has been linked to significant human illnesses. To reduce human illness, intervention strategies targeting Campylobacter reduction in poultry are in development. For more than a decade, there has been an ongoing na...

  11. The evidence for horizontal and vertical transmission in Campylobacter passage from hen to her progeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is an important human pathogen and consumption of undercooked poultry and cross-contamination from raw product has been linked to significant human illnesses. To reduce human illness, intervention strategies targeting Campylobacter reduction in poultry are being developed. Researcher...

  12. CAMPYLOBACTER COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF SIGNIFICANT GUT MICROBIOTA TRANSITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter colonization of poultry causes a considerable public health risk. Interactions between the pathogen and the autochthonous intestinal microbiota have not been defined, however, Campylobacter can be excluded from the intestinal habitat by unidentified microbial species. To enhance our un...

  13. Investigation of the Enteric Pathogenic Potential of Oral Campylobacter concisus Strains Isolated from Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Octavia, Sophie; Day, Andrew S.; Riordan, Stephen M.; Grimm, Michael C.; Lan, Ruiting; Lemberg, Daniel; Tran, Thi Anh Tuyet; Zhang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Background Campylobacter concisus, a bacterium colonizing the human oral cavity, has been shown to be associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study investigated if patients with IBD are colonized with specific oral C. concisus strains that have potential to cause enteric diseases. Methodology Seventy oral and enteric C. concisus isolates obtained from eight patients with IBD and six controls were examined for housekeeping genes by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), Caco2 cell invasion by gentamicin-protection-assay, protein analysis by mass spectrometry and SDS-PAGE, and morphology by scanning electron microscopy. The whole genome sequenced C. concisus strain 13826 which was isolated from an individual with bloody diarrhea was included in MLST analysis. Principal Findings MLST analysis showed that 87.5% of individuals whose C. concisus belonged to Cluster I had inflammatory enteric diseases (six IBD and one with bloody diarrhea), which was significantly higher than that in the remaining individuals (28.6%) (P<0.05). Enteric invasive C. concisus (EICC) oral strain was detected in 50% of patients with IBD and none of the controls. All EICC strains were in Cluster 1. The C. concisus strain colonizing intestinal tissues of patient No. 1 was closely related to the oral C. concisus strain from patient No. 6 and had gene recombination with the patient’s own oral C. concisus. The oral and intestinal C. concisus strains of patient No. 3 were the same strain. Some individuals were colonized with multiple oral C. concisus strains that have undergone natural recombination. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence that patients with IBD are colonized with specific oral C. concisus strains, with some being EICC strains. C. concisus colonizing intestinal tissues of patients with IBD at least in some instances results from an endogenous colonization of the patient’s oral C. concisus and that C. concisus strains undergo natural recombination. PMID

  14. Campylobacter Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Campylobacter is found in the intestines of many wild and domestic animals. The bacteria are passed in their feces (poop), which can lead to infection in humans via contaminated food, meats (especially chicken), water taken from contaminated sources (streams or rivers ...

  15. Contribution of the stereospecific methionine sulphoxide reductases MsrA and MsrB to oxidative and nitrosative stress resistance in the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Atack, John M; Kelly, David J

    2008-08-01

    The microaerophilic food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is exposed to highly variable oxygen concentrations during its life cycle and employs a variety of protection mechanisms to resist oxidative stress. However, not all of the enzymes that mediate such protection have yet been identified. Two genes in strain NCTC 11168, Cj0637c and Cj1112c, are predicted to encode unrelated methionine sulphoxide reductases, which may repair oxidized methionine residues in proteins and thus contribute to oxidative stress defence. Cj0637 and Cj1112 were overexpressed, purified and shown by a coupled thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase-NADPH assay to catalyse the stereospecific reduction of the S and R diastereoisomers, respectively, of the model compound methyl p-tolyl sulphoxide. Cj0637 is thus identified as MsrA and Cj1112 as MsrB. The contribution of these enzymes to oxidative and nitrosative stress resistance in C. jejuni was assessed by phenotypic analysis of a set of isogenic msrA, msrB and msrA/B insertion mutants. As RT-PCR data suggested a polar effect on Cj1111c in the msrB mutant, an msrB/msrB(+) merodiploid complementation strain was also constructed. The msrA/B strain was severely growth inhibited under standard microaerobic conditions, whereas the msrA and msrB strains grew normally. Agar plate disc diffusion assays showed that all mutants displayed increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, organic peroxide, superoxide, and nitrosative and disulphide stress, but quantitative cell viability assays showed that the msrA/B double mutant was markedly more sensitive to both oxidative and nitrosative stress. All of the stress-sensitivity phenotypes observed for the msrB mutant were restored to wild-type in the msrB/msrB(+) merodiploid. It is concluded that MsrA and MsrB make a significant contribution to the protection of C. jejuni against oxidative and nitrosative stress. PMID:18667555

  16. Anti-Campylobacter Activities and Resistance Mechanisms of Natural Phenolic Compounds in Campylobacter

    PubMed Central

    Klančnik, Anja; Možina, Sonja Smole; Zhang, Qijing

    2012-01-01

    Background Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen and alternative antimicrobials are needed to prevent or decrease Campylobacter contamination in foods or food producing animals. The objectives of this study are to define the anti-Campylobacter activities of natural phenolic compounds of plant origin and to determine the roles of bacterial drug efflux systems in the resistance to these natural phenolics in Campylobacter jejuni. Methodology/Principal Findings Anti-Campylobacter activities were evaluated by an MIC assay using microdilution coupled with ATP measurement. Mutants of the cmeB and cmeF efflux genes and the cmeR transcriptional repressor gene were compared with the wild-type strain for their susceptibilities to phenolics in the absence and presence of efflux-pump inhibitors (EPIs). The phenolic compounds produced significant, but variable activities against both antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic resistant Campylobacter. The highest anti-Campylobacter activity was seen with carnosic and rosmarinic acids in their pure forms or in enriched plant extracts. Inactivation of cmeB rendered C. jejuni significantly more susceptible to the phenolic compounds, while mutation of cmeF or cmeR only produced a moderate effect on the MICs. Consistent with the results from the efflux pump mutants, EPIs, especially phenylalanine-arginine β-naphthylamide and NMP, significantly reduced the MICs of the tested phenolic compounds. Further reduction of MICs by the EPIs was also observed in the cmeB and cmeF mutants, suggesting that other efflux systems are also involved in Campylobacter resistance to phenolic compounds. Conclusion/Significance Natural phenolic compounds of plant origin have good anti-Campylobacter activities and can be further developed for potential use in controlling Campylobacter. The drug efflux systems in Campylobacter contribute significantly to its resistance to the phenolics and EPIs potentiate the anti-Campylobacter activities of plant phenolic

  17. Campylobacter sugars sticking out.

    PubMed

    Guerry, Patricia; Szymanski, Christine M

    2008-09-01

    The amazing repertoire of glycoconjugates that are found in Campylobacter jejuni includes lipooligosaccharides mimicking human glycolipids, capsular polysaccharides with complex and unusual sugars, and proteins that are post-translationally modified with either O- or N-linked glycans. Thus, the glycome of this important food-borne pathogen is an excellent toolbox for glycobiologists to understand the fundamentals of these pathways and their role in host-microbe interactions, develop new techniques for glycobiology and exploit these pathways for novel diagnostics and therapeutics. The exciting surge in recent research activities will be summarized in this review. PMID:18707886

  18. Global Epidemiology of Campylobacter Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Mitchell, Hazel M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Campylobacter jejuni infection is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of the last century. The incidence and prevalence of campylobacteriosis have increased in both developed and developing countries over the last 10 years. The dramatic increase in North America, Europe, and Australia is alarming, and data from parts of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East indicate that campylobacteriosis is endemic in these areas, especially in children. In addition to C. jejuni, there is increasing recognition of the clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter species, including Campylobacter concisus and Campylobacter ureolyticus. Poultry is a major reservoir and source of transmission of campylobacteriosis to humans. Other risk factors include consumption of animal products and water, contact with animals, and international travel. Strategic implementation of multifaceted biocontrol measures to reduce the transmission of this group of pathogens is paramount for public health. Overall, campylobacteriosis is still one of the most important infectious diseases that is likely to challenge global health in the years to come. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the global epidemiology, transmission, and clinical relevance of Campylobacter infection. PMID:26062576

  19. Structural insights from random mutagenesis of Campylobacter jejuni oligosaccharyltransferase PglB

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein glycosylation is of fundamental importance in many biological systems. The discovery of N-glycosylation in bacteria and the functional expression of the N-oligosaccharyltransferase PglB of Campylobacter jejuni in Escherichia coli enabled the production of engineered glycoproteins and the study of the underlying molecular mechanisms. A particularly promising application for protein glycosylation in recombinant bacteria is the production of potent conjugate vaccines where polysaccharide antigens of pathogenic bacteria are covalently bound to immunogenic carrier proteins. Results In this study capsular polysaccharides of the clinically relevant pathogen Staphylococcus aureus serotype 5 (CP5) were expressed in Escherichia coli and linked in vivo to a detoxified version of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin (EPA). We investigated which amino acids of the periplasmic domain of PglB are crucial for the glycosylation reaction using a newly established 96-well screening system enabling the relative quantification of glycoproteins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A random mutant library was generated by error-prone PCR and screened for inactivating amino acid substitutions. In addition to 15 inactive variants with amino acid changes within the previously known, strictly conserved WWDYG motif of N-oligosaccharyltransferases, 8 inactivating mutations mapped to a flexible loop in close vicinity of the amide nitrogen atom of the acceptor asparagine as revealed in the crystal structure of the homologous enzyme C. lari PglB. The importance of the conserved loop residue H479 for glycosylation was confirmed by site directed mutagenesis, while a change to alanine of the adjacent, non-conserved L480 had no effect. In addition, we investigated functional requirements in the so-called MIV motif of bacterial N-oligosaccharyltransferases. Amino acid residues I571 and V575, which had been postulated to interact with the acceptor peptide, were subjected to cassette

  20. Survey of Campylobacter spp. in owned and unowned dogs and cats in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, M; Follador, N; Coppola, L M; Martini, M; Piccirillo, A

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacteriosis is among the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and pet ownership has been identified as a risk factor for Campylobacter infection in humans. Since canine and feline prevalence data are scarce in Italy, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence, species distribution and risk factors for Campylobacter infection in dogs and cats under different husbandry conditions. Rectal swabs were collected from 171 dogs (household pets, n = 100; shelter-housed dogs, n = 50; dogs from breeding kennels, n = 21) and 102 cats (household pets, n = 52; shelter-housed cats, n = 21; free-roaming cats n = 29) in Northern Italy. Campylobacter was isolated from 17% (n = 29) of dogs and 14.7% (n = 15) of cats. C. jejuni was the most common isolate in both species (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 55.2%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 53.3%), followed by C. upsaliensis (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 27.6%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 40%). Other Campylobacter species were rarely detected, but included C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, C. lari and C. coli in dogs and C. coli and C. helveticus in cats. Among considered variables (sex, age, origin, diarrhoea, season of sampling), origin was identified as a risk factor for dogs, with shelter-housed dogs at higher risk than household dogs (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% CI 1.17, 6.92; P = 0.021). The results of this study, particularly the high prevalence of C. jejuni in Campylobacter-positive animals, demonstrated that household and stray dogs and cats in Northern Italy might pose a zoonotic risk for humans. Moreover, biosecurity measures should be improved in dog shelters. PMID:25951986

  1. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE RATES IN CAMPYLOBACTER ISOLATES DERIVED FROM SWINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter, a microaerophilic gram-negative rod, is a major foodborne pathogen and commonly present in swine intestinal tract without causing any clinical disease. In this project, we investigated the antimicrobial resistance profiles of fecal Campylobacter isolates (n= 194) obtained from a swin...

  2. Campylobacter in Poultry: Ecology and Potential Interventions.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Orhan; Kassem, Issmat I; Shen, Zhangqi; Lin, Jun; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Zhang, Qijing

    2015-06-01

    Avian hosts constitute a natural reservoir for thermophilic Campylobacter species, primarily Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, and poultry flocks are frequently colonized in the intestinal tract with high numbers of the organisms. Prevalence rates in poultry, especially in slaughter-age broiler flocks, could reach as high as 100% on some farms. Despite the extensive colonization, Campylobacter is essentially a commensal in birds, although limited evidence has implicated the organism as a poultry pathogen. Although Campylobacter is insignificant for poultry health, it is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, and contaminated poultry meat is recognized as the main source for human exposure. Therefore, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the development of interventions to diminish Campylobacter contamination in poultry, with the intention to reduce the burden of food-borne illnesses. During the past decade, significant advance has been made in understanding Campylobacter in poultry. This review summarizes the current knowledge with an emphasis on ecology, antibiotic resistance, and potential pre- and postharvest interventions. PMID:26473668

  3. Novel Approaches for Campylobacter Control in Poultry

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter is the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the United States and many industrialized countries. Poultry, particularly chickens, is considered a major source of human campylobacteriosis. Thus, on-farm control of Campylobacter in poultry would reduce the risk of human exposure to this pathogen and have a significant impact on food safety and public health. To date, three general strategies have been proposed to control Campylobacter in poultry at the farm level: (1) reduction of environmental exposure (biosecurity measures), (2) an increase in poultry's host resistance to reduce Campylobacter carriage in the gut (e.g., competitive exclusion, vaccination, and host genetics selection), and (3) the use of antimicrobial alternatives to reduce and even eliminate Campylobacter from colonized chickens (e.g., bacteriophage therapy and bacteriocin treatment). Except for biosecurity measures, the other intervention approaches are currently not commercially available and are still under development. This review is focused on two promising strategies—vaccination and bacteriocin treatment. In particular, we extensively review recent research aimed at discovering and characterizing potent anti-Campylobacter bacteriocins to reduce Campylobacter load at the primary production level in poultry. PMID:19425824

  4. [Antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter and its epidemiologic significance].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova, N Z; Minaev, V I; Gorelov, A V

    1990-03-01

    Sensitivity of 179 strains of thermophilic Campylobacter to 21 chemotherapeutic drugs was studied. Activity of the antibacterial agents against the pathogens was estimated by the MICs. The MIC50 and MIC90 were also determined. All the Campylobacter strains were sensitive to gentamicin, chloramphenicol, neomycin, furazolidone and furagin and resistant to cefazolin, polymyxin E, rifampicin, vancomycin and bacitracin. Differences in the attitude of the Campylobacter isolates from various sources and patients of various age groups to the chemotherapeutic drugs were detected. Possible consideration of the results of comparison of R spectra of Campylobacter strains and the levels of their resistance to antimicrobial drugs as epidemiological markers is discussed. PMID:2360853

  5. Relationship between Presence of Anti-Campylobacter FliD Protein Antibodies and Campylobacter jejuni Isolation from Broiler Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod, is a zoonotic pathogen associated with human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Poultry products are regarded as a major source of this bacterium for human infection. Although this bacterium is a commensal in chicken cecal microbiome, Campylobacte...

  6. Use of Comparative Genomics and Eukaryotic Cell Adherence/Invasion Assays of the Food-Borne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni for the Identification of Putative Virulence Factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter, the leading bacterial etiology of acute humans gastroenteritis, is commonly associated with the handling/consumption of poultry. Eukaryotic cell adhesion/invasion assays were performed on fifty-one C. jejuni isolates. A range of adhesion/invasion abilities was exhibited. To identify ...

  7. A poultry-intestinal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni produces a bacteriocin (CUV-3) active against a range of Gram positive bacterial pathogens including Clostridium perfringens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly isolated bacteriocin, CUV-3, produced by a poultry cecal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni strain CUV-3 had inhibitory activity against several Gram positive bacteria including Clostridium perfringens (38 strains), Staphylococcus aureus, Staph.epidermidis and Listeria monocytogenes. The pept...

  8. Nonpeptidic mimics of host defense proteins as antimicrobial agents for E. coli O104:H4, campylobacter spp. and other foodborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Foodborne illness is a serious public health problem. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial diarrheal illness in the United States, causing more disease than Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. combined. The CDC estima...

  9. DNA Micorarrays for Genotyping and Population Studies of Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause worldwide of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis. The continued development of more effective and informative typing methods is necessary to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and population dynamics of this important pathogen. Comparat...

  10. Association of Campylobacter upsaliensis with Persistent Bloody Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Couturier, Brianne A.; Hale, DeVon C.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter upsaliensis is a zoonotic, emerging pathogen that is not readily recovered in traditional stool culture. This case represents the first report of persistent bloody diarrhea with C. upsaliensis that was confirmed by filtration culture, PCR, and sequencing. PMID:22915607

  11. Campylobacter jejuni organism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... after a person has been exposed to the organism. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common ... ill cat or dog. This is what Campylobacter organisms look like through a microscope. (Image courtesy of ...

  12. BACTERIOPHAGE THERAPY AND CAMPYLOBACTER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book chapter reports efforts to exploit Campylobacter-specific bacteriophages to reduce the numbers of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli colonizing poultry and contaminating poultry meat products. Controlling campylobacters in poultry represents one of the greatest challenges to the agriculture a...

  13. Screening and Rapid Identification of Campylobacter Spp. DNA by FlaA PCR Based Method on Chicken and Human Fecal Samples in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is a foodborne pathogen which has a potential public health concern worldwide. Due to discriminatory problems encountered by conventional isolation of Campylobacter spp. and its genetic similarities, rapid molecular techniques for its genetic characterization are useful. In this study,...

  14. Multiplex PCR assay for the detection and quantification of Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella serotypes in water samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three pathogens, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), are leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and worldwide. For example, Campylobacter species are responsible for 17% of all hospitalizations related to illness, and although Campy...

  15. Ciliate ingestion and digestion: flow cytometric measurements and regrowth of a digestion-resistant campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a method to measure ingestion and digestion rates of bacterivorous protists feeding on pathogenic bacteria. We tested this method using the enteric bacteria Campylobacter jejuni and a freshwater colpodid ciliate. Campylobacter and a non-pathogenic bacteria isolated from the environment ...

  16. Campylobacter-From Gate to Plate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is an important bacterial foodborne pathogen. While the severity of most cases of human campylobacteriosis cases is usually slight, the prevalence of human infection, the potential for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, and the gravity of long-term sequelae such as Guillain-Bar...

  17. Hybrid speciation in agricultural Campylobacter coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Hybridization between distantly related organisms can facilitate rapid adaptation but is constrained by epistatic fitness interactions. The zoonotic pathogens Campylobacter coli and C. jejuni differ from each other at an average of nearly 40 amino acids per gene. Nevertheless, they have...

  18. Oxygen requirement and tolerance of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is considered a microaerophile, yet it has been shown to grow in vitro under atmospheres with elevated oxygen tensions. Hence, a better understanding of the oxygen requirement and tolerance of C. jejuni is required. Bacterial growth was measured under various ...

  19. Prevalence, quantitative load and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle herds in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease, and animals such as poultry, pigs and cattle may act as reservoirs for Campylobacter spp. Cattle shed Campylobacter spp. into the environment and they can act as a reservoir for human infection directly via contact with cattle or their faeces or indirectly by consumption of contaminated food. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, the quantitative load and the genetic strain diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle of different age groups. Results Faecal samples of 200 dairy cattle from three farms in the central part of Lithuania were collected and examined for Campylobacter. Cattle herds of all three farms were Campylobacter spp. positive, with a prevalence ranging from 75% (farm I), 77.5% (farm II) to 83.3% (farm III). Overall, the highest prevalence was detected in calves (86.5%) and heifers (86.2%). In contrast, the lowest Campylobacter prevalence was detectable in dairy cows (60.6%). C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus subsp. fetus were identified in faecal samples of dairy cattle. C. upsaliensis was not detectable in any sample. The high counts of Campylobacter spp. were observed in faecal material of dairy cattle (average 4.5 log10 cfu/g). The highest numbers of Campylobacter spp. were found in faecal samples from calves (average 5.3 log10 cfu/g), whereas, faecal samples from cows harboured the lowest number of Campylobacter spp. (average 3.7 log10 cfu/g). Genotyping by flaA PCR-RFLP analysis of selected C. jejuni isolates showed that some genotypes were present in all farms and all age groups. However, farm or age specific genotypes were also identified. Conclusions Future studies are needed to investigate risk factors related to the degree of colonisation in cattle. Based on that, possible measures to reduce the colonisation and subsequent shedding of Campylobacter in cattle could be established. It is important to further investigate the epidemiology of Campylobacter in the

  20. Milk Modulates Campylobacter Invasion into Caco-2 Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Louwen, Rogier; van Neerven, R J Joost

    2015-09-01

    Raw milk is a recognized source of Campylobacter outbreaks, but pasteurization is an effective way to eliminate the causative agent of Campylobacteriosis. Whereas breastfeeding is protective against infectious diseases, consumption of formula milk is thought to be not. However, in relation to Campylobacter, such data is currently unavailable. Although both pasteurized and formula milk are pathogen free and prepared in a quality controlled manner, the effect they have on the virulence of Campylobacter species is unknown. Here, we studied the effect of cow, goat, horse, and formula milk on Campylobacter invasion into intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, a pathogenic feature of this bacterial species, using a gentamicin exclusion invasion assay. We found that all milk products modulated the invasion of Campylobacter species into the Caco-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Control experiments showed that the milks were not toxic for the Caco-2 cells and that the effect on invasion is caused by heat labile (e.g., milk proteins) or heat stable (e.g., sugar/lipids) components depending on the Campylobacter species studied. This in vitro study shows for the first time that pasteurized and formula milk affect the invasion of Campylobacter. We recommend a prospective study to examine whether pasteurized and formula milk affect Campylobacteriosis. PMID:26495128

  1. Milk Modulates Campylobacter Invasion into Caco-2 Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Louwen, Rogier; van Neerven, R. J. Joost

    2015-01-01

    Raw milk is a recognized source of Campylobacter outbreaks, but pasteurization is an effective way to eliminate the causative agent of Campylobacteriosis. Whereas breastfeeding is protective against infectious diseases, consumption of formula milk is thought to be not. However, in relation to Campylobacter, such data is currently unavailable. Although both pasteurized and formula milk are pathogen free and prepared in a quality controlled manner, the effect they have on the virulence of Campylobacter species is unknown. Here, we studied the effect of cow, goat, horse, and formula milk on Campylobacter invasion into intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, a pathogenic feature of this bacterial species, using a gentamicin exclusion invasion assay. We found that all milk products modulated the invasion of Campylobacter species into the Caco-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Control experiments showed that the milks were not toxic for the Caco-2 cells and that the effect on invasion is caused by heat labile (e.g., milk proteins) or heat stable (e.g., sugar/lipids) components depending on the Campylobacter species studied. This in vitro study shows for the first time that pasteurized and formula milk affect the invasion of Campylobacter. We recommend a prospective study to examine whether pasteurized and formula milk affect Campylobacteriosis. PMID:26495128

  2. Quo vadis? – Monitoring Campylobacter in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stingl, K.; Knüver, M.-T.; Vogt, P.; Buhler, C.; Krüger, N.-J.; Alt, K.; Tenhagen, B.-A.; Hartung, M.; Schroeter, A.; Ellerbroek, L.; Appel, B.; Käsbohrer, A.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter is a poorly recognized foodborne pathogen, leading the statistics of bacterially caused human diarrhoea in Europe during the last years. In this review, we present qualitative and quantitative German data obtained in the framework of specific monitoring programs and from routine surveillance. These also comprise recent data on antimicrobial resistances of food isolates. Due to the considerable reduction of in vitro growth capabilities of stressed bacteria, there is a clear discrepancy between the detection limit of Campylobacter by cultivation and its infection potential. Moreover, antimicrobial resistances of Campylobacter isolates established during fattening of livestock are alarming, since they constitute an additional threat to human health. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) discusses the establishment of a quantitative limit for Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcasses in order to achieve an appropriate level of protection for consumers. Currently, a considerable amount of German broiler carcasses would not comply with this future criterion. We recommend Campylobacter reduction strategies to be focussed on the prevention of fecal contamination during slaughter. Decontamination is only a sparse option, since the reduction efficiency is low and its success depends on the initial contamination concentration. PMID:24611125

  3. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter spp. in Environmental Water Samples from a 100-Square-Kilometer Predominantly Dairy Farming Area

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, R.; Leatherbarrow, A. J. H.; Williams, N. J.; Hart, C. A.; Clough, H. E.; Turner, J.; Wright, E. J.; French, N. P.

    2005-01-01

    Water samples were taken systematically from a 100-km2 area of mainly dairy farmland in northwestern England and examined for Campylobacter spp. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PFGE-RFLP) and flaA strain typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates were done. Data on the water source and the adjacent environment were recorded and examined as explanatory variables. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 40.5% (n = 119) of the water samples tested. C. jejuni was isolated from 14.3%, C. coli was isolated from 18.5%, and Campylobacter lari was isolated from 4.2% of the samples. Campylobacter hyointestinalis was not isolated from any water source. The difference in prevalence between water types (trough, running, and standing) was significant (P = 0.001). C. jejuni was the species most commonly isolated from trough-water and running-water sources, while C. coli was the most frequently isolated from standing water (P < 0.001). No association was found between the presence of Escherichia coli and that of Campylobacter spp. The final multivariable logistic regression model for Campylobacter spp. included the following variables: water source, soil type, aspect, and amount of cattle fecal material in the environment (fecal pat count). Strain typing demonstrated a diverse population of C. jejuni and the presence of a common C. coli flaA type that was widely distributed throughout the area. Most of the isolates within the common flaA type were discriminated by PFGE-RFLP. These findings suggest a possible role for environmental water in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in a farming environment. PMID:15812015

  4. FdhTU-modulated formate dehydrogenase expression and electron donor availability enhance recovery of Campylobacter jejuni following host cell infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of Campylobacter jejuni fdhTU reveals a role in formate dehydrogenase activity and implications for electron donor requirements during the pathogen-host cell interaction. Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne bacterial pathogen which colonizes the intestinal tract and causes severe gastroent...

  5. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are common in animals because of the use of fluoroquinolones as therapeutic agents in animal husbandry, particularly in chickens and other poultry. Campylobacter is a commensal in poultry, and therefore, poultry and poultry products are the...

  6. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni YH001 from beef liver which contains a novel plasmid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis in humans and is commonly found in poultry and meat products. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a Campylobacter jejuni strain recently isolated from retail beef liver. The genome size was 1,712,361 bp, ...

  7. Effect of distillers feedstuffs and lasolocid on Campylobacter carriage in feedlot cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter are foodborne pathogens that can colonize the gut of food animals. Limited in their ability to ferment sugars, Campylobacter can derive energy for growth via amino acid catabolism. In cattle, dietary amino acids can be extensively catabolized in the rumen and cattlemen often suppleme...

  8. Campylobacter Colonization of the Turkey Intestine in the Context of Microbial Community Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relationships between development of the turkey intestinal microbiota and colonization by the food borne pathogen Campylobacter were examined. Every week of the 18 week production cycle, cecal bacterial communities and Campylobacter isolates were examined from five birds for each of two flocks. Mole...

  9. The ability of select probiotics to reduce enteric Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide and is often associated with consumption and/or mishandling of contaminated poultry products. Probiotic use in poultry has been an effective strategy in reducing other enteric foodborne pathogens but not consistently for Campylobacter...

  10. Antibacterial effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde on Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni in chicken drinking water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni are two major food-borne pathogens in the US, accounting to more than 3 million cases of human illness annually. Chickens are the natural hosts of these bacteria and their drinking water can be a potential source of Salmonella and Campylobacter resulti...

  11. High frequency genetic variation of purine biosynthesis genes is a mechanism of success in Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic variation is prevalent among progeny of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, the leading agent of enterocolitis in the developed world. Heterogeneity bestows increased survival to bacterial populations because variable phenotypes ensure some cells will be protected against future s...

  12. Inverse trends of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Swiss surveillance data, 1988-2013.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, Claudia; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Jost, Marianne; Baumgartner, Andreas; Mäusezahl-Feuz, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are notifiable in Switzerland. In 1995, Campylobacter replaced Salmonella as the most frequently reported food-borne pathogen. We analysed notification data (1988-2013) for these two bacterial, gastrointestinal pathogens of public health importance in Switzerland. Notification rates were calculated using data for the average resident population. Between 1988 and 2013, notified campylobacteriosis cases doubled from 3,127 to 7,499, while Salmonella case notifications decreased, from 4,291 to 1,267. Case notifications for both pathogens peaked during summer months. Campylobacter infections showed a distinct winter peak, particularly in the 2011/12, 2012/13 and 2013/14 winter seasons. Campylobacter case notifications showed more frequent infection in males than females in all but 20-24 year-olds. Among reported cases, patients' average age increased for campylobacteriosis but not for salmonellosis. The inverse trends observed in case notifications for the two pathogens indicate an increase in campylobacteriosis cases. It appears unlikely that changes in patients' health-seeking or physicians' testing behaviour would affect Campylobacter and Salmonella case notifications differently. The implementation of legal microbiological criteria for foodstuff was likely an effective means of controlling human salmonellosis. Such criteria should be decreed for Campylobacter, creating incentives for producers to lower Campylobacter prevalence in poultry. PMID:26898102

  13. Rapid identification and classification of Campylobacter spp. using laser optical scattering technology.

    PubMed

    He, Yiping; Reed, Sue; Bhunia, Arun K; Gehring, Andrew; Nguyen, Ly-Huong; Irwin, Peter L

    2015-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the two important species responsible for most of the Campylobacter infections in humans. Reliable isolation and detection of Campylobacter spp. from food samples are challenging due to the interferences from complex food substances and the fastidious growth requirements of this organism. In this study, a novel biosensor-based detection called BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology) was developed for high-throughput screening of Campylobacter colonies grown on an agar plate without disrupting the intact colonies. Image pattern characterization and principal component analysis (PCA) of 6909 bacterial colonies showed that the light scatter patterns of C. jejuni and C. coli were strikingly different from those of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Examination of a mixed culture of these microorganisms revealed 85% (34/40) accuracy in differentiating Campylobacter from the other three major foodborne pathogens based on the similarity to the scatter patterns in an established library. The application of BARDOT in real food has been addressed through the analysis of Campylobacter spiked ground chicken and naturally contaminated fresh chicken pieces. Combined with real-time PCR verification, BARDOT was able to identify Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken. Moreover, applying passive filtration to food samples facilitated the isolation of pure Campylobacter colonies and therefore overcame the interference of the food matrix on BARDOT analysis. PMID:25583335

  14. Campylobacter concisus pathotypes are present at significant levels in patients with gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Alexander P; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Sodhi, Nidhi; Merif, Juan; Seah Lee, Way; Riordan, Stephen M; Rawlinson, William D; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2016-03-01

    Given that Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, recent findings showing comparable levels of Campylobacter concisus in patients with gastroenteritis would suggest that this bacterium is clinically important. The prevalence and abundance of Campylobacter concisus in stool samples collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The associated virulence determinants exotoxin 9 and zonula occludens toxin DNA were detected for Campylobacter concisus-infected samples using real-time PCR. Campylobacter concisus was detected at high prevalence in patients with gastroenteritis (49.7 %), higher than that observed for Campylobacter jejuni (∼5 %). The levels of Campylobacter concisus were putatively classified into clinically relevant and potentially transient subgroups based on a threshold developed using Campylobacter jejuni levels, as the highly sensitive real-time PCR probably detected transient passage of the bacterium from the oral cavity. A total of 18 % of patients were found to have clinically relevant levels of Campylobacter concisus, a significant number of which also had high levels of one of the virulence determinants. Of these patients, 78 % were found to have no other gastrointestinal pathogen identified in the stool, which strongly suggests a role for Campylobacter concisus in the aetiology of gastroenteritis in these patients. These results emphasize the need for diagnostic laboratories to employ identification protocols for emerging Campylobacter species. Clinical follow-up in patients presenting with high levels of Campylobacter concisus in the intestinal tract is needed, given that it has been associated with more chronic sequelae. PMID:26698172

  15. Complete genome sequences of multidrug-resistant Campylobacter jejuni 14980A (turkey feces) and Campylobacter coli 14983A (housefly from turkey farm), harboring a novel gentamicin resistance mobile element.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in foodborne pathogens is a major food safety and public health issue. Here we describe whole-genome sequences of two MDR strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from turkey feces and a housefly in a turkey farm. Both strains harbor a novel chromosomal genta...

  16. Survival with a Helping Hand: Campylobacter and Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Indikova, Ivana; Humphrey, Tom J.; Hilbert, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most important bacterial food-borne disease in the developed world. Consumption of chicken meat, beef or raw milk, direct contact with ruminants and exposure to contaminated surface water or even consumption of tap water have been identified as risk factors for human disease. However, the most important risk factor is consumption of and/or handling contaminated chicken. Campylobacter spp. are fastidious microorganisms but must somehow survive outside the host, especially in food and agricultural environments and also resist the innate and humoral immune responses inside the host. In this paper we hypothesize that other microorganisms in mixed populations with Campylobacter may act to improve survival outside the host and may also protect the pathogen against the intestinal immune system. Our evidence for this hypothesis is based on: 1. newly generated microbial community analysis; 2. the prolonged survival of Campylobacter in mixed species biofilms and in co-culture with environmental bacteria; 3. improved survival in amoebae and rumen fluid; 4. sulfur release and iron uptake systems within the intestinal lumen. This would make Campylobacter an exceptional food-borne pathogen. With this in mind, new strategies are necessary to combat Campylobacter along the total food chain. PMID:26617600

  17. Prevalence and Numbers of Campylobacter on Broiler Carcasses Collected at Rehang and Postchill in 20 US Processing Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is commonly reported as a human pathogen associated with chicken and chicken meat products. This study was designed to examine the prevalence and numbers of Campylobacter on broiler carcasses in commercial processing plants in the US. Carcasses from twenty plants across the US were sa...

  18. Prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter in rumen contents and feces in pasture and feedlot-fed cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is currently one of the leading foodborne pathogens that are known to colonize the gastrointestinal tract of cattle. The incidence of Campylobacter spp. in cattle has been reported to be seasonal, to vary among age groups, and type (beef versus dairy). However, less is known about ot...

  19. In vitro selection of enteric microflora for potential use as a probiotic culture against Campylobacter in poultry.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is one of the most commonly reported bacterial causes of human foodborne illness and epidemiological evidence indicates poultry and poultry products as significant sources of human Campylobacter infection. In an effort to reduce colonization of enteric pathogens in poultry, scientists...

  20. Routes of transmission of salmonella and campylobacter in breeder turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are frequent colonizers of the intestinal tracts of poultry and have often been associated with human foodborne illness. The entry, transmission and prevalence of both pathogens have been extensively studied in chickens but little information is available for turkeys. ...

  1. Reactions of Chicken Sera to Recombinant Campylobacter jejuni Flagellar Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative rod bacterium and is the leading but under-reported bacterial food-borne pathogen that causes human campylobacteriosis worldwide. Raw or undercooked poultry products are regarded as a major source for human infection. C. jejuni flagella have been implicated ...

  2. ADVANCES IN CAMPYLOBACTER BIOLOGY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen of animal origin and a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. During the past decade, especially since the publication of the first C. jejuni genome sequence, major advances have been made in understanding the pathobiology and physiol...

  3. Development and stability of bacteriocin resistance 1 in Campylobacter spp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: Several bacteriocins (BCNs) identified from chicken commensal bacteria dramatically reduced Campylobacter colonization in poultry and aredirected toward on farm control of this important food-borne human pathogen. BCN resistance in C. jejuni is very difficult to develop in vitro. In this study...

  4. Inactivation of Campylobacter jejuni on poultry by ultraviolet light

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne pathogen which is commonly associated with poultry, and is responsible for many foodborne illness outbreaks. Ultraviolet light (UV-C) is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved technology that can be used to treat foods and food contact surfaces. In this stud...

  5. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter gracilis ATCC 33236T

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human oral pathogen Campylobacter gracilis has been isolated from periodontal and endodontal infections, and also from non-oral head, neck or lung infections. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the human periodontal isolate ATCC 33236T (=FDC 1084), which is the first closed genome...

  6. Campylobacter in: Microbiological Troubleshooting in the Industrial Food Processing Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter species are enteric pathogens and are considered one of the leading foodborne disease agents in the United States causing an estimated 2.1 to 2.4 million cases of gastroenteritis annually. This chapter, intended for inclusion in the book, Microbiological Troubleshooting in the Indust...

  7. Progressive genome-wide introgression in agricultural Campylobacter coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybridization between distantly related organisms can facilitate rapid adaptation but is constrained by epistatic fitness interactions. The zoonotic pathogens Campylobacter coli and C. jejuni differ from each other at an average of nearly 40 amino acids per gene. Nevertheless, they have started to e...

  8. Antibacterial effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol on Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni in chicken cecal contents in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni are two major food-borne pathogens that are transmitted through poultry products. These pathogens colonize the chicken cecum leading, to contamination of carcasses during slaughter and subsequent processing operations. We investigated the antimicrobial...

  9. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from broiler carcasses.

    PubMed

    Ferro, I D; Benetti, T M; Oliveira, T C R M; Abrahão, W M; Farah, S M S S; Luciano, F B; Macedo, R E F

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter strains (C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari) isolated from broiler carcasses processed in the State of Paraná, Brazil. 2. Rates of microbial resistance and susceptibility were assessed by both Disk Diffusion (DD) and Etest (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) techniques. Antibiotics were tested using DD (12 antibiotics) and/or MIC (7 antibiotics) methods. 3. A total of 95.8% of the strains were resistant to at least two agents. In terms of multidrug resistance, 75% of strains were resistant to three or more groups of antibiotics. The highest rates of resistance were detected for cefalotin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and nalidixic acid. A high rate of susceptibility of the strains to erythromycin (95.8%) was found confirming that this is considered the agent of choice for treating campylobacteriosis. Comparison of the microbial resistance and susceptibility, as determined simultaneously by the two methods, found the techniques to be statistically equivalent for 5 out of the 6 antibiotics tested. 4. The results of this study suggest the need for adopting measures to control the use of antibiotics in broiler production to prevent multidrug resistance of Campylobacter strains and reduce the risk of serious human diseases caused by the consumption of contaminated chicken meat. PMID:25567139

  10. In vitro selection of enteric microflora for potential use as a competitive exclusion culture against Campylobacter in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The administration of nonpathogenic microflora in neonatal poultry has been employed to reduce or eliminate the colonization of enteric pathogens. This concept, also called competitive exclusion (CE), although effective against Salmonella, has not consistently worked against Campylobacter. Most CE...

  11. A Comparison of Performance of Endotracheal Intubation Using the Levitan FPS Optical Stylet or Lary-Flex Videolaryngoscope in Morbidly Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Szewczyk, Tomasz; Gaszynska, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The use of videolaryngoscopes is recommended for morbidly obese patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the Levitan FPS optical stylet (Levitan) vs Lafy-Flex videolaryngoscope (Lary-Flex) in a group of MO patients. Methods. Seventy-nine MO (BMI > 40 kg m−2) patients scheduled for bariatric surgery were included in the study and randomly allocated to the Levitan FPS or Lary-Flex group. The primary endpoint was time to intubation and evaluation laryngoscopic of glottic view. Anesthesiologists were asked to evaluate the glottic view first under direct laryngoscopy using the videolaryngoscope as a standard laryngoscope (monitor display was excluded from use) and then using devices. The secondary endpoint was the cardiovascular response to intubation and the participant's evaluation of such devices. Results. The time to intubation was 8.572.66 sec. versus 5.790.2 sec. for Levitan and Lary-Flex, respectively (P < 0.05). In all cases of CL grade >1 under direct laryngoscopy, the study devices improved CL grade to 1. The Levitan FPS produced a greater cardiovascular response than the Lary-Flex videolaryngoscope. Conclusion. The Lary-Flex videolaryngoscope and the Levitan FPS optical stylet improve the laryngeal visualization in morbidly obese patients, allowing for fast endotracheal intubation, but Lary-Flex produces less cardiovascular response to intubation attempt. PMID:24967423

  12. Identification of the main quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by MAMA-DEG PCR.

    PubMed

    Hormeño, Lorena; Palomo, Gonzalo; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Porrero, M Concepción; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Domínguez, Lucas; Campos, Maria J; Quesada, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Among zoonotic diseases, campylobacteriosis stands out as the major bacterial infection producing human gastroenteritis. Antimicrobial therapy, only recommended in critical cases, is challenged by resistance mechanisms that should be unambiguously detected for achievement of effective treatments. Quinolone (ciprofloxacin) resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the 2 main Campylobacter detected in humans, is conferred by the mutation gyrA C-257-T, which can be genotyped by several methods that require a previous identification of the pathogen species to circumvent the sequence polymorphism of the gene. A multiplex PCR, based on degenerated oligonucleotides, has been designed for unambiguous identification of the quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter spp. isolates. The method was verified with 249 Campylobacter strains isolated from humans (141 isolates) and from the 3 most important animal sources for this zoonosis: poultry (34 isolates), swine (38 isolates), and cattle (36 isolates). High resistance to ciprofloxacin, MIC above 4μg/mL, linked to the mutated genotype predicted by MAMA-DEG PCR (mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR with degenerated primers) was found frequently among isolates from the different hosts. PMID:26658311

  13. Media for the aerobic growth of campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of agar and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium was examined. The broth medium was supplemented with 0.0 to 0.2% agar and inoculated with 106 CFU/ml of Campylobacter coli 33559, Campylobacter fetus 27349, Campylobacter...

  14. Comprehensive Genomic Characterization of Campylobacter Genus Reveals Some Underlying Mechanisms for its Genomic Diversification

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yizhuang; Bu, Lijing; Guo, Min; Zhou, Chengran; Wang, Yongdong; Chen, Liyu; Liu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter species.are phenotypically diverse in many aspects including host habitats and pathogenicities, which demands comprehensive characterization of the entire Campylobacter genus to study their underlying genetic diversification. Up to now, 34 Campylobacter strains have been sequenced and published in public databases, providing good opportunity to systemically analyze their genomic diversities. In this study, we first conducted genomic characterization, which includes genome-wide alignments, pan-genome analysis, and phylogenetic identification, to depict the genetic diversity of Campylobacter genus. Afterward, we improved the tetranucleotide usage pattern-based naïve Bayesian classifier to identify the abnormal composition fragments (ACFs, fragments with significantly different tetranucleotide frequency profiles from its genomic tetranucleotide frequency profiles) including horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) to explore the mechanisms for the genetic diversity of this organism. Finally, we analyzed the HGTs transferred via bacteriophage transductions. To our knowledge, this study is the first to use single nucleotide polymorphism information to construct liable microevolution phylogeny of 21 Campylobacter jejuni strains. Combined with the phylogeny of all the collected Campylobacter species based on genome-wide core gene information, comprehensive phylogenetic inference of all 34 Campylobacter organisms was determined. It was found that C. jejuni harbors a high fraction of ACFs possibly through intraspecies recombination, whereas other Campylobacter members possess numerous ACFs possibly via intragenus recombination. Furthermore, some Campylobacter strains have undergone significant ancient viral integration during their evolution process. The improved method is a powerful tool for bacterial genomic analysis. Moreover, the findings would provide useful information for future research on Campylobacter genus. PMID:23940551

  15. IDENTIFYING INTESTINAL MICROBIAL POPULATIONS THAT INFLUENCE THE GROWTH OF CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial-derived food borne illness in the United States, resulting in an estimated 2 million cases annually. Poultry has been recognized as a significant vector for this pathogen into the food supply, with 90% of poultry carcasses cont...

  16. Analytical Utility of Campylobacter Methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF, or the Committee) was asked to address the analytical utility of Campylobacter methodologies in preparation for an upcoming United States Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) baseline study to enumerate Campylobacter...

