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1

Overexpression, Purification, Characterization, and Pathogenicity of Vibrio harveyi Hemolysin VHH  

PubMed Central

Vibrio harveyi VHH hemolysin is a putative pathogenicity factor in fish. In this study, the hemolysin gene vhhA was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified VHH was characterized with regard to pH and temperature profiles, phospholipase activity, cytotoxicity, pathogenicity to flounder, and the signal peptide.

Zhong, Yingbin; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Chen, Jixiang; Chi, Zhenghao; Sun, Boguang; Li, Yun; Austin, Brian

2006-01-01

2

Quorum Sensing-Disrupting Brominated Furanones Protect the Gnotobiotic Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana from Pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates†  

PubMed Central

Autoinducer 2 (AI-2) quorum sensing was shown before to regulate the virulence of Vibrio harveyi towards the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. In this study, several different pathogenic V. harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates were shown to produce AI-2. Furthermore, disruption of AI-2 quorum sensing by a natural and a synthetic brominated furanone protected gnotobiotic Artemia from the pathogenic isolates in in vivo challenge tests.

Defoirdt, Tom; Crab, Roselien; Wood, Thomas K.; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter

2006-01-01

3

Quorum sensing-disrupting brominated furanones protect the gnotobiotic brine shrimp Artemia franciscana from pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates.  

PubMed

Autoinducer 2 (AI-2) quorum sensing was shown before to regulate the virulence of Vibrio harveyi towards the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. In this study, several different pathogenic V. harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates were shown to produce AI-2. Furthermore, disruption of AI-2 quorum sensing by a natural and a synthetic brominated furanone protected gnotobiotic Artemia from the pathogenic isolates in in vivo challenge tests. PMID:16957276

Defoirdt, Tom; Crab, Roselien; Wood, Thomas K; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter

2006-09-01

4

Biofilm formation by Vibrio harveyi on surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of biofilm in the survival and persistence of the bacterial shrimp pathogen Vibrio harveyi and its possible role in perpetuating infection in shrimp hatcheries was studied. Vibrio harveyi formed biofilms on all three substrates tested: cement slab, high density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic and steel coupons. Cell density was highest on the plastic surface followed by the cement slab

I. Karunasagar; S. K. Otta

1996-01-01

5

Inhibition of Luminescence and Virulence in the Black Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodon) Pathogen Vibrio harveyi by Intercellular Signal Antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of luminescence in the Penaeus monodon pathogen Vibrio harveyi is regulated by an intercellular quorum sensing mechanism involving the synthesis and detection of two signaling molecules, one of which is N-hydroxy butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone and the other of which is uncharacterized. Indirect evidence has suggested that virulence, associated with a toxic extracellular protein, and luminescence in V. harveyi are coregulated.

MICHAEL MANEFIELD; LACHLAN HARRIS; SCOTT A. RICE; ROCKY DE NYS; STAFFAN KJELLEBERG

2000-01-01

6

A simple and rapid immunochromatographic test strip for detection of pathogenic isolates of Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and rabbit polyclonal antibody (PAb) against Vibrio harveyi were generated from immunization of mice and rabbits with highly virulent isolate of V. harveyi. Two MAbs specific to virulent isolates of V. harveyi were obtained and one of them (VH4) was selected to conjugate with colloidal gold as the detector antibody was laid on a sample pad. Rabbit polyclonal antibody was used as the capture antibody at the test line (T) and goat anti-mouse IgG antibody (GAM) was used as the capture antibody at the control line (C) of nitrocellulose strip. The ready-to-use strip was held in a plastic case and then stored in a desiccated plastic bag. A sample volume of 100 microl of bacterial suspension from various sources mixed with application buffer was applied to the sample chamber at one end of the strip and allowed to flow by chromatography through the nitrocellulose membrane to the other end. In test samples containing virulent isolates of V. harveyi, the bacteria would bind to the monoclonal antibody conjugated with colloidal gold and the resulting complex would be captured by the antibodies at the test line to give a reddish-purple band. Any unbound monoclonal antibody conjugated with colloidal gold moved across the test line would be captured by the GAM and form a band at the control line (C). In sample without V. harveyi or with V. harveyi below the limit (<10(6) CFU/ml) of detection for the kit, only the control line band was observed. If the test sample was pre-enriched in tryptic soy broth (TSB) for 6 h before application to the strip, the sensitivity would increase to 1-10 CFU/ml which is comparable to that of PCR. This method could be used to detect pathogenic isolates of V. harveyi in pond water or infected shrimp in order to monitor and to reduce the risk of V. harveyi outbreak in the shrimp culture. The beneficial features of this kit are that simple, convenient and quick results (within 15 min) can be obtained without the requirement of sophisticated tools or special equipments and skills. PMID:17961765

Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Pecharaburanin, Nilawan; Suksawat, Pornthip; Longyant, Siwaporn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Sithigorngul, Weerawan

2007-10-24

7

Unusual adaptive, cross protection responses and growth phase resistance against peroxide killing in a bacterial shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidant induced protection against peroxide killing was investigated in a prawn bacterial pathogen, Vibrio harveyi. Exposure to 250 ?M H2O2 induced adaptive protection against subsequent exposure to killing concentrations of H2O2. In addition, 200 ?M t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH) induced cross protection to H2O2 killing. On the other hand, peroxide pretreatment did not induce protection against tBOOH killing. Peroxide induced adaptive

Paiboon Vattanaviboon; Skorn Mongkolsuk

2001-01-01

8

Gene expression patterns of abalone, Haliotis tuberculata, during successive infections by the pathogen Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Since 1998, episodic mass mortality of the abalone Haliotistuberculata has been observed along the northern Brittany coast of France caused by a complex interaction among the host, pathogen and environmental factors. In the present study, abalone were submitted to two successive infections with the pathogen Vibrioharveyi under controlled conditions. During the first challenge, infection by V.harveyi resulted in 64% mortality of mature abalone. After a second infection of those surviving the first challenge, only 44% mortality was observed. Physiological variability in the host response appears to be a major determinant in susceptibility to V.harveyi. In order to isolate differentially expressed genes in H.tuberculata challenged with this bacterium, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries were constructed from muscle of moribund abalone (susceptibles), surviving individuals (apparently resistant to the bacterium) and control (unexposed) animals. Of the 1152 clones sequenced, 218 different partial cDNA sequences were obtained and represented 69 known genes. Of these, 65 were identified for the first time in H.tuberculata. Using real-time PCR, a time-course study was conducted on 19 of the genes identified by SSH. A majority of differentially expressed transcripts were down-regulated in susceptible individuals as compared to their resistant counterparts. Bacterial challenge of abalone resulted in the up-regulation of three transcripts (encoding ferritin, heat shock protein HSP84 and fatty acid binding protein FABP) in those that survived exposure to V.harveyi. This study has identified potential candidates for further investigation into the functional basis of resistance and susceptibility to summer vibriosis outbreaks in abalone. PMID:20692263

Travers, Marie-Agnès; Meistertzheim, Anne-Leila; Cardinaud, Marion; Friedman, Carolyn S; Huchette, Sylvain; Moraga, Dario; Paillard, Christine

2010-08-06

9

Cross-species induction of luminescence in the quorum-sensing bacterium Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed Central

Different species of bacteria were tested for production of extracellular autoinducer-like activities that could stimulate the expression of the luminescence genes in Vibrio harveyi. Several species of bacteria, including the pathogens Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, were found to produce such activities. Possible physiological roles for the two V. harveyi detection-response systems and their joint regulation are discussed.

Bassler, B L; Greenberg, E P; Stevens, A M

1997-01-01

10

Interactions of microorganisms isolated from gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata L., on Vibrio harveyi, a pathogen of farmed Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup).  

PubMed

Four bacterial isolates from farmed gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata, included in a previous study as members of the Vibrionaceae and Pseudomonodaceae and the genus Micrococcus, have been evaluated for their adhesive ability to skin and intestinal mucus of farmed Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, and their antagonistic effect on Vibrio harveyi, a pathogen of sole. These isolates showed higher adhesion to sole mucus than the pathogenic strains of V. harveyi assayed. Only two of the isolates showed antagonistic activity to V. harveyi. Interactions of the four isolates with V. harveyi in respect of adhesion to skin and intestinal mucus under exclusion, competition and displacement conditions were studied. Three isolates were able to reduce the attachment to skin and intestinal sole mucus of a pathogenic strain of V. harveyi under displacement and exclusion conditions, but not under competition conditions. The in vivo probiotic potential of isolate Pdp11 was assessed by oral administration followed by challenge with the pathogenic V. harveyi strain Lg14/00. A group of 50 Senegalese sole received a commercial diet supplemented with 10(8) cfu g(-1) of lyophilized Lg14/00 for 15 days. A second group of fish received a non-supplemented commercial diet. After challenge the mortality of the fish receiving the diet supplemented with the potential probiotic isolate was significantly lower than that in the fish receiving the non-supplemented commercial diet. This study has shown that the ability to interfere with attachment of pathogens, as well as the adhesion to host surfaces, are suitable criteria for selection of candidate probiotics for use in the culture of Senegalese sole. PMID:16266326

Chabrillón, M; Rico, R M; Arijo, S; Díaz-Rosales, P; Balebona, M C; Moriñigo, M A

2005-09-01

11

Pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, in contrast to non-pathogenic strains, intervenes with the p38 MAPK pathway to avoid an abalone haemocyte immune response.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic abalone epidemics associated with massive mortalities in France, Japan, and Australia. The aim of this study was the understanding of a possible role of the p38 MAPK in abalone haemocyte responses towards this bacterium. First, the pathogenicity of different V. harveyi strains was compared in both immersion and injection trials, and clear differences were detected. The three strains, ORM4, 04/092, and 05/053, all isolated from moribund abalone, induced up to 80% mortalities in immersion or injection challenges (LD(50) (ORM4) = 2.5 x 10(2) CFU animal(-1)). The two strains, LMG 4044T and LMG 7890 were non-pathogenic towards abalone in immersion trials, and needed very high numbers for killing by intramuscular injections (LD(50) = 8.9 x 10(4) and 1.6 x 10(5) CFU animal(-1), respectively). To start unraveling the mechanism explaining these differences, the p38-MAPK, a keyplayer in antimicrobial immune response, was studied. The non-pathogenic strain, LMG 7890 can be eliminated by abalone haemocytes and induces haemocyte phagocytosis and high ROS production. With different concentrations of a p38-specific inhibitor, SB203580, p38 implication was shown. This inhibitor reduced phagocytosis and ROS induction leading to LMG 7890 proliferation. In the case of the pathogenic ORM4 which can not be eliminated by abalone haemocytes, no phagocytosis and ROS production was induced, and a retarded p38 activation was observed. Taken together, our results suggest that p38 MAPK modulation may be one of the ways of virulent V. harveyi to attack its host and escape abalone immune response. PMID:19058134

Travers, Marie-Agnès; Le Bouffant, Ronan; Friedman, Carolyn S; Buzin, Florence; Cougard, Bertrand; Huchette, Sylvain; Koken, Marcel; Paillard, Christine

2009-01-01

12

Genes encoding the Vibrio harveyi haemolysin (VHH)/thermolabile haemolysin (TLH) are widespread in vibrios.  

PubMed

V. harveyi VHH haemolysin, which shows high homology to the TLH haemolysin (the identities of their deduced amino acid sequences are up to 85.6%), is a putative virulence factor to marine cultured fish. A VHH probe, which is specific to V. harveyi vhhA haemolysin gene, was used to screen EcoR I digests of total DNA from 57 vibrio strains, including 26 vibrio type strains, 20 V. harveyi isolates and 11 V. parahaemolyticus isolates. As a result, 1 strong hybridisation band was detected in 13 type strains, including 2 of Vibrio alginolyticus, 2 of V. harveyi, and 1 strain each of Grimontia hollisae, V. campbellii, V. cincinnatiensis, V. fischeri, V. mimicus, V. natriegens, V. parahaemolyticus, V. proteolyticus and V. logei. Also, 1 weak band was detected in 6 type strains, including V. anguillarum, V. aestuarianus, Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, V. fluvialis, V. furnissii and V. vulnificus. There was not any hybridization signal in other type strains. Also, vhh/tlh was present in all isolates of V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus. Moreover, 3 isolates of V. harveyi, i.e. VIB 645, VIB 648 and SF1, had duplicated vhh genes. The data indicates that vhh/tlh is widespread in vibrios, especially in V. harveyi related species and V. fischeri related species. To support this conclusion, the vhh/tlh homologue genes in V. anguillarum VIB 72, V. campbellii VIB 285, V. natriegens VIB 299 and V. harveyi VIB 647 were cloned and sequenced, and the deduced amino acid sequences showed high degree of identities to VHH (67% - 99%) and TLH haemolysin (69% - 91%). This study will help us to identify the role of vhh/tlh haemolysin gene in the pathogenicity of vibrios. PMID:18062266

Wang, Shu-Xian; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Zhong, Ying-Bin; Sun, Bo-Guang; Chen, Ji-Xiang

2007-10-01

13

Evolution of tolerance to PCBs and susceptibility to a bacterial pathogen (Vibrio harveyi) in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from New Bedford (MA, USA) harbor  

PubMed Central

A population of the non-migratory estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus (Atlantic killifish) resident to New Bedford (NB), Massachusetts, USA, an urban harbor highly contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), demonstrates recently evolved tolerance to some aspects of PCB toxicity. PCB toxicology, ecological theory, and some precedence supported expectations of increased susceptibility to pathogens in NB killifish. However, laboratory bacterial challenges of the marine pathogen Vibrio harveyi to wild fish throughout the reproductive season and to their mature laboratory-raised progeny demonstrated comparable survival by NB and reference killifish, and improved survival by NB males. These results are inconsistent with hypothesized tradeoffs of adaptation, and suggest that evolved tolerance in NB killifish may include mechanisms that minimize the immunosuppressive effects of PCBs. Compensatory strategies of populations persisting in highly contaminated environments provide a unique perspective for understanding the long-term ecological effects of toxic chemicals.

Nacci, Diane; Huber, Marina; Champlin, Denise; Jayaraman, Saro; Cohen, Sarah; Gauger, Eric; Fong, Allison; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta

2009-01-01

14

Small RNA Control of Cell-to-Cell Communication in Vibrio Harveyi and Vibrio Cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum sensing is a process of cell-to-cell communication, by which bacteria coordinate gene expression and behavior on a\\u000a population-wide scale. Quorum sensing is accomplished through production, secretion, and subsequent detection of chemical\\u000a signaling molecules termed autoinducers. The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae and the marine bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi incorporate information from multiple autoinducers, and also environmental signals and metabolic cues

Sine Lo Svenningsen

15

A selective and differential medium for Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed Central

A new medium, termed Vibrio harveyi agar, has been developed for the isolation and enumeration of V. harveyi. It is possible to differentiate V. harveyi colonies from the colonies of strains representing 15 other Vibrio species with this medium. This medium has been shown to inhibit the growth of two strains of marine Pseudomonas spp. and two strains of marine Flavobacterium spp. but to allow the growth of Photobacterium strains. Colonies displaying typical V. harveyi morphology were isolated from the larval rearing water of a commercial prawn hatchery with V. harveyi agar as a primary isolation medium and were positively identified, by conventional tests, as V. harveyi. This agar displays great potential as a primary isolation medium and offers significant advantages over thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar as a medium for differentiating V. harveyi from other marine and estuarine Vibrio species.

Harris, L; Owens, L; Smith, S

1996-01-01

16

Quorum sensing negatively regulates chitinase in Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi towards different hosts. Chitinase can be considered as a virulence factor because it helps pathogenic bacteria to attach to the host and to penetrate its tissues (e.g. in case of shrimp). Here, we show that quorum sensing negatively regulates chitinase in V. harveyi. Chitinolytic activity towards natural chitin from crab shells, the synthetic chitin derivative chitin azure, and fluorogenic chitin oligomers was significantly higher in a mutant in which the quorum-sensing system is completely inactivated when compared with a mutant in which the system is maximally active. Furthermore, the addition of signal molecule containing cell-free culture fluids decreased chitinase activity in a Harveyi Autoinducer 1 and Autoinducer 2-deficient double mutant. Finally, chitinase A mRNA levels were fivefold lower in the mutant in which the quorum-sensing system is maximally active when compared with the mutant in which the system is completely inactivated. [Correction added on 25 September 2009, after first online publication: the preceding sentence was corrected from 'Finally, chitinase A mRNA levels were fivefold lower in the mutant in which the quorum-sensing system is completely inactivated when compared with the mutant in which the system is maximally active.'] We argue that this regulation might help the vibrios to switch between host-associated and free-living life styles. PMID:23765997

Defoirdt, Tom; Darshanee Ruwandeepika, H A; Karunasagar, Indrani; Boon, Nico; Bossier, Peter

2009-07-01

17

Subcellular components of Vibrio harveyi and probiotics induce immune responses in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), against V. harveyi.  

PubMed

Bacterial subcellular components and probiotics were successful for the stimulation of immunity and the prevention of Vibrio harveyi infections in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Rainbow trout were immunized with whole inactivated cells of V. harveyi to obtain polyclonal antibodies against specific antigens. Western blotting showed a unique reactive band (approximately 93 kDa) between serum and bacterial proteins from outer membrane proteins (OMP) and extracellular products (ECP). Probiotics were selected according to their capability to inhibit V. harveyi. Two of these bacteria, i.e. A3-47 and A3-51, showed cross-reactivity with V. harveyi antiserum. Their OMPs and ECPs were reactive with V. harveyi antiserum in bands of approximately 93 kDa for A3-51 and higher for A3-47. In vivo tests determined that fish fed with A3-51 produced cross-reactive antibodies against V. harveyi and also, the survival of these fish infected with V. harveyi was high, being similar to the level achieved with vaccinated fish. Thus, the probiotics, when administered as live preparations, were capable of producing cross-reactive antibody against specific bacterial pathogens. PMID:18482381

Arijo, S; Brunt, J; Chabrillón, M; Díaz-Rosales, P; Austin, B

2008-05-13

18

Comparative genomic analyses identify the Vibrio harveyi genome sequenced strains BAA-1116 and HY01 as Vibrio campbellii  

PubMed Central

Three notable members of the Harveyi clade, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, are best known as marine pathogens of commercial and medical import. In spite of this fact, the discrimination of Harveyi clade members remains difficult due to genetic and phenotypic similarities, and this has led to misidentifications and inaccurate estimations of a species' involvement in certain environments. To begin to understand the underlying genetics that complicate species level discrimination, we compared the genomes of Harveyi clade members isolated from different environments (seawater, shrimp, corals, oysters, finfish, humans) using microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA). Surprisingly, we found that the only two V. harveyi strains that have had their genomes sequenced (strains BAA-1116 and HY01) have themselves been misidentified. Instead of belonging to the species harveyi, they are actually members of the species campbellii. In total, 28% of the strains tested were found to be misidentified and 42% of these appear to comprise a novel species. Taken together, our findings correct a number of species misidentifications while validating the ability of both CGH and MLSA to distinguish closely related members of the Harveyi clade.

Lin, Baochuan; Wang, Zheng; Malanoski, Anthony P; O'Grady, Elizabeth A; Wimpee, Charles F; Vuddhakul, Varaporn; Alves Jr, Nelson; Thompson, Fabiano L; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Vora, Gary J

2010-01-01

19

Quorum sensing and quorum quenching in Vibrio harveyi: lessons learned from in vivo work.  

PubMed

Luminescent vibrios, bacteria belonging to the species Vibrio harveyi and closely related species, are important pathogens in aquaculture that can affect almost all types of cultured animals. Due to large-scale use of antibiotics, many luminescent vibrios have acquired (multiple) resistance, which render antibiotic treatments ineffective. One of the alternative strategies that has recently been developed to control infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria is the disruption of quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication. The quorum sensing system of V. harveyi has been studied quite intensively in vitro. Recent studies have been directed towards understanding the impact of quorum sensing and quorum sensing disruption on the virulence of luminescent vibrios towards different host organisms in vivo. This mini-review aims at discussing the current knowledge of quorum sensing in luminescent vibrios in vivo. Subsequently, quorum quenching by halogenated furanones is discussed and finally, some directions for further research are presented. PMID:18180744

Defoirdt, Tom; Boon, Nico; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter

2007-10-25

20

Three Parallel Quorum-Sensing Systems Regulate Gene Expression in Vibrio harveyi†  

PubMed Central

In a process called quorum sensing, bacteria communicate using extracellular signal molecules termed autoinducers. Two parallel quorum-sensing systems have been identified in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi. System 1 consists of the LuxM-dependent autoinducer HAI-1 and the HAI-1 sensor, LuxN. System 2 consists of the LuxS-dependent autoinducer AI-2 and the AI-2 detector, LuxPQ. The related bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, a human pathogen, possesses System 2 (LuxS, AI-2, and LuxPQ) but does not have obvious homologues of V. harveyi System 1. Rather, System 1 of V. cholerae is made up of the CqsA-dependent autoinducer CAI-1 and a sensor called CqsS. Using a V. cholerae CAI-1 reporter strain we show that many other marine bacteria, including V. harveyi, produce CAI-1 activity. Genetic analysis of V. harveyi reveals cqsA and cqsS, and phenotypic analysis of V. harveyi cqsA and cqsS mutants shows that these functions comprise a third V. harveyi quorum-sensing system that acts in parallel to Systems 1 and 2. Together these communication systems act as a three-way coincidence detector in the regulation of a variety of genes, including those responsible for bioluminescence, type III secretion, and metalloprotease production.

Henke, Jennifer M.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

2004-01-01

21

Regulation of virulence factors by quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi is an important aquatic pathogen that produces several virulence factors. In this study, the effect of quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, on the production of the virulence factors caseinase, gelatinase, lipase, hemolysin, and phospholipase, was investigated. The activity of virulence factors was studied through enzymatic plate assays using V. harveyi wild type and mutants with constitutively maximal or minimal quorum sensing activity. The results showed that quorum sensing negatively regulates phospholipase activity as higher activity was observed in mutants with minimal quorum sensing activity than in the mutant with maximal quorum sensing activity.Reverse transcriptase real-time PCR with specific primers revealed that the expression level of three phospholipase genes was 2-fold higher [corrected] in the mutant with minimal quorum sensing activity than in the mutant with maximal quorum sensingactivity. As far as we know, this is the first report of quorum sensing regulation of phospholipase. Finally, caseinase and gelatinase activity were positively regulated by quorum sensing, which is consistent with previous reports, and lipase and hemolysin activity were found to be independent of quorum sensing. Hence, the regulation is different for different virulence factors, with some being either positively or negatively regulated, and others being independent of quorum sensing. This might reflect the need to produce the different virulence factors at different stages during infection. PMID:21775075

Natrah, F M I; Ruwandeepika, H A Darshanee; Pawar, Sushant; Karunasagar, Indrani; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

2011-07-01

22

Characterization of abalone Haliotis tuberculata-Vibrio harveyi interactions in gill primary cultures.  

PubMed

The decline of European abalone Haliotis tuberculata populations has been associated with various pathogens including bacteria of the genus Vibrio. Following the summer mortality outbreaks reported in France between 1998 and 2000, Vibrio harveyi strains were isolated from moribund abalones, allowing in vivo and in vitro studies on the interactions between abalone H. tuberculata and V. harveyi. This work reports the development of primary cell cultures from abalone gill tissue, a target tissue for bacterial colonisation, and their use for in vitro study of host cell-V. harveyi interactions. Gill cells originated from four-day-old explant primary cultures were successfully sub-cultured in multi-well plates and maintained in vitro for up to 24 days. Cytological parameters, cell morphology and viability were monitored over time using flow cytometry analysis and semi-quantitative assay (XTT). Then, gill cell cultures were used to investigate in vitro the interactions with V. harveyi. The effects of two bacterial strains were evaluated on gill cells: a pathogenic bacterial strain ORM4 which is responsible for abalone mortalities and LMG7890 which is a non-pathogenic strain. Cellular responses of gill cells exposed to increasing concentrations of bacteria were evaluated by measuring mitochondrial activity (XTT assay) and phenoloxidase activity, an enzyme which is strongly involved in immune response. The ability of gill cells to phagocyte GFP-tagged V. harveyi was evaluated by flow cytometry and gill cells-V. harveyi interactions were characterized using fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. During phagocytosis process we evidenced that V. harveyi bacteria induced significant changes in gill cells metabolism and immune response. Together, the results showed that primary cell cultures from abalone gills are suitable for in vitro study of host-pathogen interactions, providing complementary assays to in vivo experiments. PMID:23756730

Pichon, Delphine; Cudennec, Benoit; Huchette, Sylvain; Djediat, Chakib; Renault, Tristan; Paillard, Christine; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie

2013-06-12

23

Small RNA Control of Cell-to-Cell Communication in Vibrio Harveyi and Vibrio Cholerae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quorum sensing is a process of cell-to-cell communication, by which bacteria coordinate gene expression and behavior on a population-wide scale. Quorum sensing is accomplished through production, secretion, and subsequent detection of chemical signaling molecules termed autoinducers. The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae and the marine bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi incorporate information from multiple autoinducers, and also environmental signals and metabolic cues into their quorum-sensing pathways. At the core of these pathways lie several homologous small regulatory RNA molecules, the Quorum Regulatory RNAs. Small noncoding RNAs have emerged throughout the bacterial and eukaryotic kingdoms as key regulators of behavioral and developmental processes. Here, I review our present understanding of the role of the Qrr small RNAs in integrating quorum-sensing signals and in regulating the individual cells response to this information.

Svenningsen, Sine Lo

24

Cross-Species Induction of Luminescence in the Quorum Sensing Bacterium Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least two species of marine bacteria, Vibrio fischeri and Vibrio harveyi, express bioluminescence in response to cell den- sity. These two vibrios are found in different environments in the ocean. V. harveyi is found free-living in the sea as well as in the gut tracts of marine animals, where it exists at high popu- lation densities in association with

BONNIE L. BASSLER; E. PETER GREENBERG; ANN M. STEVENS

1997-01-01

25

Interference of Cranberry Constituents in Cell–Cell Signaling System of Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cranberry juice has long been recognized in folk medicine as a therapeutic agent, mainly in urinary track infections. It acts\\u000a as an antibiofilm agent against various pathogens. Quorum sensing is process where bacteria communicate with each other via\\u000a signal molecules known as autoinducers. This process is strongly involved in various bacterial pathological and physiological\\u000a pathways. Various strains of Vibrio harveyi

Mark Feldman; Ervin I. Weiss; Itzhak Ofek; Doron Steinberg

2009-01-01

26

Regulation of Metalloprotease Gene Expression in Vibrio vulnificus by a Vibrio harveyi LuxR Homologue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of the Vibrio vulnificus metalloprotease gene, vvp, was turned up rapidly when bacterial growth reached the late log phase. A similar pattern of expression has been found in the metalloprotease gene of Vibrio cholerae, and this has been shown to be regulated by a Vibrio harveyi LuxR-like transcriptional activator. To find out whether a LuxR homologue exists in V.

CHUNG-PING SHAO; LIEN-I HOR

2001-01-01

27

Biosynthesis of myristic acid in luminescent bacteria. [Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo pulse-label studies have demonstrated that luminescent bacteria can provide myritic acid (14:0) required for the synthesis of the luciferase substrate myristyl aldehyde. Luminescent wild type Vibrio harveyi incubated with (¹⁴C) acetate in a nutrient-depleted medium accumulated substantial tree (¹⁴C)fatty acid (up to 20% of the total lipid label). Radio-gas chromatography revealed that > 75% of the labeled fatty

1987-01-01

28

Genetically modified Vibrio harveyi strains as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

For biodetection of mutagenic pollution of marine environments, an organism naturally occurring in these habitats should be used. The authors found that marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi may be an appropriate bioindicator of mutagenic pollution. For positive selection of mutants, they developed a simple method for isolation of V. harveyi mutants resistant to neomycin. The authors constructed genetically modified V. harveyi

AGATA CZYZ; JACEK JASIECKI; ADAM BOGDAN; HANNA SZPILEWSKA; G. Wegrzyn

2000-01-01

29

Autoinducers Act as Biological Timers in Vibrio harveyi  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing regulates cell density-dependent phenotypes and involves the synthesis, excretion and detection of so-called autoinducers. Vibrio harveyi strain ATCC BAA-1116 (recently reclassified as Vibrio campbellii), one of the best-characterized model organisms for the study of quorum sensing, produces and responds to three autoinducers. HAI-1, AI-2 and CAI-1 are recognized by different receptors, but all information is channeled into the same signaling cascade, which controls a specific set of genes. Here we examine temporal variations of availability and concentration of the three autoinducers in V. harveyi, and monitor the phenotypes they regulate, from the early exponential to the stationary growth phase in liquid culture. Specifically, the exponential growth phase is characterized by an increase in AI-2 and the induction of bioluminescence, while HAI-1 and CAI-1 are undetectable prior to the late exponential growth phase. CAI-1 activity reaches its maximum upon entry into stationary phase, while molar concentrations of AI-2 and HAI-1 become approximately equal. Similarly, autoinducer-dependent exoproteolytic activity increases at the transition into stationary phase. These findings are reflected in temporal alterations in expression of the luxR gene that encodes the master regulator LuxR, and of four autoinducer-regulated genes during growth. Moreover, in vitro phosphorylation assays reveal a tight correlation between the HAI-1/AI-2 ratio as input and levels of receptor-mediated phosphorylation of LuxU as output. Our study supports a model in which the combinations of autoinducers available, rather than cell density per se, determine the timing of various processes in V. harveyi populations.

Anetzberger, Claudia; Reiger, Matthias; Fekete, Agnes; Schell, Ursula; Stambrau, Nina; Plener, Laure; Kopka, Joachim; Schmitt-Kopplin, Phillippe; Hilbi, Hubert; Jung, Kirsten

2012-01-01

30

Novel AI-2 quorum sensing inhibitors in Vibrio harveyi identified through structure-based virtual screening.  

PubMed

In this letter, a high-throughput virtual screening was accomplished to identify potent inhibitors against AI-2 quorum sensing on the basis of Vibrio harveyi LuxPQ crystal structure. Seven compounds were found to inhibit AI-2 quorum sensing with IC(50) values in the micromolar range, and presented low cytotoxicity or no cytotoxicity in V. harveyi. PMID:22963763

Zhu, Peng; Peng, Hanjing; Ni, Nanting; Wang, Binghe; Li, Minyong

2012-08-24

31

Immunological study of the outer membrane proteins of Vibrio harveyi: Insights that link immunoprotectivity to interference with bacterial infection.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi is a bacterial pathogen that affects marine vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, we identified 13 outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from a pathogenic V. harveyi strain and analyzed their immunological properties. In vivo immunogenicity analysis showed that antibodies specific to recombinant proteins of the 13 OMPs were detected in the antiserum of V. harveyi-infected rat. When used as subunit vaccines to immunize Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), all OMPs were able to elicit specific serum antibody production in the vaccinated fish; however, only two OMPs (OMP173 and OMP214) induced high levels (>70%) of relative percent survival. Pre-incubation of V. harveyi with the antisera of protective OMPs significantly impaired bacterial infectivity against peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), whereas the antisera of non-protective OMPs had no apparent effect on infection. OMP173 antibodies could bind whole V. harveyi cells and exhibit bactericidal effect in a complement-dependent manner. Passive immunization showed that fish received OMP173 antiserum before being infected with V. harveyi exhibited significantly reduced mortality rate and lower bacterial loads in liver, spleen, and kidney. Finally, treatment of FG cells with OMP173 prior to V. harveyi infection protected the cells from bacterial invasion to a significant extent. Take together, these results indicate that two of the examined OMPs induce protective immunity through production of specific antibodies that block bacterial invasion, and that one OMP is likely to be involved in host cell interaction during the infection process. Thus, the immunoprotectivity of the OMPs is probably associated with functional participations of the OMPs in bacterial infection. PMID:23932987

Yu, Lan-Ping; Hu, Yong-Hua; Sun, Bo-Guang; Sun, Li

2013-08-09

32

Construction of a stable GFP-tagged Vibrio harveyi strain for bacterial dynamics analysis of abalone infection.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi is a bacterial marine pathogen that can cause fatal disease in a large range of vertebrates and invertebrates, including the commercially important marine gastropod, Haliotis tuberculata. Since 1997, strains of this bacterium have regularly been causing high mortalities in farmed and wild abalone populations. The way in which the pathogen enters into abalone and the disease transmission mechanisms are thus far unknown. Therefore, a pathogenic strain, ORM4, was green fluorescent protein-tagged and validated both for its growth characteristics and for its virulence as a genuine model for abalone disease. The strain allows V. harveyi quantification by flow cytometry in seawater and in abalone haemolymph as well as the in situ detection of the parasite inside abalone tissues. PMID:19054091

Travers, Marie-Agnès; Barbou, Annaïck; Le Goïc, Nelly; Huchette, Sylvain; Paillard, Christine; Koken, Marcel

2008-12-01

33

Genetically modified Vibrio harveyi strains as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments  

SciTech Connect

For biodetection of mutagenic pollution of marine environments, an organism naturally occurring in these habitats should be used. The authors found that marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi may be an appropriate bioindicator of mutagenic pollution. For positive selection of mutants, they developed a simple method for isolation of V. harveyi mutants resistant to neomycin. The authors constructed genetically modified V. harveyi strains that produce significantly more neomycin-resistant mutants upon treatment with low concentrations of mutagens than the wild-type counterpart. The sensitivity of the mutagenicity test with the V. harveyi strains is at least comparable to (if not higher than) that of the commonly used Ames test, which uses Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. Therefore, the authors consider that the V. harveyi strains described in this report could be used as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments.

Czyz, A.; Jasiecki, J.; Bogdan, A.; Szpilewska, H.; Wegrzyn, G.

2000-02-01

34

Negative Feedback in the Vibrio harveyi Quorum-Sensing Circuit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quorum sensing is the mechanism by which bacteria communicate and synchronize group behaviors. Multiple feedbacks have been identified in the model quorum-sensing bacterium Vibrio harveyi, but it has been unclear how these feedbacks interact in individual cells to control the fidelity of signal transduction. We measured the copy number distribution of the master regulators to quantify the activity of the signaling network. We find that the feedbacks affect the production rate, level, and noise of the core quorum-sensing components. Using fluorescence time-lapse microscopy, we directly observed the master regulator in individual cells, and analyzed the persistence of heterogeneity in terms of the normalized time-delayed direct correlation. Our findings suggest that feedback from small regulatory RNAs regulates a receptor to control the noise level in signal transduction. We further tested this model by re-engineering the gene circuit to specifically diminish this feedback. We conclude that negative feedbacks mediated by sRNAs permit fine-tuning of gene regulation, thereby increasing the fidelity of signal transduction.

Teng, Shu-Wen; Schaffer, Jessie; Wingreen, Ned; Bassler, Bonnie; Phuan Ong, Nai

2010-03-01

35

Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in Penaeus monodon hemocytes after Vibrio harveyi infection  

PubMed Central

Background Viral and bacterial diseases can cause mass mortalities in commercial shrimp aquaculture. In contrast to studies on the antiviral response, the responses of shrimps to bacterial infections by high throughput techniques have been reported only at the transcriptional level and not at the translational level. In this study, a proteomic analysis of shrimp hemocytes to identify differentially expressed proteins in response to a luminous bacterium Vibrio harveyi was evaluated for its feasibility and is reported for the first time. Results The two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) patterns of the hemocyte proteins from the unchallenged and V. harveyi challenged shrimp, Penaeus monodon, at 24 and 48 h post infection were compared. From this, 27 differentially expressed protein spots, and a further 12 weakly to non-differentially regulated control spots, were selected for further analyses by the LC-ESI-MS/MS. The 21 differentially expressed proteins that could be identified by homologous annotation were comprised of proteins that are directly involved in the host defense responses, such as hemocyanin, prophenoloxidase, serine proteinase-like protein, heat shock protein 90 and alpha-2-macroglobulin, and those involved in signal transduction, such as the14-3-3 protein epsilon and calmodulin. Western blot analysis confirmed the up-regulation of hemocyanin expression upon bacterial infection. The expression of the selected proteins which were the representatives of the down-regulated proteins (the 14-3-3 protein epsilon and alpha-2-macroglobulin) and of the up-regulated proteins (hemocyanin) was further assessed at the transcription level using real-time RT-PCR. Conclusions This work suggests the usefulness of a proteomic approach to the study of shrimp immunity and revealed hemocyte proteins whose expression were up regulated upon V. harveyi infection such as hemocyanin, arginine kinase and down regulated such as alpha-2-macroglobulin, calmodulin and 14-3-3 protein epsilon. The information is useful for understanding the immune system of shrimp against pathogenic bacteria.

2010-01-01

36

Vibrio harveyi Nitroreductase Is Also a Chromate Reductase  

PubMed Central

The chromate reductase purified from Pseudomonas ambigua was found to be homologous with several nitroreductases. Escherichia coli DH5? and Vibrio harveyi KCTC 2720 nitroreductases were chosen for the present study, and their chromate-reducing activities were determined. A fusion between glutathione S-transferase (GST) and E. coli DH5? NfsA (GST-EcNfsA), a fusion between GST and E. coli DH5? NfsB (GST-EcNfsB), and a fusion between GST and V. harveyi KCTC 2720 NfsA (GST-VhNfsA) were prepared for their overproduction and easy purification. GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNFsB, and GST-VhNFsA efficiently reduced nitrofurazone and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) as their nitro substrates. The Km values for GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNfsB, and GST-VhNfsA for chromate reduction were 11.8, 23.5, and 5.4 ?M, respectively. The Vmax values for GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNfsB, and GST-VhNfsA were 3.8, 3.9, and 10.7 nmol/min/mg of protein, respectively. GST-VhNfsA was the most effective of the three chromate reductases, as determined by each Vmax/Km value. The optimal temperatures of GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNfsB, and GST-VhNfsA for chromate reduction were 55, 30, and 30°C, respectively. Thus, it is confirmed that nitroreductase can also act as a chromate reductase. Nitroreductases may be used in chromate remediation. GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNfsB, and GST-VhNfsA have a molecular mass of 50 kDa and exist as a monomer in solution. Thin-layer chromatography showed that GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNfsB, and GST-VhNfsA contain FMN as a cofactor. GST-VhNfsA reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Cr(III) was much less toxic to E. coli than Cr(VI).

Kwak, Young Hak; Lee, Dong Seok; Kim, Han Bok

2003-01-01

37

Identification of Vibrio harveyi isolated from diseased Asian seabass Lates calcarifer by use of 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing.  

PubMed

The grow out of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer in marine net-cages is a popular aquaculture activity in Malaysia. Production of this species is greatly affected by the occurrence of vibriosis, which causes heavy mortality. Generally, young fish are more susceptible; they exhibit anorexia and skin darkening, followed by heavy mortality. The acutely affected older fish may also exhibit bloody lesions around the anus and the base of the fins. Twenty-one bacterial isolates obtained from internal organs (kidney, heart, spleen and liver) of the affected specimens were subjected to phenotypic characterization, testing for antibiotic susceptibility, and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. The sequencing result showed that all of the bacterial isolates belonged to Vibrio harveyi. The phenotypic characterization, however, identified 4 of the bacterial isolates as V. harveyi, 16 as V. parahaemolyticus, and 1 as V. alginolyticus. These findings suggest that biochemical features alone cannot be reliably used to identify bacterial pathogens, including V. harveyi, in aquaculture. Antibiotic susceptibility assays showed that some antibiotics, including oxytetracycline, nitrofurantoin, furazolidone, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, and oxolinic acid were effective against V. harveyi. Considering the side effects of these antibiotics, however, their use is not recommended in the aquaculture of Asian seabass. PMID:20043399

Ransangan, Julian; Mustafa, Saleem

2009-09-01

38

Summer immune depression associated with increased susceptibility of the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata to Vibrio harveyi infection.  

PubMed

Haliotis tuberculata mortality outbreaks have occurred in France since 1998 and were attributed to a pathogenic Vibrio harveyi. These mortalities were recorded in September, a month with abalone reproduction and characterised by high seawater temperatures. The importance of gonadal maturation and temperature increase on abalone immunity and susceptibility to V. harveyi infection needed to be clarified. Therefore, an immune survey analyzing a large panel of parameters was performed from June to September 2007 on abalone from the Bay of Brest. The data obtained were put in relation with abalone reproductive status and its susceptibility to V. harveyi. Most parameters showed clear patterns from early to late summer and during gametogenesis, phagocytosis and phenoloxidase activity were reduced, whereas basal reactive oxygen species production and agglutination titres were significantly increased. Total haemocyte counts went up after the partial spawning event at the end of June, and cell complexity diminished. Using a Principal Component Analysis, the "haemolymph profile" was shown to decrease in parallel with spawning and gonadal maturation processes, and reached a minimum just after total spawning. A significant correlation between this "haemolymph profile" and disease susceptibility allowed us to establish for the first time in abalone, a clear concordance between maturation and spawning processes, immune status and abalone susceptibility to V. harveyi. PMID:18786640

Travers, Marie-Agnès; Le Goïc, Nelly; Huchette, Sylvain; Koken, Marcel; Paillard, Christine

2008-08-22

39

Unexpected photoreactivation of Vibrio harveyi bacteria living in ionization environment  

SciTech Connect

Bacteria undergoing environmental effects is extremely interesting for structural, mechanistic, and evolutionary implications. Luminescent bacteria that have evolved in a specific ambient have developed particular responses and their behavior can give us new suggestions on the task and production of luciferina proteins. To analyze the UV interaction under controlled laboratory conditions, we used photoluminescent bacterial strains belonging to a new species evolutionarily close to Vibrio harveyi sampled from a coastal cave with a high radon content that generates ionizing radiation. The survival of the bacterial strains was analyzed, in the light and in the dark, following a variety of genotoxic treatments including UV radiation exposure. The strains were irradiated by a germicide lamp. The results demonstrated that most of the strains exhibited a low rate of survival after the UV exposure. After irradiation by visible light following the UV exposure, all strains showed a high capability of photoreactivation when grown. This capability was quite unexpected because these bacteria were sampled from a dark ambient without UV radiation. This leads us to hypothesize that the photoreactivation in these bacteria might have been evolved to repair DNA lesions also induced by different radiation sources other than UV (e.g., x-ray) and that the luminescent bacteria might use their own light emission to carry out the photoreactivation. The high capability of photoreactivation of these bacteria was also justified by the results of deconvolution. The deconvolution was applied to the emission spectra and it was able to show evidence of different light peaks. The presence of the visible peak could control the photolysis enzyme.

Alifano, P.; Tala, A.; Tredici, S. M. [Dipartimento Microbiologia, Di.S.Te.B.A., Universita del Salento, via Provinciale Lecce-Monteroni, C.P. 193, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Nassisi, V. [Laboratorio di Elettronica Applicata e Strumentazione, LEAS, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita del Salento and INFN-Lecce, Via Provinciale Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Siciliano, M. V. [Laboratorio di Elettronica Applicata e Strumentazione, LEAS, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita del Salento and INFN-Lecce, Via Provinciale Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, University of Salento, via Provinciale Lecce- Monteroni, C.P. 193, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

2011-05-15

40

The Small RNA Chaperone Hfq and Multiple Small RNAs Control Quorum Sensing in Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum-sensing bacteria communicate with extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. This process allows community-wide synchronization of gene expression. A screen for additional components of the Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing circuits revealed the protein Hfq. Hfq mediates interactions between small, regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) and specific messenger RNA (mRNA) targets. These interactions typically alter the stability of the target transcripts. We

Derrick H. Lenz; Kenny C. Mok; Brendan N. Lilley; Rahul V. Kulkarni; Ned S. Wingreen; Bonnie L. Bassler

2004-01-01

41

The impact of mutations in the quorum sensing systems of Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio harveyi on their virulence towards gnotobiotically cultured Artemia franciscana.  

PubMed

Disruption of quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication by means of small signal molecules, has been suggested as a new anti-infective strategy for aquaculture. However, data about the impact of quorum sensing on the virulence of aquatic pathogens are scarce. In this study, a model system using gnotobiotically cultured Artemia franciscana was developed in order to determine the impact of mutations in the quorum sensing systems of Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio anguillarum and V. harveyi on their virulence. Mutations in the autoinducer 2 (AI-2) synthase gene luxS, the AI-2 receptor gene luxP or the response regulator gene luxO of the dual channel quorum sensing system of V. harveyi abolished virulence of the strain towards Artemia. Moreover, the addition of an exogenous source of AI-2 could restore the virulence of an AI-2 non-producing mutant. In contrast, none of the mutations in either the acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated component of the V. harveyi system or the quorum sensing systems of Ae. hydrophila and V. anguillarum had an impact on virulence of these bacteria towards Artemia. Our results indicate that disruption of quorum sensing could be a good alternative strategy to combat infections caused by V. harveyi. PMID:16011761

Defoirdt, Tom; Bossier, Peter; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy

2005-08-01

42

Identification of upregulated immune-related genes in Vibrio harveyi challenged Penaeus monodon postlarvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subtracted cDNA library was constructed and analyzed to elucidate the response of Penaeus monodon postlarvae challenged with Vibrio harveyi. As many as 960 randomly selected cDNA fragments generated through suppression subtractive hybridization were single pass sequenced. Forty five genes and 20 hypothetical proteins were identified, a few being first reports from shrimps. The most abundant immune relevant genes were

S. Nayak; S. K. Singh; N. Ramaiah; R. A. Sreepada

2010-01-01

43

Species-specific virulence of Vibrio harveyi for black tiger shrimp is associated with bacteriophage-mediated hemocyte agglutination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp cultivation is an important Thai industry in which production losses can result from disease outbreaks caused by luminous Vibrio harveyi. In some cases, mortality from luminous vibriosis results from extracellular bacterial products (ECPs) such as proteases, phospholipases, hemolysins and cytotoxins that are mediated by specific bacteriophages. Increased virulence of V. harveyi lysogenized by a Siphoviridae-like bacteriophage (VHS1) was first

Aungkul Intaraprasong; Krit Khemayan; Tirasak Pasharawipas; Timothy W. Flegel

2009-01-01

44

Immunological evaluation of Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio vulnificus and infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) combined-vaccine efficacy in Epinephelus coioides.  

PubMed

Combined vaccines are immunological products intended for immunization against multifactorial infectious diseases caused by different types or variants of pathogens. In this study, the effectiveness of Vibrio alginolyticus (Va), Vibrio harveyi (Vh), Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) and infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), an iridovirus, combined-vaccine (Vibrio and ISKNV combined vaccines, VICV), Va+Vh+Vv inactive vaccine (VIV) and ISKNV whole cell inactive vaccine (IWCIV) in Epinephelus coioides were evaluated using various immunological parameters including antibody titer, serum lysozyme activity (LA), respiratory burst (RB) activity, bactericidal activity (BA) and relative percentage survival (RPS). E. coioides immunized with VICV and challenged with Va+Vh+Vv+ISKNV had an RPS of 80%. The RPS was 73.3% in E. coioides immunized with VIV and challenged with Va+Vh+Vv. E. coioides immunized with IWCIV and challenged with ISKNV had an RPS of 69.6%. Serum LA in the vaccinated group was significantly higher than the control group on days 21 and 28 post-vaccination (P<0.01). The RB activity of head kidney cells in the vaccinated group was significantly higher (P<0.01) compared to that in the control group. However, RB activity of spleen cells in the vaccinated group and the control group were not significantly different (P>0.05). After immunization with VICV, BA values of blood leucocytes and head kidney cells increased significantly more than spleen cells. BA value of blood leucocytes was higher than that in head kidney cells. There were distinct difference between BA values in head kidney cells and in spleen cells (P<0.05) as well as between BA value of blood leucocytes and head kidney cells (P<0.01). E. coioides vaccinated with VICV have significantly higher antibody levels than control groupers (P<0.01). Our study suggests that the VICV candidate can effectively protect groupers against multiple bacterial and viral pathogens. PMID:23010220

Huang, Zhijian; Tang, Jingjing; Li, Mei; Fu, Yacheng; Dong, Chuanfu; Zhong, Jiang F; He, Jianguo

2012-08-30

45

VanT, a Homologue of Vibrio harveyi LuxR, Regulates Serine, Metalloprotease, Pigment, and Biofilm Production in Vibrio anguillarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio anguillarum possesses at least two N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing circuits, one of which is related to the luxMN system of Vibrio harveyi. In this study, we have cloned an additional gene of this circuit, vanT, encoding a V. harveyi LuxR-like transcriptional regulator. A V. anguillarum vanT null mutation resulted in a significant decrease in total protease activity due to

Antony Croxatto; Victoria J. Chalker; Johan Lauritz; Jana Jass; Andrea Hardman; Paul Williams; M. Camara; Debra L. Milton

2002-01-01

46

The LuxR regulator protein controls synthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate in Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LuxR regulatory protein of Vibrio harveyi has been shown to control synthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as well as luminescence so as to occur at high cell density, suggesting that it is a general regulatory protein. Mutants defective in the production of LuxR (D1, D34, and MR1130) were found to be missing PHB, whose synthesis could be restored by complementation

Carol M. Miyamoto; Weiqun Sun; Edward A. Meighen

1998-01-01

47

Cloning and functional studies of a luxO regulator LuxT from Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

LuxO is the central regulator integrating the quorum sensing signals controlling autoinduction of luminescence in Vibrio harveyi. We have previously purified to homogeneity a new lux regulator, LuxT, that binds to the luxO promoter. Based on the sequence of the tryptic peptides of LuxT, degenerate oligonucleotides were designed for PCR of the genomic DNA. A 273 bp PCR DNA fragment

Yi Hsing Lin; Carol Miyamoto; Edward A Meighen

2000-01-01

48

Effectiveness of a divalent vaccine for sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup), against Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida.  

PubMed

The protection of cultured sole, Solea senegalensis, against Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida was evaluated following the use of a divalent vaccine prepared with formalized whole cells and extracellular products of virulent strains of both pathogenic microorganisms and administered by the immersion route. Two prolonged immersions of 5-10 g fish in the divalent bacterin at a 1-month interval gave high levels of protection similar to those obtained when the respective monovalent vaccines were administered by the intraperitoneal route [relative percentage of survival (RPS) values >70%], which indicates that the former procedure can be a useful strategy with small fish. The high protection afforded by the divalent vaccine in sole lasted for 4 months after which the RPS values against both pathogens decreased significantly. PMID:15660791

Arijo, S; Rico, R; Chabrillon, M; Diaz-Rosales, P; Martínez-Manzanares, E; Balebona, M C; Magariños, B; Toranzo, A E; Moriñigo, M A

2005-01-01

49

The production of anti-Vibrio harveyi egg yolk immunoglobulin and evaluation of its stability and neutralisation efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to replace the antibiotic treatment for control of Vibrio harveyi, a causal agent of luminous disease in Black tiger shrimp, anti-V. harveyi IgY was produced and showed its potential in our preliminary study. However, for further use as feed additive, the IgY stability should be evaluated. The titre of specific IgY was enhanced with an immunostimulant, C-phosphate guanosine

Kawin Punyokun; Ratchanee Hongprayoon; Prapansak Srisapoome; Theerapol Sirinarumitr

2012-01-01

50

Identification of upregulated immune-related genes in Vibrio harveyi challenged Penaeus monodon postlarvae.  

