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1

Exploring Facets of Personality and Escapism in Pathological Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored facets of personality between pathological gamblers (n = 69) and nonpathological gamblers (n = 55) in a convenience sample in Los Angeles, California. Pathological gamblers were more prone to mood disturbance, impulsivity, feelings of frustration, interpersonal sensitivity, vulnerability to distress, and distrust of others as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised. Pathological gamblers also reported diminished competence

Rory C. Reid; Desiree S. Li; Jean Lopez; Michael Collard; Iman Parhami; Reef Karim; Timothy Fong

2011-01-01

2

Investigating facets of personality in adult pathological gamblers with ADHD  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The present study explored facets of personality in a sample of pathological gamblers with ADHD (n = 52) and without ADHD (n = 43). Participants were assessed for psychopathology and gambling disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Facets of personality were assessed using the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised. Group differences emerged across several facets of personality when analyzed using multivariate statistics. Although both groups experienced difficulties in several areas compared with norming data (e.g., greater depression, higher impulsivity, lower self-esteem and lower self-discipline), these facets of personality were more pronounced in pathological gamblers with ADHD. Most notable among these differences are tendencies for gamblers with ADHD to experience greater levels of emotional instability, interpersonal sensitivity and stress proneness. Pathological gamblers with ADHD also appear to experience lower self-esteem, greater difficulty being assertive and lower levels of self-discipline. Surprisingly, both groups were comparable on facets of impulsivity. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers diagnosed with adult ADHD may experience additional challenges compared with pathological gamblers without ADHD. PMID:22815658

Davtian, Margarit; Reid, Rory C; Fong, Timothy W

2012-01-01

3

Are online pathological gamblers different from non-online pathological gamblers on demographics, gambling problem severity, psychopathology and personality characteristics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare online pathological gamblers (OPG) to non-online pathological gamblers (non-OPG) in terms of gambling behaviour, socio-demographic features, psychopathology and personality characteristics. A large sample of 1015 pathological gambling (PG) patients consecutively admitted to our Pathological Gambling Unit participated in the study. There were very few differences between OPGs and non-OPGs, limited to OPGs

Susana Jiménez-Murcia; Randy Stinchfield; Fernando Fernández-Aranda; Juan José Santamaría; Eva Penelo; Roser Granero; Mónica Gómez-Peña; Neus Aymamí; Laura Moragas; Antonio Soto; José M. Menchón

2011-01-01

4

Psychopathology in pathological gamblers seeking treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

High rates of psychiatric symptoms have been reported in pathological gamblers. This study of psychiatric comorbidity in pathological gamblers is the first to use structured psychiatric interviews assessing DSM-III-R Axis I and II disorders. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R (SCID-P, SCID-II) was administered to 40 (25 male, 15 male) pathological gamblers seeking outpatient treatment in Minnesota for gambling,

Sheila M. Specker; Gregory A. Carlson; Karen M. Edmonson; Paula E. Johnson; Michael Marcotte

1996-01-01

5

Delay discounting by pathological gamblers.  

PubMed Central

Discounting of delayed rewards by pathological gamblers was compared to discounting of delayed rewards by matched control nongambling participants. All participants completed a hypothetical choice task in which they made repeated choices between dollars 1,000 available after a delay and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The delay to the large amount of money was varied from 1 week to 10 years across conditions. Indifference points between immediate money and delayed money were identified at each delay condition by varying the amount of immediate money across choice trials. For the majority of participants, indifference points decreased monotonically across delays. Overall, gamblers discounted the delayed rewards more steeply than did control participants. PMID:14768665

Dixon, Mark R; Marley, Janice; Jacobs, Eric A

2003-01-01

6

Types of Psychotherapy for Pathological Gamblers  

PubMed Central

Several types of psychotherapy are currently used to treat pathological gamblers. These include Gambler's Anonymous, cognitive behavioral therapy, behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, and family therapy. Research into which types of psychotherapy are the most effective for pathological gambling is limited but is a growing area of study. Group therapy, namely Gambler's Anonymous, provides peer support and structure. Cognitive behavior therapy aims to identify and correct cognitive distortions about gambling. Psychodynamic psychotherapy can help recovering gamblers address core conflicts and hidden psychological meanings of gambling. Family therapy is helpful by providing support and education and eliminating enabling behaviors. To date, no single type of psychotherapy has emerged as the most effective form of treatment. As in other addictive disorders, treatment retention of pathological gamblers is highly variable. Understanding the types of psychotherapy that are available for pathological gamblers, as well their underlying principles, will assist clinicians in managing this complex behavioral disorder. PMID:21152147

2005-01-01

7

Internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in problem and pathological gamblers: Factor structure and gambling subtypes.  

E-print Network

??Problem and pathological gamblers (PPGs) present with various forms of psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits. It is unknown how psychopathology and personality traits are related… (more)

Milosevic, Aleksandar

2011-01-01

8

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pathological Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have evaluated efficacy of psychotherapies for pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (N = 231) were randomly assigned to (a) referral to Gamblers Anonymous (GA), (b) GA referral plus a cognitive-behavioral (CB) workbook, or (c) GA referral plus 8 sessions of individual CB therapy. Gambling and related problems were assessed…

Petry, Nancy M.; Ammerman, Yola; Bohl, Jaime; Doersch, Anne; Gay, Heather; Kadden, Ronald; Molina, Cheryl; Steinberg, Karen

2006-01-01

9

Gamblers Anonymous and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies for Pathological Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous types of treatments for pathological gambling have been described, but two of the most common are Gamblers Anonymous (GA) and cognitive-behavioral therapy. This paper describes some outcome data associated with the two approaches. It also reviews evidence suggesting that a combined intervention may enhance therapy engagement and reduce relapse rates.

Nancy M. Petry

2005-01-01

10

Narrowing of Attention and Dissociation in Pathological Video Lottery Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomena of attention and dissociation were investigated in pathological and occasional video lottery (VLT) gamblers. Twelve problem VLT gamblers [mean age 41.3; 6 male, 6 female; South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS; Lesieur & Blume, 1987) scores = 5] were compared to a group of 11 occasional VLT gamblers, (mean age 31.9; 4 male, 7 female; SOGS scores < 5).