  17. Swimming and Campylobacter Infections1

    PubMed Central

    Schönberg-Norio, Daniela; Takkinen, Johanna; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Katila, Marja-Leena; Kaukoranta, Suvi-Sirkku; Mattila, Leena

    2004-01-01

    A matched case-control study was conducted to study risk factors for domestically acquired sporadic Campylobacter infections in Finland. Swimming in natural sources of water was a novel risk factor. Eating undercooked meat and drinking dug-well water were also independent risk factors for Campylobacter infection. PMID:15496253

  18. Inflammasome Activation by Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Bouwman, Lieneke I.; de Zoete, Marcel R.; Bleumink-Pluym, Nancy M.C.; Flavell, Richard A.; van Putten, Jos P.M

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide. The mechanisms that lead to bacterial invasion of eukaryotic cells and massive intestinal inflammation are still unknown. Here we report that C. jejuni infection of mouse macrophages induces up-regulation of pro-IL-1β transcript and secretion of IL-1β without eliciting cell death. Immunoblotting indicated cleavage of caspase-1 and IL-1β in infected cells. In bone-marrow-derived macrophages from different knock-out mice, IL-1β secretion was found to require NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1/11, but not NLRC4. In contrast to NLRP3 activation by ATP, C. jejuni activation did not require priming of these macrophages. C. jejuni also activated the NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages as indicated by the presence of ASC foci and FLICA-positive cells. Analysis of a vast array of C. jejunimutants with defects in capsule formation, LOS biosynthesis, chemotaxis, flagella synthesis and flagellin (-like) secretion, T6SS needle protein or cytolethal distending toxin revealed a direct correlation between the number of intracellular bacteria and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The C. jejuni invasion related activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome without cytotoxicity and even in non-primed cells extends the known repertoire of bacterial inflammasome activation and likely contributes to C. jejuni-induced intestinal inflammation. PMID:25267974

  19. Campylobacter Fetus Meningitis in Adults

    PubMed Central

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and outcome of C fetus meningitis in adults. We report cases of C fetus meningitis in a nationwide cohort study of adult bacterial meningitis patients in the Netherlands and performed a review of the literature. Two patients with C fetus meningitis were identified from January 2006 through May 2015. The calculated annual incidence was 0.02 per million adults. Combined with the literature, we identified 22 patients with a median age of 48 years. An immunocompromised state was present in 16 patients (73%), mostly due to alcoholism (41%) and diabetes mellitus (27%). The source of infection was identified in 13 out of 19 patients (68%), consisting of regular contact with domestic animals in 5 and working on a farm in 4. Recurrent fever and illness was reported in 4 patients (18%), requiring prolonged antibiotic treatment. Two patients died (9%) and 3 survivors (15%) had neurological sequelae. C fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis and is associated with an immunocompromised state. Based on the apparent slow clinical response seen in this limited number of cases, the authors of this study recommend a prolonged course of antimicrobial therapy when C fetus is identified as a causative agent of bacterial meningitis. Cases appeared to do best with carbapenem therapy. PMID:26937916

  20. Evidence for horizontal and vertical transmission in Campylobacter passage from hen to her progeny.

    PubMed

    Cox, N A; Richardson, L J; Maurer, J J; Berrang, M E; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Buhr, R J; Byrd, J A; Lee, M D; Hofacre, C L; O'Kane, P M; Lammerding, A M; Clark, A G; Thayer, S G; Doyle, M P

    2012-10-01

    Campylobacter is an important human pathogen, and consumption of undercooked poultry has been linked to significant human illnesses. To reduce human illness, intervention strategies targeting Campylobacter reduction in poultry are in development. For more than a decade, there has been an ongoing national and international controversy about whether Campylobacter can pass from one generation of poultry to the next via the fertile egg. We recognize that there are numerous sources of Campylobacter entry into flocks of commercial poultry (including egg transmission), yet the environment is often cited as the only source. There has been an abundance of published research globally that refutes this contention, and this article lists and discusses many of them, along with other studies that support environment as the sole or primary source. One must remember that egg passage can mean more than vertical, transovarian transmission. Fecal bacteria, including Campylobacter, can contaminate the shell, shell membranes, and albumen of freshly laid fertile eggs. This contamination is drawn through the shell by temperature differential, aided by the presence of moisture (the "sweating" of the egg); then, when the chick emerges from the egg, it can ingest bacteria such as Campylobacter, become colonized, and spread this contamination to flock mates in the grow house. Improvements in cultural laboratory methods continue to advance our knowledge of the ecology of Campylobacter, and in the not-so-distant future, egg passage will not be a subject continuously debated but will be embraced, thus allowing the development and implementation of more effective intervention strategies. PMID:23043845

  1. Occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and adenoviruses in Finnish bathing waters and purified sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Hokajärvi, Anna-Maria; Pitkänen, Tarja; Siljanen, Henri M P; Nakari, Ulla-Maija; Torvinen, Eila; Siitonen, Anja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2013-03-01

    A total of 50 Finnish bathing water samples and 34 sewage effluent samples originating from 17 locations were studied in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Campylobacter were present in 58% and adenoviruses in 12% of all bathing water samples; 53% of all sewage effluent samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 59% for adenoviruses. C. jejuni was the most common Campylobacter species found and human adenovirus serotype 41 was the most common identified adenovirus type. Bathing water temperature displayed a significant negative relationship with the occurrence of Campylobacter. One location had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of C. coli isolates in the bathing water and in sewage effluent, suggesting that sewage effluent was the source of C. coli at this bathing site. The counts of faecal indicator bacteria were not able to predict the presence of Campylobacter spp. or adenoviruses in the bathing waters. Thus the observed common presence of these pathogens in Finnish sewage effluents and bathing waters may represent a public health risk. The low water temperature in Finland may enhance the prevalence of Campylobacter in bathing waters. More attention needs to be paid to minimizing the concentrations of intestinal pathogens in bathing waters. PMID:23428555

  2. Economic Cost of Campylobacter, Norovirus and Rotavirus Disease in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Clarence C; O’Brien, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the annual cost to patients, the health service and society of infectious intestinal disease (IID) from Campylobacter, norovirus and rotavirus. Design Secondary data analysis. Setting The United Kingdom population, 2008–9. Main outcome measures Cases and frequency of health services usage due to these three pathogens; associated healthcare costs; direct, out-of-pocket expenses; indirect costs to patients and caregivers. Results The median estimated costs to patients and the health service at 2008–9 prices were: Campylobacter £50 million (95% CI: £33m–£75m), norovirus £81 million (95% CI: £63m–£106m), rotavirus £25m (95% CI: £18m–£35m). The costs per case were approximately £30 for norovirus and rotavirus, and £85 for Campylobacter. This was mostly borne by patients and caregivers through lost income or out-of-pocket expenditure. The cost of Campylobacter-related Guillain-Barré syndrome hospitalisation was £1.26 million (95% CI: £0.4m–£4.2m). Conclusions Norovirus causes greater economic burden than Campylobacter and rotavirus combined. Efforts to control IID must prioritise norovirus. For Campylobacter, estimated costs should be considered in the context of expenditure to control this pathogen in agriculture, food production and retail. Our estimates, prior to routine rotavirus immunisation in the UK, provide a baseline vaccine cost-effectiveness analyses. PMID:26828435

  3. Detection and characterization of foodborne pathogenic bacteria with hyperspectral microscope imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid detection and identification of pathogenic microorganisms naturally occurring during food processing are important in developing intervention and verification strategies. In the poultry industry, contamination of poultry meat with foodborne pathogens (especially, Salmonella and Campylobacter) ...

  4. Development of an oligonucleotide-based microarray to detect multiple foodborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni are considered important foodborne bacterial pathogens causing the most food-related human illnesses worldwide. Current methods for pathogen detection have limitations in effectively identifying multiple foodb...

  5. Development of an oligonucleotide-based microarray to detect multiple foodborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni are considered important human pathogens causing the most food-related human illnesses worldwide. Current methods for pathogen detection have limitations in effectively identifying multiple foodborne patho...

  6. Quantification of zoonotic bacterial pathogens within commercial poultry processing water samples using droplet digital PCR.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raw poultry and poultry products are a significant source of zoonotic bacterial pathogen transmission; thus the sensitive detection of major zoonotic bacterial poultry pathogens (Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes) is a vital food safety issue. While trad...

  7. Campylobacters: the most common bacterial enteropathogens in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Rautelin, H; Hänninen, M L

    2000-10-01

    Campylobacters have been known as important human pathogens since the late 1970s. Campylobacter jejuni and coli are the most common bacterial enteropathogens in the developed countries. During the past years an increasing incidence of campylobacteriosis has been reported in many developed countries. C. jejuni is the most common Campylobacter species while C. coli accounts for about 5-10% of the cases. Although the genome of C. jejuni NCTC 11168 strain was sequenced recently, the exact pathogenetic mechanisms are still not known. Furthermore, there are no reliable animal models available. The epidemiology of this common infection is not well understood; however, eating and handling poultry, contaminated drinking water, and contact with pet animals have been recognized as important risk factors. Most of the cases are sporadic although large water-borne outbreaks have also been reported. Discriminatory typing methods are helpful in tracing the sources and transmission routes. In addition to traditional serotyping, genotyping methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, have been developed. As Campylobacter infections probably precede Guillan-Barré syndrome in many cases, a great interest has lately been focused on the possible triggering mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. PMID:11087163

  8. Contrast in the Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter Isolates Originating from Different Poultry Production Facilities (Broiler Breeder Hens, Broilers, and Leghorn Hens) in the Same Geographical Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance of foodborne pathogens is of major concern from both human and animal health perspectives and resistance profiles of Campylobacter spp. from individual poultry facilities have been extensively studied. However, a comparison of antimicrobial resistance profile...

  9. ADEQUACY OF DISINFECTION FOR CONTROL OF NEWLY RECOGNIZED WATERBORNE PATHOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agents recently recognized as causes or potential causes of waterborne outbreaks include pathogenic bacteria (Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocoliticia), viruses (rotavirus, Norwalk virus and other poorly defined viral agents) and Giardia lamblia, a protozoan agent. Although...

  10. Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms among Campylobacter

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed. PMID:23865047

  11. Adherence Reduction of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Strains to HEp-2 Cells by Mannan Oligosaccharides and a High-Molecular-Weight Component of Cranberry Extract.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Hernandez, Alejandra; Rupnow, John; Hutkins, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    Campylobacter infections are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and are a major cause of diarrheal disease throughout the world. Colonization and subsequent infection and invasion of Campylobacter require that the bacteria adhere to the surface of host cells. Agents that inhibit adherence could be used prophylactically to reduce Campylobacter carriage and infection. Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) have been used as a feed supplement in livestock animals to improve performance and to replace growth-promoting antibiotics. However, MOS and other nondigestible oligosaccharides may also prevent pathogen colonization by inhibiting adherence in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, plant extracts, including those derived from cranberries, have been shown to have antiadherence activity against pathogens. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of MOS and cranberry fractions to serve as antiadherence agents against strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Adherence experiments were performed using HEp-2 cells. Significant reductions in adherence of C. jejuni 29438, C. jejuni 700819, C. jejuni 3329, and C. coli 43485 were observed in the presence of MOS (up to 40 mg/ml) and with a high-molecular-weight fraction of cranberry extract (up to 3 mg/ml). However, none of the tested materials reduced adherence of C. coli BAA-1061. No additive effect in adherence inhibition was observed for an MOS-cranberry blend. These results suggest that both components, MOS and cranberry, could be used to reduce Campylobacter colonization and carriage in livestock animals and potentially limit human exposure to this pathogen. PMID:26219363

  12. Sensitive detection of Campylobacter jejuni using nanoparticles enhanced QCM sensor.

    PubMed

    Masdor, Noor Azlina; Altintas, Zeynep; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2016-04-15

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor platform was used to develop an immunosensor for the detection of food pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies and commercially available mouse monoclonal antibodies against C. jejuni were investigated to construct direct, sandwich and gold-nanoparticles (AuNPs) amplified sandwich assays. The performance of the QCM immunosensor developed using sandwich assay by utilising the rabbit polyclonal antibody as the capture antibody and conjugated to AuNPs as the detection antibody gave the highest sensitivity. This sensor achieved a limit of detection (LOD) of 150 colony forming unit (CFU)mL(-1) of C. jejuni in solution. The QCM sensor showed excellent sensitivity and specificity for Campylobacter detection with low cross reactivity for other foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium, (7%) Listeria monocytogenes (3%) and Escherichia coli (0%). The development of this biosensor would help in the sensitive detection of Campylobacter which can result in reducing pre-enrichment steps; hence, reducing assay time. This work demonstrates the potential of this technology for the development of a rapid and sensitive detection method for C. jejuni. PMID:26649490

  13. Effect of distillers feedstuffs and lasalocid on Campylobacter carriage in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robin C; Harvey, Roger B; Wickersham, Tryon A; MacDonald, Jim C; Ponce, Christian H; Brown, Mike; Pinchak, William E; Osterstock, Jason B; Krueger, Nathan; Nisbet, David J

    2014-11-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are foodborne pathogens that can colonize the gut of food animals. Limited in their ability to ferment sugars, Campylobacter can derive energy for growth via amino acid catabolism. The objectives of the present studies were to test whether supplemental distillers grains containing high amounts of rumen-undegradable intake protein or supplemental lasalocid may, by promoting amino acid flow to the lower bovine gut, increase intestinal carriage of Campylobacter. In study one, 10 steers (5 per treatment) were adapted to diets formulated to achieve 0 or 30% dried distillers grains. After an initial 14-day adaptation to the basal diet, control and treated steers were fed their respective diets for 23 days, after which time they were fed supplemental lasalocid for an additional 8 days, followed by a 5-day withdrawal. In study two, 24 steers preacclimated to a basal diet were adapted via 3-day periodic increases to dietary treatments formulated to achieve 0, 30, or 60% wet corn distillers grains with solubles. Analysis of Campylobacter bacteria cultured from duodenal and fecal samples in study one and from fecal samples in study two revealed no effect of dried distillers grains or wet corn distillers grains with solubles on the prevalence or concentrations of duodenal or fecal Campylobacter. The results from study one indicated that colonized steers, regardless of treatment, harbored higher Campylobacter concentrations when transitioned to the basal diet than when coming off pasture. Campylobacter carriage was unaffected by lasalocid. These results provide no evidence that feeding distillers grains high in rumen-undegradable intake protein or supplemental lasalocid contributes to increased intestinal carriage of Campylobacter in fed cattle. PMID:25364932

  14. The effects of 405-nm visible light on the survival of Campylobacter on chicken skin and stainless steel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are major food-borne pathogens responsible for a significant portion of the human cases of bacterial mediated gastrointestinal disease, and poultry products are an important source of infections. Reducing the numbers of this pathogen on poultry products should lower the incidence...

  15. Application of bacteriocin produced by Streptococcus cricetus S760 for treating Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella-associated infections in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enteritidis are leading food-borne pathogens worldwide. An important natural reservoir for these pathogens is commercially distributed poultry. Objective: To control C. jejuni and S. enteritidis associated infections in broilers by treating with a p...

  16. Prevalence, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in white stork Ciconia ciconia in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szczepańska, Bernadeta; Kamiński, Piotr; Andrzejewska, Małgorzata; Śpica, Dorota; Kartanas, Edmund; Ulrich, Werner; Jerzak, Leszek; Kasprzak, Mariusz; Bocheński, Marcin; Klawe, Jacek J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of white stork Ciconia ciconia as a potential reservoir of Campylobacter spp. Antimicrobial resistance and the presence of putative virulence genes of the isolates were also examined. A total of 398 white stork chicks sampled in Western Poland in habitats with high density of breeding were examined. Rectal swabs were collected during breeding season 2009-2012 from storks developing in a relatively pure environment (Odra meadows), in polluted areas (a copper mining-smelting complex), and in suburbs. Of the anal swabs collected, 7.6% were positive for Campylobacter among chicks (5.3% samples positive for C. jejuni and 2.3% samples positive for C. coli). Samples from polluted areas had the highest prevalence of Campylobacter (12.2%). The prevalence of resistance among C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from young storks was as follows: to ciprofloxacin (52.4%, 44.4%), and to tetracycline (19%, 77.8%). All of the analyzed isolates were susceptible to macrolides. The resistance to both classes of antibiotics was found in the 23.3% of Campylobacter spp. All Campylobacter spp. isolates had cadF gene and flaA gene responsible for adherence and motility. CdtB gene associated with toxin production was present in 88.9% of C. coli isolates and 57.1% of C. jejuni isolates. The iam marker was found more often in C. coli strains (55.6%) compared to C. jejuni isolates (42.9%). Our results confirm the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the white stork in natural conditions and, because it lives in open farmlands with access to marshy wetlands, the environmental sources such as water reservoirs and soil-water can be contaminated from white stork feces and the pathogens can be widely disseminated. We can thus conclude that Campylobacter spp. may easily be transmitted to waterfowl, other birds, and humans via its environmental sources and/or by immediate contact. PMID:25456607

  17. Infective Internal Iliac Artery Aneurysm Caused by Campylobacter fetus.

    PubMed

    Hagiya, Hideharu; Ogawa, Hiroko; Takahashi, Yusuke; Hasegawa, Kou; Hanayama, Yoshihisa; Otsuka, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    A 67-year-old man with a persistent high fever was diagnosed to have an infective aneurysm in his left internal iliac artery. A blood culture detected a gram-negative spiral rod that was first identified as Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis based on a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. However, the strain was finally confirmed to be Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus based on a genetic analysis. The infection was successfully treated with emergency resection of the aneurysm, followed by 4 weeks of antibiotic therapy. Involvement of the peripheral artery is uncommon in cases of C. fetus-infective aneurysm. To figure out the epidemiology and pathogenicity of C. fetus infection, the accurate identification of the responsible organisms is essential. PMID:26278295

  18. Differential behaviour of Escherichia coli and Campylobacter spp. in a stream draining dairy pasture.

    PubMed

    Stott, Rebecca; Davies-Colley, Robert; Nagels, John; Donnison, Andrea; Ross, Colleen; Muirhead, Richard

    2011-03-01

    The faecal indicator bacterium Escherichia coli and thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., which are potentially pathogenic, were investigated in the Toenepi Stream draining a pastoral catchment dominated by dairying. Bacteria concentrations were monitored routinely at fortnightly intervals over 12 months and intensively during storm events to compare the transport dynamics of bacterial indicator and pathogen under varying hydro-meteorological conditions. Routine monitoring indicated median concentrations of 345 E. coli MPN 100 ml(-1) and relatively low concentrations of 2.3 Campylobacter MPN 100 ml(-1). The bacterial flux was three orders of magnitude greater under elevated stream flow compared with base-flow. E. coli peak concentrations occurred very close to the turbidity peak and consistently ahead of the Campylobacter spp. peak (which was close to the hydrograph peak). We postulate that, under flood conditions, the E. coli peak reflects the entrainment and mobilisation of in-stream stores on the flood wave front. In contrast, Campylobacter spp. are derived from wash-in from land stores upstream and have travelled at the mean water velocity which is slower than the speed of the flood wave. Our findings of different dynamics for E. coli and Campylobacter spp. suggest that mitigation to reduce faecal microbial impacts from farms will need to take account of these differences. PMID:21301115

  19. Pyrosequencing-based validation of a simple cell-suspension polymerase chain reaction assay for Campylobacter... of high-processivity polymerase with novel internal amplification controls for rapid and specific detection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although Campylobacter is an important food-borne human pathogen, there remains a lack of molecular diagnostic assays that are simple to use, cost-effective, and provide rapid results in research, clinical, or regulatory laboratories. Of the numerous Campylobacter assays that do exist, to our knowl...

  20. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in Waterborne Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Snelling, W. J.; McKenna, J. P.; Lecky, D. M.; Dooley, J. S. G.

    2005-01-01

    The failure to reduce the Campylobacter contamination of intensively reared poultry may be partially due to Campylobacter resisting disinfection in water after their internalization by waterborne protozoa. Campylobacter jejuni and a variety of waterborne protozoa, including ciliates, flagellates, and alveolates, were detected in the drinking water of intensively reared poultry by a combination of culture and molecular techniques. An in vitro assay showed that C. jejuni remained viable when internalized by Tetrahymena pyriformis and Acanthamoeba castellanii for significantly longer (up to 36 h) than when they were in purely a planktonic state. The internalized Campylobacter were also significantly more resistant to disinfection than planktonic organisms. Collectively, our results strongly suggest that protozoa in broiler drinking water systems can delay the decline of Campylobacter viability and increase Campylobacter disinfection resistance, thus increasing the potential of Campylobacter to colonize broilers. PMID:16151149

  1. Aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with glutamic, lactic, and/or fumaric acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are major causes of human foodborne illnesses, and the pathogen is widely associated with live poultry and processed poultry products. These bacteria are classified as obligate microaerophiles and are generally cultured under atmospheres with reduced oxygen and elevated carbon dio...

  2. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni RM1285 a rod-shaped morphological variant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a spiral-shaped Gram-negative food-borne human pathogen found on poultry products. Strain RM1285 is a rod-shaped variant of this species. The genome of RM1285 was determined to be 1,635,803 bp with a G+C content of 30.5%....

  3. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using rDNA sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in Red Knot (Calidris canutus, n=40), Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres, n=35), and Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris ...

  4. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in bulk tank milk and filters from US dairies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. is an important zoonotic microaerophilic bacterial pathogen that caused the majority of US outbreaks associated with nonpasteurized milk from 2007 to 2012. Bulk tank milk and milk filter samples were collected from 236 dairy operations in 17 top dairy states from March through Jul...

  5. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter ureolyticus clinical isolate RIGS 9880

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerging pathogen Campylobacter ureolyticus has been isolated from human and animal genital infections, human periodontal infections, domestic and food animals, and from cases of human gastroenteritis. We report the whole-genome sequence of the human clinical isolate RIGS 9880, which is the firs...

  6. Comparative quantification of Campylobacter jejuni from environmental samples using traditional and molecular biological techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the most common causes of gastroenteritis in the world. Given the potential risks to human, animal and environmental health the development and optimization of methods to quantify this important pathogen in environmental samples is essential. Two of the mos...

  7. Antibacterial effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde on Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni in chickens drinking water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni are two major food-borne pathogens in the US, accounting to more than 3 million cases of human illness annually. Chickens are the natural hosts of these bacteria. Drinking water can be a potential source of S. Enteritidis and C.jejuni, resulting in the...

  8. Inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni in Poultry Drinking Water by trans-cinnamaldehyde

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni are two major food-borne pathogens in the US, accounting to more than 3 million cases of human illness annually. Chickens are the natural hosts of these bacteria. Poultry drinking water can be a potential source of S. Enteritidis and C.jejuni, resultin...

  9. BACTERIA CORRELATED WITH SUPPRESSION AND FACILITATION OF CAMPYLOBACTER COLONIZATION OF POULTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of these studies were to identify microbes associated with exclusion of the food borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni from the poultry intestine. Day-old turkeys were inoculated with cecal contents from a C. jejuni- free adult and housed in isolation chambers. Each group was treated with ...

  10. Beyond gangliosides: Multiple forms of glycan mimicry exhibited by Campylobacter jejuni in its lipooligosaccharide (LOS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is well known for synthesizing ganglioside mimics within the glycan component of its lipooligosaccharide (LOS), which have been implicated in triggering Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We now confirm that this pathogen is capable of synthesizing a much broader spectrum of host g...

  11. Diversity in the protein N-glycosylation pathways among campylobacter species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The foodborne bacterial pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni, possesses an N-linked protein glycosylation (pgl) pathway involved in adding conserved heptasaccharides to asparaginecontaining motifs of >60 proteins, and releasing the same glycan into its periplasm as free oligosaccharides. In this study, co...

  12. Landscape and seasonal factors influence salmonella and campylobacter prevalence in a rural mixed use watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence in stream networks of the Satilla River Basin (SRB) were monitored monthly from August 2007 to August 2009 to study relationships between these pathogens and land use, presence of poultry houses and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge. Salmonella and ...

  13. Simplified Capacitance Monitoring for the Determination of Campylobacter spp. Growth Rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capacitance monitoring is commonly used as an efficient means to measure growth curves of bacterial pathogens. However, the use of capacitance monitoring with Campylobacter spp. was previously determined difficult due to the complexity of the required media. We investigated capacitance monitoring ...

  14. Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of turkeys, from breeders to processed carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are two main pathogens of public health concern very often associated with poultry and eggs. Both are zoonotic bacteria frequently colonizing intestinal tracts of turkeys. However, the mechanisms of transmission of these organisms through fertile turkey eggs, and consequ...

  15. The Campylobacter jejuni RacRS system regulates fumarate utilization in a low oxygen environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural environment of the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the gastrointestinal tract of warm blooded animals. In the gut, the availability of oxygen is limited; therefore, less efficient electron acceptors such as nitrate or fumarate are used by C. jejuni. C. jejuni has a highly branched...

  16. Polymerase chain reaction detection of naturally occurring Campylobacter in commercial broiler chicken embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter, a foodborne pathogen closely associated with poultry, is recognized as a leading bacterial etiologic agent of human gastroenteritis in the United States. In this investigation, 2 trials were performed where tissues from seven, fourteen/fifteen, and nineteen day-old commercial broiler ...

  17. A simplified dilution method for detection of Campylobacter in broiler ceca

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter species, a leading foodborne pathogen, is linked to poultry. Development of intervention strategies depends on the ability to rapidly and consistently recover and estimate the number of bacteria present. The objective of this experim ent was to validate a semi-quantitative method for d...

  18. Comparative genomic analysis of clinical strains of Campylobacter jejuni from South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacterial foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of acute gastroenteritis and is also associated with the postinfectious neuropathies, Guillain-Barré (GBS) and Miller Fisher (MFS) syndromes. This study described the use of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and DNA microarrays ...

  19. QUANTIFICATIVE ANALYSIS OF VIABLE, STRESSED AND DEAD CELLS OF CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI STRAIN 81-176

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important foodborne gastrointestinal pathogen. Research has shown that changes in culturability, cell morphology, and viability occur when C. jejuni cells are subjected to stresses such as low nutrient availability, entry into stationary phase, or low CO2/high O2 condition...

  20. EFFECTS OF UNIQUE INTESTINAL COMMUNITIES ON THE COLONIZATION OF CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial-derived food borne illness in the US, causing an estimated 2 million cases annually. With nearly 90% of poultry contaminated at slaughter, it provides a significant source for this pathogen to enter the food supply. Competitive exclusion, ...

  1. [Campylobacter spp.: prevalence and pheno-genotypic characterization of isolates recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea and their pets in La Pampa Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Ana L; Casabona, Luis M; Viñas, María R; Asato, Valeria; Hoffer, Alicia; Farace, María I; Lucero, María C; Corso, Alejandra; Pichel, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 327 patients suffering from diarrhea and in 36 animals (dogs, cats and chickens) owned by the patients that presented infection by Campylobacter in Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Campylobacter spp. was isolated in 50/327 patients and in 12/36 animals, being Campylobacter jejuni the most common species. Resistance to ciprofloxacin (65 %) and tetracycline (32 %) was found among 35 isolates of human origin studied. Seven genetic subtypes were observed among 13 C. jejuni isolates by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two subtypes grouped isolates belonging to patients and their respective dogs whereas another subtype grouped one isolate of human origin and two isolates from the patient's chickens. The results of this investigation highlight the need to strengthen surveillance of Campylobacter spp. not only in poultry, which is recognized as the main reservoir, but also in pets, which were shown to be asymptomatic carriers of the pathogen. PMID:23267623

  2. The atypical hyperosmotic stress response of Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atypical Hyperosmotic Stress Response of Campylobacter jejuni Background. Campylobacter species are unusually sensitive to hyperosmotic stress conditions imposed in the laboratory and encode no characterized osmoprotectant systems. Despite these limitations, the Gram-negative Campylobacter jeju...

  3. Concerted evolution in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerted evolution is the phenomenon in which multiple copies of genes maintain sequence similarity in a single individual while the genes continue to diverge between individuals. Concerted evolution has been described in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli for the pair of flagellin genes, which are ...

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from chicken carcass rinstates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The development of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter species, particularly C. jejuni and C. coli, is of public health concern. Methods: Campylobacter isolates recovered from spent chicken carcass rinsates collected at federally inspected slaughter establishments were submitted t...

  5. Cell Wall Anchoring of the Campylobacter Antigens to Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Kobierecka, Patrycja A; Olech, Barbara; Książek, Monika; Derlatka, Katarzyna; Adamska, Iwona; Majewski, Paweł M; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta K; Wyszyńska, Agnieszka K

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most frequent cause of human food-borne gastroenteritis and chicken meat is the main source of infection. Recent studies showed that broiler chicken immunization against Campylobacter should be the most efficient way to lower the number of human infections by this pathogen. Induction of the mucosal immune system after oral antigen administration should provide protective immunity to chickens. In this work we tested the usefulness of Lactococcus lactis, the most extensively studied lactic acid bacterium, as a delivery vector for Campylobacter antigens. First we constructed hybrid protein - CjaA antigen presenting CjaD peptide epitopes on its surface. We showed that specific rabbit anti-rCjaAD serum reacted strongly with both CjaA and CjaD produced by a wild type C. jejuni strain. Next, rCjaAD and CjaA were fused to the C-terminus of the L. lactis YndF containing the LPTXG motif. The genes expressing these proteins were transcribed under control of the L. lactis Usp45 promoter and their products contain the Usp45 signal sequences. This strategy ensures a cell surface location of both analyzed proteins, which was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. In order to evaluate the impact of antigen location on vaccine prototype efficacy, a L. lactis strain producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD was also generated. Animal experiments showed a decrease of Campylobacter cecal load in vaccinated birds as compared with the control group and showed that the L. lactis harboring the surface-exposed rCjaAD antigen afforded greater protection than the L. lactis producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to employ Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) strains as a mucosal delivery vehicle for chicken immunization. Although the observed reduction of chicken colonization by Campylobacter resulting from vaccination was rather moderate, the experiments showed that LAB strains can be considered as an alternative vector to

  6. Cell Wall Anchoring of the Campylobacter Antigens to Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Kobierecka, Patrycja A.; Olech, Barbara; Książek, Monika; Derlatka, Katarzyna; Adamska, Iwona; Majewski, Paweł M.; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta K.; Wyszyńska, Agnieszka K.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most frequent cause of human food-borne gastroenteritis and chicken meat is the main source of infection. Recent studies showed that broiler chicken immunization against Campylobacter should be the most efficient way to lower the number of human infections by this pathogen. Induction of the mucosal immune system after oral antigen administration should provide protective immunity to chickens. In this work we tested the usefulness of Lactococcus lactis, the most extensively studied lactic acid bacterium, as a delivery vector for Campylobacter antigens. First we constructed hybrid protein – CjaA antigen presenting CjaD peptide epitopes on its surface. We showed that specific rabbit anti-rCjaAD serum reacted strongly with both CjaA and CjaD produced by a wild type C. jejuni strain. Next, rCjaAD and CjaA were fused to the C-terminus of the L. lactis YndF containing the LPTXG motif. The genes expressing these proteins were transcribed under control of the L. lactis Usp45 promoter and their products contain the Usp45 signal sequences. This strategy ensures a cell surface location of both analyzed proteins, which was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. In order to evaluate the impact of antigen location on vaccine prototype efficacy, a L. lactis strain producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD was also generated. Animal experiments showed a decrease of Campylobacter cecal load in vaccinated birds as compared with the control group and showed that the L. lactis harboring the surface-exposed rCjaAD antigen afforded greater protection than the L. lactis producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to employ Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) strains as a mucosal delivery vehicle for chicken immunization. Although the observed reduction of chicken colonization by Campylobacter resulting from vaccination was rather moderate, the experiments showed that LAB strains can be considered as an alternative vector to

  7. The genus Campylobacter: a decade of progress.

    PubMed Central

    Penner, J L

    1988-01-01

    In 1977, microbiologists and clinicians were awakened to the importance of the genus Campylobacter when it was learned that one species, Campylobacter jejuni, was a major cause of human enteritis. In the following decade substantial advances were made in diagnosis, isolation technology, identification, classification, serotyping, and epidemiology. The genus has undergone rapid expansion as advantage was taken of the deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization technique in defining new species. The 14 species now included in the genus, however, constitute a widely diverse group, and one species, C. pylori, which is associated with human gastroduodenitis, is under consideration for reassignment to another genus. The nomenclature of the subspecies of C. fetus has been resolved and the role of C. fetus subsp. fetus as an agent of human infections has been more clearly defined. The thermophilic campylobacteria that are etiological agents of human enteritis now include three species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. laridis. Recently defined species that have also been implicated as enteritis-causing agents include C. hyointestinalis, "C. upsaliensis," "C. cinaedi," and "C. fennelliae." The aerotolerant campylobacteria are now included in the species C. cryaerophila, and the campylobacteria isolated from salt marshes are included in C. nitrofigilis. The taxonomy and nomenclature of C. sputorum have been revised. C. sputorum now consists of three biovars (biotypes). Two of these, biovar sputorum and biovar bubulus, were previously considered to be separate subspecies and the third, biovar fecalis, was previously regarded as a separate species and known as "C. fecalis." The former subspecies C. sputorum subsp. mucosalis has been elevated to the rank of species. C. mucosalis is metabolically closely related to C. consisus. Human pathogens have not been identified among C. sputorum, C. mucosalis, or C. concisus. The goal of this article is to review developments

  8. A quantitative microbiological risk assessment for Campylobacter in petting zoos.

    PubMed

    Evers, Eric G; Berk, Petra A; Horneman, Mijke L; van Leusden, Frans M; de Jonge, Rob

    2014-09-01

    The significance of petting zoos for transmission of Campylobacter to humans and the effect of interventions were estimated. A stochastic QMRA model simulating a child or adult visiting a Dutch petting zoo was built. The model describes the transmission of Campylobacter in animal feces from the various animal species, fences, and the playground to ingestion by visitors through touching these so-called carriers and subsequently touching their lips. Extensive field and laboratory research was done to fulfill data needs. Fecal contamination on all carriers was measured by swabbing in 10 petting zoos, using Escherichia coli as an indicator. Carrier-hand and hand-lip touching frequencies were estimated by, in total, 13 days of observations of visitors by two observers at two petting zoos. The transmission from carrier to hand and from hand to lip by touching was measured using preapplied cow feces to which E. coli WG5 was added as an indicator. Via a Beta-Poisson dose-response function, the number of Campylobacter cases for the whole of the Netherlands (16 million population) in a year was estimated at 187 and 52 for children and adults, respectively, so 239 in total. This is significantly lower than previous QMRA results on chicken fillet and drinking water consumption. Scenarios of 90% reduction of the contamination (meant to mimic cleaning) of all fences and just goat fences reduces the number of cases by 82% and 75%, respectively. The model can easily be adapted for other fecally transmitted pathogens. PMID:24724585

  9. Bacteriocins to control Campylobacter spp. in poultry--A review.

    PubMed

    Svetoch, E A; Stern, N J

    2010-08-01

    The unacceptably high frequency of Campylobacter jejuni transmission from poultry to humans encourages scientists to consider and create alternative intervention strategies to control the pathogen in poultry production. Extremely high numbers of Campylobacter (often >10(8) cfu/g of poultry intestinal material) potentiate high numbers of the organism on the processed broiler carcass with increasing consequent human health risk. Many scientists believe interventions during poultry production portend the greatest opportunity for reducing risk of disease. Over the past 10 yr, we have focused our studies on nonantibiotic bacteriocin application to intervene during animal production and this is the subject of the current review. The application of therapeutic bacteriocin treatments to reduce poultry colonization diminishes Campylobacter from >10(8) cfu/g of cecal materials to nondetectable or very low levels in treated birds. Further, the review provides scientists with a useful starting point for the further development of industry-applicable interventions leading to reduced transmission of this agent in human disease. PMID:20634535

  10. Alternative bacteriophage life cycles: the carrier state of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Siringan, Patcharin; Connerton, Phillippa L; Cummings, Nicola J; Connerton, Ian F

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Campylobacter are frequently responsible for human enteric disease, often through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Bacteriophages are viruses that have the potential to control pathogenic bacteria, but understanding their complex life cycles is key to their successful exploitation. Treatment of Campylobacter jejuni biofilms with bacteriophages led to the discovery that phages had established a relationship with their hosts typical of the carrier state life cycle (CSLC), where bacteria and bacteriophages remain associated in equilibrium. Significant phenotypic changes include improved aerotolerance under nutrient-limited conditions that would confer an advantage to survive in extra-intestinal environments, but a lack in motility eliminated their ability to colonize chickens. Under these circumstances, phages can remain associated with a compatible host and continue to produce free virions to prospect for new hosts. Moreover, we demonstrate that CSLC host bacteria can act as expendable vehicles for the delivery of bacteriophages to new host bacteria within pre-colonized chickens. The CSLC represents an important phase in the ecology of Campylobacter bacteriophage. PMID:24671947

  11. Protozoa: a novel Campylobacter reservoir?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous in vitro studies we found that Campylobacter jejuni remained viable for longer periods of time when they were cultivated in the presence of Tetrahymena pyriformis (ciliate) and Acanthamoeba castellanii (amoeba) than when they were in an independent planktonic state. Increased survival t...

  12. A 2007 UPDATE ON CAMPYLOBACTER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illnesses are estimated at 76 million cases, 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths annually in the United States. Yet the etiology—viral, bacterial, protozoan— for ~ 81.6% of these cases is unknown. Campylobacter jejuni is the number one cause of human bacterial foodborne enteritis w...

  13. Chicken Anti-Campylobacter Vaccine - Comparison of Various Carriers and Routes of Immunization.

    PubMed

    Kobierecka, Patrycja A; Wyszyńska, Agnieszka K; Gubernator, Jerzy; Kuczkowski, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Oskar; Maruszewska, Marta; Wojtania, Anna; Derlatka, Katarzyna E; Adamska, Iwona; Godlewska, Renata; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta K

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp, especially the species Campylobacter jejuni, are important human enteropathogens responsible for millions of cases of gastro-intestinal disease worldwide every year. C. jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen, and poultry meat that has been contaminated by microorganisms is recognized as a key source of human infections. Although numerous strategies have been developed and experimentally checked to generate chicken vaccines, the results have so far had limited success. In this study, we explored the potential use of non-live carriers of Campylobacter antigen to combat Campylobacter in poultry. First, we assessed the effectiveness of immunization with orally or subcutaneously delivered Gram-positive Enhancer Matrix (GEM) particles carrying two Campylobacter antigens: CjaA and CjaD. These two immunization routes using GEMs as the vector did not protect against Campylobacter colonization. Thus, we next assessed the efficacy of in ovo immunization using various delivery systems: GEM particles and liposomes. The hybrid protein rCjaAD, which is CjaA presenting CjaD epitopes on its surface, was employed as a model antigen. We found that rCjaAD administered in ovo at embryonic development day 18 by both delivery systems resulted in significant levels of protection after challenge with a heterologous C. jejuni strain. In practice, in ovo chicken vaccination is used by the poultry industry to protect birds against several viral diseases. Our work showed that this means of delivery is also efficacious with respect to commensal bacteria such as Campylobacter. In this study, we evaluated the protection after one dose of vaccine given in ovo. We speculate that the level of protection may be increased by a post-hatch booster of orally delivered antigens. PMID:27242755

  14. Chicken Anti-Campylobacter Vaccine – Comparison of Various Carriers and Routes of Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Kobierecka, Patrycja A.; Wyszyńska, Agnieszka K.; Gubernator, Jerzy; Kuczkowski, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Oskar; Maruszewska, Marta; Wojtania, Anna; Derlatka, Katarzyna E.; Adamska, Iwona; Godlewska, Renata; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta K.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp, especially the species Campylobacter jejuni, are important human enteropathogens responsible for millions of cases of gastro-intestinal disease worldwide every year. C. jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen, and poultry meat that has been contaminated by microorganisms is recognized as a key source of human infections. Although numerous strategies have been developed and experimentally checked to generate chicken vaccines, the results have so far had limited success. In this study, we explored the potential use of non-live carriers of Campylobacter antigen to combat Campylobacter in poultry. First, we assessed the effectiveness of immunization with orally or subcutaneously delivered Gram-positive Enhancer Matrix (GEM) particles carrying two Campylobacter antigens: CjaA and CjaD. These two immunization routes using GEMs as the vector did not protect against Campylobacter colonization. Thus, we next assessed the efficacy of in ovo immunization using various delivery systems: GEM particles and liposomes. The hybrid protein rCjaAD, which is CjaA presenting CjaD epitopes on its surface, was employed as a model antigen. We found that rCjaAD administered in ovo at embryonic development day 18 by both delivery systems resulted in significant levels of protection after challenge with a heterologous C. jejuni strain. In practice, in ovo chicken vaccination is used by the poultry industry to protect birds against several viral diseases. Our work showed that this means of delivery is also efficacious with respect to commensal bacteria such as Campylobacter. In this study, we evaluated the protection after one dose of vaccine given in ovo. We speculate that the level of protection may be increased by a post-hatch booster of orally delivered antigens. PMID:27242755

  15. An Improved Culture Method for Selective Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinyong; Oh, Euna; Banting, Graham S; Braithwaite, Shannon; Chui, Linda; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Neumann, Norman F; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading foodborne pathogens worldwide. C. jejuni is isolated from a wide range of foods, domestic animals, wildlife, and environmental sources. The currently available culture-based isolation methods are not highly effective for wastewater samples due to the low number of C. jejuni in the midst of competing bacteria. To detect and isolate C. jejuni from wastewater samples, in this study, we evaluated a few different enrichment conditions using five different antibiotics (i.e., cefoperazone, vancomycin, trimethoprim, polymyxin B, and rifampicin), to which C. jejuni is intrinsically resistant. The selectivity of each enrichment condition was measured with C t value using quantitative real-time PCR, and multiplex PCR to determine Campylobacter species. In addition, the efficacy of Campylobacter isolation on different culture media after selective enrichment was examined by growing on Bolton and Preston agar plates. The addition of polymyxin B, rifampicin, or both to the Bolton selective supplements enhanced the selective isolation of C. jejuni. The results of 16S rDNA sequencing also revealed that Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are major competing bacteria in the enrichment conditions. Although it is known to be difficult to isolate Campylobacter from samples with heavy contamination, this study well exhibited that the manipulation of antibiotic selective pressure improves the isolation efficiency of fastidious Campylobacter from wastewater. PMID:27617011

  16. A Flagellar Glycan-Specific Protein Encoded by Campylobacter Phages Inhibits Host Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Muhammad Afzal; Sacher, Jessica C.; van Alphen, Lieke B.; Patry, Robert T.; Szymanski, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    We previously characterized a carbohydrate binding protein, Gp047, derived from lytic Campylobacter phage NCTC 12673, as a promising diagnostic tool for the identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. We also demonstrated that this protein binds specifically to acetamidino-modified pseudaminic acid residues on host flagella, but the role of this protein in the phage lifecycle remains unknown. Here, we report that Gp047 is capable of inhibiting C. jejuni growth both on solid and liquid media, an activity, which we found to be bacteriostatic. The Gp047 domain responsible for bacterial growth inhibition is localized to the C-terminal quarter of the protein, and this activity is both contact- and dose-dependent. Gp047 gene homologues are present in all Campylobacter phages sequenced to date, and the resulting protein is not part of the phage particle. Therefore, these results suggest that either phages of this pathogen have evolved an effector protein capable of host-specific growth inhibition, or that Campylobacter cells have developed a mechanism of regulating their growth upon sensing an impending phage threat. PMID:26694450

  17. An epidemiological investigation of Campylobacter in pig and poultry farms in the Mekong delta of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Carrique-Mas, J J; Bryant, J E; Cuong, N V; Hoang, N V M; Campbell, J; Hoang, N V; Dung, T T N; Duy, D T; Hoa, N T; Thompson, C; Hien, V V; Phat, V V; Farrar, J; Baker, S

    2014-07-01

    Campylobacter are zoonotic pathogens commonly associated with gastroenteritis. To assess the relevance of Campylobacter in Vietnam, an economically transitioning country in SE Asia, we conducted a survey of 343 pig and poultry farms in the Mekong delta, a region characterized by mixed species farming with limited biosecurity. The animal-level prevalence of Campylobacter was 31·9%, 23·9% and 53·7% for chickens, ducks and pigs, respectively. C. jejuni was predominant in all three host species, with the highest prevalence in pigs in high-density production areas. Campylobacter isolates demonstrated high levels of antimicrobial resistance (21% and 100% resistance against ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, respectively). Multilocus sequence type genotyping showed a high level of genetic diversity within C. jejuni, and predicted C. coli inter-species transmission. We suggest that on-going intensification of animal production systems, limited biosecurity, and increased urbanization in Vietnam is likely to result in Campylobacter becoming an increasingly significant cause of human diarrhoeal infections in coming years. PMID:24067502

  18. An Improved Culture Method for Selective Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinyong; Oh, Euna; Banting, Graham S.; Braithwaite, Shannon; Chui, Linda; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Neumann, Norman F.; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading foodborne pathogens worldwide. C. jejuni is isolated from a wide range of foods, domestic animals, wildlife, and environmental sources. The currently available culture-based isolation methods are not highly effective for wastewater samples due to the low number of C. jejuni in the midst of competing bacteria. To detect and isolate C. jejuni from wastewater samples, in this study, we evaluated a few different enrichment conditions using five different antibiotics (i.e., cefoperazone, vancomycin, trimethoprim, polymyxin B, and rifampicin), to which C. jejuni is intrinsically resistant. The selectivity of each enrichment condition was measured with Ct value using quantitative real-time PCR, and multiplex PCR to determine Campylobacter species. In addition, the efficacy of Campylobacter isolation on different culture media after selective enrichment was examined by growing on Bolton and Preston agar plates. The addition of polymyxin B, rifampicin, or both to the Bolton selective supplements enhanced the selective isolation of C. jejuni. The results of 16S rDNA sequencing also revealed that Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are major competing bacteria in the enrichment conditions. Although it is known to be difficult to isolate Campylobacter from samples with heavy contamination, this study well exhibited that the manipulation of antibiotic selective pressure improves the isolation efficiency of fastidious Campylobacter from wastewater. PMID:27617011

  19. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in raw milk in the selected areas of Poland.