PubMed

A subtracted cDNA library was constructed and analyzed to elucidate the response of Penaeus monodon postlarvae challenged with Vibrio harveyi. As many as 960 randomly selected cDNA fragments generated through suppression subtractive hybridization were single pass sequenced. Forty five genes and 20 hypothetical proteins were identified, a few being first reports from shrimps. The most abundant immune relevant genes were ferritin, hemocyanin, and TCTP (translationally controlled tumor protein) indicating their upregulation as also confirmed through qPCR. Post-infection qPCR analyses confirmed 2.04, 2.09, 3.28, 5.49, 6.47, and 11.63 fold rise respectively in ferritin, penaeidin, MnSOD, lysozyme, TCTP, and hemocyanin genes. These genes may be involved in the regulation of the host defense against V. harveyi. PMID:20580834

Nayak, S; Singh, S K; Ramaiah, N; Sreepada, R A

2010-05-24

51

A model for signal transduction during quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a framework for analyzing luminescence regulation during quorum sensing in the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi. Using a simplified model for signal transduction in the quorum sensing pathway, we identify key dimensionless parameters that control the system's response. These parameters are estimated using experimental data on luminescence phenotypes for different mutant strains. The corresponding model predictions are consistent with results from other experiments which did not serve as input for determining model parameters. Furthermore, the proposed framework leads to novel testable predictions for luminescence phenotypes and for responses of the network to different perturbations.

Banik, Suman K.; Fenley, Andrew T.; Kulkarni, Rahul V.

2009-12-01

52

Effect of combined function of temperature and water activity on the growth of Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi is considered as a causative agent of the systemic disease, vibriosis, which occurs in many biological fields. The effects of temperatures (12.9-27.1 °C) and water activity (NaCl% 0.6%-3.4%) on V. harveyi were investigated. The behavior and growth characteristics of V. harveyi was studied and modeled. Growth curves were fitted by using Gompertz and Baranyi models, and the Baranyi model showed a better fittness. Then, the maximum growth rates (?max) and lag phase durations (LPD, ?) obtained from both Gompertz and Baranyi model were modeled as a combination function of temperature and water activity using the response surface and Arrhenius-Davey models for secondary model. The value of r(2), MSE, bias and accuracy factor suggest Baranyi model has better fitness than Gompertz model. Furthermore, validation of the developed models with independent data from ComBase also shown better interrelationship between observed and predicted growth parameter when using Baranyi model. PMID:24031965

Zhou, Kang; Gui, Meng; Li, Pinglan; Xing, Shaohua; Cui, Tingting; Peng, Zhaohui

2012-06-01

53

Complete genome sequence of virulence-enhancing Siphophage VHS1 from Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi siphophage 1 (VHS1) is a tailed phage with an icosahedral head of approximately 66 nm in diameter and an unornamented, flexible tail of approximately 153 nm in length. When Vibrio harveyi 1114GL is lysogenized with VHS1, its virulence for the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) increases by more than 100 times, and this coincides with production of a toxin(s) associated with shrimp hemocyte agglutination. Curiously, the lysogen does not show increased virulence for the whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus [Litopenaeus] vannamei). Here we present and annotate the complete, circular genome of VHS1 (81,509 kbp; GenBank accession number JF713456). By software analysis, the genome contains 125 putative open reading frames (ORFs), all of which appear to be located on the same DNA strand, similar to the case for many other bacteriophages. Most of the putative ORFs show no significant homology to known sequences in GenBank. Notable exceptions are ORFs for a putative DNA polymerase and putative phage structural proteins, including a portal protein, a phage tail tape measure protein, and a phage head protein. The last protein was identified as a component of the species-specific toxin mixture described above as being associated with agglutination of hemocytes from P. monodon. PMID:22307287

Khemayan, Krit; Prachumwat, Anuphap; Sonthayanon, Burachai; Intaraprasong, Aungkul; Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Flegel, Timothy W

2012-02-03

54

Complete Genome Sequence of Virulence-Enhancing Siphophage VHS1 from Vibrio harveyi  

PubMed Central

Vibrio harveyi siphophage 1 (VHS1) is a tailed phage with an icosahedral head of approximately 66 nm in diameter and an unornamented, flexible tail of approximately 153 nm in length. When Vibrio harveyi 1114GL is lysogenized with VHS1, its virulence for the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) increases by more than 100 times, and this coincides with production of a toxin(s) associated with shrimp hemocyte agglutination. Curiously, the lysogen does not show increased virulence for the whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus [Litopenaeus] vannamei). Here we present and annotate the complete, circular genome of VHS1 (81,509 kbp; GenBank accession number JF713456). By software analysis, the genome contains 125 putative open reading frames (ORFs), all of which appear to be located on the same DNA strand, similar to the case for many other bacteriophages. Most of the putative ORFs show no significant homology to known sequences in GenBank. Notable exceptions are ORFs for a putative DNA polymerase and putative phage structural proteins, including a portal protein, a phage tail tape measure protein, and a phage head protein. The last protein was identified as a component of the species-specific toxin mixture described above as being associated with agglutination of hemocytes from P. monodon.

Khemayan, Krit; Prachumwat, Anuphap; Sonthayanon, Burachai; Intaraprasong, Aungkul; Sriurairatana, Siriporn

2012-01-01

55

Profiling of a few immune responsive genes expressed in postlarvae of Fenneropenaeus indicus challenged with Vibrio harveyi D3  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identified 38 genes and eight hypothetical proteins by sequencing of 1200 clones from a Vibrio harveyi challenged Fenneropenaeus indicus subtracted cDNA library. Based on physiological roles and functions these genes were categorized into 10 groups with ?29% of the sequences having no matches in the databases. Immune related transcripts in the library were carboxypeptidase B, ferritin, translationally controlled tumor

S. Nayak; K. M. Ajay; N. Ramaiah; Ram M. Meena; R. A. Sreepada

2011-01-01

56

The luxR gene product of Vibrio harveyi is a transcriptional activator of the lux promoter.  

PubMed Central

Expression of the lux operon from the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi is dependent on cell density and requires an unlinked regulatory gene, luxR, and other cofactors for autoregulation. Escherichia coli transformed with the lux operon emits very low levels of light, and this deficiency can be partially alleviated by coexpression of luxR in trans. The V. harveyi lux promoter was analyzed in vivo by primer extension mapping to examine the function of luxR. RNA isolated from E. coli transformed with the Vibrio harveyi lux operon was shown to have a start site at 123 bp upstream of the first ATG codon of luxC. This is in sharp contrast to the start site found for lux RNA isolated from V. harveyi, at 26 bp upstream of the luxC initiation codon. However, when E. coli was cotransformed with both the lux operon and luxR, the start site of the lux mRNA shifted from -123 to -26. Furthermore, expression of the luxR gene caused a 350-fold increase in lux mRNA levels. The results suggest that LuxR of V. harveyi is a transcriptional activator stimulating initiation at the -26 lux promoter. Images

Swartzman, E; Silverman, M; Meighen, E A

1992-01-01

57

Interference with the quorum sensing systems in a Vibrio harveyi strain alters the growth rate of gnotobiotically cultured rotifer Brachionus plicatilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To evaluate the effect of Vibrio harveyi strains on the growth rate of the gnotobiotically cultured rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, and to establish whether quorum sensing is involved in the observed phenomena. Methods and Results: Gnotobiotic B. plicatilis sensu strictu, obtained by hatch- ing glutaraldehyde-treated amictic eggs, were used as test organisms. Challenge tests were performed with 11 V. harveyi

N. T. N. Tinh; N. D. Linh; T. K. Wood; K. Dierckens; P. Sorgeloos; P. Bossier

2007-01-01

58

A Nonluminescent and Highly Virulent Vibrio harveyi Strain Is Associated with "Bacterial White Tail Disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp  

PubMed Central

Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by “white tail” and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of “white tail” but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as “bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)”. Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system.

Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

2012-01-01

59

A nonluminescent and highly virulent Vibrio harveyi strain is associated with "bacterial white tail disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.  

PubMed

Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of "white tail" but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as "bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)". Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system. PMID:22383954

Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

2012-02-27

60

Proteomic Analysis of Protein Expression in the Induction of the Viable But Nonculturable State of Vibrio harveyi SF1.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi has been reported to enter into a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. One marine V. harveyi strain, SF1 became nonculturable when incubated in seawater microcosm at 4 °C within 60 days. We investigated protein expression in the exponential phase of V. harveyi SF1 and compared it to the VBNC state. Cytosolic proteins were resolved by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using pH 4-7 linear gradients. Among these proteins, sixteen proteins which were strongly downregulated or upregulated in the VBNC cells were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. The results indicated that the differentially expressed proteins were mainly focused on stress response proteins and key components of central and intermediary metabolism, like carbohydrate metabolism, transport, and translation. This study provided clues for understanding the mechanism of adaptation to the VBNC state. PMID:23689940

Jia, Juntao; Li, Zhengyi; Cao, Jijuan; Jiang, Yinghui; Liang, Chengzhu; Liu, Mengzhen

2013-05-21

61

A Nitric Oxide-Responsive Quorum Sensing Circuit in Vibrio harveyi Regulates Flagella Production and Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Cell signaling plays an important role in the survival of bacterial colonies. They use small molecules to coordinate gene expression in a cell density dependent manner. This process, known as quorum sensing, helps bacteria regulate diverse functions such as bioluminescence, biofilm formation and virulence. In Vibrio harveyi, a bioluminescent marine bacterium, four parallel quorum-sensing systems have been identified to regulate light production. We have previously reported that nitric oxide (NO), through the H-NOX/HqsK quorum sensing pathway contributes to light production in V. harveyi through the LuxU/LuxO/LuxR quorum sensing pathway. In this study, we show that nitric oxide (NO) also regulates flagellar production and enhances biofilm formation. Our data suggest that V. harveyi is capable of switching between lifestyles to be able to adapt to changes in the environment.

Henares, Bernadette M.; Xu, Yueming; Boon, Elizabeth M.

2013-01-01

62

Novel ?-N-acetylglucosaminidases from Vibrio harveyi 650: Cloning, expression, enzymatic properties, and subsite identification  

PubMed Central

Background Since chitin is a highly abundant natural biopolymer, many attempts have been made to convert this insoluble polysaccharide into commercially valuable products using chitinases and ?-N-acetylglucosaminidases (GlcNAcases). We have previously reported the structure and function of chitinase A from Vibrio harveyi 650. This study t reports the identification of two GlcNAcases from the same organism and their detailed functional characterization. Results The genes encoding two new members of family-20 GlcNAcases were isolated from the genome of V. harveyi 650, cloned and expressed at a high level in E. coli. VhNag1 has a molecular mass of 89 kDa and an optimum pH of 7.5, whereas VhNag2 has a molecular mass of 73 kDa and an optimum pH of 7.0. The recombinant GlcNAcases were found to hydrolyze all the natural substrates, VhNag2 being ten-fold more active than VhNag1. Product analysis by TLC and quantitative HPLC suggested that VhNag2 degraded chitooligosaccharides in a sequential manner, its highest activity being with chitotetraose. Kinetic modeling of the enzymic reaction revealed that binding at subsites (-2) and (+4) had unfavorable (positive) binding free energy changes and that the binding pocket of VhNag2 contains four GlcNAc binding subsites, designated (-1),(+1),(+2), and (+3). Conclusions Two novel GlcNAcases were identified as exolytic enzymes that degraded chitin oligosaccharides, releasing GlcNAc as the end product. In living cells, these intracellular enzymes may work after endolytic chitinases to complete chitin degradation. The availability of the two GlcNAcases, together with the previously-reported chitinase A from the same organism, suggests that a systematic development of the chitin-degrading enzymes may provide a valuable tool in commercial chitin bioconversion.

2010-01-01

63

Solvent extracts of the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri prevent Vibrio harveyi infections in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.  

PubMed

Vibriosis is a common bacterial disease that can cause high mortality and morbidity in farmed shrimp. Since compounds from seaweed have been reported to have anti-bacterial and immunostimulant activity, this study was conducted to determine whether solvent extracts from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri might be a possible alternative for prevention and treatment of shrimp vibriosis caused by Vibrio harveyi. Seaweed extracts prepared using ethanol, methanol, chloroform and hexane were evaluated for anti-V. harveyi activity by the disc-diffusion method. The ethanol, methanol and chloroform extracts showed activity against a virulent strain of V. harveyi with potency (minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range of 90-190 ?g ml(-1)) equivalent to the antibiotic norfloxacin. The ethanol extract was not toxic to the brine shrimp Artemia salina when it was fed to them for enrichment prior to their use, in turn, as feed for postlarvae of Penaeus monodon. Postlarvae fed with these enriched Artemia gave significantly lower mortality than control postlarvae after challenge with V. harveyi. In addition, P. monodon juveniles injected with the ethanol extract showed a significant increase in the total number of haemocytes and an increased proportion of semi-granulocytes and granulocytes when compared to control shrimp. The activities of phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase were also increased, with an accompanying increase in superoxide anion production. When these juvenile shrimp were challenged with V. harveyi, mortality was markedly reduced compared to that of control shrimp. The results indicated that ethanol extracts of G. fisheri had immunostimulant and antimicrobial activity that could protect P. monodon against V. harveyi. PMID:21115128

Kanjana, Kulwadee; Radtanatip, Tawut; Asuvapongpatana, Somluk; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Wongprasert, Kanokpan

2010-11-27

64

Biocontrol of Vibrio harveyi in Shrimp Aquaculture with Host Specific Lytic Bacteriophage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current decline in shrimp farm production has been related to a variety of issues associated with survivability of shrimp grown in the aquaculture setting. The presence of Vibrio pathogens has been identified as a cause of high mortality in the post larval and juvenile shrimp in aquaculture. The use of bacteriophage to control infections has seen increased interest with

Lillian Barber

2012-01-01

65

Elevated cytokine responses to Vibrio harveyi infection in the Japanese pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) treated with Lactobacillus paracasei spp. paracasei (06TCa22) isolated from the Mongolian dairy product.  

PubMed

With the aim of evaluating the effect of a Mongolian dairy product derived Lactobacillus paracasei spp. paracasei (strain 06TCa22) (Lpp) on the cytokine-mediated immune responses to Vibrio harveyi infection, we examined 16 cytokine expressions in the Japanese pufferfish, Takifugu rubripes. Fish were orally treated with the heat-killed Lpp at 1 mg g(-1) body weight d(-1) for 3 days. At 24 h posttreatment, fish were infected by an intramuscular injection of 0.1 mL V. harveyi bacterial suspension (10(8) cfu mL(-1)). Additionally, superoxide anion production (SAP) and phagocytic activity (PA) of head kidney cells were assessed during 120 h postinfection period. Significant up-regulation of pro-inflammatory (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-17A/F-3, TNF-? and TNF-N), cell-mediated immune inducing (IL-12p35, IL-12p40 and IL-18), antiviral/intra-cellular pathogen killing (I-IFN-1 and IFN-?), anti-inflammatory (IL-10) and lymphocyte agonistic (IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, IL-21 and TGF-?1) cytokines was observed in the treated fish compared to control ones during the pathogen infection. Furthermore, significantly increased SAP and PA (P < 0.01; 0.05) were recorded in the treated fish compared to untreated fish. These results suggest the beneficial role of Lpp in enhancement of cytokine-mediated immunity in the Japanese pufferfish against V. harveyi infection and application of this product as a potential fish immunostimulant. PMID:23769874

Biswas, G; Korenaga, H; Nagamine, R; Kawahara, S; Takeda, S; Kikuchi, Y; Dashnyam, B; Yoshida, T; Kono, T; Sakai, M

2013-06-12

66

Stereochemical diversity of AI-2 analogs modulates quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Bacteria coordinate population-dependent behaviors such as virulence by intra- and inter-species communication (quorum sensing). Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) regulates inter-species quorum sensing. AI-2 derives from the spontaneous cyclisation of linear (S)-4,5-dihydroxypentanedione (DPD) into two isomeric forms in dynamic equilibrium. Different species of bacteria have different classes of AI-2 receptors (LsrB and LuxP) which bind to different cyclic forms. In the present work, DPD analogs with a new stereocenter at C-5 (4,5-dihydroxyhexanediones (DHDs)) have been synthesized and their biological activity tested in two bacteria. (4S,5R)-DHD is a synergistic agonist in Escherichia coli (which contains the LsrB receptor), while it is an agonist in Vibrio harveyi (LuxP), displaying the strongest agonistic activity reported so far (EC(50)=0.65?M) in this organism. Thus, modification at C-5 opens the way to novel methods to manipulate quorum sensing as a method for controlling bacteria. PMID:22137598

Rui, Fabio; Marques, João C; Miller, Stephen T; Maycock, Christopher D; Xavier, Karina B; Ventura, M Rita

2011-11-12

67

In vitro and in vivo expression of virulence genes in Vibrio isolates belonging to the Harveyi clade in relation to their virulence towards gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana).  

PubMed

Vibrios belonging to the Harveyi clade are pathogenic marine bacteria affecting both vertebrates and invertebrates, thereby causing a severe threat to the aquaculture industry. In this study, the expression of haemolysin, metalloprotease, serine protease, the quorum sensing master regulator LuxR and the virulence regulator ToxR in different Harveyi clade isolates was measured with reverse transcriptase real-time PCR with specific primers. There was relatively low variation in the in vitro expression levels of the quorum sensing master regulator luxR (sevenfold), whereas for the other genes, the difference in expression between the isolates showing lowest and highest expression levels was over 25-fold. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between expression levels of toxR and luxR and between the expression levels of these regulators and the protease genes. The expression levels of luxR, toxR and haemolysin were negatively correlated with the survival of brine shrimp larvae challenged with the isolates. Finally, a non-virulent, a moderately virulent and a strongly virulent isolate were selected to study in vivo expression of the virulence genes during infection of gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae. The in vivo gene expression study showed a clear difference in virulence gene expression between both virulent isolates and the non-virulent isolate. PMID:20946530

Ruwandeepika, H A Darshanee; Defoirdt, Tom; Bhowmick, Patit Paban; Karunasagar, Indrani; Karunasagar, Iddya; Bossier, Peter

2010-10-15

68

Synthesis and evaluation of thiazolidinedione and dioxazaborocane analogues as inhibitors of AI-2 quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Two focused libraries based on two types of compounds, that is, thiazolidinediones and dioxazaborocanes were designed. Structural resemblances can be found between thiazolidinediones and well-known furanone type quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors such as N-acylaminofuranones, and/or acyl-homoserine lactone signaling molecules, while dioxazaborocanes structurally resemble previously reported oxazaborolidine derivatives which antagonized autoinducer 2 (AI-2) binding to its receptor. Because of this, we hypothesized that these compounds could affect AI-2 QS in Vibrio harveyi. Although all compounds blocked QS, the thiazolidinediones were the most active AI-2 QS inhibitors, with EC(50) values in the low micromolar range. Their mechanism of inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in a series of V. harveyi QS mutants and by DNA-binding assays with purified LuxR protein. The active compounds neither affected bioluminescence as such nor the production of AI-2. Instead, our results indicate that the thiazolidinediones blocked AI-2 QS in V. harveyi by decreasing the DNA-binding ability of LuxR. In addition, several dioxazaborocanes were found to block AI-2 QS by targeting LuxPQ. PMID:23286963

Brackman, Gilles; Al Quntar, Abed Al Aziz; Enk, Claes D; Karalic, Izet; Nelis, Hans J; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Srebnik, Morris; Coenye, Tom

2012-12-11

69

The Vibrio harveyi bioassay used routinely to detect AI-2 quorum sensing inhibition is confounded by inconsistent normalization across marine matrices.  

PubMed

The Vibrio harveyi autoinducer-2 (AI-2) bioassay is used routinely to screen for inhibition of the AI-2 quorum sensing system. The present study utilizes three well-described bacterial strains to demonstrate that inconsistent normalization across matrices undermines the assay's use in screening marine samples for AI-2 inhibition. PMID:23305926

Blair, Walter M; Doucette, Gregory J

2013-01-07

70

Nucleotide sequence of the LuxC gene and the upstream DNA from the bioluminescent system of Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed Central

The nucleotide sequence of the luxC gene (1431 bp) and the upstream DNA (1049 bp) of the luminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi has been determined. The luxC gene can be translated into a polypeptide of 55 kDa in excellent agreement with the molecular mass of the reductase polypeptide required for synthesis of the aldehyde substrate for the bioluminescent reaction. Analyses of codon usage showed a high frequency (1.9%) of the isoleucine codon, AUA, in the luxC gene compared to that found in Escherichia coli genes (0.2%) and its absence in the luxA, B and D genes. The low G/C content of the luxC gene and upstream DNA (38-39%) compared to that found in the other lux genes of V. harveyi (45%) was primarily due to a stretch of 500 nucleotides with only a 24% G/C content, extending from 200 bp inside lux C to 300 bp upstream. Moreover, an open reading frame did not extend for more than 48 codons between the luxC gene and 600 bp upstream at which point a gene transcribed in the opposite direction started. As the lux system in the luminescent bacterium, V. fischeri, contains a regulatory gene immediately upstream of luxC transcribed in the same direction, these results show that the organization and regulation of the lux genes have diverged in different luminescent bacteria.

Miyamoto, C M; Graham, A F; Meighen, E A

1988-01-01

71

Catalytic properties of Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductases from Vibrio harveyi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Azotobacter vinelandii.  

PubMed

The catalytic properties of sodium-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductases (Na+-NQRs) from the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, the enterobacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae, and the soil microorganism Azotobacter vinelandii have been comparatively analyzed. It is shown that these enzymes drastically differ in their affinity to sodium ions. The enzymes also possess different sensitivity to inhibitors. Na+-NQR from A. vinelandii is not sensitive to low 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO) concentrations, while Na+-NQR from K. pneumoniae is fully resistant to either Ag+ or N-ethylmaleimide. All the Na+-NQR-type enzymes are sensitive to diphenyliodonium, which is shown to modify the noncovalently bound FAD of the enzyme. PMID:18300384

Fadeeva, Maria S; Núñez, Cinthia; Bertsova, Yulia V; Espín, Guadalupe; Bogachev, Alexander V

2008-02-01

72

Profiling of a few immune responsive genes expressed in postlarvae of Fenneropenaeus indicus challenged with Vibrio harveyi D3.  

PubMed

We identified 38 genes and eight hypothetical proteins by sequencing of 1200 clones from a Vibrio harveyi challenged Fenneropenaeus indicus subtracted cDNA library. Based on physiological roles and functions these genes were categorized into 10 groups with ?29% of the sequences having no matches in the databases. Immune related transcripts in the library were carboxypeptidase B, ferritin, translationally controlled tumor proteins (TCTP), hemocyanin, chitinase and serine carboxy peptidase. Remarkably, qPCR results imply 4.15, 3.45 and 1.86-fold rises in expression of ferritin, TCTP and hemocyanin transcripts respectively. Additionally, minor upregulation of other immune relevant genes lectin, penaeidin, crustin, MnSOD was observed in the challenged postlarvae. PMID:21515280

Nayak, S; Ajay, K M; Ramaiah, N; Meena, Ram M; Sreepada, R A

2011-04-15

73

Redox potential and equilibria in the reductive half-reaction of Vibrio harveyi NADPH-FMN oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi NADPH:FMN oxidoreductase P (FRP(Vh)) is a homodimeric enzyme having a bound FMN per enzyme monomer. The bound FMN functions as a cofactor of FRP(Vh) in transferring reducing equivalents from NADPH to a flavin substrate in the absence of V. harveyi luciferase but as a substrate for FRP(Vh) in the luciferase-coupled bioluminescent reaction. As part of an integral plan to elucidate the regulation of functional coupling between FRP(Vh) and luciferase, this study was carried out to characterize the equilibrium bindings, reductive potential, and the reversibility of the reduction of the bound FMN in the reductive half-reaction of FRP(Vh). Results indicate that, in addition to NADPH binding, NADP(+) also bound to FRP(Vh) in either the oxidized (K(d) 180 microM) or reduced (K(d) 230 microM) form. By titrations with NADP(+) and NADPH and by an isotope exchange experiment, the reduction of the bound FMN by NADPH was found to be readily reversible (K(eq) = 0.8). Hence, the reduction of FRP(Vh)-bound FMN is not the committed step in coupling the NADPH oxidation to bioluminescence. To our knowledge, such an aspect of flavin reductase catalysis has only been clearly established for FRP(Vh). Although the reductive potentials and some other properties of a R203A variant of FRP(Vh) and an NADH/NADPH-utilizing flavin reductase from Vibrio fischeri are quite similar to that of the wild-type FRP(Vh), the reversal of the reduction of bound FMN was not detected for either of these two enzymes. PMID:15628867

Lei, Benfang; Wang, He; Yu, Yimin; Tu, Shiao-Chun

2005-01-11

74

Assimilable Organic Carbon (AOC) in Soil Water Extracts Using Vibrio harveyi BB721 and Its Implication for Microbial Biomass  

PubMed Central

Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) is commonly used to measure the growth potential of microorganisms in water, but has not yet been investigated for measuring microbial growth potential in soils. In this study, a simple, rapid, and non-growth based assay to determine AOC in soil was developed using a naturally occurring luminous strain Vibrio harveyi BB721 to determine the fraction of low molecular weight organic carbon in soil water extract. Calibration of the assay was achieved by measuring the luminescence intensity of starved V. harveyi BB721 cells in the late exponential phase with a concentration range from 0 to 800 µg l?1 glucose (equivalent to 0–16.0 mg glucose C kg?1 soil) with the detection limit of 10 µg l?1 equivalent to 0.20 mg glucose C kg?1 soil. Results showed that bioluminescence was proportional to the concentration of glucose added to soil. The luminescence intensity of the cells was highly pH dependent and the optimal pH was about 7.0. The average AOC concentration in 15 soils tested was 5.4±1.2 mg glucose C kg?1. Our data showed that AOC levels in soil water extracts were significantly correlated (P<0.01) with microbial biomass determined as total phospholipid fatty acids and microbial biomass carbon, indicating that the AOC concentrations determined by the method developed might be a good indicator of soil microbial biomass. Our findings provide a new approach that may be used to determine AOC in environmental samples using a non-growth bioluminescence based assay. Understanding the levels of AOC in soil water extract provides new insights into our ability to estimate the most available carbon pool to bacteria in soil that may be easily assimilated into cells for many metabolic processes and suggests possible links between AOC, microbial regrowth potential, and microbial biomass in soils.

Ma, Jincai; Ibekwe, A. Mark; Wang, Haizhen; Xu, Jianming; Leddy, Menu; Yang, Ching-Hong; Crowley, David E.

2012-01-01

75

Deducing receptor signaling parameters from in vivo analysis: LuxN/AI-1 quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi  

PubMed Central

Summary Quorum sensing, a process of bacterial cell-cell communication, relies on production, detection, and response to autoinducer signaling molecules. Here we focus on LuxN, a nine transmembrane domain protein from Vibrio harveyi, and the founding example of membrane-bound receptors for acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) autoinducers. Previously, nothing was known about signal recognition by membrane-bound AHL receptors. We used mutagenesis and suppressor analyses to identify the AHL-binding domain of LuxN, and discovered LuxN mutants that confer decreased and increased AHL sensitivity. Our analysis of dose-response curves of multiple LuxN mutants pins these inverse phenotypes on quantifiable opposing shifts in the free-energy bias of LuxN for its kinase and phosphatase states. To extract signaling parameters, we exploited a strong LuxN antagonist, one of fifteen small-molecule antagonists we identified. We find that quorum-sensing-mediated communication can be manipulated positively and negatively to control bacterial behavior, and that signaling parameters can be deduced from in vivo data.

Swem, Lee R.; Swem, Danielle L.; Wingreen, Ned S.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

2008-01-01

76

Immune responses of barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), after administration of an experimental Vibrio harveyi bacterin by intraperitoneal injection, anal intubation and immersion.  

PubMed

Barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), were immunized with an experimental Vibrio harveyi bacterin via intraperitoneal injection, immersion and anal intubation. Both specific and non-specific immune parameters were measured to compare responses to bacterin after delivery by various methods. Elevated antibody activities in sera were found in all treatment groups with barramundi injected intraperitoneally displaying significantly higher antibody activity than the other groups. In addition, there was evidence of memory induction with a heightened antibody response in the intraperitoneally injected group only. Bacteriostatic assays indicated activity against V. harveyi in the sera of all bacterin-treated groups; again this activity was significantly higher in the intraperitoneally injected groups. There was no enhancement noted in head kidney macrophage phagocytic activity or in serum lysozyme levels. PMID:15509257

Crosbie, P B B; Nowak, B F

2004-11-01

77

Prevention of quorum-sensing-mediated biofilm development and virulence factors production in Vibrio spp. by curcumin.  

PubMed

The increasing occurrence of disease outbreaks caused by Vibrio spp. and the emergence of antibiotic resistance has led to a growing interest in finding alternative strategies to prevent vibriosis. Since the pathogenicity of vibrios is controlled in part by quorum-sensing (QS) system, interfering with this mechanism would prevent the pathogenicity of vibrios without developing resistance. Hence, a non-toxic phytochemical curcumin from Curcuma longa was assessed for its potential in reducing the production of QS-dependent virulence factors in Vibrio spp. The obtained results evidenced 88 % reduction in bioluminescence of Vibrio harveyi by curcumin. Further, curcumin exhibited a significant inhibition in alginate, exopolysaccharides, motility, biofilm development and other virulence factors production in Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and V. harveyi. In in vivo analysis, curcumin enhanced the survival rate of Artemia nauplii up to 67 % against V. harveyi infection by attenuating its QS-mediated virulence. PMID:23354447

Packiavathy, Issac Abraham Sybiya Vasantha; Sasikumar, Pitchaikani; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Veera Ravi, Arumugam

2013-01-26

78

Identification of the genes encoding NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductases that are similar in sequence to Escherichia coli Fre in four species of luminous bacteria: Photorhabdus luminescens, Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio harveyi, and Vibrio orientalis.  

PubMed Central

Genes encoding NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductases (flavin reductases) similar in both size and sequence to Fre, the most abundant flavin reductase in Escherichia coli, were identified in four species of luminous bacteria, Photorhabdus luminescens (ATCC 29999), Vibrio fischeri (ATCC 7744), Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 33843), and Vibrio orientalis (ATCC 33934). Nucleotide sequence analysis showed Fre-like flavin reductases in P. luminescens and V. fischeri to consist of 233 and 236 amino acids, respectively. As in E. coli Fre, Fre-like enzymes in luminous bacteria preferably used riboflavin as an electron acceptor when NADPH was used as an electron donor. These enzymes also were good suppliers of reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) to the bioluminescence reaction. In V. fischeri, the Fre-like enzyme is a minor flavin reductase representing < 10% of the total FMN reductase. That the V. fischeri Fre-like enzyme has no appreciable homology in amino acid sequence to the major flavin reductase in V. fischeri, FRase I, indicates that at least two different types of flavin reductases supply FMNH2 to the luminescence system in V. fischeri. Although Fre-like flavin reductases are highly similar in sequence to luxG gene products (LuxGs), Fre-like flavin reductases and LuxGs appear to constitute two separate groups of flavin-associated proteins. Images

Zenno, S; Saigo, K

1994-01-01

79

The anguibactin biosynthesis and transport genes are encoded in the chromosome of Vibrio harveyi: a possible evolutionary origin for the pJM1 plasmid-encoded system of Vibrio anguillarum?  

PubMed

Many Vibrio anguillarum serotype O1 strains carry 65-kb pJM1-type plasmids harboring genes involved in siderophore anguibactin biosynthesis and transport. The anguibactin system is an essential factor for V. anguillarum to survive under iron-limiting conditions, and as a consequence, it is a very important virulence factor of this bacterium. Our comparative analysis of genomic data identified a cluster harboring homologs of anguibactin biosynthesis and transport genes in the chromosome of Vibrio harveyi. We have purified the putative anguibactin siderophore and demonstrated that it is indeed anguibactin by mass spectrometry and specific bioassays. Furthermore, we characterized two genes, angR and fatA, in this chromosome cluster that, respectively, participate in anguibactin biosynthesis and transport as determined by mutagenesis analysis. Furthermore, we found that the V. harveyi FatA protein is located in the outer membrane fractions as previously demonstrated in V. anguillarum. Based on our data, we propose that the anguibactin biosynthesis and transport cluster in the V. anguillarum pJM1 plasmid have likely evolved from the chromosome cluster of V. harveyi or vice versa. PMID:23335587

Naka, Hiroaki; Actis, Luis A; Crosa, Jorge H

2013-01-18

80

Virulence of Vibrio harveyi responsible for the "Bright-red" Syndrome in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi (Vh) CAIM 1792 strain was isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei affected with "Bright-red" Syndrome (BRS). The strain grew in 1-10% NaCl, at 15-35°C and was resistant to ampicillin (10 ?g), carbenicillin (100 ?g) and oxytetracycline (30 ?g). The lowest MIC was for enrofloxacine (0.5 ?gml(-1)). The in vivo and in vitro toxicity of bacterial cells and the extracellular products (ECPs) of Vh CAIM 1792 grown at 1.0%, 2.0% and 4.0% NaCl were evaluated. Adherence ability, enzymatic activities and siderophore production of bacterial cell was tested. The ECPs exhibited several enzymatic activities, such as gelatinase, amylase, lipase, phospholipase and caseinase. These ECPs displayed a strong cytotoxic effect on HELA cell line at 6 and 24 h. Challenges using 10(3) CFU g(-1) caused opacity at the site of injection and over 80% shrimp mortality before 24 h p.i. (post-injection). Mortality caused by the ECPs was higher than mortalities with bacteria, especially in the first hours p.i. Bacteria were re-isolated from hemolymph samples of moribund shrimp and identified as Vh CAIM 1792 by rep-PCR. Histological analysis of shrimp L. vannamei injected with Vh CAIM 1792 revealed generalized necrosis involving skeletal muscle (MU) at the injection site, the lymphoid organ (LO), heart and connective tissues. Melanization within the MU at the site of injection was also observed as well as hemocytic nodules within the hearth and MU at 168 h p.i. LO was the target organ of BRS. Necrosis of the MU at the injection site was the main difference in comparison to other shrimp vibriosis. PMID:22306693

Soto-Rodriguez, Sonia A; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Lozano, Rodolfo; del Rio-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Diéguez, Ana L; Romalde, Jesús L

2012-01-28

81

Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf dietary effects on the immunity response and disease resistance of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer challenged with Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to address the possible evaluation of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf-supplemented diets on innate immune response in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer fingerlings against Vibrio harveyi infection. Fish were fed for two weeks diets containing six graded levels of neem leaf at 0 g, 1 g, 2 g, 3 g, 4 g and 5 g per kg feed. Fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet displayed significant differences (p < 0.05) in weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control group fed without neem leaf-supplemented diet. Various innate immune parameters were examined pre-challenge and post-challenge. Fish was injected intraperitoneally with a lethal dose of V. harveyi containing 10(8) cells mL(-1). Supplementation of neem leaf diet significantly increased phagocytic activity, superoxide anion production, serum lysozyme, serum bactericidal activity, serum anti-protease activity throughout the experimental period when compared with the control group. Dietary doses of neem leaf diet significantly influenced the immune parameters, haematological parameters and blood biochemical indices of treated fish. The results suggested that fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet improved the immune system and increased survival rate in L. calcarifer fingerlings against V. harveyi infection. PMID:23178500

Talpur, Allah Dad; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd

2012-11-20

82

Complete genome sequence of Vibrio fischeri: A symbiotic bacterium with pathogenic congeners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio fischeri belongs to the Vibrionaceae, a large family of marine -proteobacteria that includes several dozen species known to engage in a diversity of beneficial or pathogenic interactions with animal tissue. Among the small number of pathogenic Vibrio species that cause human diseases are Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus, the only members of the Vibrionaceae that have had

E. G. Ruby; M. Urbanowski; J. Campbell; A. Dunn; M. Faini; R. Gunsalus; P. Lostroh; C. Lupp; J. McCann; D. Millikan; A. Schaefer; E. Stabb; A. Stevens; K. Visick; C. Whistler; E. P. Greenberg

2005-01-01

83

Temperature regulation of virulence factors in the pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea surface temperatures (SST) are rising because of global climate change. As a result, pathogenic Vibrio species that infect humans and marine organisms during warmer summer months are of growing concern. Coral reefs, in particular, are already experiencing unprecedented degradation worldwide due in part to infectious disease outbreaks and bleaching episodes that are exacerbated by increasing SST. For example, Vibrio

Nikole E Kimes; Christopher J Grim; Wesley R Johnson; Nur A Hasan; Ben D Tall; Mahendra H Kothary; Hajnalka Kiss; A Christine Munk; Roxanne Tapia; Lance Green; Chris Detter; David C Bruce; Thomas S Brettin; Rita R Colwell; Pamela J Morris

2012-01-01

84

The Vibrio Pathogenicity Island of Epidemic Vibrio cholerae Forms Precise Extrachromosomal Circular Excision Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vibrio pathogenicity island (VPI) in epidemic Vibrio cholerae is an essential virulence gene cluster. Like many pathogenicity islands, the VPI has at its termini a phage-like integrase gene (int), a transposase-like gene (vpiT), and phage-like attachment (att) sites, and is inserted at a tRNA-like locus (ssrA). We report that the VPI precisely excises from the chromosome and that its

C. Rajanna; J. Wang; D. Zhang; Zheng Xu; A. Ali; Y.-M. Hou; D. K. R. Karaolis

2003-01-01

85

Expression and distribution of three heat shock protein genes under heat shock stress and under exposure to Vibrio harveyi in Penaeus monodon.  

PubMed

A sudden increase in temperature results in heat shock stress of the cultured shrimp. To cope with the stress, shrimp has to overcome by triggering a response known as heat shock response. To understand the heat shock response in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), we examined expression patterns and distribution of three heat shock protein (hsp) genes in P. monodon juveniles. The expression levels of hsp21, hsp70 and hsp90 were determined by quantitative real-time PCR in nine tissues (gill, heart, hepatopancreas, stomach, intestine, eyestalk, pleopod, thoracic ganglia and hemocyte) under untreated and heat shock conditions. Under untreated condition, all three hsp genes were differentially expressed in all examined tissues where the hsp70 transcript showed the highest basal level. Under heat shock condition, only hsp90 was inducible in all nine tissues when comparing to its untreated level. The time-course induction experiment in gill and hepatopancreas revealed that the transcriptional levels of hsp21, hsp70 and hsp90 were inducible under the heat shock condition and in time-dependent manner. To determine the response of the hsp genes upon bacterial exposure, we further determined transcript levels of the hsp genes in gill of P. monodon after Vibrio harveyi injection. The expression levels of hsp70 and hsp90 were significantly increased after a 3-h exposure to V. harveyi where the hsp21 transcript was induced later after a 24-h exposure. This evidence suggests for putative roles and involvement of the hsp genes as a part of immunity response against V. harveyi in P. monodon. PMID:20561967

Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Leelatanawit, Rungnapa; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

2010-06-08

86

Severe Wound Infection with Photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae and Vibrio harveyi, following a Laceration Injury in Marine Environment: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Marine microorganisms are uncommon etiologies of skin and skin structure infections, that is, wound infections. We report a case of severe wound infection, caused by the marine Photobacterium damselae (Vibrionaceae), in a 64-year-old male patient, returning from Australia. The isolate tested positive for pPHDD1, a plasmid conferring high-level virulence. Furthermore, the wound was coinfected with Vibrio harveyi, a halophile bacterium, which has never been reported from human infections before. Identification was achieved by use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. Data retrieval from bibliography was complicated since P. damselae has been renamed often with a number of synonyms present in the literature: Photobacterium damsela, Vibrio damselae, Vibrio damsela, Pasteurella damselae, and Listonella damsela. With all synonyms used as query terms, a literature search provided less than 20 cases published worldwide. A majority of those cases presenting as severe wound infection are even fatal following progression into necrotizing fasciitis. Management with daily wound dressing and antibiotic therapy (ofloxacin empirically, followed by doxycycline after availability of microbiology) led in the reported case to a favorable outcome, which seems to be, however, the exception based on a review of the available literature.

Hundenborn, Jorg; Thurig, Steffi

2013-01-01

87

Ecological study of pathogenic vibrios in aquatic environments.  

PubMed

An ecological study of pathogenic vibrios in aquatic environments of Okayama was carried out. The number of Vibrio parahaemolyticus detected in the sea area was comparatively smaler than that found in the survey of about two decades ago. Various reasons for the decrease in the case of food poisoning by V. parahaemolyticus have been suggested but the lower number of the vibrio in aquatic environments may be one explanation. Although the number of V. vulnificus was also not as large, most of the isolates possessed the pathogenic genes, vvp and vvh, suggesting the potential for fatal pathogenicity to patients having underlying diseases. As for V. cholerae, some non-O1/non-O139 serovar isolates were detected in a fresh water area, and many of them had hlyA, the gene for hemolysin which acts as a pathogenic factor in sporadic cases of diarrhea. Thus, the total number of pathogenic vibrios detected was not of concern. However, the marine products of these areas are shipped in wide area and are for general consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to continue to survey pathogenic vibrios in aquatic environments in order to ensure food hygiene. PMID:23538851

Shinoda, Sumio; Furumai, Yuki; Katayama, Sei-Ichi; Mizuno, Tamaki; Miyoshi, Shin-Ichi

2013-01-01

88

Quorum sensing regulation of virulence gene expression in Vibrio harveyi in vitro and in vivo during infection of gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated quorum sensing regulation of virulence genes in Vibrio harveyi by determining their expression levels, both in vitro and in vivo during infection of gnotobiotic brine shrimp. The quorum sensing master regulator luxR and the vhp metalloprotease showed around threefold and fivefold higher expression levels in a luxO mutant with maximum quorum sensing activity than in a luxO mutant with minimum quorum sensing activity. There was no difference in expression of the vhh haemolysin gene between the two mutants. There was however more than 2.5-fold lower expression in an AI-2-negative mutant, suggesting that this gene is specifically regulated by AI-2 quorum sensing through a yet unknown signal transduction cascade. The in vivo expression data showed a peak in expression of the quorum sensing master regulator luxR and the vhp metalloprotease after 24?h of incubation in wild-type V. harveyi and the luxO mutant mimicking a maximally activated quorum sensing system, whereas the expression remained low in the luxO mutant mimicking a completely inactivated quorum sensing system. The vhh haemolysin gene showed a peak in expression after 24?h in the wild type and a constantly low expression in an AI-2-negative mutant. PMID:23761340

Ruwandeepika, H A Darshanee; Bhowmick, Patit Paban; Karunasagar, Indrani; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

2011-06-08

89

Genome sequence of the human-pathogenic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus type strain ATCC 27562.  

PubMed

Vibrio vulnificus, which is, like Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a pathogen of humankind, is a Gram-negative, curved, motile, and rod-shaped bacterium [corrected] Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the type strain, ATCC 27562, which was the first isolated Vibrio vulnificus strain. PMID:23209214

Li, Zhaoyun; Chen, Huihong; Chen, Xianjun; Zhou, Tieli; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Chunling; Jin, Wenyang

2012-12-01

90

Genome Sequence of the Pathogenic Bacterium Vibrio vulnificus Biotype 3.  

PubMed

We report the first genome sequence of the pathogenic Vibrio vulnificus biotype 3. This draft genome sequence of the environmental strain VVyb1(BT3), isolated in Israel, provides a representation of this newly emerged clonal group, which reveals higher similarity to the clinical strains of biotype 1 than to the environmental ones. PMID:23599289

Danin-Poleg, Yael; Elgavish, Sharona; Raz, Nili; Efimov, Vera; Kashi, Yechezkel

2013-04-18

91

Genome Sequence of the Pathogenic Bacterium Vibrio vulnificus Biotype 3  

PubMed Central

We report the first genome sequence of the pathogenic Vibrio vulnificus biotype 3. This draft genome sequence of the environmental strain VVyb1(BT3), isolated in Israel, provides a representation of this newly emerged clonal group, which reveals higher similarity to the clinical strains of biotype 1 than to the environmental ones.

Danin-Poleg, Yael; Elgavish, Sharona; Raz, Nili; Efimov, Vera

2013-01-01

92

Genomics and the Evolution of Pathogenic Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, the complete genome sequence of the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is examined. We discuss, in particular,\\u000a the level of gene acquisition in the form of pathogenicity and genomic islands within the species, and the role of these elements\\u000a in the various lifestyles of the organism This chapter will highlight the significant role horizontal gene transfer plays\\u000a in

William S. Jermyn; Yvonne A. O’Shea; Anne Marie Quirke; E. Fidelma Boyd

93

The natural furanone (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-3-butyl-2(5H)-furanone disrupts quorum sensing-regulated gene expression in Vibrio harveyi by decreasing the DNA-binding activity of the transcriptional regulator protein luxR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study aimed at getting a deeper insight in the molecular mechanism by which the natural furanone (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-3-butyl-2(5H)- furanone disrupts quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi. Bioluminescence experiments with signal molecule receptor double mutants revealed that the furanone blocks all three channels of the V. harveyi quorum sensing system. In further experiments using mutants with mutations in the quorum sensing

Tom Defoirdt; Carol M. Miyamoto; Thomas K. Wood; Edward A. Meighen; Patrick Sorgeloos; Willy Verstraete; Peter Bossier

2007-01-01

94

Growth, nonspecific immune characteristics, and survival upon challenge with Vibrio harveyi in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) raised on diets containing algal meal.  

PubMed

A 70-day growth trial was conducted with postlarvae 12 (PL12) Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to study the suitability of soybean meal and oil originating from a single-celled microorganism (thraustochytrid) as fishmeal and fish oil substitutes in practical diets for L. vannamei. The growth, survival rate and immune characteristics were evaluated. Seven experimental diets were designed with soybean meal used as the primary protein source; each formulation contained 33% crude protein and 8% lipid. Fish oil was completely substituted with 3% soybean oil and meals originating from single-celled heterotrophs rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) were added at different concentrations. A commercial shrimp feed was used as the control diet. The final weights and survival rates of the shrimp were not significantly different among all treatments. However, shrimp raised on diets supplemented with marine algal meals rich in DHA and ARA showed significant improvement in immune parameters, such as total hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide dismutase activity, and bactericidal activity. Additionally, the survival rate after challenge with Vibrio harveyi was increased. These findings demonstrated that substitution of thraustochytrid-derived meals as an alternative to fish-based ingredients in shrimp diets provided similar growth rates while increasing the immune parameters and providing vibriosis resistance. PMID:20420922

Nonwachai, Thasanee; Purivirojkul, Watchariya; Limsuwan, Chalor; Chuchird, Niti; Velasco, Mario; Dhar, Arun K

2010-04-24

95

Individual and Combined Roles of the Master Regulators AphA and LuxR in Control of the Vibrio harveyi Quorum-Sensing Regulon  

PubMed Central

Bacteria use a chemical communication process called quorum sensing to control transitions between individual and group behaviors. In the Vibrio harveyi quorum-sensing circuit, two master transcription factors, AphA and LuxR, coordinate the quorum-sensing response. Here we show that AphA regulates 167 genes, LuxR regulates 625 genes, and they coregulate 77 genes. LuxR strongly controls genes at both low cell density and high cell density, suggesting that it is the major quorum-sensing regulator. In contrast, AphA is absent at high cell density and acts to fine-tune quorum-sensing gene expression at low cell density. We examined two loci as case studies of coregulation by AphA and LuxR. First, AphA and LuxR directly regulate expression of the genes encoding the quorum-regulatory small RNAs Qrr2, Qrr3, and Qrr4, the consequence of which is a specifically timed transition between the individual and the group life-styles. Second, AphA and LuxR repress type III secretion system genes but at different times and to different extents. The consequence of this regulation is that type III secretion is restricted to a peak at mid-cell density. Thus, the asymmetric production of AphA and LuxR coupled with differences in their strengths and timing of target gene regulation generate a precise temporal pattern of gene expression.

van Kessel, Julia C.; Rutherford, Steven T.; Shao, Yi; Utria, Alan F.

2013-01-01

96

Benthic ecology of Vibrio spp. and pathogenic Vibrio species in a coastal Mediterranean environment (La Spezia Gulf, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out a 16-month in situ study to investigate the ecology of Vibrio spp. and pathogenic Vibrio species in coastal sediments of the Mediterranean Sea, employing multiple-regression analysis to reveal the major environmental\\u000a factors controlling their occurrence in the benthic environment. In addition, association between vibrios and sediment-inhabiting\\u000a meiofauna, which is a major component of benthic ecosystems, was investigated.

Luigi Vezzulli; Elisabetta Pezzati; Mariapaola Moreno; Mauro Fabiano; Luigi Pane; Carla Pruzzo

2009-01-01

97

Multiple Regulators Control Capsular Polysaccharide Production in Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a biofouling marine bacterium and human pathogen, undergoes phase variation displaying translucent (TR) and opaque (OP) colony morphologies. Prior studies demonstrated that OP colonies produce more capsular polysaccharide (CPS) than TR colonies and that opacity is controlled by the Vibrio harveyi LuxR-type transcriptional activator OpaR. CPS has also been shown to be regulated by the scrABC signaling pathway,

Zehra Tuzun Guvener; Linda L. McCarter

2003-01-01

98

Comparative Genome Analysis of Vibrio vulnificus, a Marine Pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The halophile Vibrio vulnificus is an etiologic agent of human mortality from seafood-borne infections. We applied whole-genome sequencing and comparative analysis to investigate the evolution of this pathogen. The genome of biotype 1 strain, V. vulnificus YJ016, was sequenced and includes two chromosomes of estimated 3377 kbp and 1857 kbp in size, and a plasmid of 48,508 bp. A super-integron

Chung-Yung Chen; Keh-Ming Wu; Yo-Cheng Chang; Chuan-Hsiung Chang; Hui-Chi Tsai; Tsai-Lien Liao; Yen-Ming Liu; Hsiang-Ju Chen; Arthur Bo-Ting Shen; Jian-Chiuan Li; Teh-Li Su; Chung-Ping Shao; Chung-Te Lee; Lien-I Hor; Shih-Feng Tsai

2003-01-01

99

Temperature regulation of virulence factors in the pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus.  

