SUMMARY The present study explored facets of personality in a sample of pathological gamblers with ADHD (n = 52) and without ADHD (n = 43). Participants were assessed for psychopathology and gambling disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Facets of personality were assessed using the NEO Personality InventoryRevised. Group differences emerged across several facets of personality when analyzed using multivariate statistics. Although both groups experienced difficulties in several areas compared with norming data (e.g., greater depression, higher impulsivity, lower self-esteem and lower self-discipline), these facets of personality were more pronounced in pathological gamblers with ADHD. Most notable among these differences are tendencies for gamblers with ADHD to experience greater levels of emotional instability, interpersonal sensitivity and stress proneness. Pathological gamblers with ADHD also appear to experience lower self-esteem, greater difficulty being assertive and lower levels of self-discipline. Surprisingly, both groups were comparable on facets of impulsivity. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers diagnosed with adult ADHD may experience additional challenges compared with pathological gamblers without ADHD. PMID:22815658
Davtian, Margarit; Reid, Rory C; Fong, Timothy W
Although much recent research has focused on the gambling practices and psychosocial functioning of pathological gamblers, few investigations have examined the characteristics of professional gamblers. The current project sought to address this gap in the literature by conducting a quantitative comparison of professional and pathological gamblers. Pathological gamblers were recruited and balanced with professional gamblers on demographic variables and preferred gambling activity. A total of 22 professional gamblers and 13 pathological gamblers completed an extensive self-report battery including instruments assessing demographics, gambling behaviors and problems, other psychiatric disorders, current psychosocial functioning, recent stressful events, personality characteristics, and intelligence. Pathological and professional gamblers reported similar rates of gambling frequency and intensity and types of games played. Pathological gamblers endorsed poor psychosocial functioning, whereas professional gamblers reported a rate of psychiatric distress within a normative range. Pathological gamblers also reported lower gambling self-efficacy, greater impulsivity, and more past-year DSM-IV Axis I disorders than professional gamblers. The results of the present study shed light on the unique circumstances of professional gamblers, as well as underscore important differences between such individuals and pathological gamblers that could prove fruitful in future research and intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:22581197
Weinstock, Jeremiah; Massura, Carrie E; Petry, Nancy M
Background Interpersonal guilt is associated with psychopathology, but its relationship to pathological gambling has not been studied. Objectives This study examined the relationship between interpersonal guilt and pathological gambling. Methods In total, 1,979 college students completed a questionnaire containing the South Oaks Gambling Screen, Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire, and questions about substance use. Students identified as pathological gamblers (n = 145) were matched to non-problem gamblers with respect to demographics and substance use. Results Pathological gamblers had significantly higher interpersonal guilt than their non-problem gambling peers. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Pathological gambling college students have excessive interpersonal guilt, and these findings may lead to novel treatment approaches. PMID:22746179
Locke, Geoffrey W.; Shilkret, Robert; Everett, Joyce E.; Petry, Nancy M.
Engaging in online games has become increasingly important as a part of leisure activity in adolescents and adults. While the majority of people use these games in a healthy way, epidemiological studies show that some develop excessive use and symptoms that are related to those of substance-related addictions. Despite increasing research concerning the epidemiology of internet gaming disorder (IGD), predisposing factors have been examined to a lesser extent. Knowing about specific risk factors would help clarify the nosological features of IGD and enhance prevention and intervention. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between personality traits and IGD. A total of 115 patients meeting the criteria for IGD were compared to 167 control subjects displaying either regular or intense use of online games. Additionally, 115 patients meeting diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling were included. IGD was associated with higher neuroticism, decreased conscientiousness and low extraversion. The comparisons to pathological gamblers indicate that low conscientiousness and low extraversion in particular are characteristic of IGD. An integration of personality variables into an etiopathological model describing presumable mechanisms fostering and maintaining addictive online gaming is proposed. This model could be helpful for the theoretical understanding of addictive gaming, public health campaigns and psychoeducation within therapeutic settings. PMID:24247280
Müller, K W; Beutel, M E; Egloff, B; Wölfling, K
Amino acids, such as valine, isoleucine and leucine compete with tyrosine and tryptophan for transport into the brain and might thus affect the central serotonin and catecholamine patterns. Furthermore, the excitatory amino acids glutamic acid, aspartic acid and glycine are known to act on the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, which is part of the reward system. Based on these facts, we have explored the role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amino acids in pathological gambling. Concentrations of amino acids were determined in CSF obtained from one female and 11 pathological male gamblers and 11 healthy male controls. In an ANCOVA with best subset regression, pathological male gamblers had higher CSF levels of the excitatory glutamic and aspartic acids, as well as of phenylalanine, isoleucine, citrulline and glycine. A negative contribution of glycine in interaction with the neuraxis distance might mirror a reduced spinal supply or an altered elimination of glycine in pathological gamblers. A decreasing CSF gradient from the first (0-6 ml) to the third (13-18 ml) CSF fraction was found for glutamic acid, glycine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, ornithine and glutamine in both pathological gamblers and healthy controls. A decreasing gradient was found, however, for aspartic acid and phenylalanine in pathological male gamblers. The altered pattern of CSF amino acids in pathological gamblers might exert an influence on central monoamines as well as on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function. PMID:18259089
Nordin, Conny; Gupta, Ramesh C; Sjödin, Ingemar
The present study examined the neurological correlates of slot machine gambling by pathological and nonpathological gamblers while undergoing an fMRI scanning procedure. Twenty-two total participants were exposed to a series of losses, small wins, and large wins on a computerized simulated slot machine. Results indicate that the two types of gamblers responded differently to the various game options, and that an apparent "dose effect" exists when small and big wins are compared for pathological gamblers. Specifically more neural activation occurred in the dopaminergic pathway under conditions of large wins. These data suggest that a non-drug substance such as gambling may mimic typical drug-dose effects shown in previous literature. Implications for the treatment of pathological gamblers are discussed. PMID:24607394
Dixon, Mark R; Wilson, Alyssa; Habib, Reza
The results of this study support the notion that pathological gamblers drawn from the community would score higher on all three scores from the YBOCS than light gamblers. Consistent with hypotheses, pathological gamblers (lottery and scratch ticket) reported more obsessions, compulsions, and avoidance behavior than the light gamblers, and also reported having more urges to engage in injurious behaviors to
Randy O. Frost; Beth M. Meagher; John H. Riskind
Impulsivity is associated with several psychiatric disorders in which the loss of control of a specific behavior determines the syndrome itself. One particularly interesting population characterized by reported high impulsivity and problematic decision-making are those diagnosed with pathological gambling. However the association between impulsivity and decision making in pathological gambling has been only partially confirmed until now. We tested 23 normal controls and 23 diagnosed pathological gamblers in an intertemporal choice task, as well as other personality trait measurements. Results showed that gamblers scored higher on impulsivity questionnaires, and selected a higher percentage of impatient choices (higher percentage of smaller, sooner rewards), when compared to normal controls. Moreover, gamblers were faster in terms of reaction times at selecting the smaller, sooner options and discounted rewards more rapidly over time. Importantly, regression analyses clarified that self-reported measures of impulsivity played a significant role in biasing decisions towards small but more rapidly available rewards. In the present study we found evidence for impulsivity in personality traits and decisions in pathological gamblers relative to controls. We conclude by speculating on the need to incorporate impulsivity and decision biases in the conceptualization of pathological gambling for a better understanding and treatment of this pathology. PMID:25296184
Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Rattin, Andrea; Guerreschi, Cesare; Sanfey, Alan G; Bonini, Nicolao
Substance abuse patterns were reviewed for a group of patients admitted to the Gambling Treatment Program at the Brecksville Veterans Administration Medical Center. A retrospective chart review of 113 consecutively admitted patients between September 2000 and September 2001 found that 66.4% of pathological gamblers had a lifetime history of substance abuse or dependence at some point in their lives. A history of substance abuse or dependence was less common among gamblers aged 60 and above. In the year prior to admission, 58.1% of those with a history of substance abuse or dependence were actively using substances. Alcohol was the most commonly used substance, followed by marijuana and cocaine. In most gamblers with comorbid disorders, the onset of substance dependence preceded the onset of problem gambling. Pathological gamblers engaged in multiple impulsive and dysfunctional behaviors including suicide attempts, compulsive shopping and spending, and compulsive sexual behavior, and the presence of comorbid substance abuse disorders may influence the degree to which pathological gamblers engage in these additional problematic behaviors. These factors have important implications for treatment and prevention of relapse, as well as for theories of addictions. PMID:14693255
Substance abuse patterns were reviewed for a group of patients admitted to the Gambling Treatment Program at the Brecksville Veterans Administration Medical Center.A retrospective chart review of 113 consecutively admitted patients between September 2000 and September 2001 found that 66.4% of pathological gamblers had a lifetime history of substance abuse or dependence at some point in their lives. A history
Neurocognitive disturbances suggesting a frontal lobe dysfunction have been observed in pathological gamblers and alcohol dependents. Given that a high homocysteine level has been suggested to be a mediating factor in alcohol-related cognitive decline, we have determined homocysteine and cobalamine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from 11
Nordin, Conny; Sjodin, Ingemar
This study examined putative subtypes of pathological gamblers (PGs) based on the Pathways model, and it also evaluated whether the subtypes would benefit differentially from treatment. Treatment-seeking PGs (N = 229) were categorized into Pathways subtypes based on scores from questionnaires assessing anxiety, depression, and impulsivity. The Addiction Severity IndexGambling assessed severity of gambling problems at baseline, posttreatment, and 12-month
David M. Ledgerwood; Nancy M. Petry
Pathological gambling is classified as a disorder of impulse control, yet little research has evaluated behavioral indices of impulsivity in gamblers. The rates at which rewards delayed in time are subjectively devalued may be a behavioral marker of impulsivity. This study evaluated delay discounting in 60 pathological gamblers and 26 control participants. Gamblers were divided into those with (n =
Nancy M. Petry
An illusion of control is said to occur when a person believes that he or she controls an outcome that is uncontrollable. Pathological gambling has often been related to an illusion of control, but the assessment of the illusion has generally used introspective methods in domain-specific (i.e., gambling) situations. The illusion of control of pathological gamblers, however, could be a more general problem, affecting other aspects of their daily life. Thus, we tested them using a standard associative learning task which is known to produce illusions of control in most people under certain conditions. The results showed that the illusion was significantly stronger in pathological gamblers than in a control undiagnosed sample. This suggests (1) that the experimental tasks used in basic associative learning research could be used to detect illusions of control in gamblers in a more indirect way, as compared to introspective and domain-specific questionnaires; and (2), that in addition to gambling-specific problems, pathological gamblers may have a higher-than-normal illusion of control in their daily life. PMID:23785340
Orgaz, Cristina; Estévez, Ana; Matute, Helena
Gambling Disorder (GD) is an addictive disorder resulting in significant impairment in occupational and social functioning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of GD risk to adaptive and maladaptive personality dimensions in a sample of nonreferred Italian gamblers. The authors found the risk for GD to show significant associations with the Openness and Conscientiousness scales of the Big Five Inventory (BFI); however, these effects were not significant after controlling for alcohol and drug use. GD risk showed significant associations with the Detachment and Antagonism domains of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), as well as with the PID-5 facet scales of Hostility, Callousness, Deceitfulness, Manipulativeness, Irresponsibility, and (low) Rigid Perfectionism, even when controlling for alcohol and drug use. Maladaptive personality dispositions may serve as risk factors for pathological gambling, even beyond their impact on frequently concomitant problems with alcohol and other drugs. PMID:25248017
Carlotta, Davide; Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Borroni, Serena; Frera, Fernanda; Somma, Antonella; Maffei, Cesare; Fossati, Andrea
It is recognised that cultural factors play a role in the onset and continuation of several mental health problems. However, there is a significant lack of empirical studies investigating the relationships between cultural factors and gambling behavior. This study assessed whether the subjective cultures through which subjects interpret and enact their experience of the social environment play a major role in increasing (or decreasing) the probability of pathological gambling. Participants, recruited in three different contexts (public health services for the treatment of addiction, casino, undergraduate course) were subjected to the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) (Lesieur and Blume in Am J Psychiatry 144(9):1184-1188, 1987), in order to identify a group of pathological gamblers-and with the Questionnaire on the Interpretation of the Social Environment (QUISE) (Mossi and Salvatore in Eur J Educ Psychol 4(2):153-169, 2011)-in order to detect their subjective cultures. The study compares pathological group (scoring >5 on SOGS, n = 34) and a healthy control group (scoring <1 on SOGS, n = 35). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare groups on QUISE scores of subjective culture. Moreover, a logistic regression was applied in order to esteem the capability of the QUISE scores to differentiate between pathological gamblers and control. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that pathological group expresses different subjective cultures compared with no gambler subjects. The theoretical and clinical implications of the results are discussed. PMID:24970696
Venuleo, Claudia; Salvatore, Sergio; Mossi, Piergiorgio
The study of the effectiveness of treatment for pathological gambling constitutes a field that is still largely unexplored. To date, the models assessed primarily target the individual and include little or no involvement of the family circle. Yet, the deleterious effects of gambling on loved ones and especially spouses are well recognized. Further, the addition of a couple modality to individual treatment has been shown to be effective on many levels in the treatment of substances use disorders. This article therefore proposes a critical review of (1) the literature providing a better understanding of the complex interactions between the couple relationship and pathological gambling, (2) studies on the effects of couple therapies on gamblers and their partners. We then present the therapeutic model developed by our team of clinician-researchers in collaboration with actors from Québec clinical settings: Adapted Couple Therapy (ACT) for pathological gamblers. In the Québec context, this model will serve as a complement to an individual cognitive-behavioral treatment model that has been proven effective and is employed throughout the Canadian province. The assessment of couple therapies could reveal avenues of solutions to better assist pathological gamblers who tend to drop-out of treatment and relapse. PMID:18560999
Bertrand, Karine; Dufour, Magali; Wright, John; Lasnier, Benoît
Over the past three decades, gambling has been the nation's fastest growing industry. Although there is now some leveling off, states are still turning to legalized gambling to address financial problems without having to raise taxes. In addition, there is new technology that produces more rapidly addicting games. States are accepting some responsibility and, as of this writing, 12 of them have funded some programs in public education, research, training, and treatment. Although there are only a half dozen inpatient programs and very few qualified counselors and therapists, we can anticipate the development of clinics, residential programs, halfway houses, and alternative sentencing programs. The National Council on Problem Gambling has developed guidelines for the certification of gambling counselors. In addition to the training of mental health professionals, workshops are needed for attorneys, judges, probation and parole officers, and prison administrators. Initially, the task of assessing and diagnosing the pathological gambler was left to a small number of experts. Starting with DSM-IV, there will be clear and reliable criteria available to the professional community. These criteria, which are the product of thorough testing, should easily discriminate the pathological gambler from other types of gamblers. Most of what we have learned about pathological gambling has come in the last 5 years. A major impetus for research has been the Journal of Gambling Studies, which began publication in 1985. A review of the nature and course of the disorder, including the studies of criminal behavior, leads one to conclude that the majority of pathological gamblers (at least 70% to 80%) commit offenses late in the disorder and that these offenses are strictly gambling related. This is a population which is essentially nonviolent and which turns to property crimes out of desperation over gambling losses and their sequelae. The minority (in one study 14%) of gamblers with antisocial personality disorder--the group for whom treatment would be least likely to be effective--can be recognized easily both by the pattern of offenses and by diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality. Once this group is excluded, treatment for the others, in combination with restitution, community service, and some form of monitoring, would seem beneficial both for the individual and for society. Once they have stopped gambling, pathological gamblers are frequently hard-working people, whose mathematical skills and intelligence, high energy, and need to excel make them extremely valuable at their jobs. The alternative, imprisonment, may very well reinforce the disorder.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1409026
Rosenthal, R J; Lorenz, V C
It is not surprising that developing professional competence in treating the pathological gambler is a major problem today, given the scarcity of treatment programs for pathological gambling. This paper explores a learning model which weaves together the experiential knowledge of the recovering pathological gambler with the skills of professional mental health clinicians. An example of this model is the team
Joanna Franklin; Joseph Ciarrocchi
Individuals with addictive disorders, including substance abusers and pathological gamblers, discount or devalue rewards delayed in time more than controls. Theoretically, preference for probabilistic rewards is directly related to gambling, but limited empirical research has examined probabilistic discounting in individuals with pathological gambling. This study evaluated probability and delay discounting in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers and their association with gambling treatment
Nancy M. Petry
Background: Pathological gambling affects 13% of the adult population, and has high comorbidity. Although mood stabilizers and serotonin reuptake inhibitors have shown some efficacy in the treatment of this condition, there is little known about how these pharmacological interventions work. Methods: Twenty-one patients with pathological gambling, who met lifetime comorbid bipolar spectrum diagnoses, received baseline PET scans. Sixteen of these
Eric Hollander; Monte S. Buchsbaum; M. Mehmet Haznedar; Jessica Berenguer; Heather A. Berlin; William Chaplin; Chelain R. Goodman; Elizabeth M. LiCalzi; Randall Newmark; Stefano Pallanti
The risk for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among pathological gamblers is high compared to the general population. Little is known about the interplay of Axis I and Axis II disorders, severity of gambling disorder, and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The study aims to address this linkage. The sampling design of the study "Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology" (PAGE) included four recruitment channels: general population, gambling locations, project telephone hotline, and in-patient treatment for pathological gambling. A total of 442 study participants with lifetime pathological gambling received a clinical interview. The multivariate analysis showed mood disorders (Relative Risk Ratio, RRR=5.14, 95%-Confidence Interval, CI=2.91-9.07), substance use disorders (RRR=1.73, CI=1.02-2.94), and early onset of gambling disorder (RRR=0.96, CI=0.93-0.99) to be associated with suicidal ideation. Suicidal attempts were associated with female sex (RRR=3.58, CI=1.56-8.19), mood disorders (RRR=11.92, CI=4.70-30.26), and Cluster B personality disorders (RRR=2.40, CI=1.13-5.10). Among study participants with suicide attempts, more had a Cluster B personality disorder than among participants with ideation solely (RRR=3.08, CI=1.48-6.40). Among this large mixed sample of pathological gamblers, high proportions of individuals with suicidal events, multi-morbidity on Axis I, and a strong linkage to Cluster B personality disorders were found. PMID:25537488
Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian; Bischof, Gallus; John, Ulrich; Wurst, Friedrich Martin; Thon, Natasha; Lucht, Michael; Grabe, Hans Joergen; Rumpf, Hans-Juergen
Pathological gambling is known to be associated with a higher than average prevalence of psychological co-morbidities including a range of psychiatric conditions. A problem with much of this literature, however, is that such problems are also frequently found in populations affected by alcohol use disorder, which is common in populations of pathological gamblers. Accordingly, the principal aim of this study was to profile the comorbidities present in a sample of pathological gamblers, comparing those who did, and did not, additionally meet criteria for alcohol use disorder. A sample of 140 community-recruited regular gamblers completed a number of measures including the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire, NORC DSM-IV Screen Self-Administered and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Comparisons showed that most psychiatric conditions (and in particular personality disorders) were significantly more prevalent in those with a dual diagnosis, followed by problem gamblers and then by those with neither disorder. This suggests that high rates of psychiatric illness in pathological gambling may be strongly influenced by co-occurring alcohol problems. PMID:24315782
Abdollahnejad, Reza; Delfabbro, Paul; Denson, Linley
The present study examines the mental health management of pathological gamblers by counseling and relaxation practices. Fifty-five treated and 55 non-treated pathological gamblers were evaluated at S. I. Mental and Physical Health Society, Varanasi, India. The two groups were matched by age, ranging 20 to 53 years with a mean age of 36.2 years and mean length of uncontrollable gambling of 7.3 years. The Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire and the Death Anxiety Scale were administered to ascertain mental health and death anxiety on seven selected dimensions, including: anxiety, obsession, phobia, somatization, depression, hysteria, and death anxiety. Mean scores obtained on different variables were analyzed using a t-test of significance. Results indicated that the characteristic associated with treated pathological gamblers was phobia whereas the characteristics associated with non-treated pathological gamblers were anxiety, obsession, somatization, depression, and death anxiety. PMID:24066639
Sharma, M G; Upadhyay, Awadhesh; Sharma, Vandana
Although effective therapies for pathological gambling exist, their uptake is limited to 10% of the target population. To lower the barriers for help seeking, the authors tested an online alternative in a randomized trial (N = 66). The participants were pathological gamblers not presenting with severe comorbid depression. A wait-list control was
Carlbring, Per; Smit, Filip
This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behavior of 39 pathological gamblers who participated in our treatment study in 2009. The inclusion criteria of the study were: score of five or more on both the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and a pathological gambling screen based on the Diagnostic and Statistical
Lahti, Tuuli; Halme, Jukka; Pankakoski, Maiju; Sinclair, David; Alho, Hannu
Nineteen treatment-seeking men meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (4th ed.) criteria for pathological gambling and 19 demographically matched controls participated. Participants provided demographic information, information about their recent drug use and gambling activities, and biological samples (to confirm drug abstinence). They also completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and 2 questionnaires designed
Gregory J. Madden; Nancy M. Petry; Patrick S. Johnson
The study was undertaken with the general hypothesis that short term conjoint group therapy with pathological gamblers and their wives would help them become less defensive. This should enable the working through process, and hence contribute to increased marital compatibility and communications. Ten volunteer couples were subjects in the experimental condition. The same number of subjects participated as controls. They
Jerome H. Tepperman
The purpose of this translational study was twofold: (1) to contrast behavioral and brain activity between pathological and nonpathological gamblers, and (2) to examine differences as a function of the outcome of the spin of a slot machine, focusing predominately on the "Near-Miss"--when two reels stop on the same symbol, and that symbol is just
Habib, Reza; Dixon, Mark R.
The purpose of this translational study was twofold: (1) to contrast behavioral and brain activity between pathological and nonpathological gamblers, and (2) to examine differences as a function of the outcome of the spin of a slot machine, focusing predominately on the Near-Misswhen two reels stop on the same symbol, and that symbol is just above or below the payoff line on the third reel. Twenty-two participants (11 nonpathological; 11 pathological) completed the study by rating the closeness of various outcomes of slot machine displays (wins, losses, and near-misses) to a win. No behavioral differences were observed between groups of participants, however, differences in brain activity were found in the left midbrain, near the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area (SN / VTA). Near-miss outcomes uniquely activated brain regions associated with wins for the pathological gamblers and regions associated with losses for the nonpathological gamblers. Thus, near-miss outcomes on slot machines may contain both functional and neurological properties of wins for pathological gamblers. Such a translational approach to the study of gambling behavior may be considered an example that gives life to B. F. Skinner's conceptualization of the physiologist of the future. PMID:21119848
Habib, Reza; Dixon, Mark R
Individuals with addictive disorders, including substance abusers and pathological gamblers, discount or devalue rewards delayed in time more than controls. Theoretically, preference for probabilistic rewards is directly related to gambling, but limited empirical research has examined probabilistic discounting in individuals with pathological gambling. This study evaluated probability and delay discounting in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers and their association with gambling treatment outcomes during and following treatment. At time of treatment entry, 226 pathological gamblers completed probability and delay discounting tasks. They were then randomized to one of three treatment conditions, and gambling behavior was measured throughout treatment and at a one-year follow-up assessment. After controlling for possibly confounding variables and treatment condition, more shallow probability discounting was associated with greater reductions in amounts wagered during treatment and likelihood of gambling abstinence at the end of treatment and throughout the follow-up period. No associations were noted between delay discounting and gambling treatment outcomes. These data suggest that probability discounting may be an important construct in understanding pathological gambling and its treatment. PMID:21842965
Petry, Nancy M.
Rationale Pathological gambling and substance use disorders are highly comorbid, possibly because they both stem from a similar processimpulsivity. Although much data exist regarding the association between delay discounting and these psychiatric disorders, relatively little research has examined probability discounting and its relationship with either substance use or gambling. Objectives The goal of the current study was to compare rates of probability and delay discounting in a large population of pathological gamblers with and without a history of substance use problems. Methods Treatment-seeking pathological gamblers with (n=117) and without (n=119) a history of substance use problems completed questionnaires about discounting of hypothetical monetary outcomes and the Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire. The delay discounting questionnaire involved choices between a smaller amount of money delivered immediately versus a larger amount delivered later, and the probability questionnaire was comprised of choices between a smaller certain versus a larger probabilistic monetary outcome. Hyperbolic functions estimated delay and probability discounting rates based on the indifference points obtained through the questionnaires. Results Results revealed significant effects of substance use problem status on delay but not on probability discounting, with no significant correlation noted between the two discounting processes. Only delay discounting correlated with Eysenck impulsivity scores. Conclusions These data suggest that delay and probability discounting tap different dimensions, and delay discounting is more closely linked with substance use problem histories in pathological gamblers. PMID:21952671
Andrade, Leonardo F.; Petry, Nancy M.
Both substance-based addiction and behavioural impulse control disorders (ICDs) have been associated with dysfunctions of the ventral striatum. Recent studies using functional connectivity techniques have revealed increased coupling of the ventral striatum with other limbic regions such as amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in patients with substance abuse disorders and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In the present study, we re-analyzed previously published functional magnetic resonance imaging data acquired in pathological gamblers and controls during value-based decision-making to investigate whether PG is associated with similar functional connectivity effects. In line with previous studies in other ICDs, we observed reliable increases in functional coupling between striatum and bilateral amygdala in gamblers vs. controls. Implications of these findings for neural models of self-control and addiction are discussed. PMID:24023940
topic in the addiction literature. The present study aimed at taking a first step towards addressing-awareness that many addicts suffer from, thus providing a novel approach for capturing and measuring this impairment, and for investigating its possible causes. Keywords Pathological gambling Ã Decision-making Ã Uncertainty Ã Insight D
Allman, John M.
This study examined the role of impulsivity and its interplay with gambling correlates in influencing the severity of pathological gambling in Chinese societies. It also investigated the extent to which impulsivity would moderate and/or mediate the relationship between life stress and pathological gambling in 94 Chinese treatment-seeking gamblers.
Tang, Catherine So-kum; Wu, Anise M. S.
Background\\/Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the serotonin transporter (SERT), by means of the 3H-paroxetine ([3H]-Par) binding to platelet membranes, in patients affected by pathological gambling (PG), as compared with a similar group of healthy control subjects. Methods: Seventeen PG patients were selected amongst those who were drug-free and at the first psychiatric interview in a Department
Donatella Marazziti; Francesca Golia; Michela Picchetti; Ellena Pioli; Patrizia Mannari; Francesco Lenzi; Ciro Conversano; Claudia Carmassi; Mario Catena DellOsso; Giorgio Consoli; Stefano Baroni; Gino Giannaccini; Giuseppe Zanda; Liliana DellOsso
It has been demonstrated that craving for gambling is associated with anxiety and depression in pathological gamblers. Exercise has been shown to reduce anxiety and depression, as well as positively influence abstinence rates in individuals with substance use disorders. In this study, we examined the impact of a physical activity program in 33 pathological gamblers. We also analyzed the association between craving and plasmatic levels of stress hormones (adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, and prolactin). The program involved eight 50-min sessions. Craving was assessed 24 h before, immediately before, and immediately after each session, as well as on a weekly basis. Before and after the program, we evaluated gambling behavior, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and plasma levels of stress hormones. We identified a significant reduction in craving following each session and at the end of the program. There was improvement in anxiety, depressive symptoms, and gambling behavior. The post-session reduction in craving was accompanied by post-program reductions in craving and anxiety but not by a post-program reduction in depressive symptoms. The craving reduction was associated with a variation in prolactin levels but not with variations in levels of cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone. PMID:22661334
Angelo, Daniela Lopes; Tavares, Hermano; Zilberman, Monica Levit
This paper reports the underlying structure of the demographic and clinical characteristics of level 3 (i.e., pathological) Korean casino gamblers. The participants reported their gambling behavior and clinical characteristics known to be associated with gambling problems (e.g., alcohol use problems, eating disorders, depression, anxiety, and
Lee, Tae Kyung; LaBrie, Richard A.; Grant, Jon E.; Kim, Suck Won; Shaffer, Howard J.
Increases in access to gambling venues have been accompanied by increased gambling behavior among young adults. The present research examined associations among Five Factor Model personality traits, motives for gambling, and gambling behavior and problems using latent class analysis. College students (N = 220) completed online measures of personality and gambling behavior as part of a larger intervention trial. Agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with indicators of gambling behavior. Low agreeableness and high neuroticism were associated with gambling-specific motives, particularly for less frequently endorsed motives. Personality-based latent class analyses of emerging adult gamblers revealed support for three distinct groups reflecting a resilient personality group, a normative personality group, and a vulnerable personality group, which were further differentiated by gambling behaviors and gambling-specific motives. Associations between personality traits and gambling-specific motives highlight potential heterogeneity among college students who gamble. Together, findings suggest that the correlational and latent class-based analyses, as well as the personality and motivation analyses, present complementary information with respect to the attributes of college student gamblers. Implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:25228408
Tackett, Jennifer L; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Rinker, Dipali V; Neighbors, Clayton
Pathological gamblers (PGs) may have high levels of impulsivity, and a correlation between substance use disorders (SUDs) and impulsivity is well established. However, only a handful of studies have attempted to assess impulsivity and other impulse-spectrum traits (e.g., sensation seeking) using a variety of behavioral and self-report measures in PGs and few examined the independent impact of SUDs. We compared
David M. Ledgerwood; Sheila M. Alessi; Natalie Phoenix; Nancy M. Petry
The objective of this study was to identify profiles of gamblers to explain the choice of preferred gambling activity among both problem and non-problem gamblers. 628 non-problem and problem gamblers were assessed with a structured interview including "healthy" (sociodemographic characteristics, gambling habits and personality profile assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory-125) and "pathological" [diagnosis of pathological gambling, gambling-related cognitions (GRCs) and psychiatric comorbidity] variables. We performed a two-step cluster analysis based solely on "healthy" variables to identify gamblers' profiles which typically reflect the choice of preferred gambling activity. The obtained classes were then described using both "healthy" and "pathological" variables, by comparing each class to the rest of the sample. Clusters were generated. Class 1 (Electronic Gaming Machines gamblers) showed high cooperativeness, a lower level of GRC about strategy and more depressive disorders. Class 2 (games with deferred results gamblers) were high novelty seekers and showed a higher level of GRC about strategy and more addictive disorders. Class 3 (roulette gamblers) were more often high rollers and showed a higher level of GRC about strategy and more manic or hypomanic episodes and more obsessive-compulsive disorders. Class 4 (instant lottery gamblers) showed a lower tendency to suicide attempts. Class 5 (scratch cards gamblers) were high harm avoiders and showed a lower overall level of GRC and more panic attacks and eating disorders. The preference for one particular gambling activity may concern different profiles of gamblers. This study highlights the importance of considering the pair gambler-game rather than one or the other separately, and may provide support for future research on gambling and preventive actions directed toward a particular game. PMID:25192752
Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Renard, Noëlle; Legauffre, Cindy; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Gorsane, Mohamed-Ali; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Grall-Bronnec, Marie
Slot machines are the most "addictive" games because (a) the disorder (pathological gambling) appears more rapidly in these games than with any other; (b) most patients who seek professional help are mainly addicted to electronic gambling, and (c) even though it is not the more frequent game, most of all the money spent on legal games of chance (at least in Spain) goes to slot machines. Structural characteristics of slot machines induce to gamble because electronic games show the main parameters of operant conditioning, mainly the immediacy of the reinforcement. Ten pathological gamblers played slot machine in two conditions: immediate and delayed reinforcement. The results corroborate the importance of the immediacy of the reinforcement in gambling, because when the result appears immediately (after 2 s), more games are played than when the result is delayed only 10 s. Critical issues in problem gambling prevention and public health are discussed. PMID:19882307
Pathological gamblers (PGs) may have high levels of impulsivity, and a correlation between substance use disorders (SUDs) and impulsivity is well established. However, only a handful of studies have attempted to assess impulsivity and other impulse-spectrum traits (e.g., sensation seeking) using a variety of behavioral and self-report measures in PGs and few examined the independent impact of SUDs. We compared 30 PGs without SUD histories, 31 PGs with SUD histories and 40 control participants on self-reported impulsivity, delayed discounting, attention/memory, response inhibition, risk taking, sensation seeking and distress tolerance measures. PGs, regardless of SUD history, discounted delayed rewards at greater rates than controls. PGs also reported acting on the spur of the moment, experienced trouble planning and thinking carefully, and noted greater attention difficulties than controls. PGs with SUD took greater risks on a risk-taking task than did PGs without SUD histories, but the two groups did not differ on any other measures of impulsivity. We conclude that PGs are more impulsive than non-problem gamblers in fairly specific ways, but PGs with and without SUD histories differ on few measures. More research should focus on specific ways in which PGs exhibit impulsivity to better address impulsive behaviors in treatment. PMID:19615829
Ledgerwood, David M; Alessi, Sheila M; Phoenix, Natalie; Petry, Nancy M
The aim of this study was to systematically review and meta-analyze the prevalence of comorbid personality disorders among treatment-seeking problem gamblers. Almost one half (47.9%) of problem gamblers displayed comorbid personality disorders. They were most likely to display Cluster B disorders (17.6%), with smaller proportions reporting Cluster C disorders (12.6%) and Cluster A disorders (6.1%). The most prevalent personality disorders were narcissistic (16.6%), antisocial (14.0%), avoidant (13.4%), obsessive-compulsive (13.4%), and borderline (13.1%) personality disorders. Sensitivity analyses suggested that these prevalence estimates were robust to the inclusion of clinical trials and self-selected samples. Although there was significant variability in reported rates, subgroup analyses revealed no significant differences in estimates of antisocial personality disorder according to problem gambling severity, measure of comorbidity employed, and study jurisdiction. The findings highlight the need for gambling treatment services to conduct routine screening and assessment of co-occurring personality disorders and to provide treatment approaches that adequately address these comorbid conditions. PMID:25248010
Dowling, Nicki A; Cowlishaw, S; Jackson, A C; Merkouris, S S; Francis, K L; Christensen, D R
Recent evidence indicates that more and more women gamble and develop gambling problems and pathological gambling (PG). Research has further indicated that female and male PGs differ in their clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to do a critical review of the literature concerning clinical characteristics of female pathological
Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Dahl, Alv A.