    PubMed

    Wysok, B; Wiszniewska-Łaszczych, A; Uradziński, J; Szteyn, J

    2011-01-01

    During the recent years, an immense increase in the number of food poisoning cases in people caused by Campylobacter (C.) species has occurred. Raw milk, next to poultry meat, is considered the most frequent cause of food poisoning in people caused by the subject bacteria, although it is not always possible to isolate Campylobacter cells from the incriminated milk. Most probably this difficulty is caused by low concentration of the pathogen in milk at the level of 2/3 cells/ml although even such low concentration represents risk to human health. The present study was aimed at determining the occurence of Campylobacter bacteria in milk originating from selected regions of Poland. The isolation method applied in this work was effective in recovering as few as 0.1 cell of Campylobacter per g of food. Among 150 bulk milk samples tested, Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 7 (4.6%) ones. The biochemical identification of the isolated strains conducted by means of conventional biochemical tests as well as by applying the API - Campy tests revealed that all the isolates belonged to the C. jejuni species. Determination of resistance to antibiotics was performed by means of the diffusion disks method for the following antibiotics: gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, doxycyclin and tetracycline. Among 7 isolates tested, all were susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin and gentamicin, 28.5% to doxycyclin and 14.2% to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. PMID:21957744

  20. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. in Oklahoma Conventional and Organic Retail Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter is one of the most important foodborne pathogens that cause bacterial gastroenteritis.This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in conventional and organic retail poultry samples purchased from grocery stores in Tulsa, Oklahoma.One hundred and fifty six chilled retail chicken samples (85 conventional and 71 organic) and 65 chilled retail conventional turkey samples were collected in this study. The prevalence of Campylobacter in the conventional chicken samples 32/85 (38%) was higher than in the organic ones 21/71 (30%). The prevalence of Campylobacter in the conventional turkey samples was 11/65 (17%). Of the 53 positive chicken samples, 42 were C. jejuni, 8 were C. coli and three isolates were contaminated with both species. Of the 11 positive turkey samples, 8 contained C. jejuni and 3 harbored C. coli isolates. The antimicrobial susceptibility of one hundred and forty nine recovered Campylobacter isolates (130 chickens and 19 turkeys) towards sixteen antimicrobials was determined. The majority of the recovered turkey isolates (13/19) showed resistance to more than 7 antimicrobials while most of the recovered chicken ones (82/130) were resistant to 5 to 7 antimicrobials. Multidrug resistance was not limited to isolates from conventional sources but was also available in isolates of an organic background and was generally lower in C. jejuni isolates when compared to the C. coli ones. PMID:25408778

  1. Campylobacter Polysaccharide Capsules: Virulence and Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Guerry, Patricia; Poly, Frédéric; Riddle, Mark; Maue, Alexander C.; Chen, Yu-Han; Monteiro, Mario A.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni remains a major cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with numerous sequelae, including Guillain Barré Syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, and irritable bowel syndrome. C. jejuni is unusual for an intestinal pathogen in its ability to coat its surface with a polysaccharide capsule (CPS). These capsular polysaccharides vary in sugar composition and linkage, especially those involving heptoses of unusual configuration and O-methyl phosphoramidate linkages. This structural diversity is consistent with CPS being the major serodeterminant of the Penner scheme, of which there are 47 C. jejuni serotypes. Both CPS expression and expression of modifications are subject to phase variation by slip strand mismatch repair. Although capsules are virulence factors for other pathogens, the role of CPS in C. jejuni disease has not been well defined beyond descriptive studies demonstrating a role in serum resistance and for diarrhea in a ferret model of disease. However, perhaps the most compelling evidence for a role in pathogenesis are data that CPS conjugate vaccines protect against diarrheal disease in non-human primates. A CPS conjugate vaccine approach against this pathogen is intriguing, but several questions need to be addressed, including the valency of CPS types required for an effective vaccine. There have been numerous studies of prevalence of CPS serotypes in the developed world, but few studies from developing countries where the disease incidence is higher. The complexity and cost of Penner serotyping has limited its usefulness, and a recently developed multiplex PCR method for determination of capsule type offers the potential of a more rapid and affordable method. Comparative studies have shown a strong correlation of the two methods and studies are beginning to ascertain CPS-type distribution worldwide, as well as examination of correlation of severity of illness with specific CPS types. PMID:22919599

  2. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Detection of Virulence Genes in Campylobacter Isolates in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Di Serafino, Gabriella; Zilli, Katiuscia; Alessiani, Alessandra; Sacchini, Lorena; Garofolo, Giuliano; Aprea, Giuseppe; Marotta, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter has developed resistance to several antimicrobial agents over the years, including macrolides, quinolones and fluoroquinolones, becoming a significant public health hazard. A total of 145 strains derived from raw milk, chicken faeces, chicken carcasses, cattle faeces and human faeces collected from various Italian regions, were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characterization (SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) and detection of virulence genes (sequencing and DNA microarray analysis). The prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli was 62.75% and 37.24% respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility revealed a high level of resistance for ciprofloxacin (62.76%), tetracycline (55.86%) and nalidixic acid (55.17%). Genotyping of Campylobacter isolates using PFGE revealed a total of 86 unique SmaI patterns. Virulence gene profiles were determined using a new microbial diagnostic microarray composed of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes targeting genes implicated in Campylobacter pathogenicity. Correspondence between PFGE and microarray clusters was observed. Comparisons of PFGE and virulence profiles reflected the high genetic diversity of the strains examined, leading us to speculate different degrees of pathogenicity inside Campylobacter populations. PMID:24556669

  3. Campylobacter concisus – A New Player in Intestinal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaakoush, Nadeem Omar; Mitchell, Hazel Marjory

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade Campylobacter concisus, a highly fastidious member of the Campylobacter genus has been described as an emergent pathogen of the human intestinal tract. Historically, C. concisus was associated with the human oral cavity and has been linked with periodontal lesions, including gingivitis and periodontitis, although currently its role as an oral pathogen remains contentious. Evidence to support the role of C. concisus in acute intestinal disease has come from studies that have detected or isolated C. concisus as sole pathogen in fecal samples from diarrheic patients. C. concisus has also been associated with chronic intestinal disease, its prevalence being significantly higher in children with newly diagnosed Crohn’s disease (CD) and adults with ulcerative colitis than in controls. Further C. concisus has been isolated from biopsy specimens of patients with CD. While such studies support the role of C. concisus as an intestinal pathogen, its isolation from healthy individuals, and failure of some studies to show a significant difference in C. concisus prevalence in subjects with diarrhea and healthy controls has raised contention as to its role in intestinal disease. Such findings could argue against the role of C. concisus in intestinal disease, however, the fact that C. concisus strains are genetically diverse raises the possibility that differences exist in their pathogenic potential. Evidence to support this view comes from studies showing strain specific differences in the ability of C. concisus to attach to and invade cells and produce virulence factors, including toxins and hemolytic phospholipase A. Further, sequencing of the genome of a C. concisus strain isolated from a child with CD (UNSWCD) and comparison of this with the only other fully sequenced strain (BAA-1457) would suggest that major differences exist in the genetic make-up of this species which could explain different outcomes of C. concisus infection. PMID:22919596

  4. Transformation and characterization of an arsenic gene operon from urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, M; Kuribayashi, T; Yamamoto, S; Millar, B C; Moore, J E

    2016-01-01

    An arsenate susceptibility test was performed with transformed and cultured Escherichia coli DH5α cells, which carried recombinant DNA of full-length arsenic (ars) operon, namely a putative membrane permease, ArsP; a transcriptional repressor, ArsR; an arsenate reductase, ArsC; and an arsenical-resistance membrane transporter, Acr3, from the Japanese urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter lari (UPTC) CF89-12. The E. coli DH5α transformant showed reduced susceptibility to arsenate (~1536 μg/mL), compared to the control. Thus, these ars four-genes from the UPTC CF89-12 strain cells could confer a reduced susceptibility to arsenate in the transformed and E. coli DH5α cells. E. coli transformants with truncated ars operons, acr3 (acr3) and arsC-acr3 (∆arsC-acr3), of the ars operon, showed an MIC value of 384 μg/mL (~384 μg/mL), similar to the E. coli cells which carried the pGEM-T vector (control). Reverse transcription PCR confirmed in vivo transcription of recombinant full-length ars operon and deletion variants (∆acr3 and ∆arsC-acr3) in the transformed E. coli cells. PMID:26122364

  5. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During samplings of reptiles for Epsilonproteobacteria, Campylobacter strains were isolated from lizards and chelonians not belonging to any of the established taxa. Initial AFLP, PCR, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campy...

  6. Epidemiological aspects of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis.

    PubMed

    Norkrans, G; Svedhem, A

    1982-08-01

    An epidemiological study on Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis was performed in an urban Swedish community. The study included 55 patients gathered during a six-month period. Forty-one of the 55 patients (75%) were infected outside Sweden. Campylobacter enterocolitis was rare among children within the country. Patients infected in Sweden had eaten chicken significantly more often than a corresponding control group. Seven out of nine chicken consuming campylobacter patients also had prepared the fresh chicken alone, and none of their family members became ill. Thus the preparation of food contaminated with Campylobacter seems to elevate the risk for contracting the disease. Sick household pets transmitted the campylobacter infection to two patients. Forty-six of the patients had a total of 85 close household members. Three definite secondary cases were found. There was no evidence of transmission of Campylobacter by food prepared by two cooks who were working while still being asymptomatic excreters. Clinical reinfection with Campylobacter was observed in one patient. No patients became long-term carriers of Campylobacter. PMID:7097000

  7. Detection of Campylobacter Colonies using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isolation and detection of Campylobacter in foods via direct plating involves lengthy laboratory procedures including enrichments and microaerobic incubations, which take several days to a week. The incubation time for growing Campylobacter colonies in agar media is typically 24 hours to 48 hours. F...

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain 1485ET, Isolated from a Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Kik, Marja; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole-genome sequence for this species. PMID:25146144

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain 1485ET, Isolated from a Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Emma; Kik, Marja; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole-genome sequence for this species. PMID:25146144

  10. The first closed genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter fetus venerealis biovar intermedius is a variant of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, the causative agent of Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis. In contrast to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis which is restricted to the genital tract of cattle, Campylobacter fetus subsp. vener...

  11. The 30th anniversary of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, and Related Organisms workshops—what have we learned in three decades?

    PubMed Central

    Gaynor, Erin C.; Szymanski, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    As we commemorate the 30th anniversary of the Campylobacter, Helicobacter, and Related Organisms (CHRO) workshops with this special Frontiers edition, we look back upon three decades of research and provide some highlights from the 16th International CHRO meeting. Although Theodor Escherich himself provided drawings of campylobacters back in the 1880s, Campylobacter jejuni was not identified until the 1950s. Helicobacter pylori was first described to be the causative agent of stomach ulcers at a CHRO meeting by Barry Marshall and Robin Warren—who later received the Nobel Prize for their findings that bacteria could cause diseases previously believed to be caused by human factors. Now, several genome sequences for campylobacters, helicobacters, and related organisms are available and we have moved into an era examining the intersection between host microbial ecology and pathogen infection. Both pioneers and new investigators in the CHRO research field continue to obtain “unexpected results” demonstrating that campylobacters and helicobacters do not follow classic paradigms of other well-characterized gastrointestinal pathogens and we are learning that there is a plethora of interesting related organisms beyond C. jejuni and H. pylori. This review summarizes recent discoveries in CHRO research and the exciting directions ahead. PMID:22919612

  12. Aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with a-ketoglutaric, lactic, and/or fumaric acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are major causes of human foodborne illnesses, and the pathogen is widely associated with live and processed poultry. These bacteria are classified as microaerophiles and are generally cultured under atmospheres with reduced oxygen and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations. Altho...

  13. Detection and Genotyping of Arcobacter and Campylobacter Isolates from Retail Chicken Samples by Use of DNA Oligonucleotide Arrays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore the use of DNA microarrays for pathogen detection in food, we have produced DNA oligonucleotide arrays to identify the presence of Arcobacter and Campylobacter in retail chicken. Probes were selected that target housekeeping and virulence-associated genes in both Arcobacter butzleri and ...

  14. The Campylobacter jejuni CprRS two-component regulatory system regulates aspects of the cell envelope

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis, Campylobacter jejuni is a significant human pathogen. C. jejuni lives commensally in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, but tolerates variable environments during transit to a susceptible host. A two-component regulatory system, CprRS, w...

  15. Distinct Campylobacter jejuni capsular types are related to Guillain-Barré syndrome in The Netherlands and Bangladesh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An infection with the intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni leads to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in around one in thousand cases. It is established that sialylated lipooligosaccharides (LOS) of C. jejuni are a crucial virulence factor in GBS development. Frequent detection of C. jejuni with sia...

  16. Comparison of Molecular Methods and Traditional Plate Counting for Detecting Campylobacter Jejuni and Escherichia Coli from Environmental Samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accurate detection of pathogenic bacteria from environmental samples is vital from both agricultural and human health perspectives. The goal of this study was to compare the detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli from environmental samples using quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-P...

  17. The Contribution of ArsB to Arsenic Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhangqi; Han, Jing; Wang, Yang; Sahin, Orhan; Zhang, Qijing

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, a toxic metalloid, exists in the natural environment and its organic form is approved for use as a feed additive for animal production. As a major foodborne pathogen of animal origin, Campylobacter is exposed to arsenic selection pressure in the food animal production environments. Previous studies showed that Campylobacter isolates from poultry were highly resistant to arsenic compounds and a 4-gene operon (containing arsP, arsR, arsC, and acr3) was associated with arsenic resistance in Campylobacter. However, this 4-gene operon is only present in some Campylobacter isolates and other arsenic resistance mechanisms in C. jejuni have not been characterized. In this study, we determined the role of several putative arsenic resistance genes including arsB, arsC2, and arsR3 in arsenic resistance in C. jejuni and found that arsB, but not the other two genes, contributes to the resistance to arsenite and arsenate. Inactivation of arsB in C. jejuni resulted in 8- and 4-fold reduction in the MICs of arsenite and arsenate, respectively, and complementation of the arsB mutant restored the MIC of arsenite. Additionally, overexpression of arsB in C. jejuni 11168 resulted in a 16-fold increase in the MIC of arsenite. PCR analysis of C. jejuni isolates from different animals hosts indicated that arsB and acr3 (the 4-gene operon) are widely distributed in various C. jejuni strains, suggesting that Campylobacter requires at least one of the two genes for adaptation to arsenic-containing environments. These results identify ArsB as an alternative mechanism for arsenic resistance in C. jejuni and provide new insights into the adaptive mechanisms of Campylobacter in animal food production environments. PMID:23554953

  18. Evaluation of Various Campylobacter-Specific Quantitative PCR (qPCR) Assays for Detection and Enumeration of Campylobacteraceae in Irrigation Water and Wastewater via a Miniaturized Most-Probable-Number–qPCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Banting, Graham S.; Braithwaite, Shannon; Scott, Candis; Kim, Jinyong; Jeon, Byeonghwa; Ashbolt, Nicholas; Ruecker, Norma; Tymensen, Lisa; Charest, Jollin; Pintar, Katarina; Checkley, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and water is increasingly seen as a risk factor in transmission. Here we describe a most-probable-number (MPN)–quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay in which water samples are centrifuged and aliquoted into microtiter plates and the bacteria are enumerated by qPCR. We observed that commonly used Campylobacter molecular assays produced vastly different detection rates. In irrigation water samples, detection rates varied depending upon the PCR assay and culture method used, as follows: 0% by the de Boer Lv1-16S qPCR assay, 2.5% by the Van Dyke 16S and Jensen glyA qPCR assays, and 75% by the Linton 16S endpoint PCR when cultured at 37°C. Primer/probe specificity was the major confounder, with Arcobacter spp. routinely yielding false-positive results. The primers and PCR conditions described by Van Dyke et al. (M. I. Van Dyke, V. K. Morton, N. L. McLellan, and P. M. Huck, J Appl Microbiol 109:1053–1066, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04730.x) proved to be the most sensitive and specific for Campylobacter detection in water. Campylobacter occurrence in irrigation water was found to be very low (<2 MPN/300 ml) when this Campylobacter-specific qPCR was used, with the most commonly detected species being C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. Campylobacters in raw sewage were present at ∼102/100 ml, with incubation at 42°C required for reducing microbial growth competition from arcobacters. Overall, when Campylobacter prevalence and/or concentration in water is reported using molecular methods, considerable validation is recommended when adapting methods largely developed for clinical applications. Furthermore, combining MPN methods with molecular biology-based detection algorithms allows for the detection and quantification of Campylobacter spp. in environmental samples and is potentially suited to quantitative microbial risk assessment for improved public health disease

  19. Insights into Campylobacter jejuni colonization and enteritis using a novel infant rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yuwei; Ren, Fangzhe; Song, Zhaojun; Li, Qiuchun; Zhou, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaobo; Xu, Zhonglan; Bao, Guangyu; Wan, Ting; Lei, Tianyao; Wang, Nan; Jiao, Xin-an; Huang, Jinlin

    2016-01-01

    A lack of relevant disease models for Campylobacter jejuni has long been an obstacle to research into this common enteric pathogen. Here we used an infant rabbit to study C. jejuni infection, which enables us to define several previously unknown but key features of the organism. C. jejuni is capable of systemic invasion in the rabbit, and developed a diarrhea symptom that mimicked that observed in many human campylobacteriosis. The large intestine was the most consistently colonized site and produced intestinal inflammation, where specific cytokines were induced. Genes preferentially expressed during C. jejuni infection were screened, and acs, cj1385, cj0259 seem to be responsible for C. jejuni invasion. Our results demonstrates that the infant rabbit can be used as an alternative experimental model for the study of diarrheagenic Campylobacter species and will be useful in exploring the pathogenesis of other related pathogens. PMID:27357336

  20. Insights into Campylobacter jejuni colonization and enteritis using a novel infant rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yuwei; Ren, Fangzhe; Song, Zhaojun; Li, Qiuchun; Zhou, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaobo; Xu, Zhonglan; Bao, Guangyu; Wan, Ting; Lei, Tianyao; Wang, Nan; Jiao, Xin-An; Huang, Jinlin

    2016-01-01

    A lack of relevant disease models for Campylobacter jejuni has long been an obstacle to research into this common enteric pathogen. Here we used an infant rabbit to study C. jejuni infection, which enables us to define several previously unknown but key features of the organism. C. jejuni is capable of systemic invasion in the rabbit, and developed a diarrhea symptom that mimicked that observed in many human campylobacteriosis. The large intestine was the most consistently colonized site and produced intestinal inflammation, where specific cytokines were induced. Genes preferentially expressed during C. jejuni infection were screened, and acs, cj1385, cj0259 seem to be responsible for C. jejuni invasion. Our results demonstrates that the infant rabbit can be used as an alternative experimental model for the study of diarrheagenic Campylobacter species and will be useful in exploring the pathogenesis of other related pathogens. PMID:27357336

  1. Campylobacter Reactive Arthritis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Janet E.; Krizova, Adriana; Garg, Amit X.; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Ouimet, Janine M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the literature on the epidemiology of Campylobacter associated ReA. Methods A Medline (PubMed) search identified studies from 1966–2006 that investigated the epidemiology of Campylobacter associated ReA. Search terms included: “reactive arthritis”, “spondyloarthropathy”, “Reiter’s syndrome”, “gastroenteritis”, “diarrhea”, “epidemiology”, “incidence”, “prevalence”, and “Campylobacter”. Results The literature available to date suggests that the incidence of Campylobacter reactive arthritis may occur in 1 to 5% of those infected. The annual incidence of ReA after Campylobacter or Shigella may be 4.3 and 1.3 respectively per 100,000. The duration of acute ReA varies considerably between reports, and the incidence and impact of chronic reactive arthritis from Campylobacter infection is virtually unknown. Conclusions Campylobacter associated ReA incidence and prevalence varies widely from reviews such as: case ascertainment differences, exposure differences, lack of diagnostic criteria for ReA and perhaps genetics and ages of exposed individuals. At the population level it may not be associated with HLA-B27 and inflammatory back involvement is uncommon. Follow up for long-term sequelae is largely unknown. Five percent of Campylobacter ReA may be chronic or relapsing (with respect to musculoskeletal symptoms). PMID:17360026

  2. Quantification of campylobacter species cross-contamination during handling of contaminated fresh chicken parts in kitchens.

    PubMed

    Luber, Petra; Brynestad, Sigrid; Topsch, Daniela; Scherer, Kathrin; Bartelt, Edda

    2006-01-01

    Numerous outbreak investigations and case-control studies for campylobacteriosis have provided evidence that handling Campylobacter-contaminated chicken products is a risk factor for infection and illness. There is currently extremely limited quantitative data on the levels of Campylobacter cross-contamination in the kitchen, hindering risk assessments for the pathogen commodity combination of Campylobacter and chicken meat. An exposure assessment needs to quantify the transfer of the bacteria from chicken to hands and the kitchen environment and from there onto ready-to-eat foods. We simulated some typical situations in kitchens and quantified the Campylobacter transfer from naturally contaminated chicken parts most commonly used in Germany. One scenario simulated the seasoning of five chicken legs and the reuse of the same plate for cooked meat. In another, five chicken breast filets were cut into small slices on a wooden board where, without intermediate cleaning, a cucumber was sliced. We also investigated the transfer of the pathogen from chicken via hands to a bread roll. The numbers of Campylobacter present on the surfaces of the chicken parts, hands, utensils, and ready-to-eat foods were detected by using Preston enrichment and colony counting after surface plating on Karmali agar. The mean transfer rates from legs and filets to hands were 2.9 and 3.8%. The transfer from legs to the plate (0.3%) was significantly smaller (P < 0.01) than the percentage transferred from filets to the cutting board and knife (1.1%). Average transfer rates from hands or kitchen utensils to ready-to-eat foods ranged from 2.9 to 27.5%. PMID:16391026

  3. Hyperspectral imaging for detecting pathogens grown on agar plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seung Chul; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Siragusa, Gregory R.; Line, John E.; Park, Bosoon; Windham, William R.

    2007-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting and identifying one of the most common foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter. Direct plating using agars is an effective tool for laboratory tests and analyses of microorganisms. The morphology (size, growth pattern, color, etc.) of colonies grown on agar plates has been widely used to tentatively differentiate organisms. However, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate target organisms like Campylobacters from other contaminants grown together on the same agar plates. A hyperspectral imaging system operating at the visible and near infrared (VNIR) spectral region from 400 nm to 900 nm was set up to measure spectral signatures of 17 different Campylobacter and non-Campylobacter subspecies. Protocols for culturing, imaging samples and for calibrating measured data were developed. The VNIR spectral library of all 17 organisms commonly encountered in poultry was established from calibrated hyperspectral images. A classification algorithm was developed to locate and identify Campylobacters, non-Campylobacter contaminants, and background agars with 99.29% accuracy. This research has a potential to be expanded to detect other pathogens grown on agar media.

  4. Effect of climate change on runoff of Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium from land to surface water.

    PubMed

    Sterk, Ankie; Schijven, Jack; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; de Nijs, Ton

    2016-05-15

    Faeces originating from wildlife, domestic animals or manure-fertilized fields, is considered an important source of zoonotic pathogens to which people may be exposed by, for instance, bathing or drinking-water consumption. An increase in runoff, and associated wash-off of animal faeces from fields, is assumed to contribute to the increase of disease outbreaks during periods of high precipitation. Climate change is expected to increase winter precipitation and extreme precipitation events during summer, but has simultaneously also other effects such as temperature rise and changes in evapotranspiration. The question is to what extent the combination of these effects influence the input of zoonotic pathogens to the surface waters. To quantitatively analyse the impacts of climate change on pathogen runoff, pathogen concentrations reaching surface waters through runoff were calculated by combining an input model for catchment pathogen loads with the Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS). Runoff of Cryptosporidium and Campylobacter was evaluated under different climate change scenarios and by applying different scenarios for sources of faecal pollution in the catchments, namely dairy cows and geese and manure fertilization. Model evaluation of these scenarios shows that climate change has little overall impact on runoff of Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium from land to the surface waters. Even though individual processes like runoff fluxes, pathogen release and dilution are affected, either positively or negatively, the net effect on the pathogen concentration in surface waters and consequently also on infection risks through recreation seems limited. PMID:26986498

  5. Milk-borne campylobacter infection.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, D A; Jones, D M

    1981-01-01

    The common factor in 13 recent outbreaks of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis was the consumption of unpasteurised or incompletely pasteurised milk. C jejuni is a common commensal in the alimentary tract of milking cows, but it is not clear how the milk becomes contaminated with the organism. Pasteurisation will readily eliminate the organism from milk. In England and Wales 3% of milk retailed is still unpasteurised, and in the light of these findings it is suggested that only pasteurised milk should be sold to the public. PMID:6786504

  6. Control strategies against Campylobacter at the poultry production level: biosecurity measures, feed additives and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Meunier, M; Guyard-Nicodème, M; Dory, D; Chemaly, M

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union, and ranks second in the United States only behind salmonellosis. In Europe, there are about nine million cases of campylobacteriosis every year, making the disease a major public health issue. Human cases are mainly caused by the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The main source of contamination is handling or consumption of poultry meat. Poultry constitutes the main reservoir of Campylobacter, substantial quantities of which are found in the intestines following rapid, intense colonization. Reducing Campylobacter levels in the poultry chain would decrease the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. As primary production is a crucial step in Campylobacter poultry contamination, controlling the infection at this level could impact the following links along the food chain (slaughter, retail and consumption). This review describes the control strategies implemented during the past few decades in primary poultry production, including the most recent studies. In fact, the implementation of biosecurity and hygiene measures is described, as well as the immune strategy with passive immunization and vaccination trials and the nutritional strategy with the administration of organic and fatty acids, essential oil and plant-derived compound, probiotics, bacteriocins and bacteriophages. PMID:26541243

  7. Unusual microtubule-dependent endocytosis mechanisms triggered by Campylobacter jejuni and Citrobacter freundii.

    PubMed Central

    Oelschlaeger, T A; Guerry, P; Kopecko, D J

    1993-01-01

    Bacterial invasion of six different human epithelial cell lines showed that some strains of the intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni invaded intestinal cell lines at a level 10(2)-10(4) times higher than reported previously for other Campylobacter strains. Separately, urinary tract isolates of Citrobacter freundii triggered a high-efficiency invasion of bladder cells. Use of multiple inhibitors with known effects on eukaryotic cell structures/processes allowed us to define in these genetically distinct bacterial genera unusual bacterial invasion mechanisms that uniquely require microtubules but not microfilaments. Campylobacter jejuni strain 81-176 uptake into 407 intestinal cells and Citrobacter entry into T24 bladder cells was blocked by microtubule depolymerization and inhibitors of coated-pit formation but not by microfilament depolymerization. Inhibitors of endosome acidification had no significant impact on intracellular survival of Campylobacter jejuni or Citrobacter freundii, but monensin markedly reduced Citrobacter uptake. Epithelial cell invasion by both of these bacterial genera was dependent upon de novo bacterial protein synthesis but not upon de novo eukaryotic cell protein synthesis. In contrast to the T24 cell line-specific, strict microtubule-dependent uptake, Citrobacter entry into other cell lines was inhibited by both microtubule- and microfilament-depolymerization, suggesting that these bacteria encode two separate pathways for uptake (i, microtubule-dependent; ii, microfilament-dependent) that are cell line-specific and are recognized perhaps depending on the presence and abundance of appropriate eukaryotic receptors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8341714

  8. The Effects of 405-nm Visible Light on the Survival of Campylobacter on Chicken Skin and Stainless Steel.

    PubMed

    Gunther, Nereus W; Phillips, John G; Sommers, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacter spp. are foodborne pathogens responsible for a significant portion of human cases of bacterial-mediated gastrointestinal disease. A primary method for the introduction of Campylobacter into the food supply is through poultry products. Reducing the number of Campylobacter on poultry products may reduce the incidence of human disease. Research has been conducted on the use of light to inactivate Campylobacter on poultry products and processing environments. More recently, the use of high intensity visible 405-nm light has been proposed for the elimination of pathogenic bacteria. This study investigated the ability of 405-nm light to reduce Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in poultry products. Campylobacter in chicken exudate were placed onto chicken skin or food-grade stainless steel before treatment with 405-nm light. A range of 405-nm light doses were applied to cocktails of six C. jejuni or six C. coli strains in exudate at 10°C to minimize thermal effects. Little difference was observed between inactivation of C. jejuni and C. coli on poultry skin with only minor average reductions of 1.7 logs and 2.1 logs, respectively, at the maximal dose of 184-186 J/cm(2). More noticeable differences were observed when the samples were placed on stainless steel and treated with a dose of 89 J/cm(2), producing an average reduction of 3.0 logs for C. coli but only 1.1 logs for C. jejuni. The maximal dose (181-183 J/cm(2)) applied to Campylobacter on stainless steel produced significant (p ≤ 0.05) reductions for C. jejuni and C. coli of 4.9 logs and 5.1 logs, respectively. However, significant 405-nm-mediated reductions in Campylobacter numbers required exposure times to achieve necessary dose levels that might be impractical under processing conditions. In addition, the most potent exposure times likely produced secondary thermal effects by raising sample surface temperatures above 48°C. PMID:26938455

  9. Campylobacter pylori and gastroduodenal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Buck, G E

    1990-01-01

    Campylobacter pylori is a newly described, spiral-shaped, gram-negative bacillus that is oxidase positive, catalase positive, and urease positive and grows slowly in culture. Although observed in human tissue at the beginning of the century, it was not cultured until 1982. Because there are significant morphological and genetic differences between this organism and other species of Campylobacter, it will probably be reclassified in a new genus. Current information indicates that the organism primarily resides in the stomach tissue of humans and nonhuman primates and may occasionally spread to the esophagus or other parts of the alimentary tract under appropriate conditions. Significant evidence has accumulated in the last several years to show that it causes gastritis, and there is mounting evidence that it may participate in the development of duodenal ulcers. It may also be associated with gastric ulcers and nonulcer dyspepsia. It can be detected in patients by culture of biopsy specimens or histological staining of biopsy tissue. Indirect evidence for the presence of the organism can be obtained by detection of urease in a tissue biopsy specimen, by urea breath tests, or by detection of specific antibody. It may not be necessary to implement these procedures for routine use, however, until the role of the organism can be defined better. Ultimately, the discovery of this organism may lead to radical changes in the diagnosis and treatment of gastric disease. Images PMID:2404565

  10. Host adaption to the bacteriophage carrier state of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Brathwaite, Kelly J.; Siringan, Patcharin; Connerton, Phillippa L.; Connerton, Ian F.

    2015-01-01

    The carrier state of the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni represents an alternative life cycle whereby virulent bacteriophages can persist in association with host bacteria without commitment to lysogeny. Host bacteria exhibit significant phenotypic changes that improve their ability to survive extra-intestinal environments, but exhibit growth-phase-dependent impairment in motility. We demonstrate that early exponential phase cultures become synchronised with respect to the non-motile phenotype, which corresponds with a reduction in their ability to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells. Comparative transcriptome analyses (RNA-seq) identify changes in gene expression that account for the observed phenotypes: downregulation of stress response genes hrcA, hspR and per and downregulation of the major flagellin flaA with the chemotactic response signalling genes cheV, cheA and cheW. These changes present mechanisms by which the host and bacteriophage can remain associated without lysis, and the cultures survive extra-intestinal transit. These data provide a basis for understanding a critical link in the ecology of the Campylobacter bacteriophage. PMID:26004283

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Newcastle disease virus in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in public areas of Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Tremblay, Donald; Harel, Josée; Côté, Nathalie; Arsenault, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) can harbor a range of zoonotic pathogens. A transversal study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of feral pigeons infected by various pathogens in public areas in Montreal, Quebec. Cloacal swabs from captured birds were cultured for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Coxiella burnetii. An oropharyngeal swab was also submitted to real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) for the detection of Newcastle disease virus. Among the 187 pigeons tested from 10 public areas, 9.1% (95% CI: 3.0 to 15.2) were positive for Campylobacter spp. with all strains identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The Campylobacter status of birds was not associated with individual characteristics of birds, with the exception of body score. None of the pigeons tested positive for the other pathogens. Direct or indirect contacts with feral pigeons may constitute a potential risk for Campylobacter infection in humans. PMID:26733736

  12. Darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) and their larvae as potential vectors for the transfer of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi B variant Java between successive broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Hazeleger, Wilma C; Bolder, Nico M; Beumer, Rijkelt R; Jacobs-Reitsma, Wilma F

    2008-11-01

    Broiler flocks often become infected with Campylobacter and Salmonella, and the exact contamination routes are still not fully understood. Insects like darkling beetles and their larvae may play a role in transfer of the pathogens between consecutive cycles. In this study, several groups of beetles and their larvae were artificially contaminated with a mixture of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B Variant Java and three C. jejuni strains and kept for different time intervals before they were fed to individually housed chicks. Most inoculated insects were positive for Salmonella and Campylobacter just before they were fed to the chicks. However, Campylobacter could not be isolated from insects that were kept for 1 week before they were used to mimic an empty week between rearing cycles. All broilers fed insects that were inoculated with pathogens on the day of feeding showed colonization with Campylobacter and Salmonella at levels of 50 to 100%. Transfer of both pathogens by groups of insects that were kept for 1 week before feeding to the chicks was also observed, but at lower levels. Naturally contaminated insects that were collected at a commercial broiler farm colonized broilers at low levels as well. In conclusion, the fact that Salmonella and Campylobacter can be transmitted via beetles and their larvae to flocks in successive rearing cycles indicates that there should be intensive control programs for exclusion of these insects from broiler houses. PMID:18791034

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Newcastle disease virus in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in public areas of Montreal, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Tremblay, Donald; Harel, Josée; Côté, Nathalie; Arsenault, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) can harbor a range of zoonotic pathogens. A transversal study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of feral pigeons infected by various pathogens in public areas in Montreal, Quebec. Cloacal swabs from captured birds were cultured for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Coxiella burnetii. An oropharyngeal swab was also submitted to real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) for the detection of Newcastle disease virus. Among the 187 pigeons tested from 10 public areas, 9.1% (95% CI: 3.0 to 15.2) were positive for Campylobacter spp. with all strains identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The Campylobacter status of birds was not associated with individual characteristics of birds, with the exception of body score. None of the pigeons tested positive for the other pathogens. Direct or indirect contacts with feral pigeons may constitute a potential risk for Campylobacter infection in humans. PMID:26733736

  14. Comparison of Selective Campylobacter Media for Detection and Enumeration of Naturally Occurring Campylobacter spp. on Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are among the most common cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal illness; poultry has been linked as a primary source of contamination. Detection and enumeration of low numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry is difficult due to the presence of competing micro...

  15. Ribosomal operon intergenic sequence (IGS) heterogeneity in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are closely related species that can not be distinguished by their 16S or 23S rRNA genes. However, the intergenic sequence (IGS) fragment that is between the 16S and 23S genes is markedly different and characteristic for each species. A peculiarity of th...

  16. Microarray on digital versatile disc for identification and genotyping of Salmonella and Campylobacter in meat products.

    PubMed

    Tortajada-Genaro, Luis Antonio; Rodrigo, Alejandro; Hevia, Elizabeth; Mena, Salvador; Niñoles, Regina; Maquieira, Ángel

    2015-09-01

    Highly portable, cost-effective, and rapid-response devices are required for the subtyping of the most frequent food-borne bacteria; thereby the sample rejection strategies and hygienization techniques along the food chain can be tailor-designed. Here, a novel biosensor is presented for the generic detection of Salmonella and Campylobacter and the discrimination between their most prevalent serovars (Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium) and species (Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli), respectively. The method is based on DNA microarray developed on a standard digital versatile disc (DVD) as support for a hybridization assay and a DVD driver as scanner. This approach was found to be highly sensitive (detection limit down to 0.2 pg of genomic DNA), reproducible (relative standard deviation 4-19 %), and high working capacity (20 samples per disc). The inclusivity and exclusivity assays indicated that designed oligonucleotides (primers and probes) were able to discriminate targeted pathogens from other Salmonella serovars, Campylobacter species, or common food-borne pathogens potentially present in the indigenous microflora. One hundred isolates from meat samples, collected in a poultry factory, were analyzed by the DVD microarraying and fluorescent real-time PCR. An excellent correlation was observed for both generic and specific detection (relative sensitivity 93-99 % and relative specificity 93-100 %). Therefore, the developed assay has been shown to be a reliable tool to be used in routine food safety analysis, especially in settings with limited infrastructure due to the excellent efficiency-cost ratio of compact disc technology. Graphical Abstract DNA microarray performed by DVD technology for pathogen genotyping. PMID:26198111

  17. Antibiotic resistance and resistance mechanisms in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    PubMed

    Alfredson, David A; Korolik, Victoria

    2007-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world and infections with these organisms occur more frequently than do infections due to Salmonella species, Shigella species, or Escherichia coli 0157:H7. The incidence of human Campylobacter infections has increased markedly in both developed and developing countries worldwide and, more significantly, so has the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter strains, with evidence suggesting that the use of antibiotics, in particular the fluoroquinolones, as growth promoters in food animals and the veterinary industry is accelerating this trend. In this minireview, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter spp are discussed. PMID:18031331

  18. Hyperosmotic Stress Response of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Andrew; Frirdich, Emilisa; Huynh, Steven; Parker, Craig T.

    2012-01-01

    The diarrheal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni and other gastrointestinal bacteria encounter changes in osmolarity in the environment, through exposure to food processing, and upon entering host organisms, where osmotic adaptation can be associated with virulence. In this study, growth profiles, transcriptomics, and phenotypic, mutant, and single-cell analyses were used to explore the effects of hyperosmotic stress exposure on C. jejuni. Increased growth inhibition correlated with increased osmotic concentration, with both ionic and nonionic stressors inhibiting growth at 0.620 total osmol liter−1. C. jejuni adaptation to a range of osmotic stressors and concentrations was accompanied by severe filamentation in subpopulations, with microscopy indicating septum formation and phenotypic diversity between individual cells in a filament. Population heterogeneity was also exemplified by the bifurcation of colony morphology into small and large variants on salt stress plates. Flow cytometry of C. jejuni harboring green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the ATP synthase promoter likewise revealed bimodal subpopulations under hyperosmotic stress. We also identified frequent hyperosmotic stress-sensitive variants within the clonal wild-type population propagated on standard laboratory medium. Microarray analysis following hyperosmotic upshift revealed enhanced expression of heat shock genes and genes encoding enzymes for synthesis of potential osmoprotectants and cross-protective induction of oxidative stress genes. The capsule export gene kpsM was also upregulated, and an acapsular mutant was defective for growth under hyperosmotic stress. For C. jejuni, an organism lacking most conventional osmotic response factors, these data suggest an unusual hyperosmotic stress response, including likely “bet-hedging” survival strategies relying on the presence of stress-fit individuals in a heterogeneous population. PMID:22961853

  19. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in farmed hares (Lepus europaeus).

    PubMed

    Santaniello, Antonio; Dipineto, Ludovico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mariani, Ugo; Fioretti, Alessandro; Menna, Lucia Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 118/240 (49.2%) rectal swabs from commercially farmed hares (Lepus europaeus) in southern Italy. Using multiplex PCR, Campylobacter coli was identified in 118/118 (100%) positive samples, while 17/118 (14.4%) positive samples were also positive for Campylobacter jejuni. Adult hares had a higher prevalence of infection with Campylobacter spp. than juvenile hares. PMID:25168717

  20. RECOVERY OF CAMPYLOBACTER FROM COMMERCIAL BROILER HATCHERY TRAYLINERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has identified Campylobacter as one of the leading causes of foodborne illness. Poultry and poultry products have been identified as a major source of Campylobacter in human infections. Although many risk factors that contribute to Campylobacter levels have been identified, preci...

  1. Chemotactic behavior of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed Central

    Hugdahl, M B; Beery, J T; Doyle, M P

    1988-01-01

    The chemotactic behavior of Campylobacter jejuni was determined in the presence of different amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, and preparations and constituents of mucin and bile. L-Fucose was the only carbohydrate and L-aspartate, L-cysteine, L-glutamate, and L-serine were the only amino acids producing a chemotactic (positive) response. Several salts of organic acids, including pyruvate, succinate, fumarate, citrate, malate, and alpha-ketoglutarate, were also chemoattractants, as were bile (beef, chicken, and oxgall) and mucin (bovine gallbladder and hog gastric). Most constituents of bile tested individually were chemorepellents, but the mucin component was chemoattractant. The chemotactic behavior of C. jejuni toward L-fucose, a constituent of both bile and mucin, may be an important factor in the affinity of the organism for the gallbladder and intestinal tract. Images PMID:3372020

  2. Campylobacter recovery from external and internal organs of commercial broiler carcass prior to scalding.

    PubMed

    Berrang, M E; Buhr, R J; Cason, J A

    2000-02-01

    Campylobacter is a human pathogen commonly found on live broilers and processed carcasses. To plan effective intervention strategies, it would be helpful to know which Campylobacter populations are associated with the external and internal organs of broilers. Six carcasses were collected after exiting the bleed tunnel at a commercial broiler plant on each of three visits (n = 18). Carcasses were placed individually into sterile plastic bags, sealed, and covered with ice for transport to the laboratory. Five locations were sampled aseptically from each carcass: breast feathers (hand picked from the sternal tracts); breast skin, including the sternal tracts; crop; ceca; and colon. Samples included adhering contamination or lumen contents and were covered with phosphate-buffered saline and blended. Serial dilutions were made for examination of Campylobacter, coliform, Escherichia coli, and total aerobic bacterial populations. Average sample weights (grams) were as follows: feathers, 1.5; skin, 6.5; crop, 5.1; ceca, 7.8; and colon, 3.1. Campylobacter populations (mean log10 colony-forming units per gram of sample) found were feathers, 5.4; skin, 3.8; crop, 4.7; ceca, 7.3; and colon, 7.2. Coliform/E. coli populations observed were feathers, 6.4/6.0; skin, 5.3/4.9; crop, 4.3/3.7; ceca, 6.6/6.2; and colon, 5.8/5.3. Total aerobic bacterial populations found were feathers, 7.9; skin, 7.1; crop, 5.8; ceca, 6.8; and colon, 6.4. On a per gram basis, ceca and colon are the internal organs that if ruptured could cause the highest number of Campylobacter to be leaked onto the carcass. The crop also contained more Campylobacter per gram than did the skin, and if compromised may increase the numbers on the surface of the carcass. However, even with no contamination from an internal organ, a substantial population of Campylobacter is already resident on broiler skin as the carcass enters the early stages of processing. PMID:10735759

  3. The impact of environmental conditions on Campylobacter jejuni survival in broiler faeces and litter

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Shaun; Meade, Joseph; Gibbons, James; McGill, Kevina; Bolton, Declan; Whyte, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial food-borne pathogen within the European Union, and poultry meat is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans. However, there is limited knowledge about how this organism persists in broiler litter and faeces. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a number of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and oxygen, on Campylobacter survival in both broiler litter and faeces. Materials and methods Used litter was collected from a Campylobacter-negative broiler house after final depopulation and fresh faeces were collected from transport crates. Samples were confirmed as Campylobacter negative according to modified ISO methods for veterinary samples. Both sample matrices were inoculated with 9 log10 CFU/ml C. jejuni and incubated under high (≥85%) and low (≤70%) relative humidity conditions at three different temperatures (20°C, 25°C, and 30°C) under both aerobic and microaerophilic atmospheres. Inoculated litter samples were then tested for Campylobacter concentrations at time zero and every 2 hours for 12 hours, while faecal samples were examined at time zero and every 24 hours for 120 hours. A two-tailed t-test assuming unequal variance was used to compare mean Campylobacter concentrations in samples under the various temperature, humidity, and atmospheric conditions. Results and discussion C. jejuni survived significantly longer (P≤0.01) in faeces, with a minimum survival time of 48 hours, compared with 4 hours in used broiler litter. C. jejuni survival was significantly enhanced at 20°C in all environmental conditions in both sample matrices tested compared with survival at 25°C and 30°C. In general, survival was greater in microaerophilic compared with aerobic conditions in both sample matrices. Humidity, at the levels examined, did not appear to significantly impact C. jejuni survival in any sample matrix. The persistence of Campylobacter in broiler litter

  4. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the south of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Heriberto; Hitschfeld, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the South of Chile was established. Campylobacter were statistically more prevalent among beef cattle (35.9%) than among dairy cattle (21.3%), being C. jejuni the species most frequently isolated. PMID:24031386

  5. Comparative effect of thymol or its glucose conjugate, thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside, on Campylobacter in avian gut contents.

    PubMed

    Epps, Sharon V R; Harvey, Roger B; Byrd, J Allen; Petrujkić, Branko T; Sedej, Ivana; Beier, Ross C; Phillips, Timothy D; Hume, Michael E; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important human food-borne pathogen that can contaminate meat and poultry during processing. Consequently, strategies are sought to reduce the carriage of C. jejuni in food animals before they arrive at the abattoir. Thymol is a natural product that reduces survivability of Campylobacter in vitro, but its rapid absorption from the proximal alimentary tract limits its bactericidal efficacy in vivo. Thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside is more resistant to absorption than free thymol, but its administration to chickens has not been reported. In the present studies, 1 mM thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside was shown to exhibit near equal anti-Campylobacter activity as 1 mM thymol when incubated anaerobically in avian crop or cecal contents in vitro, resulting in reductions of 1.10-2.32 log10 colony forming units mL(-1) in C. jejuni concentrations after 24 h incubation. In a follow-up live animal study, oral administration of thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside, but not free thymol, significantly lowered (>10-fold) recovery of Campylobacter from the crop of market-aged broilers when compared to placebo-treated controls (n = 6 broilers/treatment). Neither thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside nor thymol affected recovery of Campylobacter from cecal contents of the treated broilers. These results indicate that rapid absorption or passage of free thymol from the crop precluded its anti-Campylobacter activity at this site and throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract. Conversely, lower recovery of Campylobacter from the crop of birds treated with thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside indicates this conjugate was retained and able to be hydrolyzed to biologically active free thymol at this site as intended, yet was not sufficiently protected to allow passage of efficacious amounts of the intact glycoside to the lower gut. Nevertheless, these results warrant further research to see if higher doses or encapsulation of thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside or similar glycosides may yield an

  6. Trisodium phosphate and sodium hypochlorite are more effective as antimicrobials against Campylobacter and Salmonella on duck as compared to chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Sarjit, Amreeta; Dykes, Gary A

    2015-06-16

    Little work has been reported on the use of commercial antimicrobials against foodborne pathogens on duck meat. We investigated the effectiveness of trisodium phosphate (TSP) and sodium hypochlorite (SH) as antimicrobial treatments against Campylobacter and Salmonella on duck meat under simulated commercial water chilling conditions. The results were compared to the same treatments on well-studied chicken meat. A six strain Campylobacter or Salmonella cocktail was inoculated (5 ml) at two dilution levels (10(4) and 10(8) cfu/ml) onto 25 g duck or chicken meat with skin and allowed to attach for 10 min. The meat was exposed to three concentrations of pH adjusted TSP (8, 10 and 12% (w/v), pH 11.5) or SH (40, 50 and 60 ppm, pH 5.5) in 30 ml water under simulated spin chiller conditions (4 °C, agitation) for 10 min. In a parallel experiment the meat was placed in the antimicrobial treatments before inoculation and bacterial cocktails were added to the meat after the antimicrobial solution was removed while all other parameters were maintained. Untreated controls and controls using water were included in all experiments. Bacterial numbers were determined on Campylobacter blood-free selective agar and Mueller Hinton agar or xylose deoxycholate agar and tryptone soya agar using the thin agar layer method for Campylobacter and Salmonella, respectively. All TSP concentrations significantly (p<0.05) reduced numbers of Campylobacter (~1.2-6.4 log cfu/cm(2)) and Salmonella (~0.4-6.6 log cfu/cm(2)) on both duck and chicken meat. On duck meat, numbers of Campylobacter were less than the limit of detection at higher concentrations of TSP and numbers of Salmonella were less than the limit of detection at all concentrations of TSP except one. On chicken meat, numbers of Campylobacter and Salmonella were less than the limit of detection only at the lower inoculum level and higher TSP concentrations. By contrast only some of the concentrations of SH significantly (p<0.05) reduced

  7. The impact of biosecurity and partial depopulation on Campylobacter prevalence in Irish broiler flocks with differing levels of hygiene and economic performance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Shaun; Messam, Locksley L. McV.; Meade, Joseph; Gibbons, James; McGill, Kevina; Bolton, Declan; Whyte, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial food-borne pathogen within the European Union (EU), and poultry meat is the primary route for transmission to humans. Material and methods This study examined the impact of partial depopulation (thinning), season, and farm performance (economic, hygiene, and biosecurity) on Campylobacter prevalence in Irish broilers over a 13-month period. Ten caecal samples were taken per flock, for a total of 211 flocks from 23 farms during the duration of the study. Campylobacter was isolated and enumerated according to modified published ISO methods for veterinary samples. Biosecurity was evaluated through a questionnaire based on risk factors for Campylobacter identified in previous studies. Hygiene compliance was assessed from audit records taken over the course of 1 year. All information relating to biosecurity and hygiene was obtained directly from the processing company. This was done to ensure farmers were unaware they were being monitored for Campylobacter prevalence and prevent changes to their behaviour. Results and discussion Farms with high performance were found to have significantly lower Campylobacter prevalence at first depopulation compared with low-performance farms across all seasons (P≤0.01). Peak Campylobacter levels were observed during the summer season at first thin in both the high- and low-performance groups. Campylobacter prevalence was found to increase to ≥85% in both high- and low-performance farms across all seasons at final depopulation, suggesting that Campylobacter was introduced during the first depopulation. On low-performance farms, four biosecurity interventions were found to significantly reduce the odds of a flock being Campylobacter positive (physical step-over barrier OR=0.17, house-specific footwear OR=0.13, absence of water body within 0.5 km OR=0.13, two or more broiler houses on a farm OR=0.16), compared with farms without these interventions. For high-performance farms, no

  8. Prevalence, Haemolytic and Haemagglutination Activities and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Human Diarrhoeal Stools in Vhembe District, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Samie, A.; Ramalivhana, J.; Igumbor, E.O.; Obi, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter species are increasingly being recognized as agents of gastroenteritis worldwide. However, data on the pathogenic characteristics of the organism isolated in rural communities in South Africa are lacking. In this study, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. from diarrhoeal stools, haemolytic and haemagglutinating activities of the isolates, and antibiotic susceptibility profiles, including minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) patterns to different antibiotics, were determined using the standard microbiological techniques. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from individuals of all age-groups; however, the infection rate was higher among individuals aged less than two years (30.4%). Of 115 Campylobacter strains isolated, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis indicated that 98 (85%) were C. jejuni, while 17 (15%) were C. coli. Seventy-one (62%) of the strains showed haemolysis on human blood, and 80% agglutinated human blood, whereas 22.6% were β-lactamase-positive. Resistance to antimicrobials, such as erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, and fusidic acid, was high. Increased resistance to macrolide and quinolone antibiotics poses major risks for treatment failure. Haemolytic and haemagglutinating activities may be useful in preliminary characterization of pathogenic strains in settings where Campylobacter-associated infections are common. PMID:18402183

  9. Evaluating best practices for Campylobacter and Salmonella reduction in poultry processing plants.

    PubMed

    Wideman, N; Bailey, M; Bilgili, S F; Thippareddi, H; Wang, L; Bratcher, C; Sanchez-Plata, M; Singh, M

    2016-02-01

    Poultry processing plants in the United States were surveyed on their current Campylobacter and Salmonella control practices. Following surveys, data were collected to develop a baseline for prevalence rates of Salmonella and Campylobacter; then changes in practices were implemented and evaluated for improvements in pathogen control. Surveys were sent to the plant Quality Assurance managers to determine production levels, antimicrobial interventions, and current pathogen testing practices. Initial sampling was performed at 6 plants with similar production volumes, at sites that included carcass samples before any pre-evisceration intervention, after exiting the inside-outside bird washer (IOBW), after exiting the pre-chiller, after exiting the primary chiller, and after exiting any post-chill intervention, as well as a water sample from each scalder, pre-chiller, primary chiller, and post-chill dip tank or finishing chiller. Enumerations and enrichments were performed for Campylobacter and Salmonella. Following the baseline sampling, changes in practices were suggested for each plant and a second sampling was conducted to determine their effectiveness. Results demonstrated that peracetic acid (PAA) was the most effective (P < 0.05) antimicrobial currently in use. The use of a post-chill antimicrobial immersion tank and/or use of a cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) spray cabinet also displayed a further reduction in microbial levels (P < 0.05) when the primary chiller was not sufficient (P > 0.05). Microbial buildup in the immersion tanks demonstrates the need for effective cleaning, sanitation practices, and chiller maintenance to reduce contamination of poultry with Campylobacter and Salmonella. PMID:26574037

  10. Closely related Campylobacter jejuni strains from different sources reveal a generalist rather than a specialist lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are human intestinal pathogens of global importance. Zoonotic transmission from livestock animals or animal-derived food is the likely cause for most of these infections. However, little is known about their general and host-specific mechanisms of colonization, or virulence and pathogenicity factors. In certain hosts, Campylobacter species colonize persistently and do not cause disease, while they cause acute intestinal disease in humans. Results Here, we investigate putative host-specificity using phenotypic characterization and genome-wide analysis of genetically closely related C. jejuni strains from different sources. A collection of 473 fresh Campylobacter isolates from Germany was assembled between 2006 and 2010 and characterized using MLST. A subset of closely related C. jejuni strains of the highly prevalent sequence type ST-21 was selected from different hosts and isolation sources. PCR typing of strain-variable genes provided evidence that some genes differed between these strains. Furthermore, phenotypic variation of these strains was tested using the following criteria: metabolic variation, protein expression patterns, and eukaryotic cell interaction. The results demonstrated remarkable phenotypic diversity within the ST-21 group, which however did not correlate with isolation source. Whole genome sequencing was performed for five ST-21 strains from chicken, human, bovine, and food sources, in order to gain insight into ST-21 genome diversity. The comparisons showed extensive genomic diversity, primarily due to recombination and gain of phage-related genes. By contrast, no genomic features associated with isolation source or host were identified. Conclusions The genome information and phenotypic data obtained in vitro and in a chicken infection model provided little evidence of fixed adaptation to a specific host. Instead, the dominant C. jejuni ST-21 appeared to be characterized by phenotypic

  11. Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter from Retail Meats and Chicken Carcass Rinses: Results of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS): 2002-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background - Campylobacter is an important foodborne pathogen in the United States and serves as a commensal-like bacterium in many animal species. Illness in humans is thought to occur through cross-contamination during preparation of foods, particularly poultry products. The U.S. National Antimi...