Katherine M. Diskin; David C. Hodgins

1999-01-01

11

Pathological Gamblers Discount Probabilistic Rewards Less Steeply than Matched Controls  

PubMed Central

Nineteen treatment-seeking men meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling and 19 demographic-matched controls participated. Participants provided demographic information, information about their recent drug-use and gambling activities, and biological samples (to confirm drug abstinence). They also completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and two questionnaires designed to separately quantify probability and delay discounting. Pathological gamblers discounted probabilistic rewards significantly less steeply than matched controls. A significant correlation revealed that more shallow probability discounting was associated with higher SOGS scores. Across groups, there was no significant difference in delay discounting, although this difference approached significance when education and ethnicity were included as covariates. These findings, collected for the first time with pathological gamblers, are consistent with previous reports that problem-gambling college students discount probabilistic rewards less steeply than controls. The nature of the relation between probability discounting and severity of problem gambling is deserving of further study. PMID:19803627

Madden, Gregory J.; Petry, Nancy M.; Johnson, Patrick S.

2010-01-01

12

Comorbid psychiatric disorders among older adult recovering pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

The proliferation of state lotteries and casinos has led to an increased participation in gambling and its associated problems. Older retired adults have more opportunities to gamble and available funds than other demographic groups. For these reasons, older adults may constitute a special risk group for pathological gambling. Because substance misuse, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders are common in problem and pathological gamblers, we sought to examine rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders in 40 older adults with lifetime pathological gambling using structured assessments of known reliability. The results indicate a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in this population including depression, alcohol dependence, panic, and generalized anxiety disorders, as well as obsessive compulsive and avoidant personality disorders. Implications of these findings for psychiatric nurses are discussed. PMID:18770105

Kerber, Cindy Sullivan; Black, Donald W; Buckwalter, Kathleen

2008-09-01

13

Pathological gamblers discount probabilistic rewards less steeply than matched controls.  

PubMed

Nineteen treatment-seeking men meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (4th ed.) criteria for pathological gambling and 19 demographically matched controls participated. Participants provided demographic information, information about their recent drug use and gambling activities, and biological samples (to confirm drug abstinence). They also completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and 2 questionnaires designed to separately quantify probability and delay discounting. Pathological gamblers discounted probabilistic rewards significantly less steeply than matched controls. A significant correlation revealed that more shallow probability discounting was associated with higher SOGS scores. Across groups, there was no significant difference in delay discounting, although this difference approached significance when education and ethnicity were included as covariates. These findings, collected for the 1st time with pathological gamblers, are consistent with previous reports that problem-gambling college students discount probabilistic rewards less steeply than controls. The nature of the relation between probability discounting and severity of problem gambling is deserving of further study. PMID:19803627

Madden, Gregory J; Petry, Nancy M; Johnson, Patrick S

2009-10-01

14

Neurological correlates of slot machine win size in pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

The present study examined the neurological correlates of slot machine gambling by pathological and nonpathological gamblers while undergoing an fMRI scanning procedure. Twenty-two total participants were exposed to a series of losses, small wins, and large wins on a computerized simulated slot machine. Results indicate that the two types of gamblers responded differently to the various game options, and that an apparent "dose effect" exists when small and big wins are compared for pathological gamblers. Specifically more neural activation occurred in the dopaminergic pathway under conditions of large wins. These data suggest that a non-drug substance such as gambling may mimic typical drug-dose effects shown in previous literature. Implications for the treatment of pathological gamblers are discussed. PMID:24607394

Dixon, Mark R; Wilson, Alyssa; Habib, Reza

2014-05-01

15

Time devours things: how impulsivity and time affect temporal decisions in pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

Impulsivity is associated with several psychiatric disorders in which the loss of control of a specific behavior determines the syndrome itself. One particularly interesting population characterized by reported high impulsivity and problematic decision-making are those diagnosed with pathological gambling. However the association between impulsivity and decision making in pathological gambling has been only partially confirmed until now. We tested 23 normal controls and 23 diagnosed pathological gamblers in an intertemporal choice task, as well as other personality trait measurements. Results showed that gamblers scored higher on impulsivity questionnaires, and selected a higher percentage of impatient choices (higher percentage of smaller, sooner rewards), when compared to normal controls. Moreover, gamblers were faster in terms of reaction times at selecting the smaller, sooner options and discounted rewards more rapidly over time. Importantly, regression analyses clarified that self-reported measures of impulsivity played a significant role in biasing decisions towards small but more rapidly available rewards. In the present study we found evidence for impulsivity in personality traits and decisions in pathological gamblers relative to controls. We conclude by speculating on the need to incorporate impulsivity and decision biases in the conceptualization of pathological gambling for a better understanding and treatment of this pathology. PMID:25296184

Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Rattin, Andrea; Guerreschi, Cesare; Sanfey, Alan G; Bonini, Nicolao

2014-01-01

16

Time Devours Things: How Impulsivity and Time Affect Temporal Decisions in Pathological Gamblers  

PubMed Central

Impulsivity is associated with several psychiatric disorders in which the loss of control of a specific behavior determines the syndrome itself. One particularly interesting population characterized by reported high impulsivity and problematic decision-making are those diagnosed with pathological gambling. However the association between impulsivity and decision making in pathological gambling has been only partially confirmed until now. We tested 23 normal controls and 23 diagnosed pathological gamblers in an intertemporal choice task, as well as other personality trait measurements. Results showed that gamblers scored higher on impulsivity questionnaires, and selected a higher percentage of impatient choices (higher percentage of smaller, sooner rewards), when compared to normal controls. Moreover, gamblers were faster in terms of reaction times at selecting the smaller, sooner options and discounted rewards more rapidly over time. Importantly, regression analyses clarified that self-reported measures of impulsivity played a significant role in biasing decisions towards small but more rapidly available rewards. In the present study we found evidence for impulsivity in personality traits and decisions in pathological gamblers relative to controls. We conclude by speculating on the need to incorporate impulsivity and decision biases in the conceptualization of pathological gambling for a better understanding and treatment of this pathology. PMID:25296184

Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Rattin, Andrea; Guerreschi, Cesare; Sanfey, Alan G.; Bonini, Nicolao

2014-01-01

17

ALTERING THE MAGNITUDE OF DELAY DISCOUNTING BY PATHOLOGICAL GAMBLERS  

PubMed Central

The present study explored the delay discounting of future and past monetary rewards by pathological gamblers. Using a multiple baseline design, following repeated exposure to choices between smaller immediate and larger delayed consequences, participants completed a relational responding task that attempted to alter the psychological functions of irrelevant stimuli and to affect subsequent delay discounting. Results support previous literature on the discounting of delayed consequences by pathological gamblers, illustrate that the discounting of past rewards occurs in a similar fashion to the well-documented literature on the discounting of future rewards, and that magnitude of discounting can be altered. PMID:19949514