Pathological gambling has been characterised by DSM-III-R and DSM-IV as a disorder of impulse control with a proportion of gamblers identified as meeting criteria for a co-morbid diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder. To date, empirical evidence in support of the notion that pathological gamblers as a group manifest elevated traits of impulsivity remains equivocal. Principal components analysis was used to
Zachary Steel; Alex Blaszczynski
Gambling-related self-efficacy has been shown to correspond with treatment success and maintenance of treatment gains. Accordingly, there is a need for gambling assessment measures that have been validated with treatment-seeking individuals. In this study, we reported on the evaluation of a measure of perceived self-efficacy to control gambling behavior in high-risk relapse situations, the Gambling Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (GSEQ; May, Whelan, Steenbergh, & Meyers, 2003). Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses provided some support for the original single-factor solutions, but also suggested the presence of individual patterns of self-efficacy across high-risk situations. The GSEQ demonstrated convergence with indices of problem-gambling severity and scores on the measure significantly increased across a brief cognitive-behavioral intervention. The sensitivity and specificity were evaluated and the findings supported that an average self-efficacy rating of 70% corresponded with indices of pathological gambling. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25180557
Winfree, Walter R; Ginley, Meredith K; Whelan, James P; Meyers, Andrew W
Pathological gambling creates enormous problems for the afflicted individuals, their families, employers, and society, and has numerous disastrous financial consequences. The present study evaluates the financial burdens of pathological gambling by questioning pathological gamblers in treatment in Gamblers Anonymous (n=60; 56 males, 4 females; mean age = 40 years old) about personal debts, loss of productivity at work, illegal activities, medical costs and the presence of other dependencies. Results show that important debts, loss of productivity at work and legal problems are associated with pathological gambling. Discussion is formulated in terms of the social cost of adopting a liberal attitude toward the legalization of various gambling activities. PMID:24234973
Ladouceur, R; Boisvert, J M; Pépin, M; Loranger, M; Sylvain, C
As illustrated by two articles that each investigate personality pathology and its correlates in adolescentsAelterman et\\u000a al. (2010) on obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) from a dimensional personality perspective, and Barry and Wallace (2010) on indicators of pathological and normative development of youth narcissismthis commentary discusses four important assessment\\u000a issues that have become more salient as the field considers a shift,
Lee Anna Clark
Sex differences in incidence and severity of some stress-related, neuropsychiatric disorders are often reported to favor men, suggesting that women may be more vulnerable to aberrant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stress. In this review, we discuss several investigations that we, and others, have conducted assessing salivary cortisol as a measure of HPA function. We have examined basal cortisol among healthy men and women and also following acute exposure to stressors. Among healthy participants, men had higher basal cortisol levels than did women. In response to acute stressors, such as carbon dioxide or noise, respectively, cortisol levels were comparable between men and women or higher among women. We have also examined cortisol levels among those with problem eating, gambling, or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women with restrained eating habits have higher basal cortisol levels than do women without restrained eating habits. Pathological gamblers have more aberrant stress response to gambling stimuli than do recreational gamblers, and these effects are more prominent among men than women. Men who have motor vehicle accident related PTSD, demonstrate more aberrant cortisol function, than do their female counterparts. Although these sex differences in cortisol seem to vary with type of stress exposure and/or pathophysiological status of the individual, other hormones may influence cortisol response. To address this, cortisol levels among boys and girls with different stress-related experiences, will be the subject of future investigation. PMID:19538960
Paris, Jason J; Franco, Christine; Sodano, Ruthlyn; Freidenberg, Brian; Gordis, Elana; Anderson, Drew A; Forsyth, John P; Wulfert, Edelgard; Frye, Cheryl A
Sex differences in incidence and severity of some stress-related, neuropsychiatric disorders are often reported to favor men, suggesting that women may be more vulnerable to aberrant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stress. In this review, we discuss several investigations that we, and others, have conducted assessing salivary cortisol as a measure of HPA function. We have examined basal cortisol among healthy men and women and also following acute exposure to stressors. Among healthy participants, men had higher basal cortisol levels than did women. In response to acute stressors, such as carbon dioxide or noise, respectively, cortisol levels were comparable between men and women or higher among women. We have also examined cortisol levels among those with problem eating, gambling, or post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women with restrained eating habits have higher basal cortisol levels than do women without restrained eating habits. Pathological gamblers have more aberrant stress response to gambling stimuli than do recreational gamblers, and these effects are more prominent among men than women. Men who have motor-vehicle accident related PTSD, demonstrate more aberrant cortisol function, than do their female counterparts. Although these sex differences in cortisol seem to vary with type of stress exposure and/or pathophysiological status of the individual, other hormones may influence cortisol response. To address this, cortisol levels among boys and girls with different stress-related experiences, will be the subject of future investigation. PMID:19538960
Paris, Jason J.; Franco, Christine; Sodano, Ruthlyn; Freidenberg, Brian; Gordis, Elana; Anderson, Drew A.; Forsyth, John P.; Wulfert, Edelgard; Frye, Cheryl A.
The purpose of this study was to study the relationship between alexithymia and gambling in a community sample of pathological gamblers. Pathological, problem and non-problem gamblers were recruited from the community via advertisements and completed an assessment of their gambling behavior and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Alexithymia was higher among male pathological gamblers who identified slot machines, cards, and lotteries
Tony Toneatto; Julia Lecce; Michael Bagby
Section 3 of the DSM-5 will include a pathological personality trait system rooted in the quantitative epistemology of personality and clinical psychology. This system has the potential to enhance the clinical utility of the diagnostic nosology by providing a means for the dimensional assessment of individuals with psychopathology. However, there is limited research on the associations of DSM-5 traits with common mental disorders and related clinical phenomena as measured by currently popular assessment instruments. The purpose of this article was to evaluate the convergence of the DSM-5 trait system with a well-validated broadband clinical instrument, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). Bivariate correlations were examined and factor analytic methods were used to examine the degree to which the DSM-5 traits and PAI capture common variance in personality and mental health. In a student sample (N = 1,001), we found broad convergence between the DSM-5 traits and PAI, which could be organized effectively using five factors. The implications of these findings for using traits to address issues related to diagnostic co-occurrence and heterogeneity in routine clinical assessment are discussed. PMID:23610235
Hopwood, Christopher J; Wright, Aidan G C; Krueger, Robert F; Schade, Nick; Markon, Kristian E; Morey, Leslie C
This study investigated three different types of gamblers (recreational, problem, and pathological gamblers) to determine differences in gambling motivations and recreational activity preferences among casino gamblers. We collected data from 600 gamblers recruited in an actual gambling environment inside a major casino in South Korea. Findings indicate that motivational factors of escape, sightseeing, and winning were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. When looking at motivations to visit the casino, pathological gamblers were more likely to be motivated by winning, whereas recreational gamblers were more likely to be motivated by scenery and culture in the surrounding casino area. Meanwhile, the problem gamblers fell between these two groups, indicating higher preferences for non-gambling activities than the pathological gamblers. As this study builds upon a foundational previous study by Lee et al. (Psychiatry Investig 6(3):141-149, 2009), the results of this new study were compared with those of the previous study to see if new developments within a resort-style casino contribute to changes in motivations and recreational activity preferences. PMID:25398482
Lee, Choong-Ki; Bernhard, Bo Jason; Kim, Jungsun; Fong, Timothy; Lee, Tae Kyung
Gambling behavior is not a unique behavior. There are certain differences in behavior, gambling habits, gambling beliefs, and their reflection in psychosocial life. We have compared three groups of adult male gamblers-sports gamblers (n = 41), machine gamblers (n = 36), and poker gamblers (n = 35)-in regard to measures of personal status and legal-social characteristics. We found no difference between groups in terms of the length of gambling behavior, personal status, or age. We found no legal difference between groups in terms of the number of court cases for debt, stealing, or family court cases. In terms of economic circumstances, sports gamblers suffered more losses than the other groups (p < 0.0001). There were higher rates of bankruptcy among sports gamblers compared with machine gamblers (p < 0.01). Sports gamblers were more likely to borrow money from the black market compared with the other groups (p < 0.01). In terms of mental health, sports and machine gamblers had more suicidal thoughts and gestures than poker gamblers (p < 0.05), whereas the rate of suicide attempts was higher in machine gamblers compared with poker players (p < 0.05). Our results indicated higher vulnerability in sports gamblers in terms of economic problems compared with the other groups, whereas machine gamblers had vulnerability to suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts compared with poker gamblers. PMID:24838781
Weinstein, A; Klein, L Dinur; Dannon, P N
There is a strong association between pathological gambling and substance abuse. The objective of this study is to identify the differences between substance abusers with and without gambling problems. A cross sectional study was conducted interviewing with Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), alcohol and drug
Mathias, Ana Carolina R.; Vargens, Renata W.; Kessler, Felix H.; Cruz, Marcelo S.
Previous research indicated shared neurochemical substrates for gambling and psychostimulant reward. This suggests that dopamine substrates may directly govern the reinforcement process in pathological gambling. To investigate this issue, the present study assessed the effects of the relatively selective dopamine D2 antagonist, haloperidol (3 mg, oral) on responses to actual gambling (15 min on a slot machine) in 20 non-comorbid
Martin Zack; Constantine X Poulos
Slot machines are the most addictive games because (a) the disorder (pathological gambling) appears more rapidly in these\\u000a games than with any other; (b) most patients who seek professional help are mainly addicted to electronic gambling, and (c)\\u000a even though it is not the more frequent game, most of all the money spent on legal games of chance (at least
It has been argued that a heightened emotional sensitivity interferes with the cognitive processing of facial emotion recognition and may explain the intensified emotional reactions to external emotional stimuli of adults with personality pathology, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study examines if and how deviations in facial emotion recognition also occur in adolescents with personality pathology. Forty-two adolescents with personality pathology, 111 healthy adolescents and 28 psychiatric adolescents without personality pathology completed the Emotion Recognition Task, measuring their accuracy and sensitivity in recognizing positive and negative emotion expressions presented in several, morphed, expression intensities. Adolescents with personality pathology showed an enhanced recognition accuracy of facial emotion expressions compared to healthy adolescents and clients with various Axis-I psychiatric diagnoses. They were also more sensitive to less intensive expressions of emotions than clients with various Axis-I psychiatric diagnoses, but not more than healthy adolescents. As has been shown in research on adults with BPD, adolescents with personality pathology show enhanced facial emotion recognition. PMID:24166533
Berenschot, Fleur; van Aken, Marcel A G; Hessels, Christel; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Pijl, Ysbrand; Montagne, Barbara; van Voorst, Guus
This article describes the use of neural networks (a type of artificial intelligence) and an empirical data sample of, inter alia, the amounts of bets laid and the winnings/losses made in successive games by a number of cyber-gamblers to longitudinally model gamblers' behavior and decisions as to such bet amounts and the temporal trajectory of winnings/losses. The data was collected by videoing Texas Holdem gamblers at a cyber-gambling website. Six "persistent" gamblers were identified, totaling 675 games. The neural networks on average were able to predict bet amounts and cumulative winnings/losses in successive games accurately to three decimal places of the dollar. A more important conclusion is that the influence of a gambler's skills, strategies, and personality on his/her successive bet amounts and cumulative winnings/losses is almost totally reflected by the pattern(s) of his/her winnings/losses in the few initial games and his/her gambling account balance. This partially invalidates gamblers' illusions and fallacies that they can outperform others or even bankers. For government policy-makers, gambling industry operators, economists, sociologists, psychiatrists, and psychologists, this article provides models for gamblers' behavior and decisions. It also explores and exemplifies the usefulness of neural networks and artificial intelligence at large in the research on gambling. PMID:19593655
Chan, Victor K Y
This study examined patients with eating disorders on personality pathology using a dimensional method. Female subjects who met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for eating disorder (n = 136) were evaluated and compared to an age-controlled general population sample (n = 68). We assessed 18 features of personality disorder with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology - Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to derive three clusters of patients. A five-factor solution was obtained with limited intercorrelation between factors. Cluster analysis produced three clusters with the following characteristics: Cluster 1 members (constituting 49.3% of the sample and labelled 'rigid') had higher mean scores on factors denoting compulsivity and interpersonal difficulties; Cluster 2 (18.4% of the sample) showed highest scores in factors denoting psychopathy, neuroticism and impulsive features, and appeared to constitute a borderline psychopathology group; Cluster 3 (32.4% of the sample) was characterized by few differences in personality pathology in comparison to the normal population sample. Cluster membership was associated with DSM-IV diagnosis -- a large proportion of patients with anorexia nervosa were members of Cluster 1. An empirical classification of eating-disordered patients derived from dimensional assessment of personality pathology identified three groups with clinical relevance. PMID:10220006
Goldner, E M; Srikameswaran, S; Schroeder, M L; Livesley, W J; Birmingham, C L
Recent advances in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are based on the identification of so-called driver mutations, resulting in a more personalized treatment setting. Currently about 15% of NSCLC patients benefit from improved treatment protocols based on the genetic background of the tumor. In the last few years cancer immunotherapy has returned to the center of attention and comprises a variety of treatment approaches incorporating adaptive, as well as innate immunity. Current strategies involve the use of monoclonal antitumor antibodies, cancer vaccines, adoptive transfer of ex vivo activated T and NK cells as well as the blockade of so-called immune checkpoints (immune inhibitory pathways). Especially the combination of current treatments with immunotherapy seems promising to achieve highly potent antitumor effects. However, a profound understanding of the dynamic and complex interaction between lung cancer and the host immune system and especially its immune checkpoints is the foundation to identify potential biomarkers for a personalized cancer immunotherapy approach. PMID:23371257
Schultheis, A; Wolf, J; Büttner, R
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) features two conceptions of Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), one based on the retained DSM-IV's categorical diagnosis and the other based on a model that blends impairments in personality functioning with a specific trait profile intended to recapture DSM-IV NPD. Nevertheless, the broader literature contains a richer array of potential conceptualizations of narcissism, including distinguishable perspectives from psychiatric nosology, clinical observation and theory, and social/personality psychology. This raises questions about the most advantageous pattern of traits to use to reflect various conceptions of narcissistic pathology via the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5). In this study, we examine the associations of the Personality Disorder Questionnaire-Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale, Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16, and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory and the PID-5 dimensions and facets in a large sample (N = 1,653) of undergraduate student participants. Results point to strong associations with PID-5 Antagonism scales across narcissism measures, consistent with the DSM-5's proposed representation of NPD. However, additional notable associations emerged with PID-5 Negative Affectivity and Psychoticism scales when considering more clinically relevant narcissism measures. PMID:23610234
Wright, Aidan G C; Pincus, Aaron L; Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F
Addiction can involve substances (heroin, cannabis, cocaine) or be characterised by behaviour (pathological gambling, addiction to sport, etc.). The question is to establish whether or not there is a specific personality profile (character, temperament) and emotional functioning (anxiety, depression, alexithymia) in subjects presenting addictive behaviour with and without substance use. To find some answers, a team from Sainte-Marguerite General Hospital in Marseille carried out a study comparing a group of cannabis addicts and a group of pathological gamblers. PMID:24741830
Parolaa, Nathalie; Boyer, Laurent; Simon, Nicolas; Aghababian, Valérie; Lançon, Christophe
A multidimensional trait system has been proposed for representing personality disorder (PD) features in DSM-5 to address problematic classification issues such as comorbidity. In this model, which may also assist in providing scaffolding for the underlying structure of major forms of psychopathology more generally, 25 primary traits are organized by 5 higher order dimensions: Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism. We examined a) the generalizability of the structure proposed for DSM-5 PD traits and b) the potential for an integrative hierarchy based upon DSM-5 PD traits to represent the dimensions scaffolding psychopathology more generally. A large sample of student participants (N=2,461) completed the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, which operationalizes the DSM-5 traits. Exploratory factor analysis replicated the initially reported five-factor structure as indicated by high factor congruencies. The two-, three-, and four- factor solutions estimated in the hierarchy of the DSM-5 traits bear close resemblance to existing models of common mental disorders, temperament, and personality pathology. Thus, beyond the description of individual differences in personality disorder, the trait dimensions might provide a framework for the metastructure of psychopathology in the DSM-5 and the integration of a number of ostensibly competing models of personality trait covariation. PMID:22448740
Wright, Aidan G.C.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Markon, Kristian E.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Krueger, Robert F.
Background Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect of personality pathology on time to remission of patients randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment strategies for depression and to determine whether personality pathology moderated the effect of treatment assignment on outcome. Method Individuals undergoing an episode of unipolar major depression (n = 275) received interpersonal psychotherapy (Klerman, Weissman, Rounsaville, & Chevron, 1984) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) pharmacotherapy for depression. Depressive symptoms were measured with the HRSD-17. Remission was a mean HRSD-17 score of 7 or below over a period of 3 weeks. Personality disorders were measured according to SCID-II diagnoses, and personality pathology was measured dimensionally by summing the positive probes on the SCID-II. Results The presence of at least 1 personality disorder was not a significant predictor of time to remission, but a higher level of dimensionally measured personality pathology and the presence of borderline personality disorder were associated with a longer time to remission. Personality pathology did not moderate the effect of treatment assignment on time to remission. Conclusions The findings suggest that depressed individuals with comorbid personality pathology generally fare worse in treatment for depression, although in this report, the effect of personality pathology did not differ by the type of treatment received. PMID:22823857
Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen
Gordon Moody's 15 chapter book is a very personalized, and in places autobiographical, account of the impact of compulsive gambling on both the gambler and his\\/her family. It is not only a self-help book aimed at compulsive gamblers but is also aimed at their families and friends, and for members of the caring professions and agencies. Chapter 1 examines \\
??Despite growing recognition that impulsivity is associated with pathological gambling (PG), three methodological concerns continue to prevent a meaningful examination of how impulsivity is specifically (more)
Two studies were conducted to examine the relation between the gamblers fallacy (GF) and attentional processes associated with inhibition of return (IOR). In Study 1, participants completed rapid aiming movements to equally probable targets presented to the left and right. They also completed a gambling protocol in which they bet on the illumination of either target. Consistent with the IOR phenomenon, participants were slower to initiate their movements on trial N?+?1 when the target was the same as trial N. Participants with more pronounced IOR were more likely to switch betting behavior after a win than participants with a smaller index. This betting behavior was also related to a GF index measured by a questionnaire. In Study 2, participants performed both the aiming task and the betting task with a partner. Each participant performed two trials before ceding to the partner. Thus we were able to examine IOR and betting behavior as a function of the participants own previous trial and their partners previous trial. The IOR effect was robust both within and between-participants. Participants were more likely to maintain their bet following an unsuccessful outcome regardless of whether it was their own outcome or their partners outcome. This type of betting behavior is consistent with the GF. Individual IOR scores were a reliable predictor of betting behavior and the questionnaire was also successful in predicting behavior. In addition, the within-person IOR indices covaried with the GF index derived from the questionnaire. In summary, there appears to be a relation between IOR and the GF. We suggest that early humans developed specialized attentional systems to deal with non-random environmental contingencies, and that the automatic processes associated with these systems are sometimes maladaptive in artificial environments in which the same contingencies do not hold. PMID:23429429
Lyons, James; Weeks, Daniel J.; Elliott, Digby
Pathological and nonpathological gamblers completed a task that assessed preference among 2 concurrently available slot machines. Subsequent assessments of choice were conducted after various attempts to transfer contextual functions associated with irrelevant characteristics of the slot machines. Results indicated that the nonproblem gambling
Nastally, Becky L.; Dixon, Mark R.; Jackson, James W.
Growing interest in pursuing a professional gambling career has been accompanied by a rise in individuals self-identifying as professional gamblers. Whether this trend reflects an actual increase in individuals sustaining livelihoods from gambling or inaccurate appropriation of a now glamorized identity is unclear. Adopting a self-image of professional gambler in the absence of ability to earn a sustainable income from the activity may increase risk of problem gambling and deter help-seeking. However, extent of problem gambling in this cohort is uncertain. This study aimed to: (1) determine any differences that might validate the self-reported identity of professional and semi-professional gamblers by investigating characteristics and behaviors that distinguish them from amateur gamblers; and (2) identify characteristics and behaviors that distinguish between self-identified semi-professional/professional gamblers with and without gambling problems. In an online survey of 4,594 Australian gamblers, 1.2 % identified as professional gamblers, 6.8 % as semi-professional gamblers, and 92.0 % as amateur gamblers. Self-identified professional and semi-professional gamblers were distinguished from amateur gamblers by preference for skill-based gambling, higher reported likelihood of winning, and greater use of online gambling and multiple online operators. Two-fifths of professional and three-fifths of semi-professional gamblers scored as moderate risk or problem gamblers, but negative consequences were more likely personal, interpersonal and work/study related, rather than financial. Although results support the general accuracy of self-reported semi/professional gambling status, measures are needed to help semi/professional gamblers distinguish whether their gambling is a problem or profession. PMID:25344662
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex; Blaszczynski, Alex; Gainsbury, Sally M
Low threshold virtual support is an emerging form of treatment for problem gamblers. The advantages of virtual support are cost-efficacy and good availability. A special advantage of web-environment is the possibility to modify the virtual support programs separately for diverse subgroups of problem gamblers. PMID:24159710
Castrén, Sari; Sjöholm, Markus; Lahti, Tuuli
??The present study investigated the impact of personality pathology on adherence and treatment response to a novel group-based intervention for depression, Therapeutic Lifestyle Change (TLC). (more)
Despite reasonable knowledge of pathological gambling (PG), little is known of its cognitive antecedents. We evaluated decision-making and impulsivity characteristics in people at risk of developing PG using neuropsychological tests. Non-treatment seeking volunteers (18-29 years) who gamble ? 5 times/year were recruited from the general community, and split into two groups: those "at risk" of developing PG (n=74) and those social, non-problem gamblers (n=112). Participants undertook the Cambridge Gamble and Stop-signal tasks and were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Pathological Gambling. On the Cambridge Gamble task, the at-risk subjects gambled more points overall, were more likely to go bankrupt, and made more irrational decisions under situations of relative risk ambiguity. On the Stop-signal task, at-risk gamblers did not differ from the social, non-problem gamblers in terms of motor impulse control (stop-signal reaction times). Findings suggest that selective cognitive dysfunction may already be present in terms of decision-making in at-risk gamblers, even before psychopathology arises. These findings implicate selective decision-making deficits and dysfunction of orbitofronto-limbic circuitry in the chain of pathogenesis between social, non-problematic and pathological gambling. PMID:21715016
Grant, Jon Edgar; Chamberlain, Samuel Robin; Schreiber, Liana Renne Nelson; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Kim, Suck Won
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Personality Disorders (4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 2000) personality disorders (PDs) that will be included in the DSM5 will be diagnosed in an entirely different manner; the explicit criterion sets will be replaced with impairments in self and interpersonal functioning and personality traits from a 25-trait dimensional model of personality pathology. From a trait
Joshua D. Miller; Brittany Gentile; Lauren Wilson; W. Keith Campbell
Background and aims: The present study tested whether the associations among motivational, cognitive, and personality correlates of problem gambling severity differed across university student gamblers (n = 123) and gamblers in the general adult community (n = 113). Methods: The participants completed a survey that included standardized measures of gambling motivation, gambling related cognitions, and impulsivity. The survey also asked participants to report the forms of gambling in which they engaged to test whether gambling involvement (number of different forms of gambling) was related to problem gambling severity. After completing the survey, participants played roulette online to examine whether betting patterns adhered to the gamblers fallacy. Results: Gambling involvement was significantly related to problem gambling severity for the community sample but not for the student sample. A logistic regression analysis that tested the involvement, motivation, impulsivity and cognitive correlates showed that money motivation and gambling related cognitions were the only significant independent predictors of gambling severity. Adherence to the gamblers fallacy was stronger for students than for the community sample, and was associated with gambling related cognitions. Discussion: The motivational, impulsivity and cognitive, and correlates of problem gambling function similarly in university student gamblers and in gamblers from the general adult community. Interventions for both groups should focus on the financial and cognitive supports of problem gambling. PMID:25215214
Marmurek, Harvey H. C.; Switzer, Jessica; DAlvise, Joshua
There has been considerable debate about profiling personality pathology when assessing and treating male perpetrators of domestic violence (DV). This study used the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMIIII) to explore the severity and diversity of male perpetrator personality pathology and response bias in a group of DV perpetrators being assessed for a treatment program (N = 177). We analyzed the
Peter Gibbons; Marjorie Collins; Corinne Reid
This study aims to analyze psychometric properties and validity of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) and the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and, second, to determine a threshold for the CIUS which matches the IAT cut-off for detecting problematic Internet use. A total of 292 subjects with problematic or pathological gambling (237 men, 55 women) aged 14-63 years and with private Internet use for at least 1 h per working or weekend day were recruited via different recruitment channels. Results include that both scales were internally consistent (Cronbach's ?=0.9) and had satisfactory convergent validity (r=0.75; 95% CI 0.70-0.80). The correlation with duration of private Internet use per week was significantly higher for the CIUS (r=0.54) compared to the IAT (r=0.40). Among all participants, 25.3% were classified as problematic Internet users based on the IAT with a cut-off?40. The highest proportion of congruent classified cases results from a CIUS cut-off ?18 (sensitivity 79.7%, specificity 79.4%). However, a higher cut-off (?21) seems to be more appropriate for prevalence estimation of problematic Internet use. PMID:24080838
Guertler, Diana; Rumpf, Hans-Juergen; Bischof, Anja; Kastirke, Nadin; Petersen, Kay Uwe; John, Ulrich; Meyer, Christian
This paper considers the condition of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), which is defined as a separation of alternating personalities by rigid boundaries and amnestic barriers. It is proposed that MPD represents the end of a continuum of a defensive dissociation of the self that can result when a child employs a dissociative splitting of self
Price, Reese E.
The proposed changes to the personality disorder section of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (5th ed.) places an increased focus on interpersonal impairment as one of the defining features of personality psychopathology. In addition, a proposed trait model has been offered to provide a means of capturing phenotypic
Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.
Development of the behavior completion model of compulsive behaviors and the imaginal desensitization therapy based on it is outlined. A case history is reported of a 65 year old woman who considered she was gambling out of control on slot machines and suffered from resultant guilt and depression. Following a week's treatment with imaginal desensitization she regained control. After an
In many forensic anthropology cases, the biological profile is not sufficient to achieve positive identification. In those\\u000a cases, bone pathology is a paramount criterion. Besides being crucial for identification, it can also give insights into cause\\u000a and manner of death.
Social, psychological and physical consequences of pathological gambling reported by 42 pathological gamblers recruited mainly by advertising were compared with data on 63 pathological gamblers identified by case-finding within districts of probation, in- and out-patient psychiatric care and social welfare authorities. The two studies gave similar results. Financial breakdown, impaired relations with family and friends, and psychological problems occurred in about 50% of the pathological gamblers. Physical consequences were perceived to be of minor significance. Gambling became a solitary behavior as illegal behaviors to finance gambling increased. The pathological gamblers frequently abused alcohol. Despite these signs of social decay the pathological gamblers strove not to be a burden in society. PMID:24234924
Bergh, C; Kühlhorn, E
The proposed changes to the personality disorder section of the DSM-5 places an increased focus on interpersonal impairment as one of the defining features of personality psychopathology. In addition, a proposed trait model has been offered to provide a means of capturing phenotypic variation on the expression of personality disorder. In this study, we subject the proposed DSM-5 traits to interpersonal analysis using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex scales via the structural summary method for circumplex data. DSM-5 traits were consistently associated with generalized interpersonal dysfunction suggesting that they are maladaptive in nature, the majority of traits demonstrated discriminant validity with prototypical and differentiated interpersonal problem profiles, and conformed well to a priori hypothesized associations. These results are discussed in the context of the DSM-5 proposal and contemporary interpersonal theory, with a particular focus on potential areas for expansion of the DSM-5 trait model. PMID:22589411
Wright, Aidan G.C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.
Emotional dysregulation and impaired attachment are seen by many clinical researchers as central aspects of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Alternatively, these constructs may represent general impairments in personality that are nonspecific to BPD. Using multitraitmultimethod models, the authors examined the strength of associations among preoccupied attachment, difficulties with emotion regulation, BPD features, and features of two other personality disorders (i.e., antisocial and avoidant) in a combined psychiatric outpatient and community sample of adults. Results suggested that preoccupied attachment and difficulties with emotion regulation shared strong positive associations with each other and with each of the selected personality disorders. However, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation were more strongly related to BPD features than to features of other personality disorders. Findings suggest that although impairments in relational and emotional domains may underlie personality pathology in general, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation also have specificity for understanding core difficulties in those with BPD. PMID:23586934
Scott, Lori N; Kim, Yookyung; Nolf, Kimberly A; Hallquist, Michael N; Wright, Aidan G C; Stepp, Stephanie D; Morse, Jennifer Q; Pilkonis, Paul A
Emotional dysregulation and impaired attachment are seen by many clinical researchers as central aspects of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Alternatively, these constructs may represent general impairments in personality that are nonspecific to BPD. Using multitrait-multimethod models, we examined the strength of associations among preoccupied attachment, difficulties with emotion regulation, BPD features, and features of two other personality disorders (i.e., antisocial and avoidant) in a combined psychiatric outpatient and community sample of adults. Results suggested that preoccupied attachment and difficulties with emotion regulation shared strong positive associations with each other and with each of the selected personality disorders. However, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation were more strongly related to BPD features than to features of other personality disorders. Our findings suggest that although impairments in relational and emotional domains may underlie personality pathology in general, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation also have specificity for understanding core difficulties in those with BPD. PMID:23586934
Scott, Lori N.; Kim, Yookyung; Nolf, Kimberly A.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Pilkonis, Paul A.
Problem gambling has become a widespread problem following the rapid expansion of electronic gaming machines into hotels and\\u000a clubs over the last 10 years. Recent literature indicates that certain factors can influence problem gambling severity, such\\u000a as psychiatric co-morbidity and personality traits, gambling related cognitions, substance use and gender. This study investigated\\u000a 127 treatment seeking problem gamblers at baseline, who completed
Vanessa Hounslow; David Smith; Malcolm Battersby; Kate Morefield
The alternative dimensional model of personality disorder (PD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), Section III, has two main criteria: Impairment in personality functioning and one or more pathological personality traits. The former is defined as disturbances in self functioning (viz., identity, self-direction), and/or interpersonal functioning (viz., empathy, intimacy). Distinguishing personality functioning and traits is important conceptually, because simply having extreme traits is not necessarily pathological. However, adding personality functioning to PD diagnosis represents an empirical challenge, because the constructs overlap conceptually. Further, there is debate regarding whether diagnosis of mental disorder requires either distress or disability, concepts that also overlap with maladaptive-range personality traits and personality dysfunction. We investigated interrelations among these constructs using multiple self-report measures of each domain in a mixed community-patient sample (N = 402). We examined the structures of functioning (psychosocial disability and personality), and personality traits, first independently, then jointly. The disability/functioning measures yielded the three dimensions we have found previously (Ro & Clark, 2013). Trait measures had a hierarchical structure which, at the five-factor level, reflected neuroticism/negative affectivity (N/NA), (low) sociability, disinhibition, (dis)agreeableness, and rigid goal engagement. When all measures were co-factored, a hierarchical structure again emerged which, at the five-factor level, included (1) internalizing (N/NA and self-pathology vs. quality-of-life/satisfaction), (2) externalizing (social/interpersonal dysfunction, low sociability, and disagreeableness), (3) disinhibition, (4) poor basic functioning, and (5) rigid goal engagement. Results are discussed in terms of developing an integrated PD diagnostic model. PMID:24588062
Clark, Lee Anna; Ro, Eunyoe
Objective: To examine the joint hierarchical structure of two measures of adolescent personality pathology within a community sample of Canadian adolescents. Method: Self-reported data on demographic information and pathological personality traits were obtained from 144 youth (Mage = 16.08 years, SD = 1.30). Personality pathology was measured using the youth-version of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP-Y; Linde, Stringer, Simms, & Clark, in press) and the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI; De Clercq, De Fruyt, Van Leeuwen, & Mervielde, 2006). Lower-order scales were subjected to structural hierarchical analyses. Results: Scales from the two measures were complementary in defining higher-order traits. Traits at the 4-factor level of the hierarchy (Need for Approval, Disagreeableness, Detachment, and Compulsivity) showed similarities and differences with previous results in adults. Conclusions: The current investigation integrated top-down and bottom-up measures for a comprehensive account of the higher-order hierarchy of adolescent personality pathology. Results are discussed in the context of convergence across approaches and in comparison with previous findings in adult samples. PMID:23970908
Kushner, Shauna C.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; De Clercq, Barbara
There has been considerable debate about profiling personality pathology when assessing and treating male perpetrators of domestic violence (DV). This study used the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) to explore the severity and diversity of male perpetrator personality pathology and response bias in a group of DV perpetrators being assessed for a treatment program (N = 177). We analyzed the sample using the interpretive guidelines of White and Gondolf (2000); 54% of profiles in our sample fell into categories indicative of a personality disorder, and 37% of the total sample provided profiles indicative of severe personality pathology. These percentages were higher than White and Gondolf's findings but lower than some others. There was considerable diversity of personality pathology as well, supporting the contention that there is no one male DV perpetrator profile. Because of debate concerning the manner of responding on self-report instruments, we paid special attention to response biases in our sample. Twenty-six percent of our sample exaggerated (12%) or minimized (14%) their responses. We also found that response biases on the MCMI-III Modifying Indices were related to self-reported severity of psychopathology. This suggests that assessing severity of psychopathology is inadequate without reference to such biases. PMID:21381843
Gibbons, Peter; Collins, Marjorie; Reid, Corinne
The traditional task of the pathologist is to assist physicians in making the correct diagnosis of diseases at the earliest possible stage to effectuate the optimal treatment strategy for each individual patient. In this respect surgical pathology (the traditional tissue diagnosis) is but a tool. It is not, of itself, the purpose of pathology practice; and change is in the air. This January 2014 issue of Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology (AIMM) embraces that change by the incorporation of the agenda and content of the journal Diagnostic Molecular Morphology (DMP). Over a decade ago AIMM introduced and promoted the concept of molecular morphology, and has sought to publish molecular studies that correlate with the morphologic features that continue to define cancer and many diseases. That intent is now reinforced and extended by the merger with DMP, as a logical and timely response to the growing impact of a wide range of genetic and molecular technologies that are beginning to reshape the way in which pathology is practiced. The use of molecular and genomic techniques already demonstrates clear value in the diagnosis of disease, with treatment tailored specifically to individual patients. Personalized medicine is the future, and personalized medicine demands personalized pathology. The need for integration of the flood of new molecular data, with surgical pathology, digital pathology, and the full range of pathology data in the electronic medical record has never been greater. This review describes the possible impact of these pressures upon the discipline of pathology, and examines possible outcomes. There is a sense of excitement and adventure. Active adaption and innovation are required. The new AIMM, incorporating DMP, seeks to position itself for a central role in this process. PMID:24326463
Gu, Jiang; Taylor, Clive R.; Phil, D
Abstract Background and aims: As only a minority of pathological gamblers (PGr) presents for treatment, further knowledge about help-seeking behavior is required in order to enhance treatment utilization. The present study investigated factors associated with treatment participation in gamblers in Germany. As subclinical pathological gamblers (SPGr, fulfilling one to four DSM-IV-criteria) are target of early intervention due to high risk of transition to pathological gambling, they were subject of special interest. Methods: The study analyzed data from a general population survey (n = 234, SPGr: n = 198, PGr: n = 36) and a treatment study (n = 329, SPGr: n = 22, PGr: n = 307). A two-step weighting procedure was applied to ensure comparability of samples. Investigated factors included socio-demographic variables, gambling behavior, symptoms of pathological gambling and substance use. Results: In PGr, regular employment and non-German nationality were positively associated with being in treatment while gambling on the Internet and gaming machines and fulfilling more DSM-IV-criteria lowered the odds. In SPGr, treatment attendance was negatively associated with married status and alcohol consumption and positively associated with older age, higher stakes, more fulfilled DSM-IV criteria and regular smoking. Conclusions: In accordance to expectations more severe gambling problems and higher problem awareness and/or external pressure might facilitate treatment entry. There are groups with lower chances of being in treatment: women, ethnic minorities, and SPGr. We propose target group specific offers, use of Internet-based methods as possible adaptions and/or extensions of treatment offers that could enhance treatment attendance. PMID:25317343
BRAUN, BARBARA; LUDWIG, MONIKA; SLECZKA, PAWEL; BÜHRINGER, GERHARD; KRAUS, LUDWIG
Dissatisfaction with the DSM-IV model of personality disorders has led to the development of alternative conceptualizations, including pathological trait models and models linked to particular theoretical approaches, such as Beck and Freemans (1990) cognitive framework. An important issue involves the potential to interweave such models into a single, parsimonious system that combines their distinct advantages. In this study, pathological trait and dysfunctional belief data from 616 individuals in a non-clinical sample were evaluated for commensurability using structural equation modeling. These models can be integrated via five higher-order factors, and that specific dimensions of dysfunctional beliefs can be differentiated based on features of the DSM-5 trait model. Overall, these results suggest that traits provide scaffolding for individual differences in pathological personality, within which dysfunctional beliefs offer specific vectors for clinical intervention in a cognitive framework. Implications of the empirical commensurability of trait and cognitive models are discussed. PMID:24273380
Hopwood, Christopher J.; Schade, Nick; Krueger, Robert F.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Markon, Kristian E.