  12. Campylobacter

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2020 and Food Safety Food Safety Modernization Act File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  13. Pathogen Prevalence From Traditional Cage and Free Range Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overview: A study was conducted to determine if differences in pathogen prevalence occurred between a sister flock of conventional cage and free range laying hens. Both environmental and egg microbiology was monitored throughout 20 – 79 weeks of age. Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Listeria preval...

  14. Zoonotic transfer of pathogens from animals to farm products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food animals contain a microbial population that lives on and within them, but this commensal microbial population can be penetrated by foodborne pathogenic bacteria that live asymptomatically in the animal. Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Campylobacte...

  15. Hyperspectral Imaging for Detecting Pathogens Grown on Agar Plates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper is concerned with the development of a hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting and identifying one of the most common foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter. Direct plating using agars is an effective tool for laboratory tests and analyses of microorganisms. The morphology (size, growth...

  16. Campylobacter upsaliensis: Waiting in the Wings

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, Billy; Chan, Voon Loong; Sherman, Philip

    1998-01-01

    Despite strong epidemiological evidence supporting an important role for Campylobacter upsaliensis as a human enteropathogen, it remains relatively unknown in the realm of clinical microbiology. Clinical studies indicate that infection with this organism usually is associated with benign self-limiting diarrhea. However, more serious illnesses, including spontaneous abortion and hemolytic-uremic syndrome, recently have been associated with human infections. Understanding of the virulence properties and molecular biology of C. upsaliensis is beginning to evolve. There is now a pressing need for controlled, prospective epidemiologic studies in addition to further in-depth investigation of the pathogenesis of this enteric campylobacter to more precisely define its role in human disease. Furthermore, since C. upsaliensis is sensitive to the antibiotics routinely used in Campylobacter selective media, widespread appreciation of the importance of this organism will rely on the development of widely applicable, effective techniques for its isolation. PMID:9665977

  17. Septic abortion caused by Campylobacter jejuni bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Skuhala, Tomislava; Škerk, Višnja; Markotić, Alemka; Bukovski, Suzana; Desnica, Boško

    2016-08-01

    A 20-year-old female patient, 14 weeks pregnant, was admitted to hospital with anamnestic and clinical features of acute pyelonephritis. Clinical signs of septic abortion developed and after obstetric examination the therapy was changed to ampicillin, gentamicin and clindamycin. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from blood cultures. Pathohistological findings confirmed diagnosis of purulent chorioamnionitis. After 2 weeks of ciprofloxacin administration the patient fully recovered. Campylobacter jejuni was not isolated from stool culture and no signs of acute enteritis were registered during the illness. Invasive forms of Campylobacter disease without enteritis are not unusual in immunocompromised hosts but they are restricted to C. fetus rather than C. jejuni isolates. PMID:25872616

  18. [Characterization of Campylobacter spp. from wild birds].

    PubMed

    Glünder, G

    1989-02-01

    Bacteria of the genus Campylobacter were isolated from 28 Rooks (Corvus frugilegus), 1 Red Kite (Milvus milvus), 1 Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus), 1 Coot (Fulica atra), 1 Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) and 1 Northern Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Altogether, C. jejuni biovar 1, was isolated 19x, C. jejuni biovar 2 8x and C. coli 5x. Among C. jejuni biovar 1 and 2 there were 5 isolates tolerating a content of 1.5% NaCl in the medium. H2S proof of 3 C. jejuni biovar 2 and 1 C. coli isolates resulted positive or negative dependent on incubation time of the used bacterial inoculum. Concerning Rooks the findings indicate that nestlings are more often infected with campylobacters than older birds. Only 1 campylobacter isolate could be recovered from altogether 54 birds of prey although 16 Buzzards (Buteo buteo) were investigated as nestlings. PMID:2930449

  19. A microarray approach for simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A pathogen detection microarray was developed for simultaneous detection of the four most prominent foodborne pathogens including Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni. The approach utilized 14 species-specific gene targets to design a variety...

  20. Food safety - mitigating pathogens in beef cattle: What can producers do?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle are colonized by a complex microbiome within their gastrointestinal tract and on their skin/hide which can be colonized by foodborne pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella, Campylobacter, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). In-plant pathogen reduction strategies reduce direct foodborne il...

  1. Quantification of bacterial indicators and zoonotic pathogens in dairy wastewater ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zoonotic pathogens in land-applied dairy wastewaters are a potential health risk. The abundance and occurrence of 10 pathogens and 3 fecal indicators was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in 30 dairy wastewaters from southern Idaho. Samples tested positive for Campylobacter jejuni, s...

  2. Invasion Assays and Genomotyping to Investigate Differences in Virulence of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Iceland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Epithelial cell invasion is thought to be essential for Campylobacter spp. infection. Previous invasion studies with intestinal epithelial cells revealed that the ability of different Campylobacter jejuni isolates to inva...

  3. Whole-Genome Sequences of Agricultural, Host-Associated Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni Strains

    PubMed Central

    Altermann, Eric; Olson, Jonathan; Wray, Gregory Allan; Siletzky, Robin M.; Kathariou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    We report here the genome sequences of four agricultural, multidrug-resistant Campylobacter spp.: C. coli 11601 and C. jejuni 11601MD, isolated from turkey cecum and jejunum, respectively, and C. coli 6067 and C. coli 6461, isolated from turkey-house water and swine feces, respectively. The genomes provide insights on Campylobacter antimicrobial resistance and host adaptations. PMID:27540063

  4. Whole-Genome Sequences of Agricultural, Host-Associated Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni Strains.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Vikrant; Altermann, Eric; Olson, Jonathan; Wray, Gregory Allan; Siletzky, Robin M; Kathariou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    We report here the genome sequences of four agricultural, multidrug-resistant Campylobacter spp.: C. coli 11601 and C. jejuni 11601MD, isolated from turkey cecum and jejunum, respectively, and C. coli 6067 and C. coli 6461, isolated from turkey-house water and swine feces, respectively. The genomes provide insights on Campylobacter antimicrobial resistance and host adaptations. PMID:27540063

  5. A survey of Salmonella spp and Campylobacter spp in dairy goat faeces and bulk tank milk in the Murcia region of Spain

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella spp and Campylobacter spp in faeces samples from 222 healthy Murciano-Granadina dairy goats reared on 12 farms in Spain and in samples of bulk tank milk from 11 of those herds. Neither Salmonella spp nor Campylobacter spp were isolated from any of the samples. Our results suggest that, under the management practices applied to this breed in Spain, Murciano-Granadina goats are not likely to be a significant reservoir for these food-borne pathogens. PMID:21851684

  6. Thermophilic campylobacters in surface waters around Lancaster, UK: negative correlation with Campylobacter infections in the community.

    PubMed

    Jones, K; Betaieb, M; Telford, D R

    1990-11-01

    The incidence of campylobacter enteritis in Lancaster City Health Authority is three times the UK average for similar sizes of population and has marked seasonal peaks in May and June. Environmental monitoring of surface waters around Lancaster showed that thermophilic campylobacters were absent from drinking water from the fells and from the clean upper reaches of the River Conder but were present in the main rivers entering Morecambe Bay, the lower reaches of the River Conder, the Lancaster canal, and seawater from the Lune estuary and Morecambe Bay. All the surface waters tested showed the same seasonality, namely, higher numbers in the winter months and low numbers or none in May, June and July. The absence of thermophilic campylobacters in the summer months may be due to high sunshine levels because experiments on the effects of light showed that campylobacters in sewage effluent and seawater were eliminated within 60 and 30 min of daylight respectively but survived for 24 h in darkness. As the concentrations of campylobacters in surface waters were at their lowest precisely at the time of peak infections in the community it is unlikely that surface waters form Lancaster's reservoir of campylobacter infection for the community. PMID:2276990

  7. Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schets, Franciska M; Blaak, Hetty; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A; de Boer, Albert; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Mossong, Joel; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-09-15

    Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contamination with Campylobacter is largely unknown. In the Netherlands, the massive poultry culling to control the 2003 avian influenza epidemic coincided with a 44-50% reduction in human campylobacteriosis cases in the culling areas, suggesting substantial environment-mediated spread of poultry-borne Campylobacter. We inferred the origin of surface water Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains in Luxembourg and the Netherlands, as defined by multilocus sequence typing, by comparison to strains from poultry, pigs, ruminants, and wild birds, using the asymmetric island model for source attribution. Most Luxembourgish water strains were attributed to wild birds (61.0%), followed by poultry (18.8%), ruminants (15.9%), and pigs (4.3%); whereas the Dutch water strains were mainly attributed to poultry (51.7%), wild birds (37.3%), ruminants (9.8%), and pigs (1.2%). Attributions varied over seasons and surface water types, and geographical variation in the relative contribution of poultry correlated with the magnitude of poultry production at either the national or provincial level, suggesting that environmental dissemination of Campylobacter from poultry farms and slaughterhouses can be substantial in poultry-rich regions. PMID:27244295

  8. Multiplex Real-Time PCR for Detection of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella

    PubMed Central

    Barletta, F.; Mercado, E. H.; Lluque, A.; Ruiz, J.; Cleary, T. G.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea can be classified based on its clinical presentation as noninflammatory or inflammatory disease. In developing countries, among inflammatory diarrhea cases, Shigella is the most common cause, followed by Campylobacter and Salmonella. Because the time frame in which treatment choices must be made is short and conventional stool cultures lack good sensitivity, there is a need for a rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive detection technique. The purpose of our study was to develop a multiplex real-time PCR procedure to simultaneously identify Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp. Primers were designed to amplify the invA, ipaH, and 16S rRNA genes simultaneously in a single reaction to detect Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter, respectively. Using this approach, we correctly identified 102 of 103 strains of the targeted enteropathogens and 34 of 34 other pathogens. The melting temperatures were 82.96 ± 0.05°C for invA, 85.56 ± 0.28°C for ipaH, and 89.21 ± 0.24°C for 16S rRNA. The limit of accurate quantification for the assay in stool samples was 104 CFU g−1; however, the limit of detection was 103 CFU g−1. This assay is a simple, rapid, inexpensive, and reliable system for the practical detection of these three enteropathogens in clinical specimens. PMID:23761159

  9. Campylobacter jejuni survival within human epithelial cells is enhanced by the secreted protein CiaI

    PubMed Central

    Buelow, Daelynn R.; Christensen, Jeffrey E.; Neal-McKinney, Jason M.; Konkel, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Although it is known that Campylobacter jejuni invade the cells that line the human intestinal tract, the bacterial proteins that enable this pathogen to survive within Campylobacter-containing vacuoles (CCV) have not been identified. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of a protein that we termed CiaI for Campylobacter invasion antigen involved in Intracellular survival. We show that CiaI harbors an amino-terminal type III secretion (T3S) sequence and is secreted from C. jejuni through the flagellar T3S system. In addition, the ciaI mutant was impaired in intracellular survival when compared to a wild-type strain, as judged by the gentamicin-protection assay. Fluorescence microscopy examination of epithelial cells infected with the C. jejuni ciaI mutant revealed that the CCV were more frequently co-localized with Cathepsin D (a lysosomal marker) than the CCV in cells infected with a C. jejuni wild-type strain. Ectopic expression of CiaI-GFP in epithelial cells yielded a punctate phenotype not observed with the other C. jejuni genes, and this phenotype was abolished by mutation of a dileucine motif located in the carboxy-terminus of the protein. Based on the data, we conclude that CiaI contributes to the ability of C. jejuni to survive within epithelial cells. PMID:21435039

  10. L-fucose influences chemotaxis and biofilm formation in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Ritika; Nothaft, Harald; Garber, Jolene; Xin Kin, Lin; Stahl, Martin; Flint, Annika; van Vliet, Arnoud H M; Stintzi, Alain; Szymanski, Christine M

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are zoonotic pathogens once considered asaccharolytic, but are now known to encode pathways for glucose and fucose uptake/metabolism. For C. jejuni, strains with the fuc locus possess a competitive advantage in animal colonization models. We demonstrate that this locus is present in > 50% of genome-sequenced strains and is prevalent in livestock-associated isolates of both species. To better understand how these campylobacters sense nutrient availability, we examined biofilm formation and chemotaxis to fucose. C. jejuni NCTC11168 forms less biofilms in the presence of fucose, although its fucose permease mutant (fucP) shows no change. In a newly developed chemotaxis assay, both wild-type and the fucP mutant are chemotactic towards fucose. C. jejuni 81-176 naturally lacks the fuc locus and is unable to swim towards fucose. Transfer of the NCTC11168 locus into 81-176 activated fucose uptake and chemotaxis. Fucose chemotaxis also correlated with possession of the pathway for C. jejuni RM1221 (fuc+) and 81116 (fuc-). Systematic mutation of the NCTC11168 locus revealed that Cj0485 is necessary for fucose metabolism and chemotaxis. This study suggests that components for fucose chemotaxis are encoded within the fuc locus, but downstream signals only in fuc + strains, are involved in coordinating fucose availability with biofilm development. PMID:27145048

  11. Selected Pathogens of Concern to Industrial Food Processors: Infectious, Toxigenic, Toxico-Infectious, Selected Emerging Pathogenic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behling, Robert G.; Eifert, Joseph; Erickson, Marilyn C.; Gurtler, Joshua B.; Kornacki, Jeffrey L.; Line, Erick; Radcliff, Roy; Ryser, Elliot T.; Stawick, Bradley; Yan, Zhinong

    This chapter, written by several contributing authors, is devoted to discussing selected microbes of contemporary importance. Microbes from three categories are described by the following: (1) infectious invasive agents like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter; (2) toxigenic pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Clostridium botulinum; and (3) toxico-infectious agents like enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens. In addition, emerging pathogens, like Cronobacter (Enterobacter) sakazakii, Arcobacter spp., and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis are also described.

  12. Prevalence of Virulence/Stress Genes in Campylobacter jejuni from Chicken Meat Sold in Qatari Retail Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Behnke, Jerzy M.; Sharma, Aarti; Bearden, Rebecca; Al-Banna, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Chicken meat from the shelves of supermarkets in Qatar was tested for the presence of Campylobacter spp. and the presence of five virulence genes (htrB, cdtB, clpP, cadF and ciaB) was assessed in isolates. Forty eight percent of the chickens provided for supermarkets by Saudi (53%) and Qatari (45.9%) producers were found to be contaminated and the most important factor affecting the overall prevalence of contaminated chickens was the store from which chicken samples originated. Variation in prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken meat from different stores was evident even when the same producer supplied the three stores in our survey. Differences in the prevalence and in the combinations of virulence genes in isolates that can and cannot grow in a classic maintenance medium (Karmali) were identified, providing a starting point for linking presence/absence of particular virulence genes with actual in vivo virulence and pathogenicity. Because of the relatively low infective doses of Campylobacter that are required to initiate infection in humans, it will be important to explore further the relationships we identified between certain Campylobacter virulence genes and their capacity for survival in poultry meat, and hence their contribution to the incidence of campylobacteriosis. PMID:27258021

  13. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus in homosexual males.

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, H R; McIntyre, L

    1983-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus was isolated from the stools of two homosexual males. One was asymptomatic at the time of isolation. The other presented with diarrhea. Both isolates were initially grown at 42 degrees C. This organism should be included among the list of organisms that are found in homosexual males. PMID:6630480

  14. Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, metabolism, pathogenesis and resorvoirs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illness worldwide. The emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them...

  15. Campylobacter: stress responses and biofilm formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of Campylobacter jejuni to tolerate stresses, including heat and acid stress, in the presence and absence of a competitive microflora was investigated. D-values showed that C. jejuni 81-176 parent and luxS mutant strains were inactivated more rapidly when in the presence of a competitiv...

  16. Campylobacter can remain in various organs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Day old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and inoculated either orally or intracloacally with a characterized strain of Campylobacter jejuni. After 1 hr, 1day and 1wk post inoculation, the thymus, spleen, liver/gallbladder, bursa of Fabricius and ceca were aseptically removed ...

  17. Human disease associated with "Campylobacter upsaliensis" (catalase-negative or weakly positive Campylobacter species) in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Patton, C M; Shaffer, N; Edmonds, P; Barrett, T J; Lambert, M A; Baker, C; Perlman, D M; Brenner, D J

    1989-01-01

    Catalase-negative or weakly positive (CNW) thermotolerant campylobacteria, first isolated from dogs in 1983, were recently recognized as a new species, "Campylobacter upsaliensis," but their association with human illness has not been established. Twelve human isolates received at the Centers for Disease Control between 1980 and 1986 were identified as CNW campylobacteria by biochemical tests, cellular fatty acid composition, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Eleven CNW Campylobacter strains tested by DNA-DNA hybridization (hydroxyapatite method) were all highly related and were related to two "C. upsaliensis" strains at the species level (86% under optimal conditions and 76% under stringent conditions). Clinical information was obtained for 11 human isolates from three stool and eight blood specimens. They were isolated from four female and seven male patients 6.5 months to 83 years of age residing in 10 different states. The patients had a wide spectrum of illnesses. The stool isolates were obtained from two previously healthy persons during episodes of acute gastroenteritis and from one immunocompromised patient with persistent diarrhea and fever. The blood isolates were obtained from two infants with fever and respiratory symptoms; a young woman with a ruptured ectopic pregnancy; three elderly men with underlying chronic diseases; and two immunocompromised adults. In a bactericidal assay to assess sensitivity to serum, seven of eight blood isolates showed some resistance to killing by pooled normal human serum. These observations suggest that "C. upsaliensis" is a potential human pathogen associated with both gastroenteritis and bacteremia in normal hosts and with opportunistic infection in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:2913038

  18. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection.

    PubMed

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-03-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks) in Denmark. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-positive flocks was significantly reduced, from 41.4% during 2003-2005 (before fly screens) to 10.3% in 2006-2009 (with fly screens). In fly screen houses, Campylobacter spp. prevalence did not peak during the summer. Nationally, prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-positive flocks in Denmark could have been reduced by an estimated 77% during summer had fly screens been part of biosecurity practices. These results imply that fly screens might help reduce prevalence of campylobacteriosis among humans, which is closely linked to Campylobacter spp. prevalence among broiler chicken flocks. PMID:23628089

  19. Transmigration route of Campylobacter jejuni across polarized intestinal epithelial cells: paracellular, transcellular or both?

    PubMed

    Backert, Steffen; Boehm, Manja; Wessler, Silja; Tegtmeyer, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Intact intercellular junctions and cellular matrix contacts are crucial structural components for the formation and maintenance of epithelial barrier functions in humans to control the commensal flora and protect against intruding microbes. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most important zoonotic pathogens causing food-borne gastroenteritis and potentially more severe diseases such as reactive arthritis or Guillain-Barré syndrome. Crossing the intestinal epithelial barrier and host cell invasion by C. jejuni are considered to represent the primary reasons of gut tissue damage in humans and various animal model systems including monkeys, piglets, rabbits, hamsters and ferrets. C. jejuni is also able to invade underlying tissues such as the lamina propria, can enter the bloodstream, and possibly reach distinct organs such as spleen, liver or mesenteric lymph nodes. However, the molecular mechanisms as well as major bacterial and host cell factors involved in these activities are poorly understood. Various models exist by which the pathogen can trigger its own transmigration across polarized intestinal epithelial cells in vitro, the paracellular and/or transcellular mechanism. Recent studies suggest that bacterial factors such as flagellum, serine protease HtrA and lipooligosaccharide LOS may play an active role in bacterial transmigration. Here we review our knowledge on transmigration of C. jejuni as well as some other Campylobacter species, and discuss the pros and cons for the route(s) taken to travel across polarized epithelial cell monolayers. These studies provide fresh insights into the infection strategies employed by this important pathogen. PMID:24079544

  20. Transmigration route of Campylobacter jejuni across polarized intestinal epithelial cells: paracellular, transcellular or both?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Intact intercellular junctions and cellular matrix contacts are crucial structural components for the formation and maintenance of epithelial barrier functions in humans to control the commensal flora and protect against intruding microbes. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most important zoonotic pathogens causing food-borne gastroenteritis and potentially more severe diseases such as reactive arthritis or Guillain–Barré syndrome. Crossing the intestinal epithelial barrier and host cell invasion by C. jejuni are considered to represent the primary reasons of gut tissue damage in humans and various animal model systems including monkeys, piglets, rabbits, hamsters and ferrets. C. jejuni is also able to invade underlying tissues such as the lamina propria, can enter the bloodstream, and possibly reach distinct organs such as spleen, liver or mesenteric lymph nodes. However, the molecular mechanisms as well as major bacterial and host cell factors involved in these activities are poorly understood. Various models exist by which the pathogen can trigger its own transmigration across polarized intestinal epithelial cells in vitro, the paracellular and/or transcellular mechanism. Recent studies suggest that bacterial factors such as flagellum, serine protease HtrA and lipooligosaccharide LOS may play an active role in bacterial transmigration. Here we review our knowledge on transmigration of C. jejuni as well as some other Campylobacter species, and discuss the pros and cons for the route(s) taken to travel across polarized epithelial cell monolayers. These studies provide fresh insights into the infection strategies employed by this important pathogen. PMID:24079544

  1. Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni as a cause of gastroenteritis in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed Central

    Ringertz, S; Rockhill, R C; Ringertz, O; Sutomo, A

    1980-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni was isolated from the feces of 15 out of 144 (10%) children (0 to 9 years old) and 4 out of 251 (2%) adults with gastroenteritis and was found together with another enteric pathogen in 2 of the children and in all 4 adults. It was isolated from 2 out of 7 (28%) children and 3 out of 160 (2%) adults with suspected typhoid fever. The bacterium was recovered from 3 out of 4 orphanage children with diarrhea and from 1 without symptoms and was isolated from only 1 child in a control group of 221 persons. PMID:7419706

  2. Darkling Beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) and Their Larvae as Potential Vectors for the Transfer of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica Serovar Paratyphi B Variant Java between Successive Broiler Flocks ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hazeleger, Wilma C.; Bolder, Nico M.; Beumer, Rijkelt R.; Jacobs-Reitsma, Wilma F.

    2008-01-01

    Broiler flocks often become infected with Campylobacter and Salmonella, and the exact contamination routes are still not fully understood. Insects like darkling beetles and their larvae may play a role in transfer of the pathogens between consecutive cycles. In this study, several groups of beetles and their larvae were artificially contaminated with a mixture of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B Variant Java and three C. jejuni strains and kept for different time intervals before they were fed to individually housed chicks. Most inoculated insects were positive for Salmonella and Campylobacter just before they were fed to the chicks. However, Campylobacter could not be isolated from insects that were kept for 1 week before they were used to mimic an empty week between rearing cycles. All broilers fed insects that were inoculated with pathogens on the day of feeding showed colonization with Campylobacter and Salmonella at levels of 50 to 100%. Transfer of both pathogens by groups of insects that were kept for 1 week before feeding to the chicks was also observed, but at lower levels. Naturally contaminated insects that were collected at a commercial broiler farm colonized broilers at low levels as well. In conclusion, the fact that Salmonella and Campylobacter can be transmitted via beetles and their larvae to flocks in successive rearing cycles indicates that there should be intensive control programs for exclusion of these insects from broiler houses. PMID:18791034

  3. Isolation of Campylobacter from circulating blood of commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Richardson, L J; Cox, N A; Buhr, R J; Harrison, M A

    2011-09-01

    Campylobacter spp. are present in organs and tissues of broiler chickens but the dissemination route is unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine Campylobacter prevalence within circulating blood of commercial broilers. Broilers were acquired from 19 flocks originating from three commercial poultry processing companies. Using aseptic blood collection techniques, 5 ml of circulating blood was collected from each bird and the sample analyzed for Campylobacter. The Campylobacter colonization status of each bird was determined by aseptically sampling and analyzing the ceca. Campylobacter was recovered from 58% (11/19) of flocks sampled. From the 248 total birds sampled, 12% and 46% of the birds had Campylobacter in the blood and ceca, respectively. This study documents Campylobacter prevalence in the circulating blood of commercially raised broilers. Campylobacter presence in the circulatory system may indicate the path used by the organism for rapid dissemination to organs and tissues. From a processing viewpoint, Campylobacter presence in circulating blood of market-age broilers may increase the likelihood of cross-contamination between birds during slaughter. PMID:22017033

  4. Update on the burden of Campylobacter in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Platts-Mills, James A.; Kosek, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent work has added to the understanding of the burden of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter strains in children living in the developing world. Recent findings New diagnostic modalities and carefully-designed field studies are demonstrating that the burden of Campylobacter diarrhea in children in the developing world has been greatly underestimated. Furthermore, there is emerging recognition of an association between Campylobacter infection and malnutrition. Important progress has been made towards a Campylobacter jejuni vaccine. Finally, evidence of antibiotic resistance continues to be an important issue that is accentuated by the realization that the burden of disease is greater than previously recognized. Summary Additional research is needed to refine our understanding of the epidemiology of Campylobacter infections in developing countries, in particular to improve estimates of the burden of Campylobacter diarrhea in endemic settings, to determine the impact of recurrent Campylobacter infections on child development, and to describe the prevalence and clinical significance of non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter infections. Progressive antibiotic resistance of isolates argues for augmented and expanded control measures of antibiotics in livestock. Continued work in vaccine development is warranted as is the extension of data available on the serotypes related to burden in different areas of the world and the relationship of serotypes to disease severity. PMID:25023741

  5. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in pheasants (Phasianus colchicus).

    PubMed

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Gargiulo, Antonio; De Luca Bossa, Luigi M; Rinaldi, Laura; Borrelli, Luca; Menna, Lucia F; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2008-10-01

    The present study was undertaken with the aim to evaluate the prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in living pheasants in Italy. To achieve this goal, a total of 240 living pheasants, equally shared between female and male birds, were examined. Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. was isolated in 104 out of 204 (43.3%) living pheasants analysed. Campylobacter coli (100%) and Campylobacter jejuni (13.5%) were identified by polymerase chain reaction. Adult pheasants showed a significantly higher prevalence value (P < 0.05) than younger pheasants. PMID:18798025

  6. Biofiltration for stormwater harvesting: Comparison of Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli removal under normal and challenging operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasena, G. I.; Deletic, A.; McCarthy, D. T.

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of pathogen removal in stormwater biofilters (also known as stormwater bioretention systems or rain gardens) has predominately been determined using bacterial indicators, and the removal of reference pathogens in these systems has rarely been investigated. Furthermore, current understanding of indicator bacteria removal in these systems is largely built upon laboratory-scale work. This paper examines whether indicator organism removal from urban stormwater using biofilters in laboratory settings are representative of the removal of pathogens in field conditions, by studying the removal of Escherichia coli (a typical indicator microorganism) and Campylobacter spp. (a typical reference pathogen) from urban stormwater by two established field-scale biofilters. It was found that E. coli log reduction was higher than that of Campylobacter spp. in both biofilters, and that there was no correlation between E. coli and Campylobacter spp. log removal performance. This confirms that E. coli behaves significantly differently to this reference pathogen, reinforcing that single organisms should not be employed to understand faecal microorganism removal in urban stormwater treatment systems. The average reduction in E. coli from only one of the tested biofilters was able to meet the log reduction targets suggested in the current Australian stormwater harvesting guidelines for irrigating sports fields and golf courses. The difference in the performance of the two biofilters is likely a result of a number of design and operational factors; the most important being that the biofilter that did not meet the guidelines was tested using extremely high influent volumes and microbial concentrations, and long antecedent dry weather periods. As such, the E. coli removal performances identified in this study confirmed laboratory findings that inflow concentration and antecedent dry period impact overall microbial removal. In general, this paper emphasizes the need for the

  7. Genotypes and Antibiotic Resistances of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Domestic and Travel-Associated Human Cases

    PubMed Central

    Niederer, Lilian; Kuhnert, Peter; Egger, Ralph; Büttner, Sabina; Hächler, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) extended with flaB typing of 425 Campylobacter jejuni isolates and 42 Campylobacter coli isolates revealed quite a low overlap between human isolates from travel-associated and domestic cases in Switzerland. Men were more frequently affected by Campylobacter than women, but strains from women and, overall, from travel-associated cases showed mutations conferring quinolone resistance more frequently than strains from men and domestic cases, respectively. PMID:22020515

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli recovered from organic turkey farms in Germany.

    PubMed

    El-Adawy, Hosny; Ahmed, Marwa F E; Hotzel, Helmut; Tomaso, Herbert; Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois; Hartung, Joerg; Neubauer, Heinrich; Hafez, Hafez M

    2015-11-01

    The popularity of food produced from animals kept under an organic regimen has increased in recent years. In Germany, turkey meat consumption has increased. Despite several studies assessing the susceptibility of campylobacters to various antibiotics in poultry, no sufficient data exists regarding the antimicrobial resistance of campylobacters in organic-reared turkeys. This study provides information about antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter isolated from turkeys reared on organic farms in Germany. Ninety-six Campylobacter strains (41 C. jejuni and 55 C. coli) were isolated from different free-range turkey flocks. In vitro antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done using a broth microdilution test, and the presence of resistance genes to antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, tetracycline) was investigated. All Campylobacter isolates from organic turkeys (n = 96) were phenotypically sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin, streptomycin, and chloramphenicol. In this study, the antibiotic susceptibilities of C. jejuni to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and naladixic acid were 56.0%, 51.3%, and 56.0%, respectively. In contrast, 44.0%, 73.0%, and 74.6% of C. coli isolates were resistant to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid, respectively. Replacement of the Thr-86→Ile in the gyrA gene, and the presence of the tet(O) gene were the mainly identified resistance mechanisms against fluoroquinolones and tetracycline, respectively.These results also reinforce the need to develop strategies and implement specific control procedures to reduce the development of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:26371330

  9. Estimating Bacterial Pathogen Levels in New Zealand Bulk Tank Milk.

    PubMed

    Marshall, J C; Soboleva, T K; Jamieson, P; French, N P

    2016-05-01

    Zoonotic bacteria such as Campylobacter, Listeria, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli have been found in bulk tank milk in many countries, and the consumption of raw milk has been implicated in outbreaks of disease in New Zealand. Fecal contamination at milking is probably the most common source of pathogenic bacteria in bulk tank milk. Raw milk was collected from 80 New Zealand dairy farms during 2011 and 2012 and tested periodically for Campylobacter, E. coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella. Milk quality data such as coliform counts, total bacterial counts, and somatic cell counts also were collected. By treating the total bacterial count as a proxy for fecal contamination of milk and utilizing farm and animal level prevalence and shedding rates of each pathogen, a predictive model for the level of pathogenic bacteria in bulk tank raw milk was developed. The model utilizes a mixture distribution to combine the low level of contamination inherent in the milking process with isolated contamination events associated with significantly higher pathogen levels. By simulating the sampling and testing process, the predictive model was validated against the observed prevalence of each pathogen in the survey. The predicted prevalence was similar to the observed prevalence for E. coli O157 and Salmonella, although the predicted prevalence was higher than that observed in samples tested for Campylobacter. PMID:27296424

  10. Incidence and persistence of zoonotic bacterial and protozoan pathogens in a beef cattle feedlot runoff control - vegetative treatment system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining the survival of zoonotic pathogens in livestock manure and runoff is critical for understanding the environmental and public health risks associated with these wastes. The occurrence and persistence of the bacterial pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter spp. in a passive ...

  11. Population Genetics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Canine Campylobacter Isolates Collected before and after a Raw Feeding Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Roine, Johanna; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Hielm-Björkman, Anna; Kivistö, Rauni

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of consumers have become interested in feeding raw food for their pet dogs as opposed to commercial dry food, in the belief of health advantages. However, raw meat and internal organs, possibly contaminated by pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., may pose a risk of transmission of zoonoses to the pet owners. Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans but C. upsaliensis has also been associated with human disease. In this study we investigated the effect of different feeding strategies on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Finnish dogs. We further characterized the isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), whole-genome (wg) MLST and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Dogs were sampled before and after a feeding period consisting of commercial raw feed or dry pellet feed. Altogether 56% (20/36) of the dogs yielded at least one Campylobacter-positive fecal sample. C. upsaliensis was the major species detected from 39% of the dogs before and 30% after the feeding period. Two C. jejuni isolates were recovered, both from raw-fed dogs after the dietary regimen. The isolates represented the same genotype (ST-1326), suggesting a common infection source. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between the feeding strategies and Campylobacter spp. carriage. The global genealogy of MLST types of dog and human C. upsaliensis isolates revealed weakly clonal population structure as most STs were widely dispersed. Major antimicrobial resistance among C. upsaliensis isolates was against streptomycin (STR MIC > 4mg/l). Apart from that, all isolates were highly susceptible against the antimicrobials tested. Mutations were found in the genes rpsL or rpsL and rsmG in streptomycin resistant isolates. In conclusion, increasing trend to feed dogs with raw meat warrants more studies to evaluate the risk associated with raw feeding of pets in transmission of zoonoses to humans

  12. Molecular epidemiology and public health relevance of Campylobacter isolated from dairy cattle and European starlings in Ohio, USA.

    PubMed

    Sanad, Yasser M; Closs, Gary; Kumar, Anand; LeJeune, Jeffrey T; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2013-03-01

    Dairy cattle serve as a potential source for Campylobacter infection in humans. Outbreaks associated with consumption of either Campylobacter contaminated raw milk or contaminated milk after treatment were previously recorded in the United States. Further, starlings have been implicated in the spread of bacterial pathogens among livestock. Here, we determined the prevalence, genotypic, and phenotypic properties of Campylobacter isolated from fecal samples of dairy cattle and starlings found on the same establishment in northeastern Ohio. Campylobacter were detected in 83 (36.6%) and 57 (50.4%) out of 227 dairy and 113 starling fecal samples, respectively. Specifically, 79 C. jejuni, five C. coli, and two other Campylobacter spp. were isolated from dairy feces, while all isolates from starlings (n=57) were C. jejuni. Our results showed that the prevalence of C. jejuni in birds was significantly (p<0.01) higher than that in dairy cattle. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis showed that C. jejuni were genotypically diverse and host restricted; however, there were several shared genotypes between dairy cattle and starling isolates. Likewise, many shared clonal complexes (CC) between dairy cattle and starlings were observed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. As in humans, both in cattle and starlings, the CC 45 and CC 21 were the most frequently represented CCs. As previously reported, CC 177 and CC 682 were restricted to the bird isolates, while CC 42 was restricted to dairy cattle isolates. Further, two new sequence types (STs) were detected in C. jejuni from dairy cattle. Interestingly, cattle and starling C. jejuni showed high resistance to multiple antimicrobials, including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. In conclusion, our results highlight starlings as potential reservoirs for C. jejuni, and they may play an important role in the epidemiology of clinically important C. jejuni in dairy population. PMID:23259503

  13. Population Genetics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Canine Campylobacter Isolates Collected before and after a Raw Feeding Experiment.

    PubMed

    Olkkola, Satu; Kovanen, Sara; Roine, Johanna; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Hielm-Björkman, Anna; Kivistö, Rauni

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of consumers have become interested in feeding raw food for their pet dogs as opposed to commercial dry food, in the belief of health advantages. However, raw meat and internal organs, possibly contaminated by pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., may pose a risk of transmission of zoonoses to the pet owners. Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans but C. upsaliensis has also been associated with human disease. In this study we investigated the effect of different feeding strategies on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Finnish dogs. We further characterized the isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), whole-genome (wg) MLST and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Dogs were sampled before and after a feeding period consisting of commercial raw feed or dry pellet feed. Altogether 56% (20/36) of the dogs yielded at least one Campylobacter-positive fecal sample. C. upsaliensis was the major species detected from 39% of the dogs before and 30% after the feeding period. Two C. jejuni isolates were recovered, both from raw-fed dogs after the dietary regimen. The isolates represented the same genotype (ST-1326), suggesting a common infection source. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between the feeding strategies and Campylobacter spp. carriage. The global genealogy of MLST types of dog and human C. upsaliensis isolates revealed weakly clonal population structure as most STs were widely dispersed. Major antimicrobial resistance among C. upsaliensis isolates was against streptomycin (STR MIC > 4 mg/l). Apart from that, all isolates were highly susceptible against the antimicrobials tested. Mutations were found in the genes rpsL or rpsL and rsmG in streptomycin resistant isolates. In conclusion, increasing trend to feed dogs with raw meat warrants more studies to evaluate the risk associated with raw feeding of pets in transmission of zoonoses to humans

  14. Enhancing Aerobic Growth of Campylobacter in Media Supplemented with Organic Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of agar and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in was determined. A fumarate-pyruvate medium was supplemented with 0.0 to 0.2% agar and inoculated with Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter fetus, or Campylobacter jejuni. Portions of the inoculated me...

  15. Campylobacter jejuni influences the expression of nutrient transporter genes in the intestine of chickens.

    PubMed

    Awad, Wageha A; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Ghareeb, Khaled; Khayal, Basel; Hess, Claudia; Hess, Michael

    2014-08-01

    The gastrointestinal tract represents the first barrier against pathogens. However, the interaction of Campylobacter with intestinal epithelial cells and its effects on the intestinal function of chickens are poorly studied. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the effects of C. jejuni oral infection on the mRNA expression of nutrient transporters in the intestine. Newly hatched specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were orally infected with C. jejuni (NCTC 12744; 1 × 10(8)CFU/bird) at 14 days of age. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses at 14 days-post infection (dpi) revealed that the relative gene expression of the sodium/glucose cotransporter (SGLT-1) and the peptide transporter (PepT-1) was down-regulated (P<0.05) in all investigated segments (duodenum, jejunum and cecum) of Campylobacter-infected birds, while the facilitated glucose transporter (GLUT-2) was down-regulated (P<0.05) in jejunal and cecal tissues only. Furthermore, down-regulation (P<0.05) of the cationic amino acid transporter (CAT-2) and the excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT-3) was seen in the jejunum, and down-regulation (P<0.05) of the l-type amino acid transporter (y(+)LAT-2) was noticed in the duodenum of infected birds. The decreased expression of intestinal nutrient transporters coincided with a decrease (P<0.05) in body weight and body weight gain during a 2-week post infection period. For the first time, it can be concluded that nutrient transporter expression is compromised in the small and large intestine of Campylobacter-infected birds with negative consequences on growth performance. Furthermore, the down-regulation of mRNA expression of glucose and amino acid transporters may result in accumulation of nutrients in the intestinal lumen, which may favor C. jejuni replication and colonization. PMID:24834798

  16. PREVALENCE OF CAMPYLOBACTER AND SALMONELLA IN THE TURKEY BROODER HOUSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously surveyed market weight turkeys for the effect of transport to and holding at the abattoir for the prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella. Whereas Campylobacter is frequently found in the ceca of adult birds (~60%), the prevalence of Salmonella varies considerably from farm to...

  17. Campylobacter and Salmonella in broiler processing – transport through chill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When market age broilers are transported to processing plants, feces from individual birds in a Campylobacter positive flock can contaminate transport containers (1). Feces, and therefore Campylobacter, is deposited on the floor surface of transport cages. When placed in soiled transport cages pr...

  18. Incidence and ecology of Campylobacter jejuni and coli in animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its initial emergence in the 1970’s, Campylobacter have been estimated to be one of the most common causative agents of foodborne illnesses, along with nontyphoidal Salmonella species. Campylobacter species naturally colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of domestic and feral animals and are a...

  19. Retrospective Study of Campylobacter Infection in a Zoological Collection▿

    PubMed Central

    Taema, Maged M.; Bull, James C.; Macgregor, Shaheed K.; Flach, Edmund J.; Boardman, Wayne S.; Routh, Andrew D.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in wild animal populations. However, zoological collections can provide valuable insights. Using records from the Zoological Society of London Whipsnade Zoo compiled between 1990 and 2003, the roles of a range of biotic and abiotic factors associated with the occurrence of campylobacteriosis were investigated. The occurrence of campylobacteriosis varied widely across host taxonomic orders. Furthermore, in mammals, a combination of changes in both rainfall and temperature in the week preceding the onset of gastroenteritis were associated with isolation of Campylobacter from feces. In birds, there was a weak negative correlation between mean weekly rainfall and isolation of Campylobacter from feces. Importantly, in birds we found that the mean weekly rainfall 3 to 4 weeks before symptoms of gastroenteritis appeared was the best predictor of Campylobacter infection. Campylobacter-related gastroenteritis cases with mixed concurrent infections were positively associated with the presence of parasites (helminths and protozoans) in mammals, while in birds Campylobacter was associated with other concurrent bacterial infections rather than with the presence of helminths and protozoans. This study suggests that climatic elements are important factors associated with Campylobacter-related gastroenteritis. Further investigations are required to improve our understanding of Campylobacter epidemiology in captive wild animal populations. PMID:18165368

  20. Utilizing a gentamicin resistant Campylobacter (C. coli) in poultry research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The capability to perform inoculation studies with Campylobacter is limited without a suitable marker. Performing inoculation studies without a marker requires utilization of molecular techniques for confirmation. The objective of this study was to screen over 3,000 Campylobacter isolates obtained...

  1. THE PREVALENCE OF CAMPYLOBACTER AND SALMONELLA THROUGHOUT TURKEY BROODER PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously surveyed market weight turkeys for the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella and have reported that whereas the prevalence of Campylobacter is >60% at slaughter the Salmonella prevalence varies from 0 to 97%. The purpose of this study was to determine the temporal point of ent...

  2. REDUCTION IN CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. LEVELS IN COMMERCIALLY PROCESSED CARCASSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We sampled Georgia commercial flocks of broilers in 1995 and in 2001 for Campylobacter. We used a direct plating method to quantify Campylobacter within each flock. These flocks were the first processed of the day and we estimated levels of the organism per carcass (50 carcasses per flock pre-chil...

  3. Campylobacter – How did it get in the chicken?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most important bacteria causing human foodborne illness is Campylobacter. It has been associated with undercooked commercial poultry and at present each and every source of introduction into broiler flocks is not known. In past years, it was thought that the only source of Campylobacter...