Dixon, Mark R; Holton, Bethany

2009-01-01

18

Patterns of substance abuse among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

Substance abuse patterns were reviewed for a group of patients admitted to the Gambling Treatment Program at the Brecksville Veterans Administration Medical Center. A retrospective chart review of 113 consecutively admitted patients between September 2000 and September 2001 found that 66.4% of pathological gamblers had a lifetime history of substance abuse or dependence at some point in their lives. A history of substance abuse or dependence was less common among gamblers aged 60 and above. In the year prior to admission, 58.1% of those with a history of substance abuse or dependence were actively using substances. Alcohol was the most commonly used substance, followed by marijuana and cocaine. In most gamblers with comorbid disorders, the onset of substance dependence preceded the onset of problem gambling. Pathological gamblers engaged in multiple impulsive and dysfunctional behaviors including suicide attempts, compulsive shopping and spending, and compulsive sexual behavior, and the presence of comorbid substance abuse disorders may influence the degree to which pathological gamblers engage in these additional problematic behaviors. These factors have important implications for treatment and prevention of relapse, as well as for theories of addictions. PMID:14693255

Kausch, Otto

2003-12-01

19

Altering the Magnitude of Delay Discounting by Pathological Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explored the delay discounting of future and past monetary rewards by pathological gamblers. Using a multiple baseline design, following repeated exposure to choices between smaller immediate and larger delayed consequences, participants completed a relational responding task that attempted to alter the psychological functions of…

Dixon, Mark R.; Holton, Bethany

2009-01-01

20

Patterns of substance abuse among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance abuse patterns were reviewed for a group of patients admitted to the Gambling Treatment Program at the Brecksville Veterans Administration Medical Center.A retrospective chart review of 113 consecutively admitted patients between September 2000 and September 2001 found that 66.4% of pathological gamblers had a lifetime history of substance abuse or dependence at some point in their lives. A history

Otto Kausch

2003-01-01

21

Increased CSF Homocysteine in Pathological Gamblers Compared with Healthy Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neurocognitive disturbances suggesting a frontal lobe dysfunction have been observed in pathological gamblers and alcohol dependents. Given that a high homocysteine level has been suggested to be a mediating factor in alcohol-related cognitive decline, we have determined homocysteine and cobalamine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from 11…

Nordin, Conny; Sjodin, Ingemar

2009-01-01

22

Stages of Change in Treatment-Seeking Pathological Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transtheoretical model has been applied to many addictive disorders. In this study, psychometrics properties of the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) scale were evaluated in 234 pathological gamblers initiating treatment. Four components were identified--reflective of precontemplation, contemplation, action, and maintenance…

Petry, Nancy M.

2005-01-01

23

Heart Rate Increase to Alcohol Administration and Video Lottery Terminal Play Among Probable Pathological Gamblers and Nonpathological Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined heart-rate responses to alcohol consumption and video lottery terminal (VLT) play. Regular VLT players (30 probable pathological gamblers [PPGs]; 30 nonpathological gamblers [NPGs]) were randomized to an alcohol (mean postdrinking blood alcohol concentration = 0.056%) or placebo condition. Heart rate was recorded at pre- and postdrinking baselines and during VLT play. Consistent with an earlier study (S.

Sherry H. Stewart; Jordan B. Peterson; Pamela Collins; Shondalee Eisnor; Michael Ellery

2006-01-01

24

Pathological gamblers are more vulnerable to the illusion of control in a standard associative learning task  

PubMed Central

An illusion of control is said to occur when a person believes that he or she controls an outcome that is uncontrollable. Pathological gambling has often been related to an illusion of control, but the assessment of the illusion has generally used introspective methods in domain-specific (i.e., gambling) situations. The illusion of control of pathological gamblers, however, could be a more general problem, affecting other aspects of their daily life. Thus, we tested them using a standard associative learning task which is known to produce illusions of control in most people under certain conditions. The results showed that the illusion was significantly stronger in pathological gamblers than in a control undiagnosed sample. This suggests (1) that the experimental tasks used in basic associative learning research could be used to detect illusions of control in gamblers in a more indirect way, as compared to introspective and domain-specific questionnaires; and (2), that in addition to gambling-specific problems, pathological gamblers may have a higher-than-normal illusion of control in their daily life. PMID:23785340

Orgaz, Cristina; Estevez, Ana; Matute, Helena

2013-01-01

25

Contextual Control of Delay Discounting by Pathological Gamblers  

PubMed Central

The present study demonstrated the relative impact of gambling and nongambling contexts on the degree of delay discounting by pathological gamblers. We used a delay-discounting task with 20 pathological gamblers in and out of the natural context in which they regularly gambled. For 16 of the 20 participants, it appeared that the difference of context altered the subjective value of delayed rewards, thereby producing relative changes in delay-discounting rates that were generally consistent with a hyperbolic model of intertemporal choice. The current data suggest that empirically derived k values from delay-discounting tasks are context sensitive and are not constant across various settings for the individual. Implications for future transitional research on addictive disorders generally, and gambling specifically, are discussed. PMID:17236338

Dixon, Mark R; Jacobs, Eric A; Sanders, Scott

2006-01-01

26

Clinical Gender Differences Among Adult Pathological Gamblers Seeking Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to examine the gender-related differences in demographics, gambling measures, psychological functioning,\\u000a and motivation for therapy in an outpatient sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. Participants in this multisite\\u000a study included 103 adult outpatients (51 women and 52 men) meeting current DSM-IV-TR criteria for PG. Logistic regression\\u000a was used to examine if gender was related together to categorical

Enrique Echeburúa; Itxaso González-Ortega; Paz de Corral; Rocío Polo-López

2011-01-01

27

Discounting of Probabilistic Rewards Is Associated With Gambling Abstinence in Treatment-Seeking Pathological Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with addictive disorders, including substance abusers and pathological gamblers, discount or devalue rewards delayed in time more than controls. Theoretically, preference for probabilistic rewards is directly related to gambling, but limited empirical research has examined probabilistic discounting in individuals with pathological gambling. This study evaluated probability and delay discounting in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers and their association with gambling treatment