Little is known about the effectiveness of treatment programmes for personality disordered adolescents. This study investigates the treatment outcome of Inpatient Psychotherapy for Adolescents (IPA), i.e. an intensive programme for treatment refractory adolescents with personality pathology. In addition, this study examines predictors of treatment outcome. One hundred and nine adolescents admitted for treatment of their personality problems were followed up during their stay in IPA. Axis I and Axis II disorders were measured using semi-structured interviews, and the adolescents completed several questionnaires to measure symptom severity (global indices of distress), personality styles and functioning, and quality of life at both start and 12 months after start of treatment. Patients showed improvement in level of symptom severity, personality functioning and quality of life (d ranging from 0.49 to 0.97). As for level of symptom severity, 29% of the adolescents moved into a normative range of symptom severity. Higher levels of self-criticism significantly predicted poorer outcome in terms of symptom severity. Type of personality disorder did not predict treatment outcome. IPA is a potentially effective treatment programme for (a subgroup of) treatment refractory adolescents with personality pathology. PMID:24700734
Feenstra, Dine J; Laurenssen, Elisabeth M P; Hutsebaut, Joost; Verheul, Roel; Busschbach, Jan J V
Background Few investigations have characterized groups of older adults with gambling problems, and published reports are currently limited by small samples of older adult problem gamblers. Gambling helplines represent a widespread mechanism for assisting problem gamblers to move into treatment settings. Given data from older adult problem gamblers in treatment, we hypothesized that older as compared with younger adult problem gamblers
Marc N. Potenza; Marvin A. Steinberg; Ran Wu; Bruce J. Rounsaville; Stephanie S. OMalley
From September 2007 to May 2011 a total of 471 participants (325 males and 146 females) signed up for an 8-week Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy offered for gamblers in Finland. Sixty-four percent of the participants were pathological gamblers (PGs) (NODS 5> points), 14% were problem gamblers (NODS 3-4 points) and 10% were at risk of gambling problems (NODS 1-2 points). Two hundred and twenty four participants completed the treatment and after the treatment period significant changes were found in the following variables: gambling related problems (NODS), gambling urge, impaired control of gambling, alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C), social consequences, gambling-related cognitive erroneous thoughts and depression (MARD-S). In this sample co-morbid alcohol consumption was stronger among males. The main finding of this study was that the onset age of gambling was associated with a greater amount of gambling-related cognitive erroneous thoughts. PMID:23398086
Castrén, Sari; Pankakoski, Maiju; Tamminen, Manu; Lipsanen, Jari; Ladouceur, Robert; Lahti, Tuuli
The current study uses the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders dataset (Lenzenweger, 1999) to examine the development of personality traits in the context of the remission and onset of personality disorder (PD) symptoms. Despite high levels of stability, past research that has examined the development of basic personality traits has also found a mean trend towards increased maturity, and that individuals vary in their trajectories of trait development. Research on PD change has shown a similar pattern. We employ individual growth curve modeling to examine the relationship between personality trait development and PD symptom course. We found that the two are indeed related, and that remission in PD symptoms is associated with patterns of trait development associated with more rapid maturity. In contrast, deviating from the mean of trait development either through no change (i.e., stagnation) or change in the opposite direction (i.e., regression) was associated with developing PD symptoms over the course of the study. PMID:21967009
Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.
Emotional dysregulation in childhood has been associated with various forms of later psychopathology, although no studies have investigated the personality related adolescent outcomes associated with early emotional dysregulation. The present study uses a typological approach to examine how the child behavior checklist-dysregulation profile (CBCL-DP) predicts DSM-5 pathological personality traits (as measured with the personality inventory for the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 5 or PID-5 by Krueger et al. (Psychol Med 2012)) across a time span of 4 years in a sample of 243 children aged 8-14 years (57.2 % girls). The results showed that children assigned to the CBCL-DP class are at risk for elevated scores on a wide range of DSM-5 personality pathology features, including higher scores on hostility, risk taking, deceitfulness, callousness, grandiosity, irresponsibility, impulsivity and manipulativeness. These results are discussed in the context of identifying early manifestations of persistent regulation problems, because of their enduring impact on a child's personality development. PMID:23381573
De Caluwé, Elien; Decuyper, Mieke; De Clercq, Barbara
Objective To study the relationship between Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology and memory complaints proximate to death. Methods A group of 90 older persons underwent detailed clinical evaluations and brain autopsy at death. The evaluations included administration of questions on subjective memory complaints and clinical classification of dementia and AD. On postmortem examination, neuritic plaques, diffuse plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles in tissue samples from five cortical regions were counted, and a summary measure of overall AD pathology was derived. In addition, amyloid load and tau tangles were quantified in eight regions. Results In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, and education, memory complaints were associated with AD pathology, including both amyloid and tau tangles. Subsequent analyses demonstrated that the relationship between memory complaints and AD pathology was present in those with and without dementia, and could not be explained by the potentially confounding effects of depressive symptoms or coexisting common chronic health problems. Conclusion Memory complaints in older persons may indicate self awareness of a degenerative process. PMID:17101887
Barnes, L.L.; Schneider, J.A.; Boyle, P.A.; Bienias, J.L.; Bennett, D.A.
A substantial portion of gamblers in treatment may have co-occurring mental health disorders including substance use disorders, especially alcohol dependency, personality disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorders and impulse control disorders. Co-occurring mental health disorders affect treatment seeking, the treatment process and its outcome, quality of life and functioning in many mental health disorders. Participants in this study were 78 adults
James R. Westphal; Lera Joyce Johnson
Summary Patients in a therapeutic community were questioned about their gambling behavior in order to find out what percentage of them were pathological gamblers. The South Oaks Gambling Screen (the SOGS) was used to screen the clients for gambling-related problems. Out of 100 residents tested, 14 were diagnosed as pathological gamblers and an additional 14 showed signs of problematic gambling.
HENRY R. LESIEUR; MARY HEINEMAN
OBJECTIVE: To present a meta-analysis of current research on the prevalence, identification, and treatment of problem and compulsive gamblers. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Problem and compulsive gambling was not a socio-scientific concern until the last two decades. Hence research on this topic is limited. The summary and analysis for this paper relied on computer searches of journal and news abstracts in addition to direct contact with organizations addressing the identification and treatment of compulsive gamblers. MAIN MESSAGE: An estimated 5% of those who gamble run into problems. About 1% of those who gamble are predicted to experience serious problems. Successful treatment of problem and compulsive gambling continues to be a challenge. Although cognitive therapy has been the favoured approach, a combination of several therapeutic approaches is advocated. CONCLUSIONS: Problem and compulsive gambling can present a real health threat. As with other addictions, treatment strategies continue to be a baffling social problem. Aware and informed physicians can have a pivotal role in the difficult process of identifying, acknowledging, and remediating problem and compulsive gambling. PMID:10907572
van Es, R.
While considerable data support the relationship between childhood trauma and adult personality pathology in general, there is little research investigating the specific relationships between different types of childhood maltreatment and adult personality disorders. The present study tested a model incorporating five a priori hypotheses regarding the association between distinct forms of childhood maltreatment and personality pathology in 231 psychiatric patients using multiple self-report measures (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4th Edition, Child Trauma Questionnaire, Conflict in Tactics Scale Parent-Child Child-Adult, and Multidimensional Neglectful Behavior Scale). Step-wise linear regressions supported three out of five hypotheses, suggesting independent relationships between: physical abuse and antisocial personality disorder traits; emotional abuse and Cluster C personality disorder traits; and maternal neglect and Cluster A personality disorder traits after controlling for co-occurring maltreatment types and personality disorder traits. Results did not support an independent relationship between sexual abuse and borderline personality traits nor between emotional abuse and narcissistic personality disorder traits. Additionally, there were three unexpected findings: physical abuse was independently and positively associated with narcissistic and paranoid traits and negatively associated with Cluster C traits. These findings can help refine our understanding of adult personality pathology and support the future development of clinical tools for survivors of childhood maltreatment. PMID:24268580
Cohen, Lisa Janet; Tanis, Thachell; Bhattacharjee, Reetuparna; Nesci, Christina; Halmi, Winter; Galynker, Igor
This study tested social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) hypotheses of reciprocal and sequential effects among person, environment variables and behavior. The study examined the\\u000a impact of hope, superstitious belief and environmental factors on the frequency, amounts of lottery gambling and chasing of\\u000a particular numbers among Thai lottery gamblers. One hundred and fifty gamblers who visited two temples in Bangkok to
Vanchai Ariyabuddhiphongs; Nathanat Chanchalermporn
Emotional reactivity has been theorized to play a central role in borderline personality (BP) pathology. Although growing research provides evidence for subjective emotional reactivity in BP pathology, research on physiological or biological reactivity among people with BP pathology is less conclusive. With regard to biological reactivity in particular, research on cortisol reactivity (a neurobiological marker of emotional reactivity) in response to stressors among individuals with BP pathology has produced contradictory results and highlighted the potential moderating role of PTSD-related pathology. Thus, this study sought to examine the moderating role of PTSD symptoms in the relation between BP pathology and both subjective (self-report) and biological (cortisol) emotional reactivity to a laboratory stressor. Participants were 171 patients in a residential substance use disorder treatment center. Consistent with hypotheses, results revealed a significant main effect of BP pathology on subjective emotional reactivity to the laboratory stressor. Furthermore, results revealed a significant interaction between BP pathology and PTSD symptoms in the prediction of cortisol reactivity, such that BP pathology was associated with heightened cortisol reactivity only among participants with low levels of PTSD symptoms. Similar findings were obtained when examining the interaction between BP pathology and the reexperiencing and avoidance/numbing symptoms of PTSD specifically. Results highlight the moderating role of PTSD symptoms in the BP-reactivity relation. PMID:23375184
Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T
This study extended previous theory and research on interpersonal heterogeneity in depression by identifying groups of depressed young adults who differ in their type and degree of interpersonal problems, and by examining patterns of pathological personality traits and alcohol abuse among these groups. We examined the interpersonal problems, personality traits, and alcohol-related problems of 172 college students with at least moderate levels of self-reported depression on the Patient Health Questionnaire (Spitzer, Kroenke, & Williams, 1999). Scores from the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Short Circumplex (Soldz, Budman, Demby, & Merry, 1995) were subjected to latent profile analysis, which classified individuals into five distinct groups defined by the types of interpersonal problems they experience (dominant, warm, submissive, cold, and undifferentiated). As hypothesized, groups did not differ in depression severity, but did show predicted patterns of differences on normative and maladaptive personality traits, as well as alcohol-related problems. The presence of clinically meaningful interpersonal heterogeneity in depression may have important implications for designing more individualized treatments and prevention efforts for depression that target diverse associated interpersonal problems. PMID:23560433
Dawood, Sindes; Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.
Personality traits may provide underlying risk factors for and/or sequelae to substance use disorders (SUDs). In this study Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) traits were compared in a clinical sample (N=704, age 18-45) with current, past, or no historical alcohol or non-alcohol substance use disorders (AUD and NASUD) as assessed by DSM-IV semi-structured interview. Results corroborated previous research in showing associations of negative temperament and disinhibition to SUD, highlighting the importance of these traits for indicating substance use proclivity or the chronic effects of substance use. Certain traits (manipulativeness, self-harm, disinhibition, and impulsivity for AUD, and disinhibition and exhibitionism for NASUD) were higher among individuals with current relative to past diagnoses, perhaps indicating concurrent effects of substance abuse on personality. The positive temperament characteristics detachment and entitlement distinguished AUDs and NASUDs, respectively, perhaps clarifying why this higher order trait tends to show limited relations to SUD generally. These findings suggest the importance of systematically integrating pathological and normative traits in reference to substance-related diagnosis. PMID:21782347
Hopwood, Christopher J; Morey, Leslie C; Skodol, Andrew E; Sanislow, Charles A; Grilo, Carlos M; Ansell, Emily B; McGlashan, Thomas H; Markowitz, John C; Pinto, Anthony; Yen, Shirley; Shea, M Tracie; Gunderson, John G; Zanarini, Mary C; Stout, Robert L
This article describes the use of neural networks (a type of artificial intelligence) and an empirical data sample of, inter\\u000a alia, the amounts of bets laid and the winnings\\/losses made in successive games by a number of cyber-gamblers to longitudinally\\u000a model gamblers behavior and decisions as to such bet amounts and the temporal trajectory of winnings\\/losses. The data was\\u000a collected
Victor K. Y. Chan
Recovery from pathological gambling is viewed as a process whereby the pathological gambler chooses to lose an addiction to gambling and maintains that choice while mourning the loss of the gambling. The self-induced and self-escalating addictive crisis leading up to that choice is explored, as is the crisis caused by the loss of the gambling itself. It is proposed that
This paper critically reviews prevalence estimates of problem and pathological gambling in Canada. Populations studied are adults, adolescents and primary school children. The proportions of pathological gamblers found in Canadian studies (ranging from 1.2% to 1.9% for adults) are similar to prevalence rates reported in the United States. Given the apparent link between gambling availability and increases in the prevalence
This study aimed to develop an empirically based description of relapse in Electronic Gaming Machine (EGM) problem gambling (PG) by describing the processes and factors that 'pull' the problem gambler away from relapse contrasted with the 'push' towards relapse. These conceptualisations describe two opposing, interacting emotional processes occurring within the problem gambler during any relapse episode. Each relapse episode comprises a complex set of psychological and social behaviours where many factors interact sequentially and simultaneously within the problem gambler to produce a series of mental and behaviour events that end (1) with relapse where 'push' overcomes 'pull' or (2) continued abstinence where 'pull' overcomes 'push'. Four focus groups comprising thirty participants who were EGM problem gamblers, gamblers' significant others, therapists and counsellors described their experiences and understanding of relapse. The groups were recorded, recordings were then transcribed and analysed using thematic textual analysis. It was established that vigilance, motivation to commit to change, positive social support, cognitive strategies such as remembering past gambling harms or distraction techniques to avoid thinking about gambling to enable gamblers to manage the urge to gamble and urge extinction were key factors that protected against relapse. Three complementary theories emerged from the analysis. Firstly, a process of reappraisal of personal gambling behaviour pulls the gambler away from relapse. This results in a commitment to change that develops over time and affects but is independent of each episode of relapse. Secondly, relapse may be halted by interacting factors that 'pull' the problem gambler away from the sequence of mental and behavioural events, which follow the triggering of the urge and cognitions to gamble. Thirdly, urge extinction and apparent 'cure' is possible for EGM gambling. This study provides a qualitative, empirical model for understanding protective factors against gambling relapse. PMID:21989572
Oakes, J; Pols, R; Battersby, M; Lawn, S; Pulvirenti, M; Smith, D
This study explores longitudinally a four-factor structure of pathological personality trait dimensions (PPTDs) to examine both its structural stability and intra-individual changes among PPTDs over time. Personality Disorder (PD) scales of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III were administered to 361 low-income women with various psychiatric conditions (drug dependence, depression), who were followed in a two-wave study over 5-years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal factor analyses outlined a robust factorial structure of PPTDs, extrinsically invariant over time, representing Negative Emotionality, Introversion, Antagonism and Impulsivity. Despite moderate rank-order stability in the PPTDs, results also indicated substantial intra-individual variability in the degree and direction of change, consistent with trajectories of change in participants clinical diagnoses. Results are discussed in light of current debates on the structure and dynamic of pathological personality. PMID:23710108
Barbot, Baptiste; Hunter, Scott R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Luthar, Suniya S.
There is little available information on the factors that influence relapses and dropouts during therapy for pathological gambling (PG). The aim of this study was to determine socio-demographic, clinical, personality, and psychopathological predictors of relapse and dropout in a sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. A total of 566 consecutive outpatients diagnosed with PG according to DSM-IV-TR criteria were included. All patients underwent an individualized cognitive-behavioral treatment program. We analyzed predictors of relapse during 6months of treatment and during the subsequent 6months of follow-up, and predictors of dropout over the entire therapeutic program. Eighty patients (14.1%) experienced at least one relapse during the entire follow-up of the study: 50 (8.8%) within the treatment period and 12 (2.1%) during the subsequent 6-month follow-up period. The main predictors of relapse were single marital status, spending less than 100euros/week on gambling, active gambling behavior at treatment inclusion, and high scores on the TCI-R Harm Avoidance personality dimension. One hundred fifty-seven patients (27.8%) missed 3 or more therapeutic sessions over the entire therapeutic program. The main predictors of dropout were single marital status, younger age, and high scores on the TCI-R Novelty Seeking personality dimension. The presence of these factors at inclusion should be taken into account by physicians dealing with PG patients. PMID:25434846
Aragay, Núria; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Ramos-Grille, Irene; Cardona, Sara; Garrido, Gemma; Anisul Islam, Mohammed; Menchón, José M; Vallès, Vicenç
Impulsive behavior such as steep temporal discounting is a hallmark of addiction and is associated with relapse. In pathological gamblers, discounting may be further increased by the presence of gambling-related cues in the environment, but the extent to which the gambling relatedness of task settings affects reward responses in gambling addiction is debated. In the present study, human problem gamblers made choices between immediate rewards and individually tailored larger-but-later rewards while visual gambling-related scenes were presented in the background. N = 17 participants were scanned using fMRI, whereas N = 5 additional participants completed a behavioral version of the task. Postscan craving ratings were acquired for each image, and behavioral and neuroimaging data were analyzed separately for high- and low-craving trials (median split analysis). Discounting was steeper for high versus low craving trials. Neuroimaging revealed a positive correlation with model-based subjective value in midbrain and striatum in low-craving trials that was reversed in high-craving trials. These findings reveal a modulation of striatal reward responses in gamblers by addiction-related cues, and highlight a potentially important mechanism that may contribute to relapse. Cue-induced changes in striatal delayed reward signals may lead to increased discounting of future rewards, which might in turn affect the likelihood of relapse. PMID:24672019
Miedl, Stephan F; Büchel, Christian; Peters, Jan
Growing evidence for the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for disordered gambling supports the need for a comprehensive set of gambling-related assessment measures that have been validated with treatment-seeking samples. The Gamblers' Beliefs Questionnaire (GBQ) is a self-report measure that was designed to identify gambling-related cognitive distortions (Steenbergh, Meyers, May, & Whelan, 2002). In this study, the GBQ demonstrated good internal consistency and adequate construct validity in a treatment-seeking sample of disordered gamblers. Additionally, scores on the measure significantly decreased across a brief cognitive-behavioral treatment, providing validity support for use of the GBQ with a clinical population. PMID:25596553
Winfree, Walter R; Ginley, Meredith K; Whelan, James P; Meyers, Andrew W
Objective The characteristics of Asian American and white problem gamblers using a gambling helpline were examined to identify race-related differences. Method Logistic regression analyses were conducted on data obtained from callers to a gambling helpline serving Southern New England in 20002003, inclusive. Results Of the 144 phone calls used in the analyses, 72 were from Asian American callers and 72 were from white callers who were matched on gender, education, income, marital/cohabitation status, and age. Race-related differences were observed in forms of gambling problems, psychiatric problems secondary to gambling, substance use problems, and family history. Asian American gamblers were more likely to report suicide attempts related to gambling and problems with non-strategic gambling. White gamblers were more likely to report both casino and non-casino gambling problems and personal and familial alcohol use problems. High proportions of both groups reported problems with strategic gambling, gambling-related anxiety, family and financial problems secondary to gambling, financial debt, daily tobacco use, and a family history of problem gambling. Conclusions Race-related differences should be considered in optimizing prevention and treatment strategies related to problem gambling. PMID:19238123
Barry, Declan T.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Wu, Ran; Potenza, Marc N.
The present investigation examined a behavior-analytic clinical treatment package designed to reduce the pathological gambling of 3 individuals with acquired brain injury. A prior history of pathological gambling of each patient was assessed via caregiver report, psychological testing, and direct observation of gambling behavior. Using an 8-week
Guercio, John M.; Johnson, Taylor; Dixon, Mark R.
Background. Nowadays, adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) is an established diagnostic category but is little investigated in subjects with addictive behaviours. Objective. To assess the presence of ASAD among patients with addictive disorders in comparison with anxiety patients and measure the personality correlates in all these groups. Methods. 103 outpatients, meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for anxiety disorders (38 patients), alcohol dependence (30 patients), or pathological gambling (35 patients), were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms (SCI-SAS) and the Adult Separation Anxiety Checklist (ASA-27) for separation anxiety and by the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R) for personality characteristics. Results. ASAD is detected in 34.2% of anxiety patients, 13.3% of alcoholics, and 11.4% of gamblers. Separation anxiety scores correlate positively with harm avoidance and negatively with self-directedness in all groups; further correlations are seen among addictive patients only, that is, self-transcendence for gamblers and cooperativeness for both alcoholics and gamblers. Conclusions. The prevalence of ASAD is lower among addictive patients than in those with anxiety disorders; correlations are found between separation anxiety and specific TCI-R dimensions, with some matching across the three diagnostic groups. PMID:25105134
Di Nicola, Marco; Pini, Stefano; Janiri, Luigi
This article examines portrayals of female gamblers in recent Hong Kong movies. The authors report that the depiction of female gamblers is very different from that of male gamblers in the movies made in the same period. Whereas the male gamblers are pitching a lonely and desperate battle against an evil opponent, the female gamblers portrayed in
Ohtsuka, Keis; Chan, Chi Chuen
The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Youth Version (SNAP-Y) is a new, reliable self-report questionnaire that assesses 15 personality traits relevant to both normal-range personality and the alternative "DSM"-5 model for personality disorder. Community adolescents, 12 to 18 years old (N = 364), completed the SNAP-Y; 347
Linde, Jennifer A.; Stringer, Deborah; Simms, Leonard J.; Clark, Lee Anna
The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) assesses traits relevant for diagnosing personality disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). We examined the PID-5 in relation to the Big-Three and Big-Five personality traits in outpatient and community adult samples. Domain-level analyses revealed that PID-5 Negative Affectivity correlated strongly with Neuroticism, and PID-5 Antagonism and Disinhibition correlated strongly negatively with Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, respectively; Antagonism and Disinhibition also were both linked strongly to Big-Three trait Disinhibition. PID-5 Detachment related strongly to personality, including Extraversion/Positive Temperament, but did not show its expected specificity to this factor. Finally, PID-5 Psychoticism correlated only modestly with Openness. Facet-level analyses indicated that some PID-5 scales demonstrated replicable deviations from their DSM-5 model placements. We discuss implications of these data for the DSM-5 model of personality disorder, and for integrating it with well-established structures of normal personality. PMID:23596272
Watson, David; Stasik, Sara M; Ro, Eunyoe; Clark, Lee Anna
Neuroimaging of structural pathology and connectomics in traumatic brain injury: Toward of knowledge on traumatic brain injury (TBI) favor the view that multimodal neu- roimaging using structural Park, NY 12065, USA d Brain Injury Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, University
??Personality disorders: PDs) are associated with many negative health outcomes, including overutilization of health care resources, increased risk for chronic health problems, and poor adherence (more)
Powers, Abigail D.
This study compares the relationship between personality disorders and interpersonal problems as obtained by self-report and peer-report measures. Participants (N=393) were administered self-and peer-report versions of the Peer Inventory for Personality Disorder and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-64. Canonical analyses demonstrated
Clifton, Allan; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.
Purpose: To discuss constructs and methods related to assessing the magnitude and the meaning of clinical outcomes, with a focus on applications in speech-language pathology. Method: Professionals in medicine, allied health, psychology, education, and many other fields have long been concerned with issues referred to variously as practical
Bothe, Anne K.; Richardson, Jessica D.
Research and clinical expertise indicates that impulsivity is an underlying feature of pathological gambling. This study examined the extent to which impulsive behavior, defined by the rate of discounting delayed monetary rewards, varies with pathological gambling severity, assessed by the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Sixty-two pathological gamblers completed a delay discounting task, the SOGS, the Eysenck impulsivity scale, the
S. M Alessi; N. M Petry
Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems\\u000a model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universalspiritual disconnections of pathological\\u000a gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCTs theoretical foundations, main constructs, and\\u000a treatment interventions are illustrated in a progression of six clinical phases. Promise of CCTs systemic conceptualization\\u000a and interventions
Bonnie K. Lee
Pathological gambling is an addictive disorder characterized by a persistent and compulsive desire to engage in gambling activities. This maladaptive behaviour has been suggested to result from a decreased sensitivity to experienced rewards, regardless of reward type. Alternatively, pathological gambling might reflect an imbalance in the sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives. To directly test these two hypotheses, we examined how the brain reward circuit of pathological gamblers responds to different types of rewards. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared the brain responses of 18 pathological gamblers and 20 healthy control subjects while they engaged in a simple incentive task manipulating both monetary and visual erotic rewards. During reward anticipation, the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers showed a differential response to monetary versus erotic cues, essentially driven by a blunted reactivity to cues predicting erotic stimuli. This differential response correlated with the severity of gambling symptoms and was paralleled by a reduced behavioural motivation for erotic rewards. During reward outcome, a posterior orbitofrontal cortex region, responding to erotic rewards in both groups, was further recruited by monetary gains in pathological gamblers but not in control subjects. Moreover, while ventral striatal activity correlated with subjective ratings assigned to monetary and erotic rewards in control subjects, it only correlated with erotic ratings in gamblers. Our results point to a differential sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary rewards in pathological gambling, both at the motivational and hedonic levels. Such an imbalance might create a bias towards monetary rewards, potentially promoting addictive gambling behaviour. PMID:23757765
Sescousse, Guillaume; Barbalat, Guillaume; Domenech, Philippe; Dreher, Jean-Claude
Prevalence of pathological gambling refers to the percentage of cases of pathological gambling occurring in the community at a given time. Prevalence studies conducted in different principalities throughout the world are reviewed, and it is found that none of them conforms to this definition of prevalence. The major error in all but the most recent surveys conducted is identified as the use of questions which ask whether gambling-related problems have ever occurred rather than whether they are currently occurring. This error will lead to an over-estimation of the prevalence of pathological gambling in society. The second major error identified in nearly all studies involves the accuracy of the screens being used to assess whether or not an individual is a pathological gambler. Concerns about the efficiency of the South Oaks Gambling Screen have not yet been satisfactorily resolved. None-the-less, the widespread use of the South Oaks Gambling Screen has made a valuable contribution to international comparisons of prevalence studies. Future work that explores the emerging relationship between levels of personal expenditure on gambling, types of gambling product and gambling-related problems are recommended. PMID:24233918
Walker, M B; Dickerson, M G
Perceived control over a gambling outcome leads individuals to accept more and larger bets, increased risk-taking. Pathological gamblers, however, do not diminish risk-taking when control is absent, suggesting an illusion of control. To evaluate neural correlates of perceived control in gamblers, this study compared magnetoencephalography responses of 36 pathological (PG) and 36 non-pathological gamblers (NPG) during the Georgia Gambling Task. PGs exhibited greater activity in bilateral primary sensory regions. An interaction between pathology and control over the gambling task was observed bilaterally throughout dorsal and ventral visual processing streams, and lateral PFC. NPGs showed decreased activity when control was absent. Groups did not differ in response to potential bet cost. These findings provide neurophysiological evidence that PGs suffer from the pattern of risk-taking associated with perceived control, even when no control exists. They suggest that gambling pathology contributes to differential processing of gambling stimuli other than potential costs or rewards. PMID:23201037
Hudgens-Haney, Matthew E; Hamm, Jordan P; Goodie, Adam S; Krusemark, Elizabeth A; McDowell, Jennifer E; Clementz, Brett A
Although skills are not considered relevant in chance-governed activities, only a few studies have assessed the extent to which sport expert skills in wagering are a manifestation of the illusion of control. This study examined (a) whether expert hockey bettors could make better predictions than chance, (b) whether expert hockey bettors could achieve greater monetary gains than chance, and (c) what kind of strategies hockey gamblers rely on when betting. Accordingly, 30 participants were asked to report their state lottery hockey bets on 6 occasions. We suggest that the information used by bettors, along with near-misses, reinforces their perception of expertise. The results of this experiment suggest that the so-called "skills" of the sports bettors are cognitive distortions. PMID:15238056
Cantinotti, Michael; Ladouceur, Robert; Jacques, Christian
Psychophysiological assessments measuring heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and skin resistance level were conducted on 7 male compulsive gamblers and on 7 age and gender matched controls while both groups performed mental arithmetic and listened to individualized tapes of the gamblers' preferred form of gambling and an individualized fear tape. Heart rate responses of the gamblers to the
Edward B. Blanchard; Edelgard Wulfert; Brian M. Freidenberg; Loretta S. Malta
We examined the relationship between gambling severity, impulsivity and obsessionality\\/compulsivity in 38 pathological gamblers, representing the complete Minnesota sample of a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of paroxetine for the treatment of pathological gambling (PG), using Pearson correlations and linear regression models at baseline and treatment endpoint. At baseline, Pathological Gambling Modification of the YaleBrown ObsessiveCompulsive Scale (PG-YBOCS) scores correlated significantly
Carlos Blanco; Marc N. Potenza; Suck Won Kim; Angela Ibáñez; Rocco Zaninelli; Jerónimo Saiz-Ruiz; Jon E. Grant
Counsellors (N = 21) receiving their first training in Congruence Couple Therapy (CCT) applied CCT to 12 pathological gamblers (N = 24) and their spouses conjointly at their Ontario treatment settings. Gamblers' and spouses' prepost quantitative results indicated statistically significant reduction of gambling urges and behaviours and improvement in spousal relationship. However, contrary to hypothesis, spouses experienced a significant decrease in overall life satisfaction,
BONNIE K. LEE; MARTIN ROVERS
Decision-making plays a pivotal role in daily life as impairments in processes underlying decision-making often lead to an inability to make profitable long-term decisions. As a case in point, pathological gamblers continue gambling despite the fact that this disrupts their personal, professional or financial life. The prevalence of pathological gambling will likely increase in the coming years due to expanding possibilities of on-line gambling through the Internet and increasing liberal attitudes towards gambling. It therefore represents a growing concern for society. Both human and animal studies rapidly advance our knowledge on brain-behaviour processes relevant for understanding normal and pathological gambling behaviour. Here, we review in humans and animals three features of pathological gambling which hitherto have received relatively little attention: (1) sex differences in (the development of) pathological gambling, (2) adolescence as a (putative) sensitive period for (developing) pathological gambling and (3) avenues for improving ecological validity of research tools. Based on these issues we also discuss how research in humans and animals may be brought in line to maximize translational research opportunities. PMID:23867802
van den Bos, Ruud; Davies, William; Dellu-Hagedorn, Francoise; Goudriaan, Anna E; Granon, Sylvie; Homberg, Judith; Rivalan, Marion; Swendsen, Joel; Adriani, Walter
Previous research has suggested that irrational thinking may play a central role in the maintenance of behavior in slot machine gambling (M. B. Walker, 1992b). The present study is an evaluation of the validity and predictors of irrational thinking in a sample of regular gamblers (N = 20) drawn from the general community. The results were generally consistent with earlier
Paul H. Delfabbro; Anthony H. Winefeld
Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members
The multivariate socio-demographic risk factors for problem gambling have been well documented. While this body of research is valuable in determining risk factors aggregated across various populations, the majority of studies tend not to specifically identify particular subgroups of problem gamblers based on the interaction between variables. The
Markham, Francis; Young, Martin; Doran, Bruce
The aim of the present study is to offer a validated decision model for casino enterprises. The model enables those users to perform early detection of problem gamblers and fulfill their ethical duty of social cost minimization. To this end, the interpretation of casino customers' nonverbal communication is understood as a signal-processing problem. Indicators of problem gambling recommended by Delfabbro et al. (Identifying problem gamblers in gambling venues: final report, 2007) are combined with Viterbi algorithm into an interdisciplinary model that helps decoding signals emitted by casino customers. Model output consists of a historical path of mental states and cumulated social costs associated with a particular client. Groups of problem and non-problem gamblers were simulated to investigate the model's diagnostic capability and its cost minimization ability. Each group consisted of 26 subjects and was subsequently enlarged to 100 subjects. In approximately 95 % of the cases, mental states were correctly decoded for problem gamblers. Statistical analysis using planned contrasts revealed that the model is relatively robust to the suppression of signals performed by casino clientele facing gambling problems as well as to misjudgments made by staff regarding the clients' mental states. Only if the last mentioned source of error occurs in a very pronounced manner, i.e. judgment is extremely faulty, cumulated social costs might be distorted. PMID:24938732
The present study explored the associations among impulsivity, gambling cognitions, and behavioral adherence to the gambler's fallacy in university students (N = 142). Both impulsivity and gambling cognitions were significant predictors of non-problem and problem gambler categories as defined the Problem Gambling Severity Index. A logistic regression analysis showed that the independent contribution of cognition was statistically significant but that the contribution of impulsivity was not. A behavioral measure of gambling was obtained by asking participants to play an online game of roulette for a maximum of 15 min. Only outside bets were permitted whereby participants were to bet on the color of the winning number. Adherence to the gambler's fallacy was indexed by the likelihood of betting on an alternation in the color of the winning number as the number of consecutive outcomes of the other color increased. Gambling cognitions and gender, but not impulsivity, were associated with adherence to the gambler's fallacy. Tracing the sources of specific influences on gambling behavior may benefit from a framework that distinguishes between "hot" (emotional) and "cold" (non-emotional) mechanisms that promote problem gambling. PMID:24293013
Marmurek, Harvey H C; Switzer, Jessica; D'Alvise, Joshua
Pathology and Molecular Medicine ANATOMICAL PATHOLOGY GRAND ROUNDS 2012 / 2013 TIME: 12:30 - 1:30 p. Pollett Mount Sinai Hospital University of Toronto Personalized Medicine in GI Oncologic Pathology November 21st MDCL Â 3020 2:00 Â 3:00 pm Dr. J. Waye McMaster University CSI Pathology: Confirmation
Evidence suggests that maternal borderline personality (BP) pathology increases offspring risk. This study examined the relations between maternal BP pathology and related emotional dysfunction (including emotion regulation [ER] difficulties and emotional intensity/reactivity) and infant ER difficulties. Specifically, we examined both self-focused and caregiver-focused ER behaviors and the modulation of emotional expressions (one indicator of ER in young children) in response to fear- and anger-eliciting stimuli among 101 infants (12 to 23 months old) of mothers with and without clinically relevant BP pathology. The authors also examined the moderating role of mother-infant attachment. Findings of a series of multiple regression mediation analyses revealed an indirect effect of maternal BP pathology on infant ER difficulties through maternal emotional dysfunction, with maternal ER difficulties facilitating an indirect effect of maternal BP pathology on expressivity-related indicators of infant ER difficulties and maternal emotional intensity/reactivity linking maternal BP pathology to lower self-focused ER for infants in insecure-resistant attachment relationships. PMID:24344887
Gratz, Kim L; Kiel, Elizabeth J; Latzman, Robert D; Elkin, T David; Moore, Sarah Anne; Tull, Matthew T
Summary Background Severe problem gambling is most often related to income producing offences such as larceny and embezzlement. In addition, the high rate of relapse to gambling problems and the link between gambling debts and crime have clinical, forensic and penitentiary implications. Considering the data from the literature presented here I decided to form and empirically verify a hypothesis that incarcerated men with a diagnosis of pathological gambling are characterized by psychopathic personality disorders, alcohol problems and criminality. Material/Methods The groups of participants encompassed 90 men 2652 years of age, serving a criminal sentence. All participants had to fulfil the following clinical criteria: a) be interviewed by a psychiatrist and diagnosed with pathological gambling and/or antisocial personality disorders b) obtain a result in the PCL-R test; c) estimate the relationship between gambling problems and crime. Taking into consideration the abovementioned criteria three patient test groups were formed: Group 1, which included those for whom gambling had led to crime; Group 2, where gambling was a part of a criminal lifestyle, and Group 3, in which the mutual relationship between gambling and crime was unclear. Results The participants were diagnosed as pathological gamblers (DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10) and psychopaths (PCL-R). Those tested differed with regard to the intensification of the personality disturbance tested, the co-occurrence of other disturbances, particularly psychoactive addictions, the motivations for taking up gambling, and the type of criminal activity. Conclusions The hypothesis was confirmed that incarcerated men with a diagnosis of pathological gambling are characterized by psychopathic personality disorders, alcohol problems and criminality. PMID:22037748