  4. TEMPERATURE AFFECTS SOLE CARBON UTILIZATION PATTERNS OF CAMPYLOBACTER COLI 49941

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are small, asaccharolytic bacteria exhibiting unique nutritional and environmental requirements. Campylobacter spp. exist as commensal organisms in some animal species, yet are estimated to be the most common causative agents of foodborne illness in humans. C. jejuni is most oft...

  5. Temperature affects sole carbon utilization patterns of Campylobacter coli 49941

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are small, asaccharolytic bacteria exhibiting unique nutritional and environmental requirements. Campylobacter spp. exist as commensal organisms in some animal species, yet are estimated to be the most common causative agents of foodborne illness in humans. C. jejuni is most oft...

  6. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and coli strains isolated in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    associated with significant foodborne disease. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are the two most prevalent species contributing to human diarrheal disease. The objective of this study was to determine the routes of transmission for Campylobacter throughout turkey production and processing. A floc...

  7. Efficacy of natural cranberry extracts against campylobacter colonization in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. has been identified as one of the leading causative agents of food borne diarrheal illness. Epi-demiological evidence has shown that poultry is the main source for human infection. Currently there are no consistently effective treatments to eliminate Campylobacter from poultry flo...

  8. Overview of USDA VetNet Campylobacter Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA VetNet commenced in March 2004 with submission of Salmonella isolates and in December 2005, Campylobacter isolates were added to the program. The objectives of USDA VetNet are to determine PFGE patterns of Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates submitted to the National Antimicrobial Resistance...

  9. A Comparison of Methods for the Speciation of Campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Infection with Campylobacter is of global public health concern as one of the leading causes of enteric illness. Campylobacter is a fastidious organism and conventional culture from food or other samples can take several days, particularly if numbers are low and competing flora is hig...

  10. Analysis of in vitro and in vivo effects of probiotics against Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Bratz, Katharina; Gölz, Greta; Janczyk, Pawel; Nöckler, Karsten; Alter, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter (C.) spp. are well recognised as the leading cause of bacterial food-borne diarrheal disease worldwide, with C. jejuni and C. coli as the most important species: C. coli is highly abundant in pigs and pork meat has often been implicated as a source for human infection. Intestinal colonisation of C. coli in pigs plays a role in carcass contamination during slaughter. Different pre-harvest intervention measures are proposed to reduce the C. coli burden in the porcine intestine. Among others, the use of probiotics to prevent or reduce the colonisation of intestinal pathogens is discussed. One aim of this study was to screen a variety of probiotics to evaluate their inhibitory activity against Campylobacter spp. in vitro. Therefore, cell-free culture supernatants of Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Enterococcus (E.) faecium NCIMB 10415, and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 were tested against C. jejuni and C. coli by a well-diffusion agar assay. Seven out of eleven Lactobacillus strains showed an inhibitory activity against at least one of the three tested Campylobacter strains. This antagonistic activity against Campylobacter spp. was caused by the production of organic acids that lowered the pH. Application with pH neutralised cell-free culture supernatants abolished this inhibitory effect. Other tested strains with probiotic properties showed no inhibitory activity against any Campylobacter spp. strain. The strain E. faecium NCIMB 10415 was chosen to test its inhibitory activity against C. coli in vivo. Twenty weaned piglets were allocated into two groups, a probiotic group and a control group.The diet of the probiotic group was supplemented with E. faecium NCIMB 10415 (10(9) cfu/kg feed, Cylactin) since weaning, whereas the control group received no probiotic treatment. All piglets were naturally colonised with C. coli. The excretion load of C. coli was monitored for 28 days. The results indicate that dietary supplementation of E. faecium NCIMB

  11. Purification, characterization, and localization of a protein antigen shared by thermophilic campylobacters.

    PubMed Central

    Dubreuil, J D; Kostrzynska, M; Logan, S M; Harris, L A; Austin, J W; Trust, T J

    1990-01-01

    A protein antigen with an apparent molecular weight (Mr) of 31,000 was isolated from 0.2 M glycine hydrochloride (pH 2.2) extracts of a typical human fecal isolate, Campylobacter jejuni VC74. The protein was purified to homogeneity on a preparative scale by immunoaffinity chromatography followed by molecular sieving with a Superose 12 column. Isoelectric focusing under nondenaturing conditions indicated a pI of 9.3, and amino acid composition analysis showed that the protein was unusually rich in lysine, containing 14.9 mol% of this basic amino acid. Cysteine and tryptophan were absent. The protein also contained approximately 35% hydrophobic amino acid residues, and N-terminal amino acid analysis showed that 17 of the first 38 residues were hydrophobic. This amino-terminal sequence to residue 22 was virtually identical to that of an antigenically cross-reactive 31,000-Mr protein isolated from another C. jejuni strain belonging to a different heat-labile serogroup. Western blotting (immunoblotting) of glycine extracts of other C. jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter laridis strains belonging to different thermolabile and thermostable serotypes, as well as Campylobacter fetus, with a rabbit polyclonal antiserum raised against the purified C. jejuni VC74 protein showed that all C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. laridis strains tested contained a 31,000-Mr protein with epitopes which were antigenically cross-reactive with the C. jejuni VC74 protein. The antigenically cross-reactive epitopes of this protein were also readily detected by immunodot blot assay of glycine extracts of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. laridis with monospecific polyclonal antisera to the 31,000-Mr protein, suggesting that this serological test could be a useful addition to those currently employed in the rapid identification of these important pathogens. Slide agglutination reactions, immunofluorescence assay, and immunogold electron microscopy with antisera to purified 31,000-Mr protein and

  12. Restaurant Cooking Trends and Increased Risk for Campylobacter Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anna K.; Rigby, Dan; Burton, Michael; Millman, Caroline; Williams, Nicola J.; Jones, Trevor R.; Wigley, Paul; Cross, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, outbreaks of Campylobacter infection are increasingly attributed to undercooked chicken livers, yet many recipes, including those of top chefs, advocate short cooking times and serving livers pink. During 2015, we studied preferences of chefs and the public in the United Kingdom and investigated the link between liver rareness and survival of Campylobacter. We used photographs to assess chefs’ ability to identify chicken livers meeting safe cooking guidelines. To investigate the microbiological safety of livers chefs preferred to serve, we modeled Campylobacter survival in infected chicken livers cooked to various temperatures. Most chefs correctly identified safely cooked livers but overestimated the public’s preference for rareness and thus preferred to serve them more rare. We estimated that 19%–52% of livers served commercially in the United Kingdom fail to reach 70°C and that predicted Campylobacter survival rates are 48%–98%. These findings indicate that cooking trends are linked to increasing Campylobacter infections. PMID:27314748

  13. Restaurant Cooking Trends and Increased Risk for Campylobacter Infection.

    PubMed

    Jones, Anna K; Rigby, Dan; Burton, Michael; Millman, Caroline; Williams, Nicola J; Jones, Trevor R; Wigley, Paul; O'Brien, Sarah J; Cross, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In the United Kingdom, outbreaks of Campylobacter infection are increasingly attributed to undercooked chicken livers, yet many recipes, including those of top chefs, advocate short cooking times and serving livers pink. During 2015, we studied preferences of chefs and the public in the United Kingdom and investigated the link between liver rareness and survival of Campylobacter. We used photographs to assess chefs' ability to identify chicken livers meeting safe cooking guidelines. To investigate the microbiological safety of livers chefs preferred to serve, we modeled Campylobacter survival in infected chicken livers cooked to various temperatures. Most chefs correctly identified safely cooked livers but overestimated the public's preference for rareness and thus preferred to serve them more rare. We estimated that 19%-52% of livers served commercially in the United Kingdom fail to reach 70°C and that predicted Campylobacter survival rates are 48%-98%. These findings indicate that cooking trends are linked to increasing Campylobacter infections. PMID:27314748

  14. Campylobacter populations in wild and domesticated Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    Colles, Frances M; Ali, Jan S; Sheppard, Samuel K; McCarthy, Noel D; Maiden, Martin C J

    2011-01-01

    Identifying the Campylobacter genotypes that colonize farmed and wild ducks will help to assess the proportion of human disease that is potentially attributable to the consumption of duck meat and environmental exposure to duck faeces. Comparison of temporally and geographically matched farmed and wild ducks showed that they had different Campylobacter populations in terms of: (i) prevalence, (ii) Campylobacter species and (iii) diversity of genotypes. Furthermore, 92.4% of Campylobacter isolates from farmed ducks were sequence types (STs) commonly associated with human disease, in contrast to just one isolate from the wild ducks. Only one ST, ST-45, was shared between the two sources, accounting for 0.9% of wild duck isolates and 5% of farmed duck isolates. These results indicate that domestic ‘niche’ as well as host type may affect the distribution of Campylobacter, and that husbandry practises associated with intensive agriculture may be involved in generating a reservoir of human disease associated lineages. PMID:22164198

  15. Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Verocytotoxic Escherichia coli, and Antibiotic Resistance in Indicator Organisms in Wild Cervids

    PubMed Central

    Lillehaug, A; Bergsjø, B; Schau, J; Bruheim, T; Vikøren, T; Handeland, K

    2005-01-01

    Faecal samples were collected, as part of the National Health Surveillance Program for Cervids (HOP) in Norway, from wild red deer, roe deer, moose and reindeer during ordinary hunting seasons from 2001 to 2003. Samples from a total of 618 animals were examined for verocytotoxic E. coli (VTEC); 611 animals for Salmonella and 324 animals for Campylobacter. A total of 50 samples were cultivated from each cervid species in order to isolate the indicator bacterial species E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis/E. faecium for antibiotic resistance pattern studies. Salmonella and the potentially human pathogenic verocytotoxic E. coli were not isolated, while Campylobacter jejuni jejuni was found in one roe deer sample only. Antibiotic resistance was found in 13 (7.3%) of the 179 E. coli isolates tested, eight of these being resistant against one type of antibiotic only. The proportion of resistant E. coli isolates was higher in wild reindeer (24%) than in the other cervids (2.2%). E. faecalis or E. faecium were isolated from 19 of the samples, none of these being reindeer. All the strains isolated were resistant against one (84%) or more (16%) antibiotics. A total of 14 E. faecalis-strains were resistant to virginiamycin only. The results indicate that the cervid species studied do not constitute an important infectious reservoir for either the human pathogens or the antibiotic resistant microorganisms included in the study. PMID:16108210

  16. A Charcoal- and Blood-Free Enrichment Broth for Isolation and PCR Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. is a Gram negative bacterium and is the major cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. The microaerophilic nature of Campylobacter and its requirement of ~5% O2 for growth have complicated its recovery from foods. This is achieved with the addition to the enrichment media of ...

  17. Comparison of genotypes and antibiotic resistances of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli on chicken retail meat and at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Kittl, Sonja; Korczak, Bożena M; Niederer, Lilian; Baumgartner, Andreas; Buettner, Sabina; Overesch, Gudrun; Kuhnert, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and antibiotic resistance patterns of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from retail chicken meat showed high overlap with isolates collected at slaughterhouses, indicating little selection along the production chain. They also showed significant common sequence types with human clinical isolates, revealing chicken meat as a likely source for human infection. PMID:23584778

  18. Comparison of Genotypes and Antibiotic Resistances of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli on Chicken Retail Meat and at Slaughter

    PubMed Central

    Kittl, Sonja; Korczak, Bożena M.; Niederer, Lilian; Baumgartner, Andreas; Buettner, Sabina; Overesch, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and antibiotic resistance patterns of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from retail chicken meat showed high overlap with isolates collected at slaughterhouses, indicating little selection along the production chain. They also showed significant common sequence types with human clinical isolates, revealing chicken meat as a likely source for human infection. PMID:23584778

  19. PCR detection, identification to species level, and fingerprinting of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli direct from diarrheic samples.

    PubMed Central

    Linton, D; Lawson, A J; Owen, R J; Stanley, J

    1997-01-01

    Three sets of primers were designed for PCR detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. The first PCR assay was designed to coidentify C. jejuni and C. coli based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The second PCR assay, based on the hippuricase gene sequence, identified all tested reference strains of C. jejuni and also strains of that species which lack detectable hippuricase activity. The third PCR assay, based on the sequence of a cloned (putative) aspartokinase gene and the downstream open reading frame, identified all tested reference strains of C. coli. The assays will find immediate application in the rapid identification to species level of isolates. The assays combine with a protocol for purification of total DNA from fecal samples to allow reproducible PCR identification of campylobacters directly from stools. Of 20 clinical samples from which campylobacters had been cultured, we detected C. jejuni in 17, C. coli in 2, and coinfection of C. jejuni and Campylobacter hyointestinalis in 1. These results were concordant with culture and phenotypic identification to species level. Strain typing by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the flagellin (flaA) gene detected identical flaA types in fecal DNA and the corresponding campylobacter isolate. Twenty-five Campylobacter-negative stool samples gave no reaction with the PCR assays. These PCR assays can rapidly define the occurrence, species incidence, and flaA genotypes of enteropathogenic campylobacters. PMID:9316909

  20. Status of vaccine research and development for Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Mark S; Guerry, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with a number of sequelae, including Guillain-Barre Syndrome, reactive arthritis, irritable bowel syndrome and growth stunting/malnutrition. Vaccine development against C. jejuni is complicated by its antigenic diversity, a lack of small animal models, and a poor understanding of the bacterium's pathogenesis. Vaccine approaches have been limited to recombinant proteins, none of which have advanced beyond Phase I testing. Genomic analyses have revealed the presence of a polysaccharide capsule on C. jejuni. Given the success of capsule-conjugate vaccines for other mucosal pathogens of global importance, efforts to evaluate this established approach for C. jejuni are also being pursued. A prototypical capsule-conjugate vaccine has demonstrated efficacy against diarrheal disease in non-human primates and is currently in Phase I testing. In addition to proof of concept studies, more data on the global prevalence of capsular types, and a better understanding of the acute and chronic consequences of C. jejuni are needed to inform investments for a globally relevant vaccine. PMID:26973064

  1. The immunobiology of Campylobacter jejuni: Innate immunity and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Phongsisay, Vongsavanh

    2016-04-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni causes gastroenteritis and Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans. Recent advances in the immunobiology of C. jejuni have been made. This review summarizes C. jejuni-binding innate receptors and highlights the role of innate immunity in autoimmune diseases. This human pathogen produces a variety of glycoconjugates, including human ganglioside-like determinants and multiple activators of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Furthermore, C. jejuni targets MyD88, NLRP3 inflammasome, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs), macrophage galactose-type lectin (MGL), and immunoglobulin-like receptors (TREM2, LMIR5/CD300b). The roles of these innate receptors and signaling molecules have been extensively studied. MyD88-mediated TLR activation or inflammasome-dependent IL-1β secretion is essential for autoimmune induction. TRIF mediates the production of type I interferons that promote humoral immune responses and immunoglobulin class-switching. Siglec-1 and Siglec-7 interact directly with gangliosides. Siglec-1 activation enhances phagocytosis and inflammatory responses. MGL internalizes GalNAc-containing glycoconjugates. TREM2 is well-known for its role in phagocytosis. LMIR5 recognizes C. jejuni components and endogenous sulfoglycolipids. Several lines of evidence from animal models of autoimmune diseases suggest that simultaneous activation of innate immunity in the presence of autoreactive lymphocytes or antigen mimicry may link C. jejuni to immunopathology. PMID:26709064

  2. Colonization factors of Campylobacter jejuni in the chicken gut

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter contaminated broiler chicken meat is an important source of foodborne gastroenteritis and poses a serious health burden in industrialized countries. Broiler chickens are commonly regarded as a natural host for this zoonotic pathogen and infected birds carry a very high C. jejuni load in their gastrointestinal tract, especially the ceca. This eventually results in contaminated carcasses during processing. Current intervention methods fail to reduce the colonization of broiler chicks by C. jejuni due to an incomplete understanding on the interaction between C. jejuni and its avian host. Clearly, C. jejuni developed several survival and colonization mechanisms which are responsible for its highly adapted nature to the chicken host. But how these mechanisms interact with one another, leading to persistent, high-level cecal colonization remains largely obscure. A plethora of mutagenesis studies in the past few years resulted in the identification of several of the genes and proteins of C. jejuni involved in different aspects of the cellular response of this bacterium in the chicken gut. In this review, a thorough, up-to-date overview will be given of the survival mechanisms and colonization factors of C. jejuni identified to date. These factors may contribute to our understanding on how C. jejuni survival and colonization in chicks is mediated, as well as provide potential targets for effective subunit vaccine development. PMID:21714866

  3. cj0371: A Novel Virulence-Associated Gene of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xueqing; Wang, Nan; Ren, Fangzhe; Tang, Hong; Jiao, Xinan; Huang, Jinlin

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the major cause of human bacterial diarrhea worldwide. Its pathogenic mechanism remains poorly understood. cj0371 is a novel gene that was uncovered using immunoscreening. There have been no previous reports regarding its function. In this study, we constructed an insertion mutant and complement of this gene in C. jejuni and examined changes in virulence. We observed that the cj0371 mutant showed significantly increased invasion and colonization ability. We also investigated the role of cj0371 in motility, chemotaxis, and growth kinetics to further study its function. We found that the cj0371 mutant displays hypermotility, enhanced chemotaxis, and enhanced growth kinetics. In addition, we localized the Cj0371 protein at the poles of C. jejuni by fluorescence microscopy. We present data that collectively significantly proves our hypothesis that cj0371 is a new virulence-associated gene and through the influence of chemotaxis plays a negative role in C. jejuni pathogenicity. PMID:27471500

  4. cj0371: A Novel Virulence-Associated Gene of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Du, Xueqing; Wang, Nan; Ren, Fangzhe; Tang, Hong; Jiao, Xinan; Huang, Jinlin

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the major cause of human bacterial diarrhea worldwide. Its pathogenic mechanism remains poorly understood. cj0371 is a novel gene that was uncovered using immunoscreening. There have been no previous reports regarding its function. In this study, we constructed an insertion mutant and complement of this gene in C. jejuni and examined changes in virulence. We observed that the cj0371 mutant showed significantly increased invasion and colonization ability. We also investigated the role of cj0371 in motility, chemotaxis, and growth kinetics to further study its function. We found that the cj0371 mutant displays hypermotility, enhanced chemotaxis, and enhanced growth kinetics. In addition, we localized the Cj0371 protein at the poles of C. jejuni by fluorescence microscopy. We present data that collectively significantly proves our hypothesis that cj0371 is a new virulence-associated gene and through the influence of chemotaxis plays a negative role in C. jejuni pathogenicity. PMID:27471500

  5. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli species in cats and dogs from Bydgoszcz (Poland) region.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewska, M; Szczepańska, B; Klawe, J J; Spica, D; Chudzińska, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of cats and dogs as a potential reservoir of Campylobacter spp. Rectal swabs from 83 dogs and 71 cats were examined. Samples were obtained from the animals aged between 2 weeks and 24 months living in shelters, private households, farms and from veterinary clinics located in Bydgoszcz region during routine check-up. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 4.81% dogs and 9.86% cats, respectively. C. jejuni was predominant in this study. All strains were isolated in autumn and winter from the animals living in farms and private houses. All the animals positive for Campylobacter prevalence had access to small water basins, accidental source of food and had contact with wild birds, poultry or their feaces. Isolates characterization revealed high prevalence of Campylobacter virulence genes-flaA, cadF and cdtB. 91% of isolated strains were susceptible to erythromycin. 81% among isolated strains were susceptible to azithromycin, 64% to tetracycline and 36% to ciprofloxacin. For 2 C. jejuni strains isolated from cats Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling indicated 80% homology between them. PMID:23691584

  6. Oligodeoxynucleotide probes for Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis based on 16S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Wesley, I V; Wesley, R D; Cardella, M; Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J

    1991-01-01

    Deoxyoligonucleotide probes were constructed for the identification of Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis based on 16S rRNA sequence data. Probes were targeted to hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA. Specificity of oligonucleotide probes was tested in a colony blot assay with type strains of 15 Campylobacter and Arcobacter species as well as in a slot blot format using genomic DNA extracted from field strains of C. fetus and C. hyointestinalis. Two oligonucleotides were constructed for C. fetus that hybridized with equal specificity with each of 57 biochemically confirmed isolates of C. fetus but not with any other Campylobacter species. The C. hyointestinalis probe reacted with 47 of 48 biochemically confirmed field isolates of C. hyointestinalis. In Southern blot hybridization of BglII digests of genomic DNA, the respective probes reacted within three restriction fragments of either C. hyointestinalis (7.2, 8.2, and 10.1 kb) or C. fetus (7.0, 7.7, and 9.0 kb). This suggests multiple copies of genes encoding 16S rRNA. Images PMID:1723076

  7. THE EFFECT OF PRESLAUGHTER EVENTS ON THE PREVALENCE OF CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI AND CAMPYLOBACTER COLI IN TURKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to determine if perimarketing events (i.e., feed withdrawal, catching, transport, and pre-slaughter holding) impact Campylobacter spp. in the intestines of turkeys. The distribution of C. jejuni and C. coli along the intestinal tract was examined before and after transpor...

  8. Fluoroquinolone resistance detection in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni by Luminex xMAP technology.

    PubMed

    Barco, Lisa; Lettini, Antonia Anna; Dalla Pozza, Maria Cristina; Ramon, Elena; Fasolato, Manuela; Ricci, Antonia

    2010-09-01

    The proportion of Campylobacter spp. isolates that are resistant to fluoroquinolones, the drugs of choice for campylobacteriosis, has been increasing worldwide. We developed an innovative method based on a Luminex xMAP DNA suspension array that allows the identification of Campylobacter species and, simultaneously, the detection of the most common point mutation in the gyrA gene (substitution from threonine 86 to isoleucine 86) that is responsible for fluoroquinolone resistance. Ninety-six Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolates collected from turkeys were first investigated by microdilution test to characterize the antimicrobial resistance patterns. The isolates, amplified for the quinolone resistance determining region of the gyrA gene, were then tested using Luminex suspension array. The reliability of the method was demonstrated by the total concordance between the results obtained using Luminex and those of the sequencing of gyrA polymerase chain reaction products. The genotypic characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance using Luminex was also consistent with the data on phenotypical resistance obtained by microdilution test. The results of this study strongly support the potential of Luminex xMAP technology as an efficient molecular method for the rapid and accurate identification of C. coli and C. jejuni isolates and the characterization of the major determinant of fluoroquinolone resistance. PMID:20500084

  9. Development of a selective agar plate for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Jung-Su; Lee, Sun-Young

    2014-10-17

    This study was conducted to develop a selective medium for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Campylobacter spp. (n=4), non-Campylobacter (showing positive results on Campylobacter selective agar) strains (n=49) isolated from fresh produce, indicator bacteria (n=13), and spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce (n=15) were plated on four Campylobacter selective media. Bolton agar and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) exhibited higher sensitivity for Campylobacter spp. than did Preston agar and Hunt agar, although certain non-Campylobacter strains isolated from fresh produce by using a selective agar isolation method, were still able to grow on Bolton agar and mCCDA. To inhibit the growth of non-Campylobacter strains, Bolton agar and mCCDA were supplemented with 5 antibiotics (rifampicin, polymyxin B, sodium metabisulfite, sodium pyruvate, ferrous sulfate) and the growth of Campylobacter spp. (n=7) and non-Campylobacter strains (n=44) was evaluated. Although Bolton agar supplemented with rifampicin (BR agar) exhibited a higher selectivity for Campylobacter spp. than did mCCDA supplemented with antibiotics, certain non-Campylobacter strains were still able to grow on BR agar (18.8%). When BR agar with various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were tested with Campylobacter spp. (n=8) and non-Campylobacter (n=7), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was inhibitory against 3 of 7 non-Campylobacter strains. Finally, we validated the use of BR agar containing 50mg/L sulfamethoxazole (BRS agar) or 0.5mg/L ciprofloxacin (BRCS agar) and other selective agars for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and fresh produce. All chicken samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. when tested on mCCDA, BR agar, and BRS agar. In fresh produce samples, BRS agar exhibited the highest selectivity for Campylobacter spp., demonstrating its suitability for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. PMID:25126968

  10. In vivo and in silico determination of essential genes of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the United Kingdom, the thermophilic Campylobacter species C. jejuni and C. coli are the most frequent causes of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans. While campylobacteriosis is usually a relatively mild infection, it has a significant public health and economic impact, and possible complications include reactive arthritis and the autoimmune diseases Guillain-Barré syndrome. The rapid developments in "omics" technologies have resulted in the availability of diverse datasets allowing predictions of metabolism and physiology of pathogenic micro-organisms. When combined, these datasets may allow for the identification of potential weaknesses that can be used for development of new antimicrobials to reduce or eliminate C. jejuni and C. coli from the food chain. Results A metabolic model of C. jejuni was constructed using the annotation of the NCTC 11168 genome sequence, a published model of the related bacterium Helicobacter pylori, and extensive literature mining. Using this model, we have used in silico Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) to determine key metabolic routes that are essential for generating energy and biomass, thus creating a list of genes potentially essential for growth under laboratory conditions. To complement this in silico approach, candidate essential genes have been determined using a whole genome transposon mutagenesis method. FBA and transposon mutagenesis (both this study and a published study) predict a similar number of essential genes (around 200). The analysis of the intersection between the three approaches highlights the shikimate pathway where genes are predicted to be essential by one or more method, and tend to be network hubs, based on a previously published Campylobacter protein-protein interaction network, and could therefore be targets for novel antimicrobial therapy. Conclusions We have constructed the first curated metabolic model for the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni and have presented the resulting

  11. Campylobacter antimicrobial resistance in Peru: a ten-year observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are food-borne pathogens of great importance and feature prominently in the etiology of developing world enteritis and travellers’ diarrhoea. Increasing antimicrobial resistant Campylobacter prevalence has been described globally, yet data from Peru is limited. Our objective was to describe the prevalence trends of fluoroquinolone and macrolide-resistant C. jejuni and C. coli stool isolates from three regions in Peru over a ten-year period. Methods Surveillance for enteric pathogens was conducted in Lima, Iquitos and Cusco between 2001 and 2010. Campylobacter stool isolates were tested for susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin, azithromycin and erythromycin. Susceptibilities were reviewed for 4652 isolates from Lima ( n = 3419), Iquitos ( n = 625) and Cusco ( n = 608). Results Comparing the study periods of 2001-2005 and 2006-2010, prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni isolates rose in the study areas of Lima (73.1% to 89.8%, p < 0.001) and Iquitos (24.1% to 48.9%, p < 0.001). Ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli rates also increased in Lima (48.1% to 87.4%, p < 0.001) and Cusco (10.0% to 65.9%, p = 0.005). Small but significant increases in azithromycin-resistant and erythromycin-resistant C. jejuni prevalence were noted in Iquitos (2.2% to 14.9%, p < 0.001; 3.2% to 14.9%, p = 0.002), and erythromycin-resistant C. coli rates increased in Lima (0.0% to 5.3%, p = 0.038). The prevalence of C. jejuni isolates resistant to both ciprofloxacin and azithromycin increased in Iquitos (0.3% to 14.9%, p < 0.001) and Lima (0.3% to 1.6%, p = 0.011), and prevalence of C. jejuni isolates resistant to both ciprofloxacin and erythromycin rose in Iquitos (0.0% to 14.9%, p < 0.001). Ciprofloxacin and erythromycin resistant C. coli prevalence increased in Lima (0.0% to 5.3%, p = 0.034). Conclusions These results have implications for the empirical management of

  12. Comparative genomics of Campylobacter concisus isolates reveals genetic diversity and provides insights into disease association

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In spite of its association with gastroenteritis and inflammatory bowel diseases, the isolation of Campylobacter concisus from both diseased and healthy individuals has led to controversy regarding its role as an intestinal pathogen. One proposed reason for this is the presence of high genetic diversity among the genomes of C. concisus strains. Results In this study the genomes of six C. concisus strains were sequenced, assembled and annotated including two strains isolated from Crohn’s disease patients (UNSW2 and UNSW3), three from gastroenteritis patients (UNSW1, UNSWCS and ATCC 51562) and one from a healthy individual (ATCC 51561). The genomes of C. concisus BAA-1457 and UNSWCD, available from NCBI, were included in subsequent comparative genomic analyses. The Pan and Core genomes for the sequenced C. concisus strains consisted of 3254 and 1556 protein coding genes, respectively. Conclusion Genes were identified with specific conservation in C. concisus strains grouped by phenotypes such as invasiveness, adherence, motility and diseased states. Phylogenetic trees based on ribosomal RNA sequences and concatenated host-related pathways for the eight C. concisus strains were generated using the neighbor-joining method, of which the 16S rRNA gene and peptidoglycan biosynthesis grouped the C. concisus strains according to their pathogenic phenotypes. Furthermore, 25 non-synonymous amino acid changes with 14 affecting functional domains, were identified within proteins of conserved host-related pathways, which had possible associations with the pathogenic potential of C. concisus strains. Finally, the genomes of the eight C. concisus strains were compared to the nine available genomes of the well-established pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, which identified several important differences in the respiration pathways of these two species. Our findings indicate that C. concisus strains are genetically diverse, and suggest the genomes of this bacterium contain

  13. Comparative media investigation and MLST characterization of Campylobacter spp. recovered from broiler fecal, carcass rinse, and exudate samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are considered a leading bacterial etiology of acute gastroenteritis in human populations. Several investigations focused on delineating Campylobacter spp. epidemiology have been conducted; however a complete understanding of the critical sources for Campylobacter spp. transmissio...

  14. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from poultry in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, Martina; Salata, Cristiano; Martini, Marco; Montesissa, Clara; Piccirillo, Alessandra

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Campylobacter isolates from broilers and turkeys reared in industrial farms in Northern Italy, given the public health concern represented by resistant campylobacters in food-producing animals and the paucity of data about this topic in our country. Thirty-six Campylobacter jejuni and 24 Campylobacter coli isolated from broilers and 68 C. jejuni and 32 C. coli from turkeys were tested by disk diffusion for their susceptibility to apramycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, ceftiofur, cefuroxime, ampicillin, amoxicillin+clavulanic acid, nalidixic acid, flumequine, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, tiamulin, clindamycin, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim, chloramphenicol. Depending on the drug, breakpoints provided by Comité de l'antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and the manufacturer were followed. All broiler strains and 92% turkey strains were multidrug resistant. Very high resistance rates were detected for quinolones, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim, ranging from 65% to 100% in broilers and from 74% to 96% in turkeys. Prevalence of resistance was observed also against ampicillin (97% in broilers, 88% in turkeys) and at least three cephalosporins (93-100% in broilers, 100% in turkeys). Conversely, no isolates showed resistance to chloramphenicol and tiamulin. Susceptibility prevailed for amoxicillin+clavulanic acid and aminoglycosides in both poultry species, and for macrolides and clindamycin among turkey strains and among C. jejuni from broilers, whereas most C. coli strains from broilers (87.5%) were resistant. Other differences between C. jejuni and C. coli were observed markedly in broiler isolates, with the overall predominance of resistance in C. coli compared to C. jejuni. This study provides updates and novel data on the AMR of broiler and

  15. Climate variability and campylobacter infection: an international study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari Kovats, R.; Edwards, Sally J.; Charron, Dominique; Cowden, John; D'Souza, Rennie M.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Gauci, Charmaine; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Hajat, Shakoor; Hales, Simon; Hernández Pezzi, Gloria; Kriz, Bohumir; Kutsar, Kuulo; McKeown, Paul; Mellou, Kassiani; Menne, Bettina; O'Brien, Sarah; Pelt, Wilfrid; Schmid, Hans

    2005-03-01

    Campylobacter is among the most important agents of enteritis in developed countries. We have described the potential environmental determinants of the seasonal pattern of infection with campylobacter in Europe, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Specifically, we investigated the role of climate variability on laboratory-confirmed cases of campylobacter infection from 15 populations. Regression analysis was used to quantify the associations between timing of seasonal peaks in infection in space and time. The short-term association between weekly weather and cases was also investigated using Poisson regression adapted for time series data. All countries in our study showed a distinct seasonality in campylobacter transmission, with many, but not all, populations showing a peak in spring. Countries with milder winters have peaks of infection earlier in the year. The timing of the peak of infection is weakly associated with high temperatures 3 months previously. Weekly variation in campylobacter infection in one region of the UK appeared to be little affected by short-term changes in weather patterns. The geographical variation in the timing of the seasonal peak suggests that climate may be a contributing factor to campylobacter transmission. The main driver of seasonality of campylobacter remains elusive and underscores the need to identify the major serotypes and routes of transmission for this disease.

  16. The transmission of campylobacter in piggeries; an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Weijtens, M J; van der Plas, J; Bijker, P G; Urlings, H A; Koster, D; van Logtestijn, J G; Huis in't Veld, J H

    1997-12-01

    The campylobacter infection of 10 sows and their piglets was monitored. These pigs were kept on two multiplier farms. Rectal faeces samples were taken from the sows shortly before littering and at different intervals after littering. Swab samples of rectal content were taken from six piglets per sow at different intervals after birth. Nine sows were shown to be infected with campylobacter before litter and all sows after litter, with an average colony count of 4.1 in log N g-1 of faeces. Half of the piglets became infected with campylobacter during the first week of life and 85%, after four weeks. Two genetic subtyping methods (ERIC-PCR and RFLP) were used to study the relationships between campylobacter isolates from sows and piglets. A large diversity of campylobacter subtypes was found. Nevertheless, piglets and their mothers often harboured campylobacter isolates with identical genetic subtyping profiles, suggesting that piglets become infected via their mothers. However, observed similarities in genetic subtyping profiles between campylobacters isolated on different farms made this difficult to prove. PMID:9449807

  17. Statistical approaches to developing a multiplex immunoassay for determining human exposure to environmental pathogens.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the application and method performance parameters of a Luminex xMAP™ bead-based, multiplex immunoassay for measuring specific antibody responses in saliva samples (n=5438) to antigens of six common waterborne pathogens (Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylo...

  18. Mechanically Ventilated Broiler Sheds: a Possible Source of Aerosolized Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Chinivasagam, H. N.; Tran, T.; Maddock, L.; Gale, A.; Blackall, P. J.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the levels of two key pathogens, Salmonella and Campylobacter, along with the indicator organism Escherichia coli in aerosols within and outside poultry sheds. The study ranged over a 3-year period on four poultry farms and consisted of six trials across the boiler production cycle of around 55 days. Weekly testing of litter and aerosols was carried out through the cycle. A key point that emerged is that the levels of airborne bacteria are linked to the levels of these bacteria in litter. This hypothesis was demonstrated by E. coli. The typical levels of E. coli in litter were ∼108 CFU g−1 and, as a consequence, were in the range of 102 to 104 CFU m−3 in aerosols, both inside and outside the shed. The external levels were always lower than the internal levels. Salmonella was only present intermittently in litter and at lower levels (103 to 105 most probable number [MPN] g−1) and consequently present only intermittently and at low levels in air inside (range of 0.65 to 4.4 MPN m−3) and once outside (2.3 MPN m−3). The Salmonella serovars isolated in litter were generally also isolated from aerosols and dust, with the Salmonella serovars Chester and Sofia being the dominant serovars across these interfaces. Campylobacter was detected late in the production cycle, in litter at levels of around 107 MPN g−1. Campylobacter was detected only once inside the shed and then at low levels of 2.2 MPN m−3. Thus, the public health risk from these organisms in poultry environments via the aerosol pathway is minimal. PMID:19801461

  19. Identification of a Novel Membrane Transporter Mediating Resistance to Organic Arsenic in Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhangqi; Luangtongkum, Taradon; Qiang, Zhiyi; Jeon, Byeonghwa; Wang, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Although bacterial mechanisms involved in the resistance to inorganic arsenic are well understood, the molecular basis for organic arsenic resistance has not been described. Campylobacter jejuni, a major food-borne pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans, is highly prevalent in poultry and is reportedly resistant to the arsenic compound roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzenearsonic acid), which has been used as a feed additive in the poultry industry for growth promotion. In this study, we report the identification of a novel membrane transporter (named ArsP) that contributes to organic arsenic resistance in Campylobacter. ArsP is predicted to be a membrane permease containing eight transmembrane helices, distinct from other known arsenic transporters. Analysis of multiple C. jejuni isolates from various animal species revealed that the presence of an intact arsP gene is associated with elevated resistance to roxarsone. In addition, inactivation of arsP in C. jejuni resulted in 4- and 8-fold reductions in the MICs of roxarsone and nitarsone, respectively, compared to that for the wild-type strain. Furthermore, cloning of arsP into a C. jejuni strain lacking a functional arsP gene led to 16- and 64-fold increases in the MICs of roxarsone and nitarsone, respectively. Neither mutation nor overexpression of arsP affected the MICs of inorganic arsenic, including arsenite and arsenate, in Campylobacter. Moreover, acquisition of arsP in NCTC 11168 led to accumulation of less roxarsone than the wild-type strain lacking arsP. Together, these results indicate that ArsP functions as an efflux transporter specific for extrusion of organic arsenic and contributes to the resistance to these compounds in C. jejuni. PMID:24419344

  20. Oral Campylobacter species: Initiators of a subgroup of inflammatory bowel disease?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies detected a significantly higher prevalence of Campylobacter species such as Campylobacter concisus (C. concisus) in intestinal biopsies and fecal samples collected from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) compared to controls. Most of these Campylobacter species are not of zoonotic origin but are human oral Campylobacter species. Bacterial species usually cause diseases in the location where they colonize. However, C. concisus and other oral Campylobacter species are associated with IBD occurring at the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that these Campylobacter species may have unique virulence factors that are expressed in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26309350

  1. Environmental monitoring of waterborne Campylobacter: evaluation of the Australian standard and a hybrid extraction-free MPN-PCR method

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Rebekah; Schang, Christelle; Chandrasena, Gayani I.; Deletic, Ana; Edmunds, Mark; Jovanovic, Dusan; Kolotelo, Peter; Schmidt, Jonathan; Williamson, Richard; McCarthy, David

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter is the leading agent of diarrheal disease worldwide. This study evaluates a novel culture-PCR hybrid (MPN-PCR) assay for the rapid enumeration of Campylobacter spp. from estuarine and wastewater systems. To first evaluate the current, culture-based, Australian standard, an inter-laboratory study was conducted on 69 subsampled water samples. The proposed Most-Probable Number (MPN)-PCR method was then evaluated, by analysing 147 estuarine samples collected over a 2 year period. Data for 14 different biological, hydrological and climatic parameters were also collated to identify pathogen-environment relationships and assess the potential for method specific bias. The results demonstrated that the intra-laboratory performance of the MPN-PCR was superior to that of AS/NZS (σ = 0.7912, P < 0.001; κ = 0.701, P < 0.001) with an overall diagnostic accuracy of ~94%. Furthermore, the analysis of both MPN-PCR and AS/NZS identified the potential for the introduction of method specific bias during assessment of the effects of environmental parameters on Campylobacter spp. numbers. PMID:25709604

  2. Source Attribution of Human Campylobacter Isolates by MLST and Fla-Typing and Association of Genotypes with Quinolone Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kittl, Sonja; Heckel, Gerald; Korczak, Bożena M.; Kuhnert, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequent zoonosis in developed countries and various domestic animals can function as reservoir for the main pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. In the present study we compared population structures of 730 C. jejuni and C. coli from human cases, 610 chicken, 159 dog, 360 pig and 23 cattle isolates collected between 2001 and 2012 in Switzerland. All isolates had been typed with multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB-typing and their genotypic resistance to quinolones was determined. We used complementary approaches by testing for differences between isolates from different hosts with the proportion similarity as well as the fixation index and by attributing the source of the human isolates with Bayesian assignment using the software STRUCTURE. Analyses were done with MLST and flaB data in parallel and both typing methods were tested for associations of genotypes with quinolone resistance. Results obtained with MLST and flaB data corresponded remarkably well, both indicating chickens as the main source for human infection for both Campylobacter species. Based on MLST, 70.9% of the human cases were attributed to chickens, 19.3% to cattle, 8.6% to dogs and 1.2% to pigs. Furthermore we found a host independent association between sequence type (ST) and quinolone resistance. The most notable were ST-45, all isolates of which were susceptible, while for ST-464 all were resistant. PMID:24244747

  3. Source attribution of human Campylobacter isolates by MLST and fla-typing and association of genotypes with quinolone resistance.

    PubMed

    Kittl, Sonja; Heckel, Gerald; Korczak, Bożena M; Kuhnert, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequent zoonosis in developed countries and various domestic animals can function as reservoir for the main pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. In the present study we compared population structures of 730 C. jejuni and C. coli from human cases, 610 chicken, 159 dog, 360 pig and 23 cattle isolates collected between 2001 and 2012 in Switzerland. All isolates had been typed with multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB-typing and their genotypic resistance to quinolones was determined. We used complementary approaches by testing for differences between isolates from different hosts with the proportion similarity as well as the fixation index and by attributing the source of the human isolates with Bayesian assignment using the software STRUCTURE. Analyses were done with MLST and flaB data in parallel and both typing methods were tested for associations of genotypes with quinolone resistance. Results obtained with MLST and flaB data corresponded remarkably well, both indicating chickens as the main source for human infection for both Campylobacter species. Based on MLST, 70.9% of the human cases were attributed to chickens, 19.3% to cattle, 8.6% to dogs and 1.2% to pigs. Furthermore we found a host independent association between sequence type (ST) and quinolone resistance. The most notable were ST-45, all isolates of which were susceptible, while for ST-464 all were resistant. PMID:24244747

  4. Biocontrol of Pathogens in the Meat Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Catherine M.; Rivas, Lucia; McDonnell, Mary J.; Duffy, Geraldine

    Bacterial foodborne zoonotic diseases are of major concern, impacting public health and causing economic losses for the agricultural-food sector and the wider society. In the United States (US) alone foodborne illness from pathogens is responsible for 76 million cases of illnesses each year (Mead et al., 1999). Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni and Enterohaemorraghic Escherichia coli (EHEC; predominately serotype O157:H7) and Listeria monocytogenes are the most predominant foodborne bacterial pathogens reported in the developed world (United States Department of Agriculture, 2001). The importance of meat and meat products as a vehicle of foodborne zoonotic pathogens cannot be underestimated (Center for Disease Control, 2006; Gillespie, O’Brien, Adak, Cheasty, & Willshaw, 2005; Mazick, Ethelberg, Nielsen, Molbak, & Lisby, 2006; Mead et al., 2006).

  5. The Intestinal Microbiota Influences Campylobacter jejuni Colonization and Extraintestinal Dissemination in Mice.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Jason L; Samuelson, Derrick R; Braundmeier-Fleming, Andrea G; White, Bryan A; Haldorson, Gary J; Stone, Jennifer B; Lessmann, Jeremy J; Eucker, Tyson P; Konkel, Michael E

    2015-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. The interactions between this pathogen and the intestinal microbiome within a host are of interest as endogenous intestinal microbiota mediates a form of resistance to the pathogen. This resistance, termed colonization resistance, is the ability of commensal microbiota to prevent colonization by exogenous pathogens or opportunistic commensals. Although mice normally demonstrate colonization resistance to C. jejuni, we found that mice treated with ampicillin are colonized by C. jejuni, with recovery of Campylobacter from the colon, mesenteric lymph nodes, and spleen. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in recovery of C. jejuni from ampicillin-treated mice inoculated with a C. jejuni virulence mutant (ΔflgL strain) compared to recovery of mice inoculated with the C. jejuni wild-type strain or the C. jejuni complemented isolate (ΔflgL/flgL). Comparative analysis of the microbiota from nontreated and ampicillin-treated CBA/J mice led to the identification of a lactic acid-fermenting isolate of Enterococcus faecalis that prevented C. jejuni growth in vitro and limited C. jejuni colonization of mice. Next-generation sequencing of DNA from fecal pellets that were collected from ampicillin-treated CBA/J mice revealed a significant decrease in diversity of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) compared to that in control (nontreated) mice. Taken together, we have demonstrated that treatment of mice with ampicillin alters the intestinal microbiota and permits C. jejuni colonization. These findings provide valuable insights for researchers using mice to investigate C. jejuni colonization factors, virulence determinants, or the mechanistic basis of probiotics. PMID:25934624

  6. Molecular and Epidemiological Analysis of a Campylobacter jejuni Outbreak in Northern Italy in November 2013.

    PubMed

    Lucarelli, Claudia; Dionisi, Anna Maria; Trezzi, Livia; Farina, Claudio; Passera, Marco; Kärki, Tommi; D'Ancona, Fortunato; Luzzi, Ida

    2016-09-01

    Campylobacter spp. is the most common gastrointestinal pathogen worldwide with a very low reported incidence in Italy. In November of 2013, local and national public health authorities investigated an outbreak caused by Campylobacter jejuni among children in a kindergarten in Northern Italy. A case was defined as a child who had diarrhea with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of C. jejuni between 11 and 30 November. Stool samples from the kindergarten kitchen staff and environmental samples from the kitchen were examined for enteric pathogens. As food leftovers were not available, the menu logbook of the refectory was reviewed to identify a possible source of the outbreak. C. jejuni strains were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and subtyped by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). We identified 20 cases among 247 schoolchildren (attack rate = 8%), all who reported having lunch in the kindergarten. The stools from the kitchen staff as well as the environmental samples were negative for enteric pathogens. The identified outbreak strains (n = 5) were sensitive to all of the antimicrobials tested; the first four strains showed an identical PFGE profile, whereas the fifth strain showed a PFGE pattern similarity of 89%. Using MLST, all five strains were assigned to a single sequence type (ST), ST451 (clonal complex, CC21); this was the first identification of ST and the third reported outbreak of C. jejuni in Italy. Molecular typing confirmed that most of the cases belonged to a clonal cluster supporting the hypothesis of a common source; however, the source was not identified. Due to a delayed start of the investigation, it was not possible to perform any microbiological evaluation of the food consumed. PMID:27455195

  7. The Intestinal Microbiota Influences Campylobacter jejuni Colonization and Extraintestinal Dissemination in Mice

    PubMed Central

    O'Loughlin, Jason L.; Samuelson, Derrick R.; Braundmeier-Fleming, Andrea G.; White, Bryan A.; Haldorson, Gary J.; Stone, Jennifer B.; Lessmann, Jeremy J.; Eucker, Tyson P.