PubMed

Sea surface temperatures (SST) are rising because of global climate change. As a result, pathogenic Vibrio species that infect humans and marine organisms during warmer summer months are of growing concern. Coral reefs, in particular, are already experiencing unprecedented degradation worldwide due in part to infectious disease outbreaks and bleaching episodes that are exacerbated by increasing SST. For example, Vibrio coralliilyticus, a globally distributed bacterium associated with multiple coral diseases, infects corals at temperatures above 27 °C. The mechanisms underlying this temperature-dependent pathogenicity, however, are unknown. In this study, we identify potential virulence mechanisms using whole genome sequencing of V. coralliilyticus ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) BAA-450. Furthermore, we demonstrate direct temperature regulation of numerous virulence factors using proteomic analysis and bioassays. Virulence factors involved in motility, host degradation, secretion, antimicrobial resistance and transcriptional regulation are upregulated at the higher virulent temperature of 27 °C, concurrent with phenotypic changes in motility, antibiotic resistance, hemolysis, cytotoxicity and bioluminescence. These results provide evidence that temperature regulates multiple virulence mechanisms in V. coralliilyticus, independent of abundance. The ecological and biological significance of this temperature-dependent virulence response is reinforced by climate change models that predict tropical SST to consistently exceed 27 °C during the spring, summer and fall seasons. We propose V. coralliilyticus as a model Gram-negative bacterium to study temperature-dependent pathogenicity in Vibrio-related diseases. PMID:22158392

Kimes, Nikole E; Grim, Christopher J; Johnson, Wesley R; Hasan, Nur A; Tall, Ben D; Kothary, Mahendra H; Kiss, Hajnalka; Munk, A Christine; Tapia, Roxanne; Green, Lance; Detter, Chris; Bruce, David C; Brettin, Thomas S; Colwell, Rita R; Morris, Pamela J

2011-12-08

100

Temperature regulation of virulence factors in the pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus  

PubMed Central

Sea surface temperatures (SST) are rising because of global climate change. As a result, pathogenic Vibrio species that infect humans and marine organisms during warmer summer months are of growing concern. Coral reefs, in particular, are already experiencing unprecedented degradation worldwide due in part to infectious disease outbreaks and bleaching episodes that are exacerbated by increasing SST. For example, Vibrio coralliilyticus, a globally distributed bacterium associated with multiple coral diseases, infects corals at temperatures above 27?°C. The mechanisms underlying this temperature-dependent pathogenicity, however, are unknown. In this study, we identify potential virulence mechanisms using whole genome sequencing of V. coralliilyticus ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) BAA-450. Furthermore, we demonstrate direct temperature regulation of numerous virulence factors using proteomic analysis and bioassays. Virulence factors involved in motility, host degradation, secretion, antimicrobial resistance and transcriptional regulation are upregulated at the higher virulent temperature of 27?°C, concurrent with phenotypic changes in motility, antibiotic resistance, hemolysis, cytotoxicity and bioluminescence. These results provide evidence that temperature regulates multiple virulence mechanisms in V. coralliilyticus, independent of abundance. The ecological and biological significance of this temperature-dependent virulence response is reinforced by climate change models that predict tropical SST to consistently exceed 27?°C during the spring, summer and fall seasons. We propose V. coralliilyticus as a model Gram-negative bacterium to study temperature-dependent pathogenicity in Vibrio-related diseases.

Kimes, Nikole E; Grim, Christopher J; Johnson, Wesley R; Hasan, Nur A; Tall, Ben D; Kothary, Mahendra H; Kiss, Hajnalka; Munk, A Christine; Tapia, Roxanne; Green, Lance; Detter, Chris; Bruce, David C; Brettin, Thomas S; Colwell, Rita R; Morris, Pamela J

2012-01-01

101

Vibrio harveyi NADPH-flavin oxidoreductase: cloning, sequencing and overexpression of the gene and purification and characterization of the cloned enzyme.  

PubMed Central

NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductases (flavin reductases) from luminous bacteria catalyze the reduction of flavin by NAD(P)H and are believed to provide the reduced form of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) for luciferase in the bioluminescence reaction. By using an oligonucleotide probe based on the partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the Vibrio harveyi NADPH-FMN oxidoreductase (flavin reductase P), a recombinant plasmid, pFRP1, was obtained which contained the frp gene encoding this enzyme. The DNA sequence of the frp gene was determined; the deduced amino acid sequence for flavin reductase P consists of 240 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 26,312. The frp gene was overexpressed, apparently through induction, in Escherichia coli JM109 cells harboring pFRP1. The cloned flavin reductase P was purified to homogeneity by following a new and simple procedure involving FMN-agarose chromatography as a key step. The same chromatography material was also highly effective in concentrating diluted flavin reductase P. The purified enzyme is a monomer and is unusual in having a tightly bound FMN cofactor. Distinct from the free FMN, the bound FMN cofactor showed a diminished A375 peak and a slightly increased 8-nm red-shifted A453 peak and was completely or nearly nonfluorescent. The Kms for FMN and NADPH and the turnover number of this flavin reductase were determined. In comparison with other flavin reductases and homologous proteins, this flavin reductase P shows a number of distinct features with respect to primary sequence, redox center, and/or kinetic mechanism. Images

Lei, B; Liu, M; Huang, S; Tu, S C

1994-01-01

102

Biocontrol of pathogens in shrimp hatcheries using bacteriophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microflora associated with larval stages of shrimp could affect the health and development of the larvae. Some bacteria such as luminous Vibrio harveyi cause serious mortalities. Consequent to the ban on use of most antibiotics in aquaculture, there is a need for alternate technologies for control of bacterial pathogens. Bacteriophages have a potential to control bacterial pathogens. This paper reports

Indrani Karunasagar; M. M. Shivu; S. K. Girisha; G. Krohne; Iddya Karunasagar

2007-01-01

103

Phage therapy treatment of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus.  

PubMed

Vibrio coralliilyticus is an important coral pathogen demonstrated to cause disease outbreaks worldwide. This study investigated the feasibility of applying bacteriophage therapy to treat the coral pathogen V. coralliilyticus. A specific bacteriophage for V. coralliilyticus strain P1 (LMG23696), referred to here as bacteriophage YC, was isolated from the seawater above corals at Nelly Bay, Magnetic Island, central Great Barrier Reef (GBR), the same location where the bacterium was first isolated. Bacteriophage YC was shown to be a lytic phage belonging to the Myoviridae family, with a rapid replication rate, high burst size, and high affinity to its host. By infecting its host bacterium, bacteriophage YC was able to prevent bacterial-induced photosystem inhibition in pure cultures of Symbiodinium, the photosymbiont partner of coral and a target for virulence factors produced by the bacterial pathogen. Phage therapy experiments using coral juveniles in microtiter plates as a model system revealed that bacteriophage YC was able to prevent V. coralliilyticus-induced photoinactivation and tissue lysis. These results demonstrate that bacteriophage YC has the potential to treat coral disease outbreaks caused by the bacterial pathogen V. coralliilyticus, making it a good candidate for phage therapy treatment of coral disease. PMID:23239510

Cohen, Yossi; Joseph Pollock, F; Rosenberg, Eugene; Bourne, David G

2012-12-14

104

Phage therapy treatment of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus  

PubMed Central

Vibrio coralliilyticus is an important coral pathogen demonstrated to cause disease outbreaks worldwide. This study investigated the feasibility of applying bacteriophage therapy to treat the coral pathogen V. coralliilyticus. A specific bacteriophage for V. coralliilyticus strain P1 (LMG23696), referred to here as bacteriophage YC, was isolated from the seawater above corals at Nelly Bay, Magnetic Island, central Great Barrier Reef (GBR), the same location where the bacterium was first isolated. Bacteriophage YC was shown to be a lytic phage belonging to the Myoviridae family, with a rapid replication rate, high burst size, and high affinity to its host. By infecting its host bacterium, bacteriophage YC was able to prevent bacterial-induced photosystem inhibition in pure cultures of Symbiodinium, the photosymbiont partner of coral and a target for virulence factors produced by the bacterial pathogen. Phage therapy experiments using coral juveniles in microtiter plates as a model system revealed that bacteriophage YC was able to prevent V. coralliilyticus-induced photoinactivation and tissue lysis. These results demonstrate that bacteriophage YC has the potential to treat coral disease outbreaks caused by the bacterial pathogen V. coralliilyticus, making it a good candidate for phage therapy treatment of coral disease.

Cohen, Yossi; Joseph Pollock, F; Rosenberg, Eugene; Bourne, David G

2013-01-01

105

Genomic and proteomic analyses of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus reveal a diverse virulence repertoire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio coralliilyticus has been implicated as an important pathogen of coral species worldwide. In this study, the nearly complete genome of Vibrio coralliilyticus strain P1 (LMG23696) was sequenced and proteases implicated in virulence of the strain were specifically investigated. The genome sequence of P1 (5 513 256 bp in size) consisted of 5222 coding sequences and 58 RNA genes (53

Eidy de O Santos; Nelson Alves; Graciela M Dias; Ana Maria Mazotto; Alane Vermelho; Gary J Vora; Bryan Wilson; Victor H Beltran; David G Bourne; Frédérique Le Roux; Fabiano L Thompson

2011-01-01

106

Anti-luminous Vibrio factors associated with the ‘green water’ grow-out culture of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the “green water” grow-out culture of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon to prevent outbreaks of Luminous Vibriosis was investigated by screening associated isolates of bacteria, fungi, phytoplankton and fish skin mucus for anti-luminous Vibrio metabolites. Among the 85 bacterial isolates tested, 63 (74%) caused +?+++ inhibition of the Vibrio harveyi pathogen after 24–48 h co-cultivation. The variation

Gilda D. Lio-Po; Eduardo M. Leaño; Ma. Michelle D. Peñaranda; Annie U. Villa-Franco; Christopher D. Sombito; Nicholas G. Guanzon

2005-01-01

107

Rapid, Sensitive and Specific Test for Detecting Pathogenic Bacterium, Vibrio Vulnificus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is related generally to the methods of detecting pathogenic bacteria. More particularly, the invention is related to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) employing a monoclonal antibody for detecting with specificity Vibrio vulnificu...

M. Tomplin

1990-01-01

108

Rapid, Sensitive and Specific Test for Detecting Pathogenic Bacterium, Vibrio vulnificus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is related generally to the methods of detecting pathogenic bacteria. More particularly, the present invention is related to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) employing a monoclonal antibody for detecting with specificity Vibrio v...

M. Tamplin

1990-01-01

109

Vibrios as causal agents of zoonoses.  

PubMed

Vibrios are Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria that are widespread in the coastal and estuarine environments. Some species, e.g. Vibrio anguillarum and V. tapetis, comprise serious pathogens of aquatic vertebrates or invertebrates. Other groups, including Grimontia (=Vibrio) hollisae, Photobacterium (=Vibrio) damselae subsp. damselae, V. alginolyticus, V. harveyi (=V. carchariae), V. cholerae, V. fluvialis, V. furnissii, V. metschnikovii, V. mimicus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, may cause disease in both aquatic animals and humans. The human outbreaks, although low in number, typically involve wound infections and gastro-intestinal disease often with watery diarrhoea. In a minority of cases, for example V. vulnificus, there is good evidence to actually associate human infections with diseased animals. In other cases, the link is certainly feasible but hard evidence is mostly lacking. PMID:19342185

Austin, B

2009-03-13

110

The natural furanone (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-3-butyl-2(5H)-furanone disrupts quorum sensing-regulated gene expression in Vibrio harveyi by decreasing the DNA-binding activity of the transcriptional regulator protein luxR.  

PubMed

This study aimed at getting a deeper insight in the molecular mechanism by which the natural furanone (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-3-butyl-2(5H)-furanone disrupts quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi. Bioluminescence experiments with signal molecule receptor double mutants revealed that the furanone blocks all three channels of the V. harveyi quorum sensing system. In further experiments using mutants with mutations in the quorum sensing signal transduction pathway, the compound was found to block quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence by interacting with a component located downstream of the Hfq protein. Furthermore, reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction with specific primers showed that there was no effect of the furanone on luxR(Vh) mRNA levels in wild-type V. harveyi cells. In contrast, mobility shift assays showed that in the presence of the furanone, significantly lower levels of the LuxR(Vh) response regulator protein were able to bind to its target promoter sequences in wild-type V. harveyi. Finally, tests with purified LuxR(Vh) protein also showed less shifts with furanone-treated LuxR(Vh), whereas the LuxR(Vh) concentration was found not to be altered by the furanone (as determined by SDS-PAGE). Therefore, our data indicate that the furanone blocks quorum sensing in V. harveyi by rendering the quorum sensing master regulator protein LuxR(Vh) unable to bind to the promoter sequences of quorum sensing-regulated genes. PMID:17803774

Defoirdt, Tom; Miyamoto, Carol M; Wood, Thomas K; Meighen, Edward A; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter

2007-10-01

111

Infection of pronephros cell cultures derived from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) with bacterial fish pathogens: A comparison with whole fish infectivity studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary cell cultures were developed from the pronephros of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum), and used to determine their interaction with bacterial pathogens as compared to whole fish pathogenicity experiments. Overall, there was excellent agreement with Aeromonas hydrophila, A. salmonicida, Citrobacter freundii, Streptococcus iniae, Vibrio anguillarum, V. damsela, V. harveyi, V. ordalii, ‘V. viscosus’, V. vulnificus and Yersinia ruckeri,

B. Austin; N. Cross

1998-01-01

112

Detection and characterization of pathogenic vibrios in shellfish by a Ligation Detection Reaction-Universal Array approach.  

PubMed

Vibrios are a group of major foodborne pathogens widely distributed in marine environment. Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus are the pathogenic species of Vibrio that pose the greatest threat to human health. However, other vibrios, e.g. Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio mimicus and Grimontia hollisae, apparently less relevant in the group of foodborne pathogens, have been sporadically found in outbreaks. For seafood safety and economic purposes, a rapid and powerful method for the specific identification of harmful Vibrio strains is needed. We developed a PCR-Ligase Detection Reaction-Universal Array (PCR-LDR-UA) assay for the simultaneous identification of pathogenic vibrios and detection of virulence coding genes. The entire procedure was validated on a total of 31 reference strains and isolates from clinical and environmental samples, as well as on bivalve tissue homogenates infected with different strains of target Vibrio species. Twenty-three shellfish samples directed to human consumption were successfully screened, thus demonstrating that the developed microarray-based platform could be a reliable and sensitive detection tool for the identification of harmful Vibrio strains in seafood. PMID:22177227

Cariani, Alessia; Piano, Annamaria; Consolandi, Clarissa; Severgnini, Marco; Castiglioni, Bianca; Caredda, Giada; Candela, Marco; Serratore, Patrizia; De Bellis, Gianluca; Tinti, Fausto

2011-11-20

113

Short-chain fatty acids protect gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana from pathogenic Vibrio campbellii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections caused by antibiotic resistant luminescent vibrios can cause considerable losses in aquaculture. In this study, different short-chain fatty acids were investigated as possible alternative biocontrol agents. The addition of 100 mM formic, acetic, propionic, butyric or valeric acid to the growth medium of a pathogenic Vibrio campbellii strain completely inhibited its growth at pH 6. At 10 mM, the growth of

Tom Defoirdt; Dirk Halet; Patrick Sorgeloos; Peter Bossier; Willy Verstraete

2006-01-01

114

Power plays: iron transport and energy transduction in pathogenic vibrios  

PubMed Central

The Vibrios are a unique group of bacteria inhabiting a vast array of aquatic environments. Many Vibrio species are capable of infecting a wide assortment of hosts. Some of these species include V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. anguillarum, and V. cholerae. The ability of these organisms to utilize iron is essential in establishing both an infection in their hosts as well as surviving in the environment. Bacteria are able to sequester iron through the secretion of low molecular weight iron chelators termed siderophores. The iron-siderophore complexes are bound by specific outer membrane receptors and are brought through both the outer and inner membranes of the cell. The energy needed to drive this active transport is achieved through the TonB energy transduction system. When first elucidated in E. coli, the TonB system was shown to be a three protein complex consisting of TonB, ExbB and ExbD. Most Vibrio species carry two TonB systems. The second TonB system includes a fourth protein; TtpC, which is essential for TonB2 mediated iron transport. Some Vibrio species have been shown to carry a third TonB system that also includes a TtpC protein.

Kustusch, Ryan J.; Kuehl, Carole J.; Crosa, Jorge H.

2011-01-01

115

Detection of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oyster enrichments by real time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed and evaluated to detect the presence of the thermostable direct hemolysin gene (tdh), a current marker of pathogenicity in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The real time PCR fluorogenic probe and primer set was tested against a panel of numerous strains from 13 different bacterial species. Only V. parahaemolyticus strains possessing the tdh

George M Blackstone; Jessica L Nordstrom; Michael C. L Vickery; Michael D Bowen; Richard F Meyer; Angelo DePaola

2003-01-01

116

The viable but non-culturable state in the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is a serious human pathogen, accounting for 95% of all seafood-related deaths in the United States. During the winter months, when coastal water temperatures drop below 10 °C, investigators have repeatedly reported their inability to isolate this estuarine bacterium from the environment. We now realize that this apparent ‘die-off’ is actually due to entry of the cells into

James D. Oliver

1995-01-01

117

Quorum-sensing regulates biofilm formation in Vibrio scophthalmi  

PubMed Central

Background In a previous study, we demonstrated that Vibrio scophthalmi, the most abundant Vibrio species among the marine aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tract of healthy cultured turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), contains at least two quorum-sensing circuits involving two types of signal molecules (a 3-hydroxy-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone and the universal autoinducer 2 encoded by luxS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the functions regulated by these quorum sensing circuits in this vibrio by constructing mutants for the genes involved in these circuits. Results The presence of a homologue to the Vibrio harveyi luxR gene encoding a main transcriptional regulator, whose expression is modulated by quorum–sensing signal molecules in other vibrios, was detected and sequenced. The V. scophthalmi LuxR protein displayed a maximum amino acid identity of 82% with SmcR, the LuxR homologue found in Vibrio vulnificus. luxR and luxS null mutants were constructed and their phenotype analysed. Both mutants displayed reduced biofilm formation in vitro as well as differences in membrane protein expression by mass-spectrometry analysis. Additionally, a recombinant strain of V. scophthalmi carrying the lactonase AiiA from Bacillus cereus, which causes hydrolysis of acyl homoserine lactones, was included in the study. Conclusions V. scophthalmi shares two quorum sensing circuits, including the main transcriptional regulator luxR, with some pathogenic vibrios such as V. harveyi and V. anguillarum. However, contrary to these pathogenic vibrios no virulence factors (such as protease production) were found to be quorum sensing regulated in this bacterium. Noteworthy, biofilm formation was altered in luxS and luxR mutants. In these mutants a different expression profile of membrane proteins were observed with respect to the wild type strain suggesting that quorum sensing could play a role in the regulation of the adhesion mechanisms of this bacterium.

2012-01-01

118

Ocean warming and spread of pathogenic vibrios in the aquatic environment.  

PubMed

Vibrios are among the most common bacteria that inhabit surface waters throughout the world and are responsible for a number of severe infections both in humans and animals. Several reports recently showed that human Vibrio illnesses are increasing worldwide including fatal acute diarrheal diseases, such as cholera, gastroenteritis, wound infections, and septicemia. Many scientists believe this increase may be associated with global warming and rise in sea surface temperature (SST), although not enough evidence is available to support a causal link between emergence of Vibrio infections and climate warming. The effect of increased SST in promoting spread of vibrios in coastal and brackish waters is considered a causal factor explaining this trend. Field and laboratory studies carried out over the past 40 years supported this hypothesis, clearly showing temperature promotes Vibrio growth and persistence in the aquatic environment. Most recently, a long-term retrospective microbiological study carried out in the coastal waters of the southern North Sea provided the first experimental evidence for a positive and significant relationship between SST and Vibrio occurrence over a multidecadal time scale. As a future challenge, macroecological studies of the effects of ocean warming on Vibrio persistence and spread in the aquatic environment over large spatial and temporal scales would conclusively support evidence acquired to date combined with studies of the impact of global warming on epidemiologically relevant variables, such as host susceptibility and exposure. Assessing a causal link between ongoing climate change and enhanced growth and spread of vibrios and related illness is expected to improve forecast and mitigate future outbreaks associated with these pathogens. PMID:23280498

Vezzulli, Luigi; Colwell, Rita R; Pruzzo, Carla

2013-01-03

119

Pathogenic Vibrio species in dutch shellfish destined for direct human consumption.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common cause of shellfish-related gastroenteritis all over the world. V. parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus have previously been detected in water samples from the Oosterschelde, a large inlet on the North Sea, which is used for both recreational purposes and shellfish production. In 2006, oysters (Crassostrea gigas) from a noncommercial oyster bed in the Oosterschelde and oysters bought in Dutch fish shops were tested for the presence of pathogenic Vibrio species; in 2007 and 2008, oysters (C. gigas) and mussels (Mytilus edulis) from Oosterschelde production areas were examined. Total Vibrio numbers were related to water temperatures to study joint patterns. Vibrio was found in oysters and mussels from the production areas, and levels ranged from 6 to 622 most probable number (MPN) per g in oysters and 6 to 62 MPN/g in mussels. Vibrio levels in oysters from fish shops were 231 to >333 MPN/g, whereas levels in noncommercial oysters ranged from 231 to >2,398 MPN/g. About 80% of the isolated strains were V. alginolyticus, and approximately 10% were identified as V. parahaemolyticus. Vibrio counts in shellfish samples increased with increasing water temperature and declined when water temperatures dropped; Vibrio was not detected when water temperatures declined to <13.5 degrees C. Based on the obtained results and the known high V. parahaemolyticus dose (>10(4) cells per serving of oysters) required for infection, it is concluded that the risk of gastrointestinal infections with V. parahaemolyticus through consumption of shellfish from the Oosterschelde production sites is presumably low. PMID:20377964

Schets, Franciska M; van den Berg, Harold H J L; Rutjes, Saskia A; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

2010-04-01

120

Invasion Route and Pathogenic Mechanisms of Vibrio alginolyticus to Silver Sea Bream Sparus sarba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential routes of invasion and associated pathogenic mechanisms of a pathogenic strain of Vibrio alginolyticus (Vib-01) to silver sea bream Sparus sarba were evaluated. Inoculation of V. alginolyticus into juvenile silver sea bream via the intramuscular, intraperitoneal, injury–immersion, and simple immersion routes resulted in 14-d LD50 values (concentrations lethal to half the group studied) of 4.85 × 10 colony-forming units

Jun Li; Liran Zhou; Norman Y. S. Woo

2003-01-01

121

Genetic Determinants of Virulence in the Marine Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum  

PubMed Central

One of the most studied fish pathogens is Vibrio anguillarum. Development of the genetics and biochemistry of the mechanisms of virulence in this fish pathogen together with clinical and ecologic studies has permitted the intensive development of microbiology in fish diseases. It is the intention of this review to compile the exhaustive knowledge accumulated on this bacterium and its interaction with the host fish by reporting a complete analysis of the V. anguillarum virulence factors and the genetics of their complexity.

Naka, Hiroaki; Crosa, Jorge H.

2011-01-01

122

Contamination of community water sources by potentially pathogenic vibrios following sea water inundation.  

PubMed

Potentially pathogenic members of the Vibrionaceae family including Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahemolyticus were isolated from domestic sources of drinking water in coastal villages following sea water inundation during the tsunami in Southern India. Phenotypic and genotypic studies were done to confirm the identity and detection of toxins. Vibrio-gyr (gyrase B gene) was detected in all sixteen vibrio isolates. Toxin regulating genes i.e.: ctx gene, tdh gene, and trh gene, however were not detected in any of the strains, thereby ruling out presence of toxins which could endanger human life. Other potentially pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas and Plesiomonas were also isolated from hand pumps and wells, in a few localities. There was no immediate danger in the form of an outbreak or sporadic gastroenteritis at the time of the study. Timely chlorination and restoration of potable water supply to the flood affected population by governmental and nongovernmental agencies averted waterborne gastroenteritis. Assessment of quality of water and detection of potential virulent organisms is an important public health activity following natural disasters. This work highlights the importance of screening water sources for potentially pathogenic microorganisms after natural disasters to avert outbreaks of gastroenteritis and other infectious diseases. PMID:18697592

Kanungo, Reba; Shashikala; Karunasagar, I; Srinivasan, S; Sheela, Devi; Venkatesh, K; Anitha, P

2007-12-01

123

Effect of Na+and K+Ions on the Luminescence of Intact Vibrio harveyiCells at Different pH Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioluminescent activity of intact Vibrio harveyicells loaded with different concentrations of NaCl and KCl at different pH values was studied. In the pH range of 6.5–8.5, the effect of Na+was significantly higher than that of K+at all concentrations studied. Maximum luminescent activity was observed in cells loaded with 0.68 M NaCl. When Na+was nonuniformly distributed on the plasma membrane,

L. A. Vitukhnovskaya; A. D. Ismailov

2001-01-01

124

Temporal and spatial distribution patterns of potentially pathogenic Vibrio spp. at recreational beaches of the German north sea.  

PubMed

The number of reported Vibrio-related wound infections associated with recreational bathing in Northern Europe has increased within the last decades. In order to study the health risk from potentially pathogenic Vibrio spp. in the central Wadden Sea, the seasonal and spatial distribution of Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio cholerae were investigated at ten recreational beaches in this area over a 2-year period. V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus were found to be omnipresent all year round in the study area, while V. vulnificus occurrence was restricted to summer months in the estuaries of the rivers Ems and Weser. Multiple linear regression models revealed that water temperature is the most important determinant of Vibrio spp. occurrence in the area. Differentiated regression models showed a species-specific response to water temperature and revealed a particularly strong effect of even minor temperature increases on the probability of detecting V. vulnificus in summer. In sediments, Vibrio spp. concentrations were up to three orders of magnitude higher than in water. Also, V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus were found to be less susceptible towards winter temperatures in the benthic environment than in the water, indicating an important role of sediments for Vibrio ecology. While only a very small percentage of tested V. parahaemolyticus proved to be potentially pathogenic, the presence of V. vulnificus during the summer months should be regarded with care. PMID:23563708

Böer, Simone I; Heinemeyer, Ernst-August; Luden, Katrin; Erler, René; Gerdts, Gunnar; Janssen, Frank; Brennholt, Nicole

2013-04-07

125

Three Pathogenicity Islands of Vibrio cholerae Can Excise from the Chromosome and Form Circular Intermediates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio pathogenicity island-2 (VPI-2) is a 57-kb region integrated at a transfer RNA (tRNA)-serine locus that encompasses VC1758 to VC1809 on the V. cholerae N16961 genome and is present in pandemic isolates. VPI-2 encodes a P4-like integrase, a restriction modification system, a Mu phage-like region, and a sialic acid metabolism region, as well as neuraminidase (VC1784), which is a glycosylhydrolase

Ronan A. Murphy; E. Fidelma Boyd

2008-01-01

126

Detection of pathogenic Vibrio spp. in shellfish by using multiplex PCR and DNA microarrays.  

PubMed

This study describes the development of a gene-specific DNA microarray coupled with multiplex PCR for the comprehensive detection of pathogenic vibrios that are natural inhabitants of warm coastal waters and shellfish. Multiplex PCR with vvh and viuB for Vibrio vulnificus, with ompU, toxR, tcpI, and hlyA for V. cholerae, and with tlh, tdh, trh, and open reading frame 8 for V. parahaemolyticus helped to ensure that total and pathogenic strains, including subtypes of the three Vibrio spp., could be detected and discriminated. For DNA microarrays, oligonucleotide probes for these targeted genes were deposited onto epoxysilane-derivatized, 12-well, Teflon-masked slides by using a MicroGrid II arrayer. Amplified PCR products were hybridized to arrays at 50 degrees C and detected by using tyramide signal amplification with Alexa Fluor 546 fluorescent dye. Slides were imaged by using an arrayWoRx scanner. The detection sensitivity for pure cultures without enrichment was 10(2) to 10(3) CFU/ml, and the specificity was 100%. However, 5 h of sample enrichment followed by DNA extraction with Instagene matrix and multiplex PCR with microarray hybridization resulted in the detection of 1 CFU in 1 g of oyster tissue homogenate. Thus, enrichment of the bacterial pathogens permitted higher sensitivity in compliance with the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference guideline. Application of the DNA microarray methodology to natural oysters revealed the presence of V. vulnificus (100%) and V. parahaemolyticus (83%). However, V. cholerae was not detected in natural oysters. An assay involving a combination of multiplex PCR and DNA microarray hybridization would help to ensure rapid and accurate detection of pathogenic vibrios in shellfish, thereby improving the microbiological safety of shellfish for consumers. PMID:15574946

Panicker, Gitika; Call, Douglas R; Krug, Melissa J; Bej, Asim K

2004-12-01

127

Role of heme compounds and haptoglobin in Vibrio vulnificus pathogenicity.  

PubMed Central

An induced peritonitis model was employed in mice to determine whether heme-containing molecules enhance the lethality of infections by Vibrio vulnificus. The lethality of intraperitoneal (ip) inocula of the bacteria was increased by concurrent injections (ip) of hemoglobin, methemoglobin, or hematin, but not by myoglobin. Similar results were obtained in mice with phenylhydrazine-induced hemoglobinemia, in which after ip injections of V. vulnificus, a direct correlation between lethality and levels of plasma hemoglobin was observed. In vitro studies indicated that the growth of V. vulnificus, which was limited in an iron-poor medium, was enhanced by the addition of hemoglobin in a manner similar to an inorganic iron source, ferric ammonium citrate. These results suggest that V. vulnificus is capable of extracting iron from hemoglobin for use as a nutrilite, thereby promoting growth and increased lethality in the in vivo models. Further studies with human serum cultures demonstrated that the growth of V. vulnificus was not decreased when hemoglobin added to the serum was completely complexed with haptoglobin; these results are in opposition to those with cultures of Escherichia coli. These results are discussed relative to the capacity of V. vulnificus to produce fatal human infections.

Helms, S D; Oliver, J D; Travis, J C

1984-01-01

128

Quantitative microbial risk assessment of pathogenic vibrios in marine recreational waters of southern california.  

PubMed

This study investigated the occurrence of three types of vibrios in Southern California recreational beach waters during the peak marine bathing season in 2007. Over 160 water samples were concentrated and enriched for the detection of vibrios. Four sets of PCR primers, specific for Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus species and the V. parahaemolyticus toxin gene, respectively, were used for the amplification of bacterial genomic DNA. Of 66 samples from Doheny State Beach, CA, 40.1% were positive for V. cholerae and 27.3% were positive for V. parahaemolyticus, and 1 sample (1.5%) was positive for the V. parahaemolyticus toxin gene. Of the 96 samples from Avalon Harbor, CA, 18.7% were positive for V. cholerae, 69.8% were positive for V. parahaemolyticus, and 5.2% were positive for the V. parahaemolyticus toxin gene. The detection of the V. cholerae genetic marker was significantly more frequent at Doheny State Beach, while the detection of the V. parahaemolyticus genetic marker was significantly more frequent at Avalon Harbor. A probability-of-illness model for V. parahaemolyticus was applied to the data. The risk for bathers exposed to recreational waters at two beaches was evaluated through Monte Carlo simulation techniques. The results suggest that the microbial risk from vibrios during beach recreation was below the illness benchmark set by the U.S. EPA. However, the risk varied with location and the type of water recreation activities. Surfers and children were exposed to a higher risk of vibrio diseases. Microbial risk assessment can serve as a useful tool for the management of risk related to opportunistic marine pathogens. PMID:23104412

Dickinson, Gregory; Lim, Keah-Ying; Jiang, Sunny C

2012-10-26

129

The bacterial storage compound poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate protects Artemia franciscana from pathogenic Vibrio campbellii.  

PubMed

Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant luminescent Vibrios can cause dramatic losses in aquaculture. In this study, the short-chain fatty acid beta-hydroxybutyrate and its polymer poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate were investigated as possible new biocontrol agents. beta-Hydroxybutyrate was shown to completely inhibit the growth of pathogenic Vibrio campbelli at 100 mM. Moreover, the addition of 100 mM of this fatty acid to the culture water of Artemia nauplii infected with the V. campbelli strain significantly increased the survival of the nauplii. As Artemia is a non-selective and particle filter feeder, we also investigated whether poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate particles could be used to protect Artemia from the pathogenic V. campbellii. The addition of 100 mg l(-1) poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate or more to the Artemia culture water offered a preventive and curative protection from the pathogen as a significantly enhanced survival was noticed. If added as a preventive treatment, a complete protection of infected nauplii (no significant mortality compared with uninfected nauplii) was observed at 1000 mg l(-1) poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. Our data indicate that the use of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate might constitute an ecologically and economically sustainable alternative strategy to fight infections in aquaculture. PMID:17222142

Defoirdt, Tom; Halet, Dirk; Vervaeren, Han; Boon, Nico; Van de Wiele, Tom; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; Verstraete, Willy

2007-02-01

130

Vibrio anguillarum as a fish pathogen: virulence factors, diagnosis and prevention.  

PubMed

Vibrio anguillarum, also known as Listonella anguillarum, is the causative agent of vibriosis, a deadly haemorrhagic septicaemic disease affecting various marine and fresh/brackish water fish, bivalves and crustaceans. In both aquaculture and larviculture, this disease is responsible for severe economic losses worldwide. Because of its high morbidity and mortality rates, substantial research has been carried out to elucidate the virulence mechanisms of this pathogen and to develop rapid detection techniques and effective disease-prevention strategies. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge pertaining to V. anguillarum, focusing on pathogenesis, known virulence factors, diagnosis, prevention and treatment. PMID:21838709

Frans, I; Michiels, C W; Bossier, P; Willems, K A; Lievens, B; Rediers, H

2011-09-01

131

In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of Asparagopsis taxiformis from the Straits of Messina against pathogens relevant in aquaculture.  

PubMed

Ethanol extracts of Asparagopsis taxiformis collected from the Straits of Messina (Italy) were screened for antibacterial activity against pathogenic shellfish and fish bacteria previously isolated from local marine and brackish environments. Genetic labelling by DNA barcoding allowed us to identify the algal population as a biogeographical strain conspecific to A. taxiformis. The extract obtained in May showed the broadest antibacterial activity against all tested pathogenic bacteria, especially against Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Moderate activity was observed against Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae and Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida, Salmonella sp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The absence of cytotoxic effects of active algal extracts was verified using trypan blue exclusion test on cells of digestive glands of Mytilus galloprovincialis. The results indicated that ethanol extracts of A. taxiformis could represent a source of antibacterial substances with potential use in aquaculture. PMID:22078751

Genovese, G; Faggio, C; Gugliandolo, C; Torre, A; Spanò, A; Morabito, M; Maugeri, T L

2011-10-21

132

Differences in the susceptibility of American white shrimp larval substages (Litopenaeus vannamei) to four vibrio species.  

PubMed

The rapid expansion of commercial culture of penaeid shrimp is threatened by Vibrio diseases affecting survival and growth. These opportunistic microorganisms are considered part of the normal ecosystem of penaeid shrimp and cause diseases only under conditions that favor them over the host. Shrimp larvae show different susceptibility to these pathogenic agents. In the present work, we report on a comparative study of the susceptibility of all American white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) larval substages to four potentially pathogenic Vibrio species (V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, and V. penaeicida). Strains of these bacterial species were used to infect nauplii, protozoea I-III, mysis I-III, and postlarvae 1 by immersion challenge at 10(3), 10(5), or 10(7) cfu mL(-1) for 30 min. V. alginolyticus infection had no significant effect on survival rate, compared to control, in all shrimp larvae and at all doses tested. Shrimp larvae infected with V. alginolyticus showed a high survival rate compared to other Vibrio species at the three dose levels. V. penaeicida produced a significant mortality effect (P < 0.01) in all shrimp substages and only in postlarvae 1 at low infection dose (10(3) cfu mL(-1)). V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus induced significant mortality rates (P < 0.01) only at high doses in shrimp larvae. In summary, shrimp larvae demonstrated an age susceptibility that depends on the Vibrio species and dose level. PMID:12009802

Aguirre-Guzmán, G; Vázquez-Juárez, R; Ascencio, F

2001-11-01

133

Comparative genomics of pathogenic lineages of Vibrio nigripulchritudo identifies virulence-associated traits.  

PubMed

Vibrio nigripulchritudo is an emerging pathogen of farmed shrimp in New Caledonia and other regions in the Indo-Pacific. The molecular determinants of V. nigripulchritudo pathogenicity are unknown; however, molecular epidemiological studies have suggested that pathogenicity is linked to particular lineages. Here, we performed high-throughput sequencing-based comparative genome analysis of 16 V. nigripulchritudo strains to explore the genomic diversity and evolutionary history of pathogen-containing lineages and to identify pathogen-specific genetic elements. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed three pathogen-containing V. nigripulchritudo clades, including two clades previously identified from New Caledonia and one novel clade comprising putatively pathogenic isolates from septicemic shrimp in Madagascar. The similar genetic distance between the three clades indicates that they have diverged from an ancestral population roughly at the same time and recombination analysis indicates that these genomes have, in the past, shared a common gene pool and exchanged genes. As each contemporary lineage is comprised of nearly identical strains, comparative genomics allowed differentiation of genetic elements specific to shrimp pathogenesis of varying severity. Notably, only a large plasmid present in all highly pathogenic (HP) strains encodes a toxin. Although less/non-pathogenic strains contain related plasmids, these are differentiated by a putative toxin locus. Expression of this gene by a non-pathogenic V. nigripulchritudo strain resulted in production of toxic culture supernatant, normally an exclusive feature of HP strains. Thus, this protein, here termed 'nigritoxin', is implicated to an extent that remains to be precisely determined in the toxicity of V. nigripulchritudo. PMID:23739050

Goudenège, David; Labreuche, Yannick; Krin, Evelyne; Ansquer, Dominique; Mangenot, Sophie; Calteau, Alexandra; Médigue, Claudine; Mazel, Didier; Polz, Martin F; Le Roux, Frédérique

2013-06-06

134

An Outbreak of Foodborne Gastroenteritis Caused by Dual Pathogens, Salmonella enterica Serovar Weltevreden and Vibrio fluvialis in Kolkata, India.  

PubMed

Abstract Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden and Vibrio fluvialis were identified as etiological agents of a foodborne gastroenteritis outbreak after an Iftar feast in North Dumdum. Of the 278 cases admitted to the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kolkata, 44 stool samples were tested for the enteric pathogens. Six were positive for Salmonella Weltevreden, 5 for Vibrio fluvialis, and 8 contained both of the pathogens. Consumption of mutton-ghogni might have been the likely vehicle of this outbreak. In the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, Salmonella Weltevreden was identified as a single clone but the V. fluvialis strains were heterogeneous. PMID:23789767

Chowdhury, Goutam; Sarkar, Anirban; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Bhattacharya, Mihir K; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan

2013-06-22

135

Seasonal Variation in Abundance of Total and Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Bacteria in Oysters along the Southwest Coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seasonal abundance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oysters from two estuaries along the southwest coast of India was studied by colony hybridization using nonradioactive labeled oligonucleotide probes. The density of total V. parahaemolyticus bacteria was determined using a probe binding to the tlh (thermolabile hemolysin) gene, and the density of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus bacteria was determined by using a probe

A. Deepanjali; H. Sanath Kumar; I. Karunasagar

2005-01-01

136

Using mixture design to construct consortia of potential probiotic Bacillus strains to protect gnotobiotic Artemia against pathogenic Vibrio  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the potential probiotic effect of three Bacillus strains on the survival and growth of an Artemia culture and to obtain the optimal formulation of pure cultures of the bacilli, challenge tests were performed with the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus (S1) using mixture design. According to molecular analyses involving amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), these bacteria corresponded to

Abdelkarim Mahdhi; Besma Harbi; Maria Ángeles Esteban; Kamel Chaieb; Fathi Kamoun; Amina Bakhrouf

2010-01-01

137

Seasonal Abundance of Total and Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Alabama Oysters  

PubMed Central

Recent Vibrio parahaemolyticus outbreaks associated with consumption of raw shellfish in the United States focused attention on the occurrence of this organism in shellfish. From March 1999 through September 2000, paired oyster samples were collected biweekly from two shellfish-growing areas in Mobile Bay, Ala. The presence and densities of V. parahaemolyticus were determined by using DNA probes targeting the thermolabile hemolysin (tlh) and thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) genes for confirmation of total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus, respectively. V. parahaemolyticus was detected in all samples with densities ranging from <10 to 12,000 g?1. Higher V. parahaemolyticus densities were associated with higher water temperatures. Pathogenic strains were detected in 34 (21.8%) of 156 samples by direct plating or enrichment. Forty-six of 6,018 and 31 of 6,992 V. parahaemolyticus isolates from enrichments and direct plates, respectively, hybridized with the tdh probe. There was an apparent inverse relationship between water temperature and the prevalence of pathogenic strains. Pathogenic strains were of diverse serotypes, and 97% produced urease and possessed a tdh-related hemolysin (trh) gene. The O3:K6 serotype associated with pandemic spread and recent outbreaks in the United States was not detected. The efficient screening of numerous isolates by colony lift and DNA probe procedures may account for the higher prevalence of samples with tdh+ V. parahaemolyticus than previously reported.

DePaola, Angelo; Nordstrom, Jessica L.; Bowers, John C.; Wells, Joy G.; Cook, David W.

2003-01-01

138

Taxonomy of bacterial fish pathogens  

PubMed Central

Bacterial taxonomy has progressed from reliance on highly artificial culture-dependent techniques involving the study of phenotype (including morphological, biochemical and physiological data) to the modern applications of molecular biology, most recently 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which gives an insight into evolutionary pathways (= phylogenetics). The latter is applicable to culture-independent approaches, and has led directly to the recognition of new uncultured bacterial groups, i.e. "Candidatus", which have been associated as the cause of some fish diseases, including rainbow trout summer enteritic syndrome. One immediate benefit is that 16S rRNA gene sequencing has led to increased confidence in the accuracy of names allocated to bacterial pathogens. This is in marked contrast to the previous dominance of phenotyping, and identifications, which have been subsequently challenged in the light of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To date, there has been some fluidity over the names of bacterial fish pathogens, with some, for example Vibrio anguillarum, being divided into two separate entities (V. anguillarum and V. ordalii). Others have been combined, for example V. carchariae, V. harveyi and V. trachuri as V. harveyi. Confusion may result with some organisms recognized by more than one name; V. anguillarum was reclassified as Beneckea and Listonella, with Vibrio and Listonella persisting in the scientific literature. Notwithstanding, modern methods have permitted real progress in the understanding of the taxonomic relationships of many bacterial fish pathogens.

2011-01-01

139

Infection and immunization trials of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) against fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum.  

PubMed

Vibriosis is one of the most prevalent fish diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio sp. Fish disease will be controlled by proper vaccination trials and maintenance of fish form. Pathogenicity for Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) against V anguillarum results in necrosis and haemorrhagic areas near the base of fins, exopthalmia and ulcers on the skin surface. Around 50, 100, 200 microl of formalin killed bacterial cells were injected (Intraperitoneal) to three different size (5-10, 20-30, 35-50 g) of seabass fishes respectively and control sere as saline were maintained separately. The Relative Percentage Survival (RPS) for vaccinated fishes was 60, 75, and 62.5 respectively and the vaccinations for 20-30 g fishes stay alive. These results stated that the vaccination for fishes with 20-30 g size may fabricate good immune response. PMID:21186732

Kumaran, S; Deivasigamani, B; Alagappan, K M; Sakthivel, M

2010-07-01

140

Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate-accumulating bacteria protect gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana from pathogenic Vibrio campbellii.  

PubMed

A poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB)-accumulating enrichment culture was obtained using activated sludge from a polyphosphate-accumulating reactor as inoculum. PHB accumulated by the enrichment culture significantly enhanced the survival of Artemia nauplii, infected with the virulent pathogen Vibrio campbellii LMG 21363. A strain was isolated from the enrichment culture, based on its ability to accumulate PHB, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the isolate revealed 99% sequence similarity to Brachymonas denitrificans AS-P1. The isolate, named PHB2, showed good PHB-accumulating activity (up to 32% of the cell dry weight). PHB accumulated by isolate PHB2 was able to protect Artemia completely from the V. campbellii strain. Our data indicate that PHB-accumulating bacteria, such as B. denitrificans PHB2, could be used as an an effective and economically interesting alternative strategy to control infections in aquaculture. PMID:17391334

Halet, Dirk; Defoirdt, Tom; Van Damme, Petra; Vervaeren, Han; Forrez, Ilse; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; Verstraete, Willy

2007-03-28

141

Electrochemical genosensor for specific detection of the food-borne pathogen, Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

A disposable horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-based electrochemical genosensor was developed for chronoamperometric detection of single-stranded asymmetric lolB gene PCR amplicon (118 bp in length) of the food-borne pathogen, Vibrio cholerae. A two-step sandwich-type hybridization strategy using two specific probes was employed for specific detection of the target single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The analytical performances of the detection platform have been evaluated using a synthetic ssDNA (ST3) which was identical to the target single-stranded amplicon and a total of 19 bacterial strains. Under optimal condition, ST3 was calibrated with a dynamic range of 0.4883-15.6250 nM. By coupling asymmetric PCR amplification, the probe-based electrochemical genosensor was highly specific to the target organism (100% specificity) and able to detect as little as 0.85 ng/?l of V. cholerae genomic DNA. PMID:22805952

Low, Kim-Fatt; Chuenrangsikul, Kritsanaporn; Rijiravanich, Patsamon; Surareungchai, Werasak; Chan, Yean-Yean

2011-12-18

142

Seasonal distribution of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Chesapeake Bay oysters and waters.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to investigate the seasonal distribution of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Chesapeake Bay oysters and waters, and to determine the degree of association between V. parahaemolyticus densities and selected environmental parameters. Oyster and water samples were collected monthly from three sites in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland from November 2004 through October 2005. During collection of samples, water temperature, salinity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, pH, chlorophyll a, and fecal coliform levels in oysters were also determined. V. parahaemolyticus levels were enumerated by a quantitative direct-plating method followed by DNA colony hybridization; presence/absence was further determined by overnight broth enrichment followed by either standard colony isolation or real-time PCR. The thermolabile hemolysin (tlh) gene and thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) gene were targeted for detection of total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus, respectively, for both direct plating and enrichment. The thermostable related hemolysin (trh) gene, which is a presumptive pathogenicity marker, was targeted only for the enrichment approach. By direct plating, colonies producing tlh signals were detected in 79% of oyster samples at densities ranging from 1.5x10(1) to 6.0x10(2) CFU/g. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus (tdh+) was detected in 3% (level was 10 CFU/g) of oyster samples while no V. parahaemolyticus was detected in water samples. By the enrichment approach with standard colony isolation, 67% of oyster and 55% of water samples (n=33) were positive for total V. parahaemolyticus, and all samples were negative for pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus. In contrast, enrichment followed by real-time PCR detected tlh, tdh and trh in 100%, 20% and 40% of oyster and 100%, 13% and 40% of water enrichments collected from June to October 2005, respectively. V. parahaemolyticus densities in oysters varied seasonally and were found to be positively correlated with water temperature, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen. PMID:18963158

Parveen, Salina; Hettiarachchi, Kumidini A; Bowers, John C; Jones, Jessica L; Tamplin, Mark L; McKay, Rusty; Beatty, William; Brohawn, Kathy; Dasilva, Ligia V; Depaola, Angelo

2008-10-05

143

Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Variation of Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Peru  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a foodborne pathogen that has become a public health concern at the global scale. The epidemiological significance of V. parahaemolyticus infections in Latin America received little attention until the winter of 1997 when cases related to the pandemic clone were detected in the region, changing the epidemic dynamics of this pathogen in Peru. With the aim to assess the impact of the arrival of the pandemic clone on local populations of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in Peru, we investigated the population genetics and genomic variation in a complete collection of non-pandemic strains recovered from clinical sources in Peru during the pre- and post-emergence periods of the pandemic clone. A total of 56 clinical strains isolated in Peru during the period 1994 to 2007, 13 strains from Chile and 20 strains from Asia were characterized by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) and checked for the presence of Variable Genomic Regions (VGRs). The emergence of O3:K6 cases in Peru implied a drastic disruption of the seasonal dynamics of infections and a shift in the serotype dominance of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus. After the arrival of the pandemic clone, a great diversity of serovars not previously reported was detected in the country, which supports the introduction of additional populations cohabitating with the pandemic group. Moreover, the presence of genomic regions characteristic of the pandemic clone in other non-pandemic strains may represent early evidence of genetic transfer from the introduced population to the local communities. Finally, the results of this study stress the importance of population admixture, horizontal genetic transfer and homologous recombination as major events shaping the structure and diversity of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus.

Gavilan, Ronnie G.; Zamudio, Maria L.; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

2013-01-01

144

Occurrence of potentially pathogenic vibrios and related environmental factors in Songkhla Lake, Thailand.  

PubMed

Vibrios are halophilic bacteria that are ubiquitous in marine environments. Their occurrence in tropical lakes has rarely been investigated. In this study, the predominance and diversity of Vibrio spp. was investigated over a 12-month period in a coastal lagoon, Songkhla Lake, in southern Thailand. Water samples were collected at 2 stations in the estuary near Yor Island in Songkhla Lake. The predominant vibrios were detected by a culture-based method, using thiosulfate-citrate-bile salt-sucrose agar and CHROMagar Vibrio. The diversity of Vibrio spp. was evaluated using denaturant density gradient electrophoresis (DGGE). The highest numbers of total vibrios and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in both areas were observed during the summer. There was no significant correlation between the numbers of vibrios, including V. parahaemolyticus, and either the water temperature or plankton density. Variations in Vibrio species were observed with changes in salinity. Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 were detected during the rainy season when the salinity dropped to nearly 0 parts per thousand. In both areas, V. alginolyticus was the most prominent species detected by the culture method, whereas Vibrio parahaemolyticus was detected by DGGE, every month. Other Vibrio spp. of potential public health concern were also detected by the culture method; they included V. vulnificus , V. fluvialis , and V. mimicus . PMID:22014235

Thongchankaew, Uraiwan; Mittraparp-arthorn, Pimonsri; Sukhumungoon, Pharanai; Tansila, Natta; Nuidate, Taiyeebah; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Vuddhakul, Varaporn

2011-10-20

145

Refined identification of Vibrio bacterial flora from Acanthasther planci based on biochemical profiling and analysis of housekeeping genes.  