The present study examined Internet gambling behavior in a sample of online gamblers. Participants (N?=?563; 382 male; ages 18over 65) were recruited from a banner placed in an online newsletter. Questionnaires were completed\\u000a online and assessed demographic information, game-play patterns (e.g., frequency, duration, wagering), preferred type of play,\\u000a and problem gambling (using the DSM-IV). In addition, participation in gambling-type games
Jessica McBride; Jeffrey Derevensky
The aim of the present study was to examine predictors of 'escape style' problem gambling among young Australian gamblers. Anxiety and dissociation are considered to be predictors of 'escape style' gambling behaviour although this assessment has neglected consideration of different modes of gambling. This study builds on existing research, to examine the role of anxiety and dissociation in the gambling habits of young Australian male and female gamblers. One hundred and forty-two participants aged between 18 and 35 years self-selected and completed an online questionnaire. The hypothesis that gamblers would have similar levels of dissociation and anxiety despite different modes of gambling was supported. The hypothesis that anxiety and dissociation would both together and uniquely predict problem gambling behaviour across a range of gambling modalities was supported. Further, the hypothesis that there would be an interaction effect between anxiety and dissociation such that their presence together would predict a higher degree of problem gambling behaviour was supported. Results suggest that anxiety and dissociation play an important role in 'escape style' gambling and that strategies to combat problem gambling may benefit from research targeting anxiety and attempting to rechannel dissociative behaviour into healthier pursuits. PMID:25371033
Cartmill, Tomas; Slatter, Tilsa; Wilkie, Brian
Problem gambling can significantly affect the lives of concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers, especially family members, but little is known about their help-seeking activities and experiences. This paper explores help-seeking by CSOs of problem gamblers and their related motivators and barriers. A telephone interview was
Hing, Nerilee; Tiyce, Margaret; Holdsworth, Louise; Nuske, Elaine
The aims were to assess cognitive distortions and psychological distress (anxiety and depression) among online poker players of different levels of gambling intensity (non-pathological gamblers [NPG], problem gamblers [PbG], and pathological gamblers [PG]), and to examine the relationship between these variables and gambling pathology. Overall, 245 regular online poker players recruited on an Internet forum completed online self-report scales assessing pathological gambling (South Oaks Gambling Screen [SOGS]), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]) and cognitive distortions (Gambling-Related Cognition Scale). Based on their SOGS scores, poker players were ranked into three groups: NPG (n=146), PbG (n=55), and PG (n=44). All poker players appeared to be more anxious than depressive. PG exhibited higher levels of depression and anxiety than did PbG and NPG. Cognitive distortions also significantly discriminated PG from PbG and NPG. A regression model showed that the perceived inability to stop gambling, the illusion of control, depression (HADS D), and anxiety were good predictors for pathological gambling among poker players. Our results suggest that cognitive distortions play an important role in the development and maintenance of gambling pathology. This study also underlines the role of anxiety and depression in pathological gambling among poker players. It seems relevant to take these elements into account in the research, prevention, and treatment of pathological gambling poker players. PMID:23363229
Barrault, Servane; Varescon, Isabelle
Background Previous studies of problem Internet gamblers have failed to distinguish whether their problem gambling relates to Internet or land-based gambling modes. Therefore, characteristics and help-seeking behaviors of people whose gambling problems relate specifically to Internet gambling are unknown, but could inform the optimal alignment of treatment and support services with the needs and preferences of problem gamblers. Objective This study aimed to compare (1) characteristics of problem Internet gamblers and problem land-based gamblers and (2) uptake of different types and modes of help between problem Internet gamblers and problem land-based gamblers. Hypothesis 1 was that problem Internet gamblers are less likely to seek help. Hypothesis 2 was that problem Internet gamblers are more likely to use online modes of help. Methods A sample of 620 respondents meeting criteria for problem gambling was drawn from an online survey of 4594 Australian gamblers. Respondents were recruited through advertisements on gambling and gambling help websites, Facebook, and Google. Measures consisted of gambling participation; proportion of gambling on the Internet; most problematic mode of gambling; help seeking from 11 different sources of formal help, informal help, and self-help for gambling problems; psychological distress (Kessler 6); problem gambling severity (Problem Gambling Severity Index, PGSI); and demographics. Results Problem Internet gamblers were significantly more likely than problem land-based gamblers to be male (?2 1=28.3, P<.001, ?=0.21), younger (t 616.33=4.62, P<.001, d=0.37), have lower psychological distress (?2 1=5.4, P=.02, ?=0.09), and experience problems with sports and race wagering (?2 4=228.5, P<.001, ?=0.61). Uptake of help was significantly lower among problem Internet compared to problem land-based gamblers (?2 1=6.9, P<.001, ?=0.11), including from face-to-face services, gambling helplines, online groups, self-exclusion from land-based venues, family or friends, and self-help strategies. Both problem Internet and problem land-based gamblers had similarly low use of online help. However, problem land-based gamblers (37.6%, 126/335) were significantly more likely to have sought land-based formal help compared to problem Internet gamblers (23.5%, 67/285; ?2 1=14.3, P<.001, ?=0.15). Conclusions The findings suggest that more targeted and innovative efforts may be needed to increase use of gambling help by problem Internet gamblers. Alternatively, their lower PGSI and K6 scores suggest Internet problem gamblers may have less need for gambling-related help. This is the first known study to classify problem Internet gamblers as those whose problem gambling specifically relates to Internet gambling. Further research is needed to better understand why help-seeking rates are lower among Internet problem gamblers. PMID:25567672
The phenomenological resemblance between pathological gambling (PG) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has led to suggestions that PG be categorized as an obsessive-compulsive-spectrum disorder (OCSD). This study aimed to explore whether PG resembles OCD in terms of personality and temperament. Fifteen patients with PG, 18 patients with OCD, and 33 healthy control subjects were included in the study. The study subjects were all male and drug naïve. We analyzed data obtained from three self-report questionnaires assessing personality, impulsiveness, and affect: the short version of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Participants with PG and OCD demonstrated less conscientiousness (F = 7.089, P = .002) and less openness to experience (F = 6.268, P = .003) and less positive affect (F = 15.816, P < .001) than did healthy controls. The two diagnostic groups did not differ from each other with respect total BIS-11 scores, but those with OCD showed more neuroticism than did those with PG and healthy controls ( F = 9.556, P < .001), and those with PG obtained higher scores on the non-planning impulsiveness factor of BIS-11 than did those with OCD or healthy controls ( F = 9,835, P < .001). PG and OCD share similar profiles in terms of personality and temperament. This study provides phenomenological evidence supporting the conceptualization of PG as an OCSD. PMID:21938524
Hwang, Jae Yeon; Shin, Young-Chul; Lim, Se-Won; Park, Hye Youn; Shin, Na Young; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Hye-Yoon; Kwon, Jun Soo
Gambling outcome expectancies refer to the anticipated outcomes that gamblers expect will occur from gambling (i.e., learned memory associations between gambling cues, behavior, and outcomes). Unlike previous approaches to gambling outcome expectancies that have predominantly focused on the valence of outcome expectancies (positive vs. negative), the present study investigated two specific types of positive gambling outcome expectancies: reward and relief gambling outcome expectancies. Specifically, the primary purpose of the current research was to examine whether gambling prime exposure activates different types of positive gambling outcome expectancies in enhancement- versus coping-motivated gamblers. Fifty adult, community-recruited regular gamblers performed a reaction time (RT) task and completed a self-report expectancy scale, both designed to assess reward and relief gambling outcome expectancies. They also completed the Gambling Motives Questionnaire (Stewart and Zack in Addiction 103:1110-1117 2008) to assess their levels of coping and enhancement motives for gambling. As hypothesized, reward gambling outcome expectancies were more strongly activated by gambling prime exposure than relief outcome expectancies on the RT task for gamblers with high enhancement motives. On the self-report expectancy measure, high enhancement-motivated gamblers endorsed stronger reward gambling outcome expectancies than low enhancement-motivated gamblers, and high coping-motivated gamblers endorsed stronger relief gambling outcome expectancies than low coping-motivated gamblers. Results suggest that automatic activation of reward gambling outcome expectancies is particularly strong for high enhancement-motivated gamblers. Possible reasons for the failure to observe an association between coping gambling motives and automatic relief gambling outcome expectancies are discussed. PMID:24916965
Yi, Sunghwan; Stewart, Melissa; Collins, Pamela; Stewart, Sherry H
The recent expansion of Internet gambling has stimulated debate, policy, and research on this relatively new phenomenon and its potential consequences. The current study focuses on bettors experiencing problems by sampling Internet gamblers who imposed limits on the amount they were allowed to deposit to a betting site. We analyzed the betting transactions over 18 months of all gamblers who subscribed to an online betting site in February, 2005 (N = 47,134), 567 of whom utilized the site's self-limit feature. Self-limiting gamblers played a wider variety of games and placed more bets than others prior to imposing limits. After imposing limits, self-limiters reduced their activity, but did not reduce the amount they wagered per bet. Time spent gambling, not just money spent, appears to be an important indicator of gambling problems. Self-limit programs appear to be promising options for Internet gamblers at-risk for gambling problems. PMID:18696219
Nelson, Sarah E; LaPlante, Debi A; Peller, Allyson J; Schumann, Anja; LaBrie, Richard A; Shaffer, Howard J
Objective To determine, using a random telephone survey, the prevalence of various gambling activities among South Australian adults, the prevalence of adult problem gamblers using the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) instrument, and to examine the problem gamblers by demographic and health-related risk factors.Method A random representative sample of South Australian adults selected from the Electronic White Pages. Overall, 6045 interviews were
Tiffany Gill; Eleonora Dal Grande; Anne W. Taylor
Objectives: To assess the effects of gender on comorbid problems and treatment-seeking among gamblers in treatment and the effects of comorbid problems on participants' gambling Method: Participants completed a survey on comorbid problems and the effects of comorbid problems on their gambling Sample: Seventy-eight adults (40 males, 38 females) enrolled in state-supported outpatient programs or Gamblers Anonymous Results: The majority
James R. Westphal; Lera Joyce Johnson
Numerous studies have reported higher rates of gambling problems among Internet compared with non-Internet gamblers. However, little research has examined those at risk of developing gambling problems or overall gambling involvement. This study aimed to examine differences between problem and moderate-risk gamblers among Internet and non-Internet gamblers to determine the mechanisms for how Internet gambling may contribute to gambling problems. Australian gamblers (N = 6,682) completed an online survey that included measures of gambling participation, problem gambling severity, and help seeking. Compared with non-Internet gamblers, Internet gamblers were younger, engaged in a greater number of gambling activities, and were more likely to bet on sports. These differences were significantly greater for problem than moderate-risk gamblers. Non-Internet gamblers were more likely to gamble on electronic gaming machines, and a significantly higher proportion of problem gamblers participated in this gambling activity. Non-Internet gamblers were more likely to report health and psychological impacts of problem gambling and having sought help for gambling problems. Internet gamblers who experience gambling-related harms appear to represent a somewhat different group from non-Internet problem and moderate-risk gamblers. This has implications for the development of treatment and prevention programs, which are often based on research that does not cater for differences between subgroups of gamblers. PMID:23438251
Gainsbury, Sally M; Russell, Alex; Hing, Nerilee; Wood, Robert; Blaszczynski, Alex
Sometimes people believe that a run of similar independent events will be broken (belief in the gambler's fallacy) but, other times, that such a run will continue (belief in the hot hand). Both of these opposite inductions have been explained as being due to belief in a law of small numbers. We argue that one factor that distinguishes these phenomena is people's beliefs about the randomness of the underlying process generating the events. We gave participants information about a streak of events but varied the scenarios in such a way that the mechanism generating the events should vary in how random the participants would judge it to be. A manipulation check confirmed our assumptions about the scenarios. We found that with less random scenarios, the participants were more likely to continue a streak. PMID:15117006
Burns, Bruce D; Corpus, Bryan
This article summarizes a symposium held at the 2002 Annual Meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism in San Francisco, CA, and was prepared on behalf of the symposium participants by the symposium co-organizers/co-chairs. Prior research with both clinical and nonclinical populations indicates a high comorbidity between alcohol-use disorders and pathological gambling. This symposium involved a set of papers in which exciting new research on this form of comorbidity was presented. The studies spanned populations of problem-gambling helpline callers, problem gamblers attempting to recover, and community-recruited gambler research volunteers. The studies used methodologies ranging from questionnaire and interview to laboratory-based paradigms (i.e., cognitive and alcohol challenge). Study designs ranged from cross-sectional to longitudinal and from correlation to experiment. The symposium highlighted novel approaches that researchers are using to enhance understanding of functional relations that may underlie this common comorbidity. PMID:12605078
Stewart, Sherry H; Kushner, Matt G
The current study attempted to alter preferences for concurrently available slot machines of equal payout through the development of equivalence classes and subsequent transfers of functions. Participants rated stimuli consisting of words thought to be associated with having a gambling problem (e.g., "desperation" and "debt"), words associated
Dixon, Mark R.; Bihler, Holly L.; Nastally, Becky L.
We conducted a randomised controlled trial pilot study (N = 30) with two treatment groups: (1) Manualised cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) (n = 15) and (2) escitalopram combined with CBT (n = 15). Treatment was administered individually and the CBT included weekly sessions for eight consecutive weeks. The treatment with escitalopram lasted for a minimum of 16 weeks (20 mg\\/day), with an optional continuation for a 6-month
Helga Myrseth; Helge Molde; Inge Jarl Støylen; Bjørn Helge Johnsen; Fred Holsten; Ståle Pallesen
Identifying situations in which individuals gamble may be important for developing or improving treatments, but few instruments exist for examining high-risk gambling situations. This study evaluated the factor structure of the Inventory of Gambling Situations (IGS), an instrument that assesses situations that may lead to gambling episodes. Individuals seeking alcohol and drug abuse treatment who were identified as problem or
Nancy M. Petry; Carla J. Rash; Carlos Blanco
Introduction Delay discounting is a behavioral economic index of impulsivity that reflects preferences for small immediate rewards relative to larger delayed rewards. It has been consistently linked to pathological gambling and other forms of addictive behavior, and has been proposed to be a behavioral characteristic that may link genetic variation and risk of developing addictive disorders (i.e., an endophenotype). Studies to date have revealed significant associations with polymorphisms associated with dopamine neurotransmission. The current study examined associations between delay discounting and both previously linked variants and a novel panel of dopamine-related variants in a sample of frequent gamblers. Methods Participants were 175 weekly gamblers of European ancestry who completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire to assess delay discounting preferences and provided a DNA via saliva. Results In a priori tests, two loci previously associated with delayed reward discounting (rs1800497 and rs4680) were not replicated, however, the long form of DRD4 VNTR was significantly associated with lower discounting of delayed rewards. Exploratory analysis of the dopamine-related panel revealed 11 additional significant associations in genes associated with dopamine synthesis, breakdown, reuptake, and receptor function (DRD3, SLC6A3, DDC, DBH, and SLC18A2). An aggregate genetic risk score from the nominally significant loci accounted for 17% of the variance in discounting. Mediational analyses largely supported the presence of indirect effects between the associated loci, delay discounting, and pathological gambling severity. Conclusions These findings do not replicate previously reported associations but identify several novel candidates and provide preliminary support for a systems biology approach to understand the genetic basis of delay discounting. PMID:25365808
Gray, Joshua C; MacKillop, James
Profile surveys, completed Rotter I-E scales, and questionnaires on past relapse behavior were collected from 108 New Jersey compulsive gamblers who attended Gamblers Anonymous, and an attempt was made, based on the findings, to predict incidence of compulsive gamblers' relapse. Relationships between I-E scores and extent of relapse-free periods, and I-E scores and relapse, with the variables of religious background, age, marital status, education, type of work, and childhood physical abuse were investigated. In every instance the relationship found was statistically non-significant. PMID:1620757
Johnson, E E; Nora, R M; Bustos, N
2011-2012BROWNBAGCOLLOQUIUMSERIES A Gambler's Penance in Seventeenth Century Spain WEDNESDAY, and Collaboration in Early Modern Spain," has been published in 2011. He has also published various chapters in books about Cervantes or about Masculinity in Spain and Italy. Additionally, he is a member
Problem gambling rates are increasing, but few of those requiring help receive it; stigma is often cited as a reason why treatment is not forthcoming. Such is the context for this study, possibly the first to examine Internet-based help for gambling problems. The study ex- plored problem gamblers' use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) as a facet of their recovery. Fifty
Problem gambling has been identified as a public health concern in Australia, and a considerable proportion of regular gamblers may be at risk of developing gambling related problems. Attentional bias to salient cues has been observed in substance addictions, and to some extent, in problem gamblers. This bias appears to be indicative of an increase in sensitisation to salient cues as a result of continued reforcement of a related behaviour. To test for an attentional bias to gambling-related stimuli in non-problem gamblers, the relationships between gambling frequency, gambling attitudes and beliefs (GABS-23), and attentional bias were investigated. Participants (N = 38) viewed simultaneous pairs of gambling-related and neutral images and performed a dot probe task, during which their eye-movements were recorded. This enabled both direct and indirect measures of attentional bias to be obtained. Gambling frequency and GABS-23 scores predicted both direct and indirect measures of a bias in the maintenance of attention to gambling cues. No bias in attentional engagement was found. These results suggest that regular gamblers who have not yet developed any related problems show signs of sensitisation to gambling cues and may be at risk of progressing further towards problem gambling. PMID:24871298
Grant, Leigh D; Bowling, Alison C
Compulsive gambling is a psychiatric disorder an addiction to gambling in which the substance abused is money. When legal access to money is no longer available, compulsive gamblers will often resort to illegal activities in order to obtain funds with which to support their addiction.
Valerie C. Lorenz
Clinical features of compulsive gambling and a cognitive-behavioral addiction model for conceptualizing, diagnosing, and treating the compulsive gambling disorder are presented. The traditional psychoanalytic and behavioral treatment approaches are briefly reviewed. An approach to establishing a therapeutic relationship with the gambler is discussed. Assessment instruments and stages of therapy are presented. Emphasis is placed on means to avoid relapse with
Jane L. Harris
The Gamblers Treatment Clinic (GTC) opened in 1982 as a New York State Office of Mental Health Demonstration Program. The basic premise of the GTC is that excessive gambling is a disorder of impulse control. Treatment, conducted in the community in a time-limited fashion, attempts to uncover the underlying dynamics that precipitate disorders of
Blackman, Sheldon; And Others
Given the central role of perseverative chasing in problem gambling, the present study sought to find evidence for three hypothesized\\u000a components of perseveration in problem gamblers: reward-sensitivity dominance, deficient inhibition of reward-seeking behavior,\\u000a and working memory deficits. This was the first attempt to examine working memory deficits in problem gamblers using a conditional\\u000a association task, which is associated with posterior-dorsolateral
Victor Leiserson; Robert O. Pihl
This study aimed to investigate, from a gender perspective, how different features of problem gambling present in men and women who gamble regularly in Sweden were distributed in four domains based on gambling type (chance or strategy) and setting (public or domestic). Problem gambling features were based on the nine items in the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). It was hypothesized that men and women gamble in different domains. Further, it was hypothesized that male gamblers overall experienced more problems with gambling than female gamblers, although in the same domains they would report the same level of problems. A further hypothesis predicted that regular female gamblers would experience more health and social problems and men would experience more financial difficulties. Interviews with a subsample of gamblers (n?=?3191) from a Swedish nationally representative sample (n?=?8179) was used to examine how features of problem gambling correspond with gender and the domains. Only the first hypothesis was fully supported. Men were more likely to participate in forms of gambling requiring strategy in a public setting, and women were more likely to participate in chance-based gambling in a domestic setting. Male and female gamblers had similar levels of problem gambling in the bi-variate analysis, but if controlling for age and gambling in multiple domains, women were more at risk than men. Additionally, men and women presented similar health and economic situations. The differences between male and female gamblers in Sweden have implications for research and prevention. PMID:24634562
Svensson, Jessika; Romild, Ulla
The search for neuronal and psychological underpinnings of pathological gambling in humans would benefit from investigating related phenomena also outside of our species. In this paper, we present a survey of studies in three widely different populations of agents, namely rodents, non-human primates, and robots. Each of these populations offers valuable and complementary insights on the topic, as the literature demonstrates. In addition, we highlight the deep and complex connections between relevant results across these different areas of research (i.e., cognitive and computational neuroscience, neuroethology, cognitive primatology, neuropsychiatry, evolutionary robotics), to make the case for a greater degree of methodological integration in future studies on pathological gambling. PMID:24574984
Paglieri, Fabio; Addessi, Elsa; De Petrillo, Francesca; Laviola, Giovanni; Mirolli, Marco; Parisi, Domenico; Petrosino, Giancarlo; Ventricelli, Marialba; Zoratto, Francesca; Adriani, Walter
Pathology is a complex field, and persons who might be new to the field might appreciate a bit of assistance. Medical educators might also need a hand as they begin to teach others in the field, and this particular case study offered by the University of Pittsburgh's Department of Pathology will be most useful in that regard. In this case, users will be exposed to slides, explanations, and relevant illustrations of a patient who was diagnosed with hepatitis C. Additionally, visitors can read descriptions of each microscope slide and look over the final diagnosis report.
Problem gamblers account for almost one-third of the industrys total revenue with the adverse effects of problem gambling\\u000a including significant financial loss, legal and occupational difficulties, family problems, psychological distress and suicide.\\u000a As such, it is important to understand the influential factors in gambling abstinence and relapse, which will assist in the\\u000a development of relapse prevention methods in therapeutic treatment
Tian P. S. Oei; Leon M. Gordon
Disordered gambling has been linked to increased negative affect, and some promising treatments have been shown to be effective at reducing gambling behaviors and related problems (Larimer et al. in Addiction 107:1148-1158, 2012). The current study seeks to expand upon the findings of Larimer et al. (Addiction 107:1148-1158, 2012) by examining the relationship between gambling-related problems and mental health symptoms in college students. Specifically, the three-group design tested the effects of two brief interventions for gambling-an individual, in-person personalized feedback intervention (PFI) delivered using motivational interviewing and group-based cognitive behavioral therapy, versus assessment only on mood outcomes. The mediating effect of gambling-related problems on mood was also explored. Participants (N = 141; 65 % men; 60 % Caucasian, 28 % Asian) were at-risk college student gamblers [South Oaks Gambling Screen (Lesieur and Blume in Am J Psychiatry 144:1184-1188, 1987) ?3], assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Gambling problems were assessed using the Gambling Problems Index (Neighbors et al. in J Gamb Stud 18:339-360, 2002). Mental health symptoms were assessed using the depression, anxiety, and hostility subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis in Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI): administration, scoring, and procedures manual, National Computer Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, 1993). Results revealed that the PFI condition differentially reduced negative mood, and that reductions in gambling-related problems partially mediated this effect. Implications for intervention for comorbid mood and gambling disorders are discussed. PMID:24706331
Geisner, Irene Markman; Bowen, Sarah; Lostutter, Ty W; Cronce, Jessica M; Granato, Hollie; Larimer, Mary E
Research and clinical expertise indicates that impulsivity is an underlying feature of pathological gambling. This study examined the extent to which impulsive behavior, defined by the rate of discounting delayed monetary rewards, varies with pathological gambling severity, assessed by the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Sixty-two pathological gamblers completed a delay discounting task, the SOGS, the Eysenck impulsivity scale, the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), and questions about gambling and substance use at intake to outpatient treatment for pathological gambling. In the delay discounting task, participants chose between a large delayed reward (US $1000) and smaller more immediate rewards (US $1-$999) across a range of delays (6h to 25 years). The rate at which the delayed reward was discounted (k value) was derived for each participant and linear regression was used to identify the variables that predicted k values. Age, gender, years of education, substance abuse treatment history, and cigarette smoking history failed to significantly predict k values. Scores on the Eysenck impulsivity scale and the SOGS both accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in k values. The predictive value of the SOGS was 1.4 times that of the Eysenck scale. These results indicate that of the measures tested, gambling severity was the best single predictor of impulsive behavior in a delay discounting task in this sample of pathological gamblers. PMID:14580703
Alessi, S M.; Petry, N M.
The pathologic examination of failed joints, whether natural or artificial, is an indispensable part of the understanding of arthritis, as it is the last, and still best opportunity to determine or verify the correct diagnosis. Accuracy in pathologic diagnosis, based on a firm understanding of the various disease processes, provides reliable data for use in clinical registries, provides an opportunity
Edward F. DiCarlo; Michael J. Klein
Chinese people may have a higher rate of gambling problems than other cultural groups. However, there are very few clinical outcome studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of clinical interventions for helping Chinese gamblers. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective for helping problem gamblers to significantly reduce their gambling problems in western countries. Very few CBT clinical trials have been conducted with the Chinese populations, and the results were masked by methodological limitations. This preliminary study attempted to test the effectiveness of an integrated and culturally attuned CBT group treatment for Chinese problem gamblers in Hong Kong. This study adopted a randomized control design and 38 participants were allocated randomly to the experimental condition (n = 18) and control condition (n = 20). The experimental group received 10 weekly CBT group sessions and individual counseling services while control group only received the individual counseling services. Significant decreases in gambling severity and frequencies of gambling were found in the experimental group. The findings also showed that a change in gambling cognitions predicted the changes in gambling severity and gambling urge while a change in gambling severity was also linked to a change in depression. Preliminary evidence highlights the potential benefits of an integrated and culturally attuned CBT group treatment for Chinese problem gamblers in Hong Kong. However, a more vigorous research design with a larger sample is needed to provide solid evidence of the effectiveness of the model for Chinese problem gamblers. PMID:24699943
Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Chung, Catherine Lai Ping; Wu, Janet; Tang, Joe; Lau, Patrick
Problem gambling has become a widespread problem following the rapid expansion of electronic gaming machines into hotels and clubs over the last 10 years. Recent literature indicates that certain factors can influence problem gambling severity, such as psychiatric co-morbidity and personality traits, gambling related cognitions, substance use and
Hounslow, Vanessa; Smith, David; Battersby, Malcolm; Morefield, Kate
Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology 20 Pathology and Diagnostic Pathology and adenocarcinoma Â·Application of molecular pathology to pathological diagnosis Â· Discovery of cancer therapy target and acceleration of pathological diagnostic processes Investigation of the development of EB virus
Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth. PMID:18482706
Niemiec, Brook A
Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of abuse.
Kelly Christopher; Catherine J. Lutz-Zois; Amanda R. Reinhardt
Seventy-two pathological gambling patients were followed-up after treatment in a combined alcohol, substance abuse and compulsive gambling treatment program. The Addiction Severity Index (modified for use with pathological gamblers) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. Patients reduced their intake of alcohol, other drugs and their gambling as well as improved in legal, family/social, and psychological functioning. There was a trend for improvement in medical condition and no net change in employment functioning. The study supports the idea that combined treatment is an effective way of dealing with patients whose gambling problems are discovered when they enter treatment for another addiction, as well as for patients whose initial complaints include pathological gambling, with or without additional problems. PMID:1912747
Lesieur, H R; Blume, S B
In the present article we introduce a quantum mechanism which is able to describe the creation of correlations in the evaluation of random independent events: such correlations, known as positive and negative recency, correspond respectively to the hot hand's and to the gambler's fallacies. Thus we propose a description of these effects in terms of qubits, which may become entangled, forming a system which can not be described completely only in terms of its constituents. We show that such formalism is able to describe and interpret the experimental results, thus providing a general and unifying framework for the cognitive heuristics.
Several recent studies have demonstrated that addicts behave less flexibly than healthy controls in the probabilistic reversal learning task (PRLT), in which participants must gradually learn to choose between a probably rewarded option and an improbably rewarded one, on the basis of corrective feedback, and in which preferences must adjust to abrupt reward contingency changes (reversals). In the present study, pathological gamblers (PG) and cocaine dependent individuals (CDI) showed different learning curves in the PRLT. PG also showed a reduced electroencephalographic response to feedback (Feedback-Related Negativity, FRN) when compared to controls. CDIs FRN was not significantly different either from PG or from healthy controls. Additionally, according to Standardized Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography analysis, cortical activity in regions of interest (previously selected by virtue of their involvement in FRN generation in controls) strongly differed between CDI and PG. However, the nature of such anomalies varied within-groups across individuals. Cocaine use severity had a strong deleterious impact on the learning asymptote, whereas gambling intensity significantly increased reversal cost. These two effects have remained confounded in most previous studies, which can be hiding important associative learning differences between different populations of addicts. PMID:23516173
Torres, Ana; Catena, Andrés; Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Megías, Alberto; Perales, José C.
There is a current lack of descriptive information on college students who gamble on the Internet. With the increasing popularity of Internet gambling, this study aimed to better understand the profile of Internet gamblers among a sample of college students. Of 909 students at the University of California-Los Angeles who completed an online
Shead, N. Will; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Fong, Timothy W.; Gupta, Rina
Problem gamblers account for almost one-third of the industry's total revenue with the adverse effects of problem gambling including significant financial loss, legal and occupational difficulties, family problems, psychological distress and suicide. As such, it is important to understand the influential factors in gambling abstinence and relapse, which will assist in the development of relapse prevention methods in therapeutic treatment regimes. This paper reported the role of a set of seven predictors in distinguishing between abstinent and relapsed gamblers among 75 Gambling Anonymous (GA) members (55 males; 20 females; Mean age 45 years) in Southeast Queensland. The measures taken were meeting Attendance and Participation, Social Support, God Belief, Belief in a Higher Power, Working the 12-steps of Recovery, Gambling Urges and Erroneous Cognitions. Discriminant analysis revealed that the variables separating the two groups were significant, suggesting that GA members achieving abstinence could be distinguished from those who relapsed, with Attendance and Participation, and Social Support contributing the greatest influence on member's ability to abstain from gambling. The findings suggested that GA member's involvement in meetings, and support from family and friends had significant impact on their gambling abstinence. In contrast, increased gambling urges and erroneous cognitions increased the chance of relapse. PMID:17674163
Oei, Tian P S; Gordon, Leon M
Impulsivity is a core process underlying addictive behaviors, including nonpharmacological addictive behaviors such as problem gambling. Although considerable attention has been given to the investigation of delay discounting within the context of addiction-related behaviors, relatively little research has examined the relationship between discounting and individual variables, such as race/ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to compare discounting rates in the three most prevalent racial/ethnic groups in the United States: Whites, African Americans, and Hispanics. The study was conducted with 315 problem gamblers. Participants completed a delay-discounting questionnaire involving choices between a smaller amount of money delivered immediately and a larger amount delivered later. A hyperbolic discounting function estimated delay-discounting rates based on participants' indifference points obtained via the questionnaires. Results showed significant effects of race/ethnicity on delay discounting. White gamblers discounted delayed money at lower rates than African Americans and Hispanics, even after controlling for confounding variables. These data suggest that among individuals who develop problem gambling, Whites are less impulsive than African Americans and Hispanics, at least in terms of choosing between delayed and immediate reinforcers. These results have implications for evaluating the onset and treatment of addictive disorders from a health-disparities perspective. PMID:24955678
Andrade, Leonardo F; Petry, Nancy M
The association between personality and gambling has been explored previously. However, few studies are based on representative populations. This study aimed at examining the association between risk gambling and personality in a representative Swedish population. A random Swedish sample (N = 19,530) was screened for risk gambling using the Lie/Bet questionnaire. The study sample (N = 257) consisted of those screening positive on Lie/Bet and completing a postal questionnaire about gambling and personality (measured with the NODS-PERC and the HP5i respectively). Risk gambling was positively correlated with Negative Affectivity (a facet of Neuroticism) and Impulsivity (an inversely related facet of Conscientiousness), but all associations were weak. When taking age and gender into account, there were no differences in personality across game preference groups, though preferred game correlated with level of risk gambling. Risk gamblers scored lower than the population norm data with respect to Negative Affectivity, but risk gambling men scored higher on Impulsivity. The association between risk gambling and personality found in previous studies was corroborated in this study using a representative sample. We conclude that risk and problem gamblers should not be treated as a homogeneous group, and prevention and treatment interventions should be adapted according to differences in personality, preferred type of game and the risk potential of the games. PMID:24880745
Sundqvist, Kristina; Wennberg, Peter
Gambling, including pathological gambling and problem gambling, has received increased attention from clinicians and researchers over the past three decades since gambling opportunities have expanded around the world. Gambling disorders affect 0.25.3% of adults worldwide, although measurement and prevalence varies according to the screening instruments and methods used, and availability and accessibility of gambling opportunities. Several distinct treatment approaches have been favorably evaluated, such as cognitive behavioral and brief treatment models and pharmacological interventions. Although promising, family therapy and support from Gamblers Anonymous are less well empirically supported. Gambling disorders are highly comorbid with other mental health and substance use disorders, and a further understanding is needed of both the causes and treatment implications of this disorder. This article reviews definition, causes and associated features with substance abuse, screening and diagnosis, and treatment approaches. PMID:22661800
Jazaeri, Seyed Amir; Habil, Mohammad Hussain Bin
Two issues pertinent to the DSM-5 proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5 traits as assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 explained a substantial proportion of variance in DSM-IV PDs as assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+, and trait indicators of the six proposed DSM-5 PDs were mostly specific to those disorders with some exceptions. Regression analyses support the DSM-5 hybrid model in that pathological traits and an indicator of general personality pathology severity provided incremental information about PDs. Findings are discussed in the context of broader issues around the proposed DSM-5 model of personality disorders. PMID:22250660
Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Krueger, Robert F.
Abstract Objective: Various countries and states have established telephone counselling lines for people with pathological or problem gambling. Data from such services may contribute to describing systematically the nature of gambling problems in a particular area. To date, however, few data have been published on such a telephone counselling line in a low or middle income country. Method: Data on calls to the telephone counselling line of the National Responsible Gambling Foundation of South Africa were captured over a 6-month period. Such data include socio-demographic variables, the primary reason for calling, the source of the referral, preferred method of gambling, impairment as a consequence of gambling, and history of treatment for psychiatric disorders, comorbid alcohol abuse and illicit drug use. Results: Calls were received from a broad range of people; the mean age of callers was 37 years, the majority were male (62%) and many were married (45%). Primary reasons for calling included the feeling of being unable to stop gambling without the help of a professional (41%), financial concerns (32%), legal problems (13%), pressure from family (10%), and suicidal thoughts (2%). The majority of callers contacted the counselling line after having heard about it by word of mouth (70%). The most common forms of gambling were slot machines (51%) and casino games (21%). Fourteen percent of callers reported having received help for other psychiatric disorders, 11% reported alcohol use disorders and 6% illicit drug use. Conclusion: These data from South Africa are consistent with prior research indicating that pathological and problem gambling are seen in a range of socio-demographic groups, and that such behaviour is associated with significant morbidity and comorbidity. More work is needed locally to inform younger gamblers, gamblers using the informal gambling sector, and unemployed gamblers of the existing telephone counselling lines. PMID:25317344
SINCLAIR, HEIDI; PRETORIUS, ADELE; STEIN, DAN J.