Nancy M. Petry

2012-01-01

28

Manipulations of the Features of Standard Video Lottery Terminal (VLT) Games: Effects in Pathological and Non-Pathological Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to identify game parameters that would reduce the risk of abuse of video lottery terminals (VLTs) by pathological gamblers, while exerting minimal effects on the behavior of non-pathological gamblers. Three manipulations of standard VLT game features were explored. Participants were exposed to: a counter which displayed a running total of money spent; a VLT spinning

Pamela Loba; Sherry H. Stewart; Raymond M. Klein; James R. Blackburn

2001-01-01

29

Manipulations of the Features of Standard Video Lottery Terminal (VLT) Games: Effects in Pathological and Non-Pathological Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to identify game parameters that would reduce the risk of abuse of video lottery terminals (VLTs) by pathological gamblers, while exerting minimal effects on the behavior of non-pathological gamblers. Three manipulations of standard VLT game features were explored. Participants were exposed to: a counter which displayed a running total of money spent; a VLT spinning

Pamela Loba; Sherry H. Stewart; Raymond M. Klein; James R. Blackburn

2002-01-01

30

A comparison of impulsivity and sensation seeking in pathological gamblers and skydivers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare pathological gamblers and skydivers in relation to measures of impulsivity and sensation seeking. The Eysenck Impulsivity Scale - Narrow Impulsiveness Subscale and the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking were administered to pathological gamblers (n = 29), skydivers (n = 93), and a control group (n = 43). A two-way multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to explore differences in impulsivity and sensation seeking between the groups and possible group by gender and group by age interaction effects. The significant effects were further investigated using follow-up univariate analysis of variance. The results showed significant main effects of Group, Gender and Age, and a significant Group by Gender interaction effect. The results showed no statistically significant differences in impulsivity between pathological gamblers and skydivers; however, both groups scored higher than the controls. The skydivers scored higher compared to the pathological gamblers and controls on both sensation seeking subscales. Pathological gamblers scored higher than the controls on the subscale Need for Stimulus Intensity, although lower than the controls on the subscale Need for Novelty. We conclude that skydivers and pathological gamblers do not seem to differ in terms of impulsivity, but that the two groups differ in terms of sensation seeking. Skydivers are hence characterized by more sensation seeking compared to pathological gamblers. Skydiving, as opposed to pathological gambling, is not considered a psychiatric disorder, and skydiving may represent a more non-pathological way to fulfill the need for stimulus intensity. PMID:22783975

Myrseth, Helga; Tverå, Renate; Hagatun, Susanne; Lindgren, Camilla

2012-08-01

31

Mental health management of pathological gamblers by counseling and relaxation practices.  

PubMed

The present study examines the mental health management of pathological gamblers by counseling and relaxation practices. Fifty-five treated and 55 non-treated pathological gamblers were evaluated at S. I. Mental and Physical Health Society, Varanasi, India. The two groups were matched by age, ranging 20 to 53 years with a mean age of 36.2 years and mean length of uncontrollable gambling of 7.3 years. The Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire and the Death Anxiety Scale were administered to ascertain mental health and death anxiety on seven selected dimensions, including: anxiety, obsession, phobia, somatization, depression, hysteria, and death anxiety. Mean scores obtained on different variables were analyzed using a t-test of significance. Results indicated that the characteristic associated with treated pathological gamblers was phobia whereas the characteristics associated with non-treated pathological gamblers were anxiety, obsession, somatization, depression, and death anxiety. PMID:24066639

Sharma, M G; Upadhyay, Awadhesh; Sharma, Vandana

2013-10-01

32

Drinking Patterns of Pathological Gamblers Before, During, and After Gambling Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the high co-occurrence of alcohol consumption and gambling, few studies have investigated alcohol use changes during gambling treatment. Using latent growth modeling, we examined weekly alcohol use trajectories of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers across 36 weeks, allowing rates of change to differ across the 12-week pretreatment, during-treatment and posttreatment periods. For these secondary data analyses, we retained drinking gamblers (N

Carla J. Rash; Jeremiah Weinstock; Nancy M. Petry

2011-01-01

33

Randomized Trial of Internet-Delivered Self-Help with Telephone Support for Pathological Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although effective therapies for pathological gambling exist, their uptake is limited to 10% of the target population. To lower the barriers for help seeking, the authors tested an online alternative in a randomized trial (N = 66). The participants were pathological gamblers not presenting with severe comorbid depression. A wait-list control was…

Carlbring, Per; Smit, Filip

2008-01-01

34

Characteristics of Treatment Seeking Finnish Pathological Gamblers: Baseline Data from a Treatment Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behavior of 39 pathological gamblers who participated in our treatment study in 2009. The inclusion criteria of the study were: score of five or more on both the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and a pathological gambling screen based on the Diagnostic and Statistical…

Lahti, Tuuli; Halme, Jukka; Pankakoski, Maiju; Sinclair, David; Alho, Hannu

2013-01-01

35

Pathological Gamblers Discount Probabilistic Rewards Less Steeply Than Matched Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen treatment-seeking men meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (4th ed.) criteria for pathological gambling and 19 demographically matched controls participated. Participants provided demographic information, information about their recent drug use and gambling activities, and biological samples (to confirm drug abstinence). They also completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and 2 questionnaires designed

Gregory J. Madden; Nancy M. Petry; Patrick S. Johnson

2009-01-01

36

Manipulations of the features of standard video lottery terminal (VLT) games: effects in pathological and non-pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to identify game parameters that would reduce the risk of abuse of video lottery terminals (VLTs) by pathological gamblers, while exerting minimal effects on the behavior of non-pathological gamblers. Three manipulations of standard VLT game features were explored. Participants were exposed to: a counter which displayed a running total of money spent; a VLT spinning reels game where participants could no longer "stop" the reels by touching the screen; and sensory feature manipulations. In control conditions, participants were exposed to standard settings for either a spinning reels or a video poker game. Dependent variables were self-ratings of reactions to each set of parameters. A set of 2(3) x 2 x 2 (game manipulation [experimental condition(s) vs. control condition] x game [spinning reels vs. video poker] x gambler status [pathological vs. non-pathological]) repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted on all dependent variables. The findings suggest that the sensory manipulations (i.e., fast speed/sound or slow speed/no sound manipulations) produced the most robust reaction differences. Before advocating harm reduction policies such as lowering sensory features of VLT games to reduce potential harm to pathological gamblers, it is important to replicate findings in a more naturalistic setting, such as a real bar. PMID:11842526

Loba, P; Stewart, S H; Klein, R M; Blackburn, J R

2001-01-01

37

Video lottery gambling: Effects on pathological gamblers seeking treatment in South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-eight pathological gamblers receiving treatment for addictive illness in two South Dakota hospitals were assessed for types of gambling and grouped into three categories; 15 “video lottery only” (VLO), 36 “video lottery mixed” (VLM), and 7 “not video lottery” (NVL). There were 51 male and 7 female respondents, with a mean age of 38.2. We hypothesized that video lottery would

Timothy Morgan; Lial Kofoed; Jerry Buchkoski; Robert D. Carr

1996-01-01

38

The Counterfeit Hero’s Journey of the Pathological Gambler: A Phenomenological Hermeneutics Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research study sought to interpret and strove toward understanding the lived experience of 13 pathological gambler from an archetypal–mythic perspective. Through a phenomenological hermeneutics inquiry, 11 clusters of themes were illuminated. These themes highlighted a three stage mythical journey that elucidated how gambling began as regular pastime, but ended in failure in regards to becoming extraordinary and financially secure.