PubMed

We used a polyphasic approach for precise identification of bacterial flora (Vibrionaceae) isolated from crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS) from Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) and Guam (U.S.A., Western Pacific Ocean). Previous 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis was useful to allocate and identify isolates within the Photobacterium, Splendidus and Harveyi clades but failed in the identification of Vibrio harveyi-like isolates. Species of the V harveyi group have almost indistinguishable phenotypes and genotypes, and thus, identification by standard biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene analysis is commonly inaccurate. Biochemical profiling and sequence analysis of additional topA and mreB housekeeping genes were carried out for definitive identification of 19 bacterial isolates recovered from sick and wild COTS. For 8 isolates, biochemical profiles and topA and mreB gene sequence alignments with the closest relatives (GenBank) confirmed previous 16S rRNA-based identification: V. fortis and Photobacterium eurosenbergii species (from wild COTS), and V natriegens (from diseased COTS). Further phylogenetic analysis based on topA and mreB concatenated sequences served to identify the remaining 11 V harveyi-like isolates: V. owensii and V. rotiferianus (from wild COTS), and V. owensii, V. rotiferianus, and V. harveyi (from diseased COTS). This study further confirms the reliability of topA-mreB gene sequence analysis for identification of these close species, and it reveals a wider distribution range of the potentially pathogenic V. harveyi group. PMID:22013751

Rivera-Posada, J A; Pratchett, M; Cano-Gomez, A; Arango-Gomez, J D; Owens, L

2011-09-01

146

Kinetics of adhesion of selected fish-pathogenic Vibrio strains of skin mucus of gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).  

PubMed Central

The kinetics of adhesion of Vibrio strains isolated from diseased fish to skin mucus of gilt-head sea bream was studied. A modified Langmuir adsorption isotherm was calculated, and the results obtained indicate that the strains tested (Vibrio alginolyticus DP1HE4 and Vibrio anguillarum-like DC12R8 and DC12R9) showed a saturation kinetics except for V. alginolyticus (CAN), which showed a proportional adsorption kinetics. The adhesive capability for skin mucus does not seem to be an essential virulence factor of pathogenic strains of Vibrio, since this specific interaction depended on several environmental factors, temperature and salinity being the most important. However, the absence of an inhibitory effect of mucus on the pathogenic microorganisms, and the capability of the Vibrio strains to utilize mucus as a carbon source, could favor their settlement on the skin with a potential for infection of cultured, stressed fish.

Bordas, M A; Balebona, M C; Zorrilla, I; Borrego, J J; Morinigo, M A

1996-01-01

147

Indigenous Vibrio cholerae strains from a non-endemic region are pathogenic  

PubMed Central

Of the 200+ serogroups of Vibrio cholerae, only O1 or O139 strains are reported to cause cholera, and mostly in endemic regions. Cholera outbreaks elsewhere are considered to be via importation of pathogenic strains. Using established animal models, we show that diverse V. cholerae strains indigenous to a non-endemic environment (Sydney, Australia), including non-O1/O139 serogroup strains, are able to both colonize the intestine and result in fluid accumulation despite lacking virulence factors believed to be important. Most strains lacked the type three secretion system considered a mediator of diarrhoea in non-O1/O13 V. cholerae. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) showed that the Sydney isolates did not form a single clade and were distinct from O1/O139 toxigenic strains. There was no correlation between genetic relatedness and the profile of virulence-associated factors. Current analyses of diseases mediated by V. cholerae focus on endemic regions, with only those strains that possess particular virulence factors considered pathogenic. Our data suggest that factors other than those previously well described are of potential importance in influencing disease outbreaks.

Islam, Atiqul; Labbate, Maurizio; Djordjevic, Steven P.; Alam, Munirul; Darling, Aaron; Melvold, Jacqueline; Holmes, Andrew J.; Johura, Fatema T.; Cravioto, Alejandro; Charles, Ian G.; Stokes, H. W.

2013-01-01

148

Pathogenicity of Vibrio alginolyticus for Cultured Gilt-Head Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.)  

PubMed Central

The in vivo and in vitro pathogenic activities of whole cells and extracellular products of Vibrio alginolyticus for cultured gilt-head sea bream were evaluated. The 50% lethal doses ranged from 5.4 × 104 to 1.0 × 106 CFU/g of body weight. The strains examined had the ability to adhere to skin, gill, and intestinal mucus of sea bream and to cultured cells of a chinook salmon embryo cell line. In addition, the in vitro ability of V. alginolyticus to adhere to mucus and skin cells of sea bream was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. The biological activities of extracellular products of V. alginolyticus were hydrolytic activities; the products were able to degrade sea bream mucus. V. alginolyticus was cytotoxic for fish cell lines and lethal for sea bream. Moreover, the extracellular products could degrade sea bream tissues. However, experiments performed with the bath immersion inoculation technique demonstrated that V. alginolyticus should be considered a pathogen for sea bream only when the mucus layer is removed and the skin is damaged.

Balebona, M. Carmen; Andreu, Manuel J.; Bordas, M. Angeles; Zorrilla, Irene; Morinigo, Miguel A.; Borrego, Juan J.

1998-01-01

149

Production and sequence validation of a complete full length ORF collection for the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholera, an infectious disease with global impact, is caused by pathogenic strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. High-throughput functional proteomics technologies now offer the opportunity to investigate all aspects of the proteome, which has led to an increased demand for comprehensive protein expression clone resources. Genome-scale reagents for cholera would encourage comprehensive analyses of immune responses and systems-wide functional studies

Andreas Rolfs; Wagner R. Montor; Sang Sun Yoon; Yanhui Hu; Bhupinder Bhullar; Fontina Kelley; Seamus McCarron; Daniel A. Jepson; Binghua Shen; Elena Taycher; Stephanie E. Mohr; Dongmei Zuo; Janice Williamson; John Mekalanos; Joshua Labaer

2008-01-01

150

Microarray-based detection of genetic heterogeneity, antimicrobial resistance, and the viable but nonculturable state in human pathogenic Vibrio spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morbidity and mortality associated with Vibrio-mediated waterborne diseases necessitates the development of sensitive detection technologies that are able to elucidate the identity, potential pathogenicity, susceptibility, and viability of contaminating bacteria in a timely manner. For this purpose, we have designed a single multiplex PCR assay to simultaneously amplify 95 diagnostic regions (encompassing species\\/serogroup-specific, antimicrobial resistance, and known toxin markers)

Gary J. Vora; Carolyn E. Meador; Michele M. Bird; Cheryl A. Bopp; Joanne D. Andreadis; David A. Stenger

2005-01-01

151

Complete Sequence of Virulence Plasmid pJM1 from the Marine Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum Strain 775  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virulence plasmid pJM1 enables the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum, a gram-negative polarly flagel- lated comma-shaped rod bacterium, to cause a highly fatal hemorrhagic septicemic disease in salmonids and other fishes, leading to epizootics throughout the world. The pJM1 plasmid 65,009-nucleotide sequence, with an overall GC content of 42.6%, revealed genes and open reading frames (ORFs) encoding iron transporters, nonribosomal

Manuela Di Lorenzo; Michiel Stork; Marcelo E. Tolmasky; Luis A. Actis; David Farrell; Timothy J. Welch; Lidia M. Crosa; Anne M. Wertheimer; Qian Chen; Patricia Salinas; Lillian Waldbeser; Jorge H. Crosa

2003-01-01

152

Identification and characterisation of pathogenic Vibrio splendidus from Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) cultured in a low temperature environment.  

PubMed

A fatal disease with apparent lesions on the adductor muscles of Yesso scallop Patinopecten yessoensis has occurred for three consecutive years from 2009 to 2011 in the northeastern China. This disease has been suspected to be closely associated with bacterial infections. In the present study, 96 bacteria were isolated from the lesions of moribund scallops. They were grouped into Vibrio (88 strains), Moritella (5 strains), Pseudomonas (2 strains) and Shewanella (1 strain) by 16S rDNA sequencing. In the Vibrio group, Vibrio splendidus was the predominant species, consisting of 43 strains. A strain of V. splendidus, named JZ6, was identified as a potential pathogen because it possessed two important virulence factors, Vsm and OmpU. Stain JZ6 was cold-adapted, and could surviveand exhibit haemolytic activity from 4°C to 32°C, with the highest activity observed at 10°C. The pathogenicity of JZ6 was further confirmed by injection and immersion challenges to scallops at 10°C. The cumulative mortality rates in the two experiments were 80% and 45%, respectively, which were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of control and blank groups. The disorganisation of muscle fibres in challenged scallops was observed to be histopathologically identical to that in moribund Yesso scallop collected from the same farm. The results indicate that V. splendidus is the predominantly culturable bacteria from the lesions of diseased Yesso scallop, and JZ6 probably is the pathogenic agent to Yesso scallop in this low temperature environment. PMID:23911357

Liu, Rui; Qiu, Limei; Yu, Zuoan; Zi, Jun; Yue, Feng; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Huan; Teng, Weiming; Liu, Xiangfeng; Song, Linsheng

2013-07-30

153

Iron(III) complexation by Vanchrobactin, a siderophore of the bacterial fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum.  

PubMed

The bacterial fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum serotype O2 strain RV22 produces the mono catecholate siderophore Vanchrobactin (Vb) under conditions of iron deficiency. Vb contains two potential bidentate coordination sites: catecholate and salicylate groups. The iron(III) coordination properties of Vb is investigated in aqueous solutions using spectrophotometric and potentiometric methods. The stepwise equilibrium constants (log?K) for successive addition of Vb dianion to a ferric ion are 19.9; 13.3, and 9.5, respectively, for an overall association constant of 42.7. Based on the previous results, we estimated the equilibrium concentration of free iron(III) under physiological conditions for pH 7.4 solution containing 10(-6) M total iron and 10(-5) M total Vb as pFe = 20 (=-log[Fe(3+)]). The Vb model compounds catechol (Cat) and 2,4-dihydroxy-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)benzamide (Dhb) have also been examined, and the obtained results show that the interaction of the whole system of Vb that contains the ferric-chelating groups of both Dhb and Cat, is synergically greater than the separate parts; i.e. Vb is the best chelating agent either in acid or basic media. In summary, bacteria employing Vb-mediated iron transport thus are able to compete effectively for iron with other microorganisms within which they live. PMID:21494744

Iglesias, Emilia; Brandariz, Isabel; Jiménez, Carlos; Soengas, Raquel G

2011-04-15

154

Molecular and genetic characterization of the TonB2-cluster TtpC protein in pathogenic vibrios  

PubMed Central

TtpC is a fourth required protein in the TonB2 energy transduction system in Vibrio anguillarum. TtpC is necessary for iron transport mediated by the TonB2 system and is highly conserved in all pathogenic vibrio species studied to date as well as several marine organisms. We show here that the TtpC proteins from selected pathogenic vibrio species can function with the TonB2 system of V. anguillarum to allow iron transport mediated by a chimeric TonB2 system where the native ExbB2, ExbD2 and TonB2 function with an episomally expressed TtpC in trans from a different species. The discovery that inter-species complementation occurs can be used to identify the functional regions of the TtpC proteins and will lead to an investigation of the mechanism of interaction between the TtpC protein and other members of the TonB2 system.

Kuehl, Carole J.

2011-01-01

155

The HlyU Protein Is a Positive Regulator of rtxA1, a Gene Responsible for Cytotoxicity and Virulence in the Human Pathogen Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is an opportunistic human pathogen that preferentially infects compromised iron- overloaded patients, causing a fatal primary septicemia with very rapid progress, resulting in a high mortality rate. In this study we determined that the HlyU protein, a virulence factor in V. vulnificus CMCP6, up-regulates the expression of VV20479, a homologue of the Vibrio cholerae RTX (repeats in toxin)

Moqing Liu; Alejandro F. Alice; Hiroaki Naka; Jorge H. Crosa

2007-01-01

156

Occurrence of Vibrio and other pathogenic bacteria in Mytilus galloprovincialis (mussels) harvested from Adriatic Sea, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-two samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis (mussels) harvested from approved shellfish waters in the Adriatic Sea were examined for the presence of Vibrio, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and verocytotoxin producing Escherichia coli. Vibrio spp. were isolated from 48.4% of samples; the species most frequently found were V. alginolyticus (32.2%) and V. vulnificus (17.7%), followed by V. cincinnatiensis (3.2%), V. parahaemolyticus (1.6%), V. fluvialis

Giancarlo Ripabelli; Michela Lucia Sammarco; Guido Maria Grasso; Incoronata Fanelli; Alfredo Caprioli; Ida Luzzi

1999-01-01

157

Detection and quantification of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus by real-time PCR with TaqMan fluorescent probes.  

PubMed

A real-time quantitative PCR-based detection assay targeting the dnaJ gene (encoding heat shock protein 40) of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus was developed. The assay is sensitive, detecting as little as 1 CFU per ml in seawater and 10(4) CFU per cm(2) of coral tissue. Moreover, inhibition by DNA and cells derived from bacteria other than V. coralliilyticus was minimal. This assay represents a novel approach to coral disease diagnosis that will advance the field of coral disease research. PMID:20525865

Pollock, F Joseph; Morris, Pamela J; Willis, Bette L; Bourne, David G

2010-06-04

158

Temporal and spatial variability in culturable pathogenic Vibrio spp. in Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, following hurricanes Katrina and Rita.  

PubMed

We investigated the abundance, distribution, and virulence gene content of Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus in the waters of southern Lake Pontchartrain in Louisiana on four occasions from October 2005 to September 2006, using selective cultivation and molecular assays. The three targeted pathogenic vibrios were generally below the detection level in January 2006, when the water was cold (13°C), and most abundant in September 2006, when the lake water was warmest (30°C). The maximum values for these species were higher than reported previously for the lake by severalfold to orders of magnitude. The only variable consistently correlated with total vibrio abundance within a single sampling was distance from shore (P = 0.000). Multiple linear regression of the entire data set revealed that distance from shore, temperature, and turbidity together explained 82.1% of the variability in total vibrio CFU. The log-transformed mean abundance of V. vulnificus CFU in the lake was significantly correlated with temperature (P = 0.014), but not salinity (P = 0.625). Virulence-associated genes of V. cholerae (ctx) and V. parahaemolyticus (trh and tdh) were not detected in any isolates of these species (n = 128 and n = 20, respectively). In contrast, 16S rRNA typing of V. vulnificus (n = 298) revealed the presence of both environmental (type A) and clinical (type B) strains. The percentage of the B-type V. vulnificus was significantly higher in the lake in October 2005 (35.8% of the total) than at other sampling times (P ? 0.004), consistent with the view that these strains represent distinct ecotypes. PMID:21642406

Nigro, Olivia D; Hou, Aixin; Vithanage, Gayatri; Fujioka, Roger S; Steward, Grieg F

2011-06-03

159

Novel approach of using homoserine lactone-degrading and poly-?-hydroxybutyrate-accumulating bacteria to protect Artemia from the pathogenic effects of Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homoserine lactone-degrading and poly-?-hydroxybutyrate-accumulating enrichment cultures (ECs) were obtained using glycerol as C-source and homoserine lactones as N-source, at a high C\\/N ratio (78). The kinetics of acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) degradation was established and the poly-?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) content of the obtained ECs was determined. The ECs were characterised through denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the main bands were

Dang To Van Cam; Nguyen Van Hao; Kristof Dierckens; Tom Defoirdt; Nico Boon; Patrick Sorgeloos; Peter Bossier

2009-01-01

160

Antibiofilm activity of Dendrophthoe falcata against different bacterial pathogens.  

PubMed

Dendrophthoe falcata is a hemiparasitic plant commonly used for ailments such as ulcers, asthma, impotence, paralysis, skin diseases, menstrual troubles, pulmonary tuberculosis, and wounds. In this context, the validations of the traditional claim that the leaf extract of D. falcata possesses antibiofilm and anti-quorum sensing activity against different bacterial pathogens were assessed. The bacterial biofilms were quantified by crystal violet staining. Among the 17 bacterial pathogens screened, the methanolic fraction of the leaf extract clearly demonstrated antibiofilm activity for Proteus mirabilis, Vibrio vulnificus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Shigella sonnei, Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, and Proteus vulgaris. At biofilm inhibitory concentrations, biofilm formation was reduced by up to 70-90?%. Furthermore, the potential quorum-sensing activity of the leaf extract was tested by agar well diffusion using Chromobacterium violaceum (ATCC 12472 & CV O26) reporter strains. The inhibition of violacein production may be due to direct or indirect interference on QS by active constituents or the interactive effect of different phytocompounds present in the extracts. This is the first report on antibiofilm and QS activity of D. falcata leaf extracts, signifying the scope for development of complementary medicine for biofilm-associated infections. PMID:23115018

Karthikeyan, Alagarsamy; Rameshkumar, Ramakrishnan; Sivakumar, Nallusamy; Al Amri, Issa S; Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah; Ramesh, Manikandan

2012-10-31

161

Characterization and Pathogenicity Studies on Vibrio Bacteria Isolated from Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) Hatcheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypic identification of fifty Vibrio bacterial strains, isolated from diseased and healthy larval prawn as well as larval rearing water in prawn hatcheries, together with twenty-two reference strains were investigated by Euclidean distance with unweighted average linkage clustering. Comparison based on fourty-seven phenotypic characters showed that these isolates mainly clustered in five groups of which four were equated with the

Dang Thi; Hoang Oanh; Tran Thi; Tuyet Hoa; Nguyen Thanh Phuong

162

Population Genetics of Vibrio vulnificus: Identification of Two Divisions and a Distinct Eel-Pathogenic Clone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic relationships among 62 Vibrio vulnificus strains of different geographical and host origins were analyzed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and sequence analyses of the recA and glnA genes. Out of 15 genetic loci analyzed by MLEE, 11 were polymorphic. Cluster analysis identified 43 distinct electrophoretic types (ETs) separating the V. vulnificus population into

Michaela Gutacker; Nadine Conza; Cinzia Benagli; Ambra Pedroli; Marco Valerio Bernasconi; Lise Permin; Rosa Aznar; Jean-Claude Piffaretti

2003-01-01

163

Investigation of Reservoirs of Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Water Quality on the Presence of Allochthonous Pathogens and the Ecology and Virulence of Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of recreational and shellfishing waters has historically been monitored using commensal, allochthonous bacteria shed in feces (fecal indicator bacteria, FIB). The fate of FIB in the environment should mimic that of bacterial, protozoan, and viral human pathogens, which may also be allochthonous (e.g. Salmonella, Cryptosporidium, or enteric viruses) or autochthonous (e.g. Vibrio spp.) to aquatic environments. FIB are

Christopher Staley

2012-01-01

164

A model of the effect of temperature on the growth of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from oysters in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is recognized as the leading cause of human gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of seafood. The objective of this study was to model the growth kinetics of pathogenic and nonpathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in broth and oyster slurry. Primary growth models of V. parahaemolyticus in broth and oyster slurry fit well to a modified Gomperz equation (broth R2=0.99; oyster

K. S. Yoon; K. J. Min; Y. J. Jung; K. Y. Kwon; J. K. Lee; S. W. Oh

2008-01-01

165

The Phytoplankton Nannochloropsis oculata Enhances the Ability of Roseobacter Clade Bacteria to Inhibit the Growth of Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum  

PubMed Central

Background Phytoplankton cultures are widely used in aquaculture for a variety of applications, especially as feed for fish larvae. Phytoplankton cultures are usually grown in outdoor tanks using natural seawater and contain probiotic or potentially pathogenic bacteria. Some Roseobacter clade isolates suppress growth of the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. However, most published information concerns interactions between probiotic and pathogenic bacteria, and little information is available regarding the importance of phytoplankton in these interactions. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to identify probiotic Roseobacter clade members in phytoplankton cultures used for rearing fish larvae and to investigate their inhibitory activity towards bacterial fish pathogens in the presence of the phytoplankton Nannochloropsis oculata. Methodology/Principal Findings The fish pathogen V. anguillarum, was challenged with 6 Roseobacter clade isolates (Sulfitobacter sp. (2 strains), Thalassobius sp., Stappia sp., Rhodobacter sp., and Antarctobacter sp.) from phytoplankton cultures under 3 different nutritional conditions. In an organic nutrient-rich medium (VNSS), 6 Roseobacter clade isolates, as well as V. anguillarum, grew well (109 CFU/ml), even when cocultured. In contrast, in a phytoplankton culture medium (ESM) based on artificial seawater, coculture with the 6 isolates decreased the viability of V. anguillarum by approximately more than 10-fold. Excreted substances in media conditioned by growth of the phytoplankton N. oculata (NCF medium) resulted in the complete eradication of V. anguillarum when cocultured with the roseobacters. Autoclaved NCF had the same inhibitory effect. Furthermore, Sulfitobacter sp. much more efficiently incorporated 14C- photosynthetic metabolites (14C-EPM) excreted by N. oculata than did V. anguillarum. Conclusion/Significance Cocultures of a phytoplankton species and Roseobacter clade members exhibited a greater antibacterial effect against an important fish pathogen (V. anguillarum) than roseobacters alone. Thus, cooperation of N. oculata, and perhaps other phytoplankton species, with certain roseobacters might provide a powerful tool for eliminating fish pathogens from fish-rearing tanks.

Sharifah, Emilia Noor; Eguchi, Mitsuru

2011-01-01

166

Pathogenicity of Vibrio penaeicida for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: a cysteine protease-like exotoxin as a virulence factor.  

PubMed

The pathogenicity of Vibrio penaeicida Strains KH-1 and AM101, their culture-free supernatant (CFS), and their protein fraction obtained by 40% of ammonium sulfate precipitation (PFs40) were assessed in experimental challenges against juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Live Vibrio cells, CFS, and PFs40 from the AM101 strain produced a significantly higher mortality (p < 0.05) compared to the KH-1 strain. Toxicity and median lethal doses (LD50) of Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) products were evaluated on L. vannamei. The first FPLC fraction sample (A) from PFs40 of the AM101 strain displayed LD50 values of 1.68 and 5.61 microg protein ind.(-1), respectively. The second FPLC process from Fraction A showed a peak (A1) also with toxic effects to shrimp. PFs40, Fraction A, and Peak A1 showed a 38.5 kDa molecular band (SDS-PAGE), with activity on a gelatin protease zymogram. The lethal effect of PFs40 and Fraction A was inhibited by Proteinase K, CuCl2, E-64, and heat (60 and 100 degrees C) treatments, but was not inhibited by EDTA-Na2, aprotinin, and soy trypsin treatments. These results and the zymogram inhibition test suggest the presence of a cysteine protease-like proteinaceous exotoxin as a dominant protease, secreted by V. penaeicida Strain AM101. PMID:16408835

Aguirre-Guzmán, Gabriel; Ascencio, Felipe; Saulnier, Denis

2005-11-28

167

Selection and identification of non-pathogenic bacteria isolated from fermented pickles with antagonistic properties against two shrimp pathogens  

PubMed Central

In this study, potential probiotic strains were isolated from fermented pickles based on antagonistic activity against two shrimp pathogens (Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus). Two strains L10 and G1 were identified by biochemical tests, followed by16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis as Bacillus subtilis, and characterized by PCR amplification of repetitive bacterial DNA elements (Rep-PCR). Subsequently, B. subtilis L10 and G1 strains were tested for antibacterial activity under different physical conditions, including culture medium, salinity, pH and temperature using the agar well diffusion assay. Among the different culture media, LB broth was the most suitable medium for antibacterial production. Both strains showed the highest level of antibacterial activity against two pathogens at 30?°C and 1.0% NaCl. Under the pH conditions, strain G1 showed the greatest activity against V. harveyi at pH 7.3–8.0 and against V. parahaemolyticus at pH 6.0–8.0, whereas strain L10 showed the greatest activity against two pathogens at pH 7.3. The cell-free supernatants of both strains were treated with four different enzymes in order to characterize the antibacterial substances against V. harveyi. The result showed considerable reduction of antibacterial activity for both strains, indicating the proteinaceous nature of the antibacterial substances. A wide range of tolerance to NaCl, pH and temperature was also recorded for both strains. In addition, both strains showed no virulence effect in juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. On the basis of these results and safety of strains to L. vannamei, they may be considered for future challenge experiments in shrimp as a very promising alternative to the use of antibiotics.

Zokaeifar, Hadi; Luis Balcazar, Jose; Kamarudin, Mohd Salleh; Sijam, Kamaruzaman; Arshad, Aziz; Saad, Che Roos

2012-01-01

168

Molecular cloning of the recA analog from the marine fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum 775  

SciTech Connect

The recA analog from Vibrio anguillarum 775 was isolated by complementation of recA mutations in Escherichia coli, and its protein product was identified. The recA analog promoted recombination between two partially deleted lactose operons, stimulated both spontaneous and mitomycin C-induced phage production in RecA- lambda lysogens, and restored near wild-type levels of resistance to UV radiation and methyl methanesulfonate.

Singer, J.T. (Univ. of Maine, Orono (USA))

1989-11-01

169

Total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shrimp: Fast and reliable quantification by real-time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is found in aquatic environments and is the leading cause of gastroenteritis due to seafood consumption worldwide. We evaluated a quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) assay with hydrolysis probes, to determine whether this method could be used for the efficient counting of total, tdh and trh-positive V. parahaemolyticus in shrimps. We assessed the specificity of this assay, using 62

A. Robert-Pillot; S. Copin; M. Gay; P. Malle; M. L. Quilici

2010-01-01

170

Development of monoclonal antibodies that identify Vibrio species commonly isolated from infections of humans, fish, and shellfish.  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Vibrio species that infect humans, fish, and shellfish were developed for application in rapid identifications. The pathogens included Vibrio alginolyticus, V. anguillarum, V. carchariae, V. cholerae, V. damsela, V. furnissii, V. harveyi, V. ordalii, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus. Three types of MAbs were selected. The first important group included MAbs that reacted with only a single species. A second group comprised a number of MAbs that reacted with two, taxonomically closely related Vibrio species. For example, of 22 MAbs raised against V. alginolyticus, 6 recognized a 52-kDa flagellar H antigen common to both V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus; V. anguillarum and V. ordalii also shared antigens. A third group included three genus-specific MAbs that reacted with almost all Vibrio species but did not react with other members of the family Vibrionaceae (e.g., members of the Aeromonas, Photobacterium, and Plesiomonas genera) or a wide range of gram-negative bacteria representing many genera. This last group indicated the possible existence of an antigenic determinant common to Vibrio species. Two of these three genus-specific MAbs reacted with heat-stable antigenic determinants of Vibrio species as well as lipopolysaccharide extracted from Vibrio species. The use of the MAbs in blind tests and diagnosis of clinical isolates indicated that three different types of bacteria, viz., live, formalin-fixed, and sodium azide-killed bacteria, were detected consistently. Overall, it was found that the genus-specific MAbs were very useful for rapidly identifying vibrios in the screening of acute infections, while the species-specific MAbs and others were useful for completing the diagnosis. Images

Chen, D; Hanna, P J; Altmann, K; Smith, A; Moon, P; Hammond, L S

1992-01-01

171

Presence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in waters and seafood from the Tunisian Sea.  

PubMed

The occurrence of the hemolysin genes, tdh and trh, in Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from environmental samples collected from various exported seafood products comprising of fishes and shellfish (Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas) or seawater, was studied. Eight strains were confirmed as V. parahaemolyticus by toxR -based polymerase chain reaction and only one strain out of these 8 strains was positive for tdh and trh genes. Toxigenic V. parahaemolyticus isolates are present in Tunisian coastal areas and they may also be present in Tunisian exported seafood products. PMID:23430717

Khouadja, Sadok; Suffredini, Elisabetta; Spagnoletti, Matteo; Croci, Luciana; Colombo, Mauro M; Amina, Bakhrouf

2013-02-21

172

Screening of marine fungus from Nanji Island and activity of their metabolites against pathogenic Vibrio from Pseudosciaena crocea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seventy-eight marine fungal strains were isolated from sediment samples collected off the coast of Nanji Island, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, China. Antibacterial screening using the agar disc method showed that 19 of the isolated strains could inhibit at least one pathogenic V ibrio from P seudosciaena crocea. Subsequent screening confirmed that nine strains produced antibacterial metabolites that had activity against one or several types of pathogenic V ibrio. Strain NJ0104 had the widest antimicrobial spectrum and strong activity, particularly against Vibrio parahaemolyticus-MM0810072. A preliminary study of NJ0104 antibacterial metabolites demonstrated that they had thermal stability up to 80°C, ultraviolet stability up to 40 min and pH stability between 4.0-7.0. In addition, the antibacterial metabolites were readily soluble in butanol. To identify the specific strain, the ITS-5.8S rDNA regions of NJ0104 were PCR amplified and sequenced. Based on the combination of phenotypic and genotypic data, the strain was identified as Arthrinium sp.

Zhao, Shujiang; Li, Shuping; Liu, Huihui; Zhao, Qian; Wang, Jieyou; Yan, Maocang

2012-09-01

173

Effect of poly-?-hydroxybutyrate on Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, larvae challenged with pathogenic Vibrio anguillarum.  

PubMed

This study investigated the protective effect of poly-?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) on Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, zoea larvae challenged with pathogenic Vibrio anguillarum. PHB was delivered to the crab larvae through rotifer and Artemia bioencapsulation. Zoea 3 larvae were challenged with V. anguillarum at a final concentration of 10(5) CFU mL(-1). PHB-enriched rotifers and Artemia nauplii were added to the culture water 24 h prior to, upon and 24 h after challenge. The results confirmed that PHB could enhance the survival and growth of unexposed E. sinensis larvae. Moreover, PHB protected larvae from the pathogen as the larvae fed PHB-enriched live food showed the highest survival and development rate in all challenged groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, larval performance was the best when PHB was delivered to the larvae 24 h before challenge (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results indicate that PHB can be used as part of an effective strategy to protect E. sinensis larvae from V. anguillarum resulting in higher survival and better growth, especially when applied before the challenge. PMID:22417317

Sui, L; Cai, J; Sun, H; Wille, M; Bossier, P

2012-03-15

174

Virulence studies based on plasmid profiles of the fish pathogen Vibrio salmonicida.  

PubMed Central

Strains of Vibrio salmonicida isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) suffering from cold-water vibriosis could be divided on the basis of plasmid profiles into four different categories. Of 32 strains, 19% harbored three plasmids of 24, 3.4, and 26 megadaltons (MDa), 69% harbored the 24- and 3.4-MDa plasmids but not the 2.6-MDA plasmid, and 9% harbored only the 24-MDA plasmid. The fourth category, which consisted of only one strain, harbored a plasmid of 10 MDa. In spite of different plasmid patterns, the strains of V. salmonicida were very similar with respect to biochemical reactions. The one-third of the V. salmonicida strains which were serotyped were of the same type. The 50% lethal doses, which were determined by intraperitoneal injection, ranged from 4 x 106 to 1 x 108 CFU per fish. Images

Wiik, R; Andersen, K; Daae, F L; Hoff, K A

1989-01-01

175

Vibrio species isolated from diseased farmed sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup), and evaluation of the potential virulence role of their extracellular products.  

PubMed

Bacteria isolated from an outbreak with moderate mortalities in farmed sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup), in the south of Spain were identified as Vibrio harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus. Only bacterial strains showing swarming were virulent in sole and caused mortalities in experimentally inoculated fish. However, the signs of the disease were only reproduced with V. harveyi. The intramuscular inoculation of the extracellular products (ECPs) of both species produced mortalities in inoculated fish and the appearance of surface ulcers in the case of V. harveyi. However, the inoculation of sublethal doses of ECPs to fish showed a protective effect against V. harveyi. PMID:12962218

Zorrilla, I; Arijo, S; Chabrillon, M; Diaz, P; Martinez-Manzanares, E; Balebona, M C; Moriñigo, M A

2003-02-01

176

mRNA detection by reverse transcription-PCR for monitoring viability and potential virulence in a pathogenic strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in viable but nonculturable state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This work investigates the maintenance of viability and potential virulence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in a viable but nonculturable population (VBNC) state by reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Methods and Results: Housekeeping genes, 16S-23S rDNA and rpoS, as well as virulence genes, tdh1 and tdh2, were selected and detected by PCR in a pathogenic strain of V. parahaemolyticus (Vp4).

F. Coutard; M. Pommepuy; S. Loaec; D. Hervio-Heath

2005-01-01

177

Exposure of gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana larvae to abiotic stress promotes heat shock protein 70 synthesis and enhances resistance to pathogenic Vibrio campbellii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana serve as important feed in fish and shellfish larviculture; however, they are subject to bacterial diseases that devastate\\u000a entire populations and consequently hinder their use in aquaculture. Exposure to abiotic stress was shown previously to shield\\u000a Artemia larvae against infection by pathogenic Vibrio, with the results suggesting a mechanistic role for heat shock

Yeong Yik Sung; Carlos Pineda; Thomas H. MacRae; Patrick Sorgeloos; Peter Bossier

2008-01-01

178

First Characterization of Bacterial Pathogen, Vibrio alginolyticus, for Porites andrewsi White Syndrome in the South China Sea  

PubMed Central

Background White syndrome, a term for scleractinian coral disease with progressive tissue loss, is known to cause depressed growth and increased morality of coral reefs in the major oceans around the world, and the occurrence of this disease has been frequently reported in the past few decades. Investigations during April to September in both 2010 and 2011 identified widespread Poritesandrewsi White syndrome (PAWS) in Xisha Archipelago, South China Sea. However, the causes and etiology of PAWS have been unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings A transmission experiment was performed on P. andrewsi in the Qilianyu Subgroup (QLY). The results showed that there was a significant (P ? 0.05) difference between test and control groups after 28 days if the invalid replicates were excluded. Rates of tissue loss ranged from 0.90-10.76 cm2 d-1 with a mean of 5.40 ± 3.34 cm2 d-1 (mean ± SD). Bacterial strains were isolated from the PAWS corals at the disease outbreak sites in QLY of the Xisha Archipelago, South China Sea, and included in laboratory-based infection trials to satisfy Koch’s postulates for establishing causality. Following exposure to bacterial concentrations of 105 cells mL-1, the infected colonies exhibited similar signs to those observed in the field. Using phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene analysis, classical phenotypic trait comparison, Biolog automatic identification system, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and MALDI Biotyper method, two pathogenic strains were identified as Vibrioalginolyticus. Conclusion/Significance This is the first report of V. alginolyticus as a pathogenic agent of PAWS in the South China Sea. Our results point out an urgent need to develop sensitive detection methods for V. alginolyticus virulence strains and robust diagnostics for coral disease caused by this and Vibrio pathogenic bacterium in the South China Sea.

Chaoqun, Hu; Zhixiong, Zhu; Shifeng, Wang; Yongcan, Zhou

2013-01-01

179

Exposure of gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana larvae to abiotic stress promotes heat shock protein 70 synthesis and enhances resistance to pathogenic Vibrio campbellii.  

PubMed

Larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana serve as important feed in fish and shellfish larviculture; however, they are subject to bacterial diseases that devastate entire populations and consequently hinder their use in aquaculture. Exposure to abiotic stress was shown previously to shield Artemia larvae against infection by pathogenic Vibrio, with the results suggesting a mechanistic role for heat shock protein 70. In the current report, combined hypothermic/hyperthermic shock followed by recovery at ambient temperature induced Hsp70 synthesis in Artemia larvae. Thermotolerance was also increased as was protection against infection by Vibrio campbellii, the latter indicated by reduced mortality and lower bacterial load in challenge tests. Resistance to Vibrio improved in the face of declining body mass as demonstrated by measurement of ash-free dry weight. Hypothermic stress only and acute osmotic insult did not promote Hsp70 expression and thermotolerance in Artemia larvae nor was resistance to Vibrio challenge augmented. The data support a causal link between Hsp70 accumulation induced by abiotic stress and enhanced resistance to infection by V. campbellii, perhaps via stimulation of the Artemia immune system. This possibility is now under investigation, and the work may reveal fundamental properties of crustacean immunity. Additionally, the findings are important in aquaculture where development of procedures to prevent bacterial infection of feed stock such as Artemia larvae is a priority. PMID:18347942

Sung, Yeong Yik; Pineda, Carlos; MacRae, Thomas H; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter

2008-02-12

180

Pathogenicity and Infection Cycle of Vibrio owensii in Larviculture of the Ornate Spiny Lobster (Panulirus ornatus)  

PubMed Central

The type strain of Vibrio owensii (DY05) was isolated during an epizootic of aquaculture-reared larvae (phyllosomas) of the ornate spiny lobster (Panulirus ornatus). V. owensii DY05 was formally demonstrated to be the etiological agent of a disease causing rapid and reproducible larval mortality with pathologies similar to those seen during disease epizootics. Vectored challenge via the aquaculture live feed organism Artemia (brine shrimp) caused consistent cumulative mortality rates of 84 to 89% after 72 h, in contrast to variable mortality rates seen after immersion challenge. Histopathological examination of vector-challenged phyllosomas revealed bacterial proliferation in the midgut gland (hepatopancreas) concomitant with epithelial cell necrosis. A fluorescent-protein-labeled V. owensii DY05 transconjugant showed dispersal of single cells in the foregut and hepatopancreas 6 h postexposure, leading to colonization of the entire hepatopancreas within 18 h and eventually systemic infection. V. owensii DY05 is a marine enteropathogen highly virulent to P. ornatus phyllosoma that uses vector-mediated transmission and release from host association to a planktonic existence to perpetuate transfer. This understanding of the infection process will improve targeted biocontrol strategies and enhance the prospects of commercially viable larviculture for this valuable spiny lobster species.

Goulden, Evan F.; Hall, Michael R.; Bourne, David G.; Pereg, Lily L.

2012-01-01

181

Isolation and characterization of pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus from diseased cobia Rachycentron canadum.  

PubMed

Outbreaks of serious mortality among cultured juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum L. (weighing 8-10 g) characterized by lethargy, dark skin and ascites in the peritoneal cavity while some fish possessing damaged eyes occurred in July and August of 2001 in Taiwan. Fifteen motile bacterial strains were isolated from head kidney and/or the ascites on tryptic soy agar supplemented with 1% NaCl (TSA1) and/or thiosulphate citrate bile salt (TCBS) sucrose agar plates during the two outbreaks. All the isolates were characterized and identified as Vibrio alginolyticus on the basis of biochemical characteristics, and comparisons with those of the reference strain V. alginolyticus ATCC 17749. The strain C3c01 (a representative of the 15 similar field isolates), was virulent to the cobia with an LD50 value of 3.28 x 10(4) colony forming units/g fish body weight. All the moribund/dead fish exhibited lethargy, dark skin and ascites in the peritoneal cavity as that observed in natural outbreaks. The same bacteria could be reisolated from kidney and the ascites of fish after bacterial challenge using TSA1 and TCBS plates. The results reveal that V. alginolyticus is an infectious agent of vibriosis in the cobia. PMID:14768024

Liu, Ping-Chung; Lin, Ji-Yang; Hsiao, Pei-Tze; Lee, Kuo-Kau

2004-01-01

182

Characterization of protease from Alcaligens faecalis and its antibacterial activity on fish pathogens.  

PubMed

Alcaligens faecalis AU01 isolated from seafood industry effluent produced an alkaline protease. The optimum culture conditions for growth as well as enzyme production were 37 degrees C and pH 8. The partially purified protease had specific activity of 9.66 with 17.77% recovery with the molecular weight of 33 kDa and it was active between 30-70 degrees C and optimum being at 55 degrees C and pH 9. The enzyme retains more than 85% activity at 70 degrees C and 78% even at pH 10. The enzyme inhibited the growth of fish pathogens such as Flavobacterium sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vibrio harveyi, Proteus sp. and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. From the present study it can be concluded that Alcaligens faecalis AU01 has the potential for aquaculture as probiotic agent and other several applications. PMID:22471216

Annamalai, N; Kumar, Arun; Saravanakumar, A; Vijaylakshmi, S; Balasubramanian, T

2011-11-01

183

Precise Region and the Character of the Pathogenicity Island in Clinical Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains?  

PubMed Central

In this study, we determined the borders of the pathogenicity island in V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633 (Vp-PAI). Vp-PAI has features in common with Tn7 and other related elements at both terminal ends. Our findings indicate that the mobile element with a transposase which contains the DDE motif may have been involved in Vp-PAI formation.

Sugiyama, Tomohiko; Iida, Tetsuya; Izutsu, Kaori; Park, Kwon-Sam; Honda, Takeshi

2008-01-01

184

Regulation of Vibrio alginolyticus virulence by the LuxS quorum-sensing system.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial intercommunication system that controls the expression of multiple genes in response to population density. The LuxS QS system regulates the expression of several virulence factors in a wide variety of pathogenic bacteria. LuxS has been characterized to be responsible for producing a type of autoinducer, AI-2, which stimulates the expression of the luciferase operon in Vibrio harveyi. Vibrio alginolyticus is established as an opportunistic pathogen of several marine animals, and its LuxS QS system remains undefined. To investigate the pathogenic role of luxS in V. alginolyticus, the luxS mutants of both the standard strain ATCC 33787 and a fish-clinical isolate MVP01, named MYJS and MYJM, respectively, were constructed. The mutation resulted in reduced lethality to Pagrus major. Intraperitoneal LD(50) of MYJS and MYJM increased by 15- and 93-fold, respectively. The two luxS mutants exhibited a lower growth rate and defective flagellar biosynthesis. They also showed a significant decrease in protease production and an increase in both extracellular polysaccharide production and biofilm development. The results suggest that the LuxS QS system plays an important role in regulating the expression of virulence factors in V. alginolyticus. PMID:18261029

Ye, J; Ma, Y; Liu, Q; Zhao, D L; Wang, Q Y; Zhang, Y X

2008-03-01

185

Plasmid- and chromosome-encoded siderophore anguibactin systems found in marine vibrios: biosynthesis, transport and evolution.  

PubMed

Vibrio anguillarum is a marine pathogen that causes vibriosis, a hemorrhagic septicemia in aquatic invertebrate as well as vertebrate animals. The siderophore anguibactin system is one of the most important virulence factors of this bacterium. Most of the anguibactin biosynthesis and transport genes are located in the 65-kb pJM1 virulence plasmid although some of them are found in the chromosome of this fish pathogen. Over 30 years of research unveiled the role numerous chromosomal and pJM1 genes play in the synthesis of anguibactin and the transport of cognate ferric complexes into the bacterial cell. Furthermore, these studies showed that pJM1-carrying strains might be originated from pJM1-less strains producing the chromosome-mediated siderophore vanchrobactin. Additionally, we recently identified a chromosome-mediated anguibactin system in V. harveyi suggesting the possible evolutional origin of the V. anguillarum anguibactin system. In this review, we present our current understanding of the mechanisms and evolution hypothesis of the anguibactin system that might have occurred in these pathogenic vibrios. PMID:23660776

Naka, Hiroaki; Liu, Moqing; Actis, Luis A; Crosa, Jorge H

2013-05-10

186

Identification of Pathogenic Vibrio Species by Multilocus PCR-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Its Application to Aquatic Environments of the Former Soviet Republic of Georgia? †  

PubMed Central

The Ibis T5000 is a novel diagnostic platform that couples PCR and mass spectrometry. In this study, we developed an assay that can identify all known pathogenic Vibrio species and field-tested it using natural water samples from both freshwater lakes and the Georgian coastal zone of the Black Sea. Of the 278 total water samples screened, 9 different Vibrio species were detected, 114 (41%) samples were positive for V. cholerae, and 5 (0.8%) samples were positive for the cholera toxin A gene (ctxA). All ctxA-positive samples were from two freshwater lakes, and no ctxA-positive samples from any of the Black Sea sites were detected.

Whitehouse, Chris A.; Baldwin, Carson; Sampath, Rangarajan; Blyn, Lawrence B.; Melton, Rachael; Li, Feng; Hall, Thomas A.; Harpin, Vanessa; Matthews, Heather; Tediashvili, Marina; Jaiani, Ekaterina; Kokashvili, Tamar; Janelidze, Nino; Grim, Christopher; Colwell, Rita R.; Huq, Anwar

2010-01-01

187

Seasonal Abundance of Total and Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Alabama Oysters  

Microsoft Academic Search

to 12,000 g 1 . Higher V. parahaemolyticus densities were associated with higher water temperatures. Pathogenic strains were detected in 34 (21.8%) of 156 samples by direct plating or enrichment. Forty-six of 6,018 and 31 of 6,992 V. parahaemolyticus isolates from enrichments and direct plates, respectively, hybridized with the tdh probe. There was an apparent inverse relationship between water temperature

Angelo DePaola; Jessica L. Nordstrom; John C. Bowers; Joy G. Wells; David W. Cook

2003-01-01

188

Occurrence and distribution of Vibrio spp., Listonella spp., and Clostridium botulinum in the Seto Inland Sea of Japan.  

PubMed Central

The distribution of Vibrio species in samples of surface water, bottom water (water 2 m above the sediment), and sediment from the Seto Inland Sea was studied. A simple technique using a membrane filter and short preenrichment in alkaline peptone water was developed to resuscitate the injured cells, followed by plating them onto TCBS agar. In addition, a survey was conducted to determine the incidence of Clostridium botulinum in sediment samples. Large populations of heterotrophs were found in surface water, whereas large numbers of total vibrios were found in bottom water. In samples from various water sampling regions, high counts of all bacterial populations were found in the inner regions having little exchange of seawater when compared with those of the open region of the inland sea. In the identification of 463 isolates, 23 Vibrio spp. and 2 Listonella spp. were observed. V. harveyi was prevalent among the members of the Vibrio genus. Vibrio species were categorized into six groups; an estimated 20% of these species were in the so-called "pathogenic to humans" group. In addition, a significant proportion of this group was hemolytic and found in the Bisan Seto region. V. vulnificus, V. fluvialis, and V. cholerae non-O1 predominated in the constricted area of the inland sea, which is eutrophic as a result of riverine influence. It was concluded that salinity indirectly governs the distribution of total vibrios and analysis of variance revealed that all bacterial populations were distributed homogeneously and the variance values were found to be significant in some water sampling regions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Venkateswaran, K; Nakano, H; Okabe, T; Takayama, K; Matsuda, O; Hashimoto, H

1989-01-01

189

Defences against oxidative stress in vibrios associated with corals.  

PubMed

Bacteria colonizing healthy coral tissue may produce enzymes capable of overcoming the toxic effects of reactive oxygen species, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Significant differences in the activities of these enzymes were observed in cultures of Vibrio campbellii, Vibrio coralliilyticus, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio mediterranei, Vibrio pelagius, Vibrio rotiferanus, Vibrio tasmaniensis, and Photobacterium eurosenbergii isolated from healthy, bleached or necrotic tropical and cold water corals. Levels of SOD in exponential phase cultures of V. coralliilyticus grown at 28 degrees C were only slightly higher than those grown at 16 degrees C whereas the levels in stationary phase cultures at 28 degrees C were 7.3 x higher than those at 16 degrees C. The increase in catalase activity of V. coralliilyticus and V. harveyi upon entry to stationary phase conferred protection against killing by oxidative stress. Increased temperature affected up-regulation of enzymes in stationary phase cultures, but pretreatment of cultures with hydrogen peroxide had no significant effect on induction of catalase or SOD. The increased activities appear to be due to up-regulation of gene expression rather than induction of different forms of the enzymes. We suggest that SOD and catalase are unlikely to be major factors in the virulence of these bacteria for corals and that their main function may be to protect against endogenous superoxide. PMID:18279336

Munn, Colin B; Marchant, Hannah K; Moody, A John

2008-02-14

190

Cultivation of Vibrio foetus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio foetus is non-pathogenic for small laboratory animals. As it can cause abortion in sheep and cattle, and is then found in the embryo, cultivation in incubated chicken eggs was attempted. The organism grows easily in the allantoic fluid of seven-to-nine-day eggs. Three days after inoculation, there is a rich growth of Vibrio foetus in the allantoic fluid. The organism

Jac. Jansen; H. Kunst

1951-01-01

191

Vibrios in the Louisiana gulf coast environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polyphasic approach, using bacteriological, immunological, and molecular biological techniques was used to elucidate the distribution of pathogenicVibrio species in the Louisiana coastal environment. A variety ofVibrio species pathogenic for man, includingV. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. fluvialis, andV. vulnificus, were found to be ubiquitous in Louisiana.Vibrio species monitored were shown to fluctuate in response to environmental factors of temperature, salinity,

N. C. Roberts; R. J. Siebeling; J. B. Kaperfl; H. B. Bradford Jr

1982-01-01

192

Isolation, sequencing and characterization of cluster genes involved in the biosynthesis and utilization of the siderophore of marine fish pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus.  

PubMed

In fish pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus MVP01, the isolated 11-gene cluster consisted of two divergently transcribed, Fe(3+) and ferric uptake regulator (Fur) regulated operons, pvsABCDE and psuA-pvuABCDE, sharing high similarity with that related to siderophore biosynthesis and transportation locus in V. parahaemolyticus. Siderophore biosynthesis or utilization was blocked when pvsA and pvsD of the pvsABCDE operon or pvuA, pvuB and pvuE of the psuA-pvuABCDE operon was single-gene in-frame mutated, demonstrating their essential roles for siderophore biosynthesis or utilization in V. alginolyticus MVP01. Addition of the purified siderophore restored the cell growth in siderophore biosynthesis mutants, but not in siderophore uptake mutants. PMID:17593352

Wang, Qiyao; Liu, Qin; Ma, Yue; Zhou, Lingyun; Zhang, Yuanxing

2007-06-26

193

Pathogenesis of Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the factors which are currently recognized as being central to the virulence of the human pathogen, Vibrio vulnificus. This estuarine\\/marine bacterium occurs in high numbers in molluscan shellfish, primarily oysters, and its ingestion in raw oysters results in a ca. 60% mortality in those persons who are susceptible to this bacterium. The organism is also able to

Debra A Linkous; James D Oliver

1999-01-01

194

Epidemic mortality of the sponge Ircinia variabilis (Schmidt, 1862) associated to proliferation of a Vibrio bacterium.  