With rapid increases in gambling opportunities over the past decade, gambling has emerged as an important social and public health concern. The pending revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) has prompted a flurry of empirical research evaluating the extant diagnostic classification scheme; however few studies have evaluated the pathological gambling criteria. This paper utilized latent class analysis (LCA) to empirically derive and validate a typology of gamblers. LCA was applied to the 10 DSM-IV pathological gambling criteria utilizing data from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=11,104). LCA identified three latent classes which largely differed according to severity. The majority of respondents were assigned to the no gambling problems class (93.3%). Gamblers in the moderate gambling problems class (6.1%) primarily endorsed the preoccupation, tolerance, and chasing criteria. The pervasive gambling problems class (0.6%) endorsed the majority of the criteria. A number of significant differences between the classes emerged as a function of demographic, psychiatric and substance use disorders. The findings offer a heuristic and clinically useful typology of gamblers. Support for a continuum of gambling-related problems reiterate the need for assessment, prevention, and treatment strategies that reflect this more nuanced understanding of gambling. PMID:21247638
Carragher, Natacha; McWilliams, Lachlan A
X-consumers are the extremely frequent (top 2-3%) users who typically consume 25% of a product category. This article shows how to use fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to provide "causal recipes" sufficient for profiling X-consumers accurately. The study extends Dik Twedt's "heavy-half" product users for building theory and strategies to nurture or control X-behavior. The study here applies QCA to offer configurations that are sufficient in identifying "whales" and "jumbo shrimps" among X-casino gamblers. The findings support the principle that not all X-consumers are alike. The theory and method are applicable for identifying the degree of consistency and coverage of alternative X-consumers among users of all product-service category and brands. PMID:21365441
Woodside, Arch G; Zhang, Mann
Individual differences in personality are likely to play an important role in explaining the propensity to gamble. One of the potential roadblocks to elucidating the relation between personality and gambling may be inadequately accounting for the diversity of gambling activities. The goal of the present study was to provide a comprehensive and nuanced portrait of the relation between personality and gambling by taking a multivariate approach to the co-use of multiple gambling activities and employing a broad inventory of potentially relevant personality dimensions. Participants were 4,669 individuals from a national Australian twin registry. Structured interviews including an extensive assessment of gambling behaviors were conducted, and personality questionnaires that included the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire, the Sensation Seeking Scale, and the Magical Ideation Scale were completed. A latent class analysis of past-year involvement in 10 different gambling activities was performed to classify the participants into 5 groups. Unique personality configurations characterized the 3 more gambling-involved latent classes: (a) low behavioral control in the context of high negative emotionality and magical thinking typified extensive, versatile gamblers at high risk of gambling problems; (b) average behavioral control in the context of high negative emotionality and magical thinking typified those who primarily gambled on non-strategic games of chance; (c) low behavioral control in the context of high positive emotionality and low magical ideation typified those who primarily gambled on strategic games of skill. This study illustrates the value of using a multivariate person-centered approach for characterizing the personality correlates of the multifaceted phenomenon that is gambling. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25134059
Savage, Jeanne E; Slutske, Wendy S; Martin, Nicholas G
Pathological gambling has severe consequences for adolescents and their families and friends. Despite its high prevalence, pathological gambling in adolescents has been insufficiently studied. Sensation seeking and impulsivity are two variables that are related to the appearance and maintenance of pathological gambling. However, few studies have determined the role these variables play in the development of the dysfunctional symptomatology of gambling behavior in adolescents and young adults. The aims of this study were to analyze the consequences of gambling in young adults and adolescents, and to evaluate the roles of sensation seeking and impulsivity in the appearance of dysfunctional symptomatology. The sample consisted of 1,241 young adults and adolescents recruited from scholar centers and free-time groups, as well as 71 subjects from associations that assist pathological gamblers. Pathological gambling, impulsive behavior, dysfunctional symptomatology and sensation seeking were assessed. The results confirmed that young adults and adolescents who gamble pathologically have more dysfunctional symptomatology related to anxiety, depression, hostility, obsessive-compulsive behavior and somatization, as well as sensation seeking, impulsivity and addictive behavior. Moreover, the results showed that sensation seeking did not mediate the appearance of dysfunctional symptomatology and that impulsivity partially mediated the appearance of anxiety, phobic anxiety, depression and psychosis and perfectly mediated somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoid ideation and hostility. These results have consequences for the development of treatment and prevention programs for adolescent pathological gambling. PMID:24297606
Estevez, Ana; Herrero-Fernández, David; Sarabia, Izaskun; Jauregui, Paula
Parkinson's disease is a common condition, usually treated by dopaminergic agents, both ergot and non-ergot. Many behavioural abnormalities are associated with such usage, including impulse control disorders (ICDs), dopamine dysregulation syndrome and 'punding'. Pathological gambling, a form of ICD, comprises persistent and maladaptive gambling of various types that disrupts personal, family or occupational activity. Pathological gambling may be associated with other abnormal actions such as pathological shopping, hoarding and hypersexuality. The incidence varies widely from study to study but may be up to 7% of users of dopaminergic agents. Recognition of this problem has led drug regulatory agencies to add precautions concerning pathological gambling to official drug information for the entire class of antiparkinsonian medications. The literature is not entirely consistent and opinions differ greatly, but pramipexole (a dopamine D2 and D3 agonist), and perhaps ropinirole (also a D2/D3 agonist), may be especially likely to be associated with pathological gambling, although the precise nature of the relationship is unclear. Treatment involves reducing the dose of the medication or switching to another medication; unfortunately, the Parkinson's disease may worsen. The mechanism of this adverse effect is believed to be excessive dopaminergic stimulation but probably not specifically involving D3 receptors. A parallel to addictive behaviour with stimulant drugs has been noted. PMID:18399709
Pathology and Molecular Medicine ANATOMICAL PATHOLOGY GRAND ROUNDS 2011 / 2012 TIME: 12:30 - 1:30 p Standards2 Quality Â Guidelines for Quality Management in Surgical Pathology Professional Practices Sciences GI Pathology November 10th MDCL Â 2232 Dr. Robin Edwards McMaster University Professionalism
Pathology and Molecular Medicine ANATOMICAL PATHOLOGY GRAND ROUNDS 2010 / 2011 TIME: 12:30 - 1:30 p treat cancer without a pathological diagnosis? The Yemen experience. October 21st MUMC Â 1A3 Dr. S. Tang SPEAKER: TOPIC: January 13th MDCL Â 3023 Dr. F. DeNardi HRLMP Â McMaster University TBA Â GI Pathology
The current research examined whether the presentation of gambling-related cues facilitates the activation of gambling outcome expectancies using both reaction time (RT) and self-report modes of assessment. Gambling outcome expectancies were assessed by having regular casino or online gamblers (N = 58) complete an outcome expectancy RT task, as well as a self-report measure of gambling outcome expectancies, both before and after exposure to one of two randomly assigned cue conditions (i.e., casino or control video). Consistent with hypotheses, participants exposed to gambling-related cues (i.e., casino cue video condition) responded faster to positive outcome expectancy words preceded by gambling prime relative to non-gambling prime pictures on the post-cue RT task. Similarly, participants in the casino cue video condition self-reported significantly stronger positive gambling outcome expectancies than those in the control cue video condition following cue exposure. Activation of negative gambling outcome expectancies was not observed on either the RT task or self-report measure. The results indicate that exposure to gambling cues activates both implicit and explicit positive gambling outcome expectancies among regular gamblers. PMID:23588797
Stewart, Melissa J; Yi, Sunghwan; Stewart, Sherry H
, it may decrease considerably the person's quality of life, since the ability to perform simple daily tasks is reduced. It is the most common movement disorder found in human pathology. An absolutely the filter ro- bustness to multiple motions and different sensors. To accomplish that, models are assumed
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry APPLICATION Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry 1. Personal Information I Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry Present Position
Molecular Pathology (Gregg) Clinical Organizational Structure Department Chair (Howell) Vice Chair, Strategic Technology (Levenson) Vice Chair, Research (Wan) Senior Director, Anatomic Pathology (Bishop) Vice (Jin) Surgical Pathology (Bishop) Directors of: Senior Director, Clinical Pathology (Gregg) Progenitor
Leistikow, Bruce N.
Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027
Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron
This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Applications of in situ DNA hybridization technology to diagnostic surgical pathology; Neoplasms associated with immune deficiencies; Chronic gastritis: The pathologists's role; Necrosis in lymph nodes; Pathologic changes of osteochondrodysplasia in infancy: A review; and Immunoglobulin light chain nephropathies.
Fechner, R.E.; Rosen, P.P.
Huntingtons disease (HD) is a genetic, neurodegenerative disorder, which specifically affects striatal neurons of the indirect pathway, resulting in a progressive decline in muscle coordination and loss of emotional and cognitive control. Interestingly, predisposition to pathological gambling and other addictions involves disturbances in the same cortico-striatal circuits that are affected in HD, and display similar disinhibition-related symptoms, including changed sensitivity to punishments and rewards, impulsivity, and inability to consider long-term advantages over short-term rewards. Both HD patients and pathological gamblers also show similar performance deficits on risky decision-making tasks, such as the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). These similarities suggest that HD patients are a likely risk group for gambling problems. However, such problems have only incidentally been observed in HD patients. In this review, we aim to characterize the risk of pathological gambling in HD, as well as the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Especially with the current rise of easily accessible Internet gambling opportunities, it is important to understand these risks and provide appropriate patient support accordingly. Based on neuropathological and behavioral findings, we propose that HD patients may not have an increased tendency to seek risks and start gambling, but that they do have an increased chance of developing an addiction once they engage in gambling activities. Therefore, current and future developments of Internet gambling possibilities and related addictions should be regarded with care, especially for vulnerable groups like HD patients. PMID:24765067
Kalkhoven, Carla; Sennef, Cor; Peeters, Ard; van den Bos, Ruud
Comprehensive examination of civil pilots including the clinical-physiological and mental tests was performed with the purpose to improve the system of expert evaluation of health and fight fitness of pilots with cardiovascular pathologies. Mental tests consisted of an MMPI modification, the standard multifactor personality test, portrait choice (adapted Szondi's eight inclinations test), and predictive drawing tests of the unconscious. Type of personality of the persons with cardiovascular pathologies were characterized in terms of individual traits, social behavior, thinking type, stress reaction, protective tactics, and form of deadaptation. Persons with a variety of premorbid cardiovascular pathologies (essential hypertension, atherosclerosis, and neurocirculatory dystonia) reveal specific traits that should be taken into consideration in the process of medical flight certification. PMID:17193979
Krapivnitskaia, T A
Evidence indicates that tobacco use and gambling often co-occur. Despite this association, little is known about how tobacco use affects the propensity to gamble. Nicotine, the putative addictive component of tobacco, has been reported to potentiate the hedonic value of other nonsmoking stimuli. Environmental cues have been identified as an important contributor to relapse in addictive behavior; however, the extent to which nicotine can affect the strength of gambling cues remains unknown. This study examined whether nicotine influences subjective ratings for gambling following gambling cues. In a mixed within/between-subjects design, 30 (20 men) video lottery terminal (VLT) gamblers ('moderate-risk' or 'problem' gamblers) who smoke daily were assigned to nicotine (4 mg deliverable) or placebo lozenge conditions. Subjective and behavioral responses were assessed at baseline, following lozenge, following neutral cues, and following presentation of gambling cues. Nicotine lozenge was found to significantly reduce tobacco-related cravings (P<0.05) but did not affect gambling-related cravings, the choice to play a VLT, or other subjective responses. These results suggest that a low dose of acutely administered nicotine does not increase cue-induced craving for gambling in at-risk VLT gamblers who smoke. PMID:23412113
McGrath, Daniel S; Dorbeck, Anders; Barrett, Sean P
For a long time character pathology, or personality disorder as it is known today, was associated with therapeutic nihilism.\\u000a The general idea was that people with character pathology have a qualitatively different character make-up than healthy people.\\u000a Their character was considered to be unchangeable which explained the lack of therapeutic success. Recent insights have radically\\u000a changed this view. Specialised treatments
Arnoud Arntz; David Bernstein
Patients with eating disorder have relatively high rates of comorbid personality disorder diagnoses, including both anxiety-based personality disorders (obsessive-compulsive and avoidant) and borderline personality disorder. However, there is preliminary evidence that the core cognitions underlying personality pathology in the eating disorders are those related specifically to anxiety. This article builds on that evidence, replicating and extending the findings with a large sample of patients with eating disorder (N = 374). There were no differences in personality disorder cognitions between eating disorder diagnoses. This study also examines the possibility that there are clusters of patients, differentiated by patterns of personality disorder cognition. Affect-related personality disorder cognitions were key to understanding the role of personality pathology in the eating disorders. It is suggested that those cognitions should be considered when planning psychological treatments. PMID:24469531
Gabriel, Chloe; Waller, Glenn
Pathological gambling (PG) has been identified in Parkinson's disease (PD), but such gambling behaviors may also occur in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We sought to estimate the prevalence of PG amongst members of a web-based community, PatientsLikeMe.com. A survey was constructed, consisting of demographic information, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), the K-6 measure of distress, and items related to motivation for gambling. Data were obtained from 236 ALS patients and 208 PD patients. Of the PD patients, 13% were classified as problem gamblers compared with 3% of ALS patients (chi(2) = 14.005, P Wicks, Paul; MacPhee, Graeme J A 2009-05-15
Wicks, Paul; MacPhee, Graeme J A
The role of the experimenter in the behavioral study, although recognized by Darwin, Pavlov, psychiatrists and others, has\\u000a not been adequately evaluated in terms of the quantitative measures of the CR. Our study in this paper concerns especially\\u000a the cardiac changes induced by Person in normal and pathological animalsmonkey, dog, cat, opossum, guinea pig and rabbit.\\u000a Owing to the greater
W. Horsley Gantt; Joseph E. O. Newton; Fred L. Royer; Joseph H. Stephens
The role of the experimenter in the behavioral study, although recognized by Darwin, Pavlov, psychiatrists and others, has\\u000a not been adequately evaluated in terms of the quantitative measures of the CR. Our study in this paper concerns especially\\u000a the cardiac changes induced by Person in normal and pathological animalsmonkey, dog, cat, opossum, guinea pig and rabbit.\\u000a Owing to the greater
W. Horsley Gantt; Joseph E. O. Newton; Fred L. Royer; Joseph H. Stephens
This chapter discusses the medical understanding of antisocial personality disorder (APSD), including research concerning\\u000a its etiology, prevalence, pathology, differential diagnosis, and treatment. ASPD, and the closely related diagnosis of psychopathy,\\u000a seem to be products of a strong genetic disposition interacting with a variety of environmental contributions. Epidemiological\\u000a studies indicate that ASPD and psychopathy are much more prevalent in men than
Karen J. Derefinko; Thomas A. Widiger
ADVERTISEMENT: ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF PATHOLOGY CLINICAL HEMATOLOGY/HEMATOPATHOLOGY The Department of Pathology at Stanford University School of Medicine seeks to fill two of Pathology in the Medical Center Professoriate. The major criterion for appointment
This brochure reads easily and features pictures of plant pathologists in action, curious-looking disease symptoms and microscopic views of pathogens. This tool is intended to inspire more young scientists to consider plant pathology as a career choice.
Margaret Daughtrey (American Phytopathological Society; )
Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Vinyl Chloride AMENDED PATHOLOGY Triangle Park, NC 27709 Submitted by: Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Street Address: Mailing, 2011 #12; Experimental Pathology Laboratories
Baker, Chris I.
/Science Translational Medicine panel discussion; MLA 2012 #12;Timeline: Human Genome Sequence HSLS, U.Pitt 1995 2014 2000 2003 2007 2007 2010 Human Genome Draft Sequence Complete Human Reference Genome Individual Human of a free living organism: Haemophilus Influenzae #12;Personal Genome Project HSLS, U.Pitt #12;Why get
THE BANFF PATHOLOGY COURSE GASTROINTESTINAL/LIVER PATHOLOGY UPDATE September 3 - 6, 2014 The Rimrock Resort Hotel Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine University of Calgary and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology University of Alberta http://.banffpathology.ucalgary.ca Ms Carol Burrows
To assess sexuality, personality, and eating pathology in women with eating disorders (EDs), we asked a random sample of 234 clinicians to describe an ED patient (age 1665). Restricting AN patients tended to be childlike and prim\\/proper, while BN patients tended to be flirtatious and promiscuous. A constricted\\/overcontrolled personality predicted a childlike sexuality independent of AN diagnosis, and an undercontrolled,
KAMRYN T. EDDY; CATHERINE M. NOVOTNY; DREW WESTEN
From the American Phytopathological Society (APS), this Careers & Placement website is open to both members and non-members. The site allows job seekers and employers to view available job openings and candidates; post a resume or vita for free; and post a job opening (fee required). Job seekers can also sign up for free, bi-monthly email notifications regarding recent job openings. In addition, the APS Careers website connects to a list of hyperlinked plant pathology programs at universities across the country, and to a downloadable brochure about careers in plant pathology.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 70-year-old man has peritonitis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gastrointestinal pathology.
Nine, Jeff S.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a female neonate only two days old became lethargic and developed focal seizures. Visitors are given the high performance liquid chromatography, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical chemistry.
Mastocytosis encompasses a group of clinically and pathologically heterogeneous disorders most commonly involving the skin, which typically takes the form of urticaria pigmentosa. Mastocytosis may also involve other organs, most often bone marrow, followed by gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. The presence of extracutaneous involvement by mastocytosis is a major diagnostic criterion for systemic disease. However, mast cell infiltrates are often subtle in skin and extracutaneous organs, and the histologic features of mastocytosis at different anatomic sites may be variable. This article reviews the pathologic features and clinical correlates of mastocytosis involving skin and other extramedullary sites. PMID:24745677
Doyle, Leona A; Hornick, Jason L
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 6-hour-old baby was found to have petechiae. Visitors are given the case description and the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.
Lopez-Plaza, Iliana; Nester, Theresa; Qu, Lirong
Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for
Westphal, James R.
There is mounting evidence that vascular pathology plays a role in the initiation and\\/or progression of the major disease of joints: osteoarthritis (OA). Potential mechanisms are: episodically reduced blood flow through the small vessels in the subchondral bone at the ends of long bones, and related to this, reduced interstitial fluid flow in subchondral bone. Blood flow may be reduced
D. M. Findlay
As personalized medicine becomes more applicable to oncologic practice, image-guided biopsies will be integral for enabling predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular pathology. Interventional radiology has a key role in defining patient-specific management. Advances in diagnostic techniques, genomics, and proteomics enable a window into subcellular mechanisms driving hyperproliferation, metastatic capabilities, and tumor angiogenesis. A new era of personalized medicine has evolved whereby clinical decisions are adjusted according to a patients molecular profile. Several mutations and key markers already have been introduced into standard oncologic practice. A broader understanding of personalized oncology will help interventionalists play a greater role in therapy selection and discovery. PMID:23885909
Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Duffy, Austin G.; Greten, Tim F.; Kohn, Elise C.; Clark, Timothy W.I.; Wood, Bradford J.
As personalized medicine becomes more applicable to oncologic practice, image-guided biopsies will be integral for enabling predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular pathology. Interventional radiology has a key role in defining patient-specific management. Advances in diagnostic techniques, genomics, and proteomics enable a window into subcellular mechanisms driving hyperproliferation, metastatic capabilities, and tumor angiogenesis. A new era of personalized medicine has evolved whereby clinical decisions are adjusted according to a patient's molecular profile. Several mutations and key markers already have been introduced into standard oncologic practice. A broader understanding of personalized oncology will help interventionalists play a greater role in therapy selection and discovery. PMID:23885909
Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Duffy, Austin G; Greten, Tim F; Kohn, Elise C; Clark, Timothy W I; Wood, Bradford J
Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program's core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists. PMID:24843823
Mandelker, Diana; Lee, Roy E.; Platt, Mia Y.; Riedlinger, Gregory; Quinn, Andrew; Rao, Luigi K. F.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Mahowald, Michael; Lane, William J.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Baron, Jason M.; McClintock, David S.; Kuo, Frank C.; Lebo, Matthew S.; Gilbertson, John R.
Study 1 expands upon previous research by looking at the ability of untrained raters to detect pathological traits within a normal population of college students. In Study 1, 30-s video clips of 81 target persons were shown to 42 raters. Ratings of traits of personality disorders made by thin slice raters reliably predicted scores on the personality pathology measures obtained
Jacqueline N. W. Friedman; Thomas F. Oltmanns; Eric Turkheimer
The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. In this particular study an otherwise healthy 9 month old infant is presented with hydrocephalus. The case study provides test results and images along with microscopic photos and description. Clicking on the final diagnosis provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment.
This is a snapshot of avian neonatal pathologynot an exhaustive review. Through knowledge and recognition of the significant pathogenic challenges of avian neonates and the associated lesions, avian practitioners can improve their diagnostic and therapeutic success. An area of need for avian research is determining the specific pathogenesis of many conditions affecting avian neonates. By narrowing the specific etiologies, we can improve management and reduce neonatal concerns. PMID:22640539
St Leger, Judy
\\u000a The advent of immunohistological and molecular techniques has enabled the comprehensive characterization of many lymphoma\\u000a entities. Furthermore, it has increased the consensus in lymphoma classification among pathologists. In this review we describe\\u000a the pathological features of primary intestinal lymphomas classified according to the revised European-American classification\\u000a of lymphoid neoplasms. The majority of primary intestinal lymphomas are of Bcell lineage and
H.-D. Foss; H. Stein
Pathological gambling (PG) is a signi.cant public health concern associated with high rates of psychiatric comorbidity and\\u000a mortality. Although research into the biology of PG is still in an early stage, recent advances in our understanding of motivation,\\u000a reward, and addiction have provided substantial insight into the possible pathophysiology of this disorder. In addition, over\\u000a the past 5 years, extraordinary
Jon E. Grant; Kyle A. Williams; Suck Won Kim
Aims This paper describes the role of endothelial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in diseases where pathological angiogenesis plays a role. Main methods An extensive review of the literature was performed, focusing on studies that investigated the effect of nicotine upon angiogenesis. Key findings Nicotine induces pathological angiogenesis at clinically relevant concentrations (i.e. at tissue and plasma concentrations similar to those of a light to moderate smoker). Nicotine promotes endothelial cell migration, proliferation, survival, tube formation and nitric oxide (NO) production in vitro, mimicking the effect of other angiogenic growth factors. These in vitro findings indicate that there may be an angiogenic component to the pathophysiology of major tobacco related diseases such as carcinoma, atherosclerosis, and age-related macular degeneration. Indeed, nicotine stimulates pathological angiogenesis in pre-clinical models of these disorders. Subsequently, it has been demonstrated that nicotine stimulates nAChRs on the endothelium to induce angiogenic processes; that these nAChRs are largely of the ?7 homomeric type; and that there are synergistic interactions between the nAChRs and angiogenic growth factor receptors at the phosphoproteomic and genomic levels. Significance These findings are of potential clinical relevance, and provide mechanistic insights into tobacco-related disease. Furthermore, these findings may lead to novel therapies for diseases characterized by insufficient or inappropriate angiogenesis. PMID:22796717
Lee, Jieun; Cooke, John P.
College of Medicine PAT Pathology KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped as MI 598.) PAT 815 FIRST-YEAR ELECTIVE, PATHOLOGY. (1-3) With the advice and approval of his or her of Pathology. The intent is to provide the student an opportunity for exploration and study in an area which
The Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) has been proposed as a useful meta-framework for integrating contextual differences in situations with individual differences in personality pathology. In this article, we evaluated the potential of combining the CAPS meta-framework and contemporary interpersonal theory to investigate how individual differences in pathological narcissism influenced interpersonal functioning in daily life. University students (N = 184) completed event-contingent reports about interpersonal interactions across a 7-day diary study. Using multilevel regression models, we found that combinations of narcissistic expression (grandiosity, vulnerability) were associated with different interpersonal behavior patterns reflective of interpersonal dysfunction. These results are among the first to empirically demonstrate the usefulness of the CAPS model to conceptualize personality pathology through the patterning of if-then interpersonal processes. PMID:23205698
Roche, Michael J.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Conroy, David E.; Hyde, Amanda L.; Ram, Nilam
Background The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) were investigated in a clinical sample presenting for treatment of perfectionism. Method This study explored the utility of perfectionism in predicting pathological worry in a sample of individuals with elevated perfectionism and GAD (n?=?36). Following this, the study examined whether perfectionism could predict a principal GAD diagnosis in the full sample (n?=?42). Results Scores on the perfectionism dimensions Concern over Mistakes, Personal Standards, and Clinical Perfectionism significantly predicted pathological worry among participants with GAD after controlling for gender and depression. The perfectionism dimension Doubts about Actions significantly predicted whether individuals from the full sample received a principal diagnosis of GAD. Conclusions These findings support certain dimensions of perfectionism having significant associations with pathological worry and GAD. PMID:24693946
Toxic effects of formaldehyde in humans are discussed in relation to occupational exposure and tolerance to this agent. Carcinogenic and mutagenic properties of formaldehyde have been reported in animals and this has led to concern about a possible role in human cancer. The current state of affairs is reviewed in the light of a lack of direct evidence linking formaldehyde with cancer in man and in relation to recommended exposure levels. It is important to employ effective means of containment and practical methods for reducing exposure to formaldehyde in pathology departments and post-mortem rooms are described. Images PMID:6223948
Clark, R P
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 7-year-old girl is experiencing episodic seizures. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including neuroimaging results, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology. [ASC
Al-Hindi, Hindi; Subach, Brian R.
Forest & Shade Tree Pathology is a site created by Jim Worrall, a former professor at the College of Environmental Science and Forestry. The major focus of this resource is the study of tree diseases, "their causes (etiology), factors that affect their spread (epidemiology), ecological and economic impacts, and management." The site is divided into four sections: "Main Topics" such as fungi, root diseases and wilts; "General Topics," which includes quizzes, references, and links to other forest health sites; "Disease Profiles," which includes information on specific diseases like chestnut blight and armillaria root disease; and "Disease Notes," which contains news and updates on specific diseases.
The age of a patient is a strong moderator of both the course and the evolution of disorders/diseases. However, the effects of current age in pathological gambling (PG) have rarely been examined. The aim of this study is to explore the moderating effects of the patients' current age in relation to personality traits and clinical outcomes of PG. A total sample of 2,309 treatment-seeking patients for PG, diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, participated in this study and were assessed with the Diagnostic Questionnaire for Pathological Gambling according to DSM-IV criteria, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Symptom Checklist, the Temperament and Character Inventory-R, and other clinical and psychopathological measures. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts showed linear trends in the relationship between age and PG: the older the patient, the more comorbid health problems were visible. The presence of additional quadratic trends also suggests that age plays a significant role in moderating the possibility of existing PG problems and general psychopathology. No interaction term was found between age and sex, but it was present for age and some personality traits: self-transcendence and reward dependence (these two traits were only relevant to the level of impairment due to PG at specific ages). This study suggests that the patients' age influences psychopathological and clinical aspects associated to PG. Intervention in the earliest manifestations of this complex problem is essential in order to better address the need of successful treatment planning. PMID:23494243
Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Stinchfield, Randy; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Fröberg, Frida; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Pérez-Serrano, Miriam; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana
Research into personality factors related to suicidality suggests substantial variability among suicide attempters. A potentially useful approach that accounts for this complexity is personality subtyping. As part of a large sample looking at personality pathology, this study used Q-factor analysis to identify subtypes of 311 adult suicide attempters using SWAP-II personality profiles. Identified subtypes included Internalizing, Emotionally Dysregulated, Dependent, Hostile-Isolated, Psychopathic, and Anxious-Somatizing. Subtypes differed in hypothesized ways on criterion variables that address their construct validity, including adaptive functioning, Axis I and II comorbidity, and etiology-related variables (e.g., history of abuse). Furthermore, dimensional ratings of the subtypes predicted adaptive functioning above DSM-based diagnoses and symptoms. PMID:19752649
Westen, Drew; Bradley, Rebekah
Pathological gambling (PG) is defined by the DSM IV criteria as inappropriate, persistent, and maladaptive gambling behavior that has repercussions on family, personal, and professional life. It is classified as an impulse control disorder and is widely understood as a nonpharmacological addiction. PG has been reported as a complication in the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD). The prevalence of PG in PD has been reported to range between 1.7 and 7% compared to a prevalence of approximately 1% in the general population. Though there is no survey that indicates the prevalence of PG in Japanese PD patients, problematic gambling behaviors in PD are occasionally observed. In addition to PG other impulse control behaviors and punding (repetitive stereotyped behavior) are recognized as components of the dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), which is characterized by the compulsive use of dopaminergic medications, including levodopa and subcutaneous apomorphine. Though PG can occur with DDS it often occurs in isolation. The vast majority of PG seen in PD is related to dopamine agonists (DA). With regard to the administration of oral DA, pramipexole may induce a higher degree of PG than other types of oral DA due to its disproportionate stimulation of dopamine D3 receptors. However, the differences between the observed effects of various classes of oral DA were insignificant. PG associated with levodopa mono-therapy is uncommon, but in the majority of cases levodopa is co-prescribed. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) was recently introduced to treat advanced PD. An improvement in PG symptoms following STN-DBS has been reported due to a marked decrease in dopaminergic medications. However, in some patients, PG developed following STN-DBS despite the significant reduction or discontinuation of DA. STN-DBS per se may be a potential initiator of PG. Younger age of PD onset, novelty seeking personality traits, history of alcohol abuse, and impulsivity traits were significant predictors of PG. Patients especially those with individual susceptibility to PG should be warned of the potential risks of PG before DA treatment is initiated. PMID:18807938
Pathological gambling (PG) is an addictive disorder with harm related to the high psychiatric comorbidity and increased suicidal risk. Prevalence rates in general population range from 0.2% to 2.1%. Problem gamblers are hard to attract to treatment programs for several proper reasons and for obstacles (e.g., accessibility). To address these obstacles, primary care (where the problem gambling (PrG) prevalence seems to be 6.2%) has a crucial role to play (i.e., identifying and referring patients to specialized treatment programs and treating at first line when needed and possible) in the era of online gambling offer expansion. The present work aimed to collect data on resources in the field from GPs themselves, using a 24-item online questionnaire. Swiss French-speaking participants were asked about their screening practice and knowledge. The results state that the vast majority of them are aware of the existence and the potential impact of PrG on their patients. However, PrG screening is not systematic and their knowledge of adequate treatments or referral methods is scarce. GPs being central to health screening in general, targeted advice and training on short screening tools and better knowledge of referral pathways should be promoted and continued to empower the GP's management skills in a public health approach. PMID:25243136
Achab, Sophia; Chatton, Anne; Khan, Riaz; Thorens, Gabriel; Penzenstadler, Louise; Zullino, Daniele; Khazaal, Yasser
ADVERTISEMENT: Tenure track assistant professor in Pathology The Department of Pathology and cellular mechanisms of disease. The Department of Pathology supports high quality basic science research-eligible in Clinical Pathology or Anatomic Pathology/Clinical Pathology, are encouraged to apply. The successful
Many studies report that comorbid borderline personality pathology is associated with poorer outcomes in the treatment of Axis I disorders. Given the high rates of comorbidity between borderline personality pathology and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it is essential to determine whether borderline symptomatology affects PTSD treatment outcome. This study examined the effects of borderline personality characteristics (BPC) on 131 female
Stephanie B. Clarke; Shireen L. Rizvi; Patricia A. Resick
A prospective study of the role of comorbid substance abuse and dependence and mood disorders in the outcome from pathological gambling. A naturalistic sample of pathological gamblers who had recently quit gambling (N = 101) was followed and data were available for 83% of participants at 3 months, 80% at 12 months, and 52% at 5 years. Those participants with a drug diagnosis during their lifetime were less likely to have a minimum 3 month period of abstinence, and those who had been involved in gambling treatment were more likely to have a minimum 12 months of continuous abstinence. Lifetime gambling problem severity and involvement in gambling treatment were most commonly associated with a shorter time to achieving a period of abstinence of any length. Lifetime history of a mood disorder also predicted a longer time to reach a minimum 3 months of continuous abstinence. Both gambling treatment and an alcohol diagnosis follow up predicted an increase in the odds of experiencing a relapse from a minimum 6 month period of abstinence. Overall, comorbid mental health disorders are predictive of shorter term but not longer term outcome. PMID:19578984
Hodgins, David C; el-Guebaly, Nady
Pathologic tooth migration (PTM) is a common complication of moderate to severe periodontitis and is often the motivation for patients to seek periodontal therapy. In this review of the literature, available information concerning prevalence, etiology, treatment, and prevention of pathologic tooth migration is summarized. Prevalence of PTM among periodontal patients has been reported to range from 30.03% to 55.8%. A survey of the literature regarding chief complaints of periodontal patients support these high prevalence findings. The etiology of PTM appears to be multifactorial. Periodontal bone loss appears to be a major factor in the etiology of PTM. Many aspects of occlusion can contribute to abnormal migration of teeth, and more than one of those factors may be present in an individual patient. Soft tissue forces of the tongue, cheeks, and lips are known to cause tooth movement and in some situations can cause PTM. Also considered important in the etiology of PTM is pressure produced from inflammatory tissues within periodontal pockets. Because extrusion is a common form of PTM, clinical observations support the theory that eruption forces sometimes play a role in the etiology of PTM. Many oral habits have been associated with PTM which are often difficult for the therapist to detect. Most cases of severe PTM require a team approach to achieve success. Periodontal, orthodontic, and prosthodontic treatment are often required. Many patient variables enter into the selection of treatment for PTM. In early stages of PTM, spontaneous correction of migrated teeth sometimes occurs after periodontal therapy. Light intrusive forces are used successfully to treat extrusion and flaring forms of PTM. Based on the literature reviewed, it appears that many cases of PTM could be prevented through the early diagnosis and treatment of periodontal disease, occlusal contributing factors, gingival enlargement, and oral habits. PMID:15948679
Brunsvold, Michael A
This paper provides an overview of narcissistic personality disorders as they present clinically along a spectrum of severity ranging from the best functioning forms of pathological narcissism to the most threatening to the patient's psychosocial and physical survival. It proposes a general interpretive psychoanalytic stance with all these clinical syndromes that range from standard psychoanalysis to a specific psychoanalytical psychotherapy for the most repressive and life threatening conditions that may not respond to standard psychoanalysis proper. This general psychoanalytic approach is placed into the context of related developments in contemporary psychoanalytic understanding of pathological narcissism and its treatment. PMID:24902768
Kernberg, Otto F
Objective Examine the relation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, cerebral infarcts, and Lewy body (LB) pathology to cognition in persons without cognitive impairment. Methods Persons without dementia from two cohort studies of aging, the Religious Orders Study and the Memory and Aging Project, agreed to annual clinical evaluation and brain donation. The studies had 19 neuropsychological performance tests in common that assessed five cognitive domains. Of 296 persons without cognitive impairment who died and underwent post-mortem assessment, we quantified AD pathology as a global pathology score, and as amyloid load and PHFtau tangle density, cerebral infarcts and LB pathology. Linear regression was used to examine the relation of neuropathology to cognitive abilities controlling for demographics. Results Nearly all persons had AD pathology with more than three quarters exhibiting amyloid; 22% macroscopic and 24% microscopic infarctions, and 13% had LB pathology. The global measure of AD pathology was related to global cognition (p=0.008) whereas infarcts and Lewy bodies were not. Amyloid load was related to global cognition (p<0.05) with only a trend for tangles (p=0.08). In analyses of cognitive domains, AD pathology (p=0.006), PHFtau tangles (p=0.03), and macroscopic infarctions (p=0.02) were related to episodic memory with a trend for amyloid load (p=0.06); and AD pathology (p=0.02) and amyloid load (p=0.03) were related to working memory. Findings for global cognition and episodic memory were stronger in additional analyses with neocortical amyloid and mesial temporal tangles. Interpretation AD pathology and macroscopic infarctions are common in older persons without cognitive impairment and related to episodic and working memory. PMID:23109154
Bennett, David A.; Wilson, Robert S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Schneider, Julie A.