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. The interactions between this pathogen and the intestinal microbiome within a host are of interest as endogenous intestinal microbiota mediates a form of resistance to the pathogen. This resistance, termed colonization resistance, is the ability of commensal microbiota to prevent colonization by exogenous pathogens or opportunistic commensals. Although mice normally demonstrate colonization resistance to C. jejuni, we found that mice treated with ampicillin are colonized by C. jejuni, with recovery of Campylobacter from the colon, mesenteric lymph nodes, and spleen. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in recovery of C. jejuni from ampicillin-treated mice inoculated with a C. jejuni virulence mutant (ΔflgL strain) compared to recovery of mice inoculated with the C. jejuni wild-type strain or the C. jejuni complemented isolate (ΔflgL/flgL). Comparative analysis of the microbiota from nontreated and ampicillin-treated CBA/J mice led to the identification of a lactic acid-fermenting isolate of Enterococcus faecalis that prevented C. jejuni growth in vitro and limited C. jejuni colonization of mice. Next-generation sequencing of DNA from fecal pellets that were collected from ampicillin-treated CBA/J mice revealed a significant decrease in diversity of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) compared to that in control (nontreated) mice. Taken together, we have demonstrated that treatment of mice with ampicillin alters the intestinal microbiota and permits C. jejuni colonization. These findings provide valuable insights for researchers using mice to investigate C. jejuni colonization factors, virulence determinants, or the mechanistic basis of probiotics. PMID:25934624

  8. The genome and proteome of a Campylobacter coli bacteriophage vB_CcoM-IBB_35 reveal unusual features

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne diseases worldwide. Bacteriophages (phages) are naturally occurring predators of bacteria, ubiquitous in the environment, with high host specificity and thus considered an appealing option to control bacterial pathogens. Nevertheless for an effective use of phages as antimicrobial agents, it is important to understand phage biology which renders crucial the analysis of phage genomes and proteomes. The lack of sequence data from Campylobacter phages adds further importance to these studies. Methods vB_CcoM-IBB_35 is a broad lytic spectrum Myoviridae Campylobacter phage with high potential for therapeutic use. The genome of this phage was obtained by pyrosequencing and the sequence data was further analyzed. The proteomic analysis was performed by SDS-PAGE and Mass spectrometry. Results and conclusions The DNA sequence data of vB_CcoM-IBB_35 consists of five contigs for a total of 172,065 bp with an average GC content of 27%. Attempts to close the gaps between contigs were unsuccessful since the DNA preparations appear to contain substances that inhibited Taq and ϕ29 polymerases. From the 210 identified ORFs, around 60% represent proteins that were not functionally assigned. Homology exists with members of the Teequatrovirinae namely for T4 proteins involved in morphogenesis, nucleotide metabolism, transcription, DNA replication and recombination. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis revealed 38 structural proteins as part of the mature phage particle. Conclusions Genes encoding proteins involved in the carbohydrate metabolism along with several incidences of gene duplications, split genes with inteins and introns have been rarely found in other phage genomes yet are found in this phage. We identified the genes encoding for tail fibres and for the lytic cassette, this later, expressing enzymes for bacterial capsular polysaccharides (CPS) degradation, which has not been reported before for Campylobacter phages

  9. Prevalence and concentration of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the processing environment of small-scale pastured broiler farms.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Lisa M; Alali, Walid Q; Gibson, Kristen E; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip; Jaroni, Divya; Berrang, Mark; Habteselassie, Mussie Y

    2013-11-01

    A growing niche in the locally grown food movement is the small-scale production of broiler chickens using the pasture-raised poultry production model. Limited research exists that focuses on Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination in the environment associated with on-farm processing of pasture-raised broilers. The objective of this study was to establish data relative to Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence and concentration in soil and mortality compost resulting from prior processing waste disposal in the small-scale, on-farm broiler processing environment. Salmonella and Campylobacter concentrations were determined in soil (n = 42), compost (n = 39), and processing wastewater (PWW; n = 46) samples from 4 small broiler farms using a 3-tube most probable number (MPN) method for Salmonella and direct plating method for Campylobacter. Salmonella prevalence and concentration (mean log10 MPN per sample weight or volume) in soil [60%, 0.97 (95% CI: 0.66 to 1.27)], compost [64%, 0.95 (95% CI: 0.66 to 1.24)], and wastewater [48%, 1.29 (95% CI: 0.87 to 1.71)] were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Although Campylobacter prevalence was not significantly different by sample type (64.3, 64.3, and 45.7% in soil, compost, and PWW, respectively), the concentration (mean log10 cfu) of this pathogen was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in wastewater [2.19 (95% CI: 0.36 to 3.03)] samples compared with soil [3.08 (95% CI: 2.23 to 3.94)], and compost [3.83 (95% CI: 2.71 to 4.95)]. These data provide insight into small-scale poultry production waste disposal practices and provides a record of data that may serve as a guide for future improvement of these practices. Further research is needed regarding the small-scale broiler production environment in relation to improving disposal of processing waste for optimum control of human pathogens. PMID:24135612

  10. Semi-quantitative method to estimate levels of Campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Research projects utilizing live animals and/or systems often require reliable, accurate quantification of Campylobacter following treatments. Even with marker strains, conventional methods designed to quantify are labor and material intensive requiring either serial dilutions or MPN ...

  11. INACTIVATION OF 'CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI' BY CHLORINE AND MONOCHLORAMINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Campylobacter jejuni and closely related organisms are important bacterial causes of acute diarrheal illness in the United States. Both endemic and epidemic infections have been associated with consuming untreated or improperly treated surface water. The susceptibility of three C...

  12. Spondylodiscitis and an aortic aneurysm due to Campylobacter coli.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Xavier; Dehecq, Caroline; Cattoen, Christian; Garnier, Laurence Destrieux; Bournet, Béatrice Sarraz; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Senneville, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter coli is a rare cause of bacteremia. We report here the first case of C.coli spondylodiscitis complicated by an aortic aneurysm. Outcome was favourable with surgery and antibiotic therapy. PMID:20132561

  13. Identification of EF group 22 campylobacters from gastroenteritis cases as Campylobacter concisus.

    PubMed Central

    Vandamme, P; Falsen, E; Pot, B; Hoste, B; Kersters, K; De Ley, J

    1989-01-01

    EF (E. Falsen) group 22, a group of Campylobacter strains sorted out by routine immunotyping among unidentified or misidentified human nonoral clinical specimens, was characterized by numerical analysis of gel electrophoretic protein profiles and immunotyping. The protein electrophoretic and immunotyping analyses, DNA:DNA hybridizations, and the DNA base composition demonstrated unambiguously that all EF group 22 strains belong to Campylobacter concisus. EF group 22 strains have DNA binding values of at least 42% with the type strain of C. concisus, showing a considerable degree of genomic heterogeneity. The isolation from blood, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and feces of humans in association with different gastrointestinal disorders considerably extends the clinical significance of this species. Our results indicate that sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunotyping are excellent tools for the identification of the fastidious C. concisus strains and relatives. Images PMID:2768465

  14. Cloning and Characterization of Two Bistructural S-Layer-RTX Proteins from Campylobacter rectus

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Martin; Kuhnert, Peter; Nicolet, Jacques; Burnens, André P.; Frey, Joachim

    1999-01-01

    Campylobacter rectus is an important periodontal pathogen in humans. A surface-layer (S-layer) protein and a cytotoxic activity have been characterized and are thought to be its major virulence factors. The cytotoxic activity was suggested to be due to a pore-forming protein toxin belonging to the RTX (repeats in the structural toxins) family. In the present work, two closely related genes, csxA and csxB (for C. rectus S-layer and RTX protein) were cloned from C. rectus and characterized. The Csx proteins appear to be bifunctional and possess two structurally different domains. The N-terminal part shows similarity with S-layer protein, especially SapA and SapB of C. fetus and Crs of C. rectus. The C-terminal part comprising most of CsxA and CsxB is a domain with 48 and 59 glycine-rich canonical nonapeptide repeats, respectively, arranged in three blocks. Purified recombinant Csx peptides bind Ca2+. These are characteristic traits of RTX toxin proteins. The S-layer and RTX domains of Csx are separated by a proline-rich stretch of 48 amino acids. All C. rectus isolates studied contained copies of either the csxA or csxB gene or both; csx genes were absent from all other Campylobacter and Helicobacter species examined. Serum of a patient with acute gingivitis showed a strong reaction to recombinant Csx protein on immunoblots. PMID:10198015

  15. Surface array proteins of Campylobacter fetus block lectin-mediated binding to type A lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, G C; Yang, L Y; Wang, E; Blaser, M J

    1990-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus strains with type A lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and a surface array protein layer (S+) have been found to be pathogenic in humans and animals. Spontaneous laboratory mutants that lack surface array proteins (S-) are sensitive to the bactericidal activity of normal human serum. The ability of lectins to determine the presence of the S-layer and differentiate LPS type was assessed. We screened 14 lectins and found 3 (wheat germ agglutinin, Bandeiraea simplicifolia II, and Helix pomatia agglutinin) that agglutinated S- C. fetus strains with type A LPS but not S- strains with type B or type C LPS or S+ strains. However, the S+ type A strains were agglutinated after sequential water extraction, heat, or pronase treatment, all of which remove the S-layer, whereas there was no effect on the control strains. Specific carbohydrates for each lectin and purified LPS from a type A C. fetus strain specifically inhibited agglutination of an S- type A strain. In a direct enzyme-linked lectin assay, binding to the S- type A LPS strain was significantly greater than binding to the S+ strain (P = 0.01) or to a Campylobacter jejuni strain (P = 0.008). Consequently, these results indicate that the three lectins bind to the O side chains of C. fetus type A LPS but that the presence of the S-layer on intact cells blocks binding. Images PMID:2387622

  16. Reproductive failure in mink and ferrets after intravenous or oral inoculation of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, J A; Manning, D D

    1990-01-01

    Four pregnant mink and seven pregnant ferrets, including five with previous exposure and specific antibody, were injected intravenously with 10(8)-10(10) colony-forming units of Campylobacter jejuni. All 11 pregnancies failed 1-16 days after infection, with results ranging from fetal resorption to expulsion of dead or premature living kits. In every case, uterine contents (placenta, uterine fluid and/or kits) were culture-positive for C. jejuni. Three pregnant mink and nine pregnant ferrets, including four with previous exposure and antibody, were fed 10(9)-10(11) C. jejuni. Two of the mink aborted; kits of all three were culture-positive, but those of one female survived. Seven of the nine ferrets aborted, with two having culture-positive uterine contents. None of 28 uninfected ferret control pregnancies ended in abortion. The most prominent histological feature observed was severe placentitis, which appears to be a more likely cause of Campylobacter-induced abortion than direct pathogenic effects on infected kits. These results suggest that infection of mink or ferrets with C. jejuni during pregnancy poses a serious risk of reproductive failure, even for previously exposed females. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2249178

  17. High-Voltage Electroporation of Bacteria: Genetic Transformation of Campylobacter jejuni with Plasmid DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jeff F.; Dower, William J.; Tompkins, Lucy S.

    1988-02-01

    Electroporation permits the uptake of DNA by mammalian cells and plant protoplasts because it induces transient permeability of the cell membrane. We investigated the utility of high-voltage electroporation as a method for genetic transformation of intact bacterial cells by using the enteric pathogen Campylobacter jejuni as a model system. This report demonstrates that the application of high-voltage discharges to bacterial cells permits genetic transformation. Our method involves exposure of a Campylobacter cell suspension to a high-voltage exponential decay discharge (5-13 kV/cm) for a brief period of time (resistance-capacitance time constant = 2.4-26 msec) in the presence of plasmid DNA. Electrical transformation of C. jejuni results in frequencies as high as 1.2 × 106 transformants per μ g of DNA. We have investigated the effects of pulse amplitude and duration, cell growth conditions, divalent cations, and DNA concentration on the efficiency of transformation. Transformants of C. jejuni obtained by electroporation contained structurally intact plasmid molecules. In addition, evidence is presented that indicates that C. jejuni possesses DNA restriction and modification systems. The use of electroporation as a method for transforming other bacterial species and guidelines for its implementation are also discussed.

  18. Membrane integrity of Campylobacter jejuni subjected to high pressure is pH-dependent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerasle, M.; Guillou, S.; Simonin, H.; Laroche, M.; de Lamballerie, M.; Federighi, M.

    2012-03-01

    Our study focuses on a foodborne pathogen, Campylobacter, which is responsible for the most frequent bacterial enteritis worldwide. Membrane integrity of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 cells treated at high pressure (300 MPa, 20°C, 10 min) at pH 7.0 and pH 5.6 was measured by fluorescence spectroscopy of propidium iodide (PI) uptake. The percentage of membrane-damaged cells by high pressure, in which PI is allowed to penetrate, was determined using two calibration methods based on the PI fluorescence signal obtained with cells killed either by a heat treatment (80°C for 15 min) or by a pressure treatment (400 MPa, 20°C, 10 min). Both calibrations were shown to be statistically different (P<0.05), particularly at acidic pH, suggesting that a difference in the penetration of PI into bacterial cells might depend on the mode of cell inactivation. These results corroborate the fact that the mechanism of microbial inactivation by high pressure is pH-dependent.

  19. The mode of biofilm formation on smooth surfaces by Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Moe, Kyaw Kyaw; Mimura, Junichiro; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Wake, Tomoya; Yamazaki, Wataru; Nakai, Masaaki; Misawa, Naoaki

    2010-04-01

    Many microorganisms produce extracellular polymers referred to collectively as "slime" or glycocalyx, and form biofilms on solid surfaces in natural ecosystems. Campylobacter jejuni, one of the most important foodborne pathogens, also has the ability to form biofilm on stainless steel, glass, or polyvinyl chloride in vitro. However, the issue of biofilm formation by Campylobacter species has not been extensively examined. The present study was performed to examine the mode of adhesion of C. jejuni to a smooth surface. When bacterial suspensions in Brucella broth were incubated in microplate wells with a glass coverslip, microcolonies 0.5~2 mm in diameter were formed on the coverslip within 2 hr from the start of incubation. These microcolonies gradually grew and formed a biofilm of net-like connections within 6 hr. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that massive amounts of extracellular material masked the cell surface, and this material bound ruthenium red, suggesting the presence of a polysaccharide moiety. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the flagella acted as bridges, forming net-like connections between the organisms. To determine the genes associated with biofilm formation, aflagellate (flaA(-)) and flagellate but non-motile (motA(-)) mutants were constructed from strain 81-176 by natural transformation-mediated allelic exchange. The flaA(-) and motA(-) mutants did not form the biofilm exhibited by the wild-type strain. These findings suggest that flagella-mediated motility as well as flagella is required for biofilm formation in vitro. PMID:20009353

  20. Crystal structure of the Campylobacter jejuni Cj0090 protein reveals a novel variant of the immunoglobulin fold among bacterial lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Seonghee; Kawai, Fumihiro; Choi, Kyoung-Jae; Yeo, Hye-Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins play an important role in bacterial pathogenesis and physiology. The genome of Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborn pathogen, is predicted to contain over 20 lipoproteins. However, the functions of the majority of C. jejuni lipoproteins remain unknown. The Cj0090 protein is encoded by a lipoprotein operon composed of cj0089, cj0090, and cj0091. Here, we report the crystal structure of Cj0090 at 1.9 Å resolution, revealing a novel variant of the immunoglobulin fold with β-sandwich architecture. The structure suggests that Cj0090 may be involved in protein-protein interactions, consistent with a possible role for bacterial lipoproteins. PMID:22987763

  1. Crystal structure of the Campylobacter jejuni Cj0090 protein reveals a novel variant of the immunoglobulin fold among bacterial lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Paek, Seonghee; Kawai, Fumihiro; Choi, Kyoung-Jae; Yeo, Hye-Jeong

    2012-12-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins play an important role in bacterial pathogenesis and physiology. The genome of Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborn pathogen, is predicted to contain over 20 lipoproteins. However, the functions of the majority of C. jejuni lipoproteins remain unknown. The Cj0090 protein is encoded by a lipoprotein operon composed of cj0089, cj0090, and cj0091. Here, we report the crystal structure of Cj0090 at 1.9 Å resolution, revealing a novel variant of the immunoglobulin fold with β-sandwich architecture. The structure suggests that Cj0090 may be involved in protein-protein interactions, consistent with a possible role for bacterial lipoproteins. PMID:22987763

  2. Campylobacter Genotyping to Determine the Source of Human Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Samuel K.; Dallas, John F.; Strachan, Norval J. C.; MacRae, Marian; McCarthy, Noel D.; Wilson, Daniel J.; Gormley, Fraser J.; Falush, Daniel; Ogden, Iain D.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Forbes, Ken J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Campylobacter species cause a high proportion of bacterial gastroenteritis cases and are a significant burden on health care systems and economies worldwide; however, the relative contributions of the various possible sources of infection in humans are unclear. Methods National-scale genotyping of Campylobacter species was used to quantify the relative importance of various possible sources of human infection. Multilocus sequence types were determined for 5674 isolates obtained from cases of human campylobacteriosis in Scotland from July 2005 through September 2006 and from 999 Campylobacter species isolates from 3417 contemporaneous samples from potential human infection sources. These data were supplemented with 2420 sequence types from other studies, representing isolates from a variety of sources. The clinical isolates were attributed to possible sources on the basis of their sequence types with use of 2 population genetic models, STRUCTURE and an asymmetric island model. Results The STRUCTURE and the asymmetric island models attributed most clinical isolates to chicken meat (58% and 78% of Campylobacter jejuni and 40% and 56% of Campylobacter coli isolates, respectively), identifying it as the principal source of Campylobacter infection in humans. Both models attributed the majority of the remaining isolates to ruminant sources, with relatively few isolates attributed to wild bird, environment, swine, and turkey sources. Conclusions National-scale genotyping was a practical and efficient methodology for the quantification of the contributions of different sources to human Campylobacter infection. Combined with the knowledge that retail chicken is routinely contaminated with Campylobacter, these results are consistent with the view that the largest reductions in human campylobacteriosis in industrialized countries will come from interventions that focus on the poultry industry. PMID:19275496

  3. Enumeration and identity of Campylobacter spp. in Italian broilers.

    PubMed

    Manfreda, G; De Cesare, A; Bondioli, V; Stern, N J; Franchini, A

    2006-03-01

    Transmission of Campylobacter to humans has been prominently associated with mishandling or improperly preparing contaminated poultry carcasses. The number of organisms per carcass represents an important measure of human exposure to the agent. Therefore, we wished to estimate this public exposure over 1 yr among Italian broiler carcasses. We sampled 213 broiler carcasses from rinse water samples collected from a single slaughterhouse. Groups of carcasses had mean processed weights ranging from 1.2 to 2.7 kg. These were produced from 22 commercial broiler chicken flocks collected from 12 different farms, 3 of which were seasonally tested. Carcasses were rinsed with sterile water, and the rinse suspension was then serially diluted and spread-plated directly onto Campy-Cefex agar plates. One to 5 typical Campylobacter colonies per plate were identified by polymerase chain reaction as Campylobacter thermo-tolerant species. The overall estimated mean count per carcass in our study was 5.16 +/- 0.80 log10 cfu. This value increased in summer and autumn, as well as on carcasses collected from farms located > 100 km far from the slaughterhouse. A total of 678 Campylobacter colonies were identified by polymerase chain reaction. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (49.2%) or Campylobacter coli (47.5%). The overall number of C. jejuni was significantly higher on 1) carcasses weighing > 2 kg, 2) carcasses belonging to flocks with > 10,000 birds, and 3) carcasses collected from farms located > 100 km from the slaughterhouse. Moreover, among farms tested seasonally, C. jejuni was significantly greater than C. coli in winter. These data provide the first results of a continuing survey on Campylobacter loads and species identification from Italian broiler carcasses and represents an important baseline to estimate the human exposure to Campylobacter in Italy. PMID:16553289

  4. Analysis of Campylobacter jejuni antigens with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Kosunen, T U; Bång, B E; Hurme, M

    1984-01-01

    To develop monoclonal reagents for antigenic analysis and serotyping of Campylobacter spp., hybridoma cell lines were produced by fusion of mouse myeloma cells and spleen cells from mice immunized with Formalin-treated Campylobacter jejuni organisms. An enzyme immunoassay was used for preliminary screening of the cell culture supernatants and ascites. Twenty-nine clones which reacted with the immunogen were obtained. Seven of these clones were positive in passive hemagglutination tests with sheep erythrocytes coated with boiled saline extract of whole bacteria; four of these reacted with the purified polysaccharide preparation and with the autoclaved saline extract, but not with lipopolysaccharide prepared from the immunogen strain. Two of the antipolysaccharide clones agglutinated live bacteria in slide tests. Four additional clones gave positive slide agglutination tests with live bacteria, but in tube testing no clones agglutinated Formalin-treated bacteria. No cross-reactions with unrelated bacteria were seen, but several clones reacted in the enzyme immunoassay with many of the 24 Campylobacter strains studied. The clone which gave the highest mean enzyme immunoassay values with Campylobacter coli and C. jejuni strains also reacted with Campylobacter fetus subsp. veneralis and C. fetus subsp. fetus strains. This clone also gave the highest enzyme immunoassay value with an acid glycine extract of the immunogen, which indicates the presence of common antigens in the extract. The results suggest that monoclonal antibodies may be used to devise serotyping schemes for Campylobacter spp. PMID:6365954

  5. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, P. P.; DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Dunn, B.; Miotto, K.; MacDonnell, M. T.; Rollins, D. M.; Pillidge, C. J.; Hespell, R. B.; Colwell, R. R.; Sogin, M. L.; Fox, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis has been used to examine the phylogenetic position and structure of the genus Campylobacter. A complete 5S rRNA sequence was determined for two strains of Campylobacter jejuni and extensive partial sequences of the 16S rRNA were obtained for several strains of C. jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes. In addition limited partial sequence data were obtained from the 16S rRNAs of isolates of C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, C. fecalis, and C. pyloridis. It was found that W. succinogenes is specifically related to, but not included, in the genus Campylobacter as presently constituted. Within the genus significant diversity was noted. C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis are very closely related but the other species are distinctly different from one another. C. pyloridis is without question the most divergent of the Campylobacter isolates examined here and is sufficiently distinct to warrant inclusion in a separate genus. In terms of overall position in bacterial phylogeny, the Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster represents a deep branching most probably located within an expanded version of the Division containing the purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives. The Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster is not specifically includable in either the alpha, beta or gamma subdivisions of the purple bacteria.

  6. Variation in Campylobacter Mulilocus Sequence Typing Subtypes Detected on Three Different Plating Media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: There are multiple selective plating media available for detection and enumeration of naturally occurring Campylobacter. Campylobacter produce colonies with differing morphology and characteristics depending on the plating medium used. It is unclear if choice of plating medium can a...

  7. Effect of sponges and gas-charged incubators on recovery of Campylobacter from broiler rinses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are microaerophilic and capnophilic microorganisms. Methods to increase exposure of Campylobacter to appropriate microaerobic conditions could theoretically improve recovery of stressed cells. The porous nature of a sponge greatly increases the sample surface area exposed to mic...

  8. Eugenol wash and chitosan based coating reduces Campylobacter jejuni counts on poultry products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter, a leading cause of foodborne illness globally in humans, is strongly associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry products. Unfortunately, current strategies to reduce Campylobacter counts in poultry have had limited success. Our study investigated the efficacy of eugenol ...

  9. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum type strain 03-427T

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum has been isolated from reptiles and humans. This Campylobacter subspecies is genetically distinct from other C. fetus subspecies. Here we present the first whole genome sequence for this C. fetus subspecies....

  10. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum strain 1485ET, isolated from a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to C. fetus and C. hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole genome sequence for this species....

  11. Isolation Method (direct plating or enrichment) does not affect Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter from Chicken Carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine if Campylobacter isolation method influenced antimicrobial susceptibility results, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of nine antimicrobials were compared for 291 pairs of Campylobacter isolates recovered from chicken carcass rinse samples using direct plating and an enrichment...

  12. Study on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. from chicken meat in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Luu, Quynh Huong; Tran, Thi Hanh; Phung, Dac Cam; Nguyen, Thi Be

    2006-10-01

    Campylobacter spp. is considered to be the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. In developing countries, Campylobacter spp. diarrhea is an important cause of childhood morbidity. Chicken meat is known to be a major source of Campylobacteriosis infection in the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken meat. A total of 100 samples from breast part of chicken carcass were collected from retail market in Hanoi. The samples were taken for bacteriological analysis following the ISO 10272 standards. Thirty one samples (31%) were found positive for Campylobacter spp. The most frequently isolated Campylobacter was Campylobacter jejuni (45.2%) followed by Campylobacter coli (25.8%). Due to high contamination rates of retail chicken products, special attention must be paid to good manufacturing practices of food processors and vendors. Further studies should be done to assess the risk factors of Campylobacter spp. contamination in the Vietnamese fowl production chain. PMID:17135525

  13. Prospective study of pathogens in asymptomatic travellers and those with diarrhoea: aetiological agents revisited.

    PubMed

    Lääveri, T; Antikainen, J; Pakkanen, S H; Kirveskari, J; Kantele, A

    2016-06-01

    Travellers' diarrhoea (TD) remains the most frequent health problem encountered by visitors to the (sub)tropics. Traditional stool culture identifies the pathogen in only 15% of cases. Exploiting PCR-based methods, we investigated TD pathogens with a focus on asymptomatic travellers and severity of symptoms. Pre- and post-travel stools of 382 travellers with no history of antibiotic use during travel were analysed with a multiplex quantitative PCR for Salmonella, Yersinia, Campylobacter, Shigella, Vibrio cholerae and five diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli: enteroaggregative (EAEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteroinvasive (EIEC). The participants were categorized by presence/absence of TD during travel and on return, and by severity of symptoms. A pathogen was indentified in 61% of the asymptomatic travellers, 83% of those with resolved TD, and 83% of those with ongoing TD; 25%, 43% and 53% had multiple pathogens, respectively. EPEC, EAEC, ETEC and Campylobacter associated especially with ongoing TD symptoms. EAEC and EPEC proved more common than ETEC. To conclude, modern methodology challenges our perception of stool pathogens: all pathogens were common both in asymptomatic and symptomatic travellers. TD has a multibacterial nature, but diarrhoeal symptoms mostly associate with EAEC, EPEC, ETEC and Campylobacter. PMID:26970046

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates obtained in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from 2002 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Gaudreau, Christiane; Boucher, France; Gilbert, Huguette; Bekal, Sadjia

    2014-07-01

    From 2002 to 2013 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 38 Campylobacter coli isolates were more frequently erythromycin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin resistant than 440 Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni isolates (18.4% versus 1.8%; P = 0.00005), of which the 148 isolates acquired abroad were more frequently erythromycin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin resistant than the 292 isolates acquired locally (5.4% versus 0%; P = 0.0001). PMID:24759726

  15. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates Obtained in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from 2002 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, France; Gilbert, Huguette; Bekal, Sadjia

    2014-01-01

    From 2002 to 2013 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 38 Campylobacter coli isolates were more frequently erythromycin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin resistant than 440 Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni isolates (18.4% versus 1.8%; P = 0.00005), of which the 148 isolates acquired abroad were more frequently erythromycin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin resistant than the 292 isolates acquired locally (5.4% versus 0%; P = 0.0001). PMID:24759726

  16. A proteome-wide protein interaction map for Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, Jodi R; Yu, Jingkai; Liu, Guozhen; Hines, Julie A; Chan, Jason E; Mangiola, Bernie A; Zhang, Huamei; Pacifico, Svetlana; Fotouhi, Farshad; DiRita, Victor J; Ideker, Trey; Andrews, Phillip; Finley, Russell L

    2007-01-01

    Background Data from large-scale protein interaction screens for humans and model eukaryotes have been invaluable for developing systems-level models of biological processes. Despite this value, only a limited amount of interaction data is available for prokaryotes. Here we report the systematic identification of protein interactions for the bacterium Campylobacter jejuni, a food-borne pathogen and a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Results Using high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screens we detected and reproduced 11,687 interactions. The resulting interaction map includes 80% of the predicted C. jejuni NCTC11168 proteins and places a large number of poorly characterized proteins into networks that provide initial clues about their functions. We used the map to identify a number of conserved subnetworks by comparison to protein networks from Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We also demonstrate the value of the interactome data for mapping biological pathways by identifying the C. jejuni chemotaxis pathway. Finally, the interaction map also includes a large subnetwork of putative essential genes that may be used to identify potential new antimicrobial drug targets for C. jejuni and related organisms. Conclusion The C. jejuni protein interaction map is one of the most comprehensive yet determined for a free-living organism and nearly doubles the binary interactions available for the prokaryotic kingdom. This high level of coverage facilitates pathway mapping and function prediction for a large number of C. jejuni proteins as well as orthologous proteins from other organisms. The broad coverage also facilitates cross-species comparisons for the identification of evolutionarily conserved subnetworks of protein interactions. PMID:17615063

  17. Strategies to control Salmonella and Campylobacter in raw poultry products.

    PubMed

    White, P L; Baker, A R; James, W O

    1997-08-01

    Foodborne illness is a major public health concern. The largest number of foodborne illness cases attributed to poultry and poultry products are caused by paratyphoid serotypes of Salmonella and by Campylobacter jejuni. The effective prevention of foodborne disease requires an understanding that contamination can be introduced into foods at numerous points along the food chain. Since multiple entry points exist for foodborne pathogens, multifaceted intervention approaches are required to successfully control contamination of poultry during the various phases of the growth period and processing procedure of broiler chickens. Strategies during the grow-out period (the period during which day-old chicks are raised to six- to seven-week-old broiler chickens) include sanitation, biosecurity, vaccine and drug therapy, and biological control procedures, such as those aimed at preventing colonisation. There are also many critical control points identified in the processing plant which reduce contamination. These include temperature controls (washer and product), chemical interventions, water replacements and counter-flow technology in the scalder and chiller, and equipment maintenance. Transportation and food handling at retail outlets and by the consumer (i.e., storage at the proper temperature and adequate cooking) are the final critical control points in the farm-to-table continuum. It is important to apply risk reduction strategies throughout the food chain. These include: easing the development and implementation of voluntary animal production 'best management practices', implementing in-plant hazard analysis and critical control point systems, developing effective transportation and refrigeration standards, working to facilitate adoption of the model Food Code in all States and providing educational materials and support for public health activities nationwide. PMID:9501366

  18. Structural heterogeneity of terminal glycans in Campylobacter jejuni lipooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Semchenko, Evgeny A; Day, Christopher J; Moutin, Marc; Wilson, Jennifer C; Tiralongo, Joe; Korolik, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Lipooligosaccharides of the gastrointestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni are regarded as a major virulence factor and are implicated in the production of cross-reactive antibodies against host gangliosides, which leads to the development of autoimmune neuropathies such as Guillain-Barré and Fisher Syndromes. C. jejuni strains are known to produce diverse LOS structures encoded by more than 19 types of LOS biosynthesis clusters. This study demonstrates that the final C. jejuni LOS structure cannot always be predicted from the genetic composition of the LOS biosynthesis cluster, as determined by novel lectin array analysis of the terminal LOS glycans. The differences were shown to be partially facilitated by the differential on/off status of three genes wlaN, cst and cj1144-45. The on/off status of these genes was also analysed in C. jejuni strains grown in vitro and in vivo, isolated directly from the host animal without passaging, using immunoseparation. Importantly, C. jejuni strains 331, 421 and 520 encoding cluster type C were shown to produce different LOS, mimicking asialo GM(1), asialo GM(2) and a heterogeneous mix of gangliosides and other glycoconjugates respectively. In addition, individual C. jejuni colonies were shown to consistently produce heterogeneous LOS structures, irrespective of the cluster type and the status of phase variable genes. Furthermore we describe C. jejuni strains (351 and 375) with LOS clusters that do not match any of the previously described LOS clusters, yet are able to produce LOS with asialo GM(2)-like mimicries. The LOS biosynthesis clusters of these strains are likely to contain genes that code for LOS biosynthesis machinery previously not identified, yet capable of synthesising LOS mimicking gangliosides. PMID:22815868

  19. Biochar, Bentonite and Zeolite Supplemented Feeding of Layer Chickens Alters Intestinal Microbiota and Reduces Campylobacter Load.

    PubMed

    Prasai, Tanka P; Walsh, Kerry B; Bhattarai, Surya P; Midmore, David J; Van, Thi T H; Moore, Robert J; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    A range of feed supplements, including antibiotics, have been commonly used in poultry production to improve health and productivity. Alternative methods are needed to suppress pathogen loads and maintain productivity. As an alternative to antibiotics use, we investigated the ability of biochar, bentonite and zeolite as separate 4% feed additives, to selectively remove pathogens without reducing microbial richness and diversity in the gut. Neither biochar, bentonite nor zeolite made any significant alterations to the overall richness and diversity of intestinal bacterial community. However, reduction of some bacterial species, including some potential pathogens was detected. The microbiota of bentonite fed animals were lacking all members of the order Campylobacterales. Specifically, the following operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were absent: an OTU 100% identical to Campylobacter jejuni; an OTU 99% identical to Helicobacter pullorum; multiple Gallibacterium anatis (>97%) related OTUs; Bacteroides dorei (99%) and Clostridium aldenense (95%) related OTUs. Biochar and zeolite treatments had similar but milder effects compared to bentonite. Zeolite amended feed was also associated with significant reduction in the phylum Proteobacteria. All three additives showed potential for the control of major poultry zoonotic pathogens. PMID:27116607

  20. Biochar, Bentonite and Zeolite Supplemented Feeding of Layer Chickens Alters Intestinal Microbiota and Reduces Campylobacter Load

    PubMed Central

    Prasai, Tanka P.; Walsh, Kerry B.; Bhattarai, Surya P.; Midmore, David J.; Van, Thi T. H.; Moore, Robert J.; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    A range of feed supplements, including antibiotics, have been commonly used in poultry production to improve health and productivity. Alternative methods are needed to suppress pathogen loads and maintain productivity. As an alternative to antibiotics use, we investigated the ability of biochar, bentonite and zeolite as separate 4% feed additives, to selectively remove pathogens without reducing microbial richness and diversity in the gut. Neither biochar, bentonite nor zeolite made any significant alterations to the overall richness and diversity of intestinal bacterial community. However, reduction of some bacterial species, including some potential pathogens was detected. The microbiota of bentonite fed animals were lacking all members of the order Campylobacterales. Specifically, the following operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were absent: an OTU 100% identical to Campylobacter jejuni; an OTU 99% identical to Helicobacter pullorum; multiple Gallibacterium anatis (>97%) related OTUs; Bacteroides dorei (99%) and Clostridium aldenense (95%) related OTUs. Biochar and zeolite treatments had similar but milder effects compared to bentonite. Zeolite amended feed was also associated with significant reduction in the phylum Proteobacteria. All three additives showed potential for the control of major poultry zoonotic pathogens. PMID:27116607

  1. Typing of heat-stable and heat-labile antigens of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by coagglutination.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, K H; Skelton, S K; Patton, C M; Feeley, J C; Morris, G

    1985-01-01

    A coagglutination system has been devised for typing heat-stable and heat-labile antigens of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The use of protein A-positive Staphylococcus aureus cells carrying Campylobacter sp. serotype antibody and the treatment of Campylobacter sp. cells with DNase in the antigen suspension permitted rapid and specific coagglutination of rough (autoagglutinable) as well as smooth cultures. Cells of S. aureus were sensitized with Campylobacter sp. serotype antisera. Four to five types of sensitized S. aureus cells were pooled. A strain of Campylobacter sp. was first tested with the pools and then typed with the individual reagents of the reactive pool. After the described procedures, 68 serotype strains tested blindly as unknowns were correctly typed according to their heat-stable or heat-labile antigens. The two most commonly used typing schemes which are based separately on the heat-stable or the heat-labile antigens as assayed by passive hemagglutination and slide agglutination, respectively, can be utilized simultaneously in the coagglutination system for strain characterization. The coagglutination system is simple, yields results rapidly, conserves typing reagents, and offers the flexibility of formulating the pools of reagents according to the experimental design or the prevalence of serotypes in a geographic location. It should be a practical system for the typing of Campylobacter spp. in public health or clinical laboratories. PMID:3998098

  2. Bloodborne pathogens

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000453.htm Bloodborne pathogens To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A pathogen is something that causes disease. Germs that can ...

  3. Pathogens in drinking water: Are there any new ones

    SciTech Connect

    Reasoner, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1976 three newly recognized human pathogens have become familiar to the drinking water industry as waterborne disease agents. These are: the legionnaires disease agent, Legionella pneumophila and related species; and two protozoan pathogens, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum, both of which form highly disinfectant resistant cysts that are shed in the feces of infected individuals. The question frequently arises - are there other emerging waterborne pathogens that may pose a human health problem that the drinking water industry will have to deal with. The paper will review the current state of knowledge of the occurrence and incidence of pathogens and opportunistic pathogens other than Legionella, Giardia and Cryptosporidium in treated and untreated drinking water. Bacterial agents that will be reviewed include Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Campylobacter, Mycobacterium, Yersinia and Plesiomonas. Aspects of detection of these agents including detection methods and feasibility of monitoring will be addressed.

  4. Detection of live/dead Campylobacter jejuni cells by real-time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of food-borne illness and is frequently associated with undercooked chicken. Campylobacters are difficult to isolate and cultivate in the laboratory due to their preference for oxygen levels below that of the air. With the high prevalence of Campylobacter in food...

  5. SEASONAL OCCURRENCE OF 'CAMPYLOBACTER' SPP. IN SURFACE WATERS AND THEIR CORRELATION WITH STANDARD INDICATOR BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and a Campylobacter-like organism were isolated from a number of natural water sources in central Washington including ponds, lakes, and small mountain streams ranging in elevation from 1460 to 5400 feet above sea level. At the two sites ...

  6. Rapid identification and classification of Campylobacter spp. using laser optical scattering technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are the two important species responsible for most of the Campylobacter infections in humans. Reliable isolation and detection of Campylobacter spp. from food samples are challenging due to the interferences from complex food substances and the fastidious growth requ...

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain RM11343, Isolated from an Alpaca.

    PubMed

    Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Huynh, Stephen; Chapman, Mary H; Parker, Craig T

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample. PMID:27365359

  8. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter iguaniorum strain RM11343, isolated from an alpaca

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample....

  9. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter iguaniorum strain RM11343, isolated from an alpaca.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample....

  10. Variations on standard broiler processing in an effort to reduce Campylobacter numbers on postpick carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter numbers increase on broiler carcasses during defeathering due to leakage of gut contents through the vent. We tested several processing modifications designed to interfere with the transfer of Campylobacter from gut contents to carcass surface. Numbers of Campylobacter detected on br...

  11. Gene Expression Profile of Campylobacter jejuni in Response to Chicken Weep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are one of the most common causes of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis. Handling and consumption of raw poultry products are considered to be a major source of Campylobacter induced disease in humans. There is a high incidence of Campylobacter-positive poultry carcasses, even ...

  12. Campylobacter species occurrence within internal organs and tissues of commercial caged Leghorn laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are frequently present in the intestinal tract and internal tissues of broiler breeder and broiler chickens. Campylobacter spp. ecology in commercial Leghorn laying hens has not been extensively studied. The objectives of the current study were to determine 1) Campylobacter spp. ...

  13. Diminution of Campylobacter colonization in neonatal pigs reared off-sow.

    PubMed

    Harvey, R B; Young, C R; Anderson, R C; Droleskey, R E; Genovese, K J; Egan, L F; Nisbet, D J

    2000-10-01

    Pigs may be a natural reservoir of Campylobacter and can be colonized as early as 24 h after birth. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate what effect early removal of piglets from Campylobacter-positive sows has on Campylobacter prevalence in neonates. In two trials, piglets were removed from sows within 24 h of birth and were reared in nurseries isolated from sows for 21 days. From the neonates rectal swabs were cultured for Campylobacter, and Campylobacter status of the isolated piglets was compared to that of littermates reared on sows. The nurseries consisted of wire-floored farrowing crates that were equipped with heaters and self-feeders. In trial I, the Campylobacter prevalence in nursery-reared piglets was 13 of 14 on day 2 and 0 of 14 on day 20. Campylobacter prevalence in the sow-reared piglets was 8 of 9 from days 2 to 20. In trial II, 12 of 29 on day 2, and 5 of 26 on day 20, of the nursery-reared piglets were culture positive for Campylobacter. For the sow-reared piglets, Campylobacter prevalence was 7 of 15 on day 1 and 15 of 15 (100%) on day 20. These data suggest that successful permanent colonization of the gut by Campylobacter is probably related to constant exposure of piglets to Campylobacter-positive feces. Campylobacter prevalence may be diminished in neonates that are reared off-sow in isolated nurseries. PMID:11041146

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain RM11343, Isolated from an Alpaca

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Emma; Huynh, Stephen; Chapman, Mary H.; Parker, Craig T.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample. PMID:27365359

  15. Differential carbon source utilization by Campylobacter jejuni strain 11168 in response to growth temperature variation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. readily colonize the intestinal tracts of both human and avian species. While most often a commensal organism in birds, campylobacters remain the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. The association of campylobacters with poultry is well established as a primary...

  16. Comparison of Campylobacter species Using flaA Short Variable Region DNA Sequence Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Although the relative rates of Campylobacter infections have been declining in the U.S. over the last decade, Campylobacter species continue to be one of the primary bacterial agents responsible for gastroenteritis worldwide. Infections are usually considered foodborne as Campylobacter...

  17. Survey of Wild Birds in the Southeastern United States for the Presence of Emerging/Novel Campylobacter Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered two major bacterial etiologies of human gastroenteritis in industrialized countries. Routine testing for Campylobacter in the food chain is primarily directed toward detection of these two species, thus the presence of novel Campylobacter sp...

  18. Evaluation and histological examination of a Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis small animal infection model.

    PubMed

    Koya, A; de Wet, S C; Turner, S; Cawdell-Smith, J; Venus, B; Greer, R M; Lew-Tabor, A E; Boe-Hansen, G B

    2015-04-01

    Bovine genital campylobacteriosis (BGC), caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, is associated with production losses in cattle worldwide. This study aimed to develop a reliable BGC guinea pig model to facilitate future studies of pathogenicity, abortion mechanisms and vaccine efficacy. Seven groups of five pregnant guinea pigs (1 control per group) were inoculated with one of three strains via intra-peritoneal (IP) or intra-vaginal routes. Samples were examined using culture, PCR and histology. Abortions ranged from 0% to 100% and re-isolation of causative bacteria from sampled sites varied with strain, dose of bacteria and time to abortion. Histology indicated metritis and placentitis, suggesting that the bacteria induce inflammation, placental detachment and subsequent abortion. Variation of virulence between strains was observed and determined by culture and abortion rates. IP administration of C. fetus subsp. venerealis to pregnant guinea pigs is a promising small animal model for the investigation of BGC abortion. PMID:25599935

  19. Intestinal colonization and competitive exclusion of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni in young chicks.