PubMed

In recent years, several episodes of mass mortality of sessile epibenthic invertebrates, including sponges, have been recorded worldwide. In the present study, we report a disease event on Ircinia variabilis recorded in September 2009 along the southern Adriatic and Ionian seas (Apulian coast), with the aim to quantify the mortality incidence on the sponge population, to investigate the effect of the disease on the sponge tissues and to assess whether the disease is associated with vibrios proliferation. The injured sponges showed wide necrotic areas on the surface or disruption of the body in several portions. Necrotic areas were whitish and often were covered with a thin mucous coat formed by bacteria. In the most affected specimens, sponge organisation resulted partial or complete loss, with the final exposure of the dense skeletal network of spongine fibres to the environment. The results of microbiological cultural analysis using in parallel Marine Agar 2216 and thiosulphate/citrate/bile salts/sucrose agar demonstrated that, in affected specimens, vibrios represented 15.8 % of the total I. variabilis surface culturable bacteria. Moreover, all the isolated vibrios, grown from the wide whitish areas that characterize the surface of the diseased sponges, were identified, and their assignment to the Vibrio rotiferianus was consistent with phylogenetic analysis and data of morphological, cultural and biochemical tests. Studies on V. rotiferianus have shown that its pathogenicity, with respect to various aquatic organisms, is higher than that of Vibrio harveyi. The factors triggering the disease outbreak in Ircinia variabilis populations remain unclear. At present, we can hypothesize the involvement in the disease of a synergetic mechanism that, under stressful physiological conditions (high temperature, elevated nutrients and reduced water flow), induces sponge pathogens, in our case V. rotiferanius, to become virulent, making sponges unable to control their proliferation. Additional studies are needed to understand the etiological processes as well as the factors involved in sponges recovering from this epidemic event allowing them to face mass mortality. A drastic reduction of sponge-specific representatives could have marked a negative impact on the environmental health on account of their role in the sea remediation processes as filter-feeding organisms. PMID:22573240

Stabili, Loredana; Cardone, Frine; Alifano, Pietro; Tredici, S Maurizio; Piraino, Stefano; Corriero, Giuseppe; Gaino, Elda

2012-05-10

195

A model of the effect of temperature on the growth of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from oysters in Korea.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is recognized as the leading cause of human gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of seafood. The objective of this study was to model the growth kinetics of pathogenic and nonpathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in broth and oyster slurry. Primary growth models of V. parahaemolyticus in broth and oyster slurry fit well to a modified Gomperz equation (broth R(2)=0.99; oyster slurry R(2)=0.96). The lag time (LT), specific growth rate (SGR), and maximum population density (MPD) of each primary model were compared. The growth of nonpathogenic V. parahaemolyticus was found to be more rapid than that of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus, regardless of the model medium. In addition, significant (P<0.05) differences in the growth kinetics between pathogenic and nonpathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in broth were observed at 10 degrees C. When compared to growth in broth, the growth of V. parahaemolyticus was delayed in oyster slurry, and growth was not observed at 10 or 15 degrees C. The Davey and square root models were identified as appropriate secondary models for predicting the LT and SGR, respectively. For the broth model, the average B(f) and A(f) values for LT were found to be 0.97 and 1.3, respectively, whereas the average B(f) and A(f) values for SGR were 1.05 and 1.11, respectively. The model generated in this study predicted an LT that was shorter and an SGR that was similar to those that were actually observed, which indicates that these models provide a reliable and safe prediction of V. parahaemolyticus growth. PMID:18541160

Yoon, K S; Min, K J; Jung, Y J; Kwon, K Y; Lee, J K; Oh, S W

2008-04-26

196

Influence of different yeast cell-wall mutants on performance and protection against pathogenic bacteria (Vibrio campbellii) in gnotobiotically-grown Artemia.  

PubMed

A selection of isogenic yeast strains (with deletion for genes involved in cell-wall synthesis) was used to evaluate their nutritional and immunostimulatory characteristics for gnotobiotically-grown Artemia. In the first set of experiments the nutritional value of isogenic yeast strains (effected in mannoproteins, glucan, chitin and cell-wall bound protein synthesis) for gnotobiotically-grown Artemia was studied. Yeast cell-wall mutants were always better feed for Artemia than the isogenic wild type mainly because they supported a higher survival but not a stronger individual growth. The difference in Artemia performance between WT and mutants feeding was reduced when stationary-phase grown cells were used. These results suggest that any mutation affecting the yeast cell-wall make-up is sufficient to improve the digestibility in Artemia. The second set of experiments, investigates the use of a small amount of yeast cells in gnotobiotic Artemia to overcome pathogenicity of Vibrio campbellii (VC). Among all yeast cell strains used in this study, only mnn9 yeast (less cell-wall bound mannoproteins and more glucan and chitin) seems to completely protect Artemia against the pathogen. Incomplete protection against the pathogen was obtained by the gas1 and chs3 mutants, which are lacking the gene for a particular cell-wall protein and chitin synthesis, respectively, resulting in more glucan. The result with the chs3 mutant is of particular interest, as its nutritional value for Artemia is comparable to the wild type. Hence, only with the chs3 strain, in contrast to the gas1 or mnn9 strains, the temporary protection to VC is not concomitant with a better growth performance under non-challenged conditions, suggesting non-interference of general nutritional effects. PMID:17240162

Soltanian, Siyavash; Dhont, Jean; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter

2006-10-11

197

Vibrio parahaemolyticus Risk Assessment - I. ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Chapter IV: Exposure Assessment (Harvest, Post-Harvest, Consumption). Data: ... Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in raw oysters at consumption. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/risksafetyassessment

198

Global gene expression as a function of the iron status of the bacterial cell: influence of differentially expressed genes in the virulence of the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus.  

PubMed

Vibrio vulnificus multiplies rapidly in host tissues under iron-overloaded conditions. To understand the effects of iron in the physiology of this pathogen, we performed a genome-wide transcriptional analysis of V. vulnificus growing at three different iron concentrations, i.e., iron-limiting [Trypticase soy broth with 1.5% NaCl (TSBS) plus ethylenediamine-di-(o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (EDDA)], low-iron (1 microg Fe/ml; TSBS), and iron-rich (38 microg Fe/ml; TSBS plus ferric ammonium citrate) concentrations. A few genes were upregulated under the last two conditions, while several genes were expressed differentially under only one of them. A gene upregulated under both conditions encodes the outer membrane porin, OmpH, while others are related to the biosynthesis of amino sugars. An ompH mutant showed sensitivity to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and polymyxin B and also had a reduced competitive index compared with the wild type in the iron-overloaded mice. Under iron-limiting conditions, two of the TonB systems involved in vulnibactin transport were induced. These genes were essential for virulence in the iron-overloaded mice inoculated subcutaneously, underscoring the importance of active iron transport in infection, even under the high-iron conditions of this animal model. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a RyhB homologue is also essential for virulence in the iron-overloaded mouse. This novel information on the role of genes induced under iron limitation in the iron-overloaded mouse model and the finding of new genes with putative roles in virulence that are expressed only under iron-rich conditions shed light on the many strategies used by this pathogen to multiply rapidly in the susceptible host. PMID:18573903

Alice, Alejandro F; Naka, Hiroaki; Crosa, Jorge H

2008-06-23

199

Susceptibility to Antibiotics of Vibrio sp. AO1 Growing in Pure Culture or in Association with its Hydroid Host Aglaophenia octodonta (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio harveyi is the major causal organism of vibriosis, causing potential devastation to diverse ranges of marine invertebrates over a\\u000a wide geographical area. These microorganisms, however, are phenotypically diverse, and many of the isolates are also resistant\\u000a to multiple antibiotics. In a previous study, we described a previously unknown association between Vibrio sp. AO1, a luminous bacterium related to the

Loredana Stabili; Cinzia Gravili; Ferdinando Boero; Salvatore M. Tredici; Pietro Alifano

2010-01-01

200

Improvement of innate immune responses and defense activity in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fab.) by intramuscular administration of the outer membrane protein Vibrio alginolyticus.  

PubMed

The Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) of Vibrio alginolyticus cell wall was administered intramuscularly (IM) to the tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fab.) at 10, 20, 30 ?g/kg bw. After 14 days infection, the tiger shrimps were challenged with 10(7) bacterial density of Vibrio harveyi for 24 hours. The total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC) and amount of total protein plasma (TPP), superoxide dismutase and protease enzyme activity were monitored. The results showed that intramuscular administration of OMP enhanced an immunomodulatory effect and protection against V. harveyi. The beneficial effect of OMP on the tiger shrimp is dose-dependent and OMP-20 ?g/kg bw is an optimal dose after two times of boosters for 14 days against V. harveyi infection. PMID:24058892

Maftuch; Prasetio, E; Sudianto, A; Rozik, M; Nurdiyani, R; Sanusi, E; Nursyam, H; Fariedah, F; Marsoedi; Murachman

2013-09-03

201

Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde derivatives reduce virulence in Vibrio spp. by decreasing the DNA-binding activity of the quorum sensing response regulator LuxR  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To date, only few compounds targeting the AI-2 based quorum sensing (QS) system are known. In the present study, we screened cinnamaldehyde and substituted cinnamaldehydes for their ability to interfere with AI-2 based QS. The mechanism of QS inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in several Vibrio harveyi mutants. We also studied in vitro the ability

Gilles Brackman; Tom Defoirdt; Carol Miyamoto; Peter Bossier; Serge Van Calenbergh; Hans Nelis; Tom Coenye

2008-01-01

202

Occurrence and potential pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus on the South Coast of Sweden.  

PubMed

During the summer of 2006, several wound infections - of which three were fatal - caused by Vibrio cholerae were reported from patients who had been exposed to water from the Baltic Sea. Before these reports, we initiated a sampling project investigating the occurrence of potential human pathogenic V. cholerae, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in The Sound between Sweden and Denmark. The Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) was used as an indicator to follow the occurrence of vibrios over time. Molecular analyses showed high frequencies of the most potent human pathogenic Vibrio spp.; 53% of mussel samples were positive for V. cholerae (although none were positive for the cholera toxin gene), 63% for V. vulnificus and 79% for V. parahaemolyticus (of which 47% were tdh(+) and/or trh(+)). Viable vibrios were also isolated from the mussel meat and screened for virulence by PCR. The mortality of eukaryotic cells when exposed to bacteria was tested in vivo, with results showing that the Vibrio strains, independent of species and origin, were harmful to the cells. Despite severe infections and several deaths, no report on potential human pathogenic vibrios in this area had been published before this study. PMID:21692819

Collin, Betty; Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi

2011-07-18

203

Quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae are human pathogens. Little is known about these Vibrio spp. in the coastal lagoons of France. The purpose of this study was to investigate their incidence in water, shellfish and sediment of three French Mediterranean coastal lagoons using the most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR). In summer, the total number of V. parahaemolyticus in water, sediment, mussels and clams collected from the three lagoons varied from 1 to >1.1 × 10(3) MPN/l, 0.09 to 1.1 × 10(3) MPN/ml, 9 to 210 MPN/g and 1.5 to 2.1 MPN/g, respectively. In winter, all samples except mussels contained V. parahaemolyticus, but at very low concentrations. Pathogenic (tdh- or trh2-positive) V. parahaemolyticus were present in water, sediment and shellfish samples collected from these lagoons. The number of V. vulnificus in water, sediment and shellfish samples ranged from 1 to 1.1 × 10(3) MPN/l, 0.07 to 110 MPN/ml and 0.04 to 15 MPN/g, respectively, during summer. V. vulnificus was not detected during winter. V. cholerae was rarely detected in water and sediment during summer. In summary, results of this study highlight the finding that the three human pathogenic Vibrio spp. are present in the lagoons and constitute a potential public health hazard. PMID:23770313

Cantet, Franck; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Caro, Audrey; Le Mennec, Cécile; Monteil, Caroline; Quéméré, Catherine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Colwell, Rita R; Monfort, Patrick

2013-06-12

204

Cloning and Nucleotide Sequence of the gyrB Gene of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Its Application in Detection of This Pathogen in Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because biochemical testing and 16S rRNA sequence analysis have proven inadequate for the differentiation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from closely related species, we employed the gyrase B gene (gyrB) as a molecular diagnostic probe. The gyrB genes of V. parahaemolyticus and closely related Vibrio alginolyticus were cloned and sequenced. Oligonucleotide PCR primers were designed for the amplification of a 285-bp fragment

KASTHURI VENKATESWARAN; NOBUHIKO DOHMOTO; SHIGEAKI HARAYAMA

1998-01-01

205

Autecology of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in tropical waters  

SciTech Connect

Water and shellfish samples collected from estuaries, mangroves, and beaches along the coast of Puerto Rico were examined for Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. An array of water quality parameters were also measured simultaneous with bacteria sampling. Both species of vibrio were associated with estuary and mangrove locations, and neither was isolated from sandy beaches. Densities of V. vulnificus were negatively correlated with salinity, 10--15 ppt being optimal. V. parahaemolyticus was isolated from sites with salinities between 20 and 35 ppt, the highest densities occurring at 20 ppt. Densities of Vibrio spp. and V. parahaemolyticus for a tropical estuary surpassed those reported for temperate estuaries by several orders of magnitude. Both densities of total Vibrio spp. and V. parahaemolyticus in the water were directly related to densities of fecal coliforms, unlike V. vulnificus. The incidence of ONPG(+) strains among sucrose({minus}) Vibrio spp. served as an indicator of the frequency of V. vulnificus in this group. More than 63% of the V. vulnificus isolated were pathogenic. V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus occupy clearly separate niches within the tropical estuarine-marine ecosystem.

Rivera, S.; Lugo, T.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

1988-12-31

206

A survey of oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) in New Zealand for Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microbiological survey was conducted to determine the levels of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) and Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) collected from commercial growing areas in the North Island, New Zealand.The survey was intended to be geographically representative of commercial growing areas of Pacific oysters in New Zealand, while selecting the time frame most likely

M. Kirs; A. DePaola; R. Fyfe; J. L. Jones; J. Krantz; A. Van Laanen; D. Cotton; M. Castle

2011-01-01

207

Vibrio biofilms: so much the same yet so different.  

PubMed

Vibrios are natural inhabitants of aquatic environments and form symbiotic or pathogenic relationships with eukaryotic hosts. Recent studies reveal that the ability of vibrios to form biofilms (i.e. matrix-enclosed, surface-associated communities) depends upon specific structural genes (flagella, pili and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis) and regulatory processes (two-component regulators, quorum sensing and c-di-GMP signaling). Here, we compare and contrast mechanisms and regulation of biofilm formation by Vibrio species, with a focus on Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio fischeri. Although many aspects are the same, others differ dramatically. Crucial questions that remain to be answered regarding the molecular underpinnings of Vibrio biofilm formation are also discussed. PMID:19231189

Yildiz, Fitnat H; Visick, Karen L

2009-02-21

208

Vibrio biofilms: so much the same yet so different  

PubMed Central

Vibrios are natural inhabitants of aquatic environments and form symbiotic or pathogenic relationships with eukaryotic hosts. Recent studies reveal that the ability of vibrios to form biofilms – i.e. matrix-enclosed, surface-associated communities– depends upon specific structural genes (flagella, pili, and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis) and regulatory processes (two-component regulators, quorum sensing, and c-di-GMP signaling). In this review, we compare and contrast mechanisms and regulation of biofilm formation by Vibrio species, with a focus on Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio fischeri. While many aspects are the same, others differ dramatically. Critical questions that remain to be answered regarding the molecular underpinnings of Vibrio biofilm formation will also be discussed.

Yildiz, Fitnat H.; Visick, Karen L.

2009-01-01

209

Bacteremia caused by Vibrio hollisae.  

PubMed Central

Vibrio hollisae was recovered from the bloodstream of a 36-year-old man with chronic active hepatitis who was admitted to the hospital with signs of gastrointestinal illness. V. hollisae is an infrequent human pathogen associated with seafood ingestion. No etiologic link to seafood was demonstrated in this case report.

Rank, E L; Smith, I B; Langer, M

1988-01-01

210

Growth Characteristics of 'Vibrio parahaemolyticus'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a normal inhabitant of the coastal marine environment and may be seen associated with human disease as well as pathogenic conditions of fish and shellfish. This study was designed to consider only the effect of oil on survival o...

M. Johnson M. Randolf

1980-01-01

211

Inferring the Evolutionary History of Vibrios by Means of Multilocus Sequence Analysis? †  

PubMed Central

We performed the first broad study aiming at the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of vibrios by means of multilocus sequence analysis of nine genes. Overall, 14 distinct clades were recognized using the SplitsTree decomposition method. Some of these clades may correspond to families, e.g., the clades Salinivibrio and Photobacteria, while other clades, e.g., Splendidus and Harveyi, correspond to genera. The common ancestor of all vibrios was estimated to have been present 600 million years ago. We can define species of vibrios as groups of strains that share >95% gene sequence similarity and >99.4% amino acid identity based on the eight protein-coding housekeeping genes. The gene sequence data were used to refine the standard online electronic taxonomic scheme for vibrios (http://www.taxvibrio.lncc.br).

Sawabe, Tomoo; Kita-Tsukamoto, Kumiko; Thompson, Fabiano L.

2007-01-01

212

Characterization of a novel chromosomal virulence locus involved in expression of a major surface flagellar sheath antigen of the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum.  

PubMed Central

The fish pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum 775.17B was mutated by the use of transposon Tn5-132. Two hundred independent exconjugants were isolated and screened for a reduction of virulence in experimental infections of rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss). Two of these exconjugants, VAN20 and VAN70, showed a significant reduction in virulence after both intraperitoneal and immersion infections. The avirulent mutants showed no loss of any previously suggested virulence determinants of V. anguillarum. One of the mutants (VAN70) was further characterized. DNA sequence analysis revealed two open reading frames, the gene into which Tn5-132 had been inserted (virA) and a closely linked upstream gene (virB). A virB mutant of 775.17B, NQ706, was isolated and also shown to be avirulent. The deduced amino acid sequences of virA and virB correspond to proteins with molecular weights of 36,000 and 42,000, respectively. Insertional mutagenesis of the corresponding virA and virB genes of a clinical isolate of V. anguillarum, serotype O1, also resulted in avirulence. In immunoblot experiments, the total cell lysates of VAN70 (virA) and NQ706 (virB) did not respond to a rabbit polyclonal antiserum directed against whole cells of 775.17B (wild type). This suggests that virA and virB are involved in the biosynthesis of a major surface antigen important for the virulence of V. anguillarum. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that a constituent of the flagellar sheath was expressed by 775.17B (wild type) but not by VAN70 (virA) and NQ706 (virB), suggesting that the major surface antigen lacking in VAN70 and NQ706 is located on the outer sheath of the flagellum. Analysis of this major surface antigen revealed it likely to be lipopolysaccharide. Further analysis showed that the flagellum and the major surface antigen were expressed in vivo during fish infections. Images

Norqvist, A; Wolf-Watz, H

1993-01-01

213

Novel Cholix Toxin Variants, ADP-Ribosylating Toxins in Vibrio cholerae Non-O1/Non-O139 Strains, and Their Pathogenicity  

PubMed Central

Cholix toxin (ChxA) is a recently discovered exotoxin in Vibrio cholerae which has been characterized as a third member of the eukaryotic elongation factor 2-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase toxins, in addition to exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and diphtheria toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. These toxins consist of three characteristic domains for receptor binding, translocation, and catalysis. However, there is little information about the prevalence of chxA and its genetic variations and pathogenic mechanisms. In this study, we screened the chxA gene in a large number (n = 765) of V. cholerae strains and observed its presence exclusively in non-O1/non-O139 strains (27.0%; 53 of 196) and not in O1 (n = 485) or O139 (n = 84). Sequencing of these 53 chxA genes generated 29 subtypes which were grouped into three clusters designated chxA I, chxA II, and chxA III. chxA I belongs to the prototype, while chxA II and chxA III are newly discovered variants. ChxA II and ChxA III had unique receptor binding and catalytic domains, respectively, in comparison to ChxA I. Recombinant ChxA I (rChxA I) and rChxA II but not rChxA III showed variable cytotoxic effects on different eukaryotic cells. Although rChxA II was more lethal to mice than rChxA I when injected intravenously, no enterotoxicity of any rChxA was observed in a rabbit ileal loop test. Hepatocytes showed coagulation necrosis in rChxA I- or rChxA II-treated mice, seemingly the major target for ChxA. The present study illustrates the potential of ChxA as an important virulence factor in non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae, which may be associated with extraintestinal infections rather than enterotoxicity.

Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Asakura, Masahiro; Chowdhury, Nityananda; Neogi, Sucharit Basu; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Golbar, Hossain M.; Yamate, Jyoji; Arakawa, Eiji; Tada, Toshiji; Ramamurthy, T.

2013-01-01

214

Predatory bacteria as natural modulators of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in seawater and oysters.  

PubMed

This study shows that naturally occurring Vibrio predatory bacteria (VPB) exert a major role in controlling pathogenic vibrios in seawater and shellfish. The growth and persistence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus were assessed in natural seawater and in the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. The pathogens examined were V. vulnificus strain VV1003, V. parahaemolyticus O1:KUT (KUT stands for K untypeable), and V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 and corresponding O3:K6 mutants deficient in the toxRS virulence regulatory gene or the rpoS alternative stress response sigma factor gene. Vibrios were selected for streptomycin resistance, which facilitated their enumeration. In natural seawater, oysters bioconcentrated each Vibrio strain for 24 h at 22°C; however, counts rapidly declined to near negligible levels by 72 h. In natural seawater with or without oysters, vibrios decreased more than 3 log units to near negligible levels within 72 h. Neither toxRS nor rpoS had a significant effect on Vibrio levels. In autoclaved seawater, V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 counts increased 1,000-fold over 72 h. Failure of the vibrios to persist in natural seawater and oysters led to screening of the water samples for VPB on lawns of V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 host cells. Many VPB, including Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs; Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and Bacteriovorax stolpii) and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus-like predators, were detected by plaque assay and electron microscopic analysis of plaque-purified isolates from Atlantic, Gulf Coast, and Hawaiian seawater. When V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 was added to natural seawater containing trace amounts of VPB, Vibrio counts diminished 3 log units to nondetectable levels, while VPB increased 3 log units within 48 h. We propose a new paradigm that VPB are important modulators of pathogenic vibrios in seawater and oysters. PMID:22904049

Richards, Gary P; Fay, Johnna P; Dickens, Keyana A; Parent, Michelle A; Soroka, Douglas S; Boyd, E Fidelma

2012-08-17

215

AI-2 quorum-sensing inhibitors affect the starvation response and reduce virulence in several Vibrio species, most likely by interfering with LuxPQ.  

PubMed

The increase of disease outbreaks caused by Vibrio species in aquatic organisms as well as in humans, together with the emergence of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio species, has led to a growing interest in alternative disease control measures. Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism for regulating microbial gene expression in a cell density-dependent way. While there is good evidence for the involvement of auto-inducer 2 (AI-2)-based interspecies QS in the control of virulence in multiple Vibrio species, only few inhibitors of this system are known. From the screening of a small panel of nucleoside analogues for their ability to disturb AI-2-based QS, an adenosine derivative with a p-methoxyphenylpropionamide moiety at C-3' emerged as a promising hit. Its mechanism of inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in a series of Vibrio harveyi AI-2 QS mutants. Our results indicate that this compound, as well as a truncated analogue lacking the adenine base, block AI-2-based QS without interfering with bacterial growth. The active compounds affected neither the bioluminescence system as such nor the production of AI-2, but most likely interfered with the signal transduction pathway at the level of LuxPQ in V. harveyi. The most active nucleoside analogue (designated LMC-21) was found to reduce the Vibrio species starvation response, to affect biofilm formation in Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae, to reduce pigment and protease production in V. anguillarum, and to protect gnotobiotic Artemia from V. harveyi-induced mortality. PMID:19778962

Brackman, Gilles; Celen, Shari; Baruah, Kartik; Bossier, Peter; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Nelis, Hans J; Coenye, Tom

2009-09-24

216

Evidence for the Role of Horizontal Transfer in Generating pVT1, a Large Mosaic Conjugative Plasmid from the Clam Pathogen, Vibrio tapetis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine bacterium Vibrio tapetis is the causative agent of the brown ring disease, which affects the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and causes heavy economic losses in North of Europe and in Eastern Asia. Further characterization of V. tapetis isolates showed that all the investigated strains harbored at least one large plasmid. We determined the sequence of the 82,266 bp plasmid

Gaël Erauso; Fatma Lakhal; Adeline Bidault-Toffin; Patrick Le Chevalier; Philippe Bouloc; Christine Paillard; Annick Jacq; Michael Hensel

2011-01-01

217

Plankton composition and environmental factors contribute to Vibrio seasonality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plankton represent a nutrient-rich reservoir capable of enriching Vibrio species, which can include human pathogens, at higher densities than the surrounding water column. To better understand the relationship between vibrios and plankton, the partitioning of culturable vibrios, on TCBS, between free living and plankton associated (63–200- and >200-?m-size fractions) was monitored over a 1-year period in coastal waters of Georgia,

Jeffrey W Turner; Brooks Good; Dana Cole; Erin K Lipp

2009-01-01

218

Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus presents a significant public health risk to certain persons consuming raw or undercooked seafood, or who acquire wound infections\\u000a while involved in aquatic activities in coastal or estuarine waters. This review describes the bacterium's taxonomy, the three\\u000a types of infection it is capable of producing, the virulence factors known or speculated to be involved in these infections,\\u000a its

James D. Oliver

219

Role of endosymbiotic zooxanthellae and coral mucus in the adhesion of the coral-bleaching pathogen Vibrio shiloi to its host  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio shiloi, the causative agent of bleaching the coral Oculina patagonica in the Mediterranean Sea, adheres to its coral host by a ?-D-galactopyranoside-containing receptor on the coral surface. The receptor is present in the coral mucus, since V. shiloi adhered avidly to mucus-coated ELISA plates. Adhesion was inhibited by methyl-?-D-galactopyranoside. Removal of the mucus from O. patagonica resulted in a

Ehud Banin; Tomer Israely; Maoz Fine; Yossi Loya; Eugene Rosenberg

2001-01-01

220

Mixed diarrhoeal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae and several other enteric pathogens in a 4-year-old child returning to Germany from Pakistan.  

PubMed

We report a mixed enteric infection in a 4-y-old child who returned from Pakistan with fever, vomiting and profuse diarrhoea leading to severe dehydration. Vibrio cholerae O1, Salmonella paratyphi A and Campylobacter coli were cultured from stool. Furthermore, Giardia lamblia antigen and hepatitis A RNA were detected. This is the first paediatric cholera case seen in Frankfurt/Main. PMID:15764195

Enzensberger, Ruxandra; Besier, Silke; Baumgärtner, Nicole; Brade, Volker

2005-01-01

221

Going against the grain: chemotaxis and infection in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemotaxis is the process by which motile cells move in a biased manner both towards favourable and away from unfavourable environments. The requirement of this process for infection has been examined in several bacterial pathogens, including Vibrio cholerae. The single polar flagellum of Vibrio species is powered by a sodium-motive force across the inner membrane, and can rotate to produce

Susan M. Butler; Andrew Camilli

2005-01-01

222

Diversity and Dynamics of a North Atlantic Coastal Vibrio Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrios are ubiquitous marine bacteria that have long served as models for heterotrophic processes and have received renewed attention because of the discovery of increasing numbers of facultatively pathogenic strains. Because the occurrence of specific vibrios has frequently been linked to the temperature, salinity, and nutrient status of water, we hypothesized that seasonal changes in coastal water bodies lead to

Janelle R. Thompson; Mark A. Randa; Luisa A. Marcelino; Aoy Tomita-Mitchell; Eelin Lim; Martin F. Polz

2004-01-01

223

Osmoadaptation among Vibrio Species and Unique Genomic Features and Physiological Responses of Vibrio parahaemolyticus? †  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a moderately halophilic bacterium found in estuarine and marine coastal ecosystems worldwide. Although the ability of V. parahaemolyticus to grow and proliferate in fluctuating saline environments is well known, the underlying molecular mechanisms of osmoadaptation are unknown. We performed an in silico analysis of V. parahaemolyticus strain RIMD2210633 for genes homologous to osmotic stress response genes in other bacteria. We uncovered two putative compatible solute synthesis systems (encoded by ectABC and betABI) and six putative compatible solute transporters (encoded by four bcct loci and two proVWX loci). An ectoine synthesis system clustered with a betaine/carnitine/choline transporter and a ProU transporter (encoded by homologues of proVWX from Escherichia coli), and a betaine synthesis system clustered with a ProU transporter (encoded by homologues of proVXW from Pseudomonas syringae). This is at least double the number present in V. cholerae, V. fischeri, or V. vulnificus. Six additional Vibrio species contain both ectABC and betABI, i.e., V. alginolyticus 12G01, V. angustum, V. harveyi BAA-1116, V. splendidus LGP32, Vibrio sp. strain MED222, and Vibrio sp. strain Ex25. V. harveyi HY01 and V. splendidus 12B01 only encoded the betaine system. In addition, V. alginolyticus had a compendium of systems identical to that found in V. parahaemolyticus. Comparative physiological analysis of RIMD2210633 with V. vulnificus YJ016, V. cholerae N16961, and V. fischeri ES114 grown at different salinities and temperatures demonstrated that V. parahaemolyticus had a growth advantage under all of the conditions examined. We demonstrate, by one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, that V. parahaemolyticus is capable of de novo synthesis of ectoine at high salinity whereas a ?ectB knockout strain is not. We constructed a single-knockout mutation in proU1, but no growth defect was noted, indicating transporter system redundancy. We complemented E. coli MKH13, a compatible solute transporter-negative strain, with bcct2 and demonstrated uptake of betaine at high salt concentrations.

Naughton, Lynn M.; Blumerman, Seth L.; Carlberg, Megan; Boyd, E. Fidelma

2009-01-01

224

Obacunone Represses Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands 1 and 2 in an envZ-Dependent Fashion  

PubMed Central

Obacunone belongs to a class of unique triterpenoids called limonoids, present in Citrus species. Previous studies from our laboratory suggested that obacunone possesses antivirulence activity and demonstrates inhibition of cell-cell signaling in Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli O157:H7. The present work sought to determine the effect of obacunone on the food-borne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 by using a cDNA microarray. Transcriptomic studies indicated that obacunone represses Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1), the maltose transporter, and the hydrogenase operon. Furthermore, phenotypic data for the Caco-2 infection assay and maltose utilization were in agreement with microarray data suggesting repression of SPI1 and maltose transport. Further studies demonstrated that repression of SPI1 was plausibly mediated through hilA. Additionally, obacunone seems to repress SPI2 under SPI2-inducing conditions as well as in Caco-2 infection models. Furthermore, obacunone seems to repress hilA in an EnvZ-dependent fashion. Altogether, the results of the study seems to suggest that obacunone exerts an antivirulence effect on S. Typhimurium and may serve as a lead compound for development of antivirulence strategies for S. Typhimurium.

Vikram, Amit; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K.; Jesudhasan, Palmy R.

2012-01-01

225

The ttpC Gene Is Contained in Two of Three TonB Systems in the Human Pathogen Vibrio vulnificus, but Only One Is Active in Iron Transport and Virulence  

PubMed Central

The TonB system of proteins is required for the energy-dependent active transport of iron-bound substrates across the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. We have identified three TonB systems within the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus. The TonB1 system contains the TonB1, ExbD1, and ExbB1 proteins, whereas both the TtpC2-TonB2 and TtpC3-TonB3 systems contain an additional fourth protein, TtpC. Here we report that TtpC3, although highly related to TtpC2, is inactive in iron transport, whereas TtpC2 is essential for the function of the TtpC2-TonB2 system in V. vulnificus. This protein, together with TonB2, is absolutely required for both the uptake of endogenously produced iron-bound siderophores as well as siderophores produced from other organisms. Through complementation we show that V. vulnificus is capable of using different TtpC2 proteins from other Vibrio species to drive the uptake of multiple siderophores. We have also determined that aerobactin, a common bacterial siderophore involved in virulence of enteric bacteria, can only be brought into the cell using the TtpC2-TonB2 system, indicating an important evolutionary adaptation of TtpC2 and TonB2. Furthermore, in the absence of TonB1, TtpC2 is essential for a fully virulent phenotype as demonstrated using 50% lethal dose (LD50) experiments in mice.

Kustusch, Ryan J.; Kuehl, Carole J.

2012-01-01

226

Induction of luciferase synthesis in Beneckea harveyi by other marine bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been previously demonstrated that luciferase synthesis in the luminous marine bacteria, Beneckea harveyi and Photobacterium fischeri is induced only when sufficient concentrations of metabolic products (autoinducers) of these bacteria accumulate in growth media. Thus, when cells are cultured in liquid medium there is a lag in luciferase synthesis. A quantitative bioassay for B. harveyi autoinducer was developed and

E. P. Greenberg; J. W. Hastings; S. Ulitzur

1979-01-01

227

Current perspectives on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of clinically significant Vibrio spp.  

PubMed Central

Recent taxonomic advances have now implicated several different Vibrio species as human pathogens. While the most common clinical presentation of Vibrio infection continues to be gastroenteritis, an increasing number of extraintestinal infections are being reported, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Detection of Vibrio infections requires a good clinical history and the use of appropriate isolation and identification procedures by the laboratory to confirm illnesses attributed to Vibrio species. Except for Vibrio cholerae O1 and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, there is little direct evidence linking the production of a myriad of cell-associated or extracellular factors produced by each species with human disease and pathogenesis. Many questions regarding pathogenic Vibrio species remain unanswered, including their frequency and distribution in environmental specimens (water, shellfish), infective doses, virulence potential of individual isolates, and markers associated with such strains. Images

Janda, J M; Powers, C; Bryant, R G; Abbott, S L

1988-01-01

228

Metalloprotease Vsm Is the Major Determinant of Toxicity for Extracellular Products of Vibrio splendidus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic data combined with reverse genetic approaches have contributed to the characterization of major virulence factors of Vibrio species; however, these studies have targeted primarily human pathogens. Here, we investigate virulence factors in the oyster pathogen Vibrio splendidus LGP32 and show that toxicity is correlated to the presence of a metalloprotease and its corresponding vsm gene. Comparative genomics showed that

Johan Binesse; Claude Delsert; Denis Saulnier; Marie-Christine Champomier-Verges; Monique Zagorec; Helene Munier-Lehmann; Didier Mazel; Frederique Le Roux

2008-01-01

229

Antimicrobial Resistance in Vibrios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter addresses antimicrobial resistance in a genus – Vibrio – that results in two distinct clinical syndromes. One is profound diarrheal disease – cholera – caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139. The other is often the fatal wound infection and sepsis caused by a variety of halophilic (saltloving) vibrios\\u000a (1) – with V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus perhaps

Michael L. Bennish; Wasif A. Khan; Debasish Saha

230

Vibrios adhere to epithelial cells in the intestinal tract of red sea bream, Pagrus major, utilizing GM4 as an attachment site.  

PubMed

Vibrios, distributed in marine and brackish environments, can cause vibriosis in fish and shellfish under appropriate conditions. Previously, we clarified by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) overlay assay that (35)S-labeled Vibrio trachuri adhered to GM4 isolated from red sea bream intestine. However, whether GM4 actually functions on epithelial cells as an attachment site for vibrios still remains to be uncovered. We found that six isolates, classified as V. harveyi, V. campbellii, and V. splendidus, from intestinal microflora of red sea bream adhered to GM4 but not galactosylceramide (GalCer) by TLC-overlay assay. Tissue-overlay assays revealed that V. harveyi labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) adhered to epithelial cells of red sea bream intestine where GM4 and GalCer were found to be distributed on the top layer of actin filaments by immunohistochemical analysis using corresponding antibodies. The number of adhering vibrios was diminished by pretreatment with anti-GM4 antibody, but not anti-GalCer antibody. These results clearly indicate that vibrios adhere to epithelial cells of red sea bream intestine utilizing GM4 as an attachment site. PMID:23320941

Chisada, Shin-ichi; Shimizu, Kohei; Kamada, Haruna; Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

2013-02-11

231

Adhesion of Vibrio cholerae to Granular Starches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholera is a severe diarrheal disease caused by specific serogroups of Vibrio cholerae that are pathogenic to humans. Cholera can become epidemic and deadly without adequate medical care. Appropriate rehydration therapy can reduce the mortality rate from as much as 50% of the affected individuals to <1%. Thus, oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is an important measure in the treatment of

Hanan Gancz; Orly Niderman-Meyer; Meir Broza; Yechezkel Kashi; Eyal Shimoni

2005-01-01

232

Differential Expression of Vibrio vulnificus Capsular Polysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is a human pathogen whose virulence has been associated with the expression of capsular polysaccharide (CPS). Multiple CPS types have been described; however, virulence does not appear to correlate with a particular CPS composition. Reversible-phase variation for opaque and translucent colony morpholo- gies is characterized by changes in CPS expression, as suggested by electron microscopy of cells stained

ANITA C. WRIGHT; JAN L. POWELL; MIKE K. TANNER; LYNNE A. ENSOR; ARTHUR B. KARPAS; J. GLENN MORRIS; MARCELO B. SZTEIN

1999-01-01

233

Illuminating Cell Signaling: Using "Vibrio harveyi" in an Introductory Biology Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cell signaling is an essential cellular process that is performed by all living organisms. Bacteria communicate with each other using a chemical language in a signaling pathway that allows bacteria to evaluate the size of their population, determine when they have reached a critical mass (quorum sensing), and then change their behavior in unison…

Hrizo, Stacy L.; Kaufmann, Nancy

2009-01-01

234

Predicting the Distribution of Vibrio spp. in the Chesapeake Bay: A Vibrio cholerae Case Study  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a naturally occurring inhabitant of the Chesapeake Bay and serves as a predictor for other clinically important vibrios, including Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. A system was constructed to predict the likelihood of the presence of V. cholerae in surface waters of the Chesapeake Bay, with the goal to provide forecasts of the occurrence of this and related pathogenic Vibrio spp. Prediction was achieved by driving an available multivariate empirical habitat model estimating the probability of V. cholerae within a range of temperatures and salinities in the Bay, with hydrodynamically generated predictions of ambient temperature and salinity. The experimental predictions provided both an improved understanding of the in situ variability of V. cholerae, including identification of potential hotspots of occurrence, and usefulness as an early warning system. With further development of the system, prediction of the probability of the occurrence of related pathogenic vibrios in the Chesapeake Bay, notably V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, will be possible, as well as its transport to any geographical location where sufficient relevant data are available.

Magny, Guillaume Constantin de; Long, Wen; Brown, Christopher W.; Hood, Raleigh R.; Huq, Anwar; Murtugudde, Raghu; Colwell, Rita R.

2010-01-01

235

Vibrio parahaemolyticus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae  

PubMed Central

This review highlighted the following: (i) pathogenic mechanism of the thermostable direct hemolysin produced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, especially on its cardiotoxicity, (ii) heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, especially structure–activity relationship of heat-stable enterotoxin, (iii) RNA N-glycosidase activity of Vero toxins (VT1 and VT2) produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, (iv) discovery of Vibrio cholerae O139, (v) isolation of new variant of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor that carries classical ctxB, and production of high concentration of cholera toxin by these strains, and (vi) conversion of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Vibrio cholerae to culturable state by co-culture with eukaryotic cells.

TAKEDA, Yoshifumi

2011-01-01

236

Complete Genome Sequence of the Marine Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum Harboring the pJM1 Virulence Plasmid and Genomic Comparison with Other Virulent Strains of V. anguillarum and V. ordalii ? †  

PubMed Central

We dissected the complete genome sequence of the O1 serotype strain Vibrio anguillarum 775(pJM1) and determined the draft genomic sequences of plasmidless strains of serotype O1 (strain 96F) and O2? (strain RV22) and V. ordalii. All strains harbor two chromosomes, but 775 also harbors the virulence plasmid pJM1, which carries the anguibactin-producing and cognate transport genes, one of the main virulence factors of V. anguillarum. Genomic analysis identified eight genomic islands in chromosome 1 of V. anguillarum 775(pJM1) and two in chromosome 2. Some of them carried potential virulence genes for the biosynthesis of O antigens, hemolysins, and exonucleases as well as others for sugar transport and metabolism. The majority of genes for essential cell functions and pathogenicity are located on chromosome 1. In contrast, chromosome 2 contains a larger fraction (59%) of hypothetical genes than does chromosome 1 (42%). Chromosome 2 also harbors a superintegron, as well as host “addiction” genes that are typically found on plasmids. Unique distinctive properties include homologues of type III secretion system genes in 96F, homologues of V. cholerae zot and ace toxin genes in RV22, and the biofilm formation syp genes in V. ordalii. Mobile genetic elements, some of them possibly originated in the pJM1 plasmid, were very abundant in 775, resulting in the silencing of specific genes, with only few insertions in the 96F and RV22 chromosomes.

Naka, Hiroaki; Dias, Graciela M.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Dubay, Christopher; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Crosa, Jorge H.

2011-01-01

237

The Vibrio cholerae Genome Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute For Genomic Research (TIGR) has placed online the latest versions of the DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. The TIGR site offers data access via a hypertext Gene Identification Table, DNA Molecule Information, Gene Name Search, Locus Search, RNA Gene Table, Paralogous Gene Families, a Sequence Search, or by download (FTP). Originally published by Heidelberg et al. in the journal Nature [106:477-483, 2000], further information is available to users via links at the TIGR site.

238

Connecting type VI secretion, quorum sensing, and c-di-GMP production in fish pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus through phosphatase PppA.  

PubMed

Vibrio alginolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium, has brought about severe economic damage to the mariculture industry by causing vibriosis in various fish species. We are intrigued in the regulation of the pathogenesis in this bacterium. Here, we reported a complex regulatory connection among the newly defined type VI secretion system (T6SS), quorum sensing (QS), and 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) signal through the phosphatase PppA encoded in the T6SS gene cluster of V. alginolyticus. Whole-genome transcriptome analysis revealed various regulatory targets of PppA including the T6SS substrate hemolysin coregulated protein (Hcp), quorum sensing regulator LuxR, exotoxin alkaline serine protease (Asp), flagellar proteins, as well as proteins involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis and transport. Western blot analysis showed PppA served as a negative regulator of the expression and secretion of Hcp1. Mutation of pppA resulted in an increased level of the intracellular second messenger c-di-GMP and a decreased expression of the QS regulator LuxR as well as exotoxin Asp. Complementation of intact pppA gene in ?pppA mutant restored the production of c-di-GMP, LuxR, and Asp to the wild-type level. Phenotypic studies suggested that PppA takes part in the modulation of biofilm formation, motility, and cell aggregation. These results demonstrated new roles of PppA in controlling virulence factors and pleiotropic phenotypes and contributed to our understanding of the regulation of pathogenesis in V. alginolyticus. PMID:23021863

Sheng, Lili; Lv, Yuanzhi; Liu, Qin; Wang, Qiyao; Zhang, Yuanxing

2012-09-14

239

Mechanistic and statistical models of total Vibrio abundance in the Neuse River Estuary.  

PubMed

Bacteria in the genus Vibrio are ubiquitous to estuarine waters worldwide and are often the dominant genus recovered from these environments. This genus contains several potentially pathogenic species, including Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio alginolyticus. These bacteria have short generation times, as low as 20-30 min, and can thus respond rapidly to changing environmental conditions. A five-parameter mechanistic model was generated based on environmental processes including hydrodynamics, growth, and death rates of Vibrio bacteria to predict total Vibrio abundance in the Neuse River Estuary of eastern North Carolina. Additionally an improved statistical model was developed using the easily monitored parameters of temperature and salinity. This updated model includes data that covers more than eight years of constant bacterial monitoring, and incorporates extreme weather events such as droughts, storms, and floods. These models can be used to identify days in which bacterial abundance might coincide with increased health risks. PMID:23948561

Froelich, Brett; Bowen, James; Gonzalez, Raul; Snedeker, Alexandra; Noble, Rachel

2013-07-11

240

Roles of LuxR in regulating extracellular alkaline serine protease A, extracellular polysaccharide and mobility of Vibrio alginolyticus.  

PubMed

In marine Vibrio species, the Vibrio harveyi-type LuxR protein, a key player in a quorum-sensing system, controls the expression of various genes. In this study, the luxR homologue in Vibrio alginolyticus was identified and named luxR(val), whose expression was greatly induced by the increase of cell number. The luxR(val) in-frame deletion mutant showed a significant downregulation of total extracellular protease activity, and especially caused a 70% decrease in the transcript levels of extracellular alkaline serine protease A (proA), which was an important virulent factor of V. alginolyticus. Complementation in trans with luxR(val) could restore the expression of proA to the level of the wild-type strain. Deletion of the luxR(val) gene also resulted in changes of colony morphology, extracellular polysaccharide production and mobility. Therefore, another member of the V. harveyi-type LuxR regulator family has been characterized in V. alginolyticus. PMID:18573155

Rui, Haopeng; Liu, Qin; Ma, Yue; Wang, Qiyao; Zhang, Yuanxing

2008-06-28

241

Antimicrobial Peptides Protect Coho Salmon from Vibrio anguillarum Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish losses from infectious diseases are a significant problem in aquaculture worldwide. Therefore, we investigated the ability of cationic antimicrobial peptides to protect against infection caused by the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. To identify effective peptides for fish, the MICs of certain antimicrobial peptides against fish pathogens were determined in vitro. Two of the most effective antimicrobial peptides, CEME, a

X. Jia; A. Patrzykat; R. H. Devlin; P. A. Ackerman; G. K. Iwama; R. E. W. Hancock

2000-01-01

242

Towards a Phylogeny of the Genus Vibrio Based on 16s rRNA Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inter- and intrageneric relationships of the genus Vibrio were investigated by performing a comparative analysis of the 16s rRNAs of 10 species, including four pathogenic representatives. The results of immuno- logical and 5s rRNA studies were confirmed in that the genus is a neighboring taxon of the family Entero- bacteriaceae. With regard to the intrageneric structure, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio

M. DORSCH; E. STACKEBRANDT

1992-01-01

243

Construction of a Vibrio splendidus Mutant Lacking the Metalloprotease Gene vsm by Use of a Novel Counterselectable Suicide Vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio splendidus is a dominant culturable Vibrio in seawater, and strains related to this species are also associated with mortality in a variety of marine animals. The determinants encoding the pathogenic properties of these strains are still poorly understood; however, the recent sequencing of the genome of V. splendidus LGP32, an oyster pathogen, provides an opportunity to decipher the basis

Frederique Le Roux; Johan Binesse; Denis Saulnier; Didier Mazel

2007-01-01

244

The Extracellular Metalloprotease of Vibrio tubiashii Is a Major Virulence Factor for Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio tubiashii is a recently reemerging pathogen of larval bivalve mollusks, causing both toxigenic and invasive disease. Marine Vibrio spp. produce an array of extracellular products as potential pathogenicity factors. Culture supernatants of V. tubiashii have been shown to be toxic to oyster larvae and were reported to contain a metalloprotease and a cytolysin\\/hemolysin. However, the structural genes responsible for

Hiroaki Hasegawa; Erin J. Lind; Markus A. Boin; Claudia C. Hase

2008-01-01

245

Triplex PCR assay for the rapid identification of 3 major Vibrio species, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio fluvialis.  

PubMed

A triplex PCR assay was developed for the identification of 3 major Vibrio spp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio fluvialis by targeting their haemolysin, haem-utilizing, and central regulatory genes, respectively. This simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific assay using cell lysates from 227 samples established its usefulness in research and epidemiology. PMID:23706502

Vinothkumar, Kittappa; Bhardwaj, Ashima Kushwaha; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Niyogi, Swapan Kumar

2013-05-22

246

Vibrio species as agents of elasmobranch disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two Vibrio species identified as V. damsela and a new sucrose-positive Vibrio sp., V. carchariae sp. nov., were simultaneously isolated from a brown shark which died while being held in captivity at a large aquarium. Pathogenicity studies were subsequently conducted using a variety of elasmobranchs, including smooth dogfish and lemon sharks. Both bacterial strains proved pathogenic, causing death in nearly all of the elasmobranch hosts challenged. Virulence studies revealed that both bacterial strains were cytotoxic for Y-1 mouse adrenal cells. The V. damsela strain was highly cytotoxic causing Y-1 cellular damage at culture supernatant dilutions up to 1 : 128. Both strains were hemolytic, but neither exhibited the Kanagawa phenomenon. They were both capable of urea hydrolysis, an interesting trait, considering that elasmobranchs retain large (ca 300 milliosmolal) urea concentration in their tissue.

Grimes, D. J.; Colwell, R. R.; Stemmler, J.; Hada, H.; Maneval, D.; Hetrick, F. M.; May, E. B.; Jones, R. T.; Stoskopf, M.

1984-03-01

247

Sequence Characterization and Comparative Analysis of Three Plasmids Isolated from Environmental Vibrio spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 11 July 2007\\/Accepted 26 September 2007 The horizontal transfer of genes by mobile genetic elements such as plasmids and phages can accelerate genome diversification of Vibrio spp., affecting their physiology, pathogenicity, and ecological character. In this study, sequence analysis of three plasmids from Vibrio spp. previously isolated from salt marsh sediment revealed the remarkable diversity of these elements. Plasmids

Tracy H. Hazen; Dongying Wu; Jonathan A. Eisen; Patricia A. Sobecky

2007-01-01

248

Prevalence and distribution of Vibrio vulnificus in fishes caught off Chennai, Indian ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is a notorious sea-food borne pathogen with a high mortality rate. This is ubiquitously present in marine environments, particularly in tropical water. In these studies the prevalence of V. vulnificus in fishes caught off Chennai coast of Indian Ocean are determined. Commercially important fishes were analyzed for the occurrence of vibrios of which some of them were harbored

S. Rajapandiyan; K. Sudha; Kantha D. Arunachalam

249

Nontoxigenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Causing Acute Gastroenteritis  

PubMed Central

We investigated the virulence properties of four Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains causing acute gastroenteritis following consumption of indigenous mussels in Italy. The isolated strains were cytotoxic and adhesive but, surprisingly, lacked tdh, trh, and type three secretion system 2 (T3SS2) genes. We emphasize that nontoxigenic V. parahaemolyticus can induce acute gastroenteritis, highlighting the need for more investigation of the pathogenicity of this microorganism.

Leoni, Francesca; Serra, Roberto; Serracca, Laura; Decastelli, Lucia; Rocchegiani, Elena; Masini, Laura; Canonico, Cristina; Talevi, Giulia; Carraturo, Antonio

2012-01-01

250

Diversity and Dynamics of a North Atlantic Coastal Vibrio Community  

PubMed Central

Vibrios are ubiquitous marine bacteria that have long served as models for heterotrophic processes and have received renewed attention because of the discovery of increasing numbers of facultatively pathogenic strains. Because the occurrence of specific vibrios has frequently been linked to the temperature, salinity, and nutrient status of water, we hypothesized that seasonal changes in coastal water bodies lead to distinct vibrio communities and sought to characterize their level of differentiation. A novel technique was used to quantify shifts in 16S rRNA gene abundance in samples from Barnegat Bay, N.J., collected over a 15-month period. Quantitative PCR (QPCR) with primers specific for the genus Vibrio was combined with separation and quantification of amplicons by constant denaturant capillary electrophoresis (CDCE). Vibrio populations identified by QPCR-CDCE varied between summer and winter samples, suggesting distinct warm-water and year-round populations. Identification of the CDCE populations by cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from two summer and two winter samples confirmed this distinction. It further showed that CDCE populations corresponded in most cases to ?98% rRNA similarity groups and suggested that the abundance of these follows temperature trends. Phylogenetic comparison yielded closely related cultured and often pathogenic representatives for most sequences, and the temperature ranges of these isolates confirmed the trends seen in the environmental samples. Overall, this suggests that temperature is a good predictor of the occurrence of closely related vibrios but that considerable microdiversity of unknown significance coexists within this trend.

Thompson, Janelle R.; Randa, Mark A.; Marcelino, Luisa A.; Tomita-Mitchell, Aoy; Lim, Eelin; Polz, Martin F.