Pediatric forensic pathology is an area of medicine that has only received attention relatively recently as a subspecialization of forensic pathology dealing with cases involving children, i.e., it is the study of diseases and injuries of children with subsequent medicolegal interpretation of findings for police and the courts. Unfortunately, the mere naming of an area of medicine does not automatically
Roger W. Byard; Henry F. Krous
Ocular pathology in the first European case of human bat-borne rabies is described. The patient was a 30-year-old bat scientist who seven weeks after bat bite developed neurological symptoms and died 23 days later. Rabies virus antigens were detected in brain smears. After extensive virological studies the virus turned out to be a rabies-related virus, closely resembling the Duvenhage virus isolated from bats in South Africa in 1980. By light microscopy focal chronic inflammatory infiltration of the ciliary body and of the choroid was found. PAS-positive exudate was seen in the subretinal and in the outer plexiform layers of the retina, and retinal veins showed endothelial damage and perivascular inflammation. Many of the retinal ganglion cells were destroyed. The presence of rabies-related viral antigen in the retinal ganglion cells was shown by positive cytoplasmic immunofluorescence, though electron microscopy failed to identify definite viral structures in the retina. By immunohistochemistry glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the Müller's cells, which are normally negative for this antigen but express it as a reactive change when the retina is damaged. Synaptophysin, a constituent of presynaptic vesicles of normal retinal neurons, was not detected in the retina. PMID:2920157
Haltia, M; Tarkkanen, A; Kivelä, T
Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.
Describes the hardware, software, applications, and current proliferation of personal computers (microcomputers). Includes discussions of microprocessors, memory, output (including printers), application programs, the microcomputer industry, and major microcomputer manufacturers (Apple, Radio Shack, Commodore, and IBM). (JN)
Toong, Hoo-min D.; Gupta, Amar
Background Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) and pathological gambling (PG) are characterized by dysfunctional reward processing and their ability to adapt to alterations of reward contingencies is impaired. However, most neurocognitive tasks investigating reward processing involve a complex mix of elements, such as working memory, immediate and delayed rewards, and risk-taking. As a consequence, it is not clear whether contingency learning is altered in AD or PG. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine performance in a deterministic contingency learning task, investigating discrimination, reversal, and extinction learning. Methods Thirty-three alcohol-dependent patients (ADs), 28 pathological gamblers (PGs), and 18 healthy controls (HCs) performed a contingency learning task in which they learned stimulusreward associations that were first reversed and later extinguished while receiving deterministic feedback throughout. Accumulated points, number of perseverative errors and trials required to reach a criterion in each learning phase were compared between groups using nonparametric KruskalWallis rank-sum tests. Regression analyses were performed to compare learning curves. Results PGs and ADs did not differ from HCs in discrimination learning, reversal learning, or extinction learning, on the nonparametric tests. Regression analyses, however, showed differences in the initial speed of learning: PGs were significantly faster in discrimination learning compared to ADs, and both PGs and ADs learned slower than HCs in the reversal learning and extinction phases of the task. Conclusions Learning rates for reversal and extinction were slower for the alcohol-dependent group and PG group compared to HCs, suggesting that reversing and extinguishing learned contingencies require more effort in ADs and PGs. This implicates a diminished flexibility to overcome previously learned contingencies. PMID:24821534
Vanes, Lucy D; van Holst, Ruth J; Jansen, Jochem M; van den Brink, Wim; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Goudriaan, Anna E
This study examined whether personality differences might ac- count for meaningful heterogeneity within and across DSM-IV diagnostic categories for disruptive adolescent boys. In a broader study of personality pathology in adolescence, a national sample of 293 clinicians completed the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure 200-A on randomly selected outpa- tients aged 14 to 18 in their care. Of 138 boys in the
John J. DiLallo; Meredith Jones; Drew Westen
Porter L.F., Black G.C.M. Personalized ophthalmology. Clin Genet 2014: 86: 111. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2014 Ophthalmology has been an early adopter of personalized medicine. Drawing on genomic advances to improve molecular diagnosis, such as next-generation sequencing, and basic and translational research to develop novel therapies, application of genetic technologies in ophthalmology now heralds development of gene replacement therapies for some inherited monogenic eye diseases. It also promises to alter prediction, diagnosis and management of the complex disease age-related macular degeneration. Personalized ophthalmology is underpinned by an understanding of the molecular basis of eye disease. Two important areas of focus are required for adoption of personalized approaches: disease stratification and individualization. Disease stratification relies on phenotypic and genetic assessment leading to molecular diagnosis; individualization encompasses all aspects of patient management from optimized genetic counseling and conventional therapies to trials of novel DNA-based therapies. This review discusses the clinical implications of these twin strategies. Advantages and implications of genetic testing for patients with inherited eye diseases, choice of molecular diagnostic modality, drivers for adoption of personalized ophthalmology, service planning implications, ethical considerations and future challenges are considered. Indeed, whilst many difficulties remain, personalized ophthalmology truly has the potential to revolutionize the specialty. PMID:24665880
Porter, LF; Black, GCM
The American Phytopathological Society (APS) is a professional society dedicated to "high-quality, innovative plant pathology research." Founded in 1908, the APS continues to provide educational resources for those seeking to learn more about the science of plant pathology. One way they work to accomplish this goal is through this particular section of their website. The materials on this site include "Plant Disease Management Simulations", "Laboratory Exercises", and "Topics in Plant Pathology". The "Topics in Plant Pathology" area includes topical articles that deal with various aspects of plant pathology, including the use of reverse genetic tools for investigating gene function and the population genetics of plant pathogens. Moving on, the "Laboratory Exercises" area contains two activities that can be used by college students studying plant pathology. The "Plant Disease Management" area contains a handful of simulations that will help students learn about the spread and management of some common plant diseases. Finally, the site is rounded out by an illustrated glossary of plant pathology.
In the past, Internal Self 1lelpers (ISM) of persons with multiple personality rlisorrler OWPI)) have been deseriberl by rr )7mill Humber of therapists. ii is .studV Iwo\\/ens the base ala I inaton relating to ISHs. Forty respondents who collectively had been therapists fur-rr totrtl of 690 i11P1) patients participated in the snarly. 77re findings of this study suti g ges
M. Ann Adams; Ann Adams; M. N. Sc
This paper reports on the results of a psychological study conducted in Ontario, Canada, that attempted to answer the question of why some people develop gambling problems while others do not. A group of social gamblers (n = 38), sub-clinical problem gamblers (n = 33) and pathological gamblers (n = 34) completed a battery of questionnaires. Compared to non-problem gamblers, pathological gamblers were more likely to
Nigel E. Turner; Masood Zangeneh; Nina Littman-Sharp
Context .- Accurate classification of follicular-patterned thyroid lesions is not always an easy task on routine surgical hematoxylin-eosin-stained or cytologic fine-needle aspiration specimens. The diagnostic challenges are partially due to differential diagnostic criteria that are often subtle and subjective. In the past decades, tremendous advances have been made in molecular gene profiling of tumors and diagnostic immunohistochemistry, aiding in diagnostic accuracy and proper patient management. Objective .- To evaluate the diagnostic utility of the most commonly studied immunomarkers in the field of thyroid pathology by review of the literature, using the database of indexed articles in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) from 1976-2013. Data Sources .- Literature review, authors' research data, and personal practice experience. Conclusions .- The appropriate use of immunohistochemistry by applying a panel of immunomarkers and using a standardized technical and interpretational method may complement the morphologic assessment and aid in the accurate classification of difficult thyroid lesions. PMID:25549145
Liu, Haiyan; Lin, Fan
There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management. PMID:24140174
Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven
This is a pediatric pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 19-month-old boy has a renal mass. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.
Christakos, Peter; Dickman, Paul S.
In this study we evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (Ns = 299, 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability with established indices of normal personality traits, psychopathology and clinical concerns, and pathological personality traits. Overall, the pattern of correlations supported the convergent and discriminate validity of grandiose and vulnerable conceptualizations of pathological narcissism as measured by the PNI. Clinical utility was assessed by evaluating the extent to which clinicians without specific training in pathological narcissism as well as clinicians with expertise in pathological narcissism could accurately predict the correlates of PNI grandiosity and vulnerability with normal and pathological personality traits and psychopathology. The rcontrast-cv coefficient (Westen & Rosenthal, 2003) provided a global index of accuracy in clinicians predictions that was more fully elaborated by examining systematic discrepancies across groups. Overall, novice and expert clinicians were generally able to predict criterion correlations, with some exceptions (e.g., counter to predictions, pathological narcissism was negatively associated with treatment resistance). These results provide further evidence regarding the validity and utility of the narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability constructs as measured by the PNI. PMID:22315481
Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...
...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...
...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...
NOAAINMFS Developments National Registry of Marine Pathology Opens, Seeks Fish Disease Information Registry of Marine Pathology makes available to marine and estuarine biologists and patholo- gists- ment facility consists of slidecollections illustrating pathology, parasitism, or anomalies in species
...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...
...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...
Proudly sponsored by the Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine "The Challenge patient journeys Display: Real time diagnostics in surgery and molecular pathology approaches that have potential to be disruptive healthcare tools Proudly sponsored by the Department of Pathology & Laboratory
Leistikow, Bruce N.
Norovirus infection in humans typically results in acute gastroenteritis but may also occur in many animal species. Noroviruses are recognized as one of the most common causes of acute gastroenteritis in the world, being responsible for almost 20% of all cases. Despite their prevalence and impact, our knowledge of the norovirus life cycle and the pathological processes associated with norovirus-induced disease is limited. Whilst infection of the intestine is the norm, extraintestinal spread and associated pathologies have also been described. In addition, long-term chronic infections are now recognized as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised. This review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge with respect to norovirus pathology and the underlying mechanisms that have been characterized to date. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25312350
Karst, Stephanie M; Zhu, Shu; Goodfellow, Ian G
Activity: You are going to develop a scripture chain that teaches us how we can receive Personal Revelation. Remember, when we talk to Heavenly Father we call it prayer. When Heavenly Father responds to us by the Holy Ghost we call it Personal Revelation. Teaching Emphasis (Core) I cannot use any language that describes to you what a revelation is. Somebody said, How can I tell if I have a revelation? I have had a feeling that such and such is true. How can I be sure? ...Revelation is something you experience, and the way that ...
In the past 10 years, molecular biology has found major applications in pathology, particularly in oncology. This has been a field of enormous expansion, where pure science has found a place in clinical practice and is now of everyday use in any academic unit. This demystified review will discuss the techniques used in molecular pathology and then provide examples of how these can be used in oncology. PMID:12456768
DIRECTOR OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY In this position, the selected candidate will have major responsibility for all of surgical pathology diagnostic services including gynecologic pathology, renal pathology, uropathology and general surgical pathology. The Stanford Department of Pathology provides diagnostic services
DIRECTOR OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY In this position, the selected candidate will have major responsibility for all of surgical pathology diagnostic services including gynecologic pathology, neuropathology, renal pathology, uropathology and general surgical pathology. The Stanford Department of Pathology
Digital pathology and the adoption of image analysis have grown rapidly in the last few years. This is largely due to the implementation of whole slide scanning, advances in software and computer processing capacity and the increasing importance of tissue-based research for biomarker discovery and stratified medicine. This review sets out the key application areas for digital pathology and image analysis, with a particular focus on research and biomarker discovery. A variety of image analysis applications are reviewed including nuclear morphometry and tissue architecture analysis, but with emphasis on immunohistochemistry and fluorescence analysis of tissue biomarkers. Digital pathology and image analysis have important roles across the drug/companion diagnostic development pipeline including biobanking, molecular pathology, tissue microarray analysis, molecular profiling of tissue and these important developments are reviewed. Underpinning all of these important developments is the need for high quality tissue samples and the impact of pre-analytical variables on tissue research is discussed. This requirement is combined with practical advice on setting up and running a digital pathology laboratory. Finally, we discuss the need to integrate digital image analysis data with epidemiological, clinical and genomic data in order to fully understand the relationship between genotype and phenotype and to drive discovery and the delivery of personalized medicine. PMID:25034370
Hamilton, Peter W; Bankhead, Peter; Wang, Yinhai; Hutchinson, Ryan; Kieran, Declan; McArt, Darragh G; James, Jacqueline; Salto-Tellez, Manuel
The paper considers the information technology allowing personal computer users to create personal databases that are sufficiently full and can be quickly renewed through the TV communication channels. The advantage of this information technology over that used in the computer networks is its absolute protection from unauthorized access. Suggested is an architecture of the computer external memory comprising the subsystems of subscriber and archive memories and providing a considerable reduction of the mean access time over the entire volume of the information stored in the personal databases. The cylindrical optical information carries are shown to be most promising in the mass storage systems, since it is possible to realize in them the multilayer recording with a great number of registering layers.
Antonov, Alexander A.
Background: In 2007, our healthcare system established a clinical fellowship program in Pathology Informatics. In 2010 a core didactic course was implemented to supplement the fellowship research and operational rotations. In 2011, the course was enhanced by a formal, structured core curriculum and reading list. We present and discuss our rationale and development process for the Core Curriculum and the role it plays in our Pathology Informatics Fellowship Training Program. Materials and Methods: The Core Curriculum for Pathology Informatics was developed, and is maintained, through the combined efforts of our Pathology Informatics Fellows and Faculty. The curriculum was created with a three-tiered structure, consisting of divisions, topics, and subtopics. Primary (required) and suggested readings were selected for each subtopic in the curriculum and incorporated into a curated reading list, which is reviewed and maintained on a regular basis. Results: Our Core Curriculum is composed of four major divisions, 22 topics, and 92 subtopics that cover the wide breadth of Pathology Informatics. The four major divisions include: (1) Information Fundamentals, (2) Information Systems, (3) Workflow and Process, and (4) Governance and Management. A detailed, comprehensive reading list for the curriculum is presented in the Appendix to the manuscript and contains 570 total readings (current as of March 2012). Discussion: The adoption of a formal, core curriculum in a Pathology Informatics fellowship has significant impacts on both fellowship training and the general field of Pathology Informatics itself. For a fellowship, a core curriculum defines a basic, common scope of knowledge that the fellowship expects all of its graduates will know, while at the same time enhancing and broadening the traditional fellowship experience of research and operational rotations. For the field of Pathology Informatics itself, a core curriculum defines to the outside world, including departments, companies, and health systems considering hiring a pathology informatician, the core knowledge set expected of a person trained in the field and, more fundamentally, it helps to define the scope of the field within Pathology and healthcare in general. PMID:23024890
McClintock, David S.; Levy, Bruce P.; Lane, William J.; Lee, Roy E.; Baron, Jason M.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Onozato, Maristela L.; Kim, JiYeon; Dighe, Anand S.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Kuo, Frank; Black-Schaffer, Stephen; Gilbertson, John R.
The claim that computer personalities can be human personalities was tested by demonstrating that (1) computer personalities can be easily created using a minimal set of cues, and (2) that people will respond to these personalities in the same way they would respond to similar human personalities. The present study focused on the \\
Clifford Nass; Youngme Moon; B. J. Fogg; Byron Reeves; D. Christopher Dryer
There has already been a 'molecular' revolution in pathology. Demonstrating transcription of specific single genes or small gene sets and their protein products by in situ hybridisation and immunocytochemistry is routine in diagnostic and experimental pathology. A perhaps-greater revolution is imminent with the application of more recently established and emergent technologies in pathology. These include new approaches to polymerase chain reaction (PCR); simultaneous studies of multiple genes and their expression using oligonucleotide and cDNA arrays; serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE); expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing, subtractive cloning and differential display; high-throughput sequencing; comparative genomic hybridization, multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) (spectral karyotyping); reverse chromosome painting; knockout and transgenic organisms; laser microdissection and micro-machining; and new methods in bio-informatics, 'data mining' and data visualisation. Molecular methods will profoundly change diagnosis, prognosis and treatment targeting in oncology and elucidate fundamental mechanisms of neoplastic transformation. Individual susceptibility to specific diseases will become assessable and screening will be refined. The new molecular biology will be most fruitful in partnership with classical approaches to pathology: the expectation that molecular methods alone will answer all pathological questions is unrealistic. A further challenge for the biomedical community in the 'genome era' will be to ensure that the benefits of these sophisticated technologies are enjoyed globally. PMID:10711232
Going, J J; Gusterson, B A
The MicroPLB (personal locator beacon) is a search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) transmitter. When activated it emits a distress signal to a constellation of internationally operated satellites. The endangered person's identity and location anywhere on Earth is automatically forwarded to central monitoring stations around the world. It is accurate to within just a few meters. The user uses the device to download navigation data from a global positioning satellite receiver. After the download is complete, the MicroPLB functions as a self-locating beacon. Also, it is the only PLB to use a safe battery. In the past, other PLB devices have used batteries that have enough volatility to explode with extreme force. It was developed by Microwave Monolithic, Inc. through SBIR funding from Glenn Research Center and Goddard Space Flight Center.
Integrating veterinary pathology into basic research Tuesday 17 April 2012 University of Surrey in veterinary pathology, to develop an integrated approach to the study of pathology. The seminar will focus on advances in basic pathology techniques including tissue sampling,morphometric imaging
Doran, Simon J.
Postdoctoral Fellowship Pathology and Molecular Medicine The Department of Pathology and Molecular and validation, biomarker discovery, and teaching. The Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine or e-mail as soon as possible. Murray Potter, MD Associate Professor Pathology and Molecular Medicine
ANNUAL SPEECH PATHOLOGY HONOURS RESEARCH MINICONFERENCE 2012 Every year the Speech Pathology CRICOSProviderCode00301J(WA),02637B(NSW) All interested are welcome. This invitation extends to Speech Pathology.Yuen@curtin.edu.au Telephone +61 8 9266 7984 or visit psych.curtin.edu.au School of Psychology & Speech Pathology Monday 15th
ADVERTISEMENT: Tenure track assistant professors in Pathology The Department of Pathology related to molecular and cellular mechanisms of disease. The Department of Pathology supports high quality of the Department of Pathology. Applicants must have a Ph.D., M.D., or M.D./Ph.D. degree. Applicants who are board
Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Methyl Alcohol C00117E/00117-68 AMENDED PATHOLOGY Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Street Address: Mailing Address: 615 Davis Drive P.O. Box 12766 Suite 500 RTP, NC 27709 Durham, NC 27713 (919) 998-9407 October 6, 2011 #12; Experimental Pathology Laboratories
Baker, Chris I.
The wealth of morphological, histological, and molecular data from human cancers available to pathologists means that pathology is poised to become a truly quantitative systems science. By measuring morphological parameters such as tumor stage and grade, and by measuring molecular biomarkers such as hormone receptor status, pathologists have sometimes accurately predicted what will happen to a patient's tumor. While 'omic'
Robert G. Clyde; John W. Crawford; David J. Harrison; Dana Faratian
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 36-year-old man has had two kidney transplants. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.
Richert, Charles A.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 34-year-old is experiencing complications following a liver transplant. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.
Richert, Charles A.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 72-year-old man has abdominal pain, anorexia, and weight loss but no significant past medical history. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.
Nine, Jeff S.; Weir, Ed
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 74-year-old man has been referred to the hospital for renal insufficiency complicating scleroderma. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 38-year-old woman with a history of morbid obesity and gastric bypass surgery complains of fatigue, sore throat, and rash. Visitors are given the physical examination results and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.
Flynn, Kevin J.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man reported a history of chronic sinusitis that was not responding to nasal and antibiotic treatments. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of head and neck pathology.
Becich, Michael J.; Fowler, Jason C.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older woman developed a renal mass without evidence of angiomyolipoma. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in endocrine pathology.
Hardy, Hunter T.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 18-year-old male with "painless enlargement of the right testes over a period of several months, initially attributed to a sports injury." Visitors are given admission data along with gross and microscopic description, including images and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.
Fowler, Jason C.; Halpern, Melissa B.; Rao, Uma N.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man complained of diaphoresis nausea and substernal chest pain through his left arm. Subsequent tests revealed a mediastinal mass with both fatty and solid components. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.
Fowler, Jason C.; Rao, Uma N.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 69-year-old man has a pigmented lesion on his right ear. Visitors are given the patient history and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with chronic renal insufficiency, congestive heart failure, and diarrhea. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man with a history of renal failure complained of hemorrhoidal bleeding. Visitors are given charts, test results, transfusion information and patient history, to provide the opportunity for viewers to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transfusion pathology.
Kohler, Lisa J.
The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientÃ¢ÂÂs history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.
Duggal, Neil; Hammond, Robert R.; Lownie, Steven P.; Smith, Sharyn
This is a case study presented by the University of Utah Department of Pathology in which a woman developed jaundice while on vacation. Subsequent testing revealed a pancreatic mass. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of autopsy pathology.
Klatt, Edward C., 1951-
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with a large range of symptoms from chills and fever to underdeveloped calf muscles. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.
Defrances, Marie C.; Lee, Robert E.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman who presented with two months of back pain. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.
Lu, Zhengbin; Schoedel, Karen
Categorical and dimensional models for classifying personality disorders were evaluated by comparing the structure of personality pathology in a clinical sample (n = 158) with the structure in a general population sample (n = 274). Subjects completed 100 personality scales. Separate factor analyses revealed similar structures in the 2 samples. An underlying structure in a combined sample showed limited agreement
W. John Livesley; Douglas N. Jackson; Marsha L. Schroeder
This study revised the theory of planned behavior (TPB) by incorporating the new concepts of gambling passion and responsible gambling strategy (RGS) to predict gamblers' intention to gamble in online sports betting. The data were collected at the end of March in 2012 through an online gambling website. The findings indicated that the inclusion of two types of gambling passion and two types of RGS explains online gambling intention well. Specifically, out of the original antecedent predictors of TPB, attitude toward online gambling was positively related to harmonious passion. Subjective norm had a positive relationship with both harmonious and obsessive passion. The results also showed that perceived behavioral control does not have a significant effect on the two gambling passions but has a direct and significant influence on behavioral intention. Additionally, the compulsory RGS had a negative effect on obsessive passion, whereas supplementary RGS had concurrent positive impacts on harmonious and obsessive passion. Lastly, the two gambling passions were notable predictors of behavioral intention toward online sports betting. PMID:23334577
Lee, Jaeseok; Chen, Chih-Chien; Song, Hak-Jun; Lee, Choong-Ki
katherine henderson Pathology Slide Scanning rev1 Page 1 10/21/14 Scanning in Pathology Pathology and multi-function printers, which also allow scanning. Whole Slide Scanning for Virtual Pathology: Use be dropped off in Surgpath Available Spectrum Server/ Pathology Digital Slide Collection Use Path course
Pathology Service "Keen Minds to Explore the Dark Continents of Disease: A History of the Pathology, Chief of Pathology and Robert Young, MD. The rich history of pathology at the Massachusetts General. This book offers a detailed account of the history of the Mass General Pathology department, a unique view
Mootha, Vamsi K.
Electrocution is mostly unintentional and occurs in domestic environment or in form of an occupational hazard. Electrical burns sustained in domestic environment or otherwise are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The present report describes the pathological changes in the heart as observed in a case of fatal electrocution. PMID:24612995
Shetty, B Suresh Kumar; Kanchan, Tanuj; Acharya, Jenash; Naik, Ramadas
In previous papers we have demonstrated how the direct simulation Monte Carlo method can be used to simulate detonations. Those simulations were limited to exothermic reactions. In this paper exothermic and endothermic reactions are simulated. Under these circumstances, one obtains pathological detonations. That is, these simulations cannot be predicted using the well-known Chapman-Jouguet hypothesis. The details of these simulations can
James B. Anderson; Lyle N. Long
of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA 2 Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA 3 Medical Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA 5 Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY
Throughout the course of history, gambling has been a popular activity across most cultures. In the United States, gambling has transitioned from early acceptance to prohibition to widespread proliferation. For most, gambling is a relaxing and recreational activity; however, for some individuals gambling becomes more than harmless fun. The most severe form of gambling, pathological gambling, is recognized as a
Larry L. Ashley; Karmen K. Boehlke
This tutorial paper reviews the literature on the application of microprobe analysis to practical problems in diagnostic human pathology. The goal is to allow the reader ready access to the literature on specific clinical problems. Specimen preparation and commonly encountered artifacts are also considered. It is concluded that energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis and back-scattered electron imaging are at present the
D. Baker; K. G. Kupke; P. Ingram; V. L. Roggli; J. D. Shelburne
Personal Information Request Request for Personal Information Request for Correction of Personal Information Personal information on this form is collected under Newfoundland and Labrador's Access to Information and Protection of Privacy (ATIPP) Act and will be used to respond to a request for, or correction
The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case involves a 41 year-old woman experiencing the following symptoms for a period of 18 months: fatigue, weakness, lethargy, and decreased concentration. The patientâ??s history, description of CT scans, and images from histological examinations, which contributed to the conclusive diagnosis, are all provided here for your review. The contributing doctors provide a detailed discussion of the patientâ??s condition in the â??Final Diagnosisâ? section. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.
This site contains two case studies presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology: one in which a man was experiencing increased pain in his left flank over the course of three weeks, and the second one in which a women experiencing persistent right lower quadrant pain shows a retroperitoneal lesion on CT scan. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patients. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.
Dorvault, Christine; Fernandes, Shaila; Yousem, Sam
This cardiovascular pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. A 72-year-old female experiencing respiratory distress is the focus of this case. The patientÃ¢ÂÂs history, gross description, and microscopic description of test results are provided to aid readers in understanding the patientÃ¢ÂÂs diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorÃ¢ÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientÃ¢ÂÂs conditions.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 60-year-old woman who presented with a history of marked abdominal distention lasted for several months with associated progressive fatigue, progressive weight loss and fever. Visitors are given patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.
Rao, Uma N.; Sepulveda, Antonia; Yu, Hongbo
This gynecologic pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 57-year-old female with postmenopausal bleeding. The patientÃ¢ÂÂs history, and results from a pelvic ultrasound are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorÃ¢ÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientÃ¢ÂÂs conditions.
Chen, Lei; Kanbour, Anisa; Kessinger, Rovena L.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a 29 year old Hispanic woman who delivered a stillborn fetus with a estimated gestation of 29 weeks. Visitors are provided with patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in perinatal pathology.
Klatt, Edward C., 1951-; Mccune, Ryan
The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in learning. This neuropathology case is centered on a 22-month-old female patient with a history of posterior neck discomfort, episodic crying, scratching, and hard coughing. MRI images of the patient along with the patient's history and microscopic descriptions allow readers to test their diagnostic skills and develop an understanding of the patient's condition. The "Final Diagnosis" section contains the official conclusions of the patient's condition. Students entering health sciences fields will find this resource very helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.
The hip region is the seat of a rich and common periarticular pathology, with a variable involvement, depending of the location, and needs better knowledge. Anyway the clinical examination takes the major place in the diagnostic. Trochanteric bursitis and tendinitis are the more common clinical syndrome in that regional pathology. Local injections of corticosteroid are still the mean modality of the conservative treatment but are not sufficient to avoid recurrence or chronicity which may lead to tendon tears. A better knowledge of the physiopathology will lead to a better and early recovery. Apatite calcifications are not rare around the hip. Great trochanter is the first location, but the femoral insertion of the gluteus maximus and vastus lateralis on the linea aspera, the lateral side of the acetabulum and the ischial tuberosity are worth known. Iliopsoas bursitis, which has some analogy with the popliteal cyst, is often underrecognized, like ischial bursitis and tendinopathy. PMID:12001413
This is a neuropathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 49 year old woman has visual disturbances. Visitors are given the microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.
Bilbao, Juan M., 1938-; Horvath, Eva, Ph.D.; Kovacs, Kalman; Syro, Luis; Uribe, Humberto; Vidal, Sergio
The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include senile plaques of ?-amyloid (A?) peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF). NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD. Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99%) is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease. Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM) might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since Tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia. PMID:24574966
El Khoury, Noura B.; Gratuze, Maud; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Bretteville, Alexis; Planel, Emmanuel
Pathological skin picking (PSP) is a disabling disorder characterized by repetitive picking of the skin that causes tissue\\u000a damage. Estimated to affect 2% to 5.4% of the population, PSP is currently listed as an impulse control disorder not otherwise\\u000a specified. However, the repetitive and compulsive behaviors seen in PSP are phenomenologically and clinically similar to the\\u000a behaviors seen in obsessive-compulsive
Jon E. Grant; Brian L. Odlaug
AIMS: To study the postmortem pathology associated with ring substituted amphetamine (amphetamine derivatives) misuse. METHODS: The postmortem findings in deaths associated with the ring substituted amphetamines 3,4-methylenedioxymethyl-amphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA, eve) were studied in seven young white men aged between 20 and 25 years. RESULTS: Striking changes were identified in the liver, which varied from foci of individual
C M Milroy; J C Clark; A R Forrest
Patients with germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are predisposed to breast cancer. The BRCA1-associated breast cancers have distinct morphology, being more often medullary-like, triple negative and showing a basal phenotype. On the other hand, BRCA2 and BRCAX cancers are a heterogeneous group without a specific phenotype. When incorporated into risk assessment models, pathology data improves prediction of carrier
Leonard Da Silva; Sunil R Lakhani
Despite its importance historically and contemporarily, psychopathy is not recognized in the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR). Its closest counterpart, antisocial personality disorder, includes strong representation of behavioral deviance symptoms but weak representation of affective-interpersonal features considered central to psychopathy. The current study evaluated the extent to which psychopathy and its distinctive facets, indexed by the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, can be assessed effectively using traits from the dimensional model of personality pathology developed for DSM-5, operationalized by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Results indicate that (a) facets of psychopathy entailing impulsive externalization and callous aggression are well-represented by traits from the PID-5 considered relevant to antisocial personality disorder, and (b) the boldness facet of psychopathy can be effectively captured using additional PID-5 traits. These findings provide evidence that the dimensional model of personality pathology embodied in the PID-5 provides effective trait-based coverage of psychopathy and its facets. PMID:23620353
Strickland, Casey M; Drislane, Laura E; Lucy, Megan; Krueger, Robert F; Patrick, Christopher J
Neurological diseases include those caused by a single defective gene,e.g., Huntington's disease, other polyglutamine diseases, and muscular dystrophies, and those that are mostly sporadic but rarely show Mendelian inheritance in some families, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and epilepsy. The latter diseases are considered polygenic disorders. Both sporadic and Mendelian cases of these diseases are believed to share some common pathological mechanisms. Since the detection of causal genes for the Mendelian cases, studies have been initiated on disease pathology. SNPs and rare gene variants play important roles in common neurological diseases. From a technological perspective, next-generation sequencers have become widely available and have contributed to the advancement of research based on individual genome sequences (personal genome). This paper presents an overview, as well as a historical context, of the contribution of personal genome research to neurological disease studies. PMID:23475514
Pathological personality is strongly linked with interpersonal impairment, yet, no study to date has examined the relationship between concurrent personality pathology and dysfunction in marriagea relationship most people find central to their lives. In a cross-sectional study of a community sample of married couples (N=82), multilevel modeling was used to estimate the association of self- and spouse reported PD symptoms with levels of marital satisfaction and verbal aggression and perpetration of physical violence. Including self- and spouse report of total PD symptoms resulted in improved model fit and greater variance explained, with much of the improvement coming after the addition of spouse-report. The incremental validity of spouse-report of several of the ten PD scales was supported for marital satisfaction and verbal aggression, particularly for borderline and dependent PD features. PMID:18837594
South, Susan C.; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.
Plant Pathology 290 Graduate Seminar Series Fall 2014 CRN: 57411 Mondays 9:00-10:00am 115 Hutchison Storer Seminar Speaker Professor, Plant Pathology University of Wisconsin-Madison Multi-gene copy number Detection of plant diseases by smell October 27 Jeremy Warren, PhD Candidate, Plant Pathology Exit Seminar
Ferrara, Katherine W.
1 Pathology in heuristic search Mitja Lustrek Jozef Stefan Institute Department of Intelligent, showed the opposite. This paradox was termed minimax pathology. Our real- valued minimax model demonstrates that appropriate modeling of the heuristic error is enough to eliminate the pathology. We examine
DIALETHEISM, SEMANTIC PATHOLOGY, AND THE OPEN PAIR Bradley Armour-Garb and James A. Woodbridge Over wish to address the dialetheist's treatment of cases of semantic pathology and to pose a worry, afflicting both consistent and inconsistent proposals for resolving semantic pathology. Thus, while our
Undergraduate Student Handbook SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY PROGRAM STEPHEN F. AUSTIN STATE UNIVERSITY and Disorders Program #12;2 Contents SECTION PAGE 1.0 Speech-Language Pathology Program 4 1.1 History 4 1-Language-Hearing Association 27 #12;4 1.0 SFASU SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY AND AUDIOLOGY PROGRAM 1.1 History The Speech
DEPARTMENT OF PLANT SCIENCES AND PLANT PATHOLOGY Montana State University Bozeman, MT Graduate and Plant Pathology Graduate Student Policies & Procedures Page 2 April 4, 2013 precedence over Pathology Graduate Student Policies & Procedures Page 3 April 4, 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION
1 Graduate Student Handbook SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY PROGRAM STEPHEN F. AUSTIN STATE UNIVERSITY P;2 Dear Prospective student: Welcome to the Program website for Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology in Stephen F Austin State University. The field of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology is concerned
Early views of borderline personality disorder (BPD) were based on the idea that patients with this pathology were on the\\u000a border of psychosis. However, more recent studies have not supported this view, although they have found evidence of a malevolent\\u000a interpersonal evaluation and a significant proportion of BPD patients showing psychotic symptoms. For example, in one study,\\u000a 24% of BPD
Sven Barnow; Elisabeth A. Arens; Simkje Sieswerda; Ramona Dinu-Biringer; Carsten Spitzer; Simone Lang
parasites and Bedding (personal communication) considers that bacteria may influence the life cycleJOURNAL OF INVERTEBRATE PATHOLOGY 25. 283-287 (1975) Bacteria and Yeasts Associated with Sirex November 15, 1973 Five genera of bacteria and yeasts commonly occur in the oviposition drills and larval
Radiology Conferences Radiology residents will meet with the chief pathology resident: 1 for whole slide scanning request 4. Provide 2-3 key radiology images in jpeg format to correspond Â· Radiology residents will provide jump drive for file transfer; transfer to iornkeys must be done in person
Objectives: To determine whether patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) have evidence of maladaptive personality, and whether they have a single or several different typical pathological personality profiles. Methods: Patients were recruited from the department of epileptology, Bonn, Germany. In all, 85 patients with PNES and 63 with epilepsy completed a postal questionnaire including the dimensional assessment of personality pathology basic questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). The DAPP-BQ was also completed by 100 healthy volunteers. The groups were compared and the PNES group was subjected to cluster analysis. Results: Patients with PNES had a greater degree of personality abnormality than clinical and non-clinical controls. There were several clusters of personality pathology. The profile of the largest cluster (n = 43) resembled that found in borderline personality disorder, that of the second largest (n = 37) was characterised by an overly controlled personality, that of the third (n = 4) was similar to the profile in avoidant personality disorder. Outcome differed between clusters. Conclusions: Maladaptive personality is common in patients with PNES. PNES are associated with several distinct profiles of pathological personality. This is relevant because outcome differed between profiles. PMID:15090571
Reuber, M; Pukrop, R; Bauer, J; Derfuss, R; Elger, C
#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Field Plant Pathology (Pl P 525) Â Summer 2014 1 Washington State University Department of Plant Pathology Field Plant Pathology (Pl P 525), 3 credits Summer 2014 Course Outline Prof plant pathology and extension. Students will observe a wide variety of cropping systems and agro
Collins, Gary S.