Gary Nixon; Jason Solowoniuk; Virginia McGowan

2006-01-01

39

Neurobehavioral evidence for the "Near-Miss" effect in pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this translational study was twofold: (1) to contrast behavioral and brain activity between pathological and nonpathological gamblers, and (2) to examine differences as a function of the outcome of the spin of a slot machine, focusing predominately on the "Near-Miss"--when two reels stop on the same symbol, and that symbol is just above or below the payoff line on the third reel. Twenty-two participants (11 nonpathological; 11 pathological) completed the study by rating the closeness of various outcomes of slot machine displays (wins, losses, and near-misses) to a win. No behavioral differences were observed between groups of participants, however, differences in brain activity were found in the left midbrain, near the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area (SN / VTA). Near-miss outcomes uniquely activated brain regions associated with wins for the pathological gamblers and regions associated with losses for the nonpathological gamblers. Thus, near-miss outcomes on slot machines may contain both functional and neurological properties of wins for pathological gamblers. Such a translational approach to the study of gambling behavior may be considered an example that gives life to B. F. Skinner's conceptualization of the physiologist of the future. PMID:21119848

Habib, Reza; Dixon, Mark R

2010-05-01

40

Randomized Trial of Brief Motivational Treatments for Pathological Gamblers: More Is Not Necessarily Better  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The efficacy of brief treatments for media-recruited pathological gamblers was tested in a randomized clinical trial design (N = 314). Two self-directed motivational interventions were compared with a 6-week waiting list control and a workbook only control. Brief motivational treatment involved a telephone motivational interview and a mailed…

Hodgins, David C.; Currie, Shawn R.; Currie, Gillian; Fick, Gordon H.

2009-01-01

41

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Pathological and At-Risk Gamblers Seeking Treatment: A Hidden Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The links between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders have been the subject of numerous papers. Few studies, however, have focused specifically on the relationship between ADHD and behavioural addictions. The aim of this study was to (i) examine the frequency of pathological and at-risk gamblers having a previous history of ADHD; (ii) give details of

Marie Grall-Bronnec; Laura Wainstein; Jennyfer Augy; Gaëlle Bouju; Fanny Feuillet; Jean-Luc Vénisse; Véronique Sébille-Rivain

2011-01-01

42

Discounting of probabilistic rewards is associated with gambling abstinence in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

Individuals with addictive disorders, including substance abusers and pathological gamblers, discount or devalue rewards delayed in time more than controls. Theoretically, preference for probabilistic rewards is directly related to gambling, but limited empirical research has examined probabilistic discounting in individuals with pathological gambling. This study evaluated probability and delay discounting in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers and their association with gambling treatment outcomes during and after treatment. At time of treatment entry, 226 pathological gamblers completed probability and delay discounting tasks. They were then randomized to one of three treatment conditions, and gambling behavior was measured throughout treatment and at a 1-year follow-up assessment. After controlling for possibly confounding variables and treatment condition, more shallow probability discounting was associated with greater reductions in amounts wagered during treatment and likelihood of gambling abstinence at the end of treatment and throughout the follow-up period. No associations were noted between delay discounting and gambling treatment outcomes. These data suggest that probability discounting may be an important construct in understanding pathological gambling and its treatment. PMID:21842965

Petry, Nancy M

2012-02-01

43

Delay and Probability Discounting in Pathological Gamblers With and Without a History of Substance Use Problems  

PubMed Central

Rationale Pathological gambling and substance use disorders are highly comorbid, possibly because they both stem from a similar process—impulsivity. Although much data exist regarding the association between delay discounting and these psychiatric disorders, relatively little research has examined probability discounting and its relationship with either substance use or gambling. Objectives The goal of the current study was to compare rates of probability and delay discounting in a large population of pathological gamblers with and without a history of substance use problems. Methods Treatment-seeking pathological gamblers with (n=117) and without (n=119) a history of substance use problems completed questionnaires about discounting of hypothetical monetary outcomes and the Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire. The delay discounting questionnaire involved choices between a smaller amount of money delivered immediately versus a larger amount delivered later, and the probability questionnaire was comprised of choices between a smaller certain versus a larger probabilistic monetary outcome. Hyperbolic functions estimated delay and probability discounting rates based on the indifference points obtained through the questionnaires. Results Results revealed significant effects of substance use problem status on delay but not on probability discounting, with no significant correlation noted between the two discounting processes. Only delay discounting correlated with Eysenck impulsivity scores. Conclusions These data suggest that delay and probability discounting tap different dimensions, and delay discounting is more closely linked with substance use problem histories in pathological gamblers. PMID:21952671

Andrade, Leonardo F.; Petry, Nancy M.

2013-01-01

44

Elevated Functional Connectivity in a Striatal-Amygdala Circuit in Pathological Gamblers  

PubMed Central

Both substance-based addiction and behavioural impulse control disorders (ICDs) have been associated with dysfunctions of the ventral striatum. Recent studies using functional connectivity techniques have revealed increased coupling of the ventral striatum with other limbic regions such as amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in patients with substance abuse disorders and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In the present study, we re-analyzed previously published functional magnetic resonance imaging data acquired in pathological gamblers and controls during value-based decision-making to investigate whether PG is associated with similar functional connectivity effects. In line with previous studies in other ICDs, we observed reliable increases in functional coupling between striatum and bilateral amygdala in gamblers vs. controls. Implications of these findings for neural models of self-control and addiction are discussed. PMID:24023940

Buchel, Christian

2013-01-01

45

Impulsivity as a Moderator and Mediator between Life Stress and Pathological Gambling among Chinese Treatment-Seeking Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of impulsivity and its interplay with gambling correlates in influencing the severity of pathological gambling in Chinese societies. It also investigated the extent to which impulsivity would moderate and/or mediate the relationship between life stress and pathological gambling in 94 Chinese treatment-seeking gamblers.…

Tang, Catherine So-kum; Wu, Anise M. S.