2004-01-01

251

Vibrio vulnificus infection in Southern Brazil - Case report*  

PubMed Central

The genus Vibrio is a member of the family Vibrionaceae, and among their disease-causing species, Vibrio vulnificus, a lactose-positive gram-negative bacillus, is one of the most virulent pathogen of the noncholerae vibrios. We describe the case of a 39-year-old male patient, who was using immunosuppressive therapy, admitted to the hospital for liver transplantation. Twelve hours later, the patient presented high fever, myalgia, anuria and erythematous plaques on lower limbs, of rapid growth and proximal progression. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone, meropenem and oxacillin, however he expired within 30 hours. Blood cultures showed growth of a gram-negative bacillus, which was later identified as Vibrio vulnificus.

Franca, Joao Cesar Beenke; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Sanfelice, Elise; Polido, Diego; Gentili, Arthur; Marques, Fabricio

2013-01-01

252

Vibrio vulnificus infection in Southern Brazil -- case report.  

PubMed

The genus Vibrio is a member of the family Vibrionaceae, and among their disease-causing species, Vibrio vulnificus, a lactose-positive gram-negative bacillus, is one of the most virulent pathogen of the noncholerae vibrios. We describe the case of a 39-year-old male patient, who was using immunosuppressive therapy, admitted to the hospital for liver transplantation. Twelve hours later, the patient presented high fever, myalgia, anuria and erythematous plaques on lower limbs, of rapid growth and proximal progression. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone, meropenem and oxacillin, however he expired within 30 hours. Blood cultures showed growth of a gram-negative bacillus, which was later identified as Vibrio vulnificus. PMID:23793212

França, João César Beenke; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Sanfelice, Elise; Polido, Diego; Gentili, Arthur; Marques, Fabricio

253

Phylogeny and Molecular Identification of Vibrios on the Basis of Multilocus Sequence Analysis  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the usefulness of rpoA, recA, and pyrH gene sequences for the identification of vibrios. We sequenced fragments of these loci from a collection of 208 representative strains, including 192 well-documented Vibrionaceae strains and 16 presumptive Vibrio isolates associated with coral bleaching. In order to determine the intraspecies variation among the three loci, we included several representative strains per species. The phylogenetic trees constructed with the different genetic loci were roughly in agreement with former polyphasic taxonomic studies, including the 16S rRNA-based phylogeny of vibrios. The families Vibrionaceae, Photobacteriaceae, Enterovibrionaceae, and Salinivibrionaceae were all differentiated on the basis of each genetic locus. Each species clearly formed separated clusters with at least 98, 94, and 94% rpoA, recA, and pyrH gene sequence similarity, respectively. The genus Vibrio was heterogeneous and polyphyletic, with Vibrio fischeri, V. logei, and V. wodanis grouping closer to the Photobacterium genus. V. halioticoli-, V. harveyi-, V. splendidus-, and V. tubiashii-related species formed groups within the genus Vibrio. Overall, the three genetic loci were more discriminatory among species than were 16S rRNA sequences. In some cases, e.g., within the V. splendidus and V. tubiashii group, rpoA gene sequences were slightly less discriminatory than recA and pyrH sequences. In these cases, the combination of several loci will yield the most robust identification. We can conclude that strains of the same species will have at least 98, 94, and 94% rpoA, recA, and pyrH gene sequence similarity, respectively.

Thompson, F. L.; Gevers, D.; Thompson, C. C.; Dawyndt, P.; Naser, S.; Hoste, B.; Munn, C. B.; Swings, J.

2005-01-01

254

Rapid detection of Vibrio species using liquid microsphere arrays and real-time PCR targeting the ftsZ locus.  

PubMed

The development of rapid and sensitive molecular techniques for the detection of Vibrio species would be useful for the surveillance of sporadic infections and management of major outbreaks. Comparative sequence analysis of the ftsZ gene in the predominant Vibrio species that cause human disease revealed distinct alleles for each examined species, including Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. Light Upon eXtension (LUX) real-time PCR assays were developed to target these species-specific polymorphisms, and were successful in rapidly differentiating the major pathogenic Vibrio species. Luminex liquid microsphere array technology was used to develop a comprehensive assay capable of simultaneously detecting V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus. These assays permitted the identification of a presumptive V. parahaemolyticus isolate as Vibrio alginolyticus, which was verified using additional molecular characterization. PMID:17172518

Tracz, Dobryan M; Backhouse, Paul G; Olson, Adam B; McCrea, Joanne K; Walsh, Julie A; Ng, Lai-King; Gilmour, Matthew W

2007-01-01

255

Structure-Activity Relationship of Cinnamaldehyde Analogs as Inhibitors of AI-2 Based Quorum Sensing and Their Effect on Virulence of Vibrio spp  

PubMed Central

Background Many bacteria, including Vibrio spp., regulate virulence gene expression in a cell-density dependent way through a communication process termed quorum sensing (QS). Hence, interfering with QS could be a valuable novel antipathogenic strategy. Cinnamaldehyde has previously been shown to inhibit QS-regulated virulence by decreasing the DNA-binding ability of the QS response regulator LuxR. However, little is known about the structure-activity relationship of cinnamaldehyde analogs. Methodology/Principal Findings By evaluating the QS inhibitory activity of a series of cinnamaldehyde analogs, structural elements critical for autoinducer-2 QS inhibition were identified. These include an ?,? unsaturated acyl group capable of reacting as Michael acceptor connected to a hydrophobic moiety and a partially negative charge. The most active cinnamaldehyde analogs were found to affect the starvation response, biofilm formation, pigment production and protease production in Vibrio spp in vitro, while exhibiting low cytotoxicity. In addition, these compounds significantly increased the survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans infected with Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio vulnificus. Conclusions/Significance Several new and more active cinnamaldehyde analogs were discovered and they were shown to affect Vibrio spp. virulence factor production in vitro and in vivo. Although ligands for LuxR have not been identified so far, the nature of different cinnamaldehyde analogs and their effect on the DNA binding ability of LuxR suggest that these compounds act as LuxR-ligands.

Brackman, Gilles; Celen, Shari; Hillaert, Ulrik; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis; Nelis, Hans J.; Coenye, Tom

2011-01-01

256

Autecology of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in tropical waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water and shellfish samples collected from estuaries, mangroves, and beaches along the coast of Puerto Rico were examined for Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. An array of water quality parameters were also measured simultaneous with bacteria...

S. Rivera T. Lugo T. C. Hazen

1988-01-01

257

Extracellular Signal Molecule(s) Involved in the Carbon Starvation Response of Marine Vibrio sp. Strain S14  

PubMed Central

The role of exogenous metabolites as putative signal molecules mediating and/or regulating the carbon starvation adaptation program in Vibrio sp. strain S14 was investigated. Addition of the stationary-phase supernatant extract (SSE) of Vibrio sp. strain S14 to logarithmic-phase cells resulted in a significant number of carbon starvation-induced proteins being up-regulated. Halogenated furanones, putative antagonists of acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs), inhibited the synthesis of proteins specifically induced upon carbon starvation. The effect of the furanone was the opposite of that caused by SSE with respect to the up- and down-regulation of protein expression, indicating that both the furanone and the putative signalling molecules were acting on the same regulatory pathway. Culturability was rapidly lost when Vibrio sp. strain S14 was starved in the presence of the furanone at a low concentration. The furanone also had a negative effect on the ability of carbon-starved cells to mount resistance against UV irradiation and hydrogen peroxide exposure. The SSE of Vibrio sp. strain S14 had the ability to provide cross-protection against the loss in viability caused by the furanone. We have further demonstrated that the SSE taken from low- as well as high-cell-density cultures of Vibrio sp. strain S14 induced luminescence in Vibrio harveyi. Taken together, the results in this report provide evidence that Vibrio sp. strain S14 produces extracellular signalling metabolites during carbon and energy starvation and that these molecules play an important role in the expression of proteins crucial to the development of starvation- and stress-resistant phenotypes.

Srinivasan, Sujatha; Ostling, Jorgen; Charlton, Timothy; de Nys, Rocky; Takayama, Kathy; Kjelleberg, Staffan

1998-01-01

258

Oleic Acid Produced by a Marine Vibrio spp. Acts as an Anti-Vibrio parahaemolyticus Agent  

PubMed Central

It is known that some strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus are responsible for gastroenteric diseases caused by the ingestion of marine organisms contaminated with these bacterial strains. Organic products that show inhibitory activity on the growth of the pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus were extracted from a Vibrio native in the north of Chile. The inhibitory organic products were isolated by reverse phase chromatography and permeation by Sephadex LH20, and were characterized by spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. The results showed that the prevailing active product is oleic acid, which was compared with standards by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These active products might be useful for controlling the proliferation of pathogenic clones of V. parahaemolyticus.

Leyton, Yanett; Borquez, Jorge; Darias, Jose; Cueto, Mercedes; Diaz-Marrero, Ana R.; Riquelme, Carlos

2011-01-01

259

Molecular Characterization of Direct Target Genes and cis-Acting Consensus Recognized by Quorum-Sensing Regulator AphA in Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

PubMed Central

Background AphA is the master quorum-sensing (QS) regulator operating at low cell density in vibrios. Molecular regulation of target genes by AphA has been characterized in Vibrio harveyi and V. cholerae, but it is still poorly understood in V. parahaemolyticus. Methodology/Principal Findings The AphA proteins are extremely conserved in V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio sp. Ex25, Vibrio sp. EJY3, V. harveyi, V. vulnificus, V. splendidus, V. anguillarum, V. cholerae, and V. furnissii. The above nine AphA orthologs appear to recognize conserved cis-acting DNA signals which can be represented by two consensus constructs, a 20 bp box sequence and a position frequency matrix. V. parahaemolyticus AphA represses the transcription of ahpA, qrr4, and opaR through direct AphA-target promoter DNA association, while it inhibits the qrr2-3 transcription in an indirect manner. Translation and transcription starts, core promoter elements for sigma factor recognition, Shine-Dalgarno sequences for ribosome recognition, and AphA-binding sites (containing corresponding AphA box-like sequences) were determined for the three direct AphA targets ahpA, qrr4, and opaR in V. parahaemolyticus. Conclusions/Significance AphA-mediated repression of ahpA, qrr2-4, and opaR was characterized in V. parahaemolyticus by using multiple biochemical and molecular experiments. The computational promoter analysis indicated the conserved mechanism of transcriptional regulation of QS regulator-encoding genes ahpA, qrr4, and opaR in vibrios.

Sun, Fengjun; Zhang, Yiquan; Wang, Li; Yan, Xiaojuan; Tan, Yafang; Guo, Zhaobiao; Qiu, Jingfu; Yang, Ruifu; Xia, Peiyuan; Zhou, Dongsheng

2012-01-01

260

Vibrio cholerae Requires rpoS for Efficient Intestinal Colonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae is a facultative intestinal pathogen that lives in aquatic environments, often in association with planktonic species. In the suckling mouse, oral inoculation with V. cholerae leads to intestinal colonization and symptoms of diarrheal disease. Results reported here indicate a role for the alternative sigma factor, RpoS, in intestinal colonization in this model of cholera. We constructed within rpoS

D. SCOTT MERRELL; ANNA D. TISCHLER; SANG HO LEE; ANDREW CAMILLI

2000-01-01

261

Expression of Vibrio vulnificus Capsular Polysaccharide Inhibits Biofilm Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is a human pathogen that produces lethal septicemia in susceptible persons, and the primary virulence factor for this organism is capsular polysaccharide (CPS). The role of the capsule in V. vulnificus biofilms was examined under a variety of conditions, by using either defined CPS mutants or spontaneous CPS expression phase variants derived from multiple strains. CPS expression was

Lavin A. Joseph; Anita C. Wright

2004-01-01

262

Quorum sensing controls biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Multiple quorum-sensing circuits function in parallel to control virulence and biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae . In contrast to other bacterial pathogens that induce virulence factor production and\\/or biofilm for- mation at high cell density in the presence of quorum- sensing autoinducers, V. cholerae represses these behaviours at high cell density. Consistent with this, we show here that V.

Brian K. Hammer; Bonnie L. Bassler

2003-01-01

263

Regulation system for protease production in Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is a causative agent of serious food-borne diseases in humans related to consumption of raw seafoods. This human pathogen secretes a metalloprotease (VVP) that evokes enhancement of the vascular permeability and disruption of the capillaries. Production of microbial proteases is generally induced at early stationary phase of its growth. This cell density dependent regulation of VVP production in

Tomoka Kawase; Shin-ichi Miyoshi; Zafar Sultan; Sumio Shinoda

2004-01-01

264

Phenotypic Characterization ofVibrio vulnificusBiotype 2, a Lipopolysaccharide-Based Homogeneous O Serogroup withinVibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we have reevaluated the taxonomic position of biotype 2 ofVibrio vulnificus. For this purpose, we have biochemically and serologically characterized 83 biotype 2 strains from diseased eels, comparing them with 17 biotype 1 strains from different sources. Selected strains were also molecularly analyzed and tested for eel and mouse pathogenicity. Results have shown that biotype 2 (i)

ELENA G. BIOSCA; JAMES D. OLIVER; ANDCARMEN AMARO

1996-01-01

265

Comparison between thiosulphate-citrate-bile salt sucrose (TCBS) agar and CHROMagar Vibrio for isolating Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering its widespread distribution in marine environments, its fast replication times and low infectious doses and the rapid spread of its strains in recent years, intensive and continuous monitoring of potentially pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus is strongly recommended in order to assess the human health risk arising from shellfish consumption. The lack of epidemiological data points to the need to develop

Angela Di Pinto; Valentina Terio; Lucia Novello; Giuseppina Tantillo

2011-01-01

266

A NOVEL, ENZYME-BASED ASSAY FOR THE RAPID AND SIMPLE DETECTION OF VIBRIOS IN SHELLFISH AND SEAWATER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We discovered an enzyme present in members of the Vibrionaceae family, but not present in non-Vibrio pathogens. This enzyme is a lysyl aminopeptidase associated with phosphoglucose isomerase of all Vibrio species tested to date. A colony overlay procedure for peptidases (COPP) was developed for th...

267

Salt-responsive outer membrane proteins of Vibrio anguillarum serotype O1 as revealed by comparative proteome analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Vibrio anguillarum is a universal marine pathogen causing vibriosis. Vibrio anguillarum encounters different osmolarity conditions between seawater and hosts, and its outer membrane proteins (OMPs) play a crucial role in the adaptation to changes of the surroundings. In the present study, proteomic approaches were applied to investigate the salt-responsive OMPs of V. anguillarum. Methods and Results: Lower salinity (0Æ85%

D.-Y. Kao; Y.-C. Cheng; T.-Y. Kuo; S.-B. Lin; C.-C. Lin; L.-P. Chow; W.-J. Chen

2009-01-01

268

Design of Vibrio 16S rRNA gene specific primers and their application in the analysis of seawater Vibrio community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pathogenic species of genus Vibrio cause vibriosis, one of the most prevalent diseases of maricultured animals and seafood consumers. Monitoring their kinetics in the chain of seafood production, processing and consumption is of great importance for food and mariculture safety. In order to enrich Vibrio-representing 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) fragments and identify these bacteria further real-timely and synchronously among bacterial flora in the chain, a pair of primers that selectively amplify Vibrio 16S rDNA fragments were designed with their specificities and coverage testified in the analysis of seawater Vibrio community. The specificities and coverage of two primers, VF169 and VR744, were determined theoretically among bacterial 16S rDNAs available in GenBank by using BLAST program and practically by amplifying, Vibrio 16S rDNA fragments from seawater DNA. More than 88.3% of sequences in GenBank, which showed identical matches with VR744, belong to Vibrio genus. A total of 33 clones were randomly selected and sequenced. All of the sequences showed their highest similarities to and clustered around those of diverse known Vibrio species. The primers designed are capable of retrieving a wide range of Vibrio 16S rDNA fragments specifically among bacterial flora in seawater, the most important natural environment of seafood cultivation.

Liu, Yong; Yang, Guanpin; Wang, Hualei; Chen, Jixiang; Shi, Xianming; Zou, Guiwei; Wei, Qiwei; Sun, Xiuqin

2006-04-01

269

Design of Vibrio 16S rRNA gene specific primers and their application in the analysis of seawater Vibrio community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenic species of genusVibrio cause vibriosis, one of the most prevalent diseases of maricultured animals and seafood consumers. Monitoring their kinetics\\u000a in the chain of seafood production, processing and consumption is of great importance for food and mariculture safety. In\\u000a order to enrichVibrio-representing 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) fragments and identify these bacteria further real-timely and synchronously among\\u000a bacterial

Liu Yong; Yang Guanpin; Wang Hualei; Chen Jixiang; Shi Xianming; Zou Guiwei; Wei Qiwei; Sun Xiuqin

2006-01-01

270

Substrate Specificity and Function of the Pheromone Receptor AinR in Vibrio fischeri ES114.  

PubMed

Two distinct but interrelated pheromone-signaling systems, LuxI/LuxR and AinS/AinR, positively control bioluminescence in Vibrio fischeri. Although each system generates an acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal, the protein sequences of LuxI/LuxR and AinS/AinR are unrelated. AinS and LuxI generate the pheromones N-octanoyl-AHL (C8-AHL) and N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-AHL (3OC6-AHL), respectively. LuxR is a transcriptional activator that responds to 3OC6-AHL, and to a lesser extent to C8-AHL. AinR is hypothesized to respond to C8-AHL and, based on homology to Vibrio harveyi LuxN, to mediate the repression of a Qrr regulatory RNA. However, a ?ainR mutation decreased luminescence, which was not predicted based on V. harveyi LuxN, raising the possibility of a distinct regulatory mechanism for AinR. Here we show that ainR can complement a luxN mutant, suggesting functional similarity. Moreover, in V. fischeri, we observed ainR-dependent repression of a Pqrr-lacZ transcriptional reporter in the presence of C8-AHL, consistent with its hypothesized regulatory role. The system appears quite sensitive, with a half-maximal effect on a Pqrr reporter at 140 pM C8-AHL. Several other AHLs with substituted and unsubstituted acyl chains between 6 and 10 carbons also displayed an AinR-dependent effect on Pqrr-lacZ; however, AHLs with acyl chains of four carbons or 12 or more carbons lacked activity. Interestingly, 3OC6-AHL also affected expression from the qrr promoter, but this effect was largely luxR dependent, indicating a previously unknown connection between these systems. Finally, we propose a preliminary explanation for the unexpected luminescence phenotype of the ?ainR mutant. PMID:24056099

Kimbrough, John H; Stabb, Eric V

2013-09-20

271

Vibrio fischeri metabolism: symbiosis and beyond.  

PubMed

Vibrio fischeri is a bioluminescent, Gram-negative marine bacterium that can be found free living and in a mutualistic association with certain squids and fishes. Over the past decades, the study of V. fischeri has led to important discoveries about bioluminescence, quorum sensing, and the mechanisms that underlie beneficial host-microbe interactions. This chapter highlights what has been learned about metabolic pathways in V. fischeri, and how this information contributes to a broader understanding of the role of bacterial metabolism in host colonization by both beneficial and pathogenic bacteria, as well as in the growth and survival of free-living bacteria. PMID:23046951

Dunn, Anne K

2012-01-01

272

Complete Genome Sequence of Vibrio anguillarum M3, a Serotype O1 Strain Isolated from Japanese Flounder in China  

PubMed Central

Vibrio anguillarum is an important bacterial pathogen that causes vibriosis in marine fish. We present the complete genome sequence of V. anguillarum M3, a serotype O1 clinical strain isolated from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in Shandong, China.

Li, Guiyang; Li, Jie; Xiao, Peng; Hao, Bin

2013-01-01

273

Adherence assays and Slime production of Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

PubMed Central

In this study we investigated the phenotypic slime production of Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains, food-borne pathogens, using a Congo red agar plate assay. Furthermore, we studied their ability to adhere to abiotic surfaces and Vero cells line. Our results showed that only V. alginolyticus ATCC 17749 was a slime-producer developing almost black colonies on Congo red agar plate. Adherence to glace tube showed that all V. alginolyticus strains were more adherent than V. parahaemolyticus. Only V. alginolyticus ATCC 17749 was found to be able to form biofilm on polystyrene microplate wells (OD570 = 0.532). Adherence to Vero cells showed that all tested strains were non adherent after 30 min, however after 60 min all the studied strains become adherent. The percentage of adherence ranged from1.23% to 4.66%.

Ben Abdallah, Fethi; Chaieb, Kamel; Zmantar, Tarek; Kallel, Hela; Bakhrouf, Amina

2009-01-01

274

Rapid detection of intestinal pathogens in fecal samples by an improved reverse dot blot method  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To develop a new, rapid and accurate reverse dot blot (RDB) method for the detection of intestinal pathogens in fecal samples. METHODS: The 12 intestinal pathogens tested were Salmonella spp., Brucella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Clostridium botulinum , Bacillus cereus , Clostridium perfringens , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Shigella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica , Vibrio cholerae , Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus

Jian-Ming Xing; Li-Hui Yao; Leonidas G Koniaris; Xing JM

2009-01-01

275

Sixty years from the discovery of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and some recollections.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus was discovered by Tsunesaburo Fujino after a shirasu food poisoning outbreak in 1950, but at that time the isolate was named Pasteurella parahaemolytica, not Vibrio. Although the isolate resembled Vibrio, some properties did not correspond with those of Vibrio. For example, the curved cell form of the cell was one of the important taxonomical indicators of the genus, but the isolate was straight in form. After 5 years, Iwao Takikawa isolated a similar bacterium from a food poisoning case and found the halophilic property of the isolate. He named the isolate Pseudomonas enteritis. In 1960, due to the progress of taxonomy, various scientific indices were adjusted, and Davis and Parks defined the taxonomical position of the genus Vibrio, and Fujino et al. and Sakazaki et al. reexamined the above isolates and confirmed that those were the same species in the genus Vibrio and proposed the new scientific name Vibrio parahaemolyticus.Last year was the 60th year since the discovery of the bacterium, and the discoverer was the first president of our organization, the Society for Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents, Japan. Some recollections including the correlation between the Kanagawa phenomenon and human pathogenicity, the major pathogenic factor TDH (thermostable direct hemolysin) and its related hemolysin (TRH: TDH related hemolysin) are also summarized. PMID:22190435

Shinoda, Sumio

2011-12-01

276

A survey of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in New Zealand for Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus.  

PubMed

A microbiological survey was conducted to determine the levels of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) and Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) collected from commercial growing areas in the North Island, New Zealand. The survey was intended to be geographically representative of commercial growing areas of Pacific oysters in New Zealand, while selecting the time frame most likely to coincide with the increased abundance of pathogenic vibrio species. Vp was detected in 94.8% of oyster samples examined (n=58) with a geometric mean concentration of 99.3 MPN/g, while Vv was detected in 17.2% of oyster samples examined with a geometric mean concentration of 7.4 MPN/g. The frequency of Vp positive samples was 1.7 fold greater than reported in a study conducted three decades ago in New Zealand. Potentially virulent (tdh positive) Vp was detected in two samples (3.4%, n=58) while no trh (another virulence marker) positive samples were detected. 16S rRNA genotype could be assigned only to 58.8% of Vv isolates (8:1:1 A:B:AB ratio, n=10). There was a good agreement [98.2% of Vp (n=280) and 94.4% of Vv (n=18) isolates] between molecular tests and cultivation based techniques used to identify Vibrio isolates and there was a significant (R(2)=0.95, P<0.001, n=18) linear relationship between the MPN estimates by real-time PCR and cultivation. There was no significant correlation between any of the environmental parameters tested and Vp or Vv concentrations. PMID:21501884

Kirs, M; Depaola, A; Fyfe, R; Jones, J L; Krantz, J; Van Laanen, A; Cotton, D; Castle, M

2011-03-25

277

Fitness factors in vibrios: a mini-review.  

PubMed

Vibrios are Gram-negative curved bacilli that occur naturally in marine, estuarine, and freshwater systems. Some species include human and animal pathogens, and some vibrios are necessary for natural systems, including the carbon cycle and osmoregulation. Countless in vivo and in vitro studies have examined the interactions between vibrios and their environment, including molecules, cells, whole animals, and abiotic substrates. Many studies have characterized virulence factors, attachment factors, regulatory factors, and antimicrobial resistance factors, and most of these factors impact the organism's fitness regardless of its external environment. This review aims to identify common attributes among factors that increase fitness in various environments, regardless of whether the environment is an oyster, a rabbit, a flask of immortalized mammalian cells, or a planktonic chitin particle. This review aims to summarize findings published thus far to encapsulate some of the basic similarities among the many vibrio fitness factors and how they frame our understanding of vibrio ecology. Factors representing these similarities include hemolysins, capsular polysaccharides, flagella, proteases, attachment factors, type III secretion systems, chitin binding proteins, iron acquisition systems, and colonization factors. PMID:23306394

Johnson, Crystal N

2013-01-10

278

[Prevalence of type III secretion system genes in cholera vibrios from different serogroups].  

PubMed

Prevalence of vcs genes coding the type III secretion system (T3SS) in cholera vibrios of different serogroups isolated in Russia and neighboring countries was studied for the first time. Virulent strains of O1 and O139 serogroups as well as toxigenic Vibrio cholerae strains of other serogroups contained no T3SS genes. Unlike mentioned strains, 29.2% of atoxigenic non O1/non O139 cholera vibrios isolated from patients in Russia and neighboring countries contained the T3SS genes cluster, which might contribute to the pathogenic properties of these strains. PMID:18819403

Eroshenko, G A; Kutyrev, V V; Fadeeva, A V; Shavina, N Iu; Stepanov, A V

279

Vibrios Commonly Possess Two Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of the two-chromosome configuration was investigated in 34 species of vibrios and closely related species. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of undigested genomic DNA suggested that vibrios commonly have two chromosomes. The size of the large chromosome is predominantly within a narrow range (3.0 to 3.3 Mb), whereas the size of the small chromosome varies considerably among the vibrios (0.8 to 2.4 Mb). This fact suggests that the structure of the small chromosome is more flexible than that of the large chromosome during the evolution of vibrios.

Okada, Kazuhisa; Iida, Tetsuya; Kita-Tsukamoto, Kumiko; Honda, Takeshi

2005-01-01

280

Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in soil water extracts using Vibrio Harveyi BB721 and its implication for microbial biomass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) is commonly used to measure the growth potential of microorganisms in water, but has not yet been investigated for measuring microbial growth potential in soils. In this study, a simple, rapid, and non-growth based assay to determine AOC in soil was developed using a...

281

Identification of Vibrio harveyi Isolated from Diseased Asian Seabass Lates calcarifer by Use of 16S Ribosomal DNA Sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grow out of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer in marine net-cages is a popular aquaculture activity in Malaysia. Production of this species is greatly affected by the occurrence of vibriosis, which causes heavy mortality. Generally, young fish are more susceptible; they exhibit anorexia and skin darkening, followed by heavy mortality. The acutely affected older fish may also exhibit bloody lesions

Julian Ransangan; Saleem Mustafa

2009-01-01

282

Involvement of the cgtA gene function in stimulation of DNA repair in Escherichia coli and Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

CgtA is a member of the Obg\\/Gtp1 subfamily of small GTP-binding proteins. CgtA homologues have been found in various prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. Nevertheless, despite the fact that cgtA is an essential gene in most bacterial species, its function in the regulation of cellular processes is largely unknown. Here it has been demonstrated that in

Ryszard Zielke; Aleksandra Sikora; Rafaø Dutkiewicz; Grzegorz Wegrzyn; Agata Czyz

2003-01-01

283

Construction of a Vibrio splendidus Vsm metalloprotease mutant using a novel counter-selectable suicide vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

splendidus is a dominant culturable Vibrio in seawater, but strains related to this group are also associated with mortalities in a variety of marine animals. The determinants encoding the pathogenic properties of these strains are still poorly known, however, the recent sequencing of the genome of V. splendidus LGP32, an oyster pathogen, offers the opportunity to decipher the basis of

Frédérique Le Roux; Johan Binesse; Denis Saulnier; Didier Mazel

2007-01-01

284

Characterization of the Hemorrhagic Reaction Caused by Vibrio vulnificus Metalloprotease, a Member of the Thermolysin Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is an opportunistic human pathogen causing wound infections and septicemia, characterized by hemorrhagic and edematous damage to the skin. This human pathogen secretes a metalloprotease (V. vulnificus protease (VVP)) as an important virulence determinant. When several bacterial metalloproteases including VVP were injected intradermally into dorsal skin, VVP showed the greatest hemorrhagic activity. The level of the in vivo

SHIN-ICHI MIYOSHI; HIROMI NAKAZAWA; KOJI KAWATA; KEN-ICHI TOMOCHIKA; KAZUO TOBE; SUMIO SHINODA

1998-01-01

285

Survival of Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio salmonicida at different salinities.  

PubMed Central

The fish pathogenic bacteria Vibrio anguillarum and V. salmonicida showed the capacity to survive for more than 50 and 14 months, respectively, in seawater microcosms. A salinity of 5% proved lethal to V. anguillarum harvested in the late-exponential growth phase, whereas a salinity of 9% was lethal to the bacterium after it had been starved at a salinity of 30% for 67 days. The lethal salinity for V. salmonicida harvested in the late-exponential growth phase was probably in the vicinity of 10%. V. anguillarum and V. salmonicida were very sensitive to nalidixic acid. Direct determination of viable cells after incubation with nalidixic acid was not possible, since the cells did not elongate. Samples of V. salmonicida were double stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled antibodies and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. After 3 or 4 days of starvation, there was a discrepancy between the total numbers of cells as determined by immunofluorescence versus by staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. The immunofluorescence counts remained high, which indicated the presence of intact cell envelopes but leakage of DNA and other cytoplasm components. After 2 weeks of starvation, for some of the cells, the region stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (i.e., DNA) was markedly smaller than the cell envelope. I attributed this to a shrinkage of the cytoplasm or a confined nucleoid or both. V. anguillarum lost its exoproteolytic activity before 11 days of starvation.

Hoff, K A

1989-01-01

286

Antibiotic activity of lectins from marine algae against marine vibrios.  

PubMed

Saline and aqueous ethanol extracts of marine algae and the lectins from two red algal species were assayed for their antibiotic activity against marine vibrios. Experimental studies were also carried out on the influence of environmental factors on such activity, using batch cultures. The results indicated that many of the saline extracts of the algal species were active and that the activity was selective against those vibrios assayed. The algal extracts were active against Vibrio pelagius and the fish pathogen V. vulnificus, but inactive against V. neresis. Algal lectins from Eucheuma serra (ESA) and Galaxaura marginata (GMA) strongly inhibited V. vulnificus but were inactive against the other two vibrios. The antibacterial activity of algal extracts was inhibited by pretreatment with various sugars and glycoprotein. Extracts of the two red algae, E. serra and Pterocladia capillacea, in saline and aqueous ethanol, inhibited markedly the growth rate of V. vulnificus at very low concentrations. Culture results indicated that metabolites active against V. vulnificus were invariably produced in P. capillacea over a wide range of temperature, light intensity, and nutritional conditions. Enhanced antibacterial activity occurred when P. capillacea was grown under higher irradiance, severe nutrient stress and moderate temperature (20 degrees C), reflecting the specific antibiotic characteristics of this alga. The strong antibiotic activity of lectins towards fish pathogenic bacteria reveals one of the important roles played by algal lectins, as well as the potential high economic value of those marine algae assayed for aquaculture and for biomedical purposes. PMID:12884128

Liao, W-R; Lin, J-Y; Shieh, W-Y; Jeng, W-L; Huang, R

2003-07-23

287

[The centenary of the discovery of the vibrio El Tor (1905) or dubious beginnings of the seventh pandemic of cholera].  

PubMed

As a direct result of the 1865 cholera epidemic, health authorities have realized that the Mecca pilgrimage represented a permanent risk for the global diffusion of this scourge. It was decided to open five quarantine stations along the Red Sea, among them the El Tor station. There, Felix Gotschlich, in 1905, isolated for the first time the El Tor vibrio from pilgrims deceased when coming back from Mecca. This vibrio had atypical biologic properties. Although agglutinated by specific antisera, it was haemolytic for human and animal red cells, a character not shared by the true Vibrio cholerae. Moreover there was no cholera epidemic at this time both in Mecca or at El Tor station, and the pilgrims have deceased from illnesses other than cholera. Was this vibrio actually pathogen? This question was the origin of never-ending discussions among bacteriologists and it was concluded that this micro-organism was only a "laboratory curious". In fact, from 1937 to 1958, four epidemics of so-called "paracholera" or "enteritis choleriformis", with very high death rates, occurred in the south of Celebes (Sulawesi) Islands and the responsible was the El Tor vibrio. However according to the alleged non-pathogenic character of this bacteria, local authorities omitted to declare infected this area. Awakening was quite rude! By 1961, again from Celebes Islands ,the El Tor vibrio emerged as true pathogen responsible for the 7th pandemic, invading about 100 countries around the world. It has killed hundreds of thousands of patients since 1961. Then it turned evident that the El Tor vibrio was in fact a peculiar biotype of Vibrio cholerae O1. By 1992, new epidemics appeared in India and Bangladesh due to a new biotype, Vibrio cholerae O 139 Bengal, antigenically distinct from but genetically related to the El Tor vibrio. PMID:17992832

Chastel, Claude

288

Laboratory studies on the El Tor vibrio.  

PubMed

The identity of the El Tor vibrio is a controversial question that the usual methods of bacteriological investigation have as yet failed to settle. In this paper, the author presents the results of a study of the interrelationships between El Tor vibrios, true cholera vibrios and water vibrios, as revealed by the behaviour of the vibrios in the bile system and in the small intestine of experimental animals.The vibrios investigated included two strains isolated at the El Tor quarantine station on the Sinai Peninsula in 1934, two strains isolated at Makassar, Celebes, during a cholera epidemic in 1937 and identified as "El Tor" vibrios, four strains of true cholera vibrios and five strains of water vibrios. On the whole, the behaviour of the El Tor and Makassar vibrios was similar, closely resembling that of the cholera vibrios and differing markedly from that of the water vibrios. The author therefore considers that the strains of El Tor and Makassar vibrios examined are varieties of Vibrio cholerae and suggests that carriers of such strains should be subjected to the same measures as carriers of true cholera vibrios. PMID:13986981

SAYAMOV, R M

1963-01-01

289

Integron-Mediated Antimicrobial Resistance in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The disease cholera is the result of infection with the toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae. Even though the oral rehydration therapy is the main stay for the treatment of cholera patients, administration of antimicrobials\\u000a is a common existing practice as it shortens the volume and duration of diarrhea, duration of hospitalization, and excretion\\u000a of the causative pathogen. Due to excessive

Amit Ghosh; T. Ramamurthy

290

Temporal Quorum-Sensing Induction Regulates Vibrio cholerae Biofilm Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae, the pathogen that causes cholera, also survives in aqueous reservoirs, probably in the form of biofilms. Quorum sensing negatively regulates V. cholerae biofilm formation through HapR, whose expres- sion is induced at a high cell density. In this study, we show that the concentration of the quorum-sensing signal molecule CAI-1 is higher in biofilms than in planktonic cultures.

Zhi Liu; Fiona R. Stirling; Jun Zhu

2007-01-01

291

Ecology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in the Coastal and Estuarine Waters of Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, and Washington (United States)  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, which are native to estuaries globally, are agents of seafood-borne or wound infections, both potentially fatal. Like all vibrios autochthonous to coastal regions, their abundance varies with changes in environmental parameters. Sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), and chlorophyll have been shown to be predictors of zooplankton and thus factors linked to vibrio populations. The contribution of salinity, conductivity, turbidity, and dissolved organic carbon to the incidence and distribution of Vibrio spp. has also been reported. Here, a multicoastal, 21-month study was conducted to determine relationships between environmental parameters and V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus populations in water, oysters, and sediment in three coastal areas of the United States. Because ecologically unique sites were included in the study, it was possible to analyze individual parameters over wide ranges. Molecular methods were used to detect genes for thermolabile hemolysin (tlh), thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh), and tdh-related hemolysin (trh) as indicators of V. parahaemolyticus and the hemolysin gene vvhA for V. vulnificus. SST and suspended particulate matter were found to be strong predictors of total and potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus. Other predictors included chlorophyll a, salinity, and dissolved organic carbon. For the ecologically unique sites included in the study, SST was confirmed as an effective predictor of annual variation in vibrio abundance, with other parameters explaining a portion of the variation not attributable to SST.

Bowers, John C.; Griffitt, Kimberly J.; Molina, Vanessa; Clostio, Rachel W.; Pei, Shaofeng; Laws, Edward; Paranjpye, Rohinee N.; Strom, Mark S.; Chen, Arlene; Hasan, Nur A.; Huq, Anwar; Noriea, Nicholas F.; Grimes, D. Jay; Colwell, Rita R.

2012-01-01

292

Ecology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in the coastal and estuarine waters of Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, and Washington (United States).  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, which are native to estuaries globally, are agents of seafood-borne or wound infections, both potentially fatal. Like all vibrios autochthonous to coastal regions, their abundance varies with changes in environmental parameters. Sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), and chlorophyll have been shown to be predictors of zooplankton and thus factors linked to vibrio populations. The contribution of salinity, conductivity, turbidity, and dissolved organic carbon to the incidence and distribution of Vibrio spp. has also been reported. Here, a multicoastal, 21-month study was conducted to determine relationships between environmental parameters and V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus populations in water, oysters, and sediment in three coastal areas of the United States. Because ecologically unique sites were included in the study, it was possible to analyze individual parameters over wide ranges. Molecular methods were used to detect genes for thermolabile hemolysin (tlh), thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh), and tdh-related hemolysin (trh) as indicators of V. parahaemolyticus and the hemolysin gene vvhA for V. vulnificus. SST and suspended particulate matter were found to be strong predictors of total and potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus. Other predictors included chlorophyll a, salinity, and dissolved organic carbon. For the ecologically unique sites included in the study, SST was confirmed as an effective predictor of annual variation in vibrio abundance, with other parameters explaining a portion of the variation not attributable to SST. PMID:22865080

Johnson, Crystal N; Bowers, John C; Griffitt, Kimberly J; Molina, Vanessa; Clostio, Rachel W; Pei, Shaofeng; Laws, Edward; Paranjpye, Rohinee N; Strom, Mark S; Chen, Arlene; Hasan, Nur A; Huq, Anwar; Noriea, Nicholas F; Grimes, D Jay; Colwell, Rita R

2012-08-03

293

A fast and indirect fluorescent antibody assay for the vibrio in large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea (Richardson)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fast and indirect fluorescent antibody assay for the Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus infecting the large yellow croaker has been developed. The specific antisera for the two strains of vibrio were prepared with New Zealand rabbit and the antiserum and cross-reactive efficacy was tested by coagulation in tube. It showed that the goat anti-rabbit IgG had been labeled by fluorescence isothiocyanate (FITC). The results showed that positive reactions were 100% for the large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea with typical symptom of vibrio infection, while the positive reaction to the pathogen in healthy yellow croakers reached 40%, but seemed negative for aquaculture water. The results demonstrated that this fast and indirect fluorescent antibody assay can be used not only to test the vibrio pathogen in diseased yellow croaker but also in infected animals with no symptom.

Wang, Jun; Su, Yongquan; Yan, Qingpi

2003-03-01

294

Vibrio sp. as a potentially important member of the Black Band Disease (BBD) consortium in Favia sp. corals.  

PubMed

Black Band Disease (BBD) is a well-described disease plaguing corals worldwide. It has been established that ecological and environmental stress factors contribute to the appearance and progression of the disease, believed to be caused by a diverse microbial consortium. We have identified and characterized Vibrio sp. associated with BBD in Eilat reef corals using both culture-dependent and -independent methods. Direct sampling using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed seasonal dynamics in the diversity of BBD-associated Vibrios. In the two sampling periods, BBD-associated Vibrio clones showed similarities to different groups: October samples were similar to known pathogens, while December samples were similar to general aquatic Vibrio sp. Cultured bacterial isolates of Vibrio sp. were highly homologous (>or=99%) to previously documented BBD-associated bacteria from the Caribbean, Bahamas and Red Seas, and were similar to several known coral pathogens, such as Vibrio coralliilyticus. The proteolytic activity of Vibrio sp., as measured using casein- and azocasein-based assays, directly correlated with temperature elevation and peaked at 26-28 degrees C, with the microorganisms producing more proteases per bacterial cell or increasing the rate of proteolytic activity of the same proteases (potentially metalloproteases). This activity may promote coral tissue necrosis and aid in ensuing progression of the coral BBD. PMID:19780825

Arotsker, Luba; Siboni, Nachshon; Ben-Dov, Eitan; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Loya, Yossi; Kushmaro, Ariel

2009-08-24

295

Abundance and distribution of Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus following a major freshwater intrusion into the Mississippi Sound.  

PubMed

In response to a major influx of freshwater to the Mississippi Sound following the opening of the Bonnet Carre Spillway, water samples were collected from three sites along the Mississippi shoreline to assess the impact of altered salinity on three pathogenic Vibrio species. Salinity readings across the affected area during the 2011 sample period ranged from 1.4 to 12.9 ppt (mean = 7.0) and for the 2012 sample period from 14.1 to 23.6 ppt (mean = 19.8). Analyses of the data collected in 2011 showed a reduction in densities of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus with a concurrent increase of Vibrio cholerae numbers, with V. cholerae becoming the only Vibrio detected once salinity readings dropped to 6 ppt. Follow-up samples taken in 2012 after recovery of the salinity in the sound showed that the relative densities of the three pathogenic vibrios had reverted back to normal levels. This study shows that although the spillway was open but a few weeks and the effects were therefore time limited, the Mississippi River water had a profound, if temporary, effect on Vibrio ecology in the Mississippi Sound. PMID:23494573

Griffitt, Kimberly J; Grimes, D Jay

2013-03-14

296

DNA Adenine Methylase Is Essential for Viability and Plays a Role in the Pathogenesis of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella strains that lack or overproduce DNA adenine methylase (Dam) elicit a protective immune response to different Salmonella species. To generate vaccines against other bacterial pathogens, the dam genes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Vibrio cholerae were disrupted but found to be essential for viability. Over- production of Dam significantly attenuated the virulence of these two pathogens, leading to, in Yersinia,

STEVEN M. JULIO; DOUGLAS M. HEITHOFF; DANIELE PROVENZANO; KARL E. KLOSE; ROBERT L. SINSHEIMER; DAVID A. LOW; MICHAEL J. MAHAN

2001-01-01

297

Detection and quantification of Vibrio populations using denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Bacteria affiliated with the genus Vibrio are endemic in marine and estuarine ecosystems and are also found in many freshwater environments. Vibrios can enter viable but non-culturable states and since many species are pathogenic, there is a great need for culture-independent methods that identify and quantify multiple Vibrio populations. We adopted Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA-directed primers and a competitive PCR protocol (QC-PCR; [Thompson, J.R., Randa, M.A., Marcelino, L.A., Tomita-Mitchell, A., Lim, E., Polz, M.F., 2004b. Diversity and dynamics of a North Atlantic coastal Vibrio community. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70, 4103-4110]) for separation and quantification of Vibrio populations using denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Sixteen Vibrio isolates and eight environmental samples were used to assess the precision and resolution of the method. A 45-70% gradient of Urea and formamide enabled separation of Vibrio populations with single nucleotide differences in the amplified fragment. A titration curve for the QC-PCR-DGGE, verified by amending surface water bacterioplankton samples with up to 3 x 10(5)Vibrio cholerae cells, could be approximated by a linear regression of log-transformed values (R(2)=0.96). The limit of detection for single populations was 180 cells per extracted sample or about 4 cells per PCR reaction. Environmental samples from the southern Stockholm archipelago in the Baltic Sea and the more saline coastal waters of Skagerrak each carried between 2 and 6 Vibrio populations, and there were major differences between the locations. Notably, multiple Vibrio populations could be detected and quantified against a background of native bacterioplankton exceeding Vibrio population abundance by more than 6 orders of magnitude. Putative identification based on migration in the DGGE gel was verified by parallel cloning and sequencing of PCR products, and representative clones were also characterized by DGGE. This general approach could also be useful for targeting other phylogenetically constrained bacterial groups and assess their abundance and distribution in complex environmental settings. PMID:16730823

Eiler, Alexander; Bertilsson, Stefan

2006-05-30

298

Use of microalgae and bacteria to enhance protection of gnotobiotic Artemia against different pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the use of microalgae, probiotic and dead bacteria in gnotobiotic Artemia to overcome the virulence of two pathogenic bacterial strains: Vibrio campbellii and Vibrio proteolyticus. For that purpose, two strains of the microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta (a medium- and a good-quality microalga) and two beneficial bacteria, selected from previous well-performing Artemia cultures, were provided to the brine

Antonio Marques; Toi Huynh Thanh; Patrick Sorgeloos; Peter Bossier

2006-01-01

299

Vaccination with three inactivated pathogens of cobia ( Rachycentron canadum) stimulates protective immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cobia (Rachycentron canadum), a warm water fish recently commercially cultured in Taiwan, has encountered severe mortalities with survival rates often below 20%. The major causative pathogens were Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. We prepared a combined three inactivated bacterins antigen preparation and vaccinated cobia. This mixture of bacterins was safe, and the immune response in cobia

John Han-You Lin; Tzong-Yueh Chen; Ming-Shyan Chen; Huey-En Chen; Ruey-Liang Chou; Tzyy-Ing Chen; Mao-Sen Su; Huey-Lang Yang

2006-01-01

300

Vibrio natriegens: A Rapidly Growing Micro-Organism Ideally Suited for Class Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes five microbiological experiments using the marine organism Vibrio natriegens. This organism is highly suitable for laboratory work because it is non-pathogenic and grows extremely rapidly, having the distinction of the lowest mean generation time yet recorded (9.8 minutes). (JR)|

Mullenger, L.; Gill, Nijole R.

1973-01-01

301

Characterization of Vibrio fluvialis-Like Strains Implicated in Limp Lobster Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were undertaken to characterize and determine the pathogenic mechanisms involved in a newly described systemic disease in Homarus americanus (American lobster) caused by a Vibrio fluvialis-like micro- organism. Nineteen isolates were obtained from eight of nine lobsters sampled. Biochemically, the isolates resembled V. fluvialis, and the isolates grew optimally at 20°C; none could grow at temperatures above 23°C. The

B. D. Tall; S. Fall; M. R. Pereira; M. Ramos-Valle; S. K. Curtis; M. H. Kothary; D. M. T. Chu; S. R. Monday; L. Kornegay; T. Donkar; D. Prince; R. L. Thunberg; K. A. Shangraw; D. E. Hanes; F. M. Khambaty; K. A. Lampel; J. W. Bier; R. C. Bayer

2003-01-01

302

A Bistable Switch and Anatomical Site Control Vibrio cholerae Virulence Gene Expression in the Intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental, but unanswered question in host-pathogen interactions is the timing, localization and population distribution of virulence gene expression during infection. Here, microarray and in situ single cell expression methods were used to study Vibrio cholerae growth and virulence gene expression during infection of the rabbit ligated ileal loop model of cholera. Genes encoding the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera

Alex T. Nielsen; Nadia A. Dolganov; Thomas Rasmussen; Glen Otto; Michael C. Miller; Stephen A. Felt; Stéphanie Torreilles; Gary K. Schoolnik

2010-01-01

303

Isolation and characterization of infectious Vibrio sinaloensis strains from the Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae).  

PubMed

Infectious diseases especially those caused by bacterial and viral pathogens are serious loss factors in shrimp farming. In this study, bacteria were isolated from the gut and hepatopancreas of stressed shrimps obtained from a commercial farm. The isolates were screened on Thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose (TCBS) agar plates for the selection of Vibrio species. Presumptive vibrios were characterized through tests for hemolytic and enzymatic activity, hydrophobicity, growth and molecular identification. Three experimental infections were conducted in order to confirm the pathogenicity of selected bacterial strains VHPC18, VHPC23, VHPC24 and VIC30. In the third experimental challenge the LD50 was obtained, it lasted 10 days with 10 shrimp, weighing 6.9+1. Ig, per tank. The treatments in triplicate were: (1) saline solution (control group); (2) 2xl0(5)CFU/shrimp; (3) 4xl05CFU/shrimp; (4) 2x10(6)CFU/shrimp; (5) 4x10(6)CFU/shrimp, and (6) 8x10(6)CFU/shrimp. In all challenges, water parameters measured during the experimental period remained within optimum ranges. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that the mixture of four vibrio isolates, identified as Vibrio sinaloensis, was virulent for L. vannamei. The LD50 value was 1.178x10(5)CFU/g body weight. V sinaloensis may act as opportunistic pathogens for cultured L. vannamei. PMID:23894929

del Carmen Flores-Miranda, Ma; Luna-González, Antonio; Córdova, Angel I Campa; Fierro-Coronado, Jesús A; Partida-Arangure, Blanca O; Pintado, José; González-Ocampo, Héctor A

2012-06-01

304

Emerging Vibrio species: an unending threat to public health in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discharge of inadequately treated sewage effluents into the environment in developing countries has increased over the years, leading to deterioration of water quality of major watersheds in developing nations and consequently an increased incidence of emerging pathogens such as Vibrio species, the prevalence of which has been generally underestimated in developing nations. This review underscores the need for a proactive

Etinosa O. Igbinosa; Anthony I. Okoh

2008-01-01

305

Permanent draft genome sequence of Vibrio tubiashii strain NCIMB 1337 (ATCC19106)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio tubiashii NCIMB 1337 is a major and increasingly prevalent pathogen of bivalve mollusks, and shares a close phylogenetic relationship with both V. orientalis and V. coralliilyticus. It is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped bacterium, originally isolated from a moribund juvenile oyster, and is both oxidase and catalase positive. It is capable of growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Here

B. Temperton; S. Thomas; K. Tait; H. Parry; M. Emery; M. Allen; J. Quinn; J. McGrath; J. Gilbert

2011-01-01

306

Murine macrophage inflammatory cytokine production and immune activation in response to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most common cause of bacterial seafood-related illness in the United States. Currently, there is a dearth of literature regarding immunity to infection with this pathogen. Here we studied V. parahaemolyticus-infected RAW 264.7 murine macrophage detecting both pro- and...

307

UPTAKE, PERSISTENCE, AND LOCALIZATION OF VIRULENT AND AVIRULENT VIBRIO VULNIFICUS IN THE EASTERN OYSTER, CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vibrio vulnificus is a human pathogen commonly found in estuarine environments. Foodborne illness is associated with the consumption of raw oysters and can produce gastroenteritis and life-threatening septicemia. Depuration is one of the common methods to purge microbial contaminants from oysters....