Anatomic and Clinical Pathology PATH 422a. Faculty: Pathology Faculty with LSUHSC-NO Faculty: 1.) To become familiar with surgical pathology grossing technique and tissue sign-out procedures. 2 related to anatomic pathology including fine needle aspiration, autopsy, surgical specimen grossing
The disordered tubulin polymerization promoting protein (TPPP/p25) was found to be co-enriched in neuronal and glial inclusions with ?-synuclein in Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy, respectively; however, co-occurrence of ?-synuclein with ?-amyloid (A?) in human brain inclusions has been recently reported, suggesting the existence of mixed type pathologies that could result in obstacles in the correct diagnosis and treatment. Here we identified TPPP/p25 as an interacting partner of the soluble A? oligomers as major risk factors for Alzheimer disease using ProtoArray human protein microarray. The interactions of oligomeric A? with proteins involved in the etiology of neurological disorders were characterized by ELISA, surface plasmon resonance, pelleting experiments, and tubulin polymerization assay. We showed that the A?42 tightly bound to TPPP/p25 (Kd = 85 nm) and caused aberrant protein aggregation by inhibiting the physiologically relevant TPPP/p25-derived microtubule assembly. The pair-wise interactions of A?42, ?-synuclein, and tubulin were found to be relatively weak; however, these three components formed soluble ternary complex exclusively in the absence of TPPP/p25. The aggregation-facilitating activity of TPPP/p25 and its interaction with A? was monitored by electron microscopy with purified proteins by pelleting experiments with cell-free extracts as well as by confocal microscopy with CHO cells expressing TPPP/p25 or amyloid. The finding that the interaction of TPPP/p25 with A? can produce pathological-like aggregates is tightly coupled with unusual pathology of the Alzheimer disease revealed previously; that is, partial co-localization of A? and TPPP/p25 in the case of diffuse Lewy body disease with Alzheimer disease. PMID:21832049
Oláh, Judit; Vincze, Orsolya; Virók, Dezs?; Simon, Dóra; Bozsó, Zsolt; T?kési, Natália; Horváth, István; Hlavanda, Emma; Kovács, János; Magyar, Anna; Sz?cs, Mária; Orosz, Ferenc; Penke, Botond; Ovádi, Judit
Factors (demographics, gambling behaviors and comorbid problems) that may be related to the severity of gambling problems were investigated among 440 problem gamblers seeking treatment in an Australian outpatient treatment agency. The participants were divided into sub-threshold pathological gamblers (SPGs; N = 104) and pathological gamblers (PGs;
Namrata, Raylu; Oei, Tian P. S.
Pathological gambling is an emerging psychiatric disorder that has recently gained much attention because of its increasing prevalence and devastating personal, familial, and social consequences. Although its pathophysiology is largely unknown, the shared similarities with both addiction and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders have suggested the possibility of common psychobiological substrates. As with many other psychiatric disorders, it is believed that pathological gambling may result from the interplay between individual vulnerability and environmental factors. The aim of this article is to offer a comprehensive review of the main neurobiological aspects of pathological gambling, with particular attention to neuropsychological and related findings. A deeper understanding of the biological correlates of pathological gambling is required in order to develop effective treatment strategies. PMID:22716504
Conversano, Ciro; Marazziti, Donatella; Carmassi, Claudia; Baldini, Sara; Barnabei, Graziano; Dell'Osso, Liliana
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 65-year-old man is complaining of abdominal pain. Visitors are given the radiology, gross and microscopic descriptions, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostics, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.
Latulippe, Steven; Ohori, N. P.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older man suffering from chronic bronchitis and macrocytic anemia also developed persistent flu symptoms. Visitors view the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 59-year-old woman with a three-year history of headache and fatigue is determined to have an intrasellar non contrast-enhancing lesion. Visitors are given the clinical history and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.
Deckert, Martina; Hans, Volkmar H.; Kristof, Rudolf A.; Urbach, Horst
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 78-year-old male who presented with a 6 month history of cervical adenopathy. Visitors are given patient history, microscopic description, differential diagnosis, and immunohistochemistry, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.
Craig, Fiona; Krishnamurti, Uma
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman with a 20-year history of gait disorders and dizziness. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.
This is a clinical microbiology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 78-year-old man has rectal adenocarcinoma. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.
Horn, Kevin D.; Pasculle, A. W.; Rao, Uma N.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 72-year-old man with a history of prostatic adenocarcinoma is presented with left flank pain. Gross and microscopic images and descriptions of a needle biopsy of the pancreas are provided in the â??Preoperative Studiesâ? section. A â??Final Diagnosisâ? section is also found here, which includes a detailed description of the condition from the contributing doctors. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.
This tutorial paper reviews the literature on the application of microprobe analysis to practical problems in diagnostic human pathology. The goal is to allow the reader ready access to the literature on specific clinical problems. Specimen preparation and commonly encountered artifacts are also considered. It is concluded that energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis and back-scattered electron imaging are at present the most generally useful microprobe techniques for clinical work, and are no longer solely research tools. The findings often have diagnostic, therapeutic, and/or legal implications. 332 references.
Baker, D.; Kupke, K.G.; Ingram, P.; Roggli, V.L.; Shelburne, J.D.
The present study demonstrates that (1) computer personalities can be easily created using a minimal set of cues, and (2) that people will respond to these personalities in the same way they would respond to similar human personalities. The present study focuses on the simikirityattraction hypothesis, which predicts that people will prefer to interact with others who are similar in
Clifford Nass; Youngme Moon; B. J. Fogg; Byron Reeves; Chris Dryer
In 1817, James Parkinson described the symptoms of the shaking palsy, a disease that was subsequently defined in greater detail, and named after Parkinson, by Jean-Martin Charcot. Parkinson expected that the publication of his monograph would lead to a rapid elucidation of the anatomical substrate of the shaking palsy; in the event, this process took almost a century. In 1912, Fritz Heinrich Lewy identified the protein aggregates that define Parkinson disease (PD) in some brain regions outside the substantia nigra. In 1919, Konstantin Nikolaevich Tretiakoff found similar aggregates in the substantia nigra and named them after Lewy. In the 1990s, ?-synuclein was identified as the main constituent of the Lewy pathology, and its aggregation was shown to be central to PD, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. In 2003, a staging scheme for idiopathic PD was introduced, according to which ?-synuclein pathology originates in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagal nerve and progresses from there to other brain regions, including the substantia nigra. In this article, we review the relevance of Lewy's discovery 100 years ago for the current understanding of PD and related disorders. PMID:23183883
Goedert, Michel; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Del Tredici, Kelly; Braak, Heiko
ADVERTISEMENT: ASSISTANT, ASSOCIATE OR FULL PROFESSOR OF PATHOLOGY OF CLINICAL HEMATOLOGY LABORATORY The Department of Pathology at Stanford University. Candidates must be board certified in clinical pathology, anatomic pathology or both
THE GRADUATE PROGRAM IN CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY FACULTY AND STUDENT HANDBOOK: REQUIREMENTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES DEPARTMENT OF PATHOLOGY VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY Revised November, 2009 #12;Pathology Graduate ........................................................................................................ 4 Electives in the Department of Pathology
A study was designed to determine the influence of certain surgical pathologic findings on tumor spread and survival in patients with cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx. All patients with the histopathological diagnosis of carcinoma of the oral cavity or oropharynx from 1955 to 1983 were included in the study. Using the Head and Neck Tumor Registry of the department of otolaryngology of the Washington University School of Medicine, information was obtained regarding preoperative evaluation, staging, classification, diagnosis, treatment, surgical pathology parameters, and outcome results. The patient populations consisted of 545 patients with oral cavity cancer and 224 patients with oropharynx cancer, all of whom were eligible for 3-year follow-up. Information from a retrospective analysis of the pretreatment examination records regarding site and size of the primary tumor and neck dissection, and specific treatment, and from surgical pathology reports regarding site, size, tumor spread and resection margins, was correlated with treatment outcome. The database file was analyzed using dbase III and its companion program Framework, and SAS PC (Statistical Analysis Systems for personal computers). PMID:1943419
Brennan, C T; Sessions, D G; Spitznagel, E L; Harvey, J E
Background Cognitive deficits and personality pathology are prevalent in opiate dependence, even during periods of remission, and likely contribute to relapse. Understanding the relationship between the two in vulnerable, opiate-addicted patients may contribute to the design of better treatment and relapse prevention strategies. Methods The Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory (MCMI) and a series of neuropsychological tests were administered to three subject groups: 29 subjects receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MM), 27 subjects in protracted abstinence from methadone maintenance treatment (PA), and 29 healthy non-dependent comparison subjects. Relationships between MCMI scores, neuropsychological test results, and measures of substance use and treatment were examined using bivariate correlation and regression analysis. Results MCMI scores were greater in subjects with a history of opiate dependence than in comparison subjects. A significant negative correlation between MCMI scores and neuropsychological test performance was identified in all subjects. MCMI scores were stronger predictors of neuropsychological test performance than measures of drug use. Conclusion Formerly methadone-treated opiate dependent individuals in protracted opiate abstinence demonstrate a strong relationship between personality pathology and cognitive deficits. The cause of these deficits is unclear and most likely multi-factorial. This finding may be important in understanding and interpreting neuropsychological testing deficiencies in opiate-dependent subjects. PMID:19019247
Prosser, James M; Eisenberg, Daniel; Davey, Emily E; Steinfeld, Matthew; Cohen, Lisa J; London, Edythe D; Galynker, Igor I
Cambodia is one of underserved countries in Southeast Asia and is still suffering from its terrible history in the last 30 years when no pathologist survived from the genocide of Khmer Rouge regime. Today only 8 pathologists, mostly under qualified, are on service for more than 14 million inhabitants. There are 8 laboratories diagnosing 25,000 to 27,000 histological specimens and non-gynecological cytology, and 24,000 to 25,000 Pap smear screening per year. All laboratories are commonly providing routine histology with most on HE, Giemsa, PAP, and PAS staining. Two laboratories have a capability to provide some immunohistochemistry staining, mostly for only some markers to differentiate lymphomas and carcinomas. At present, no frozen section and no autopsy can be done in Cambodia. All these 8 laboratories are concentrated in the capital city and there is no pathology laboratory in provinces. Four laboratories have established a telepathology or personally have connection to outside world via E-mail. We have two intentions to send the cases to experts: one is to confirm our own diagnosis, second is to discuss the difficult and complex cases with senior experts to get a hint of reliable diagnosis. One lab has built up a clinico-pathological teleconference (CPC) in order to get a good connection and discussion for difficult cases. However, we still have challenging to the limits of teleconsultation due to the available experts time even the optimal clinical information, macro-images, X-rays, CT-scans, MRI are together submitted with microscopic images. There is a gap between newly established therapeutic facility, (e.g., hormone therapy in breast cancer, chemotherapy in soft tissue tumor) and the poor histological and immunohistochemistry methods in the country. Another problem is a personal isolation of Cambodian pathologists with low economic situation who cannot frequently attend international meeting outside of the country. Therefore the training level of Cambodian pathologists cannot be adapted to the standard which is demanded worldwide for sufficient tumor therapy. PMID:25188194
Vathana, Chhut Serey; Stauch, Gerhard
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old male with a past medical history significant for lymphoma (in remission). The patient is a health care worker who presented to the emergency room because of a dog bite. Visitors are given a patient history and culture findings, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.
Iscoll, Eileen; Lourduraj, Leena T.; Pasculle, A. W.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 75 year old woman "with a past medical history of significant for a 6 month history of cryoglobulinemia with vasculitis, congestive heart failure, hypertension, cryptogenic cirrhosis, peripheral vascular disease, chronic renal insufficiency, anemia, degenerative joint disease, and diverticulitis." Visitors are provided with patient history, admission data, and microscopic findings (lung), including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology where a boy aged 2 years presented with a swelling beneath the skin of the lower back, incontinence, bilateral leg weakness and a history of bilateral hip dislocation at birth. The case study provides imaging studies and histopathology in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.
Ellison, David W.; Ibrahim, A. E.; Lang, D. A.; Myles, L.
This hematopathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves a 40-year-old woman presenting with a nodule in the skin on the left jaw line. Images from a biopsy of the nodule provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientÃ¢ÂÂs diagnosis. A description of these images, and the patientÃ¢ÂÂs immunohistochemistry and molecular studies are also provided. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorÃ¢ÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientÃ¢ÂÂs conditions.
This study evaluated behavioral and self-report indices of impulsiveness in pathological gambling substance abusers (n=27), non-pathological gambling substance abusers (n=63), and non-pathological gambling\\/non-substance abusing controls (n=21). The Bechara card task measured preferences for decks of cards that ranged in magnitude and probability of delayed and immediate rewards and punishers. The Stanford Time Perception Inventory (STPI) assessed orientation to the future,
Nancy M Petry
Ostensible psychiatric comorbidity can sometimes be explained by shared relations between diagnostic constructs and higher order internalizing and externalizing dimensions. However, this possibility has not been explored with regard to comorbidity between personality pathology and other clinical constructs in adolescents. In this study,
Hopwood, Christopher J.; Grilo, Carlos M.
Hypothesized that exhibitionists without other criminal involvement (pure type) have different personality characteristics than exhibitionists with nonexhibitionistic criminal involvement (criminal type): In particular, the criminal type exhibits greater pathology and sociopathy. 30 pure type and 54 criminal type exhibitionists referred to a forensic clinic were compared on tests, including Goldberg indexes for differentiating normal from deviant and psychiatric from sociopathic
Gregory E. Forgac; Edward J. Michaels
Kernberg related personality disorders to early defence mechanisms against sexual and aggressive drives and highlighted the role played by the dysfunctions in object relations, established during early infancy. It is in childhood when the patient sets in motion pathological defence mechanism (dissociation, acting out, projective identification etc.). Later studies contend that most core symptoms of the disorder, such as: a
JOSÉ GUIMÓN; WENDY DÁVILA
The current description of personalized medicine by the National Institutes of Health is "the science of individualized prevention and therapy." Although physicians are beginning to see the promise of genetic medicine coming to fruition, the rapid pace of sequencing technology, informatics, and computer science predict a revolution in the ability to care for patients in the near future. The enthusiasm expressed by researchers is well founded, but the expectations voiced by the public do not center on advancing technology. Rather, patients are asking for personalized care: a holistic approach that considers physical, mental, and spiritual well-being. This perspective considers psychological, religious, and ethical challenges that may arise as the precision of preventive medicine improves. Psychological studies already highlight the barriers to single gene testing and suggest significant barriers to the predictive testing envisioned by personalized medicine. Certain religious groups will likely mount opposition if they believe personalized medicine encourages embryo selection. If the technology prompts cost-containment discussions, those concerned about the sanctity of life may raise ethical objections. Consequently, the availability of new scientific developments does not guarantee advances in treatment because patients may prove unwilling to receive and act on personalized genetic information. This perspective highlights current efforts to incorporate personalized medicine and personalized care into the medical curriculum, genetic counseling, and other aspects of clinical practice. Because these efforts are generally independent, the authors offer recommendations for physicians and educators so that personalized medicine can be implemented in a manner that meets patient expectations for personalized care. PMID:23348082
Cornetta, Kenneth; Brown, Candy Gunther
Zanarini and Frankenburg (2007) described the essential nature of borderline psychopathology as involving intense and chronic inner pain deriving from a hyperbolic temperament that is mediated through interpersonal behaviors. These interpersonal behaviors can either provoke kindling events that promote the expression of borderline pathology or buffer against borderline symptoms. This study was designed to test this general hypothesis and to articulate both the temperamental and the mediating constructs implicated in this theory more specifically. A questionnaire containing the elements of this theory was administered to non-clinical (N = 545), clinical (N = 316) and treatment (N = 50) samples. Covariance analyses supported a hyperbolic temperament factor and four mediating factors labeled passive, agentic, validation seeking, and detached. Overall, validity correlations conformed to predictions in showing a strong association between hyperbolic temperament and borderline and other forms of personality pathology, and in demonstrating varying relations between the mediating factors with adaptivity, including psychiatric improvements in a treatment trial. The place of this theoretical model of borderline pathology beside other theories that tend to emphasize personality traits or interpersonal patterns are discussed, and clinical implications of the model are highlighted. PMID:22518203
Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Zanarini, Mary C.
Personalized medicine is a rapidly expanding field, with the potential to improve patient care. Its benefits include increasing efficiency in cancer screening, diagnosis and treatment through early detection, targeted therapy and identifying individuals with an underlying genetic risk for cancer or adverse outcomes. Through the work of Cancer Care Ontario (CCO)'s Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Program, a number of initiatives have been undertaken to support developments in personalized medicine. In keeping with the momentum of recent accomplishments, CCO has led the formation of the Personalized Medicine Steering Committee to develop a comprehensive provincial genetics strategy for the future of cancer care. PMID:25562133
Guo, Jennifer; Kamel-Reid, Suzanne; Rutherford, Michael; Hart, Jennifer; Melamed, Saul; Pollett, Aaron
The DSM-IV-TR currently conceptualizes personality disorders (PDs) as categorical syndromes that are distinct from normal personality. However, an alternative dimensional viewpoint is that PDs are maladaptive expressions of general personality traits. The dimensional perspective postulates that personality pathology exists at a more extreme level of the latent trait than does general personality. This hypothesis was examined using item response theory analyses comparing scales from two personality pathology instruments the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ; Livesley & Jackson, in press) and the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP; Clark, 1993; Clark, Simms, Wu, & Casillas, in press) with scales from an instrument designed to assess normal range personality, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992). The results indicate that respective scales from these instruments assess shared latent constructs, with the NEO PI-R providing more information at the lower (normal) range and the DAPP-BQ and SNAP providing more information at the higher (abnormal) range. Nevertheless, the results also demonstrated substantial overlap in coverage. Implications of the findings are discussed with respect to the study and development of items that would provide specific discriminations along underlying trait continua. PMID:20458359
Samuel, Douglas B.; Simms, Leonard J.; Clark, Lee Anna; Livesley, W. John; Widiger, Thomas A.
Because evidence supports phenomenological, clinical, and epidemiological links between pathological gambling and addictive behaviors, understanding the relationship of compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) to pathological gambling may prove helpful in treating individuals with co-occurring addictions. This study investigates the sexual behaviors of 225 adults (mean age ± SD = 47.3 ± 11.0 years; n = 120 [53, 3] females) who met
Jon E. Grant; Marvin A. Steinberg
Evaluates the prevalence of pathological gambling and related problems among 3,426 students in junior and senior high schools in Quebec City. Results indicate that 77% have gambled in the last twelve months and 13% gamble at least once a week. Results also reveal that pathological gambling is associated with drug and alcohol use, poor grades, and
Ladouceur, Robert; Boudreault, Normand; Jacques, Christian; Vitaro, Frank
"Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand
O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca
Renal osteodystrophy and post renal transplantation bone disease are increasingly common causes of pathological fracture. The authors present the first case of a pathological hangman's fracture in a patient after successful renal transplantation. An anterior instrumented C2-C4 fusion was performed. PMID:17260620
Al-Nammari, Shafic Said; Khan, Aadil A; Lucas, Jonathon D; Lam, Khai S
...TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Use of Tax-Free Alcohol § 22.107 Pathological laboratories...sanitarium, may withdraw and use tax-free alcohol if exclusively engaged in making analyses or tests for hospitals or sanitariums...laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals or sanitariums...pathological laboratory which uses tax-free alcohol for......
...TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Use of Tax-Free Alcohol § 22.107 Pathological laboratories...sanitarium, may withdraw and use tax-free alcohol if exclusively engaged in making analyses or tests for hospitals or sanitariums...laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals or sanitariums...pathological laboratory which uses tax-free alcohol for......
...TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Use of Tax-Free Alcohol § 22.107 Pathological laboratories...sanitarium, may withdraw and use tax-free alcohol if exclusively engaged in making analyses or tests for hospitals or sanitariums...laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals or sanitariums...pathological laboratory which uses tax-free alcohol for......
Despite a wide phenomenological interest in body image pathology in schizophrenia, there has been little systematic empirical research. This study aimed at establishing the specificity of body image pathology in patients with schizophrenia, its changes during acute treatment, and its association with other symptom factors. Cognitive (thoughts\\/beliefs regarding the body body concept), affective (body satisfaction body cathexis) and
Stefan Priebe; Frank Röhricht
This book contains 22 papers under the headings of Diagnosis and Pathology of endocrine diseases. Topics covered include: Laboratory tests in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders, Pathology of thyroid diseases, Diagnosis of adrenourtical disease, Radiologic techniques in evaluating endocrine disorders; and the Pituitary and adrenal glands.
This preliminary field trial examines the reliability and validity of a proposed research algorithm for diagnosing International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 personality disorders and its association with other psychiatric assessments for the primary classification of a single dimension of the five severity levels of personality dysfunction. In total, 137 psychiatric patients (119 with personality disorders and 18 without personality disorders) in Korea were assessed. In the first part of the study, inter-rater reliability was evaluated with an independent assessment of personality (personality assessment schedule). In the second part of the study, (1) the algorithm that identified any personality disturbance was compared with the ICD-10 and DSM-IV personality disorder diagnostic equivalents, and (ii) the four levels of severity were examined for their associations with clinical pathology and social functioning. The results showed good agreement between the algorithm and the test instruments for identifying a personality disorder. A graded increase in clinical pathology and social dysfunction was observed with increasing severity of personality disorder. These findings suggest that a simple algorithm for recording severity of a personality disturbance had both construct validity and was useful in practice, which supports severity classification as a valuable concept. These findings need to be confirmed in other cultures and ethnic groups. PMID:24532556
Kim, Youl-Ri; Blashfield, Roger; Tyrer, Peter; Hwang, Soon-Taeg; Lee, Hong-Seock
Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington. PMID:22953032
Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M.
Pathological gambling (PG) affects about 0.22% of adults and the impact extends to family members, employers and society as a whole. Recent research has identified similarities in the pathophysiologies of PG and substance use disorders (SUDs). As such, findings regarding SUDs provide a framework for investigating PG. The aims of the manuscript are two-fold. First, we will briefly revivew neural systems implicated in PG. Cortico-limbic circuitry involving the ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are discussed as are the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioids, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This background will provide a framework for reviewing the psychopharmacological treatments that have been tested for efficacy and safety in treating PG. Of medications, the strongest data suggest the efficacy and tolerability of opioid antagonists in the treatment of PG, and other agents have varying degree of empirical support. As behavioral therapies have also shown efficacy, they will be briefly considered as well. Future research is needed to understand how treatments work in PG and for whom specific treatments might work best. PMID:24349964
Bullock, Scott A.; Potenza, Marc N.
Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington. PMID:22953032
Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M
Pathological gambling (PG) affects about 0.2-2% of adults and the impact extends to family members, employers and society as a whole. Recent research has identified similarities in the pathophysiologies of PG and substance use disorders (SUDs). As such, findings regarding SUDs provide a framework for investigating PG. The aims of the manuscript are two-fold. First, we will briefly revivew neural systems implicated in PG. Cortico-limbic circuitry involving the ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are discussed as are the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioids, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This background will provide a framework for reviewing the psychopharmacological treatments that have been tested for efficacy and safety in treating PG. Of medications, the strongest data suggest the efficacy and tolerability of opioid antagonists in the treatment of PG, and other agents have varying degree of empirical support. As behavioral therapies have also shown efficacy, they will be briefly considered as well. Future research is needed to understand how treatments work in PG and for whom specific treatments might work best. PMID:24349964
Bullock, Scott A; Potenza, Marc N
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 60-year-old man was admitted to the Emergency Department with severe back pain. The patientÃ¢ÂÂs medical history and detailed description of her symptoms after admittance to the hospital are included in the Ã¢ÂÂPatient HistoryÃ¢ÂÂ section. Results from laboratory tests are also provided in a table. After looking at the Ã¢ÂÂPatient HistoryÃ¢ÂÂ and Ã¢ÂÂLaboratory InvestigationsÃ¢ÂÂ sections, students should proceed on to the Ã¢ÂÂQuestionsÃ¢ÂÂ section, where they can test their knowledge of diagnostics. Then test your answers with the official findings in the Ã¢ÂÂDiagnosisÃ¢ÂÂ section. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of transfusion medicine.
Lopez-Plaza, Iliana; Nambiar, Ashok
This article provides a historical perspective on how both American and European psychiatrists have conceptualized and categorized sexual deviance throughout the past 150 years. During this time, quite a number of sexual preferences, desires, and behaviors have been pathologized and depathologized at will, thus revealing psychiatry's constant struggle to distinguish mental disorder--in other words, the "perversions," "sexual deviations," or "paraphilias"--from immoral, unethical, or illegal behavior. This struggle is apparent in the works of 19th- and early-20th-century psychiatrists and sexologists, but it is also present in the more recent psychiatric textbooks and diagnostic manuals, such as the consecutive editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). While much of the historical literature revolves around the controversy over homosexuality, this article also reviews the recent medicohistorical and sociohistorical work on other forms of sexual deviance, including the diagnostic categories listed in the latest edition, the DSM-IV-TR: exhibitionism, voyeurism, fetishism, frotteurism, pedophilia, sexual masochism, sexual sadism, and transvestic fetishism. PMID:23480073
De Block, Andreas; Adriaens, Pieter R
The concept of multiple personality ia critically examined in the light of its historical development. Various conceptions of multiple personality are considered: aa a diagnostic fashion; aa a product of shaping in therapy; as a product of hypnotic suggestion; as simulation; and aa an extension of characteristica found in normal personslitiea. These considerations lead to the conclusion that the significant
J. P. Sutcliffe; Jean Jones
This article describes the headlines of the Educational Program on Personality Disorders produced by the WPA Section on Personality Disorders and the International Society on the Study of Personality Disorders. Lifelong personality traits serve as a substrate and a context for understanding more florid and distinct forms of psychopathology. Personality disorders affect at least 10% of the population, and the direct and indirect social costs associated with crime, substance abuse, increased need for medical care, family disruption, delayed recovery from clinical syndromes and medical diseases is substantial. Numerous theories, models and methods have been proposed to describe and to understand personality and its disorders: descriptive, statistical, psychoanalytic, evolutionary, neurobiologic. Classification has either taken a prototypical or a polythetic approach, but in recent years dimensional formats for classifying personalities have gained more interest. Personality pathology has a complex and variable character of interwoven developmental bio-psycho-social influences. A number of reliable instruments for assessment of personality and its disorders have emerged during the last three decades and a wide range of tailored psychotherapeutic techniques are now available. Personality disorders are treatable and remission is more likely than treatment resistance. Education is needed for all health professionals in psychiatric services. The full WPA program is available to be downloaded for free from WPAs website www.wpanet.org PMID:18560515
SIMONSEN, ERIK; RONNINGSTAM, ELSA; MILLON, THEODORE
Advances in nanotechnology and chemical engineering have led to the development of many different drug delivery systems. These 1-100(0) nm-sized carrier materials aim to increase drug concentrations at the pathological site, while avoiding their accumulation in healthy non-target tissues, thereby improving the balance between the efficacy and the toxicity of systemic (chemo-) therapeutic interventions. An important advantage of such nanocarrier materials is the ease of incorporating both diagnostic and therapeutic entities within a single formulation, enabling them to be used for theranostic purposes. We here describe the basic principles of using nanomaterials for targeting therapeutic and diagnostic agents to pathological sites, and we discuss how nanotheranostics and image-guided drug delivery can be used to personalize nanomedicine treatments. PMID:24860796
Theek, Benjamin; Rizzo, Larissa Y.; Ehling, Josef; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan
Although Passive Aggressive personality disorder (PAPD) plays an important role in many theories of personality pathology, it was consigned to the appendix of the fourth edition of the DSM. The scientific basis of this decision has been questioned, but several controversies persist regarding PAPD, including its structure, content validity, overlap with other PDs, and relations to validating variables such as personality traits, childhood experiences, and clinically relevant correlates. This study examined these facets of PAPDs construct validity in a large clinical sample. Results suggest that the construct is unidimensional, internally consistent, and reasonably stable. Furthermore, PAPD appears systematically related to borderline and narcissistic personality disorders, sets of personality traits, and childhood experiences consistent with several theoretical formulations, dysfunction, substance abuse disorders, and history of hospitalizations. Overall, results support the construct validity of PAPD. PMID:19821648
Hopwood, Christopher J.; Morey, Leslie C.; Markowitz, John C.; Pinto, Anthony; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Shea, M. Tracie; Yen, Shirley; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Ansell, Emily B.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.
In this essay I consider the future of personality development in light of the past effects of Personality and Assessment on the field of personality in general and personality development in particular. The essay is organized around 1) the effect of Mischel's book on the foundational theories informing personality development; 2) definitions of personality traits; 3) an alternative model of personality traits, described as the sociogenomic model of personality traits, that can bridge the divide that still characterizes the field of personality development; 4) the application of the sociogenomic model of personality traits to issues of personality trait development, and 5) a Newtonian vision for the future of personality psychology. PMID:20161194
Roberts, Brent W.
Describes a method that permits answering research questions of general importance by examining individuals in a comprehensive, whole-person manner. Discusses their use in two studies of persons with spinal cord injuries. (LLL)
Heinemann, Allen W.; Shontz, Franklin C.
Personalized Proactive Information Retrieval Yi Zhang Assistant Professor Information Retrieval Proactive Information Retrieval has Many Potential Markets n You need to know new products related to yours Personalized Proactive Information Retrieval Statistics, optimization Artificial Intelligence Natural language
This article examines some of the intricacies of personality types and their effect on career choices. Proposes that knowing students' Myers-Briggs personality types can help school counselors guide them down the right career path. (GCP)
Tieger, Paul D.
Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in vascular disease. While there are many possible sources of ROS, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases play a central role. They are a source of kindling radicals, which affect other enzymes, such as nitric oxide synthase endothelial nitric oxide synthase or xanthine oxidase. This is important, as risk factors for atherosclerosis (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking) regulate the expression and activity of NADPH oxidases in the vessel wall. Recent Advances: There are seven isoforms in mammals: Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4, Nox5, Duox1 and Duox2. Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and Nox5 are expressed in endothelium, vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, or perivascular adipocytes. Other homologues have not been found or are expressed at very low levels; their roles have not been established. Nox1/Nox2 promote the development of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and inflammation. Nox4 may have a role in protecting the vasculature during stress; however, when its activity is increased, it may be detrimental. Calcium-dependent Nox5 has been implicated in oxidative damage in human atherosclerosis. Critical Issues: NADPH oxidase-derived ROS play a role in vascular pathology as well as in the maintenance of normal physiological vascular function. We also discuss recently elucidated mechanisms such as the role of NADPH oxidases in vascular protection, vascular inflammation, pulmonary hypertension, tumor angiogenesis, and central nervous system regulation of vascular function and hypertension. Future Directions: Understanding the role of individual oxidases and interactions between homologues in vascular disease is critical for efficient pharmacological regulation of vascular NADPH oxidases in both the laboratory and clinical practice. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 27942814. PMID:24180474
Konior, Anna; Schramm, Agata; Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, Marta
D-1 Social Pathologies of Adaptive Agents David Jensen and Victor Lesser Department of Computer class of pathologies of multiagent systems -- social pathologies of adaptive agents. Such pathologies describe, briefly characterize, and give examples of social pathologies of multiagent systems. Social
Massachusetts at Amherst, University of
Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment. Results In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time. Conclusions We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management. PMID:24146789
Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie
The current description of personalized medicine by the National Institutes of Health is the science of individualized prevention and therapy. Although physicians are just beginning to see the promise of genetic medicine coming to fruition, the rapid pace of sequencing technology, informatics, and computer science predict a true revolution in the ability to care for patients in the near future. The enthusiasm expressed by researchers is well founded, but the expectations voiced by the public do not center on advancing technology. Rather, patients are asking for personalized care: a holistic approach that considers an individuals physical, mental, and spiritual well-being. This perspective considers psychological, religious, and ethical challenges that may arise as the precision of preventive medicine improves. Psychological studies already highlight the barriers to single gene testing and suggest significant barriers to the predictive testing envisioned by personalized medicine. Certain religious groups will likely mount opposition if they believe personalized medicine encourages embryo selection. If the technology prompts cost-containment discussions, those concerned about the sanctity of life may raise ethical objections. Consequently, the availability of new scientific developments does not guarantee advances in treatment because patients may prove unwilling to receive and act upon personalized genetic information. This perspective highlights current efforts to incorporate personalized medicine and personalized care into the medical curriculum, genetic counseling, and other aspects of clinical practice. As these efforts are generally independent, the authors offer recommendations for physicians and educators so that personalized medicine can be implemented in a manner that meets patient expectations for personalized care. PMID:23348082
Cornetta, Kenneth; Brown, Candy Gunther
Many college students are involved in gambling behavior as a recreational activity. Their involvement could potentially develop into problem gambling, an issue of increasing concern to student health. At the same time, evidence suggests that Asian Americans are overrepresented amongst problem gamblers in this age period. Research on factors related to initiation and development of problem gambling in college students is necessary to inform the development of effective and culturally-sensitive prevention efforts against gambling. The relationships between personal gambling expectancies at two levels of specificity (two general and six specific types of expectancies) and college student gambling at two levels of behavior (initiation and problems) were examined in a sample of 813 Asian American and White American college students. The study aimed to address (a) whether expectancies explained ethnic differences in gambling, (b) ethnic similarities and differences in the pattern of relationships between expectancies and gambling, and (c) whether expectancies that emerged in both ethnic groups have a greater risk or protective effect for one group than another. Results showed that Asian American students reported more problem gambling than White American students, but expectancies did not account for this group difference. Risk and protective factors for initiation were relatively similar between groups, but different patterns of risk emerged for each group for problem gambling. Implications for college primary prevention and harm reduction programs are discussed. PMID:23832755
Chan, Alan Ka Ki; Zane, Nolan; Wong, Gloria M; Song, Anna V
Accountable care is designed to manage the health of patients using a capitated cost model rather than fee for service. Pay for performance is an attempt to use quality and not service reduction as the way to decrease costs. Pathologists will have to demonstrate value to the system. This value will include (1) working with clinical colleagues to optimize testing protocols, (2) reducing unnecessary testing in both clinical and anatomic pathology, (3) guiding treatment by helping to personalize therapy, (4) designing laboratory information technology solutions that will promote and facilitate accurate, complete data mining, and (5) administering efficient cost-effective laboratories. The pathology service line was established to improve the efficiency of delivering pathology services and to provide more effective support of medical center programs. We have used this model effectively at the Montefiore Medical Center for the past 14 years. PMID:22333926
Sussman, Ira; Prystowsky, Michael B
Objective To compare the 10-year retest stability of normal traits, pathological traits, and personality disorder dimensions in a clinical sample. Method Ten-year rank order stability estimates for the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality, and Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders were evaluated before and after correcting for test-retest dependability and internal consistency in a clinical sample (N = 266). Results Dependability corrected stability estimates were generally in the range of .60.90 for traits and .25.65 for personality disorders. Conclusions The relatively lower stability of personality disorder symptoms may indicate important differences between pathological behaviors and relatively more stable self-attributed traits and imply that a full understanding of personality and personality pathology needs to take both traits and symptoms into account. The Five-Factor Theory distinction between basic tendencies and characteristic adaptations provides a theoretical framework for the separation of traits and disorders in terms of stability in which traits reflect basic tendencies that are stable and pervasive across situations, whereas personality disorder symptoms reflect characteristic maladaptations that are a function of both basic tendencies and environmental dynamics. PMID:22812532
Hopwood, Christopher J.; Morey, Leslie C.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Samuel, Douglas B.; Grilo, Carlos M.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Shea, M. Tracie; Zanarini, Mary C.; Gunderson, John G.; Skodol, Andrew E.
Conventional research strategies typically emphasize behavior-determining tendencies so strongly that the person as a whole is ignored. Research strategies for studying whole persons focus on symbolic structures, formulate specific questions in advance, study persons one at a time, use individualized measures, and regard participants as expert
Heinemann, Allen W.; Shontz, Franklin C.