    PubMed

    Soerjadi, A S; Snoeyenbos, G H; Weinack, O M

    1982-01-01

    Colonization of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni was investigated in monoxenic and holoxenic chicks. In monoxenic chicks, major colonization was found in the crop and ceca, with populations in the ceca consistently reaching 10(9) colony-forming-units/ml of cecal contents over the 28-day test period. Bacteremia was found in most chicks, but no significant gross pathological lesions were detected. In holoxenic chicks, major colonization occurred only in the ceca, and no evidence of bacteremia was detected. Colonization by native gut microflora sharply reduced subsequent colonization by C. fetus subsp. jejuni. The protective mechanism is perhaps the same as that protective against paratyphoid salmonellae and pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. PMID:7150145

  20. Campylobacter jejuni survives within epithelial cells by avoiding delivery to lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Watson, Robert O; Galán, Jorge E

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the major causes of infectious diarrhea world-wide, although relatively little is know about its mechanisms of pathogenicity. This bacterium can gain entry into intestinal epithelial cells, which is thought to be important for its ability to persistently infect and cause disease. We found that C. jejuni is able to survive within intestinal epithelial cells. However, recovery of intracellular bacteria required pre-culturing under oxygen-limiting conditions, suggesting that C. jejuni undergoes significant physiological changes within the intracellular environment. We also found that in epithelial cells the C. jejuni-containing vacuole deviates from the canonical endocytic pathway immediately after a unique caveolae-dependent entry pathway, thus avoiding delivery into lysosomes. In contrast, in macrophages, C. jejuni is delivered to lysosomes and consequently is rapidly killed. Taken together, these studies indicate that C. jejuni has evolved specific adaptations to survive within host cells. PMID:18225954

  1. Campylobacter epidemiology from breeders to their progeny in Eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Ingresa-Capaccioni, S; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Marco-Jiménez, F; Catalá, P; Vega, S; Marin, C

    2016-03-01

    While horizontal transmission is a route clearly linked to the spread of Campylobacter at the farm level, few studies support the transmission of Campylobacter spp. from breeder flocks to their offspring. Thus, the present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of vertical transmission. Breeders were monitored from the time of housing day-old chicks, then throughout the laying period (0 to 60 wk) and throughout their progeny (broiler fattening, 1 to 42 d) until slaughter. All samples were analyzed according with official method ISO 10272:2006. Results revealed that on breeder farms, Campylobacter isolation started from wk 16 and reached its peak at wk 26, with 57.0% and 93.2% of positive birds, respectively. After this point, the rate of positive birds decreased slightly to 86.0% at 60 wk. However, in broiler production all day-old chicks were found negative for Campylobacter spp, and the bacteria was first isolated at d 14 of age (5.0%), with a significant increase in detection during the fattening period with 62% of Campylobacter positive animals at the end of the production cycle. Moreover, non-positive sample was determined from environmental sources. These results could be explained because Campylobacter may be in a low concentration or in a non-culturable form, as there were several studies that successfully detected Campylobacter DNA, but failed to culture. This form can survive in the environment and infect successive flocks; consequently, further studies are needed to develop more modern, practical, cost-effective and suitable techniques for routine diagnosis. PMID:26628341

  2. Prolonged Survival of Campylobacter Species in Bovine Manure Compost ▿

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, G. Douglas; McAllister, Tim A.; Larney, Francis J.; Topp, Edward

    2010-01-01

    The persistence of naturally occurring campylobacteria in aerobic compost constructed of manure from beef cattle that were administered chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine (AS700) or from cattle not administered antibiotics (control) was examined. Although there were no differences in population sizes of heterotrophic bacteria, the temperature of AS700 compost was more variable and did not become as high as that of control compost. There were significant differences in water content, total carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), and electrical conductivity but not in the C/N ratio or pH between the two compost treatments. Campylobacteria were readily isolated from pen manure, for up to day 15 from control compost, and throughout the active phase of AS700 compost. Campylobacter DNA (including Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter hyointestinalis, and Campylobacter jejuni) was detected over the ca. 10-month composting period, and no reductions in quantities of C. jejuni DNA were observed over the duration of the active phase. The utilization of centrifugation in combination with ethidium monoazide (EMA) significantly reduced (>90%) the amplification of C. jejuni DNA that did not originate from cells with intact cell membranes. No differences were observed in the frequency of Campylobacter DNA detection between EMA- and non-EMA-treated samples, suggesting that Campylobacter DNA amplified from compost was extracted from cells with intact cell membranes (i.e., from viable cells). The findings of this study indicate that campylobacteria excreted in cattle feces persist for long periods in compost and call into question the common belief that these bacteria do not persist in manure. PMID:20023098

  3. Genetic Diversity and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates Associated with Sheep Abortion in the United States and Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zuowei; Sippy, Rachel; Plummer, Paul; Vidal, Ana; Newell, Diane; Zhang, Qijing

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter infection is a leading cause of ovine abortion worldwide. Historically, genetically diverse Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter jejuni strains have been implicated in such infections, but since 2003 a highly pathogenic, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone (named SA) has become the predominant cause of sheep abortions in the United States. Whether clone SA was present in earlier U.S. abortion isolates (before 2000) and is associated with sheep abortions outside the United States are unknown. Here, we analyzed 54 C. jejuni isolates collected from U.S. sheep abortions at different time periods and compared them with 42 C. jejuni isolates associated with sheep abortion during 2002 to 2008 in Great Britain, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Although clone SA (ST-8) was present in the early U.S. isolates, it was not as tetracycline resistant (19% versus 100%) or predominant (66% versus 91%) as it was in the late U.S isolates. In contrast, C. jejuni isolates from Great Britain were genetically diverse, comprising 19 STs and lacking ST-8. PFGE and CGH analyses of representative strains further confirmed the population structure of the abortion isolates. Notably, the Great Britain isolates were essentially susceptible to most tested antibiotics, including tetracycline, while the late U.S. isolates were universally resistant to this antibiotic, which could be explained by the common use of tetracyclines for control of sheep abortions in the United States but not in Great Britain. These results suggest that the dominance of clone SA in sheep abortions is unique to the United States, and the use of tetracyclines may have facilitated selection of this highly pathogenic clone. PMID:24648552

  4. Microfluidics meets metabolomics to reveal the impact of Campylobacter jejuni infection on biochemical pathways.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Ninell P; Mercier, Kelly A; McRitchie, Susan; Cavallo, Tammy B; Pathmasiri, Wimal; Stewart, Delisha; Sumner, Susan J

    2016-06-01

    Microfluidic devices that are currently being used in pharmaceutical research also have a significant potential for utilization in investigating exposure to infectious agents. We have established a microfluidic device cultured with Caco-2 cells, and utilized metabolomics to investigate the biochemical responses to the bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. In the microfluidic devices, Caco-2 cells polarize at day 5, are uniform, have defined brush borders and tight junctions, and form a mucus layer. Metabolomics analysis of cell culture media collected from both Caco-2 cell culture systems demonstrated a more metabolic homogenous biochemical profile in the media collected from microfluidic devices, compared with media collected from transwells. GeneGo pathway mapping indicated that aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis was perturbed by fluid flow, suggesting that fluid dynamics and shear stress impacts the cells translational quality control. Both microfluidic device and transwell culturing systems were used to investigate the impact of Campylobacter jejuni infection on biochemical processes. Caco-2 cells cultured in either system were infected at day 5 with C. jejuni 81-176 for 48 h. Metabolomics analysis clearly differentiated C. jejuni 81-176 infected and non-infected medias collected from the microfluidic devices, and demonstrated that C. jejuni 81-176 infection in microfluidic devices impacts branched-chain amino acid metabolism, glycolysis, and gluconeogenesis. In contrast, no distinction was seen in the biochemical profiles of infected versus non-infected media collected from cells cultured in transwells. Microfluidic culturing conditions demonstrated a more metabolically homogenous cell population, and present the opportunity for studying host-pathogen interactions for extended periods of time. PMID:27231016

  5. In Silico Analysis of the cadF Gene and Development of a Duplex Polymerase Chain Reaction for Species-Specific Identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    PubMed Central

    Shams, Saeed; Bakhshi, Bita; Tohidi Moghadam, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    Background Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The cadF gene is considered as a genus-specific gene while other genes are mainly used for discrimination at the species level. Objectives This study aimed to analyze the cadF gene and to develop a duplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of C. coli and C. jejuni, the two commonly encountered species. Materials and Methods In silico analysis of the cadF gene was carried out by several software and available online tools. A duplex PCR optimized with specific primers was used for detection and differentiation of both species. To evaluate specificity and sensitivity of the test, a panel of different Campylobacter spp. together with several intestinal bacterial pathogens was tested. The limit of detection (LOD) of method was determined using serial dilutions of standard genomes. Results The analysis of the full size cadF gene indicated variations in this gene, which can be used to differentiate C. jejuni and C. coli. The duplex PCR designed in this study showed that it could simultaneously detect and differentiate both C. jejuni and C. coli with product sizes of 737 bp and 461 bp, respectively. This assay, with 100% specificity and sensitivity, had a limit of detection (LOD) of about 14 and 0.7 µg/mL for C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. Conclusions In silico analysis of the cadF full-gene showed variations between the two species that can be used as a molecular target for differentiating C. jejuni and C. coli in a single-step duplex-PCR assay with high specificity and sensitivity. PMID:27127589

  6. Effect of cooled and chlorinated chiller water on Campylobacter and coliform counts on broiler carcasses during chilling at a middle-size poultry processing plant.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Mitsuhiro; Chuma, Takehisa; Nishimoto, Tadahiro; Oniki, Hiroyuki; Yanagitani, Yasuo; Kanetou, Ryouichi; Gotou, Kouichi; Shahada, Francis; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Karoku

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of cooled and chlorinated chill water for Campylobacter and coliforms at a middle-size processing plant which was considered to be difficult for eliminate pathogenic bacteria on carcasses, following three conditions were examined; keeping temperature at < 20, < 10 and < 10°C, and chlorine concentration at < 50, < 50 and 50 to 70 ppm during processing in experiment 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Fifteen prechill and 15 postchill carcasses were examined in each experiment. In lower temperature of experiment 2, decreasing rate (%) of coliforms was significantly higher (P<0.01) than that in experiment 1. In higher chlorination of experiment 3, no Campylobacter was detected from all postchill carcasses. PMID:21897062

  7. Identification and Molecular Epidemiology of Campylobacter coli Isolates from Human Gastroenteritis, Food, and Animal Sources by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis and Penner Serotyping

    PubMed Central

    Siemer, B. L.; Nielsen, E. M.; On, S. L. W.

    2005-01-01

    Campylobacter coli is an infrequently studied but important food-borne pathogen with a wide natural distribution. We investigated its molecular epidemiology by use of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)-based genotyping and Penner serotyping. Serotype reference strains and 177 Danish isolates of diverse origin identified by routine phenotyping as C. coli were examined. Molecular tools identified some 12% of field isolates as Campylobacter jejuni, emphasizing the need for improved identification methods in routine laboratories. Cluster analysis of AFLP profiles of 174 confirmed C. coli isolates revealed a difference in the distribution of isolates from pig and poultry (chicken, duck, turkey, and ostrich) species and indicated the various poultry species, but not pigs, to be likely sources of human C. coli infection. A poor correlation was observed between serotyping and AFLP profiling, suggesting that the former method has limited value in epidemiological studies of this species. PMID:15812025

  8. Main Concerns of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nørrung, Birgit; Andersen, Jens Kirk; Buncic, Sava

    Although various foods can serve as sources of foodborne illness, meat and meat products are important sources of human infections with a variety of foodborne pathogens, i.e. Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Verotoxigenic E. coli and, to some extent, Listeria monocytogenes. All these may be harboured in the gastrointestinal tract of food-producing animals. The most frequent chain of events leading to meat-borne illness involves food animals, which are healthy carriers of the pathogens that are subsequently transferred to humans through production, handling and consumption of meat and meat products. Occurrences of Salmonella spp., C. jejuni/coli, Y. enterocolitica and Verotoxigenic E. coli in fresh red meat vary relatively widely, although most often are between 1 and 10%, depending on a range of factors including the organism, geographical factors, farming and/or meat production practices.

  9. Hyperendemic Campylobacter jejuni in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) raised for food in a semi-rural community of Quito, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jay P; Vasco, Karla; Trueba, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Domestic animals and animal products are the source of pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in industrialized countries, yet little is known about the transmission of these bacteria in developing countries. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are commonly raised for food in the Andean region of South America, however, limited research has characterized this rodent as a reservoir of zoonotic enteric pathogens. In this study, we examined the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in 203 fecal samples from domestic animals of 59 households in a semi-rural parish of Quito, Ecuador. Of the twelve animal species studied, guinea pigs showed the highest prevalence of C. jejuni (n = 39/40; 97.5%). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize the genetic relationship of C. jejuni from domestic animals and 21 sequence types (STs) were identified. The majority of STs from guinea pigs appeared to form new clonal complexes that were not related to STs of C. jejuni isolated from other animal species and shared only a few alleles with other C. jejuni previously characterized. The study identifies guinea pigs as a major reservoir of C. jejuni and suggests that some C. jejuni strains are adapted to this animal species. PMID:27043446

  10. Resistance of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Layer Farms in Northern Jordan Using Microbroth Dilution and Disc Diffusion Techniques.

    PubMed

    Al-Natour, Mohammad Q; Alaboudi, Akram R; Osaili, Tareq M; Obaidat, Mohammad M

    2016-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen of significant public health importance. This pathogen is associated with human infection and has been isolated from mammals and birds. Ninety-two cloacal C. jejuni isolates were identified from 35 layer farms in Northern Jordan. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disc diffusion techniques with variable suggested breakpoints. Using MIC and EUCAST cut-off values, the study revealed a significantly high resistance level (100%) among the layers' isolates against ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. A relatively high resistance (41%) toward gentamicin and amoxicillin and low resistance to nalidixic acid (21%), erythromycin (14%), and florfenicol (6.5%) were also found. This high level of resistance may indicate abuses in the handling of antibiotics, which may require stricter control in the local layer industry. A good agreement between the 2 techniques used was demonstrated and the disc diffusion technique could be used as a rapid screening test for antimicrobial susceptibility of C. jejuni to many antibiotics using specific Campylobacter breakpoints. PMID:27300500

  11. Epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. at two Dutch broiler farms.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W. F.; van de Giessen, A. W.; Bolder, N. M.; Mulder, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    Broiler flocks on two Dutch poultry farms were screened weekly for the presence of campylobacter in fresh caecal droppings during eight consecutive production cycles. Hatchery and fresh litter samples were taken at the start of each new cycle. Water, feed, insects, and faeces of domestic animals, present on the farms were also included in the sampling. Penner serotyping of isolates was used to identify epidemiological factors that contribute to campylobacter colonization in the broiler flocks. Generally, broiler flocks became colonized with campylobacter at about 3-4 weeks of age with isolation percentages of 100%, and stayed colonized up to slaughter. A similar pattern of serotypes was found within the various broiler houses on one farm during one production cycle. New flocks generally showed also a new pattern of serotypes. Most serotypes isolated from the laying hens, pigs, sheep and cattle were different from those isolated from the broilers at the same time. Campylobacter serotypes from darkling beetles inside the broiler houses were identical to the ones isolated from the broilers. No campylobacter was isolated from any of the hatchery, water, feed or fresh litter samples. Conclusive evidence of transmission routes was not found, but results certainly point towards horizontal transmission from the environment. Horizontal transmission from one broiler flock to the next one via a persistent contamination within the broiler house, as well as vertical transmission from breeder flocks via the hatchery to progeny, did not seem to be very likely. PMID:7781729

  12. Epidemiological aspects of enteritis due to Campylobacter spp. in Norway.

    PubMed Central

    Lassen, J; Kapperud, G

    1984-01-01

    Data pertaining to 249 patients with stool cultures positive for thermophilic campylobacters are presented. Campylobacters were isolated from about 3% of all cases of acute enteritis and occupied second place in the bacterial etiology of this syndrome following Salmonella spp. Concomitant isolation of salmonellae or shigellae or both was achieved in 40 (16.1%) of the patients infected with campylobacters. The results suggest a bimodal age distribution with highest rates in young adults aged 20 to 29 years and children below 10 years of age. A majority of the campylobacters were isolated from travellers returning from abroad, and, to a lesser extent, from immigrants, particularly from Asia. Immigrants accounted for 45.2% of the patients below 10 years of age. The number of cases increased during the warmer months of the year. Travelling habits could, at least in part, explain the observed seasonality, age distribution, and geographical origin of infection. Eight outbreaks of Campylobacter enteritis were detected, five of which were family outbreaks, whereas three involved people from different families. PMID:6699143

  13. A Gene-By-Gene Approach to Bacterial Population Genomics: Whole Genome MLST of Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Samuel K; Jolley, Keith A; Maiden, Martin C J

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis remains a major human public health problem world-wide. Genetic analyses of Campylobacter isolates, and particularly molecular epidemiology, have been central to the study of this disease, particularly the characterization of Campylobacter genotypes isolated from human infection, farm animals, and retail food. These studies have demonstrated that Campylobacter populations are highly structured, with distinct genotypes associated with particular wild or domestic animal sources, and that chicken meat is the most likely source of most human infection in countries such as the UK. The availability of multiple whole genome sequences from Campylobacter isolates presents the prospect of identifying those genes or allelic variants responsible for host-association and increased human disease risk, but the diversity of Campylobacter genomes present challenges for such analyses. We present a gene-by-gene approach for investigating the genetic basis of phenotypes in diverse bacteria such as Campylobacter, implemented with the BIGSdb software on the pubMLST.org/campylobacter website. PMID:24704917

  14. Defining the metabolic requirements for the growth and colonization capacity of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Hofreuter, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade Campylobacter jejuni has been recognized as the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. This facultative intracellular pathogen is a member of the Epsilonproteobacteria and requires microaerobic atmosphere and nutrient rich media for efficient proliferation in vitro. Its catabolic capacity is highly restricted in contrast to Salmonella Typhimurium and other enteropathogenic bacteria because several common pathways for carbohydrate utilization are either missing or incomplete. Despite these metabolic limitations, C. jejuni efficiently colonizes various animal hosts as a commensal intestinal inhabitant. Moreover, C. jejuni is tremendously successful in competing with the human intestinal microbiota; an infectious dose of few hundreds bacteria is sufficient to overcome the colonization resistance of humans and can lead to campylobacteriosis. Besides the importance and clear clinical manifestation of this disease, the pathogenesis mechanisms of C. jejuni infections are still poorly understood. In recent years comparative genome sequence, transcriptome and metabolome analyses as well as mutagenesis studies combined with animal infection models have provided a new understanding of how the specific metabolic capacity of C. jejuni drives its persistence in the intestinal habitat of various hosts. Furthermore, new insights into the metabolic requirements that support the intracellular survival of C. jejuni were obtained. Because C. jejuni harbors distinct properties in establishing an infection in comparison to pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae, it represents an excellent organism for elucidating new aspects of the dynamic interaction and metabolic cross talk between a bacterial pathogen, the microbiota and the host. PMID:25325018

  15. Variation in the limit-of-detection of the ProSpecT Campylobacter microplate enzyme immunoassay in stools spiked with emerging Campylobacter species.

    PubMed

    Bojanić, Krunoslav; Midwinter, Anne Camilla; Marshall, Jonathan Craig; Rogers, Lynn Elizabeth; Biggs, Patrick Jon; Acke, Els

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacter enteritis in humans is primarily associated with C. jejuni/coli infection. The impact of other Campylobacter spp. is likely to be underestimated due to the bias of culture methods towards Campylobacter jejuni/coli diagnosis. Stool antigen tests are becoming increasingly popular and appear generally less species-specific. A review of independent studies of the ProSpecT® Campylobacter Microplate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) developed for C. jejuni/coli showed comparable diagnostic results to culture methods but the examination of non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter spp. was limited and the limit-of-detection (LOD), where reported, varied between studies. This study investigated LOD of EIA for Campylobacter upsaliensis, Campylobacter hyointestinalis and Campylobacter helveticus spiked in human stools. Multiple stools and Campylobacter isolates were used in three different concentrations (10(4)-10(9)CFU/ml) to reflect sample heterogeneity. All Campylobacter species evaluated were detectable by EIA. Multivariate analysis showed LOD varied between Campylobacter spp. and faecal consistency as fixed effects and individual faecal samples as random effects. EIA showed excellent performance in replicate testing for both within and between batches of reagents, in agreement between visual and spectrophotometric reading of results, and returned no discordance between the bacterial concentrations within independent dilution test runs (positive results with lower but not higher concentrations). This study shows how limitations in experimental procedures lead to an overestimation of consistency and uniformity of LOD for EIA that may not hold under routine use in diagnostic laboratories. Benefits and limitations for clinical practice and the influence on estimates of performance characteristics from detection of multiple Campylobacter spp. by EIA are discussed. PMID:27317896

  16. New trends in emerging pathogens.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Niels

    2007-12-15

    The emergence of pathogens is the result of a number of impact in all parts of the food chain. The emerging technologies in food production explain how new pathogens can establish themselves in the food chain and compromise food safety. The impact of the food technology is analysed for several bacteria, such as Yersinia, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter pullorum, Enterobacter sakazakii, Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis, prions related to vCJD and others. The importance of the ability of many microbes to form VBNC forms is elaborated on. Research on culture independent methods may address this outstanding issue to the better understanding of emerging pathogens. The "demerging" of pathogens also occur, and examples of this are explained. The reaction of bacteria to stresses and sublethal treatments, and how exposure to one stress factor can confer resistance to other stresses, literally speaking causing contagious resistance, are explained. The implication of this e.g. in modern approaches of food preservation, such as Minimally processed Foods, is considerable. Intestinal colonization of EHEC may be regulated by Quorum sensing, and this ability of microbes plays an important role in the colonization of microbes in food and on food processing equipment, an important factor in the emergence of pathogens. The emergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as an opportunistic human pathogen, used for centuries for food and production of alcoholic beverages, calls for research in molecular tools to distinguish between probiotic and clinical strains. Cyclospora cayetanensis and Norovirus outbreaks can no longer be designated as emerging pathogens, they share however one characteristic in the epidemiology of emerging nature, the importance of the hygiene in the primary production stage, including supply of potable water, and the application of GMP and the HACCP principles in the beginning of the food chain. Hepatitis E virus is a potential emerging food borne

  17. Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Using Multiplex-PCR and High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Banowary, Banya; Dang, Van Tuan; Sarker, Subir; Connolly, Joanne H.; Chenu, Jeremy; Groves, Peter; Ayton, Michelle; Raidal, Shane; Devi, Aruna; Vanniasinkam, Thiru; Ghorashi, Seyed A.

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. Among Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and C. coli are the most common causes of human infection. In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR) and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A segment of the hippuricase gene (hipO) of C. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp) gene of C. coli were amplified from 26 Campylobacter isolates and amplicons were subjected to HRM curve analysis. The mPCR-HRM was able to differentiate between C. jejuni and C. coli species. All DNA amplicons generated by mPCR were sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences from each isolate revealed that the HRM curves were correlated with the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Minor variation in melting point temperatures of C. coli or C. jejuni isolates was also observed and enabled some intraspecies differentiation between C. coli and/or C. jejuni isolates. The potential of PCR-HRM curve analysis for the detection and speciation of Campylobacter in additional human clinical specimens and chicken swab samples was also confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 100% and 92%, respectively. The results indicated that mPCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid (8 hours) technique for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. PMID:26394042

  18. Enteric pathogens and antimicrobial resistance in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) feeding at the wildlife-livestock interface.

    PubMed

    Sulzner, Kate; Kelly, Terra; Smith, Woutrina; Johnson, Christine K

    2014-12-01

    Free-flying turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) were sampled in California to investigate the fecal shedding prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., and Escherichia coli. Nine different serotypes of Salmonella enterica were detected in cloacal swabs from turkey vultures, and 6% of vultures were shedding Campylobacter spp.. Turkey vultures sampled at a location with range sheep were more likely to shed tetracycline-resistant E. coli, suggesting that proximity to livestock facilities could facilitate acquisition of drug-resistant bacteria in avian scavengers. These findings illustrate the importance of assessing drug-resistant pathogen transfer at the livestock-wildlife interface. PMID:25632686

  19. Novel Immunomodulatory Flagellin-Like Protein FlaC in Campylobacter jejuni and Other Campylobacterales.

    PubMed

    Faber, Eugenia; Gripp, Eugenia; Maurischat, Sven; Kaspers, Bernd; Tedin, Karsten; Menz, Sarah; Zuraw, Aleksandra; Kershaw, Olivia; Yang, Ines; Rautenschlein, Silke; Josenhans, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The human diarrheal pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli interfere with host innate immune signaling by different means, and their flagellins, FlaA and FlaB, have a low intrinsic property to activate the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5). We have investigated here the hypothesis that the unusual secreted, flagellin-like molecule FlaC present in C. jejuni, C. coli, and other Campylobacterales might activate cells via TLR5 and interact with TLR5. FlaC shows striking sequence identity in its D1 domains to TLR5-activating flagellins of other bacteria, such as Salmonella, but not to nonstimulating Campylobacter flagellins. We overexpressed and purified FlaC and tested its immunostimulatory properties on cells of human and chicken origin. Treatment of cells with highly purified FlaC resulted in p38 activation. FlaC directly interacted with TLR5. Preincubation with FlaC decreased the responsiveness of chicken and human macrophage-like cells toward the bacterial TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS), suggesting that FlaC mediates cross-tolerance. C. jejuni flaC mutants induced an increase of cell responses in comparison to those of the wild type, which was suppressed by genetic complementation. Supplementing excess purified FlaC likewise reduced the cellular response to C. jejuni. In vivo, the administration of ultrapure FlaC led to a decrease in cecal interleukin 1β (IL-1β) expression and a significant change of the cecal microbiota in chickens. We propose that Campylobacter spp. have evolved a novel type of secreted immunostimulatory flagellin-like effector in order to specifically modulate host responses, for example toward other pattern recognition receptor (PRR) ligands, such as LPS. IMPORTANCE Flagellins not only are important for bacterial motility but are major bacterial proteins that can modulate host responses via Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) or other pattern recognition receptors. Campylobacterales colonizing the intestinal

  20. Novel Immunomodulatory Flagellin-Like Protein FlaC in Campylobacter jejuni and Other Campylobacterales

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Eugenia; Gripp, Eugenia; Maurischat, Sven; Kaspers, Bernd; Tedin, Karsten; Menz, Sarah; Zuraw, Aleksandra; Kershaw, Olivia; Yang, Ines; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human diarrheal pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli interfere with host innate immune signaling by different means, and their flagellins, FlaA and FlaB, have a low intrinsic property to activate the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5). We have investigated here the hypothesis that the unusual secreted, flagellin-like molecule FlaC present in C. jejuni, C. coli, and other Campylobacterales might activate cells via TLR5 and interact with TLR5. FlaC shows striking sequence identity in its D1 domains to TLR5-activating flagellins of other bacteria, such as Salmonella, but not to nonstimulating Campylobacter flagellins. We overexpressed and purified FlaC and tested its immunostimulatory properties on cells of human and chicken origin. Treatment of cells with highly purified FlaC resulted in p38 activation. FlaC directly interacted with TLR5. Preincubation with FlaC decreased the responsiveness of chicken and human macrophage-like cells toward the bacterial TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS), suggesting that FlaC mediates cross-tolerance. C. jejuni flaC mutants induced an increase of cell responses in comparison to those of the wild type, which was suppressed by genetic complementation. Supplementing excess purified FlaC likewise reduced the cellular response to C. jejuni. In vivo, the administration of ultrapure FlaC led to a decrease in cecal interleukin 1β (IL-1β) expression and a significant change of the cecal microbiota in chickens. We propose that Campylobacter spp. have evolved a novel type of secreted immunostimulatory flagellin-like effector in order to specifically modulate host responses, for example toward other pattern recognition receptor (PRR) ligands, such as LPS. IMPORTANCE Flagellins not only are important for bacterial motility but are major bacterial proteins that can modulate host responses via Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) or other pattern recognition receptors. Campylobacterales colonizing the

  1. Campylobacter jejuni abortions in two beef cattle herds in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Janzen, Eugene D.; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Berry, Catherine; Clark, Edward G.; Haines, Deborah M.

    1990-01-01

    Abortions, accompanied by placental retention and weight loss, occurred during February and March in 19% of 120 and 10% of 108 beef cows and heifers on two neighboring ranches in southern Saskatchewan. A diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni abortion was made based on lesions of necrotizing and suppurative placentitis and fetal bronchopneumonia in association with the culture of large numbers of C. jejuni from placentas and fetal tissues. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated with variable frequency from fecal samples of aborting and healthy cows, and scouring and healthy calves. Campylobacter jejuni serotype 2 (Lior) was isolated from fetal tissues and feces of a scouring calf, whereas C. jejuni serotypes 1, 4, 5 and 99 were isolated from feces of in-contact cattle. We hypothesized that the source and mode of transmission of C. jejuni was fecal contamination of water supplies and feeding grounds by carrier cows or wildlife. PMID:17423586

  2. An outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni infection among conference delegates.

    PubMed

    Raupach, Jane C A; Hundy, Rebecca L

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter infection is one of the most commonly reported foodborne diseases in Australia however, reported Campylobacter outbreaks are rare. This report describes such an outbreak among delegates attending a 10 day international academic meeting in South Australia during May 2001. A retrospective cohort study of the 29 delegates who attended the conference was conducted. A questionnaire was sent by email with a response rate of 93 per cent. Ten cases (onset of diarrhoea while attending the conference) were identified. Two were culture positive for Campylobacter jejuni. There was a significant association between the illness and eating a number of food items from two restaurants however, environmental investigation of the two venues did not identify a definitive source for the outbreak. This investigation demonstrates the usefulness of email in the distribution of questionnaires among specific cohorts. PMID:14510066

  3. Time-series analysis of Campylobacter incidence in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Wei, W; Schüpbach, G; Held, L

    2015-07-01

    Campylobacteriosis has been the most common food-associated notifiable infectious disease in Switzerland since 1995. Contact with and ingestion of raw or undercooked broilers are considered the dominant risk factors for infection. In this study, we investigated the temporal relationship between the disease incidence in humans and the prevalence of Campylobacter in broilers in Switzerland from 2008 to 2012. We use a time-series approach to describe the pattern of the disease by incorporating seasonal effects and autocorrelation. The analysis shows that prevalence of Campylobacter in broilers, with a 2-week lag, has a significant impact on disease incidence in humans. Therefore Campylobacter cases in humans can be partly explained by contagion through broiler meat. We also found a strong autoregressive effect in human illness, and a significant increase of illness during Christmas and New Year's holidays. In a final analysis, we corrected for the sampling error of prevalence in broilers and the results gave similar conclusions. PMID:25400006

  4. Enteric pathogens through life stages

    PubMed Central

    Kolling, Glynis; Wu, Martin; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Enteric infections and diarrheal diseases constitute pervasive health burdens throughout the world, with rates being highest at the two ends of life. During the first 2–3 years of life, much of the disease burden may be attributed to infection with enteric pathogens including Salmonella, rotavirus, and many other bacterial, viral, and protozoan organisms; however, infections due to Clostridium difficile exhibit steady increases with age. Still others, like Campylobacter infections in industrialized settings are high in early life (<2 years old) and increase again in early adulthood (called the “second weaning” by some). The reasons for these differences undoubtedly reside in part in pathogen differences; however, host factors including the commensal intestinal microbial communities, immune responses (innate and acquired), and age-dependant shifts likely play important roles. Interplay of these factors is illustrated by studies examining changes in human gut microbiota with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Recent gut microbial surveys have indicated dramatic shifts in gut microbial population structure from infants to young adults to the elders. An understanding of the evolution of these factors and their interactions (e.g., how does gut microbiota modulate the “inflamm-aging” process or vice versa) through the human life “cycle” will be important in better addressing and controlling these enteric infections and their consequences for both quality and quantity of life (often assessed as disability adjusted life-years or “DALYs”). PMID:22937528

  5. Adaptive mechanisms of Campylobacter jejuni to erythromycin treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Macrolide is the drug of choice to treat human campylobacteriosis, but Campylobacter resistance to this antibiotic is rising. The mechanisms employed by Campylobacter jejuni to adapt to erythromycin treatment remain unknown and are examined in this study. The transcriptomic response of C. jejuni NCTC 11168 to erythromycin (Ery) treatment was determined by competitive microarray hybridizations. Representative genes identified to be differentially expressed were further characterized by constructing mutants and assessing their involvement in antimicrobial susceptibility, oxidative stress tolerance, and chicken colonization. Results Following the treatment with an inhibitory dose of Ery, 139 genes were up-regulated and 119 were down-regulated. Many genes associated with flagellar biosynthesis and motility was up-regulated, while many genes involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transport, and ribonucleotide biosynthesis were down-regulated. Exposure to a sub-inhibitory dose of Ery resulted in differential expression of much fewer genes. Interestingly, two putative drug efflux operons (cj0309c-cj0310c and cj1173-cj1174) were up-regulated. Although mutation of the two operons did not alter the susceptibility of C. jejuni to antimicrobials, it reduced Campylobacter growth under high-level oxygen. Another notable finding is the consistent up-regulation of cj1169c-cj1170c, of which cj1170c encodes a known phosphokinase, an important regulatory protein in C. jejuni. Mutation of the cj1169c-cj1170c rendered C. jejuni less tolerant to atmospheric oxygen and reduced Campylobacter colonization and transmission in chickens. Conclusions These findings indicate that Ery treatment elicits a range of changes in C. jejuni transcriptome and affects the expression of genes important for in vitro and in vivo adaptation. Up-regulation of motility and down-regulation of energy metabolism likely facilitate Campylobacter to survive during Ery treatment. These findings

  6. Evaluation of commercial antisera for serotyping heat-labile antigens of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, M A; Patton, C M

    1993-01-01

    Commercial antisera for serotyping 22 heat-labile antigens of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were evaluated by using 66 isolates from human and nonhuman sources. Test results were compared with results of tests using antisera produced at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Atlanta, Ga. All strains (three isolates of each of the 22 serotypes) were typeable with the CDC antisera. Of 66 test strains, 39 (59%) were typed as the same serotype with both sets of antisera. Twenty-four strains (36%), including two heat-labile serotype reference strains, were nonreactive with the commercial antisera, and three strains (4.5%) were typed as serotypes different from those obtained with CDC antisera. Five of the 22 commercial antisera correctly serotyped all homologous strains. Our study indicated that two polyvalent antiserum pools, 7 unabsorbed antisera, and 16 absorbed monovalent antisera are weak and need modification to enhance their antibody titers. Further studies are necessary to explain the antigenic change to a different serotype in three strains. PMID:8463402

  7. Emerging food pathogens and bacterial toxins.

    PubMed

    Bielecki, Jacek

    2003-01-01

    Many different foodborne diseases have been described. For example, Shigella bacteria, hepatitis A virus and Norwalk virus were shown as a unwashed hands microorganisms, but pathogen Campylobacter and Escherichia coli were named as raw and undercooked meat and poultry or raw milk and untreated water born bacteria. However, two of them: Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica are known as growing at refrigerator temperatures. Essential virulence determinants of Listeria monocytogenes pathogenicity are well known as a bacterial toxins. Basic molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity depending from these toxins were presented. It was shown that other bacterial toxins may act as very danger food poisoning substances. This is why elimination of pathogenic microorganisms from foods is an obvious solution in some food processes, however this approach is not practical or even desirable in many processes. Thus, risk assessment and microbial monitoring will continue to play important roles in ensuring food safety. Some technological advances have the capability of delivering detection systems that can not only monitor pathogenic microorganisms, but also entire microbial populations in the food matrix. PMID:15058810

  8. Evidence of reinfection with multiple strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Macaca nemestrina housed under hyperendemic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, R G; Sarmiento, J I; Fox, J; Panigrahi, P

    1990-01-01

    A prospective bacteriologic study of 18 infant pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) housed in a nursery facility in which Campylobacter spp. are endemic was undertaken to determine the epidemiology of infection and reinfection. The isolates of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli cultured from 8 of the 18 infants were characterized by serotyping, DNA hybridization, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profiles. The chronology of infection was indicative of multiple reinfections with different strains of C. jejuni and C. coli during the 12-month study of each infant. The duration of infection with a particular strain was 3 to 4 weeks. Infants were also infected with nalidixic acid-resistant campylobacters. These observations indicated that long-term infections under endemic conditions are caused by continual reinfection. C. jejuni or C. coli infection correlated with diarrhea in 5 of the 18 infants at 1 to 4 months of age. Images PMID:2365455

  9. Campylobacter jejuni free oligosaccharides: function and fate.

    PubMed

    Nothaft, Harald; Liu, Xin; Li, Jianjun; Szymanski, Christine M

    2010-01-01

    The Campylobacter jejuni N-linked protein glycosylation pathway produces a heptasaccharide that is added to >65 periplasmic and membrane proteins and is also released into the periplasm as the free oligosaccharide (fOS). The fOS is a novel soluble component of the C. jejuni periplasmic space that exists in 10-fold greater quantities than its asparagine-linked counterpart. Structurally, fOS is the same heptasaccharide that is found attached to asparagine residues on C. jejuni glycoproteins and both glycans are cleaved from the undecaprenylpyrophosphate anchor by the previously identified oligosaccharyltransferase PglB, which we have now shown to be a bifunctional enzyme also displaying hydrolase activity. The fOS levels in C. jejuni, similar to bacterial periplasmic glucans, can be manipulated by altering the salt and osmolyte concentrations in the growth environment. Here, we outline potential functions of fOS and raise new questions about the underlying mechanism involved in PglB-mediated fOS release from its lipid anchor and fOS retention within the C. jejuni periplasm. PMID:21178500

  10. Campylobacter concisus and inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Lee, Hoyul; Grimm, Michael C; Riordan, Stephen M; Day, Andrew S; Lemberg, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of the possible role of Campylobacter concisus (C. concisus) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an emerging research area. Despite the association found between C. concisus and IBD, it has been difficult to explain how C. concisus, a bacterium that is commonly present in the human oral cavity, may contribute to the development of enteric diseases. The evidence presented in this review shows that some C. concisus strains in the oral cavity acquired zonula occludens toxin (zot) gene from a virus (prophage) and that C. concisus Zot shares conserved motifs with both Vibrio cholerae Zot receptor binding domain and human zonulin receptor binding domain. Both Vibrio cholerae Zot and human zonulin are known to increase intestinal permeability by affecting the tight junctions. Increased intestinal permeability is a feature of IBD. Based on these data, we propose that a primary barrier function defect caused by C. concisus Zot is a mechanism by which zot-positive C. concisus strains may trigger the onset and relapse of IBD. PMID:24574800

  11. Campylobacter concisus and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Lee, Hoyul; Grimm, Michael C; Riordan, Stephen M; Day, Andrew S; Lemberg, Daniel A

    2014-02-01

    Investigation of the possible role of Campylobacter concisus (C. concisus) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an emerging research area. Despite the association found between C. concisus and IBD, it has been difficult to explain how C. concisus, a bacterium that is commonly present in the human oral cavity, may contribute to the development of enteric diseases. The evidence presented in this review shows that some C. concisus strains in the oral cavity acquired zonula occludens toxin (zot) gene from a virus (prophage) and that C. concisus Zot shares conserved motifs with both Vibrio cholerae Zot receptor binding domain and human zonulin receptor binding domain. Both Vibrio cholerae Zot and human zonulin are known to increase intestinal permeability by affecting the tight junctions. Increased intestinal permeability is a feature of IBD. Based on these data, we propose that a primary barrier function defect caused by C. concisus Zot is a mechanism by which zot-positive C. concisus strains may trigger the onset and relapse of IBD. PMID:24574800

  12. Conformational analysis of the Campylobacter jejuni porin.

    PubMed Central

    Bolla, J M; Loret, E; Zalewski, M; Pagés, J M

    1995-01-01

    The major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Campylobacter jejuni was purified to homogeneity by selective solubilization and fast protein liquid chromatography. The amino acid composition of the MOMP indicates the presence of cysteine residues. The amino-terminal sequence, determined over 31 residues, shows no significant homology with any other porin from gram-negative bacteria except in a discrete region. Immunocross-reactivity between Escherichia coli OmpC and the MOMP was analyzed, and a common antigenic site between these two porins was identified with an anti-peptide antibody. From circular dichroism and immunological investigations, the existence of a stable folded monomer, containing a high level of beta-sheet secondary structure, is evident. Conformational analyses show the presence of a native trimeric state generated by association of the three folded monomers; the stability of this trimer is reduced compared with that of E. coli porins. This study clearly reveals that the C. jejuni MOMP is related to the family of trimeric bacterial porins. PMID:7543469

  13. Pathogen survival trajectories: an eco-environmental approach to the modeling of human campylobacteriosis ecology.

    PubMed Central

    Skelly, Chris; Weinstein, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis, like many human diseases, has its own ecology in which the propagation of human infection and disease depends on pathogen survival and finding new hosts in order to replicate and sustain the pathogen population. The complexity of this process, a process common to other enteric pathogens, has hampered control efforts. Many unknowns remain, resulting in a poorly understood disease ecology. To provide structure to these unknowns and help direct further research and intervention, we propose an eco-environmental modeling approach for campylobacteriosis. This modeling approach follows the pathogen population as it moves through the environments that define the physical structure of its ecology. In this paper, we term the ecologic processes and environments through which these populations move "pathogen survival trajectories." Although such a modeling approach could have veterinary applications, our emphasis is on human campylobacteriosis and focuses on human exposures to Campylobacter through feces, food, and aquatic environments. The pathogen survival trajectories that lead to human exposure include ecologic filters that limit population size, e.g., cooking food to kill Campylobacter. Environmental factors that influence the size of the pathogen reservoirs include temperature, nutrient availability, and moisture availability during the period of time the pathogen population is moving through the environment between infected and susceptible hosts. We anticipate that the modeling approach proposed here will work symbiotically with traditional epidemiologic and microbiologic research to help guide and evaluate the acquisition of new knowledge about the ecology, eventual intervention, and control of campylobacteriosis. PMID:12515674

  14. Campylobacter fetus Subspecies Contain Conserved Type IV Secretion Systems on Multiple Genomic Islands and Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    van der Graaf–van Bloois, Linda; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Forbes, Ken J.; Zomer, Aldert L.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    The features contributing to differences in pathogenicity of the Campylobacter fetus subspecies are unknown. Putative factors involved in pathogenesis are located in genomic islands that encode a type IV secretion system (T4SS) and fic domain (filamentation induced by cyclic AMP) proteins, which may disrupt host cell processes. In the genomes of 27 C. fetus strains, three phylogenetically-different T4SS-encoding regions (T4SSs) were identified: one was located in both the chromosome and in extra-chromosomal plasmids; one was located exclusively in the chromosome; and one exclusively in extra-chromosomal plasmids. We observed that C. fetus strains can contain multiple T4SSs and that homologous T4SSs can be present both in chromosomal genomic islands (GI) and on plasmids in the C. fetus strains. The GIs of the chromosomally located T4SS differed mainly by the presence of fic genes, insertion sequence elements and phage-related or hypothetical proteins. Comparative analysis showed that T4SS sequences, inserted in the same locations, were conserved in the studied C. fetus genomes. Using phylogenetic analysis of the T4SSs, it was shown that C. fetus may have acquired the T4SS regions from other Campylobacter species by horizontal gene transfer. The identified T4SSs and fic genes were found in Cff and Cfv strains, although the presence of T4SSs and fic genes were significantly associated with Cfv strains. The T4SSs and fic genes could not be associated with S-layer serotypes or geographical origin of the strains. PMID:27049518

  15. Campylobacter hyointestinalis Isolated from Pigs Produces Multiple Variants of Biologically Active Cytolethal Distending Toxin.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Kazumasa; Hatanaka, Noritoshi; Asakura, Masahiro; Somroop, Srinuan; Samosornsuk, Worada; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Misawa, Naoaki; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-11-01

    Campylobacter hyointestinalis isolated from swine with proliferative enteritis often is considered to be pathogenic. While the precise virulence mechanisms of this species remain unclear, we have recently identified a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene cluster in C. hyointestinalis isolated from a patient with diarrhea (W. Samosornsuk et al., J Med Microbiol, 27 July 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.000145). However, the sequences of the cdt genes in C. hyointestinalis were found to be significantly different and the gene products are immunologically distinct from those of other Campylobacter species. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of a second variant of the cdt gene cluster in C. hyointestinalis, designated cdt-II, while the former is named cdt-I. Sequencing of the cdt-II gene cluster and deduced amino acid sequences revealed that homologies between the subunits CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC of ChCDT-I and ChCDT-II are 25.0, 56.0, and 24.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the CdtB subunit of ChCDT-II was found to be immunologically unrelated to that of ChCDT-I by Ouchterlony double gel diffusion test. Recombinant ChCDT-II also induced cell distention and death of HeLa cells by blocking the cell cycle at G2/M phase. Interestingly, the cdt-II genes were detected in all 23 animal isolates and in 1 human isolate of C. hyointestinalis, and 21 of these strains carried both cdt-I and cdt-II gene clusters. Altogether, our results indicate that ChCDT-II is an important virulence factor of C. hyointestinalis in animals. PMID:26283337

  16. Campylobacter hyointestinalis Isolated from Pigs Produces Multiple Variants of Biologically Active Cytolethal Distending Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Kamei, Kazumasa; Hatanaka, Noritoshi; Asakura, Masahiro; Somroop, Srinuan; Samosornsuk, Worada; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Misawa, Naoaki; Nakagawa, Shinsaku

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter hyointestinalis isolated from swine with proliferative enteritis often is considered to be pathogenic. While the precise virulence mechanisms of this species remain unclear, we have recently identified a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene cluster in C. hyointestinalis isolated from a patient with diarrhea (W. Samosornsuk et al., J Med Microbiol, 27 July 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.000145). However, the sequences of the cdt genes in C. hyointestinalis were found to be significantly different and the gene products are immunologically distinct from those of other Campylobacter species. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of a second variant of the cdt gene cluster in C. hyointestinalis, designated cdt-II, while the former is named cdt-I. Sequencing of the cdt-II gene cluster and deduced amino acid sequences revealed that homologies between the subunits CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC of ChCDT-I and ChCDT-II are 25.0, 56.0, and 24.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the CdtB subunit of ChCDT-II was found to be immunologically unrelated to that of ChCDT-I by Ouchterlony double gel diffusion test. Recombinant ChCDT-II also induced cell distention and death of HeLa cells by blocking the cell cycle at G2/M phase. Interestingly, the cdt-II genes were detected in all 23 animal isolates and in 1 human isolate of C. hyointestinalis, and 21 of these strains carried both cdt-I and cdt-II gene clusters. Altogether, our results indicate that ChCDT-II is an important virulence factor of C. hyointestinalis in animals. PMID:26283337

  17. A PAS domain-containing regulator controls flagella-flagella interactions in Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Mark; Periago, Paula M.; Mulholland, Francis; Brown, Helen L.; van Vliet, Arnoud H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The bipolar flagella of the foodborne bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni confer motility, which is essential for virulence. The flagella of C. jejuni are post-translationally modified, but how this process is controlled is not well understood. In this work, we have identified a novel PAS-domain containing regulatory system, which modulates flagella-flagella interactions in C. jejuni. Inactivation of the cj1387c gene, encoding a YheO-like PAS6 domain linked to a helix-turn-helix domain, resulted in the generation of a tightly associated “cell-train” morphotype, where up to four cells were connected by their flagella. The morphotype was fully motile, resistant to vortexing, accompanied by increased autoagglutination, and was not observed in aflagellated cells. The Δcj1387c mutant displayed increased expression of the adjacent Cj1388 protein, which comprises of a single endoribonuclease L-PSP domain. Comparative genomics showed that cj1387c (yheO) orthologs in bacterial genomes are commonly linked to an adjacent cj1388 ortholog, with some bacteria, including C. jejuni, containing another cj1388-like gene (cj0327). Inactivation of the cj1388 and cj0327 genes resulted in decreased autoagglutination in Tween-20-supplemented media. The Δcj1388 and Δcj0327 mutants were also attenuated in a Galleria larvae-based infection model. Finally, substituting the sole cysteine in Cj1388 for serine prevented Cj1388 dimerization in non-reducing conditions, and resulted in decreased autoagglutination in the presence of Tween-20. We hypothesize that Cj1388 and Cj0327 modulate post-translational modification of the flagella through yet unidentified mechanisms, and propose naming Cj1387 the Campylobacter Flagella Interaction Regulator CfiR, and the Cj1388 and Cj0327 protein as CfiP and CfiQ, respectively. PMID:26284050

  18. Passive immunization to reduce Campylobacter jejuni colonization and transmission in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterium-mediated diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. Poultry products are considered the most important source of C. jejuni infections in humans but to date no effective strategy exists to eradicate this zoonotic pathogen from poultry production. Here, the potential use of passive immunization to reduce Campylobacter colonization in broiler chicks was examined. For this purpose, laying hens were immunized with either a whole-cell lysate or the hydrophobic protein fraction of C. jejuni and their eggs were collected. In vitro tests validated the induction of specific ImmunoglobulinY (IgY) against C. jejuni in the immunized hens’ egg yolks, in particular. In seeder experiments, preventive administration of hyperimmune egg yolk significantly (P < 0.01) reduced bacterial counts of seeder animals three days after oral inoculation with approximately 104 cfu C. jejuni, compared with control birds. Moreover, transmission to non-seeder birds was dramatically reduced (hydrophobic protein fraction) or even completely prevented (whole-cell lysate). Purified IgY promoted bacterial binding to chicken intestinal mucus, suggesting enhanced mucosal clearance in vivo. Western blot analysis in combination with mass spectrometry after two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis revealed immunodominant antigens of C. jejuni that are involved in a variety of cell functions, including chemotaxis and adhesion. Some of these (AtpA, EF-Tu, GroEL and CtpA) are highly conserved proteins and could be promising targets for the development of subunit vaccines. PMID:24589217

  19. Evaluation of gamma radiation levels for reducing pathogenic bacteria and fungi in animal sewage and laboratory effluents.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, M M; Brooks, B W; Stewart, R B; Dion, W; Trudel, J R; Ouwerkerk, T

    1987-01-01

    Sewage samples collected from animal wastes and from effluents at an animal disease laboratory were inoculated with known numbers of pathogenic organisms and subjected to various doses of gamma radiation from a 60Co source. Surviving test organisms were quantitatively determined by selective and enrichment techniques. The experiment was modeled as a quantal assay in which probit analysis was applied to obtain D10 values. The D10 value represents the irradiating dose required to reduce the population by 90%. The D10 value ranged from 13.4 krad for Campylobacter fetus to 156.6 krad for Streptococcus faecalis in animal sewage. However, the D10 value for the laboratory effluent was generally lower. Based on the estimated D10 values, the rating of the test organisms in decreasing order of radiosensitivity appeared as follows: Brucella abortus, Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter laridis, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Salmonella muenster, Candida albicans, Clostridium difficile and Streptococcus faecalis. If the D5 and D1 values were utilized, this listing would be only slightly altered. PMID:3651881

  20. Colonization of broilers by Campylobacter jejuni internalized within Acanthamoeba castellanii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present the first report that Campylobacter jejuni, internalized within Acanthamoeba castellanii, colonized broilers. After 1, 3, 7 and 14 days post challenge none of the broilers challenged with negative controls were colonized, but were with internalized C. jejuni. The biology of protozoa-Cam...