308

Construction and Phenotypic Evaluation of a Vibrio vulnificus vvpE Mutant for Elastolytic Protease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is an opportunistic gram-negative pathogen that commonly contaminates oysters. Predis- posed individuals who consume raw oysters can die within days from sepsis, and even otherwise healthy people are susceptible to serious wound infection after contact with contaminated seafood or seawater. Numerous secreted and cell-associated virulence factors have been proposed to account for the fulminating and destruc- tive nature

KWANG CHEOL JEONG; HYE SOOK JEONG; JOON HAENG RHEE; SHEE EUN LEE; SUN SIK CHUNG; ANGELA M. STARKS; GLORIA M. ESCUDERO; PAUL A. GULIG; SANG HO CHOI

2000-01-01

309

Polymerase chain reaction of whole cell lysates for the detection of vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative, efficient, and rapid method of detecting cells of the human pathogen, Vibrio vulnificus, using the polymerase chain reaction is described. The technique employs whole cell lysates as the source of template DNA, and amplifies the cytotoxin\\/hemolysin gene. Using primers internal to this gene, we were able to detect a single cell of V. vulnificus. This method, which does

L. A. Brauns; J. D. Oliver

1994-01-01

310

Antagonistic Interactions among Marine Bacteria Impede the Proliferation of Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in global climate have raised concerns about the emergence and resurgence of infectious diseases. Vibrio cholerae is a reemerging pathogen that proliferates and is transported on marine particles. Patterns of cholera outbreaks correlate with sea surface temperature increases, but the underlying mechanisms for rapid proliferation of V. cholerae during ocean warming events have yet to be fully elucidated. In

Richard A. Long; David C. Rowley; Eric Zamora; Jiayuan Liu; Douglas H. Bartlett; Farooq Azam

2005-01-01

311

Ecology of Vibrio vulnificus in Estuarine Waters of Eastern North Carolina  

PubMed Central

While several studies on the ecology of Vibrio vulnificus in Gulf Coast environments have been reported, there is little information on the distribution of this pathogen in East Coast waters. Thus, we conducted a multiyear study on the ecology of V. vulnificus in estuarine waters of the eastern United States, employing extensive multiple regression analyses to reveal the major environmental factors controlling the presence of this pathogen, and of Vibrio spp., in these environments. Monthly field samplings were conducted between July 2000 and April 2002 at six different estuarine sites along the eastern coast of North Carolina. At each site, water samples were taken and nine physicochemical parameters were measured. V. vulnificus isolates, along with estuarine bacteria, Vibrio spp., Escherichia coli organisms, and total coliforms, were enumerated in samples from each site by using selective media. During the last 6 months of the study, sediment samples were also analyzed for the presence of vibrios, including V. vulnificus. Isolates were confirmed as V. vulnificus by using hemolysin gene PCR or colony hybridization. V. vulnificus was isolated only when water temperatures were between 15 and 27°C, and its presence correlated with water temperature and dissolved oxygen and vibrio levels. Levels of V. vulnificus in sediments were low, and no evidence for an overwintering in this environment was found. Multiple regression analysis indicated that vibrio levels were controlled primarily by temperature, turbidity, and levels of dissolved oxygen, estuarine bacteria, and coliforms. Water temperature accounted for most of the variability in the concentrations of both V. vulnificus (47%) and Vibrio spp. (48%).

Pfeffer, Courtney S.; Hite, M. Frances; Oliver, James D.

2003-01-01

312

Coral-mucus-associated Vibrio integrons in the Great Barrier Reef: genomic hotspots for environmental adaptation  

PubMed Central

Integron cassette arrays in a dozen cultivars of the most prevalent group of Vibrio isolates obtained from mucus expelled by a scleractinian coral (Pocillopora damicornis) colony living on the Great Barrier Reef were sequenced and compared. Although all cultivars showed >99% identity across recA, pyrH and rpoB genes, no two had more than 10% of their integron-associated gene cassettes in common, and some individuals shared cassettes exclusively with distantly-related members of the genus. Of cassettes shared within the population, a number appear to have been transferred between Vibrio isolates, as assessed by phylogenetic analysis. Prominent among the mucus Vibrio cassettes with potentially inferable functions are acetyltransferases, some with close similarity to known antibiotic-resistance determinants. A subset of these potential resistance cassettes were shared exclusively between the mucus Vibrio cultivars, Vibrio coral pathogens and human pathogens, thus illustrating a direct link between these microbial niches through exchange of integron-associated gene cassettes.

Koenig, Jeremy E; Bourne, David G; Curtis, Bruce; Dlutek, Marlena; Stokes, H W; Doolittle, W Ford; Boucher, Yan

2011-01-01

313

Exoproteome and Secretome Derived Broad Spectrum Novel Drug and Vaccine Candidates in Vibrio cholerae Targeted by Piper betel Derived Compounds  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae is the causal organism of the cholera epidemic, which is mostly prevalent in developing and underdeveloped countries. However, incidences of cholera in developed countries are also alarming. Because of the emergence of new drug-resistant strains, even though several generic drugs and vaccines have been developed over time, Vibrio infections remain a global health problem that appeals for the development of novel drugs and vaccines against the pathogen. Here, applying comparative proteomic and reverse vaccinology approaches to the exoproteome and secretome of the pathogen, we have identified three candidate targets (ompU, uppP and yajC) for most of the pathogenic Vibrio strains. Two targets (uppP and yajC) are novel to Vibrio, and two targets (uppP and ompU) can be used to develop both drugs and vaccines (dual targets) against broad spectrum Vibrio serotypes. Using our novel computational approach, we have identified three peptide vaccine candidates that have high potential to induce both B- and T-cell-mediated immune responses from our identified two dual targets. These two targets were modeled and subjected to virtual screening against natural compounds derived from Piper betel. Seven compounds were identified first time from Piper betel to be highly effective to render the function of these targets to identify them as emerging potential drugs against Vibrio. Our preliminary validation suggests that these identified peptide vaccines and betel compounds are highly effective against Vibrio cholerae. Currently we are exhaustively validating these targets, candidate peptide vaccines, and betel derived lead compounds against a number of Vibrio species.

Barh, Debmalya; Barve, Neha; Gupta, Krishnakant; Chandra, Sudha; Jain, Neha; Tiwari, Sandeep; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Canizalez-Roman, Adrian; Rodrigues dos Santos, Anderson; Hassan, Syed Shah; Almeida, Sintia; Thiago Juca Ramos, Rommel; Augusto Carvalho de Abreu, Vinicius; Ribeiro Carneiro, Adriana; de Castro Soares, Siomar; Luiz de Paula Castro, Thiago; Miyoshi, Anderson; Silva, Artur; Kumar, Anil; Narayan Misra, Amarendra; Blum, Kenneth; Braverman, Eric R.; Azevedo, Vasco

2013-01-01

314

Gene cloning and prokaryotic expression of recombinant outer membrane protein from Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gram-negative Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common pathogen in humans and marine animals. The outer membrane protein of bacteria plays an important role in the\\u000a infection and pathogenicity to the host. Thus, the outer membrane proteins are an ideal target for vaccines. We amplified\\u000a a complete outer membrane protein gene (ompW) from V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802. We then cloned and expressed

Ye Yuan; Xiuli Wang; Sheping Guo; Xuemei Qiu

2011-01-01

315

Detection of quorum sensing signal molecules and mutation of luxS gene in Vibrio ichthyoenteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some pathogenic species belonging to the Vibrionaceae family have been shown to regulate virulence through a complicated network of quorum sensing systems. In this study, three kinds of N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules were detected in Vibrio ichthyoenteri DA3, a pathogen of cultured turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens reporter strain KYC55 (pJZ372)(pJZ384)(pJZ410). DA3 produced AHLs during the entire

Xuan Li; Yin Han; Qian Yang; Xiao-Hua Zhang

2010-01-01

316

Cyclic AMP and cyclic AMP-receptor protein modulate the autoinducer-2-mediated quorum sensing system in Vibrio vulnificus.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to determine whether cyclic AMP (cAMP) or cAMP-receptor protein (CRP) modulates the activity of the autoinducer (AI)-2-mediated quorum sensing (QS) system in response to glucose availability in Vibrio vulnificus. A mutation in crp impaired V. vulnificus growth, decreased AI-2 production, and repressed the expression of smcR encoding the master regulator SmcR (a Vibrio harveyi LuxR homolog) of the AI-2-QS system, and these changes were prevented by in trans complementation of wild-type crp. Furthermore, glucose repressed smcR expression in the presence of CRP but not in its absence. A mutation in cyaA encoding adenylate cyclase, which is required for cAMP synthesis, also impaired V. vulnificus growth and repressed smcR expression, and these changes were recovered by in trans complementation of wild-type cyaA. These results indicate that cAMP or CRP modulates the AI-2-QS system in response to glucose availability in V. vulnificus, demonstrating the presence of a connection between catabolite repression and quorum sensing in V. vulnificus. PMID:22961036

Kim, Sun-Pyo; Kim, Choon-Mee; Shin, Sung-Heui

2012-09-09

317

Vibrio fischeri flavohemoglobin protects against nitric oxide during initiation of the squid-Vibrio symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Nitric oxide (NO) is implicated in a wide range of biological processes, including innate immunity against pathogens, signal transduction, and protection against oxidative stress. However, its possible roles in beneficial host-microbe associations are less well recognized. During the early stages of the squid-vibrio symbiosis, the bacterial symbiont Vibrio fischeri encounters host-derived NO, which has been hypothesized to serve as specificity determinant. We demonstrate here that the flavohemoglobin, Hmp, of V. fischeri protects against NO, both in culture and during colonization of the squid host. Transcriptional analyses indicate that hmp expression is highly responsive to NO, principally through the repressor, NsrR. Hmp protects V. fischeri from NO inhibition of aerobic respiration, and removes NO under both oxic and anoxic conditions. A ?hmp mutant of V. fischeri initiates squid colonization less effectively than wild type, but is rescued by the presence of an NO synthase inhibitor. The hmp promoter is activated during the initial stage of colonization, during which the ?hmp strain fails to form normal-sized aggregates of colonizing cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the sensing of host-derived NO by NsrR, and the subsequent removal of NO by Hmp, influence aggregate size and, thereby, V. fischeri colonization efficiency.

Wang, Yanling; Dunn, Anne K.; Wilneff, Jacqueline; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.; Spiro, Stephen; Ruby, Edward G.

2010-01-01

318

Adhesion of Vibrio cholerae to granular starches.  

PubMed

Cholera is a severe diarrheal disease caused by specific serogroups of Vibrio cholerae that are pathogenic to humans. Cholera can become epidemic and deadly without adequate medical care. Appropriate rehydration therapy can reduce the mortality rate from as much as 50% of the affected individuals to <1%. Thus, oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is an important measure in the treatment of this disease. To further reduce the symptoms associated with cholera, improvements in oral rehydration solution (ORS) by starch incorporation were suggested. Here, we report that V. cholerae adheres to starch granules incorporated in ORS. Adhesion of 98% of the cells was observed within 2 min when cornstarch granules were used. Other starches showed varied adhesion rates, indicating that starch source and composition play an important role in the interaction of V. cholerae and starch granules. Sugars metabolized by V. cholerae showed a repressive effect on the adhesion process. The possible mechanisms involved are discussed. Comparing V. cholerae adhesion with the adhesion of other pathogens suggests the involvement of starch degradation capabilities. This adhesion to granular starch can be used to improve ORT. PMID:16085883

Gancz, Hanan; Niderman-Meyer, Orly; Broza, Meir; Kashi, Yechezkel; Shimoni, Eyal

2005-08-01

319

Detection, isolation, and identification of Vibrio cholerae from the environment.  

PubMed

Microbiological techniques for sampling the aquatic realm have become increasingly sophisticated, especially with advances in molecular biology. These techniques have been used to detect microorganisms that cannot be cultured by conventional bacteriological methods. This has resulted in a deeper and a clearer understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of microorganisms. Important advances have been made in isolation, detection, and identification of Vibrio cholerae over the past decade. The understanding that V. cholerae, like several other pathogenic bacteria, can enter into a state known as "viable but nonculturable" (VBNC) provided important clues on the epidemiology of the pathogen and its ability to cause sudden explosive epidemics at multiple places almost simultaneously. The advances in techniques have also allowed investigators to discern the intricate aspects of the ecology of this pathogen in the aquatic world. In this unit, we present the most accepted methods for the isolation and detection of V. cholerae. PMID:18770592

Huq, Anwar; Grim, Christopher; Colwell, Rita R; Nair, G Balakrish

2006-09-01

320

The interactions of Vibrio vulnificus and the oyster Crassostrea virginica.  

PubMed

The human bacterial pathogen, Vibrio vulnificus, is found in brackish waters and is concentrated by filter-feeding molluscan shellfish, especially oysters, which inhabit those waters. Ingestion of raw or undercooked oysters containing virulent strains of V. vulnificus can result in rapid septicemia and death in 50 % of victims. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the environmental interactions between these two organisms, including the effects of salinity and temperature on colonization, uptake, and depuration rates of various phenotypes and genotypes of the bacterium, and host-microbe immunological interactions. PMID:23280497

Froelich, Brett; Oliver, James D

2013-01-03

321

Characterization by numerical taxonomy and ribotyping of Vibrio splendidus biovar I and Vibrio scophthalmi strains associated with turbot cultures.  

PubMed

Twelve Vibrio strains were examined phenotypically in 91 biochemical characters and genotypically by ribotyping. Ten were isolated from sea water and two from diseased turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). All isolates originated from one experimental system located in Ría de Vigo (Galicia, north-west Spain). Different type strains were used for comparative purposes. The taxonomic position was analysed with the NTSYST-pc and similarities among strains were calculated by the Simple Matching coefficient (SSM). rRNA gene restriction patterns were performed with the HindIII enzyme. The SSM coefficient separated the 12 Vibrio strains into two groups which included strains that showed a SSM coefficient quite similar to V. splendidus biovar 1 (ATCC 33125) and V. scophthalmi (CECT 4638). None of 91 phenotypical characters were specific in distinguishing both species. The ribotyping confirmed the taxonomic classification of strains. The pathogenicity of each strain was evaluated; 10 environmental strains were avirulent and two, isolated from diseased turbot, were virulent. Different biotypes and ribotypes were found among the avirulent isolates. This work showed ribotyping to be a valuable tool for identification and confirmed the necessity of extending the ribotype database within closely related Vibrio species in order to clarify the taxonomic position. PMID:10347874

Farto, R; Montes, M; Pérez, M J; Nieto, T P; Larsen, J L; Pedersen, K

1999-05-01

322

Effect of Temperature on Growth of Vibrio paraphemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in Flounder, Salmon Sashimi and Oyster Meat  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are the major pathogenic Vibrio species which contaminate ready-to-eat seafood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of human illness resulting from consumption of ready-to-eat seafood such as sashimi and raw oyster meat due to the presence of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus. We compared the growth kinetics of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus strains in broth and ready-to-eat seafood, including flounder and salmon sashimi, as a function of temperature. The growth kinetics of naturally occurring V. vulnificus in raw oyster meat was also evaluated. The minimum growth temperatures of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in broth were 13 °C and 11 °C, respectively. Overall, significant differences in lag time (LT) and specific growth rate (SGR) values between flounder and salmon sashimi were observed at temperatures ranging from 13 °C to 30 °C (p < 0.05). The growth of naturally occurring V. vulnificus reached stationary phase at ~4 log CFU/g in oysters, regardless of the storage temperature. This data indicates that the population of V. vulnificus in oysters did not reach the maximum population density as observed in the broth, where growth of V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus isolated from oysters grew up to >8 log CFU/mL.

Kim, Yoo Won; Lee, Soon Ho; Hwang, In Gun; Yoon, Ki Sun

2012-01-01

323

Effect of temperature on growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus [corrected] and Vibrio vulnificus in flounder, salmon sashimi and oyster meat.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are the major pathogenic Vibrio species which contaminate ready-to-eat seafood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of human illness resulting from consumption of ready-to-eat seafood such as sashimi and raw oyster meat due to the presence of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus. We compared the growth kinetics of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus strains in broth and ready-to-eat seafood, including flounder and salmon sashimi, as a function of temperature. The growth kinetics of naturally occurring V. vulnificus in raw oyster meat was also evaluated. The minimum growth temperatures of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in broth were 13 °C and 11 °C, respectively. Overall, significant differences in lag time (LT) and specific growth rate (SGR) values between flounder and salmon sashimi were observed at temperatures ranging from 13 °C to 30 °C (p < 0.05). The growth of naturally occurring V. vulnificus reached stationary phase at ~4 log CFU/g in oysters, regardless of the storage temperature. This data indicates that the population of V. vulnificus in oysters did not reach the maximum population density as observed in the broth, where growth of V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus isolated from oysters grew up to >8 log CFU/mL. PMID:23330227

Kim, Yoo Won; Lee, Soon Ho; Hwang, In Gun; Yoon, Ki Sun

2012-12-01

324

Environmental Influences on Vibrio Populations in Northern Temperate and Boreal Coastal Waters (Baltic and Skagerrak Seas)†  

PubMed Central

Even if many Vibrio spp. are endemic to coastal waters, their distribution in northern temperate and boreal waters is poorly studied. To identify environmental factors regulating Vibrio populations in a salinity gradient along the Swedish coastline, we combined Vibrio-specific quantitative competitive PCR with denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis-based genotyping. The total Vibrio abundance ranged from 4 × 103 to 9.6 × 104 cells liter?1, with the highest abundances in the more saline waters of the Skagerrak Sea. Several Vibrio populations were present throughout the salinity gradient, with abundances of single populations ranging from 5 × 102 to 7 × 104 cells liter?1. Clear differences were observed along the salinity gradient, where three populations dominated the more saline waters of the Skagerrak Sea and two populations containing mainly representatives of V. anguillarum and V. aestuarianus genotypes were abundant in the brackish waters of the Baltic Sea. Our results suggest that this apparent niche separation within the genus Vibrio may also be influenced by alternate factors such as nutrient levels and high abundances of dinoflagellates. A V. cholerae/V. mimicus population was detected in more than 50% of the samples, with abundances exceeding 103 cells liter?1, even in the cold (annual average water temperature of around 5°C) and low-salinity (2 to 4‰) samples from the Bothnian Bay (latitude, 65°N). The unsuspected and widespread occurrence of this population in temperate and boreal coastal waters suggests that potential Vibrio pathogens may also be endemic to cold and brackish waters and hence may represent a previously overlooked health hazard.

Eiler, Alexander; Johansson, Mona; Bertilsson, Stefan

2006-01-01

325

Ecology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Chesapeake Bay.  

PubMed

A study of the ecology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and related vibrios in the Rhode River area of Chesapeake Bay was carried out over the period December 1970 through August 1971. The incidence of V. parahaemolyticus and related vibrios was found to be correlated with water temperature. The vibrios could not be detected in the water column during the winter months, although they were present in sediment. From late spring to early summer, when water temperatures were 14 +/- 1 C, vibrios over-wintering in sediment were released from the bottom communities and attached to zooplankton, proliferating as the temperature rose. The number of vibrios in and on plankton was reflected in the water column bacterial population densities at water temperatures of ca. 19 C. Thus, temperature of the water column in the range of 14 to 19 C was found to be critical in the annual cycle of the vibrios. Interaction between sediment, water, and zooplankton was found to be essential in the natural estuarine ecosystem. Bacterial counts of zooplankton were found to be temperature dependent. The bacterial population associated with zooplankton was found to be predominantly on external surfaces and was specific, differing from that of the sediment. Vibrio spp. and related organisms comprised the total bacterial population associated with zooplankton in summer months. The ecological role of Vibrio spp., including V. parahaemolyticus, was found to be significant, with respect to their property of chitin digestion and in relation to the population dynamics of zooplankton in Chesapeake Bay. PMID:4567138

Kaneko, T; Colwell, R R

1973-01-01

326

Light scattering sensor for real-time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. cholera colonies on solid agar plates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The three most common pathogenic species of Vibrio, V. cholerae, V. parahemolyticus and V. vulnificus, are of major concern as water- and food-borne pathogens because of an increasing incidence of water and seafood related outbreaks and illnesses worldwide. Current methods are time-consuming and req...

327

Iron acquisition in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, has an absolute requirement for iron and must obtain this element in the human host as well\\u000a as in its varied environmental niches. It has multiple systems for iron acquisition, including the TonB-dependent transport\\u000a of heme, the endogenous siderophore vibriobactin and several siderophores that are produced by other microorganisms. There\\u000a is also a

Elizabeth E. Wyckoff; Alexandra R. Mey; Shelley M. Payne

2007-01-01

328

Non-lethal heat shock protects gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana larvae against virulent Vibrios.  

PubMed

Brine shrimp Artemia were exposed under gnotobiotic conditions to a non-lethal heat shock (NLHS) from 28 to 32, 37 and 40 degrees C. Different recovery periods (2, 6, 12 and 24h) and different heat-exposure times (15, 30, 45 and 60 min) were tested. After these NLHS, Artemia was subsequently challenged with Vibrio. Challenge tests were performed in stressed and unstressed nauplii at concentrations of 10(7) cells ml(-1) of pathogenic bacteria, Vibrio campbellii and Vibrio proteolyticus. A NLHS with an optimal treatment of 37 degrees C for 30 min and a subsequent 6h recovery period resulted in a cross-protection against pathogenic Vibrio. A 100% increase in the larval survival (P < 0.05) was observed. We have also demonstrated by Western blot that a NLHS increases the expression of HSP-70 in heat-shocked (HS) treated animals. This report is the first to reveal a cross protection of a NLHS against deleterious bacterial challenges in living crustaceans. The putative role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in this process is discussed. PMID:17123831

Yik Sung, Yeong; Van Damme, Els J M; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter

2006-06-08

329

Whole Transcriptome Profiling of Successful Immune Response to Vibrio Infections in the Oyster Crassostrea gigas by Digital Gene Expression Analysis  

PubMed Central

The cultivated Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas has suffered for decades large scale summer mortality phenomenon resulting from the interaction between the environment parameters, the oyster physiological and/or genetic status and the presence of pathogenic microorganisms including Vibrio species. To obtain a general picture of the molecular mechanisms implicated in C. gigas immune responsiveness to circumvent Vibrio infections, we have developed the first deep sequencing study of the transcriptome of hemocytes, the immunocompetent cells. Using Digital Gene Expression (DGE), we generated a transcript catalog of up-regulated genes from oysters surviving infection with virulent Vibrio strains (Vibrio splendidus LGP32 and V. aestuarianus LPi 02/41) compared to an avirulent one, V. tasmaniensis LMG 20012T. For that an original experimental infection protocol was developed in which only animals that were able to survive infections were considered for the DGE approach. We report the identification of cellular and immune functions that characterize the oyster capability to survive pathogenic Vibrio infections. Functional annotations highlight genes related to signal transduction of immune response, cell adhesion and communication as well as cellular processes and defence mechanisms of phagocytosis, actin cytosqueleton reorganization, cell trafficking and autophagy, but also antioxidant and anti-apoptotic reactions. In addition, quantitative PCR analysis reveals the first identification of pathogen-specific signatures in oyster gene regulation, which opens the way for in depth molecular studies of oyster-pathogen interaction and pathogenesis. This work is a prerequisite for the identification of those physiological traits controlling oyster capacity to survive a Vibrio infection and, subsequently, for a better understanding of the phenomenon of summer mortality.

de Lorgeril, Julien; Zenagui, Reda; Rosa, Rafael D.; Piquemal, David; Bachere, Evelyne

2011-01-01

330

Recombination Shapes the Structure of an Environmental Vibrio cholerae Population ? †  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae consists of pathogenic strains that cause sporadic gastrointestinal illness or epidemic cholera disease and nonpathogenic strains that grow and persist in coastal aquatic ecosystems. Previous studies of disease-causing strains have shown V. cholerae to be a primarily clonal bacterial species, but isolates analyzed have been strongly biased toward pathogenic genotypes, while representing only a small sample of the vast diversity in environmental strains. In this study, we characterized homologous recombination and structure among 152 environmental V. cholerae isolates and 13 other putative Vibrio isolates from coastal waters and sediments in central California, as well as four clinical V. cholerae isolates, using multilocus sequence analysis of seven housekeeping genes. Recombinant regions were identified by at least three detection methods in 72% of our V. cholerae isolates. Despite frequent recombination, significant linkage disequilibrium was still detected among the V. cholerae sequence types. Incongruent but nonrandom associations were observed for maximum likelihood topologies from the individual loci. Overall, our estimated recombination rate in V. cholerae of 6.5 times the mutation rate is similar to those of other sexual bacteria and appears frequently enough to restrict selection from purging much of the neutral intraspecies diversity. These data suggest that frequent recombination among V. cholerae may hinder the identification of ecotypes in this bacterioplankton population.

Keymer, Daniel P.; Boehm, Alexandria B.

2011-01-01

331

Capacidad de Vibrio fluvialis (LEE, 1981) para producir infección en pez dorado (Carassius auratus. L) Capacity of Vibrio fluvialis (Lee, 1981) to produce disease in goldfish (Carassius auratus, L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specimens of Carassius auratus were injected intramuscularly with different infectives doses of Vibrio fluvialis to prove the capacity of this pathogen for generating diseases in aquatic organisms, as well as to establish the corresponding LD50 and to know whether these bacteria have the capacity to infect the cultivated fish through water from ponds, or if a live host is needed

Pilar Negrete Redondo; Jorge Romero Jarero; José Luis Arredondo Figueroa

332

Effect of Fatty Acids and Cholesterol Present in Bile on Expression of Virulence Factors and Motility of Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bile induces pleiotropic responses that affect production of virulence factors, motility, and other phenotypes in the enteric pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Since bile is a heterogeneous mixture, crude bile was fractionated, and the components that mediate virulence gene repression and enhancement of motility were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography (GC), and GC-mass spectrometry analyses. The unsaturated fatty acids detected

Arpita Chatterjee; Pradeep K. Dutta; Rukhsana Chowdhury

2007-01-01

333

The Vibrio cholerae FlgM Homologue Is an Anti 28 Factor That Is Secreted through the Sheathed Polar Flagellum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae has a single polar sheathed flagellum that propels the cells of this bacterium. Flagellar synthesis, motility, and chemotaxis have all been linked to virulence in this human pathogen. V. cholerae expresses flagellar genes in a hierarchy consisting of 54- and 28-dependent transcription. In other bacteria, 28 transcriptional activity is controlled by an anti-28 factor, FlgM. We demonstrate that

Nidia E. Correa; Jeffrey R. Barker; Karl E. Klose

2004-01-01

334

Emergence of a Virulent Clade of Vibrio vulnificus and Correlation with the Presence of a 33Kilobase Genomic Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is a ubiquitous inhabitant of the marine coastal environment, and an important pathogen of humans. We characterized a globally distributed sample of environmental isolates from a range of habitats and hosts and compared these with isolates recovered from cases of human infection. Multilocus sequence typing data using six housekeeping genes divided 63 of the 67 isolates into the

A. L. V. Cohen; J. D. Oliver; A. DePaola; E. J. Feil; E. Fidelma Boyd

2007-01-01

335

Cyclic-di-GMP Regulates Extracellular Polysaccharide Production, Biofilm Formation, and Rugose Colony Development by Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is a human and animal pathogen that carries the highest death rate of any food-borne disease agent. It colonizes shellfish and forms biofilms on the surfaces of plankton, algae, fish, and eels. Greater understanding of biofilm formation by the organism could provide insight into approaches to decrease its load in filter feeders and on biotic surfaces and control

Alina Nakhamchik; Caroline Wilde; Dean A. Rowe-Magnus

2008-01-01

336

Association of cholera toxin with Vibrio cholerae outer membrane vesicles which are internalized by human intestinal epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholera toxin (CT) is the major virulence factor of pathogenic Vibrio cholerae. The present study demonstrates that a fraction of CT is associated with the outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released by V. cholerae. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and also transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of purified OMVs from toxigenic V. cholerae O395 revealed spherical shaped vesicles of size range 20–200nm. Immunoblotting

Debashree Chatterjee; Keya Chaudhuri

337

Detection and identification of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Vibrio cholerae O139 using oligonucleotide microarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The rapid and accurate detection and identification of the new subtype of the pathogens is crucial for diagnosis, treatment and control of the contagious disease outbreak. Here, in this study, an approach to detect and identify Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Vibrio cholerae O139 was established using oligonucleotide microarray. We coupled multiplex PCR with oligonucleotide microarray to construct an assay

Da-Zhi Jin; Xiao-Jing Xu; Su-Hong Chen; Si-Yuan Wen; Xue-En Ma; Zheng Zhang; Feng Lin; Sheng-Qi Wang

2007-01-01

338

A Common Virulence Plasmid in Biotype 2 Vibrio vulnificus and Its Dissemination Aided by a Conjugal Plasmid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains of Vibrio vulnificus, a marine bacterial species pathogenic for humans and eels, are divided into three biotypes, and those virulent for eels are classified as biotype 2. All biotype 2 strains possess one or more plasmids, which have been shown to harbor the biotype 2-specific DNA sequences. In this study we determined the DNA sequences of three biotype 2

Chung-Te Lee; Carmen Amaro; Keh-Ming Wu; Esmeralda Valiente; Yi-Feng Chang; Shih-Feng Tsai; Chuan-Hsiung Chang; Lien-I Hor

2008-01-01

339

Complete Genome Sequence of Vibrio anguillarum M3, a Serotype O1 Strain Isolated from Japanese Flounder in China.  

PubMed

Vibrio anguillarum is an important bacterial pathogen that causes vibriosis in marine fish. We present the complete genome sequence of V. anguillarum M3, a serotype O1 clinical strain isolated from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in Shandong, China. PMID:24072867

Li, Guiyang; Mo, Zhaolan; Li, Jie; Xiao, Peng; Hao, Bin

2013-09-26

340

Environmental Investigations of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Oysters after Outbreaks in Washington, Texas, and New York (1997 and 1998)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total Vibrio parahaemolyticus densities and the occurrence of pathogenic strains in shellfish were determined following outbreaks in Washington, Texas, and New York. Recently developed nonradioactive DNA probes were utilized for the first time for direct enumeration of V. parahaemolyticus in environmental shellfish samples. V. parahaemolyticus was prevalent in oysters from Puget Sound, Wash.; Galveston Bay, Tex.; and Long Island Sound,

ANGELO DEPAOLA; CHARLES A. KAYSNER; JOHN BOWERS; DAVID W. COOK

2000-01-01

341

Pathogenesis of Infection by Clinical and Environmental Strains of Vibrio vulnificus in Iron-Dextran-Treated Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is an opportunistic pathogen that contaminates oysters harvested from the Gulf of Mexico. In humans with compromising conditions, especially excess levels of iron in plasma and tissues, consumption of contaminated seafood or exposure of wounds to contaminated water can lead to systemic infection and disfiguring skin infection with extremely high mortality. V. vulnificus-associated diseases are noted for the

ANGELA M. STARKS; TRENTON R. SCHOEB; MARK L. TAMPLIN; SALINA PARVEEN; THOMAS J. DOYLE; PHILIP E. BOMEISL; GLORIA M. ESCUDERO; PAUL A. GULIG

2000-01-01

342

Detection and differentiation of Vibrio vulnificus in seawater and plankton of a coastal zone of the Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus, a human and animal pathogen, is present in low numbers in the Mediterranean Sea. Seawater and plankton samples were collected from a marine coastal zone of the Straits of Messina in the Mediterranean Sea (Italy) in order to investigate V. vulnificus as free-living (>0.2 ?m) and associated with small (>64 ?m) and large plankton (>200 ?m) utilizing cultural

Teresa L. Maugeri; Maria Carbone; Maria T. Fera; Concetta Gugliandolo

2006-01-01

343

Septicaemia secondary to Vibrio vulnifi cus cellulitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnifi cus is a naturally occurring, salt-water bacteria found in estuarine and coastal waters worldwide. It prefers low salinity and warm water temperatures for optimum growth. Infection from Vibrio vulnifi cus is uncommon, although it has been reported from many locations (e.g. southern United States of America, Israel, Republic of Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Spain, Turkey). It can be serious

Peter R Lewis; Lucy Cook; Janet Drewitt-Smith; Adam D McEwen; Linda V Granger

344

Isolation of bacteriophage infectious for Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine phage isolates infectious for Vibrio vulnificus and falling into four morphological groups were isolated from estuarine waters collected in Louisiana. Of the 60 V. vulnificus strains tested, 87% were susceptible to one or more of the isolates. With the exception of V. fluvialis, Vibrio species other than vulnificus were resistant to infection. A spectrum of enteric bacterial strains were

William Pelon; Ronald J. Siebeling; Janet Simonson; Ronald B. Luftig

1995-01-01

345

Free-Living and Plankton-Associated Vibrios: Assessment in Ballast Water, Harbor Areas, and Coastal Ecosystems in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Ballast water (BW) is a major transport vector of exotic aquatic species and pathogenic microorganisms. The wide-ranging spread of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from harbor areas has been frequently ascribed to discharge of contaminated BW into eutrophic coastal environments, such as during the onset of the seventh cholera pandemic in South America in the early 1990s. To determine the microbiological hazards of BWs transported to Brazilian ports, we evaluated water and plankton samples taken from (i) BW tanks of recently arrived ships, (ii) port areas along the Brazilian coastline from ?1 to 32°S and (iii) three coastal areas in São Paulo State. Vibrio concentration and toxigenic V. cholerae O1 occurrence were analyzed. Plankton-associated vibrios were more abundant than free-living vibrios in all studied environments. V. cholerae was found in 9.5% of ballast tanks and 24.2% of port samples, both as free-living and attached forms and, apart from the Santos harbor, was absent off São Paulo State. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolates (ctxA+, tcpA+), involved in cholera disease, were found in BW (2%) and harbor (2%) samples. These results confirm that BW is an important carrier of pathogenic organisms, and that monitoring of vibrios and other plankton-attached bacteria is of paramount importance in BW management programs.

Rivera, Irma N. G.; Souza, Keili M. C.; Souza, Claudiana P.; Lopes, Rubens M.

2013-01-01

346

Complete genome sequence of bacteriophage VvAW1, which infects Vibrio vulnificus  

PubMed Central

Investigating the bacteriophages of vibrios has led to significant insights into the evolution and pathogenicity of their host strains. This report presents the first complete genome sequence of a bacteriophage that infects the deadly human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus. The phage was isolated from the surface waters of the Ala Wai Canal, which is part of an urban watershed in eastern Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. The phage particle is icosahedral, with a diameter of 35-40 nm, and a small non-contractile tail. The genome was sequenced in its entirety, rendering a 38 kb sequence located on a single, linear, circularly permuted chromosome. Here, we present the annotation and genomic features of the bacteriophage, VvAW1.

Culley, Alexander I.

2012-01-01

347

Non-Lethal Heat Shock Increased Hsp70 and Immune Protein Transcripts but Not Vibrio Tolerance in the White-Leg Shrimp  

PubMed Central

Non-lethal heat shock boosts bacterial and viral disease tolerance in shrimp, possibly due to increases in endogenous heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and/or immune proteins. To further understand the mechanisms protecting shrimp against infection, Hsp70 and the mRNAs encoding the immune-related proteins prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin, penaeidin, crustin and hemocyanin were studied in post-larvae of the white-leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, following a non-lethal heat shock. As indicated by RT-qPCR, a 30 min abrupt heat shock increased Hsp70 mRNA in comparison to non-heated animals. Immunoprobing of western blots and quantification by ELISA revealed that Hsp70 production after heat shock was correlated with enhanced Hsp70 mRNA. proPO and hemocyanin mRNA levels were augmented, whereas peroxinectin and crustin mRNA levels were unchanged following non-lethal heat shock. Penaeidin mRNA was decreased by all heat shock treatments. Thirty min abrupt heat shock failed to improve survival of post-larvae in a standardized challenge test with Vibrio harveyi, indicating that under the conditions of this study, L. vannamei tolerance to Vibrio infection was influenced neither by Hsp70 accumulation nor the changes in the immune-related proteins, observations dissimilar to other shrimp species examined.

Loc, Nguyen Hong; MacRae, Thomas H.; Musa, Najiah; Bin Abdullah, Muhd Danish Daniel; Abdul Wahid, Mohd. Effendy; Sung, Yeong Yik

2013-01-01

348

Non-lethal heat shock increased hsp70 and immune protein transcripts but not Vibrio tolerance in the white-leg shrimp.  

PubMed

Non-lethal heat shock boosts bacterial and viral disease tolerance in shrimp, possibly due to increases in endogenous heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and/or immune proteins. To further understand the mechanisms protecting shrimp against infection, Hsp70 and the mRNAs encoding the immune-related proteins prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin, penaeidin, crustin and hemocyanin were studied in post-larvae of the white-leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, following a non-lethal heat shock. As indicated by RT-qPCR, a 30 min abrupt heat shock increased Hsp70 mRNA in comparison to non-heated animals. Immunoprobing of western blots and quantification by ELISA revealed that Hsp70 production after heat shock was correlated with enhanced Hsp70 mRNA. proPO and hemocyanin mRNA levels were augmented, whereas peroxinectin and crustin mRNA levels were unchanged following non-lethal heat shock. Penaeidin mRNA was decreased by all heat shock treatments. Thirty min abrupt heat shock failed to improve survival of post-larvae in a standardized challenge test with Vibrio harveyi, indicating that under the conditions of this study, L. vannamei tolerance to Vibrio infection was influenced neither by Hsp70 accumulation nor the changes in the immune-related proteins, observations dissimilar to other shrimp species examined. PMID:24039886

Loc, Nguyen Hong; Macrae, Thomas H; Musa, Najiah; Bin Abdullah, Muhd Danish Daniel; Abdul Wahid, Mohd Effendy; Sung, Yeong Yik

2013-09-09

349

The fur-iron complex modulates expression of the quorum-sensing master regulator, SmcR, to control expression of virulence factors in Vibrio vulnificus.  

PubMed

The gene vvpE, encoding the virulence factor elastase, is a member of the quorum-sensing regulon in Vibrio vulnificus and displays enhanced expression at high cell density. We observed that this gene was repressed under iron-rich conditions and that the repression was due to a Fur (ferric uptake regulator)-dependent repression of smcR, a gene encoding a quorum-sensing master regulator with similarity to luxR in Vibrio harveyi. A gel mobility shift assay and a footprinting experiment demonstrated that the Fur-iron complex binds directly to two regions upstream of smcR (-82 to -36 and -2 to +27, with respect to the transcription start site) with differing affinities. However, binding of the Fur-iron complex is reversible enough to allow expression of smcR to be induced by quorum sensing at high cell density under iron-rich conditions. Under iron-limiting conditions, Fur fails to bind either region and the expression of smcR is regulated solely by quorum sensing. These results suggest that two biologically important environmental signals, iron and quorum sensing, converge to direct the expression of smcR, which then coordinates the expression of virulence factors. PMID:23716618

Kim, In Hwang; Wen, Yancheng; Son, Jee-Soo; Lee, Kyu-Ho; Kim, Kun-Soo

2013-05-28

350

The Global Regulator ArcA Modulates Expression of Virulence Factors in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Vibrio cholerae arcA mutant was constructed and used to examine the role of the global anaerobiosis response regulator ArcA in the expression of virulence factors in this important human pathogen. In V. cholerae, expression of the major virulence factors cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) is regulated by the transcriptional activator ToxT. toxT expression, in turn, is controlled

Nilanjan Sengupta; Kalidas Paul; Rukhsana Chowdhury

2003-01-01

351

Role of Temperate Bacteriophage 139 in Changing Cholera Toxin Production in Vibrio cholerae Classical Biovar  

Microsoft Academic Search

New data were obtained concerning cell sensitivity of pathogenic strains of cholera vibrions, which belong to the serogroup O1 of classical biovar, to the temperate bacteriophage 139, the native host of which is Vibrio cholerae O139. Molecular–genetic and biochemical studies showed that phage 139 integrated into the chromosome of strains V. cholerae O1 can change their toxigenic properties. A change

G. A. Yeroshenko; N. I. Smirnova

2004-01-01

352

Identification and Characterization of Cyclic Diguanylate Signaling Systems Controlling Rugosity in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease cholera, can generate rugose variants that have an increased capacity to form biofilms. Rugosity and biofilm formation are critical for the environmental survival and transmission of the pathogen, and these processes are controlled by cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) signaling systems. c-di-GMP is produced by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and degraded by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Proteins

Sinem Beyhan; Lindsay S. Odell; Fitnat H. Yildiz

2008-01-01

353

Characterization of Enhancer Binding by the Vibrio cholerae Flagellar Regulatory Protein FlrC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is a highly motile organism by virtue of a polar flagellum, and motility has been inferred to be an important aspect of virulence. It has previously been demonstrated that the 54-dependent activator FlrC is necessary for both flagellar synthesis and for enhanced intestinal colonization. In order to characterize FlrC binding, we analyzed two FlrC-dependent promoters,

Nidia E. Correa; Karl E. Klose

2005-01-01

354

Regulation of Vibrio cholerae Genes Required for Acid Tolerance by a Member of the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the intestinal pathogen Vibrio cholerae to undergo an adaptive stress response, known as the acid tolerance response (ATR), was previously shown to enhance virulence. An essential component of the ATR is CadA-mediated lysine decarboxylation. CadA is encoded by the acid- and infection-induced gene cadA. Herein, cadA is shown to be the second gene in an operon with

D. SCOTT MERRELL; ANDREW CAMILLI

2000-01-01

355

Vibrio cholerae Strains Possess Multiple Strategies for Abiotic and Biotic Surface Colonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its notoriety as a human pathogen, Vibrio cholerae is an aquatic microbe suited to live in freshwater, estuarine, and marine environments where biofilm formation may provide a selective advantage. Here we report characterization of biofilms formed on abiotic and biotic surfaces by two non-O1\\/O139 V. cholerae strains, TP and SIO, and by the O1 V. cholerae strain N16961 in

Ryan S. Mueller; Diane McDougald; Danielle Cusumano; Nidhi Sodhi; Staffan Kjelleberg; Farooq Azam; Douglas H. Bartlett

2007-01-01

356

Adaptation of Vibrio vulnificus and an rpoS mutant to bile salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is an opportunistic pathogen commonly found in oyster and marine environments, which frequently encounters different stresses in its natural habitat, food processing environment and during infection. In this paper, the adaptation of V. vulnificus to bile and the role of RpoS in this process were examined using a wild-type strain and an rpoS isogenic mutant. Adaptation to bile

Wei-Lun Chen; James D. Oliver; Hin-chung Wong

2010-01-01

357

Survival and viability of nonculturable Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae in the estuarine and marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plating methods for estimating survival of indicator organisms, such asEscherichia coli, and water-borne pathogens includingVibrio cholerae, have severe limitations when used to estimate viable populations of these organisms in the aquatic environment. By combining the methods of immunofluorescent microscopy, acridine orange direct counting, and direct viable counting, with culture methods such as indirect enumeration by most probable number (MPN) estimation

Huai-Shu Xu; N. Roberts; F. L. Singleton; R. W. Attwell; D. J. Grimes; R. R. Colwell

1982-01-01

358

Quorum-sensing regulators control virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of virulence factors including cholera toxin and the toxin-coregulated pilus in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is strongly influenced by environmental conditions. The well-characterized ToxR signal transduction cascade is responsible for sensing and integrating the environmental information and controlling the virulence regulon. We show here that, in addition to the known components of the ToxR signaling circuit, quorum-sensing

Jun Zhu; Melissa B. Miller; Russell E. Vance; Michelle Dziejman; John J. Mekalanos

2002-01-01

359

In Vivo Resuscitation, and Virulence towards Mice, of Viable but Nonculturable Cells ofVibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is an estuarine bacterium responsible for 95% of all seafood-related deaths in the United States. The bacterium occurs naturally in molluscan shellfish, and ingestion of raw oysters is typically the sourceofhumaninfection.V.vulnificusisalsoknowntoenteraviablebutnonculturable(VBNC)state,wherein the cells are no longer culturable on routine plating media but can be shown to remain viable. Whether or not this human pathogen remains virulent when entering

JAMES D. OLIVER; ANDROSA BOCKIAN

1995-01-01

360

A Vibrio vulnificus Type IV Pilin Contributes to Biofilm Formation, Adherence to Epithelial Cells, and Virulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus expresses a multitude of cell-associated and secreted factors that potentially contribute to pathogenicity, although the specific roles of most of these factors have been difficult to define. Previously we have shown that a mutation in pilD (originally designated vvpD), which encodes a type IV prepilin peptidase\\/ N-methyltransferase, abolishes expression of surface pili, suggesting that they belong to the

Rohinee N. Paranjpye; Mark S. Strom

2005-01-01

361

Formation ofNonculturable Vibrio vulnificus Cells andIts Relationship totheStarvation State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entryintotheviable butnonculturable state bythehumanbacterial pathogen Vibrio vulnificus inartificial seawater microcosms was studied. Incontrast tothelong-term culturability exhibited bycells incubated under these starvation conditions atroom temperature, cells exposed toatemperature downshift to5°Cexhibited an immediate decrease inculturability. Cells incubated atlowtemperature exhibited amorphological change from rodstococci butdemonstrated noreductive division. Of10factors studied whichmight affect thenonculturable responseinV.vulnificus, onlythephysiological ageofthecells was foundtosignificantly affect therateatwhich cells becamenonculturable. Thenonculturable responseappearstoberelated

LENA NILSSON; STAFFAN KJELLEBERG

1991-01-01

362

The major Vibrio cholerae autoinducer and its role in virulence factor production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the human disease cholera, uses cell-to-cell communication to control pathogenicity and biofilm formation. This process, known as quorum sensing, relies on the secretion and detection of signalling molecules called autoinducers. At low cell density V. cholerae activates the expression of virulence factors and forms biofilms. At high cell density the accumulation of two quorum-sensing

Douglas A. Higgins; Megan E. Pomianek; Christina M. Kraml; Ronald K. Taylor; Martin F. Semmelhack; Bonnie L. Bassler

2007-01-01

363

Different colonization and residence time of Listonella anguillarum and Vibrio splendidus in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis determined by real-time PCR and DGGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listonella anguillarum 90-11-287 and Vibrio splendidus DMC-1 were incorporated in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, which was subsequently maintained under larval rearing conditions to determine the residence time of both pathogens in rotifers.Real-time PCR was applied to specifically detect and quantify both pathogens. L. anguillarum colonized rotifers more efficiently than V. splendidus and both pathogenic strains were released from rotifers to

María J. Prol-García; Miquel Planas; José Pintado

2010-01-01

364

Molecular factors associated with virulence of marine vibrios isolated from striped bass in Chesapeake Bay.  

PubMed Central

On the basis of cultural and biochemical properties as well as DNA homology assays, 81 Vibrio strains isolated from diseased striped bass and from Chesapeake Bay water were assigned to eight distinct groups. All organisms belonging to two of the groups were pathogenic for striped bass and were identified as Vibrio anguillarum, whereas organisms classified in the other six groups were nonpathogenic and were designated as Vibrio spp. Unlike the pathogenic V. anguillarum strain 775 isolated in the Pacific Northwest, strains pathogenic for striped bass did not contain any plasmids; however, they were similar to the Northwest isolates in that virulence was correlated with their ability to grow in the presence of nonimmune striped bass serum or under conditions of iron limitation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of outer membranes showed that additional proteins were induced in those organisms capable of growth under conditions of iron limitation. It was of interest that 22 of the nonpathogenic isolates harbored one or more plasmids which, by restriction endonuclease analyses, were shown to be clearly different from the virulence plasmid pJM1. Images

Toranzo, A E; Barja, J L; Potter, S A; Colwell, R R; Hetrick, F M; Crosa, J H

1983-01-01

365

Non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae sepsis in a patient with nephrotic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae is an encapsulated bacterium, ubiquitous in the marine environment and generally considered to be non-pathogenic. However, it is known to cause diarrheal illness, wound infection, and bacteremia in immunocompromised hosts. Here we have describe non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae sepsis in a patient with nephrotic syndrome following exposure to sea-water. Interestingly, the exposure occurred remotely 4 months prior to the onset of nephrotic syndrome. The occurrence of florid sepsis after a prolonged interval from the time of exposure is peculiar and raises the possibility of an association between occult Vibrio sepsis and nephrotic syndrome.

George, N; Fredrick, F; Mohapatra, A; Veeraraghavan, B; Kakde, S T; Valson, A T; Basu, G

2013-01-01

366

Differentiating between isolates of Vibrio vulnificus with monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Vibrio vulnificus (isolate I, VVC and isolate II, VVB) were raised using heat-killed and heat-killed plus SDS-mercaptoethanol treated forms of VVC and VVB for immunizing Swiss mice. Twenty three hybridomas producing MAbs against V. vulnificus were selected and divided into five groups according to their specificities to different V. vulnificus isolates and apparent protein antigens which ranged from approximately 3-50 kDa. Four groups were specific to V. vulnificus without cross reactivity to either other Vibrio spp. or other bacterial species. In dot blot based assays, one group of MAbs were specific to VVC, with a sensitivity of approximately 1.6 x 10(7) CFU ml(-1) (approximately 1.6 x 10(4) cells spot(-1)), and bound to proteins of approximately 50 and approximately 39 kDa. Other MAbs, binding to proteins ranging from approximately 3-14 and approximately 40 kDa, detected VVB (but not VVC) with high sensitivity at approximately 1.6 x 10(5) and 4 x 10(6) CFU ml(-1) (approximately 1.6 x 10(2) and 4 x 10(3) cells spot(-1)), respectively. In addition, certain MAbs were able to recognize V. vulnificus in tissues by means of immunohistochemistry. The remaining groups demonstrated cross reactivity to Vibrio fluvialis. MAbs from this study can, therefore, detect the difference between some isolates of V. vulnificus and in addition to pathogen detection may, with further antibodies, form the basis of serovar typing isolates in the future. PMID:18706941

Rengpipat, Sirirat; Pusiririt, Suttinee; Rukpratanporn, Sombat

2008-07-25

367

RNA-seq-based monitoring of infection-linked changes in Vibrio cholerae gene expression  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Pathogens adapt to the host environment by altering their patterns of gene expression. Microarray-based and genetic techniques used to characterize bacterial gene expression during infection are limited in their ability to comprehensively and simultaneously monitor genome-wide transcription. We used massively parallel cDNA sequencing (RNA-seq) techniques to quantitatively catalog the transcriptome of the cholera pathogen, Vibrio cholerae derived from two animal models of infection. Transcripts elevated in infected rabbits and mice relative to laboratory media derive from the major known V. cholerae virulence factors and also from genes and small RNAs not previously linked to virulence. The RNA-seq data was coupled with metabolite analysis of cecal fluid from infected rabbits to yield insights into the host environment encountered by the pathogen and the mechanisms controlling pathogen gene expression. RNA-seq-based transcriptome analysis of pathogens during infection produces a robust, sensitive, and accessible data set for evaluation of regulatory responses driving pathogenesis.

Mandlik, Anjali; Livny, Jonathan; Robins, William P.; Ritchie, Jennifer M.; Mekalanos, John J.; Waldor, Matthew K.

2011-01-01

368

Pathogen-host interactions in Dictyostelium, Legionella, Mycobacterium and other pathogens.  