2012-01-01

46

The association between gambling pathology and personality disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research supports increased risk of problem gambling (PG) and pathological gambling disorder (PGD) among individuals with substance abuse\\/dependence and psychiatric disorders, but studies considering personality disorder comorbidity have not adjusted for confounding relationships with other Axis I disorders. Using targeted advertising, we enrolled 153 gamblers (55% female; 32% minority; Mean age=47; SD=18.2) in a clinical validation study of the newly

Paul Sacco; Renee M. Cunningham-Williams; Emily Ostmann; Edward L. Spitznagel

2008-01-01

47

Drinking Patterns of Pathological Gamblers Before, During, and After Gambling Treatment  

PubMed Central

Despite the high co-occurrence of alcohol consumption and gambling, few studies have investigated alcohol use changes during gambling treatment. Using latent growth modeling, we examined weekly alcohol use trajectories of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers across 36 weeks, allowing rates of change to differ across the 12-week pre-treatment, during treatment, and post-treatment periods. For these secondary data analyses, we retained drinking gamblers (N = 163) from a combined sample of two randomized clinical trials for the treatment of pathological gambling. Results indicated a decrease in alcohol use corresponding with treatment entry and maintenance of less drinking during treatment and post-treatment. Despite these decreases in alcohol use overall, 31% (50 of 163) of participants exhibited risky drinking during the treatment or post-treatment periods. Gender, age, at-risk drinking (at any point in the 36-week interval), baseline gambling severity, treatment condition, and gambling during treatment predicted latent alcohol use growth factors. Although entry into gambling treatment was temporally associated with reductions in alcohol use in this retrospective analysis, a substantial portion of the sample exhibited at-risk drinking after treatment entry, suggesting that interventions targeting reductions in alcohol use may be useful for this population. PMID:21928867

Rash, Carla J.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Petry, Nancy M.

2011-01-01

48

Pathological Gambling: Psychosomatic, emotional and marital difficulties as reported by the Gambler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two parallel self-administered surveys were distributed at three conferences of Gamblers Anonymous. One survey was for members of Gamblers Anonymous and the other was for members of GamAnon. Approximately 500 respondents completed the surveys. This article is a report of some of the data from the gamblers' survey. This survey focused on two time periods of the compulsive gambler's life—during

Valerie C. Lorenz; Robert A. Yaffee

1986-01-01

49

The Structure of Pathological Gambling among Korean Gamblers: A Cluster and Factor Analysis of Clinical and Demographic Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the underlying structure of the demographic and clinical characteristics of level 3 (i.e., pathological) Korean casino gamblers. The participants reported their gambling behavior and clinical characteristics known to be associated with gambling problems (e.g., alcohol use problems, eating disorders, depression, anxiety, and…

Lee, Tae Kyung; LaBrie, Richard A.; Grant, Jon E.; Kim, Suck Won; Shaffer, Howard J.

2008-01-01

50

To play or not to play: A personal dilemma in pathological gambling.  

PubMed

Research has shown that healthy people would rather avoid losses than gamble for even higher gains. On the other hand, research on pathological gamblers (PGs) demonstrates that PGs are more impaired than non-pathological gamblers in choice under risk and uncertainty. Here, we investigate loss aversion by using a rigorous and well-established paradigm from the field of economics, in conjunction with personality traits, by using self-report measures for PGs under clinical treatment. Twenty pathological gamblers, at the earlier and later stages of clinical treatment, were matched to 20 non-gamblers (NG). They played a "flip coin task" by deciding across 256 trials whether to accept or reject a 50-50 bet with a variable amount of gains and losses. They completed questionnaires aimed at assessing impulsivity. Compared to NG, pathological gamblers, specifically those in the later stages of therapy, were more loss averse and accepted a lower number of gambles with a positive expected value, whereas their impulsivity traits were significantly higher. This study shows for the first time that changes in loss aversion, but not in personality traits, are associated with the time course of pathology. These findings can be usefully employed in the fields of both gambling addiction and decision-making. PMID:25024055

Giorgetta, Cinzia; Grecucci, Alessandro; Rattin, Andrea; Guerreschi, Cesare; Sanfey, Alan G; Bonini, Nicolao

2014-11-30

51

Modafinil increases reward salience in a slot machine game in low and high impulsivity pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of modafinil (200 mg) on slot machine betting profiles from a previous sample of low and high impulsivity (LI/HI) pathological gamblers (10/Group; Zack and Poulos, 2009). Hierarchical regression assessed the prospective relationship between Payoff and Bet Size on consecutive trials, along with moderating effects of Group, Cumulative Winnings (low/high) and Phase of game (early/late) under drug and placebo. Y intercepts for the simple regressions of Bet Size on Payoff indexed overall motivation to bet. Under placebo, both groups gauged their bets less closely to the preceding Payoff as trials continued when Winnings were low but not high. Under modafinil, both groups gauged their bets more closely to the preceding Payoff when Winnings were low but gauged their bets less closely to the previous Payoff when Winnings were high. The tendency to gauge bets closely to the previous Payoff coincided with a bias toward low overall Bet Size, and modafinil accentuated this relationship, in LI but not HI subjects. Results suggest that modafinil increases the salience of environmental rewards, leading to more tightly calibrated responses to individual rewards when resources are low, but progressively loosens reward-response calibration when resources are high. Increased relative impact of phasic vs. tonic dopamine signals may account for patterns seen at low vs. high Winnings, respectively, under the drug. Clinically, modafinil may deter pathological gamblers from chasing losses but also encourage them to continue betting rather than quit while they are ahead. Whether low-dose modafinil confers more uniform benefits deserves investigation. PMID:23711549

Smart, Kelly; Desmond, Renée C; Poulos, Constantine X; Zack, Martin

2013-10-01

52

Clinical Profiles as a Function of Level and Type of Impulsivity in a Sample Group of At-risk and Pathological Gamblers Seeking Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Level and type of impulsivity are essential variables to be taken into consideration during the initial evaluation of a pathological\\u000a gambler. The aim of this study was to measure the score for 4 impulsivity-related traits (Urgency, (lack of) Premeditation,\\u000a (lack of) Perseverance and Sensation seeking) in a sample group of at-risk and pathological gamblers, and to highlight any\\u000a links with