  1. MIGRATORY BIRDS OF CENTRAL WASHINGTON AS RESERVOIRS OF 'CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Migratory ducks, Canada geese, and sandhill crane from the Pacific North American Flyway have been screened for Campylobacter spp. Two hundred ninety-eight samples from these birds were examined and the carrier rates detected were as follows: sandhill crane, 81 percent; ducks, 73...

  2. Discriminative power of Campylobacter phenotypic and genotypic typing methods.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Alexandra; Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Miller, William G; De Zutter, Lieven; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Dierick, Katelijne; Botteldoorn, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different typing methods, individually and combined, for use in the monitoring of Campylobacter in food. Campylobacter jejuni (n=94) and Campylobacter coli (n=52) isolated from different broiler meat carcasses were characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), flagellin gene A restriction fragment length polymorphism typing (flaA-RFLP), antimicrobial resistance profiling (AMRp), the presence/absence of 5 putative virulence genes; and, exclusively for C. jejuni, the determination of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) class. Discriminatory power was calculated by the Simpson's index of diversity (SID) and the congruence was measured by the adjusted Rand index and adjusted Wallace coefficient. MLST was individually the most discriminative typing method for both C. jejuni (SID=0.981) and C. coli (SID=0.957). The most discriminative combination with a SID of 0.992 for both C. jejuni and C. coli was obtained by combining MLST with flaA-RFLP. The combination of MLST with flaA-RFLP is an easy and feasible typing method for short-term monitoring of Campylobacter in broiler meat carcass. PMID:26996762

  3. First Case Report of Fatal Sepsis Due to Campylobacter upsaliensis

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Itaru; Omori, Nami; Umeda, Ayaka; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    We encountered a rare case of severe fatal infection in a 70-year-old woman due to Campylobacter upsaliensis, identified by PCR amplification and sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene using DNA extracted from the isolates. To our knowledge, fatal sepsis due to this organism has never been described to date. PMID:25411172

  4. Prevalence, development, and molecular mechanisms of bacteriocin resistance in Campylobacter.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteriocins (BCNs) are antimicrobial peptides produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with narrow or broad spectra of antimicrobial activity. Recently, several unique anti-Campylobacter BCNs have been identified from commensal LAB isolated from chicken intestines. These BCNs dramatically reduced C. ...

  5. Plant derived compounds inactivate antibiotic resistant Campylobacter jejuni strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty-three Campylobacter isolates were screened for their resistance to the antibiotics ampicillin, cefaclor, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamycin, tetracycline, and trimethroprim/sulfamethoxazole. Based on this screen, the resistant strains D28a and H2a and the nonresistant strain A24a were se...

  6. Survival and Transport of Campylobacter Jejuni from Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of gastrointestinal illness worldwide. Although widely known to survive in refrigerated and undercooked poultry, less is known about its occurrence in poultry litter and the potential for transport from applied litter material into the subsurface. In this stud...

  7. Human Infections with New Subspecies of Campylobacter fetus

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Blaser, Martin J.; Tauxe, Robert V.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Fitzgerald, Collette

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov. is a newly proposed subspecies of C. fetus with markers of reptile origin. We summarize epidemiologic information for 9 humans infected with this bacterium. All cases were in men, most of whom were of Asian origin. Infection might have been related to exposure to Asian foods or reptiles. PMID:24050521

  8. Salmonella species and Campylobacter jejuni Cecal Colonization Model in Broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are of concern to the poultry industry because of the continuing association of poultry-borne transmission of this disease to humans. Live, mature bird interventions can only be demonstrated by comparing colonization in non-treated groups of control birds to tre...

  9. Campylobacter Database Update: USDA VetNet (2004-2009)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In March 2004, USDA VetNet was launched with the intention of providing Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) on Salmonella isolates originating from animals as a complement to the CDC PulseNet program. The objectives of USDA VetNet are to determine PFGE patterns of Salmonella and Campylobacter i...

  10. Expression and Characterization of Recombinant Campylobacter jejuni Chemotactic Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression and Characterization of Recombinant Campylobacter jejuni Chemotactic Proteins Hung-Yueh Yeh*, Kelli L. Hiett, John E. Line, Brian B. Oakley and Bruce S. Seal, Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit, Richard B. Russell Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, Uni...

  11. Discriminative power of Campylobacter phenotypic and genotypic typing methods.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to compare typing methods, individually and combined, to use in the routine surveillance of Campylobacter in broiler carcasses. C. jejuni (n=94) and C. coli (n=52) isolated from different broiler carcasses were characterized using different typing methods: multilocus sequen...

  12. Growth of Campylobacter Incubated Aerobically in Media Supplemented with Peptones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth of Campylobacter cultures incubated aerobically in media supplemented with peptones was studied, and additional experiments were conducted to compare growth of the bacteria in media supplemented with peptones to growth in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate-minerals-vitamins (FPMV). A b...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  18. Characterization of urease from Campylobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Mobley, H L; Cortesia, M J; Rosenthal, L E; Jones, B D

    1988-05-01

    Campylobacter pylori, a suspected agent of gastritis and peptic ulceration, rapidly hydrolyzes urea. Because urease serves as the basis of detection of the organism in gastric biopsies and may represent an important virulence factor, biochemical characteristics of the enzyme were determined. C. pylori was isolated from antral biopsies from 10 patients with complaints of abdominal pain or history of peptic ulcer disease. All isolates were urease positive, with an average rate of hydrolysis by cell lysates being 36 +/- 28 mumol of NH3 per min per mg of protein, more than twice that of Proteus mirabilis and 10 times that of other urinary tract isolates. The enzyme had an apparent molecular weight of 625,000 +/- 15,000 by column chromatography, an isoelectric point of 5.9, a Km of 0.8 +/- 0.1 mM urea, an optimal temperature of 45 degrees C, and an optimal pH of 8.2. Ten isolates tested produced ureases with identical electrophoretic mobilities on nondenaturing 5% polyacrylamide activity gels. Acetohydroxamic acid (100 micrograms/ml), hydroxyurea (85 micrograms/ml), flurofamide (0.05 micrograms/ml), and EDTA (8 mM) inhibited enzyme activity by 50%. Cell lysates retained 50% of initial urease activity after 6 days and 40% activity after 18 days when stored at 4 degrees C in 20 mM sodium phosphate, pH 6.8. At -70 degrees C for 18 days, 1 mM EDTA or 15% glycerol preserved 40 or 34%, respectively, of initial activity. The urease of C. pylori appears to be biochemically unique from the enzymes of other common urease-producing species. PMID:3384908

  19. Transcriptomic analysis of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 in response to epinephrine and norepinephrine

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fuzhou; Wu, Cun; Guo, Fangfang; Cui, Guolin; Zeng, Ximin; Yang, Bing; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Upon colonization in the host gastrointestinal tract, the enteric bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is exposed to a variety of signaling molecules including the catecholamine hormones epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE). NE has been observed to stimulate the growth and potentially enhance the pathogenicity of C. jejuni. However, the underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. In this study, both Epi and NE were also observed to promote C. jejuni growth in MEMα-based iron-restricted medium. Adhesion and invasion of Caco-2 cells by C. jejuni were also enhanced upon exposure to Epi or NE. To further examine the effect of Epi or NE on the pathobiology of C. jejuni, transcriptomic profiles were conducted for C. jejuni NCTC 11168 that was cultured in iron-restricted medium supplemented with Epi or NE. Compared to the genes expressed in the absence of the catecholamine hormones, 183 and 156 genes were differentially expressed in C. jejuni NCTC 11168 that was grown in the presence of Epi and NE, respectively. Of these differentially expressed genes, 102 genes were common for both Epi and NE treatments. The genes differentially expressed by Epi or NE are involved in diverse cellular functions including iron uptake, motility, virulence, oxidative stress response, nitrosative stress tolerance, enzyme metabolism, DNA repair and metabolism and ribosomal protein biosynthesis. The transcriptome analysis indicated that Epi and NE have similar effects on the gene expression of C. jejuni, and provided insights into the delicate interaction between C. jejuni and intestinal stress hormones in the host. PMID:26042101

  20. HtrA chaperone activity contributes to host cell binding in Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute gastroenteritis caused by the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is associated with attachment of bacteria to the intestinal epithelium and subsequent invasion of epithelial cells. In C. jejuni, the periplasmic protein HtrA is required for efficient binding to epithelial cells. HtrA has both protease and chaperone activity, and is important for virulence of several bacterial pathogens. Results The aim of this study was to determine the role of the dual activities of HtrA in host cell interaction of C. jejuni by comparing an htrA mutant lacking protease activity, but retaining chaperone activity, with a ΔhtrA mutant and the wild type strain. Binding of C. jejuni to both epithelial cells and macrophages was facilitated mainly by HtrA chaperone activity that may be involved in folding of outer membrane adhesins. In contrast, HtrA protease activity played only a minor role in interaction with host cells. Conclusion We show that HtrA protease and chaperone activities contribute differently to C. jejuni's interaction with mammalian host cells, with the chaperone activity playing the major role in host cell binding. PMID:21939552

  1. Crystal Structure and Catalytic Mechanism of PglD from Campylobacter jejuni

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, N.; Imperiali, B

    2008-01-01

    The carbohydrate 2, 4-diacetamido-2, 4, 6-trideoxy-{alpha}-d-glucopyranose (BacAc2) is found in a variety of eubacterial pathogens. In Campylobacter jejuni, PglD acetylates the C4 amino group on UDP-2-acetamido-4-amino-2, 4, 6-trideoxy-a-d-glucopyranose (UDP-4-amino-sugar) to form UDP-BacAc2. Sequence analysis predicts PglD to be a member of the left-handed {Beta} helix family of enzymes. However, poor sequence homology between PglD and left-handed {Beta} helix enzymes with existing structural data precludes unambiguous identification of the active site. The co-crystal structures of PglD in the presence of citrate, acetyl coenzyme A, or the UDP-4-amino-sugar were solved. The biological assembly is a trimer with one active site formed between two protomers. Residues lining the active site were identified, and results from functional assays on alanine mutants suggest His-125 is critical for catalysis, whereas His-15 and His-134 are involved in substrate binding. These results are discussed in the context of implications for proteins homologous to PglD in other pathogens.

  2. The role of autophagy in the intracellular survival of Campylobacter concisus

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Portugal, Jose A.; Mitchell, Hazel M.; Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Kaakoush, Nadeem O.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter concisus is an emerging pathogen that has been associated with gastrointestinal diseases. Given the importance of autophagy for the elimination of intracellular bacteria and the subversion of this process by pathogenic bacteria, we investigated the role of autophagy in C. concisus intracellular survival. Gentamicin protection assays were employed to assess intracellular levels of C. concisus within Caco-2 cells, following autophagy induction and inhibition. To assess the interaction between C. concisus and autophagosomes, confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were employed. Expression levels of 84 genes involved in the autophagy process were measured using qPCR. Autophagy inhibition resulted in two- to four-fold increases in intracellular levels of C. concisus within Caco-2 cells, while autophagy induction resulted in a significant reduction in intracellular levels or bacterial clearance. C. concisus strains with low intracellular survival levels showed a dramatic increase in these levels upon autophagy inhibition. Confocal microscopy showed co-localization of the bacterium with autophagosomes, while transmission electron microscopy identified intracellular bacteria persisting within autophagic vesicles. Further, qPCR showed that following infection, 13 genes involved in the autophagy process were significantly regulated, and a further five showed borderline results, with an overall indication towards a dampening effect exerted by the bacterium on this process. Our data collectively indicates that while autophagy is important for the clearance of C. concisus, some strains may manipulate this process to benefit their intracellular survival. PMID:24918042

  3. Campylobacter concisus utilizes blood but not short chain fatty acids despite showing associations with Firmicutes taxa.

    PubMed

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Thomas, Donald S; Ruzayqat, Mahmoud M; Lynch, David; Leach, Steven T; Lemberg, Daniel A; Day, Andrew S; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacter concisus is a member of the oral microbiota that has been associated with the development of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the role of the bacterium in disease aetiology remains poorly understood. Here, we examine optimal conditions for the growth of C. concisus, and the pathogenic potential of this bacterium in human gastrointestinal cells from the upper tract. Further, the presence of C. concisus in the lower tract of Crohn's disease (CD) patients undergoing therapy is observed, and the associations of C. concisus with the abundance of other microbial taxa and compounds they produce are evaluated. C. concisus strains had the ability to tolerate moderate levels of acidity, adhere to and invade esophageal and gastric cells; however, these properties did not correlate with their pathogenic potential in intestinal cells. The presence of the bacterium in the lower gut of CD patients was associated with an increased relative abundance of Faecalibacterium and Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis. Short chain fatty acids that can be produced by these microbial species did not appear to be responsible for this association. However, we identified genetic similarity between C. concisus and Firmicutes, specifically within aspartate and glutamate racemases. The potential pathogenesis of C. concisus in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and the responsiveness of the bacterium to therapy in a subset of CD patients warrant further investigation into whether this bacterium has a causal role in disease or its presence is incidental. PMID:27339421

  4. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in water: effect of grazing by the freshwater crustacean Daphnia carinata (Cladocera).

    PubMed

    Schallenberg, M; Bremer, P J; Henkel, S; Launhardt, A; Burns, C W

    2005-09-01

    Environmental studies of the human-pathogenic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni have focused on linking distributions with potential sources. However, in aquatic ecosystems, the abundance of C. jejuni may also be regulated by predation. We examine the potential for grazing by the freshwater planktonic crustacean Daphnia carinata to reduce the survival of C. jejuni. We use a system for measuring grazing and clearance rates of D. carinata on bacteria and demonstrate that D. carinata can graze C. jejuni cells at a rate of 7% individual(-1) h(-1) under simulated natural conditions in the presence of an algal food source. We show that passage of C. jejuni through the Daphnia gut and incorporation into fecal material effectively reduces survival of C. jejuni. This is the first evidence to suggest that grazing by planktonic organisms can reduce the abundance of C. jejuni in natural waters. Biomanipulation of planktonic food webs to enhance Daphnia densities offers potential for reducing microbial pathogen densities in drinking water reservoirs and recreational water bodies, thereby reducing the risk of contracting water-borne disease. PMID:16151090

  5. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in Water: Effect of Grazing by the Freshwater Crustacean Daphnia carinata (Cladocera)

    PubMed Central

    Schallenberg, M.; Bremer, P. J.; Henkel, S.; Launhardt, A.; Burns, C. W.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental studies of the human-pathogenic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni have focused on linking distributions with potential sources. However, in aquatic ecosystems, the abundance of C. jejuni may also be regulated by predation. We examine the potential for grazing by the freshwater planktonic crustacean Daphnia carinata to reduce the survival of C. jejuni. We use a system for measuring grazing and clearance rates of D. carinata on bacteria and demonstrate that D. carinata can graze C. jejuni cells at a rate of 7% individual−1 h−1 under simulated natural conditions in the presence of an algal food source. We show that passage of C. jejuni through the Daphnia gut and incorporation into fecal material effectively reduces survival of C. jejuni. This is the first evidence to suggest that grazing by planktonic organisms can reduce the abundance of C. jejuni in natural waters. Biomanipulation of planktonic food webs to enhance Daphnia densities offers potential for reducing microbial pathogen densities in drinking water reservoirs and recreational water bodies, thereby reducing the risk of contracting water-borne disease. PMID:16151090

  6. Effect of human isolated probiotic bacteria on preventing Campylobacter jejuni colonization of poultry.

    PubMed

    Cean, Ada; Stef, Lavinia; Simiz, Eliza; Julean, Calin; Dumitrescu, Gabi; Vasile, Aida; Pet, Elena; Drinceanu, Dan; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae

    2015-02-01

    This study was performed in order to determine whether human isolated probiotic bacteria can be effective in reducing Campylobacter jejuni infection of chicken intestinal cells, in vitro, and in decreasing its colonization abilities within the chicken gut. Our results show that the probiotic strains Lactobacillus paracasei J. R, L. rhamnosus 15b, L. lactis Y, and L. lactis FOa had a significant effect on C. jejuni invasion of chicken primary cells, with the strongest inhibitory effect detected when a combination of four was administered. In regard to the in vivo effect, using all four strains in one combination prevented mucus colonization in the duodenum and cecum. Moreover, the pathogen load in the lumen of these two compartments was significantly reduced. When probiotics were introduced during the early growth period, the presence of the pathogen in feces was increased (p>0.05), but when they were given during the last week of growth, there was no significant effect. In conclusion, our data indicate that these four new probiotic strains are able to cause modifications in the chicken intestinal mucosa and can reduce the ability of C. jejuni to invade, in vitro, and to colonize, in vivo. These probiotics are now proven to be effective even when introduced in broiler's feed 7 days before slaughter, which makes them cost-effective for the producers. PMID:25585278

  7. Active migration into the subcellular space precedes Campylobacter jejuni invasion of epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    van Alphen, Lieke B; Bleumink-Pluym, Nancy M C; Rochat, Klazina D; van Balkom, Bas W M; Wösten, Marc M S M; van Putten, Jos P M

    2008-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni invades mucosal cells via largely undefined and rather inefficient (0.01-2 bacteria per cell) mechanisms. Here we report a novel, highly efficient C. jejuni infection pathway resulting in 10-15 intracellular bacteria per cell within 3 h of infection. Electron microscopy, pulse-chase infection assays and time-lapse multiphoton laser confocal microscopy demonstrated that the mechanism involved active and rapid migration of the pathogen into the subcellular space (termed 'subvasion'), followed by bacterial entry ('invasion') at the cell basis. Efficient subvasion was maximal after repeated rounds of selection for the subvasive phenotype. Targeted mutagenesis indicated that the CadF, JlpA or PEB1 adhesins were not required. Dissection of the selected and parental phenotypes by SDS-PAGE yielded comparable capsule polysaccharide and lipooligosaccharide profiles. Proteomics revealed reduced amounts of the chemotaxis protein CheW for the subvasive phenotype. Swarming assays confirmed that the selected phenotype exhibited altered migration behaviour. Introduction of a plasmid carrying chemotaxis genes into the subvasive strain yielded wild-type subvasion levels and migration behaviour. These results indicate that alterations in the bacterial migration machinery enable C. jejuni to actively penetrate the subcellular space and gain access to the cell interior with unprecedented efficiency. PMID:18052944

  8. Physiological Activity of Campylobacter jejuni Far below the Minimal Growth Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Hazeleger, Wilma C.; Wouters, Jeroen A.; Rombouts, Frank M.; Abee, Tjakko

    1998-01-01

    The behavior of Campylobacter jejuni at environmental temperatures was examined by determining the physiological activities of this human pathogen. The minimal growth temperatures were found to be 32 and 31°C for strains 104 and ATCC 33560, respectively. Both strains exhibited a sudden decrease in growth rate from the maximum to zero within a few degrees not only near the maximal growth temperature but also near the minimal growth temperature. This could be an indication that a temperature-dependent transition in the structure of a key enzyme(s) or regulatory compound(s) determines the minimal growth temperature. Oxygen consumption, catalase activity, ATP generation, and protein synthesis were observed at temperatures as low as 4°C, indicating that vital cellular processes were still functioning. PCR analysis showed that cold shock protein genes, which play a role in low-temperature adaptation in many bacteria, are not present in C. jejuni. The fact that chemotaxis and aerotaxis could be observed at all temperatures shows that the pathogen is able to move to favorable places at environmental temperatures, which may have significant implications for the survival of C. jejuni in the environment. PMID:9758819

  9. Insights into the Mode of Action of Benzyl Isothiocyanate on Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Virginie; Stahl, Martin; Rosenfeld, Eric; Stintzi, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a widespread pathogen responsible for most of the food-borne gastrointestinal diseases in Europe. The use of natural antimicrobial molecules is a promising alternative to antibiotic treatments for pathogen control in the food industry. Isothiocyanates are natural antimicrobial compounds, which also display anticancer activity. Several studies described the chemoprotective effect of isothiocyanates on eukaryotic cells, but the antimicrobial mechanism is still poorly understood. We investigated the early cellular response of C. jejuni to benzyl isothiocyanate by both transcriptomic and physiological approaches. The transcriptomic response of C. jejuni to benzyl isothiocyanate showed upregulation of heat shock response genes and an impact on energy metabolism. Oxygen consumption was progressively impaired by benzyl isothiocyanate treatment, as revealed by high-resolution respirometry, while the ATP content increased soon after benzyl isothiocyanate exposition, which suggests a shift in the energy metabolism balance. Finally, benzyl isothiocyanate induced intracellular protein aggregation. These results indicate that benzyl isothiocyanate affects C. jejuni by targeting proteins, resulting in the disruption of major metabolic processes and eventually leading to cell death. PMID:24014524

  10. Sewage effluent as a source of Campylobacter sp. in a surface water catchment.

    PubMed

    Rechenburg, Andrea; Kistemann, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Campylobacter sp. can regularly be found in wastewater-affected surface waters. The occurrence of Campylobacter sp. in rivers, treated sewage and combined sewer overflows was analysed in a catchment with sparse annual precipitation. During regular treatment the reduction efficacy for Campylobacter sp. varies between 1.75 and 3.5 log(10). However, Campylobacter sp. concentrations do not increase downstream in the river as more sewage treatment plants discharge into it. During rain events, the Campylobacter sp. concentration in the river upstream of any sewage plant rises and in the sewer overflow water it is more than 150-fold higher than the average concentration in the river water at the river mouth. The highest Campylobacter sp. loads and the highest risk of infection occur during summertime after heavy rainfall. Risk management strategies should focus on problems regarding water scarcity, reuse of sewage effluent and the impact of heavy rain events. PMID:20183194

  11. High Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni in Wild Crows and Pigeons.

    PubMed

    Ramonaitė, Sigita; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Zakarienė, Gintarė; Aksomaitienė, Jurgita; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence, seasonal variation and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in pigeons and crows over a 1-year period were evaluated. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 166 (34.6 %) out of 480 wild bird faecal samples. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in faecal samples was higher among crows (39.2 %) than pigeons (30.0 %), (P < 0.05). Campylobacter jejuni was the most common species detected among wild bird faecal samples (98.2 %). Meanwhile, Campylobacter coli prevalence in wild bird faecal samples was low-6 %. The Simpson's diversity index of C. jejuni flaA RFLP types was lower in pigeons (D = 0.88) compared with C. jejuni isolates detected in crows (D = 0.97). Obtained results revealed that C. jejuni are widely prevalent among crows and pigeons, indicating these wild birds as potential infection sources to humans. Further studies are required to determine crows and pigeons role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter. PMID:26228635

  12. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Market-Weight Turkeys On-Farm and at Slaughter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To monitor the effects of feed withdrawal on the prevalence of Campylobacter, market weight turkeys from six farms were examined before and after perimarketing events (feed withdrawal, transport, and holding at the slaughterhouse). Prior to transport, birds (n = 30/farm) were slaughtered on-farm an...

  13. 23S rRNA gene mutations contributing to macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Operon specific 23S rRNA mutations affecting minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of macrolides (erythromycin [ERY], azithromycin [AZM], tylosin [TYL]) and a lincosamide (clindamycin [CLI]) were examined in a collection of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates. The three copies of the Campy...

  14. Complete genome sequences of Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis strain LMG9260 and Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii strain LMG15993

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter hyointestinalis is isolated primarily from ruminants and swine, but is also occasionally isolated from humans. C. hyointestinalis is currently divided into two subspecies: subsps. hyointestinalis and lawsonii. This study describes the first closed whole-genome sequences of the subsp. h...

  15. DNA identification and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from cecal samples of chickens in Grenada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To speciate Campylobacter strains from the ceca of chickens in Grenada by PCR and to evaluate DNA-based typing methods for the characterization of these isolates. Isolates were speciated with two multiplex PCR assays and were typed with flaA-RFLP, PFGE and MLST. Results confirmed that C. coli strain...

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from Chicken Carcass Rinsates: Update from the Animal Arm of NARMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: The development of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter species, particularly C. jejuni and C. coli, is of public health concern. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for antimicrobials used in susceptibility testing of C....

  17. Risk Factors for Salmonella, Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Campylobacter Occurrence in Primary Production of Leafy Greens and Strawberries

    PubMed Central

    Ceuppens, Siele; Johannessen, Gro S.; Allende, Ana; Tondo, Eduardo César; El-Tahan, Fouad; Sampers, Imca; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    The microbiological sanitary quality and safety of leafy greens and strawberries were assessed in the primary production in Belgium, Brazil, Egypt, Norway and Spain by enumeration of Escherichia coli and detection of Salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and Campylobacter. Water samples were more prone to containing pathogens (54 positives out of 950 analyses) than soil (16/1186) and produce on the field (18/977 for leafy greens and 5/402 for strawberries). The prevalence of pathogens also varied markedly according to the sampling region. Flooding of fields increased the risk considerably, with odds ratio (OR) 10.9 for Salmonella and 7.0 for STEC. A significant association between elevated numbers of generic E. coli and detection of pathogens (OR of 2.3 for STEC and 2.7 for Salmonella) was established. Generic E. coli was found to be a suitable index organism for Salmonella and STEC, but to a lesser extent for Campylobacter. Guidelines on frequency of sampling and threshold values for E. coli in irrigation water may differ from region to region. PMID:26295251

  18. Risk Factors for Salmonella, Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Campylobacter Occurrence in Primary Production of Leafy Greens and Strawberries.

    PubMed

    Ceuppens, Siele; Johannessen, Gro S; Allende, Ana; Tondo, Eduardo César; El-Tahan, Fouad; Sampers, Imca; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-08-01

    The microbiological sanitary quality and safety of leafy greens and strawberries were assessed in the primary production in Belgium, Brazil, Egypt, Norway and Spain by enumeration of Escherichia coli and detection of Salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and Campylobacter. Water samples were more prone to containing pathogens (54 positives out of 950 analyses) than soil (16/1186) and produce on the field (18/977 for leafy greens and 5/402 for strawberries). The prevalence of pathogens also varied markedly according to the sampling region. Flooding of fields increased the risk considerably, with odds ratio (OR) 10.9 for Salmonella and 7.0 for STEC. A significant association between elevated numbers of generic E. coli and detection of pathogens (OR of 2.3 for STEC and 2.7 for Salmonella) was established. Generic E. coli was found to be a suitable index organism for Salmonella and STEC, but to a lesser extent for Campylobacter. Guidelines on frequency of sampling and threshold values for E. coli in irrigation water may differ from region to region. PMID:26295251

  19. Efficacy of filter types for detecting Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in environmental water samples by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Oyofo, B A; Rollins, D M

    1993-01-01

    A previously developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a target region in the flaA Campylobacter flagellin gene was evaluated and adapted for use with environmental water samples. The ability to detect Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli in seeded water samples was tested with various filters after concentration and freeze-thaw lysis of the bacterial cells. A nonradioactive probe for the amplified flagellin gene fragment detected as little as 1 to 10 fg of genomic DNA and as few as 10 to 100 viable C. jejuni cells per 100 ml of water filtered onto Fluoropore (Millipore Corp.) filters. No amplification was obtained with cellulose acetate filters, most likely because of binding of the DNA to the filter. Concentration and lysis of target cells on Fluoropore and Durapore (Millipore Corp.) filters allowed PCR to be performed in the same reaction tube without removing the filters. This methodology was then adapted for use with environmental water samples. The water supply to a broiler chicken production farm was suspected as the source of C. jejuni known to be endemic in grow-out flocks at the farm, despite the inability to culture the organisms by standard methods. The filtration-PCR method detected Campylobacter DNA in more than half of the farm water samples examined. Amplified campylobacter DNA was not detected in small volumes of regional surface water samples collected on a single occasion in February. The filtration-PCR amplification method provided a basis for detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in environmental waters with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity. Images PMID:8285708

  20. Differentiation of Campylobacter species by protein banding patterns in polyacrylamide slab gels.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, D A; Lambe, D W

    1984-01-01

    Soluble protein extracts of 37 catalase-positive strains of Campylobacter species were examined by polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Electrophoretic banding patterns showed good correlation with biochemical tests and with available DNA homology data in distinguishing species of Campylobacter but did not differentiate subspecies or biotypes. PAGE patterns indicated that Campylobacter coli is a distinct species. Furthermore, the PAGE patterns indicated that C. jejuni and nalidixic acid-resistant thermophilic Campylobacter species (C. laridis) are each distinct species. The protein banding patterns of C. fetus subsp. venerealis and C. fetus subsp. fetus strains were distinctly different from those of the three thermophilic species. Images PMID:6490829

  1. Pathogen Presence in European Starlings Inhabiting Commercial Piggeries in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Hayley E; Lapidge, Steven J; Hernández-Jover, Marta; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2016-06-01

    The majority of bacterial diarrhea-causing illnesses in domestic pigs result from infection with Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., or Campylobacter spp. These bacterial enteropathogens also correspond with the most-common bacteria isolated from wild birds. Additionally, viral pathogens such as avian influenza virus (AIV), West Nile virus (WNV, including Kunjin disease), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) may also be carried and transmitted by birds in Australia. Introduced European starlings (Sturnus vulgarus) are one of the most-frequently reported birds on piggeries in Australia. The presence of the three bacterial pathogens, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Escherichia coli , as well as the three viral pathogens AIV, WNV, and NDV, were evaluated in starlings captured on four commercial piggeries in South Australia. A total of 473 starlings were captured on the four piggeries in 2008 and 2009. A cloacal swab was taken from each bird and cultured for bacterial identification, with follow-up serotyping of any positives, whilst fifty samples were analyzed by PCR for the three target viral pathogens. There was no AIV, WNV, or NDV detected in the 50 starlings sampled. Escherichia coli was found to be present in the starling populations on all four piggeries whilst Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter jejuni were found to be present only in the starling population sampled on one piggery. Serotyping identified pig-pathogenic strains of the bacteria. The prevalence of these production-limiting bacterial pathogens in starlings, coupled with the large starling populations often found inside piggeries during daylight hours in the summer months, presents a disease transmission risk and jeopardizes piggery disease management. Removal of starlings from agricultural enterprises (as shown by international studies), or prevention of starling access to animal feed and water, could substantially reduce the risk of transmission of enterobacterial pathogens from starlings to

  2. Occurrence and Persistence of Bacterial Pathogens and Indicator Organisms in Beach Sand along the California Coast

    PubMed Central

    Yamahara, Kevan M.; Sassoubre, Lauren M.; Goodwin, Kelly D.

    2012-01-01

    This report documents the presence of fecal indicators and bacterial pathogens in sand at 53 California marine beaches using both culture-dependent and -independent (PCR and quantitative PCR [QPCR]) methods. Fecal indicator bacteria were widespread in California beach sand, with Escherichia coli and enterococci detected at 68% and 94% of the beaches surveyed, respectively. Somatic coliphages and a Bacteroidales human-specific fecal marker were detected at 43% and 13% of the beaches, respectively. Dry sand samples from almost 30% of the beaches contained at least one of the following pathogens: Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which were detected at 15%, 13%, 14%, and 3% of tested beaches, respectively. Fecal indicators and pathogens were poorly correlated to one another and to land cover. Sands were dry at the time of collection, and those with relatively high moisture tended to have higher concentrations or a more frequent occurrence of both indicators and pathogens. Using culture-dependent assays, fecal indicators decayed faster than pathogens in microcosm experiments using unaltered beach sand seeded with sewage and assessed by culture-dependent assays. The following order of persistence was observed (listed from most to least persistent): Campylobacter > Salmonella > somatic coliphages > enterococci > E. coli > F+ phages. In contrast, pathogens decayed faster than fecal indicators in culture-independent assays: enterococci > Bacteroidales human-specific marker > Salmonella > Campylobacter. Microcosm experiments demonstrated that both indicators and pathogens were mobilized by wetting with seawater. Decay rates measured by QPCR were lower than those measured with culture-dependent methods. Enterococcal persistence and possible growth were observed for wetted microcosms relative to unwetted controls. PMID:22247142

  3. Campylobacter MLST Subtypes and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Broiler Cecal Isolates: A Two Year Study from 142 Commercial Flocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Campylobacter spp. are recognized as important agents of human foodborne gastroenteritis. To monitor trends in food safety and public health, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter derived from poultry products and infected patients has become common practice in both r...

  4. Characterization of a Differentially Translated Protein, OMP85, from Two Campylobacter jejuni Isolates with Different Colonization Potentials in Broiler Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp., considered a leading bacterial etiology of acute gastroenteritis in humans, is commonly associated with poultry. However, the factors involved in colonization of poultry with Campylobacter spp. remain unclear. Determination of colonization-associated factors should facilitate ou...

  5. Pathogen intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Steinert, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behavior, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behavior, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies. PMID:24551600

  6. Comparative Genome Analysis of Campylobacter fetus Subspecies Revealed Horizontally Acquired Genetic Elements Important for Virulence and Niche Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Kienesberger, Sabine; Sprenger, Hanna; Wolfgruber, Stella; Halwachs, Bettina; Thallinger, Gerhard G.; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I.; Blaser, Martin J.; Zechner, Ellen L.; Gorkiewicz, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus are important animal and human pathogens and the two major subspecies differ strikingly in pathogenicity. C. fetus subsp. venerealis is highly niche-adapted, mainly infecting the genital tract of cattle. C. fetus subsp. fetus has a wider host-range, colonizing the genital- and intestinal-tract of animals and humans. We report the complete genomic sequence of C. fetus subsp. venerealis 84-112 and comparisons to the genome of C. fetus subsp. fetus 82-40. Functional analysis of genes predicted to be involved in C. fetus virulence was performed. The two subspecies are highly syntenic with 92% sequence identity but C. fetus subsp. venerealis has a larger genome and an extra-chromosomal element. Aside from apparent gene transfer agents and hypothetical proteins, the unique genes in both subspecies comprise two known functional groups: lipopolysaccharide production, and type IV secretion machineries. Analyses of lipopolysaccharide-biosynthesis genes in C. fetus isolates showed linkage to particular pathotypes, and mutational inactivation demonstrated their roles in regulating virulence and host range. The comparative analysis presented here broadens knowledge of the genomic basis of C. fetus pathogenesis and host specificity. It further highlights the importance of surface-exposed structures to C. fetus pathogenicity and demonstrates how evolutionary forces optimize the fitness and host-adaptation of these pathogens. PMID:24416416

  7. Campylobacter jejuni Lipooligosaccharides: Structures and Biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many pathogenic bacteria have cell-surface glycoconjugates such as capsules, glycosylated flagellins, glycosylated surface-layer proteins and, in gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or lipooligosaccharides (LOS). The variability of cell surface poly- or oligosaccharides plays a major r...

  8. Heat injury and repair in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, S A

    1984-09-01

    A procedure for detecting and quantitating heat injury in Campylobacter jejuni was developed. Washed cells of C. jejuni A7455 were heated in potassium phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.3) at 46 degrees C. Samples were plated on brucella agar supplemented with Na2S2O3, FeSO4 X 7H2O, and sodium pyruvate and on a medium containing brilliant green, bile, Na2S2O3, FeSO4 X 7H2O, and sodium pyruvate. Colonies were counted after 5 days of incubation at 37 degrees C in an atmosphere containing 5% O2, 10% CO2, and 85% N2. After 45 min at 46 degrees C, there was virtually no killing and ca. two log cycles of injury. Cells grown at 42 degrees C were more susceptible to injury than cells grown at 37 degrees C. The addition to brucella agar supplemented with Na2S2O3, FeSO4 X 7H2O, and sodium pyruvate of three different antibiotic mixtures used in the isolation of C. jejuni from foods or clinical specimens did not prevent recovery of heat-injured C. jejuni. Cells lost 260 nm of absorbing materials during heat injury. The addition of 5% NaCl or 40% sucrose to the heating buffer prevented leakage but did not prevent injury. Of the additional salts, sugars, and amino acids tested for protection, only NH4Cl, KCl, and LiCl2 prevented injury. Heat-injured C. jejuni repaired (regained dye and bile tolerance) in brucella broth supplemented with Na2S2O3, FeSO4 X 7H2O, and sodium pyruvate within 4 h. Increasing the NaCl in this medium to 1.25% inhibited repair, and increasing it to 2% was lethal. Heat-injured C. jejuni will repair at 42 degrees C but not at 5 degrees C. PMID:6497368

  9. Evaluation of a PCR/DNA Probe Colorimetric Membrane Assay for Identification of Campylobacter spp. in Human Stool Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Evelyn; Glennon, Maura; Hanley, Shirley; Murray, Anne-Marie; Cormican, Martin; Smith, Terry; Maher, Majella

    2001-01-01

    DNA was extracted from 50 human stool specimens using the QIAamp DNA stool minikit. PCR amplification was followed by post-PCR hybridization to DNA probes specific for the Campylobacter genus, Campylobacter jejuni, and Campylobacter coli in a colorimetric membrane assay. Thirty-two of 38 culture-positive specimens were PCR/DNA probe positive for C. jejuni. The assay is rapid and simple and can be applied to stool specimens for the detection of Campylobacter. PMID:11682549

  10. Water administration of medium-chain fatty acid caprylic acid produced variable efficacy against cecal Campylobacter jejuni concentrations in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness, and poultry is considered a primary source of Campylobacter infections. Caprylic acid, an eight-carbon fatty acid, has been shown in previous studies to reduce enteric cecal Campylobacter concentrations in poultry when administere...

  11. Variations on standard broiler processing in an effort to lessen Campylobacter numbers on post-pick carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter numbers increase on broiler carcasses during defeathering due to leakage of gut contents through the vent. We tested several processing modifications designed to interfere with the transfer of Campylobacter from gut contents to carcass surface. Numbers of Campylobacter detected on brea...

  12. Genetic diversity of campylobacter on broiler carcasses collected preevisceration and postchill in 17 U.S. poultry processing plants.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are the most important human enteropathogens among the campylobacters. The objective of this study was to determine how diversity in Campylobacter found on chicken carcasses collected from 17 broiler processing plants in the United States is impacted by processing. ...

  13. Chitosan supplementation reduces enteric colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens and down-regulates expression of colonization genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and poultry is considered as the most common source of human infections. Campylobacter is prevalent in most poultry flocks and a reduction of Campylobacter in poultry would greatly reduce the risk of campylo...

  14. Caprylic Acid supplemented in feed reduces enteric Campylobacter jejuni colonization in ten-day-old broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of human food-borne illness in the United States, and epidemiological evidence indicates poultry and poultry products to be a significant source of human Campylobacter infections. Reducing Campylobacter in the intestinal tract would reduce contamination of...

  15. Evaluation of different plate media for direct cultivation of Campylobacter species from live broilers.

    PubMed

    Potturi-Venkata, L-P; Backert, S; Lastovica, A J; Vieira, S L; Norton, R A; Miller, R S; Pierce, S; Oyarzabal, O A

    2007-07-01

    Accurate identification and optimal culturing procedures for Campylobacter spp. from live broilers are needed for epidemiological studies. Because there is no standardized protocol, we designed and conducted studies to evaluate different selective media for the culturing and isolation of Campylobacter spp. from cecal and fecal samples obtained from battery-reared and commercial broilers. Five media selective for Campylobacter were evaluated: Campylobacter agar base, Campylobacter, Campy-Line, modified Campy-Cefex, and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar. With contaminated broilers reared in battery cages, Campylobacter agar base, Campylobacter, modified Campy-Cefex, and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar revealed similar isolation rates (P > 0.05), whereas Campy-Line showed a lower efficacy (P < 0.05). With commercial live broilers, modified Campy-Cefex agar was more consistent for the isolation of Campylobacter from feces, whereas modified Campy-Cefex and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar showed similar isolation rates from cecal samples. Campy-Line agar showed a lower identification rate (P < 0.05) for both fecal and cecal samples. A multiplex PCR assay used for identification showed that Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli DNA was present in the samples. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis restriction profiles differed among samples collected from different commercial farms but were similar for isolates from the same farm, suggesting clonal differences. No variation was seen in pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns among isolates cultured on different media. Our data suggest that the choice of plate medium may influence the efficiency of isolating Campylobacter spp. from broiler chickens by direct plating from fecal or cecal samples. PMID:17575175

  16. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Campylobacter spp. on Ham in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of illness from Campylobacter spp. on ham. To identify the hazards of Campylobacter spp. on ham, the general characteristics and microbial criteria for Campylobacter spp., and campylobacteriosis outbreaks were investigated. In the exposure assessment, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. on ham was evaluated, and the probabilistic distributions for the temperature of ham surfaces in retail markets and home refrigerators were prepared. In addition, the raw data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES) 2012 were used to estimate the consumption amount and frequency of ham. In the hazard characterization, the Beta-Poisson model for Campylobacter spp. infection was used. For risk characterization, a simulation model was developed using the collected data, and the risk of Campylobacter spp. on ham was estimated with @RISK. The Campylobacter spp. cell counts on ham samples were below the detection limit (<0.70 Log CFU/g). The daily consumption of ham was 23.93 g per person, and the consumption frequency was 11.57%. The simulated mean value of the initial contamination level of Campylobacter spp. on ham was −3.95 Log CFU/g, and the mean value of ham for probable risk per person per day was 2.20×10−12. It is considered that the risk of foodborne illness for Campylobacter spp. was low. Furthermore, these results indicate that the microbial risk assessment of Campylobacter spp. in this study should be useful in providing scientific evidence to set up the criteria of Campylobacter spp.. PMID:26761897

  17. Phenotypic Characters and Molecular Epidemiology of Campylobacter Jejuni in East China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Dexin; Zhang, Xiaoping; Xue, Feng; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Luyan; Jiang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution, phenotypic and molecular typing characters of Campylobacter jejuni in domestic fowl, and livestock populations in East China, to provide some reference for researches on its molecular epidemiology. A total of 1250 samples were collected from different animal sources, and C. jejuni strains were then isolated and tested for antibiotic sensitivity. Antibiotics-resistance gene and pathogenic genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenic analysis on the C. jejuni strains was performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method. The results showed that 108 out of the 1250 samples (mean 8.64%) were C. jejuni positive. These 108 C. jejuni strains were highly sensitive to antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, amoxicillin, amikacin, cefotaxime, and azithromycin, whereas they were highly resistant to antibiotics such as cefoperazone, cotrimoxazole, cefamandole, sulfamethoxazole, and cefradine. Pathogenicity related gene identification indicated that the mean carrying rate of adhesion related gene cadF and racR, flagellin gene flaA, toxin regulating gene cdtA, cdtB, cdtC, wlaN and virB11, heat shock proteins and transferring proteins related genes dnaJ and ceuE, CiaB and pldA were 92.45%, 38.69%, 73.58%, 71.70%, 52.83%, 96.23%, 12.26%, 1.89%, 0.94%, 65.09%, 39.62% and 9.43%, respectively. A total of 58.82% of these strains contained more than 6 pathogenicity-related genes. MLST typed 58 ST types from the 108 isolated C. jejuni strains, including 24 new types, and ST-21 was the major type, accounting for 39.3% of the total strains. PMID:26565657

  18. Rapid Identification of Novel Immunodominant Proteins and Characterization of a Specific Linear Epitope of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Hoppe, Sebastian; Bier, Frank F.; Nickisch-Rosenegk, Markus v.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni remains one of the major gut pathogens of our time. Its zoonotic nature and wide-spread distribution in industrialized countries calls for a quick and reliable diagnostic tool. Antibody-based detection presents a suitable means to identify pathogenic bacteria. However, the knowledge about immunodominant targets is limited. Thus, an approach is presented, which allows for the rapid screening of numerous cDNA derived expression clones to identify novel antigens. The deeper understanding of immunodominant proteins assists in the design of diagnostic tools and furthers the insight into the bacterium’s pathogenicity as well as revealing potential candidates for vaccination. We have successfully screened 1536 clones of an expression library to identify 22 proteins that have not been described as immunodominant before. After subcloning the corresponding 22 genes and expression of full-length proteins, we investigated the immunodominant character by microarrays and ELISA. Subsequently, seven proteins were selected for epitope mapping. For cj0669 and cj0920c linear epitopes were identified. For cj0669, specificity assays revealed a specific linear epitope site. Consequently, an eleven amino acid residue sequence TLIKELKRLGI was analyzed via alanine scan, which revealed the glycine residue to be significant for binding of the antibody. The innovative approach presented herein of generating cDNAs of prokaryotes in combination with a microarray platform rendering time-consuming purification steps obsolete has helped to illuminate novel immunodominant proteins of C.jejuni. The findings of a specific linear epitope pave the way for a plethora of future research and the potential use in diagnostic applications such as serological screenings. Moreover, the current approach is easily adaptable to other highly relevant bacteria making it a formidable tool for the future discovery of antigens and potential biomarkers. Consequently, it is desirable to simplify

  19. Campylobacter jejuni fatty acid synthase II: Structural and functional analysis of [beta]-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase (FabZ)

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew S.; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Choi, Kyoung-Jae; Yeo, Hye-Jeong

    2009-08-14

    Fatty acid biosynthesis is crucial for all living cells. In contrast to higher organisms, bacteria use a type II fatty acid synthase (FAS II) composed of a series of individual proteins, making FAS II enzymes excellent targets for antibiotics discovery. The {beta}-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase (FabZ) catalyzes an essential step in the FAS II pathway. Here, we report the structure of Campylobacter jejuni FabZ (CjFabZ), showing a hexamer both in crystals and solution, with each protomer adopting the characteristic hot dog fold. Together with biochemical analysis of CjFabZ, we define the first functional FAS II enzyme from this pathogen, and provide a framework for investigation on roles of FAS II in C. jejuni virulence

  20. Seroprevalence in Chickens against Campylobacter jejuni Flagellar Capping Protein (FliD) in Selected Areas of the United States.

    PubMed

    Yeh, H-Y; Hiett, K L; Line, J E; Jagne, J F; Lauer, D C

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a causative pathogen of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis. Infected poultry products are regarded as a major source for human C. jejuni infection. The flagellar capping protein (FliD) is highly conserved among C. jejuni strains/isolates and is antigenic as analysed by immunoblot. In this study, we used the FliD protein as a probe to survey the prevalence of C. jejuni antibodies in chickens from two areas in the United States. A total of 394 samples were tested. Sera from layer breeders of 44-52 weeks of age tested 100% positive, while 4- to 6-week broilers from 22 premises showed 7-100% positivity. These results demonstrate that anti-FliD antibodies were prevalent in the poultry population in the areas of serum samples collected. PMID:26603949