PubMed

Dictyostelium discoideum is a haploid social soil amoeba that is an established host model for several human pathogens. The research areas presently pursued include the use of D. discoideum to identify genetic host factors determining the outcome of infections and the use as screening system for identifying bacterial virulence factors. Here we report about the Legionella pneumophila directed phagosome biogenesis and the cell-to-cell spread of Mycobacterium species. Moreover, we highlight recent insights from the host-pathogen cross-talk between D. discoideum and the pathogens Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Burkholderia cenocepacia, Vibrio cholerae and Neisseria meningitidis. PMID:21109012

Steinert, Michael

2010-11-23

369

Incidence of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Aquacultured Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative levels of six known pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, Salmonella species, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis) and aerobic plate counts were measured at five aquaculture facilities. The farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and trout fillets were sampled at two different growing seasons to monitor for microbial hazards. Listeria spp. was identified in both whole trout and trout

T. James McAdams; Robert G. Reinhart; Custy F. Fernandes; George J. Flick Jr; Stephen A. Smith; Cameron R. Hackney; George S. Libey; L. Ankenman Granata

2005-01-01

370

In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Pyridonecarboxylic Acids against Fish Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

New pyridonecarboxylic acids (PCAs) were evaluated for in vitro antibacterial activity against Pasteurella piscicida, Vibrio anguillarum, Edwardsiella tarda, and Streptococcus sp., which were pathogens isolated from diseased fish in Japan. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of 11 PCAs, nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, piromidic acid, pipemidic acid, miloxacin, flumequine, enoxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and FR77040, were determined with the serial twofold agar

S. Nakano; T. Aoki; T. Kitao

1989-01-01

371

Diversity of bacteria isolated from crustacea larvae and their rearing water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bacteria in the genus Vibrio are heterothrophic, which exist in the larval rearing water of Crustacea and often show diverse pathogenicities to marine animals. In order to assess the bacterial diversity associated with Crustacean seed production, 32 strains were isolated from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and mangrove crab (Scylla paramamosain) larvae and their rearing-water and characterized using biochemical and molecular approaches. Two or more genotypically different species were identified. The vibriosis of black tiger shrimp was causes by V. harveyi, V. alginolyticus and Vibrio spp. predominantly, while that of crab by V. harveyi and V. alginolyticus only.

Haryanti; Sugama, Ketut; Nishijima, Toshitaka

2003-04-01

372

IbpA\\/B Small Heat-Shock Protein of Marine Bacterium Vibrio harveyi Binds to Proteins Aggregated in a Cell During Heat Shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The IbpA and IbpB are 16-kDa Escherichia coli proteins belonging to a family of small heat-shock proteins (sHsps). According to the present model, based on the in vitro\\u000a experiments, sHsps are molecular chaperones that bind and prevent aggregation of nonnative proteins during heat shock. Previously,\\u000a we have shown that IbpA and IbpB bind to endogenous E. coli proteins aggregated

Gracjana Klein; Ewa Laskowska; Alina Taylor; Barbara Lipi?ska

2001-01-01

373

Construction and Use of a Broad-Host-Range Plasmid Expressing the lamB Gene for Utilization of Bacteriophage ? Vectors in the Marine Bacterium Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The remarkable success of Escherichia coli as a model organism in molecular genetics was dependent, among other things, on its susceptibility to genetic manipulation.\\u000a Many versatile and sophisticated genetic tools for molecular biology studies are derived from bacteriophage ?. However, this\\u000a bacteriophage is specific for E. coli, and thus ?-based techniques have been restricted to this bacterium. Plasmids expressing

Jacek Jasiecki; Agata Czy?; Magdalena Gabig; Grzegorz W?grzyn

2001-01-01

374

Abundance, diversity and antibiotics resistance pattern of Vibrio spp. in coral ecosystem of Kurusadai island.  

PubMed

The abundance and species diversity of Vibrio associated with coral reef ecosystem of Kurusadai island, Tamil Nadu, India were evaluated. A total of twelve sampling locations including different live and dead coral surfaces, surrounding water and rock surface (negative control) were selected for the present study. Total viable and TCBS counts were found to be higher in dead coral as compared to that of live coral. Out of total 21 species of Vibrio isolated, 13 were identified up to species level based on biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequence homology, while remaining 8 isolates did not show homology up to species level with any of the sequences available in the NCBI database. Moreover, these unidentified Vibrio spp. exhibited intra-species variation. This study indicated association of hitherto unknown Vibrio species with coral reef ecosystem of Kurusadai island. Assuming that only resistant bacteria can grow in the coral environment, susceptibility against a total of 20 antibiotics was evaluated. All the isolates exhibited resistance towards more than 6 antibiotics. Interestingly, none of the identified bacteria were previously reported to be of coral pathogen reflecting the healthy nature of the ecosystem. However, a continuous monitoring of the region will be prerequisite to envisage the role of these bacteria on the health status of the coral ecosystem. PMID:21077119

Haldar, Soumya; Mody, Kalpana H; Jha, Bhavanath

2010-11-12

375

[Experimental non-culturable Vibrio cholerae eltor and its biological properties].  

PubMed

In experiments with the cultivation of V. cholerae eltor under the conditions of high salt concentration, as well as low temperature and deficiency in nutrient substances, uncultivable forms (UF) of toxigenic and nontoxigenic vibrios were obtained. The absence of growth of seeded vibrios after the filtration of samples (with a filter of 0.22 micron), the preservation of specific antigenic determinants and the initial set of genes, changes in the morphology of cells (small size, coccoid form with the flagella retained) confirm the transition of V. cholerae eltor under study into the uncultivable state which, under unfavorable conditions, more rapidly develops in toxigenic vibrios than in nontoxigenic ones. The analysis of the INT-reductase activity of UF disintegrates revealed that they had endogenic respiration whose activity increased (4.5- to 6.5-fold) in the presence of the exogenic intermediates of the Krebs cycle. The uncultivable forms of the vibrios retain genes responsible for pathogenicity, as well as their antigenic determinants. PMID:15024974

Tafel'shte?n, E E; Golubinski?, E P; Maramovich, A S; Urbanovich, L Ia; Burenina, L F; Mironova, L V; Sappo, S G; Markov, E Iu; Kapustin, Iu M; Beloborodov, Iu V

376

What makes pathogens pathogenic  

PubMed Central

Metazoans contain multiple complex microbial ecosystems in which the balance between host and microbe can be tipped from commensalism to pathogenicity. This transition is likely to depend both on the prevailing environmental conditions and on specific gene-gene interactions placed within the context of the entire ecosystem.

Ehrlich, Garth D; Hiller, N Luisa; Hu, Fen Ze

2008-01-01

377

The Extracellular Metalloprotease of Vibrio tubiashii Is a Major Virulence Factor for Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) Larvae?  

PubMed Central

Vibrio tubiashii is a recently reemerging pathogen of larval bivalve mollusks, causing both toxigenic and invasive disease. Marine Vibrio spp. produce an array of extracellular products as potential pathogenicity factors. Culture supernatants of V. tubiashii have been shown to be toxic to oyster larvae and were reported to contain a metalloprotease and a cytolysin/hemolysin. However, the structural genes responsible for these proteins have yet to be identified, and it is uncertain which extracellular products play a role in pathogenicity. We investigated the effects of the metalloprotease and hemolysin secreted by V. tubiashii on its ability to kill Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae. While V. tubiashii supernatants treated with metalloprotease inhibitors severely reduced the toxicity to oyster larvae, inhibition of the hemolytic activity did not affect larval toxicity. We identified structural genes of V. tubiashii encoding a metalloprotease (vtpA) and a hemolysin (vthA). Sequence analyses revealed that VtpA shared high homology with metalloproteases from a variety of Vibrio species, while VthA showed high homology only to the cytolysin/hemolysin of Vibrio vulnificus. Compared to the wild-type strain, a VtpA mutant of V. tubiashii not only produced reduced amounts of protease but also showed decreased toxicity to C. gigas larvae. Vibrio cholerae strains carrying the vtpA or vthA gene successfully secreted the heterologous protein. Culture supernatants of V. cholerae carrying vtpA but not vthA were highly toxic to Pacific oyster larvae. Together, these results suggest that the V. tubiashii extracellular metalloprotease is important in its pathogenicity to C. gigas larvae.

Hasegawa, Hiroaki; Lind, Erin J.; Boin, Markus A.; Hase, Claudia C.

2008-01-01

378

Phenotypic characterization of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2, a lipopolysaccharide-based homogeneous O serogroup within Vibrio vulnificus.  

PubMed Central

In this study, we have reevaluated the taxonomic position of biotype 2 of Vibrio vulnificus. For this purpose, we have biochemically and serologically characterized 83 biotype 2 strains from diseased eels, comparing them with 17 biotype 1 strains from different sources. Selected strains were also molecularly analyzed and tested for eel and mouse pathogenicity. Results have shown that biotype 2 (i) is biochemically homogeneous, indole production being the main trait that distinguishes it from biotype 1, (ii) presents small variations in DNA restriction profiles and outer membrane protein patterns, some proteins being immunologically related to outer membrane proteins from biotype 1, (iii) expresses a common lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profile, which is immunologically identical among strains and distinct from that of LPS of tested biotype 1 strains, and (iv) contains at least two high-Mr plasmids. Regarding host range, we have confirmed that both biotypes are pathogenic for mice but only biotype 2 is pathogenic for eels. On the basis of these data, we propose that biotype 2 of V. vulnificus constitutes an LPS-based O serogroup which is phenotypically homogeneous and pathogenic for eels. In this article, the serogroup is designated serogroup E (for eels).

Biosca, E G; Oliver, J D; Amaro, C

1996-01-01

379

Vibrio Vulnificus Health Education Kit - Timeline  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Following your initial outreach to the media you should be prepared for a possible resurgence in interest in the event of a Vibrio vulnificus illness or ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/healtheducators

380

Necrotising fasciitis caused by Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of necrotising fasciitis caused by Vibrio vulnificus is described. The need for early recognition and aggressive surgical treatment are highlighted, and the necrotising infections due to V vulnificus described in the published work are reviewed.

M L Woo; W G Patrick; M T Simon; G L French

1984-01-01

381

Simplified Bulk Growth of Vibrio foetus  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE cultivation of Vibrio foetus in quantity, for antigen production, is generally regarded as rather difficult and costly. Commonly employed culture media are semi-solid `Thiol' (Difco) and Brucella broth (`Albimi'), both containing 0.1 per cent agar.

Dusan Jakovljevic; H. E. R. Beattie

1960-01-01

382

Induction of Fimbriated Vibrio cholerae O139  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several fimbriated phases of Vibrio cholerae O139 strains were selectively induced and compared immuno- logically and biochemically with those of V. cholerae O1. Fimbrial antigens were detected on the surfaces of vibrio cells colonizing the epithelial cells of a rabbit small intestine. Convalescent-phase sera from six individuals infected with V. cholerae O139 revealed the development of antibody against the fimbrillin.

MASAHIKO EHARA; MAMORU IWAMI; YOSHIO ICHINOSE; TOSHIYA HIRAYAMA; M. JOHN ALBERT; R. BRADLEY SACK; SHOICHI SHIMODORI

1998-01-01

383

Incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus bacteriophages and other Vibrio bacteriophages in marine samples.  

PubMed

Vibrio bacteriophages were isolated by enrichment from 177 of 643 samples of marine molluscan shellfish, crustaceans, seawater, and sediments. The predominant bacteriophage types isolated were specific for some strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A high frequency of phage isolations was also observed with strains of agar-digesting vibrios (21 of 56) and psychrophilic vibrios (14 of 72) that were originally isolated from non-shellfish growing areas. No bacteriophages were isolated against V. alginolyticus and only rarely for V. anguillarum even though these were the two most abundant species found in near-shore environments. No V. cholerae phages were isolated. It was also determined from quantitative studies on the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) obtained from two environments in Washington and Oregon that the titers of V. parahaemolyticus bacteriophages increased with increasing seasonal water temperatures and that this was proportional to the increase in numbers of mesophilic vibrios and not with the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus. Titers of V. parahaemolyticus bacteriophages occasionally exceeded 10(6) per g of oyster during the summer months. Specific V. parahaemolyticus bacteriophages were also isolated from market seafoods and other marine samples that originated in cold environments where no mesophilic vibrios are expected to be found. The possibility that V. parahaemolyticus bacteriophages originate from Vibrio spp. other than V. parahaemolyticus and the role of these bacteriophages in the ecology of marine vibrios are discussed. PMID:727781

Baross, J A; Liston, J; Morita, R Y

1978-09-01

384

Vibrio chromosomes share common history  

PubMed Central

Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II) were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes.

2010-01-01

385

Physiological responses of the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis to bacterial stress from Vibrio coralliilyticus.  

PubMed

As the effects of climate change have become increasingly visible over the past three decades, coral reefs have suffered from a number of natural and anthropogenic disturbances that have caused a critical decline in coral populations. Among these disturbances are coral diseases, which have appeared with increasing frequency and severity, often in correlation with increases in water temperature. Although the crucial role played by Vibrio species in coral disease has been widely documented, the scientific community does not yet fully understand the infection process of Vibrio or its impact on coral physiology and immunology. Here, we investigated the physiological and transcriptomic responses of a major reef-building coral, Pocillopora damicornis, when exposed to a specific pathogen (Vibrio coralliilyticus) under virulent (increasing water temperature) and non-virulent (constant low temperature) conditions. The infection process was examined by electron microscopy and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, and coral health was monitored by visual observations and measurements of zooxanthellar density. The results obtained suggest that coral tissue invasion occurs upon increasing water temperature only. Transcriptomic variations were investigated using a suppression-subtractive-hybridization approach, and the expression levels of six candidate immune-related genes were examined during bacterial exposure. These genes correspond to three lectin-like molecules putatively involved in the recognition of pathogens, two metal-binding proteins putatively involved in antibacterial response and one cystein protease inhibitor. The transcription patterns of these selected genes provide new insights into the responses of coral colonies to virulent versus non-virulent bacteria. PMID:21490261

Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Ladrière, Ophélie; Meistertzheim, Anne-Leila; Fouré, Laurent; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Mitta, Guillaume

2011-05-01

386

VIBRIO VULNIFICUS EDUCATION WORKSHOP FOR THE FLORIDA MEDICAL COMMUNITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Vibrio vulnificus is a naturally occurring microorganism that occurs warm marine and estuarine waters. The bacteria are concentrated by filter feeding shellfish. Certain immunocompromised individuals and those with liver disease can be adversely, even fatally affected by Vibrio...

387

BAM Media M191: Vibrio vulnificus sucrose Agar (VPSA)  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M191: Vibrio vulnificus sucrose Agar (VPSA). May 2004. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. M191 Vibrio vulnificus sucrose Agar (VPSA). ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

388

BAM Media M190: Vibrio vulnificus Agar (VVA)  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M190: Vibrio vulnificus Agar (VVA). May 2004. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. M190 Vibrio vulnificus Agar (VVA). Solution 1. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

389

Utilization of hemin and hemoglobin by Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2.  

PubMed Central

The eel pathogen Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 is able to use hemoglobin (Hb) and hemin (Hm) to reverse iron limitation. In this stud, the adjuvant effect of both compounds on eel pathogenicity has been evaluated and confirmed. Further, we have studied the heme-iron acquisition mechanism displayed by this bacterium. Whole cells were capable of binding Hb and Hm, independently of (i) iron levels in growth medium and (ii) the presence of polysaccharide capsules on bacterial surface. The Hb- and Hm-binding capacity was retained by the outer membrane protein (OMP) fraction and was abolished after proteolytic digestion of OMP samples. Western blotting (immunoblotting) of denatured OMPs revealed that two major protein bands of 36 and 32 kDa were involved in both Hm and Hb binding. The expression of these proteins was not affected by iron levels. In addition, V. vulnificus biotype 2 produced extracellular proteases, not regulated by iron, that were active against native Hb. In conclusion, the overall data suggest that the eel pathogen V. vulnificus biotype 2 can obtain iron by means of a mechanism which involves a direct interaction between the heme moiety and constitutive OMPs.

Fouz, B; Mazoy, R; Lemos, M L; del Olmo, M J; Amaro, C

1996-01-01

390

Detection and differentiation of Vibrio vulnificus and V.?sinaloensis in water and oysters of a Gulf of Mexico estuary.  

PubMed

Vibrio vulnificus is a potentially lethal human pathogen that occurs naturally in estuarine waters and shellfish. Vibrio vulnificus was quantified in water and oysters from Florida's Gulf Coast by plating on mCPC agar, enrichment and plating, and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Vibrio vulnificus was detected in 19%, 29%, and 97% of samples respectively by direct plating, qPCR, and enrichment. Only 8% of typical colonies from direct plating were confirmed by PCR for vvhA; others yielded no or atypically sized amplicons. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA of 16 vvhA-negative isolates with colony morphology typical of V.?vulnificus identified 75% as V.?sinaloensis. In vitro growth curves showed that V.?sinaloensis grew more rapidly than V.?vulnificus in seawater at temperatures ??30°C. In contrast, the growth rate of V.?vulnificus in alkaline peptone water was greater than that of V.?sinaloensis, suggesting that these species can outcompete one another under conditions that are relevant to environmental parameters or regulatory monitoring regimes respectively. The virulence potential and ecology of V.?sinaloensis are poorly understood; however, its phenotypic resemblance to V.?vulnificus and the possibility that it could outcompete the pathogen in warm, estuarine waters argue for the need for a better understanding of this newly described Vibrio species. PMID:23240813

Staley, Christopher; Chase, Eva; Harwood, Valerie J

2012-12-13

391

Spatially selective colonization of the arthropod intestine through activation of Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae is an estuarine bacterium and the human pathogen responsible for the diarrheal disease cholera. In the environment, arthropods are proposed to be carriers and reservoirs of V. cholerae. However, the molecular basis of the association between V. cholerae and viable arthropods has not been elucidated previously. Here, we show that the V. cholerae Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS)-dependent biofilm is highly activated upon entry into the arthropod intestine and is specifically required for colonization of the arthropod rectum. Although the V. cholerae VPS-dependent biofilm has been studied in the laboratory for many years, the function of this biofilm in the natural habitats of V. cholerae has been elusive. Our results provide evidence that the VPS-dependent biofilm is required for intestinal colonization of an environmental host.

Purdy, Alexandra E.; Watnick, Paula I.

2011-01-01

392

Control of luminous Vibrio species in penaeid aquaculture ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crisis has arisen in the prawn industry in many regions with the onset of disease, with Vibrio spp. being important major causal factors. The value of adding selected strains of Bacillus as probiotic bacteria to control the Vibrio is shown by comparing farms in Indonesia using the same water sources, which contained luminous Vibrio strains. The farms that did

D. J. W Moriarty

1998-01-01

393

Modified a colony forming unit microbial adherence to hydrocarbons assay and evaluated cell surface hydrophobicity and biofilm production of Vibrio scophthalmi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vibrio scophthalmi has been considered as an opportunistic pathogen of the flat fish. There is little information available on V. scophthalmi adhesion to the host, an important step in the initial infection process. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop a modified Microbial Adherence to H...

394

SOLiD sequencing of four Vibrio vulnificus genomes enables comparative genomic analysis and identification of candidate clade-specific virulence genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Vibrio vulnificus is the leading cause of reported death from consumption of seafood in the United States. Despite several decades of research on molecular pathogenesis, much remains to be learned about the mechanisms of virulence of this opportunistic bacterial pathogen. The two complete and annotated genomic DNA sequences of V. vulnificus belong to strains of clade 2, which is

Paul A Gulig; Valérie de Crécy-Lagard; Anita C Wright; Brandon Walts; Marina Telonis-Scott; Lauren M McIntyre

2010-01-01

395

Identification of the Vibrio cholerae Enterobactin Receptors VctA and IrgA: IrgA Is Not Required for Virulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gram-negative enteric pathogen Vibrio cholerae requires iron for growth. V. cholerae has multiple iron acquisition systems, including utilization of heme and hemoglobin, synthesis and transport of the catechol siderophore vibriobactin, and transport of several siderophores that it does not itself make. One siderophore that V. cholerae transports, but does not make, is enterobactin. Enterobactin transport requires TonB and is

Alexandra R. Mey; Elizabeth E. Wyckoff; Amanda G. Oglesby; Eva Rab; Ronald K. Taylor; Shelley M. Payne

2002-01-01

396

Cloning and Characterization of an Outer Membrane Protein of Vibrio vulnificus Required for Heme Utilization: Regulation of Expression and Determination of the Gene Sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic, marine pathogen that has been associated with septicemia and serious wound infections in patients with iron overload and preexisting liver disease. For V. vulnificus, the ability to acquire iron from the host has been shown to correlate with virulence. V. vulnificus is able to use host iron sources such as hemoglobin and heme. We previously

CHRISTINE M. LITWIN; BURKE L. BYRNE

1998-01-01

397

High growing ability of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 1 is essential for production of a toxic metalloprotease causing systemic diseases in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus biotype 1, a causative agent of fatal septicemia or wound infection in humans, is known to produce a toxic metalloprotease as an important virulence determinant. V. vulnificus biotype 2 (serovar E), a primary eel pathogen, was found to elaborate an extracellular metalloprotease that was indistinguishable from that of biotype 1. The potential of V. vulnificus biotype 1 for

Hirofumi Watanabe; Shin-ichi Miyoshi; Tomoka Kawase; Ken-ichi Tomochika; Sumio Shinoda

2004-01-01

398

Cholera and other vibrio-associated diarrhoeas*  

PubMed Central

In recent years, there have been major advances in knowledge of Vibrio species and related organisms that are responsible for diarrhoeal diseases, particularly V. cholerae O-Group 1 (epidemic strains), atypical V. cholerae O-Group 1, non-O-Group 1 V. cholerae (non-epidemic strains), V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, and ”Group F vibrios”. This article reviews the important new information, and identifies gaps in our knowledge, on aspects such as the epidemiology and bacteriology of vibrios, environmental surveillance for V. cholerae O-Group 1, phage and vibriocin typing of V. cholerae, and cholera enterotoxin, and its relevance to pathogenesis, immunity, and vaccine development. In each of these areas priorities for further research are recommended.

1980-01-01

399

Compatible solutes in luminescent bacteria of the genera Vibrio, Photobacterium and Photorhabdus (Xenorhabdus): occurrence of ectoine, betaine and glutamate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine luminescent bacteria of the genera Vibrio and Photobacterium as well as Photorhabdus (Xenorhabdus) luminescens, an enterobacterium mutualistically associated with insect pathogenic soil nematodes, display different levels of salt tolerance when grown on nutrient broth medium (5% w\\/v NaCl for marine species and 3% w\\/v for Prb. luminescens). Osmolytes (compatible solutes) synthesized and\\/or accumulated for haloadaptation were identified using HPLC

Roland P. H. Schmitz; Erwin A. Galinski

1996-01-01

400

Characterization of htrB and msbB Mutants of the Light Organ Symbiont Vibrio fischeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial lipid A is an important mediator of bacterium-host interactions, and secondary acylations added by HtrB and MsbB can be critical for colonization and virulence in pathogenic infections. In contrast, Vibrio fischeri lipid A stimulates normal developmental processes in this bacterium's mutualistic host, Euprymna scolopes, although the importance of lipid A structure in this symbiosis is unknown. To further examine

Dawn M. Adin; Nancy J. Phillips; Bradford W. Gibson; Michael A. Apicella; Edward G. Ruby; Margaret J. McFall-Ngai; Daniel B. Hall; Eric V. Stabb

2008-01-01

401

Sensitive and rapid detection of cholera toxin-producing Vibrio cholerae using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Vibrio cholerae is widely acknowledged as one of the most important waterborne pathogen causing gastrointestinal disorders. Cholera toxin (CT) is a major virulence determinant of V. cholerae. Detection of CT-producing V. cholerae using conventional culture-, biochemical- and immunological-based assays is time-consuming and laborious, requiring more than three days. Thus, we developed a novel and highly specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification

Wataru Yamazaki; Kazuko Seto; Masumi Taguchi; Masanori Ishibashi; Kiyoshi Inoue

2008-01-01

402

Susceptibility of the Heat, Acid, and Bile-Adapted Vibrio vulnificus to Lethal Low-Salinity Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a marine pathogenic bacterium that inhabits seawater or seafood, Vibrio vulnificus encounters low salinity and other stresses in the natural environment and during food processing. This investigation explores the cross-protective response of sublethal heat-, acid-, or bile-adapted V. vulnificus YJ03 against lethal low-salinity stress. Experimental results reveal that the acid (pH 4.4)- and heat (41C)-adapted V. vulnificus were not

HIN-CHUNG WONG; SHU-HUI LIU

2006-01-01

403

Role of RpoS in the susceptibility of low salinity-adapted Vibrio vulnificus to environmental stresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is an opportunistic pathogen commonly found in oyster and marine environments, which frequently encounters low salinity stress in its natural and food processing environment. In this study, the responses of a V. vulnificus wild-type strain C78140o and its rpoS isogenic mutant AH1 to sublethal low salinity were examined to investigate the role of rpoS in this response. Both

Hao-Jen Tan; Shu-Hui Liu; James D. Oliver; Hin-chung Wong

2010-01-01

404

Transcriptional Regulation of Vibrio cholerae Hemagglutinin\\/Protease by the Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein and RpoS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae secretes a Zn-dependent metalloprotease, hemagglutinin\\/protease (HA\\/protease), which is encoded by hapA and displays a broad range of potentially pathogenic activities. Production of HA\\/protease requires transcriptional activation by the quorum-sensing regulator HapR. In this study we demonstrate that transcription of hapA is growth phase dependent and specifically activated in the deceleration and stationary growth phases. Addition of glucose in

Anisia J. Silva; Jorge A. Benitez

2004-01-01

405

Involvement of VAMP2 in exocytosis of IL1? in turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) leukocytes after Vibrio anguillarum infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio anguillarum is a major pathogen threatening the fish aquaculture in China. Infection of cultivated turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) with V. anguillarum induced rapid synthesis and secretion of IL-1?, which initiates the innate immune response. SNARE proteins are known to regulate vesicular trafficking and fusion in all eukaryotes. Here, we determined whether SNARE proteins, specifically vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 (VAMP-2), are involved

Yingmei Chai; Xiaohang Huang; Bailin Cong; Shenghao Liu; Kui Chen; Guangyou Li; Herbert Y. Gaisano

2006-01-01

406

Molecular characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus of similar serovars isolated from sewage and clinical cases of diarrhoea in Calcutta, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a seafood-borne halophilic pathogen that causes acute gastroenteritis in humans. During the course of an investigation on the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus in sewage water samples of Calcutta, India, we isolated eight (26.7%) strains of V. parahaemolyticus from 30 samples. Among these strains, five (62.5%) carried the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) gene, a major virulence marker of

B. Sarkar; N. R. Chowdhury; G. B. Nair; M. Nishibuchi; S. Yamasaki; Y. Takeda; S. K. Gupta; S. K. Bhattacharya; T. Ramamurthy

2003-01-01

407

Viable but non-culturable Vibrio cholerae O1 revert to a cultivable state in the human intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae O1 can enter a state in which they remain viable but are non-culturable. Presumably, such bacteria can be pathogenic if they retain the capacity to proliferate in the human intestine following ingestion. Two groups of volunteeers were given inocula containing viable but non-culturable V. cholerae O1 of the attenuated vaccine strain CVD 101 (viable CVD 101 organisms readily

R. R. Colwell; P. Brayton; D. Herrington; B. Tall; A. Huq; M. M. Levine

1996-01-01

408

Genome assortment, not serogroup, defines Vibrio cholerae pandemic strains  

SciTech Connect

Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the 6th and the current 7th pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and re-emerging pathogenic clones carrying combinations of new serogroups as well as of phenotypic and genotypic properties. These genotype and phenotype changes have hampered control of the disease. Here we compare the complete genome sequences of 23 strains of V. cholerae isolated from a variety of sources and geographical locations over the past 98 years in an effort to elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity and genesis of new pathogenic clones. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae phyletic lineages, of which one, designated the V. cholerae core genome (CG), comprises both O1 classical and EI Tor biotypes. All 7th pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content, i.e., the same genome backbone. The transition from 6th to 7th pandemic strains is defined here as a 'shift' between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages within the CG clade. In contrast, transition among clones during the present 7th pandemic period can be characterized as a 'drift' between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V.cholerae serogroup O139 and V.cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones that produce cholera toxin of classical biotype. Based on the comprehensive comparative genomics presented in this study it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to define pathogenic V. cholerae clones.

Brettin, Thomas S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bruce, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Detter, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Cliff S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Munik, A C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meincke, Linda [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saunders, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Choi, Seon Y [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Haley, Bradd J [U. MARYLAND; Taviani, Elisa [U. MARYLAND; Jeon, Yoon - Seong [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Kim, Dong Wook [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Lee, Jae - Hak [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Walters, Ronald A [PNNL; Hug, Anwar [NATL. INST. CHOLERIC ENTERIC DIS.; Colwell, Rita R [U. MARYLAND

2009-01-01

409

Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Vibrio spp. isolated from preharvest shrimp of the North Western Province of Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

This study investigated the prevalence and molecular characteristics of Vibrio spp. in farmed shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in Sri Lanka. A total of 170 shrimp samples (100 g of whole shrimp each) taken from individual ponds from 54 farms were collected 1 week prior to harvest from the North Western Province of Sri Lanka. Overall, 98.1% of the farms and 95.1% of the ponds were positive for Vibrio spp. in shrimp; at the pond level, V. parahaemolyticus (91.2%) was most common, followed by V. alginolyticus (18.8%), V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 (4.1%), and V. vulnificus (2.4%). Multiple Vibrio spp. were detected in 20.6% of the ponds. None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates (n = 419) were positive for the virulence-associated tdh (thermostable direct hemolysin) and trh (TDH-related hemolysin) genes. V. cholerae was confirmed by the presence of ompW, and all isolates (n = 8) were negative for the cholera toxin (ctxA) gene. V. cholerae isolates were serogrouped by PCR and identified as V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139. All four V. vulnificus strains, isolated from different ponds of two geographical regions, showed pathogenic potential; they belonged to vcgC sequence type, type B 16S rRNA genotype and contained a pilF polymorphism associated with human pathogenicity. The results of this study revealed the ubiquitous nature of vibrios in farmed shrimp. To minimize the potential risk of Vibrio infections due to handling or consumption of raw or undercooked seafood products, good manufacturing practices as well as proper handling and processing should be addressed. PMID:23043835

Koralage, Madura Sanjeevani Gonsal; Alter, Thomas; Pichpol, Duangporn; Strauch, Eckhard; Zessin, Karl-Hans; Huehn, Stephan

2012-10-01

410

Role of GacA in virulence of Vibrio vulnificus.  

PubMed

The GacS/GacA two-component signal transduction system regulates virulence, biofilm formation and symbiosis in Vibrio species. The present study investigated this regulatory pathway in Vibrio vulnificus, a human pathogen that causes life-threatening disease associated with the consumption of raw oysters and wound infections. Small non-coding RNAs (csrB1, csrB2, csrB3 and csrC) commonly regulated by the GacS/GacA pathway were decreased (P<0.0003) in a V. vulnificus CMCP6 ?gacA?:?:?aph mutant compared with the wild-type parent, and expression was restored by complementation of the gacA deletion mutation in trans. Of the 20 genes examined by RT-PCR, significant reductions in the transcript levels of the mutant in comparison with the wild-type strain were observed only for genes related to motility (flaA), stationary phase (rpoS) and protease (vvpE) (P=0.04, 0.01 and 0.002, respectively). Swimming motility, flagellation and opaque colony morphology indicative of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) were unchanged in the mutant, while cytotoxicity, protease activity, CPS phase variation and the ability to acquire iron were decreased compared with the wild-type (P<0.01). The role of gacA in virulence of V. vulnificus was also demonstrated by significant impairment in the ability of the mutant strain to cause either skin (P<0.0005) or systemic infections (P<0.02) in subcutaneously inoculated, non-iron-treated mice. However, the virulence of the mutant was equivalent to that of the wild-type in iron-treated mice, demonstrating that the GacA pathway in V. vulnificus regulates the virulence of this organism in an iron-dependent manner. PMID:20817642

Gauthier, Julie D; Jones, Melissa K; Thiaville, Patrick; Joseph, Jennifer L; Swain, Rick A; Krediet, Cory J; Gulig, Paul A; Teplitski, Max; Wright, Anita C

2010-09-03

411

A model for Vibrio cholerae colonization of the human intestine  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae is a strict human pathogen that causes the disease cholera. It is an old-world pathogen that has re-emerged as a new threat since the early 1990s. V. cholerae colonizes the upper, small intestine where it produces a toxin that leads to watery diarrhea, characterizing the disease [36]. The dynamics of colonization by the bacteria of the intestines are largely unknown. Although a large initial infectious dose is required for infection, data suggests that only a smaller sub-population colonizes a portion of the small bowel leading to disease. There are many barriers to colonization in the intestines including peristalsis, fluid wash-out, viscosity of the mucus layer, and pH. We are interested in identifying the mechanisms that allow this sub-population of bacteria to survive and colonize the intestines when faced with these barriers. To elaborate the dynamics of V. cholerae infection, we have developed a mathematical model based on a convection-diffusion-reaction-swimming equation capturing bacterial dynamics coupled with Stokes equations governing fluid velocity where we developed a novel non-local boundary condition. Our results indicate that both host and bacterial factors contribute to bacterial density in the gut. Host factors include intestinal diffusion and convection rates while bacterial factors include adherence, motility and growth rates. This model can ultimately be used to test therapeutic strategies against V. cholerae.

Spagnuolo, Anna Maria; DiRita, Victor; Kirschner, Denise

2011-01-01

412

?-Hydroxyketone Synthesis and Sensing by Legionella and Vibrio  

PubMed Central

Bacteria synthesize and sense low molecular weight signaling molecules, termed autoinducers, to measure their population density and community complexity. One class of autoinducers, the ?-hydroxyketones (AHKs), is produced and detected by the water-borne opportunistic pathogens Legionella pneumophila and Vibrio cholerae, which cause Legionnaires’ disease and cholera, respectively. The “Legionella quorum sensing” (lqs) or “cholera quorum sensing” (cqs) genes encode enzymes that produce and sense the AHK molecules “Legionella autoinducer-1” (LAI-1; 3-hydroxypentadecane-4-one) or cholera autoinducer-1 (CAI-1; 3-hydroxytridecane-4-one). AHK signaling regulates the virulence of L. pneumophila and V. cholerae, pathogen-host cell interactions, formation of biofilms or extracellular filaments, expression of a genomic “fitness island” and competence. Here, we outline the processes, wherein AHK signaling plays a role, and review recent insights into the function of proteins encoded by the lqs and cqs gene clusters. To this end, we will focus on the autoinducer synthases catalysing the biosynthesis of AHKs, on the cognate trans-membrane sensor kinases detecting the signals, and on components of the down-stream phosphorelay cascade that promote the transmission and integration of signaling events regulating gene expression.

Tiaden, Andre; Hilbi, Hubert

2012-01-01

413

Genetic components of stringent response in Vibrio cholerae  

PubMed Central

Nutritional stress elicits stringent response in bacteria involving modulation of expression of several genes. This is mainly triggered by the intracellular accumulation of two small molecules, namely, guanosine 3’-diphosphate 5’-triphosphate and guanosine 3’,5’-bis(diphosphate), collectively called (p)ppGpp. Like in other Gram-negative bacteria, the cellular level of (p)ppGpp is maintained in Vibrio cholerae, the causative bacterial pathogen of the disease cholera, by the products of two genes relA and spoT. However, apart from relA and spoT, a novel gene relV has recently been identified in V. cholerae, the product of which has been shown to be involved in (p)ppGpp synthesis under glucose or fatty acid starvation in a ?relA ?spoT mutant background. Furthermore, the GTP binding essential protein CgtA and a non-DNA binding transcription factor DksA also seem to play several important roles in modulating stringent response and regulation of other genes in this pathogen. The present review briefly discusses about the role of all these genes mainly in the management of stringent response in V. cholerae.

Pal, Ritesh Ranjan; Das, Bhabatosh; Dasgupta, Shreya; Bhadra, Rupak K.

2011-01-01

414

Peculiarities of luminescent response of Bacillus subtilis recombinant strain bearing cloned Vibro harveyi lux AB genes to the action of thermostable blood serum compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain of Bacillus subtilis previously used as the test-organism in bacteriological and nephelometry methods for detection of thrombocytes cation protein\\u000a (TCP) has been transformed by a plasmid pLFlux containing cloned luxAB genes of a sea luminescent bacterium Vibro harveyi. The designed luminescent biosensor B. subtilis of The All-Russia Collection of Industrial Microorganisms (Moscow) B-10191 demonstrated specific response to the

I. F. Karimov; I. V. Manukhov; V. Yu. Kotova; D. O. Omel’chenko; D. G. Deryabin

2010-01-01

415

Prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oyster and clam culturing environments in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most prevalent gastroenteritis pathogen in Taiwan and some other Asian countries, and it frequently occurs in oysters and other seafood. This study monitors changes in the density of V. parahaemolyticus and environmental parameters in oyster and hard clam aquacultural environments in Taiwan. Water, sediment and shellfish samples were collected from five sampling sites in 2008-2010, and analyzed for environmental physiochemical parameters, numbers of indicator bacteria (total aerobic counts, total coliforms and fecal coliforms), Vibrio and V. parahaemolyticus present. The results for open oyster farms and hard clam ponds did not differ significantly. V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 77.5, 77.5, 70.8 and 68.8% of the water, sediment, oyster and clam samples, respectively. The densities of V. parahaemolyticus were significantly higher in shellfish than in sediment or water samples, with mean values of 1.33, 1.04 and -0.02 Log CFU/g, respectively. Among these five sampling sites, Shengang and Fangyuan yielded significantly different data from those obtained at the other three sites. As determined by linear multiple regression, V. parahaemolyticus density in water samples depended significantly on the precipitation and Vibrio count, while the V. parahaemolyticus density in the sediment or shellfish samples depended significantly on the salinity of the seawater. Among 1076 isolates examined, a total of three putative pathogenic isolates were identified from 2.5% of the examined samples, and these isolates exhibited hemolytic or urease activities and the presence of gene markers for tdh, trh, type III secretion system (T3SS) 1 (vcrD1) or T3SS2? (vcrD2). The results herein may facilitate the assessment of risk associated with this pathogen in Taiwan and other geographically similar regions. PMID:23290223

Yu, Wei-Ting; Jong, Koa-Jen; Lin, Yu-Ren; Tsai, Shing-en; Tey, Yao Hsien; Wong, Hin-chung

2012-11-10

416

Ingestion of bacteria overproducing DnaK attenuates Vibrio infection of Artemia franciscana larvae  

PubMed Central

Feeding of bacterially encapsulated heat shock proteins (Hsps) to invertebrates is a novel way to limit Vibrio infection. As an example, ingestion of Escherichia coli overproducing prokaryotic Hsps significantly improves survival of gnotobiotically cultured Artemia larvae upon challenge with pathogenic Vibrio campbellii. The relationship between Hsp accumulation and enhanced resistance to infection may involve DnaK, the prokaryotic equivalent to Hsp70, a major molecular chaperone in eukaryotic cells. In support of this proposal, heat-stressed bacterial strains LVS 2 (Bacillus sp.), LVS 3 (Aeromonas hydrophila), LVS 8 (Vibrio sp.), GR 8 (Cytophaga sp.), and GR 10 (Roseobacter sp.) were shown in this work to be more effective than nonheated bacteria in protecting gnotobiotic Artemia larvae against V. campbellii challenge. Immunoprobing of Western blots and quantification by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that the amount of DnaK in bacteria and their ability to enhance larval resistance to infection by V. campbellii are correlated. Although the function of DnaK is uncertain, it may improve tolerance to V. campbellii via immune stimulation, a possibility of significance from a fundamental perspective and also because it could be applied in aquaculture, a major method of food production.

Dhaene, Till; Defoirdt, Tom; Boon, Nico; MacRae, Thomas H.; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter

2009-01-01

417

Priming the prophenoloxidase system of Artemia franciscana by heat shock proteins protects against Vibrio campbellii challenge.  

PubMed

Like other invertebrates, the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana relies solely on innate immunity, which by definition lacks adaptive characteristics, to combat against invading pathogens. One of the innate mechanisms is melanisation of bacteria mediated by the activation of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system. The 70 kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70) derived from either prokaryote (Escherichia coli) or eukaryote (Artemia), well conserved and immune-dominant molecules, protect Artemia against Vibrio campbellii. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these proteins protect Artemia against Vibrio campbellii infection are unknown. Here we demonstrated that feeding gnotobiotically grown Artemia with either Artemia Hsp70 or the E. coli Hsp70 equivalent DnaK, each overproduced in E. coli, followed by V. campbellii challenge enhanced the proPO system, at both mRNA and protein activity levels. Additionally, the Artemia fed with these proteins survived well in a Vibrio challenge assay. These results indicated that Hsp70s derived from either prokaryotic or eukaryotic sources generate protective immunity in the crustacean Artemia against V. campbellii infection by priming the proPO system. This is apparently the first in vivo report on priming activity of Hsp70 in an invertebrate. PMID:21554959

Baruah, Kartik; Ranjan, Jayant; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Macrae, Thomas H; Bossier, Peter

2011-05-01

418

Ingestion of bacteria overproducing DnaK attenuates Vibrio infection of Artemia franciscana larvae.  

PubMed

Feeding of bacterially encapsulated heat shock proteins (Hsps) to invertebrates is a novel way to limit Vibrio infection. As an example, ingestion of Escherichia coli overproducing prokaryotic Hsps significantly improves survival of gnotobiotically cultured Artemia larvae upon challenge with pathogenic Vibrio campbellii. The relationship between Hsp accumulation and enhanced resistance to infection may involve DnaK, the prokaryotic equivalent to Hsp70, a major molecular chaperone in eukaryotic cells. In support of this proposal, heat-stressed bacterial strains LVS 2 (Bacillus sp.), LVS 3 (Aeromonas hydrophila), LVS 8 (Vibrio sp.), GR 8 (Cytophaga sp.), and GR 10 (Roseobacter sp.) were shown in this work to be more effective than nonheated bacteria in protecting gnotobiotic Artemia larvae against V. campbellii challenge. Immunoprobing of Western blots and quantification by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that the amount of DnaK in bacteria and their ability to enhance larval resistance to infection by V. campbellii are correlated. Although the function of DnaK is uncertain, it may improve tolerance to V. campbellii via immune stimulation, a possibility of significance from a fundamental perspective and also because it could be applied in aquaculture, a major method of food production. PMID:19373565

Sung, Yeong Yik; Dhaene, Till; Defoirdt, Tom; Boon, Nico; MacRae, Thomas H; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter

2009-04-17

419

Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is capable of causing severe and often fatal infections in susceptible individuals. It causes two distinct disease syndromes, a primary septicemia and necrotizing wound infections. This review discusses the interaction of environmental conditions, host factors, and bacterial virulence determinants that contribute to the epidemiology and pathogenesis of V. vulnificus.

Mark S. Strom; Rohinee N. Paranjpye

2000-01-01

420

Genomic analysis of ICEVchBan8: An atypical genetic element in Vibrio cholerae  

PubMed Central

Genomic islands (GIs) and integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) are major players in bacterial evolution since they encode genes involved in adaptive functions of medical or environmental importance. Here we performed the genomic analysis of ICEVchBan8, an unusual ICE found in the genome of a clinical non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O37 isolate. ICEVchBan8 shares most of its genetic structure with SXT/R391 ICEs. However, this ICE codes for a different integration/excision module is located at a different insertion site, and part of its genetic cargo shows homology to other pathogenicity islands of V. cholerae.

Taviani, Elisa; Spagnoletti, Matteo; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Haley, Bradd J.; Hasan, Nur A.; Chen, Arlene; Colombo, Mauro M.; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

2013-01-01

421

A marine bacterium, Micrococcus MCCB 104, antagonistic to vibrios in prawn larval rearing systems.  

PubMed

A marine bacterium, Micrococcus MCCB 104, isolated from hatchery water, demonstrated extracellular antagonistic properties against Vibrio alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluviallis, V. nereis, V. proteolyticus, V. mediterranei, V cholerae and Aeromonas sp., bacteria associated with Macrobrachium rosenbergii larval rearing systems. The isolate inhibited the growth of V. alginolyticus during co-culture. The antagonistic component of the extracellular product was heat-stable and insensitive to proteases, lipase, catalase and alpha-amylase. Micrococcus MCCB 104 was demonstrated to be non-pathogenic to M. rosenbergii larvae. PMID:16465832

Jayaprakash, N S; Pai, S Somnath; Anas, A; Preetha, R; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

2005-12-30

422

Permanent draft genome sequence of Vibrio tubiashii strain NCIMB 1337 (ATCC19106)  

PubMed Central

Vibrio tubiashii NCIMB 1337 is a major and increasingly prevalent pathogen of bivalve mollusks, and shares a close phylogenetic relationship with both V. orientalis and V. coralliilyticus. It is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped bacterium, originally isolated from a moribund juvenile oyster, and is both oxidase and catalase positive. It is capable of growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome and annotation. The genome is 5,353,266 bp long, consisting of two chromosomes, and contains 4,864 protein-coding and 86 RNA genes.

Temperton, Ben; Thomas, Simon; Tait, Karen; Parry, Helen; Emery, Matt; Allen, Mike; Quinn, John; MacGrath, John; Gilbert, Jack

2011-01-01

423

Structure of vulnibactin, a new polyamine-containing siderophore from Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new siderophore named vulnibactin has been isolated from low iron cultures of Vibrio vulnificus, a human pathogen. The structure was established as N-[3-(2,3-dihydroxybenzamido)propyl]-1,3-bis[2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-trans-5-methyl-2-oxazoline-4-carboxamido]propane by a combination of acid hydrolysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positive fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Vulnibactin is characterized as containing one residue of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid as well as two residues of salicylic acid, both

Noriyuki Okujo; Miki Saito; Shigeo Yamamoto; Takashi Yoshida; Shinichi Miyoshi; Sumio Shinoda

1994-01-01

424

Detection of pathogenic gram negative bacteria using infrared thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of viable bacteria is of prime importance in all fields of microbiology and biotechnology. Conventional methods of enumerating bacteria are often time consuming and labor-intensive. All living organisms generate heat due to metabolic activities and hence, measurement of heat energy is a viable tool for detection and quantification of bacteria. In this article, we employ a non-contact and real time method - infrared thermography (IRT) for measurement of temperature variations in four clinically significant gram negative pathogenic bacteria, viz. Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We observe that, the energy content, defined as the ratio of heat generated by bacterial metabolic activities to the heat lost from the liquid medium to the surrounding, vary linearly with the bacterial concentration in all the four pathogenic bacteria. The amount of energy content observed in different species is attributed to their metabolisms and morphologies that affect the convection velocity and hence heat transport in the medium.

Lahiri, B. B.; Divya, M. P.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Thomas, Sabu; Philip, John

2012-11-01

425

Transcriptome profiling analysis of Vibrio vulnificus during human infection.  

PubMed

Vibrio vulnificus is a waterborne pathogen that was responsible for an outbreak of severe soft-tissue infections among fish farmers and fish consumers in Israel. Several factors have been shown to be associated with virulence. However, the transcriptome profile of the pathogen during human infection has not been determined yet. We compared the transcriptome profile, using RNA sequencing, of a human-pathogenic strain harvested directly from tissue of a patient suffering from severe soft-tissue infection with necrotizing fasciitis, with the same strain and three other environmental strains grown in vitro. The five sequenced libraries were aligned to the reference genomes of V. vulnificus strains CMCP6 and YJ016. Approximately 47.8 to 62.3 million paired-end raw reads were generated from the five runs. Nearly 84?% of the genome was covered by reads from at least one of the five runs, suggesting that nearly 16?% of the genome is not transcribed or is transcribed at low levels. We identified 123 genes that were differentially expressed during the acute phase of infection. Sixty-three genes were mapped to the large chromosome, 47 genes mapped to the small chromosome and 13 genes mapped to the YJ016 plasmid. The 123 genes fell into a variety of functional categories including transcription, signal transduction, cell motility, carbohydrate metabolism, intracellular trafficking and cell envelope biogenesis. Among the genes differentially expressed during human infection we identified genes encoding bacterial toxin (RtxA1) and genes involved in flagellar components, Flp-coding region, GGDEF family protein, iron acquisition system and sialic acid metabolism. PMID:23782800

Bisharat, Naiel; Bronstein, Michal; Korner, Mira; Schnitzer, Temima; Koton, Yael

2013-06-19

426

Population dynamics of Vibrio spp. associated with marine sponge microcosms.  

PubMed

Vibrio is a diverse genus of marine-associated bacteria with at least 74 species and more expected as additional marine ecospheres are interrogated. This report describes a phylogenetic reconstruction of Vibrio isolates derived from one such unique ecosystem, marine sponges (Phylum Porifera) collected from depths of 150 to 1242 feet. 16S rRNA gene sequencing along with molecular typing of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions clustered many sponge-associated Vibrio (spp) with current known species. That is, several benthic Vibrio species commensal with Porifera sponges seemed genetically linked to vibrios associated with coastal or shallow-water communities, signalling a panmictic population structure among seemingly ecologically disparate strains. Conversely, phylogenetic analysis provided evidence for at least two novel Vibrio speciation events within this specific sponge microcosm. Collectively, these findings earmark this still relatively unknown environment as a bastion of taxonomic and phylogenetic variability for the genus and probably other bacterial taxa. PMID:20596073

Hoffmann, Maria; Fischer, Markus; Ottesen, Andrea; McCarthy, Peter J; Lopez, Jose V; Brown, Eric W; Monday, Steven R

2010-07-01

427

Molecular Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cautious optimism has arisen over recent decades with respect to the long struggle against bacteria, viruses, and parasites. This has been offset, however, by a fatal complacency stemming from previous successes such as the development of antimicrobial drugs, the eradication of smallpox, and global immunization programs. Infectious diseases nevertheless remain the world's leading cause of death, killing at least 17 million persons annually [61]. Diarrheal diseases caused by Vibrio cholerae or Shigella dysenteriae kill about 3 million persons every year, most of them young children: Another 4 million die of tuberculosis or tetanus. Outbreaks of diphtheria in Eastern Europe threatens the population with a disease that had previously seemed to be overcome. Efforts to control infectious diseases more comprehensively are undermined not only by socioeconomic conditions but also by the nature of the pathogenic organisms itself; some isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter have become so resistant to drugs by horizontal gene transfer that they are almost untreatable. In addition, the mechanism of genetic variability helps pathogens to evade the human immune system, thus compromising the development of powerful vaccines. Therefore detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of microbial pathogenicity is absolutely necessary to develop new strategies against infectious diseases and thus to lower their impact on human health and social development.