Marie Grall-BronnecLaura; Laura Wainstein; Fanny Feuillet; Gaëlle Bouju; Bruno Rocher; Jean-Luc Vénisse; Véronique Sébille-Rivain

53

Person Perception and Personality Pathology  

PubMed Central

Studies of person perception (people's impressions and beliefs about others) have developed important concepts and methods that can be used to help improve the assessment of personality disorders. They may also inspire advances in our knowledge of the nature and origins of these conditions. Information collected from peers and other types of informants is reliable and provides a perspective that often differs substantially from that obtained using questionnaires and interviews. For some purposes, this information is quite useful. Much remains to be learned about the incremental validity (and potential biases) associated with data from various kinds of informants. PMID:20539833

Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Turkheimer, Eric

2010-01-01

54

Experimental analysis of the game in pathological gamblers: effect of the immediacy of the reward in slot machines.  

PubMed

Slot machines are the most "addictive" games because (a) the disorder (pathological gambling) appears more rapidly in these games than with any other; (b) most patients who seek professional help are mainly addicted to electronic gambling, and (c) even though it is not the more frequent game, most of all the money spent on legal games of chance (at least in Spain) goes to slot machines. Structural characteristics of slot machines induce to gamble because electronic games show the main parameters of operant conditioning, mainly the immediacy of the reinforcement. Ten pathological gamblers played slot machine in two conditions: immediate and delayed reinforcement. The results corroborate the importance of the immediacy of the reinforcement in gambling, because when the result appears immediately (after 2 s), more games are played than when the result is delayed only 10 s. Critical issues in problem gambling prevention and public health are discussed. PMID:19882307

Chóliz, Mariano

2010-06-01

55

Criminal Behavior Associated with Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of addictive gambling behavior on criminal behavior was examined in this study. A sample of pathological gamblers from in- and outpatient treatment centers and self-help groups (n = 300) and a sample of high and low frequency gamblers from the general population and army (n = 274) completed a comprehensive questionnaire which assessed social attachment, personality, pathological gambling

Gerhard Meyer; Michael A. Stadler

1999-01-01

56

Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers  

PubMed Central

Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction characterized by a chronic failure to resist the urge to gamble. It shares many similarities with drug addiction. Glucocorticoid hormones including cortisol are thought to play a key role in the vulnerability to addictive behaviors, by acting on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Based on our previous report of an imbalanced sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives in the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers (PGs), we investigated whether this imbalance was mediated by individual differences in endogenous cortisol levels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined the relationship between cortisol levels and the neural responses to monetary versus non-monetary cues, while PGs and healthy controls were engaged in an incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and erotic rewards. We found a positive correlation between cortisol levels and ventral striatal responses to monetary versus erotic cues in PGs, but not in healthy controls. This indicates that the ventral striatum is a key region where cortisol modulates incentive motivation for gambling versus non-gambling related stimuli in PGs. Our results extend the proposed role of glucocorticoid hormones in drug addiction to behavioral addiction, and help understand the impact of cortisol on reward incentive processing in PGs. PMID:24723862

Li, Yansong; Sescousse, Guillaume; Dreher, Jean-Claude

2014-01-01

57

Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction characterized by a chronic failure to resist the urge to gamble. It shares many similarities with drug addiction. Glucocorticoid hormones including cortisol are thought to play a key role in the vulnerability to addictive behaviors, by acting on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Based on our previous report of an imbalanced sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives in the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers (PGs), we investigated whether this imbalance was mediated by individual differences in endogenous cortisol levels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined the relationship between cortisol levels and the neural responses to monetary versus non-monetary cues, while PGs and healthy controls were engaged in an incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and erotic rewards. We found a positive correlation between cortisol levels and ventral striatal responses to monetary versus erotic cues in PGs, but not in healthy controls. This indicates that the ventral striatum is a key region where cortisol modulates incentive motivation for gambling versus non-gambling related stimuli in PGs. Our results extend the proposed role of glucocorticoid hormones in drug addiction to behavioral addiction, and help understand the impact of cortisol on reward incentive processing in PGs. PMID:24723862

Li, Yansong; Sescousse, Guillaume; Dreher, Jean-Claude

2014-01-01

58

Yohimbine-Induced Amygdala Activation in Pathological Gamblers: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale and ObjectivesThere is evidence that drug addiction is associated with increased physiological and psychological responses to stress. In this pilot functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we assessed whether a prototype behavioral addiction, pathological gambling (PG), is likewise associated with an enhanced response to stress.MethodsWe induced stress by injecting yohimbine (0.2–0.3 mg\\/kg, IV), an alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist that elicits

Igor Elman; Lino Becerra; Evelyne Tschibelu; Rinah Yamamoto; Edward George; David Borsook

2012-01-01

59

Insular activation during reward anticipation reflects duration of illness in abstinent pathological gamblers  

PubMed Central

Pathological gambling (PG) is a chronic mental disorder characterized by a difficulty restraining gambling behavior despite negative consequences. Although brain abnormalities in patients with substance use disorders are caused by repetitive drug use and recover partly with drug abstinence, the relationship between brain activity and duration of illness or abstinence of gambling behavior in PG patients remains unclear. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared the brain activity of 23 PG patients recruited from a treatment facility with 27 demographically-matched healthy control subjects during reward anticipation, and examined the correlations between brain activity and duration of illness or abstinence in PG patients. During reward anticipation, PG patients showed decreased activity compared to healthy controls in a broad range of the reward system regions, including the insula cortex. In PG patients, activation in the left insula showed a significant negative correlation with illness duration. Our findings suggest that insular activation during reward anticipation may serve as a marker of progression of pathological gambling. PMID:25250011

Tsurumi, Kosuke; Kawada, Ryosaku; Yokoyama, Naoto; Sugihara, Genichi; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

2014-01-01

60

Insular activation during reward anticipation reflects duration of illness in abstinent pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