Pathologic fractures in children occur in a variety of malignant and benign pathologic processes. Pediatric pathologic femoral neck fractures are particularly rare. Until now, all reported cases have been isolated cases, small series, or cases reported in series of adult pathologic hip fractures. The present article is the first report of a relatively large series of pathologic femoral neck fractures in a pediatric population. We identified pathologic femoral neck fractures, including 2 basicervical fractures, in 15 children (9 boys, 6 girls) ranging in age from 18 months to 15 years (mean age, 9 years) and treated between 1960 and 2000. The pathologic diagnoses were fibrous dysplasia (5 children), unicameral bone cyst (2), Ewing's sarcoma (2), osteomyelitis (2), leukemia (1), rhabdomyosarcoma (1), osteogenesis imperfecta (1), and osteopetrosis (1). Treatment methods, including time to reduction and fixation, were reviewed in detail. One patient was lost to follow-up. All others were followed until union; mean long-term follow-up was 7 years (range, 1-16 years). All patients ultimately went on to union. Mean time to union was 19 weeks (range, 5-46 weeks). However, 2 patients died before 2 years. There was a 40% complication rate, with limb-length discrepancy being the most common (4 children). No patient developed avascular necrosis. Pathologic femoral neck fractures are rare in children. Pediatric patients who present with a pathologic hip fracture are at significant risk for complications. Physicians and family should be alerted to the prolonged course involved in treating these fractures to union. PMID:19340370
Shrader, M Wade; Schwab, Joseph H; Shaughnessy, William J; Jacofsky, David J
This is a head & neck pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old male has an increasing neck mass with a choking feeling. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in head and neck pathology.
This is a skeletal muscle pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 48 year old women has chronic myalgias. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in skeletal muscle pathology medicine.
Giuliani, Michael J.; Lacomis, David
This is a genitourinary pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 84-year-old man has a bladder outlet obstruction. Visitors are given microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.
This is a transfusion pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 3-week-old female has hemangioma and severe thrombocytopenia. Visitors are given laboratory values and images, and are granted the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transfusion pathology medicine.
Bontempo, Franklin; Dorvault, Christine
Perturbations in methyl group metabolism and homocysteine balance have emerged over the past few decades as having defining roles in a number of pathological conditions. Numerous nutritional, hormonal, and genetic factors that are characterized by elevations in circulating homocysteine concentrations are also associated with specific pathological conditions, including cancer development, autoimmune diseases, vascular dysfunction, and neurodegenerative disease. Although much remains to be explored, our understanding of the relationship between disease, methyl balance, and epigenetic control of gene expression has steadily progressed. However, homocysteine balance and its role in health and disease are not as clearly understood. This review presents our current understanding of homocysteine metabolism and its link to specific pathologies. PMID:23153729
Schalinske, Kevin L.; Smazal, Anne L.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which presents "a 67 year old white male who underwent orthotopic cardiac transplantation in 1986 for cardiomyopathy." Visitors are given patient history, admission data, and pathological findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.
Nail abnormalities can arise in conjunction with or as a result of systematic pathologies. These pathologies include single-organ diseases, multisystemic diseases, and drug-induced insults. Clinical signs associated with these conditions include dyschromias, vascular alterations, periungual tissue changes, textural dystrophies, contour alterations, and growth-rate alterations. The associated systemic pathologies may affect any part of the nail apparatus, including the nail matrix, the nail plate, the nail bed, the underlying vasculature, and the periungual tissues. The anatomical location and extent of damage determine the clinically manifested anomaly. PMID:24079592
Zaiac, Martin N; Walker, Ashley
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes major disruption to peripheral organ innervation and regulation. Relatively little work has investigated these post-SCI systemic changes, however, despite considerable evidence that multiple organ system dysfunction contributes to chronic impairments in health. Because metabolic dysfunction is common after SCI and the liver is a pivotal site for metabolic homeostasis, we sought to determine if liver pathology occurs as a result of SCI in a rat spinal contusion model. Histologic evidence showed excess lipid accumulation in the liver for at least 21 days post-injury after cervical or midthoracic SCI. Lipidomic analysis revealed an acute increase in hepatic ceramides as well as chronically elevated lactosylceramide. Post-SCI hepatic changes also included increased proinflammatory gene expression, including interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1?, chemokine ligand-2, and tumor necrosis factor-? mRNA. These were coincident with increased CD68+ macrophages in the liver through 21 days post-injury. Serum alanine transaminase, used clinically to detect liver damage, was significantly increased at 21 days post-injury, suggesting that early metabolic and inflammatory damage preceded overt liver pathology. Surprisingly, liver inflammation was even detected after lumbar SCI. Collectively, these results suggest that SCI produces chronic liver injury with symptoms strikingly similar to those of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (fatty liver disease). These clinically significant hepatic changes after SCI are known to contribute to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome, all of which are more prevalent in persons with SCI. Targeting acute and prolonged hepatic pathology may improve recovery and reduce long-term complications after SCI. PMID:25036371
Sauerbeck, Andrew D; Laws, J Lukas; Bandaru, Veera V R; Popovich, Phillip G; Haughey, Norman J; McTigue, Dana M
We describe Pathology Extraction Pipeline (PEP)--a new Open Health Natural Language Processing pipeline that we have developed for information extraction from pathology reports, with the goal of populating the extracted data into a research data warehouse. Specifically, we have built upon Medical Knowledge Analysis Tool pipeline (MedKATp), which is an extraction framework focused on pathology reports. Our particular contributions include additional customization and development on MedKATp to extract data elements and relationships from cancer pathology reports in richer detail than at present, an abstraction layer that provides significantly easier configuration of MedKATp for extraction tasks, and a machine-learning-based approach that makes the extraction more resilient to deviations from the common reporting format in a pathology reports corpus. We present experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of our pipeline for information extraction in a real-world task, demonstrating performance improvement due to our approach for increasing extractor resilience to format deviation, and finally demonstrating the scalability of the pipeline across pathology reports for different cancer types. PMID:25155030
Ashish, Naveen; Dahm, Lisa; Boicey, Charles
(1) The immediate causes of death of eighteen patients with neurosyphilitic psychosis are analysed. There were five females and thirteen males. Their average age was 56 years, and the mean length of stay in a mental hospital was approximately 2½ years. (2) Of the original ninety-one patients, twenty-eight had malaria therapy. There was one death due to malaria therapy, giving a mortality rate of 3·6%. It is concluded that the risk associated with malaria is too great and fever induced by bacterial pyrogens is safer and just as effective. (3) The duration of mental symptoms before treatment was started is analysed. In one group there was a delay of between 1 and 4 years before treatment was given. In six patients the disease ran a rapidly fatal course in spite of adequate antibiotics. Combined treatment may be beneficial in such cases as fever facilitates the penetration of penicillin into the cerebrospinal fluid. (4) Of the four cases that came to necropsy, only one had a full pathological and histological examination of the brain and meninges. Although these four patients had profound dementia and considerable deterioration of the personality only minimal neuropathological and histological changes were found. It would seem that the widespread use of antibiotics has modified the pathological and histological picture in neurosyphilis, corresponding to alterations recently reported in the clinical features of the disease. (5) Such adverse presenting symptoms as epilepsy, and profound dementia associated with pupillary and reflex abnormalities, are discussed. PMID:5738047
Context .- Immunohistochemistry is a valuable tool in routine breast pathology, used for both diagnostic and prognostic parameters. The diagnostic immunomarkers are the scope of this review. Most breast lesions can be diagnosed on routine hematoxylin-eosin sections; however, in several scenarios, such as morphologically equivocal cases or metastatic tumors of unknown primary, the appropriate application of immunohistochemistry adds true value in reaching an accurate diagnosis. Objective .- To evaluate the diagnostic utility of the most commonly studied immunomarkers in the field of breast pathology by review of the literature, using the database of indexed articles in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland) from 1976 to 2013. Data Sources .- Literature review, and author's research data and personal practice experience. Conclusions .- The appropriate use of immunohistochemistry by applying a panel of immunomarkers and using a standardized technical and interpretational method will complement the morphologic assessment and aid in the accurate classification of difficult breast lesions and the identification of metastasis from a breast primary. PMID:25427042
Sensation seeking and impulsivity are two constructs of personality that are generally believed to be associated with risky behavior, including gambling. Despite the fact that pathological gambling is classified as an Impulsive Control Disorder in the DSM-IV, relatively little empirical research has investigated the relationship between gambling and impulsivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between
Mark W. J. Langewisch; G. Ron Frisch
...2011-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...
Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Methyl-Tertiary-Butyl Ether C00117F/00117-69 AMENDED PATHOLOGY QUALITY ASSESSMENT REVIEW AND PWG Toxicology Program Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 Submitted by: Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc
Baker, Chris I.
...2012-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...
...2014-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...
Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Ethyl-Tertiary-Butyl Ether C00117/00117-64 AMENDED PATHOLOGY QUALITY ASSESSMENT REVIEW AND PWG COORDINATOR'S REPORT Park, NC 27709 Submitted by: Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Street Address: Mailing Address
Baker, Chris I.
...2013-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...
In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657
Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.
The present study examined the application of the Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) diagnosis to adolescents and investigated the possibility of subtypes of APD adolescents. As part of a broader study of adolescent personality in clinically-referred patients, experienced clinicians provided personality data on a randomly selected patient in their care using the SWAP-II-A personality pathology instrument. Three hundred thirteen adolescents met adult DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for APD. To characterize adolescents with the disorder, we aggregated the data to identify the items most descriptive and distinctive of APD adolescents relative to other teenagers in the sample (N = 950). Q-factor analysis identified five personality subtypes: psychopathic-like, socially withdrawn, impulsive-histrionic, emotionally dysregulated, and attentionally dysregulated. The five subtypes differed in predictable ways on a set of external criteria related to global adaptive functioning, childhood family environment, and family history of psychiatric illness. Both the APD diagnosis and the empirically derived APD subtypes provided incremental validity over and above the DSM-IV disruptive behavior disorders in predicting global adaptive functioning, number of arrests, early-onset severe externalizing pathology, and quality of peer relationships. Although preliminary, these results provide support for the use of both APD and personality-based subtyping systems in adolescents. PMID:20420477
Jones, Meredith; Westen, Drew
Pathological gambling implies an inadequate, persistent and chronic practice of gambling which has major impact on affected individuals, their families and the society (APA, 2003). Many risk factors of social, psychological and biological nature contribute to the development of pathological gambling. New populations have been found to be at risk to develop pathological gambling : patients who suffer of Parkinson Disease's. Development of pathological gambling in those patients would mainly be related to the medication used to treat Parkinson Disease's, dopaminergic agonist. Numerous neurological studies have been conducted on the subject since recent years, but few psychologists know this problem and almost no studies have been made to understand the psychological aspect of this problem. PMID:23254833
Nadeau, Dominic; Giroux, Isabelle; Dufour, Julie; Simard, Martine
Restoration of ecologically degraded sites will benefit from the convergence of knowledge drawn from such disparate and often compartmentalized (and heretofore not widely considered) areas of research as soil microbial ecology, plant pathology and agronomy. Restoration following biological control w...
This chapter examines problem and pathological gambling among college students and reports on prevalence rate, risk and protective factors, prevention and intervention, and recommendations for college student personnel and other university administrators.
Stinchfield, Randy; Hanson, William E.; Olson, Douglas H.
The advent of targeted therapies and personalized medicine in oncology has led in France to the settlement and organisation of a network of hospital molecular genetic platforms under the impetus of the National Cancer Institute (INCa). These platforms are, according to the concerned sites, integrated or not in pathology laboratories. The development of molecular biology methods, the choice of the procedures, the establishment of sample workflow, the quality control and the selection of the genomic alterations to be detected on each platform, have been left to the discretion of the different laboratories. Based on calls for project made by the INCa, hospital molecular genetic platforms were able to adapt their activity according to the assigned budgets. While the presence of some genomic alterations (i.e. KRAS gene mutations in metastatic colon adenocarcinoma or EGFR gene mutations in lung adenocarcinomas), may lead to administration of targeted therapies under the Marketing Authorization Application (MAA), others are associated with therapeutic clinical trials. However, increasing number of MAA for new molecules targeting genomic alterations is likely in the near future. In this context, it is necessary to quickly adapt the organisation of work of the hospital pathology laboratories performing molecular biology tests in order to meet the growing demand of oncologists in the field of targeted therapies. The purpose of this article is to describe the different steps of the settlement of a molecular genetic platform in an academic pathology laboratory (LPCE, CHU de Nice) and to show the experience of this laboratory specifically oriented on the support of the morphological and molecular diagnosis of lung cancer, thyroid cancer and malignant melanoma. PMID:23472893
Long, Elodie; Hofman, Véronique; Ilie, Marius; Lespinet, Virgine; Bonnetaud, Christelle; Bordone, Olivier; Gavric-Tanga, Virginie; Washetine, Kevin; Gaziello, Marie-Clotilde; Mauro, Virginie; Lassalle, Sandra; Selva, Eric; Zahaf, Katia; Santini, José; Castillo, Laurent; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Vénissac, Nicolas; Mouroux, Jérôme; Otto, Josiane; Poudenx, Michel; Marquette, Charles-Hugo; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Hofman, Paul
We present the radiologic and pathologic findings in a boy who presented with diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement and whose clinical status deteriorated over the course of 5 years. During this period, MR images showed progression of the enhancement in the subarachnoid spaces, formation of intraaxial cysts, and hydrocephalus. Autopsy findings revealed diffuse oligodendroglioma throughout the leptomeninges of the brain and spine, with no definite intraaxial focus. The radiologic and pathologic features of diffuse leptomeningeal oligodendrogliomatosis are reviewed. PMID:10871026
Armao, D M; Stone, J; Castillo, M; Mitchell, K M; Bouldin, T W; Suzuki, K
The Molecular Pathology Group (MPG) is a recent addition to the laboratory Animal Science Program (LASP), at the Frederick, Maryland campus of the National Cancer Institute. This Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. group is actively working to expand high-quality, pathology-based research application support available to NCI investigators and their collaborators. Its primary role is to extend the capabilities of the existing Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.
Starting with the paradigm change of health systems towards personalized health services, the paper introduces the technical paradigms to be met for enabling ubiquitous pHealth including ePathology. The system-theoretical, architecture-centric approach to mobile, pervasive and autonomous solutions has to be based on an open component system framework such as the Generic Component Model. The crucial challenge to be met for comprehensive interoperability is multi-disciplinary knowledge representation, which must be integrated into the aforementioned framework. The approach is demonstrated for security and privacy services fundamental for any eHealth or ePathology environment. PMID:21489199
??This research investigates the role of laboratory information systems on business outcomes in medical pathology in Australia. Pathology information systems are inherently large-scale systems handling (more)
The hypothesis of each individual being special and different leading to heterogenity of diseases sets the ground for the concept of personalized medicine. Personalized psychiatry follows the principles of personalized medicine. A constituent part of an individually adapted approach towards the psychiatric patient presents itself thorough personalized psychiatry. The development of pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics as well as the nanotechnology based on them ensures implementation of personalized medicine principles in psychiatry to a greater extent than other medical disciplines. In the field of pharmacogenomics, the greatest advance was achieved by the study of genetic variability in drug metabolism. All the predispositions are now present for the implementation of pharmacogenetic tests in routine practice. Pharmacogenetic testing for medications which are metabolised thorough two polymorph cytochromes P 450: CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 is of special significance due to their involvement in most adverse and ultrafast metabolism of psychopharmacs. The potential application of personalized medicine in psychiatry, supported by pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics, are: personalized medication choice, personalized dosage, anticipation of possible side-effects individually and personalized follow-up treatment with rehabilitation. The authors conclude how the development of pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics as well as the nanotechnology based on them, presents a step forward in creating a personalized therapeutic approach in psychiatry. However, the burden of applying the most appropriate therapeutic agent and medication tapering remains based on clinician decision. Pharmacogenetics can only help by making therapeutic decisions with one less unknown element. PMID:19794353
Filakovi?, Pavo; Petek, Anamarija
Context .- Evidence-based medicine has been proposed as a new paradigm for the identification and evaluation of medical information. Best available evidence or data are identified and used as the basis for the diagnosis and treatment of individual patients. Evidence-based pathology has adapted basic evidence-based medicine concepts to the specific needs of pathology and laboratory medicine. Objectives .- To briefly review the history and basic concepts of evidence-based medicine and evidence-based pathology, describe how to perform and interpret systematic reviews, and discuss how to integrate best evidence into guidelines. Data Sources .- PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Washington, DC) and Web of Science (Thompson Reuters, New York, New York) were used. Conclusions .- Evidence-based pathology provides methodology to evaluate the quality of information published in pathology journals and apply it to the diagnosis of tissue samples and other tests from individual patients. Information is gathered through the use of systematic reviews, using a method that is less biased and more comprehensive than ad hoc literature searches. Published data are classified into evidence levels to provide readers with a quick impression about the quality and probable clinical validity of available information. Best available evidence is combined with personal experience for the formulation of evidence-based, rather than opinion-based, guidelines that address specific practice needs. PMID:25356986
Marchevsky, Alberto M; Wick, Mark R
Background Although it is now evident that normal cognition can occur despite significant AD pathology, few studies have attempted to characterize this discordance, or examine factors that may contribute to resilient brain aging in the setting of AD pathology. Methods More than 2,000 older persons underwent annual evaluation as part of participation in the Religious Orders Study or Rush Memory Aging Project. A total of 966 subjects who had brain autopsy and comprehensive cognitive testing proximate to death were analyzed. Resilience was quantified as a continuous measure using linear regression modeling, where global cognition was entered as a dependent variable and global pathology was an independent variable. Studentized residuals generated from the model represented the discordance between cognition and pathology, and served as measure of resilience. The relation of resilience index to known risk factors for AD and related variables was examined. Results Multivariate regression models that adjusted for demographic variables revealed significant associations for early life socioeconomic status, reading ability, APOE-?4 status, and past cognitive activity. A stepwise regression model retained reading level (estimate = 0.10, SE = 0.02; p < 0.0001) and past cognitive activity (estimate = 0.27, SE = 0.09; p = 0.002), suggesting the potential mediating role of these variables for resilience. Conclusions The construct of resilient brain aging can provide a framework for quantifying the discordance between cognition and pathology, and help identify factors that may mediate this relationship. PMID:23919768
Negash, Selam; Wilson, Robert S.; Leurgans, Sue E.; Wolk, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Bennett, David A.; Arnold, Steven. E.
Recent work has revealed a relationship between pathological video game use and increased impulsivity among children and adolescents. A few studies have also demonstrated increased risk-taking outside of the video game environment following game play, but this work has largely focused on one genre of video games (i.e., racing). Motivated by these findings, the aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between pathological and non-pathological video game use, impulsivity, and risky decision making. The current study also investigated the relationship between experience with two of the most popular genres of video games [i.e., first-person shooter (FPS) and strategy] and risky decision making. Consistent with previous work, ~7% of the current sample of college-aged adults met criteria for pathological video game use. The number of hours spent gaming per week was associated with increased impulsivity on a self-report measure and on the temporal discounting (TD) task. This relationship was sensitive to the genre of video game; specifically, experience with FPS games was positively correlated with impulsivity, while experience with strategy games was negatively correlated with impulsivity. Hours per week and pathological symptoms predicted greater risk-taking in the risk task and the Iowa Gambling task, accompanied by worse overall performance, indicating that even when risky choices did not pay off, individuals who spent more time gaming and endorsed more symptoms of pathological gaming continued to make these choices. Based on these data, we suggest that the presence of pathological symptoms and the genre of video game (e.g., FPS, strategy) may be important factors in determining how the amount of game experience relates to impulsivity and risky-decision making. PMID:24058356
Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Kuffel, Judson
Personality traits and most anxiety disorders are strongly related. In this article, we review existing evidence for ways\\u000a in which personality traits may relate to anxiety disorders: 1) as predisposing factors, 2) as consequences, 3) as results\\u000a of common etiologies, and 4) as pathoplastic factors. Based on current information, we conclude the following: 1) Personality\\u000a traits such as high neuroticism,
Mina Brandes; O. Joseph Bienvenu
I argue that the use of heritable modifications for psychology, personality, and behavior should be limited to the reversal or prevention of relatively unambiguous instances of pathology or likely harm (e.g. sociopathy). Most of the likely modifications of psychological personality would not be of this nature, however, and parents therefore should not have the freedom to make such modifications to future children. I argue by examining the viewpoints of both the individual and society. For individuals, modifications would interfere with their capacity for self-determination in a way that undermines the very concept of self-determination. I argue that modification of psychology and personality is unlike present parenting in morally significant ways. For society, modification offers a medium for power to manipulate the makeup of persons and populations, possibly causing biological harm to the species and altering our conceptions of social responsibility. PMID:23420940
Neitzke, Alex B
Pregnancy is followed by many physiologic, organic and psychological changes and disorders, which can become more serious in pregnancy followed by complications, especially in women with pathological conditions during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to find out and analyze the prevalence and intensity of psychological disorders in women with pathological conditions during pregnancy and compare it with conditions in pregnant women who had normal development of pregnancy. The research is approved by the Ethical committee of the Mostar University Hospital Center, and it was made in accordance with Helsinki declaration and good clinical practices. The research conducted section for pathology of pregnancy of Department for gynecology and obstetrics of the Mostar University Hospital Center. It included 82 pregnant women with disorders in pregnancy developement and control group consisted of pregnant women who had normal development of pregnancy. The research work was conducted from September 2007 to August 2008 in Mostar University Hospital Center. Pregnant women had Standard and laboratory tests, Ultrasound. CTG examinations were done for all pregnant women and additional tests for those women with complications during pregnancy. Pregnant women completed sociobiographical, obstetrical-clinical and psychological SCL 90-R questionnaire. Pregnant women with pathological pregnancy exibited significantly more psychological symptoms in comparison to pregnant women with normal pregnancy (p < 0.001 to p = 0.004). Frequency and intensity of psychical symptoms and disorders statisticly are more characteristic in pathological pregnancy (61%/40.6%). The statistical data indicate a significantly higher score of psychological disorders in those pregnant women with primary school education (p = 0.050), those who take more than 60% carbohydrates (p = 0.001), those with pathological CTG records (p < 0.001), those with pathological ultrasound results (p < 0.001 to 0.216) and those pregnant women with medium obesity and obesity (p = 0.046). Body mass index (BMI) during normal pregnancy development is lower (p = 0.002) but the levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL and LDL in blood are higher Blood pressure in pregnant women with pathological pregnancy was statistically significantly higher (p < 0.001). Diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome were found in 19 pregnant women with the pathological pregnancy. Statistically, in those women, a significantly higher appearance of psychological symptoms and disorders was observed in comparison to the pregnant women without metabolic syndrome (p < 0.001). The research has shown that 87.8% from all pregnant women included in this study have been hospitalized due to premature birth, hypertensive disorders, and diabetes in pregnancy, and also due to bleeding in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. PMID:23213943
Bjelanovi?, Vedran; Babi?, Dragan; Oreskovi?, Slavko; Tomi?, Vajdana; Martinac, Marko; Juras, Josip
Objective methods for evaluation of pathological voices have long been sought for both clinical use and basic research; classification of types and severity of voice defects has been largely accomplished by trained clinicians using subjective rating systems. Automatic modeling and parameterization of pathological vowel samples could provide a useful advance in this effort. Towards this goal, this work develops approaches to automatically analyze and parameterize voices with methods specialized to pathological vowels. The nonperiodic components of sustained vowels, which are prominent features of pathological voices, are modeled as three phenomena: frequency modulation (FM), amplitude modulation (AM), and aspiration noise. Improved modeling accuracy was obtained by AM and FM demodulation of the original voice prior to aspiration noise analysis. Pathological voices were re-synthesized incorporating the models and measured levels of nonperiodic components. The resulting waveforms sounded more natural than the synthetic voices that did not model AM/FM and/or aspiration noise. Major results of the work include a real-time vowel synthesizer allowing instantaneous adjustment of parameters, a flexible software vowel synthesizer, and application of an external stimulation technique to aid in the identification of the vocal tract transfer function in the case of voices with spectrally deficient glottal driving waveforms.
Gabelman, Brian Charles
Toxicologic Pathology, 32:501Â510, 2004 Copyright C by the Society of Toxicologic Pathology ISSN of Molecular Toxicology, NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA 3 Neurotoxicology Division industrial processes. Because of its high emis- sions (9,500 tons/year) and the lack of toxicological data
College of Agriculture, Food and Environment PPA Plant Pathology KEY: # = new course * = course STUDY IN PLANT PATHOLOGY. (1-4) Independent study in Plant Pathology under the supervision of a faculty member. Prereq: Consent of appropriate instructor. PPA 400G PRINCIPLES OF PLANT PATHOLOGY. (3) To present
204 Chapter Surgical Pathology Eugene J. Mark, David N. Louis, and Robert H. Young Surgical pathology as a discipline distinct from autopsy pathology stems from approxi- mately the 1870s, when pathology could ascend so quickly in the early years was based in part on the large and innovative MGH
Mootha, Vamsi K.
PATHOLOGY IN SINGLE-AGENT SEARCH Mitja Lustrek Department of Intelligent Systems Jozef Stefan been termed pathological. This paper identifies two properties of search trees that cause pathological behavior and explains how they produce the pathology. A number of different heuristic functions were also
The majority of prevention and intervention research in problem gambling (PG) has focused on identifying negative risk factors. However, not all at-risk individuals go on to develop anticipated disorders and many thrive in spite of them. In healthcare settings, PG and other disorders are typically conceptualized from the biomedical perspective that frame disorders as something negative residing within the individual and reduction in negativity is seen as success. Indeed, this problem-focused conceptualization may be adequate in many cases as reducing PG behaviour is undoubtedly an important outcome, but the focus on negativity alone is too narrow to capture the complexity of human behaviour. Hence, this study attempts to bridge the gap in literature by providing an evaluation of the predictive ability of the positive dispositions on problem gambling severity, gambling-related cognitions, and gambling urges. The positive psychological dispositions examined were curiosity, gratitude, hope, personal growth initiative, and mindfulness. Participants consisted of 801 Taiwanese Chinese students and community individuals (Mean age?=?25.36 years). Higher levels of gratitude and hope have been found to predict lower PG, gambling-related cognitions, or gambling urges. Meanwhile, higher mindfulness predicted lower PG, but only among Chinese males. However, lower personal growth initiative predicted lower PG, gambling-related cognitions, and gambling urges. These analyses have small to medium effect sizes with significant predictions. Findings of this study have essential implications in understanding and treating Chinese problem gamblers. These positive dispositions should be addressed by mental health professionals in preventative and treatment programs among Chinese individuals. Further implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:24523854
Loo, Jasmine M. Y.; Tsai, Jung-Shun; Raylu, Namrata; Oei, Tian P. S.
The majority of prevention and intervention research in problem gambling (PG) has focused on identifying negative risk factors. However, not all at-risk individuals go on to develop anticipated disorders and many thrive in spite of them. In healthcare settings, PG and other disorders are typically conceptualized from the biomedical perspective that frame disorders as something negative residing within the individual and reduction in negativity is seen as success. Indeed, this problem-focused conceptualization may be adequate in many cases as reducing PG behaviour is undoubtedly an important outcome, but the focus on negativity alone is too narrow to capture the complexity of human behaviour. Hence, this study attempts to bridge the gap in literature by providing an evaluation of the predictive ability of the positive dispositions on problem gambling severity, gambling-related cognitions, and gambling urges. The positive psychological dispositions examined were curiosity, gratitude, hope, personal growth initiative, and mindfulness. Participants consisted of 801 Taiwanese Chinese students and community individuals (Mean age = 25.36 years). Higher levels of gratitude and hope have been found to predict lower PG, gambling-related cognitions, or gambling urges. Meanwhile, higher mindfulness predicted lower PG, but only among Chinese males. However, lower personal growth initiative predicted lower PG, gambling-related cognitions, and gambling urges. These analyses have small to medium effect sizes with significant predictions. Findings of this study have essential implications in understanding and treating Chinese problem gamblers. These positive dispositions should be addressed by mental health professionals in preventative and treatment programs among Chinese individuals. Further implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:24523854
Loo, Jasmine M Y; Tsai, Jung-Shun; Raylu, Namrata; Oei, Tian P S
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a "37-year-old white female who was in excellent health until three years prior, when she developed flu-like symptoms." Visitors are given an extensive patient history along with pathologic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.
The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. In this case, a 20 year old male college student is admitted to the emergency room with "general malaise, low-grade fever, and purplish discoloration on his face. Using the information provided, which includes patient and social history, images and descriptions from his physical exam, the hospital course and microscopic images, students are encouraged to test their knowledge of pathology and diagnose the patient's medical condition. You can check your diagnosis against the official conclusions in the "Final Diagnosis" section. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.
Anhalt, John P.; Aronica, Patricia; Pasculle, A. W.; Richert, Charles A.
Students in the health sciences learn from case studies, patient histories, and a variety of other means. In recent years, a number of medical schools in the United States have contributed to medical education by placing slide collections, pathology reports, and other related materials online. The University of Pittsburgh's School of Medicine is part of this delightful trend, and they have placed a number of case studies culled from their Department of Pathology's files here on this site. Visitors can look over these files by patient history or diagnosis, and all told, there are well over 500 cases offered here. Visitors can read the pathology reports, view selections of related medical images and scans, and also read the final diagnosis report.
This endocrine pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. A 71-year-old female experiencing Ã¢ÂÂfainting spellsÃ¢ÂÂ is the focus of this case. The patientÃ¢ÂÂs history, gross description, and microscopic description of test results are provided to aid readers in understanding the patientÃ¢ÂÂs diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorÃ¢ÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientÃ¢ÂÂs conditions. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of endocrine pathology.
Finkelstein, Sidney; Peng, Yan
We present an evidence-based model of pathological worry in which worry arises from an interaction between involuntary (bottom-up) processes, such as habitual biases in attention and interpretation favouring threat content, and voluntary (top-down) processes, such as attentional control. At a pre-conscious level, these processes influence the competition between mental representations when some correspond to the intended focus of attention and others to threat distracters. Processing biases influence the probability of threat representations initially intruding into awareness as negative thoughts. Worry in predominantly verbal form then develops, influenced by conscious processes such as attempts to resolve the perceived threat and the redirection of attentional control resources to worry content, as well as the continuing influence of habitual processing biases. After describing this model, we present evidence for each component process and for their causal role in pathological worry, together with implications for new directions in the treatment of pathological worry. PMID:22863541
Hirsch, Colette R.; Mathews, Andrew
In the late nineteenth century, microscopists developed a quaint method for examining the fine structure of biological specimens: paraffin embedding and staining with hematoxylin and eosin. This ancient technology is here to stay for the foreseeable future, because it can and does reveal the truth about biological processes. However, the role of pathology is developing with ever greater worldwide interaction between pathologists, and better communication and agreeing of international standards. Furthermore, recent techniques including immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and image analysis complement the traditional tried and tested tools. There is also in toxicologic pathology a willingness to use pathology methods and skills in new contexts, drug discovery in particular. But even in these days of genetic modification, proteomics and high throughput screening, pathologists continue to rely on dyes extracted from a Central American logwood used in Mexico before the Spanish invasion in 1520.
Finch, John M. [Charles River Laboratories, Preclinical Services, Edinburgh, EH33 2NE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This paper focuses on the evolution and transformation of what is known as Laboratory Training or Personal growth Labs or PG Labs. The experience of the participants in the lab is for the self to explore the inner world of feelings and meanings around relationships and quest for purpose and meaning of existence. A lab needs to be anchored in
Parikh Indira J
Introduction Human cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) has been hypothesized to be an age-dependent disease accompanied by similar vascular changes in other organs. SHRSP feature numerous vascular risk factors and may be a valid model of some aspects of human CSVD. Here we compare renal histopathological changes with the brain pathology of spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP). Material and Methods We histologically investigated the brains and kidneys of 61 SHRSP at different stages of age (12 to 44 weeks). The brain pathology (aggregated erythrocytes in capillaries and arterioles, microbleeds, microthromboses) and the kidney pathology (aggregated erythrocytes within peritubular capillaries, tubular protein cylinders, glomerulosclerosis) were quantified separately. The prediction of the brain pathology by the kidney pathology was assessed by creating ROC-curves integrating the degree of kidney pathology and age of SHRSP. Results Both, brain and kidney pathology, show an age-dependency and proceed in definite stages whereas an aggregation of erythrocytes in capillaries and arterioles, we parsimoniously interpreted as stases, represent the initial finding in both organs. Thus, early renal tubulointerstitial damage characterized by rather few intravasal erythrocyte aggregations and tubular protein cylinders predicts the initial step of SHRSPs' cerebral vascular pathology marked by accumulated erythrocytes. The combined increase of intravasal erythrocyte aggregations and protein cylinders accompanied by glomerulosclerosis and thrombotic renal microangiopathy in kidneys of older SHRSP predicts the final stages of SHRSPs' cerebrovascular lesions marked by microbleeds and thrombotic infarcts. Conclusion Our results illustrate a close association between structural brain and kidney pathology and support the concept of small vessel disease to be an age-dependent systemic pathology. Further, an improved joined nephrologic and neurologic diagnostic may help to identify patients with CSVD at an early stage. PMID:22031827
Schreiber, Stefanie; Bueche, Celine Z.; Garz, Cornelia; Kropf, Siegfried; Kuester, Doerthe; Amann, Kerstin; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Goertler, Michael; Reymann, Klaus G.; Braun, Holger
The goal of this paper is to argue the need to approach the personalization issues in Web applications from the very beginning in the application's development cycle. Since personalization is a critical aspect in many popular domains such as e-commerce, it important enough that it should be dealt with through a design view, rather than only an implementation view (which
Gustavo Rossi; Daniel Schwabe; Robson Guimarães
A number of important studies have pointed to the significance of active participation in learning as a determinant of student performance on tests and of grades. As these studies showed, student engagement can result from development of personalized learning. Each of the Breakthrough High Schools (BTHS) has taken various paths to personalization
DiMartino, Joseph; Miles, Sherri
Personalization is without a doubt a promising area that might be able to answer some of the burning questions that Internet banking must deal with today and even more in the days to come. The possibilities of personalization are not yet fully utilized, nor is there sufficient hands-on experience or research-based knowledge about the most advanced ideas of how to
Mika Hiltunen; Leo Heng; Linda Helgesen
Web Mining for Web Personalization Magdalini Eirinaki Michalis Vazirgiannis Athens University of Economics and Business Department of Informatics #12;M.Eirinaki, M. Vazirgiannis Web Mining for Web Personalization 2PKDD 2005 Introduction Continuous growth in the size and the use of WWW Large and complicated web
We investigated the effects of familiarity on person perception. We predicted that familiarity would increase non-analytic processing, reducing attention to and the impact of individuating information, and increasing the impact of category labels on judgments about a target person. In two studies participants read either incriminating orexculpatory individuating information about a defendant in a criminal case and made judgments of
Teresa Garcia-Marques; Diane M. Mackie
An experiment with 766 homeowners compared 3 strategies for delivering radon test results to homeowners. Small improvements in consumer satisfaction were found for personalized messages (a telephone call or personal letter) over a form letter. No detectable improvement was found in recall of advice or compliance for any strategy. (SLD)
Weinstein, Neil D.; And Others
My interlocuter is Locke with his reduction of person to personal consciousness. This reduction is a main reason preventing people from acknowledging the personhood of the earliest human embryo, which lacks all personal consciousness. I show that Catholic Christians who live the sacramental life of the Church have reason to think that they are, as persons, vastly more than what they experience themselves to be, for they believe that the sacraments work effects in them as persons that can only be believed but that cannot be experienced within themselves in this life. I also show that Christians and non-Christians alike have an experience of moral good and evil in themselves that implies that they are, as moral persons, far more than they find in their conscious self-presence. It is, therefore, natural to think that if my being a person so far exceeds my consciousness, I may well have once existed as person even before the awakening of consciousness. PMID:12166490
Crosby, J F
The primary purpose of this chapter is to elucidate the role of therapy homework in the context of an empirically supported treatment for borderline personality disorder Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT; Linehan, 1993a). Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a disorder of emotion dysregulation, and patients who meet criteria for BPD often present with myriad life difficulties and comorbid disorders. According to
Noam Lindenboim; Alex L. Chapman; Marsha M. Linehan
, purchase orders, purchase requisitions and invoices. In the past, reviews and approvals for Personal: Services acquired for the state's direct benefit in its operations. 1.1.3. Purchased services to provide such services. 1.1.4. Services: The furnishing of labor, time, or effort. #12;Personal Services