Pathological gambling (PG) is a chronic mental disorder characterized by a difficulty restraining gambling behavior despite negative consequences. Although brain abnormalities in patients with substance use disorders are caused by repetitive drug use and recover partly with drug abstinence, the relationship between brain activity and duration of illness or abstinence of gambling behavior in PG patients remains unclear. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared the brain activity of 23 PG patients recruited from a treatment facility with 27 demographically-matched healthy control subjects during reward anticipation, and examined the correlations between brain activity and duration of illness or abstinence in PG patients. During reward anticipation, PG patients showed decreased activity compared to healthy controls in a broad range of the reward system regions, including the insula cortex. In PG patients, activation in the left insula showed a significant negative correlation with illness duration. Our findings suggest that insular activation during reward anticipation may serve as a marker of progression of pathological gambling. PMID:25250011

Tsurumi, Kosuke; Kawada, Ryosaku; Yokoyama, Naoto; Sugihara, Genichi; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

2014-01-01

61

Sex differences in salivary cortisol in response to acute stressors among healthy participants, in recreational or pathological gamblers, and in those with posttraumatic stress disorder  

PubMed Central

Sex differences in incidence and severity of some stress-related, neuropsychiatric disorders are often reported to favor men, suggesting that women may be more vulnerable to aberrant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stress. In this review, we discuss several investigations that we, and others, have conducted assessing salivary cortisol as a measure of HPA function. We have examined basal cortisol among healthy men and women and also following acute exposure to stressors. Among healthy participants, men had higher basal cortisol levels than did women. In response to acute stressors, such as carbon dioxide or noise, respectively, cortisol levels were comparable between men and women or higher among women. We have also examined cortisol levels among those with problem eating, gambling, or post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women with restrained eating habits have higher basal cortisol levels than do women without restrained eating habits. Pathological gamblers have more aberrant stress response to gambling stimuli than do recreational gamblers, and these effects are more prominent among men than women. Men who have motor-vehicle accident related PTSD, demonstrate more aberrant cortisol function, than do their female counterparts. Although these sex differences in cortisol seem to vary with type of stress exposure and/or pathophysiological status of the individual, other hormones may influence cortisol response. To address this, cortisol levels among boys and girls with different stress-related experiences, will be the subject of future investigation. PMID:19538960

Paris, Jason J.; Franco, Christine; Sodano, Ruthlyn; Freidenberg, Brian; Gordis, Elana; Anderson, Drew A.; Forsyth, John P.; Wulfert, Edelgard; Frye, Cheryl A.

2010-01-01

62

Segmenting casino gamblers by motivation: A cluster analysis of Korean gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

While past research has explored why people become problem or pathological gamblers, the motivations of the broader gambling population have been largely neglected. This study examines casino gambling motivations for a sample of Korean gamblers. Specifically, this study attempts to segment the casino gambling market using a cluster analysis, and to explore differences between segments with respect to socio-demographic and

Choong-Ki Lee; Yong-Ki Lee; Bo Jason Bernhard; Yoo-Shik Yoon

2006-01-01

63

Dopamine DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A and DAT1 VNTR polymorphisms are associated with a cognitive flexibility profile in pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

Like drug addiction, pathological gambling (PG) has been associated with impairments in executive functions and alterations in dopaminergic functioning; however, the role of dopamine (DA) in the executive profile of PG remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify whether the DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A-rs1800497 and the DAT1-40 bp VNTR polymorphisms are associated with cognitive flexibility (measured by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Trail Making Test (TMT)) and inhibition response (measured by Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT)), in a clinical sample of 69 PG patients. Our results showed an association between DA functioning and cognitive flexibility performance. The Taq1A A1+ (A1A2/A1A1) genotype was associated with poorer TMT performance (p < 0.05), while DAT1 9-repeat homozygotes displayed better WCST performance (p < 0.05) than either 10-repeat homozygotes or heterozygotes. We did not find any association between the DRD2 or DAT1 polymorphisms and the inhibition response. These results suggested that pathological gamblers with genetic predispositions toward lower availability of DA and D2 receptor density are at a higher risk of cognitive flexibility difficulties. Future studies should aim to shed more light on the genetic mechanisms underlying the executive profile in PG. PMID:25237117

Fagundo, Ana B; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; de la Torre, Rafael; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Gené, Manel; Barrot, Carme; Sánchez, Cristina; Alvarez-Moya, Eva; Ochoa, Cristian; Aymamí, Maria Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Menchón, Jose M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

2014-12-01

64

Episodic Cessation of Gambling: A Numerically Aided Phenomenological Assessment of Why Gamblers Stop Playing in a Given Session  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topic of permanent cessation of gambling behavior has received increased attention as the rates gaming (and pathology) increase with accessibility and legalization. Despite this increased attention there is a paucity of research on why people stop gambling in a given session, i.e. episodic cessation. We propose that the study of first-person experiential accounts of why gamblers stopped engaging in

Michael J. A. Wohl; Miriam Lyon; Cara L. Donnelly; Matthew M. Young; Kimberly Matheson; Hymie Anisman

2008-01-01

65

Cue-specific reactivity in experienced gamblers.  

PubMed

To examine whether gambling cue reactivity is cue-specific, 47 scratch-off lottery players and 47 horse race gamblers were presented with video clips of their preferred and nonpreferred modes of gambling, and two control stimuli including an exciting car race and a mental stressor task while heart rates, excitement, and urge to gamble were being measured. Heart rates for both groups of gamblers were highest to the mental stressor and did not differ in response to the other three cues. Excitement for both groups was highest in response to the action cues (horse race and car chase). Urge to gamble was significantly higher for each group to their preferred mode of gambling. A post hoc exploratory analysis comparing social gamblers (n = 54) and probable pathological gamblers (n = 40) revealed a similar pattern of responses. However, pathological gamblers reported overall significantly higher urges to gamble than social gamblers. As urges have been shown to play a pivotal role in addictive behaviors and relapse, the current findings may have implications for the development of gambling problems and relapse after successful treatment. PMID:20025381

Wulfert, Edelgard; Maxson, Julie; Jardin, Bianca

2009-12-01

66

Differences in Addiction Severity between Social and Probable Pathological Gamblers among Substance Abusers in Treatment in Rio de Janeiro  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a strong association between pathological gambling and substance abuse. The objective of this study is to identify the differences between substance abusers with and without gambling problems. A cross sectional study was conducted interviewing with Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), alcohol and drug…

Mathias, Ana Carolina R.; Vargens, Renata W.; Kessler, Felix H.; Cruz, Marcelo S.

2009-01-01

67

A D2 Antagonist Enhances the Rewarding and Priming Effects of a Gambling Episode in Pathological Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research indicated shared neurochemical substrates for gambling and psychostimulant reward. This suggests that dopamine substrates may directly govern the reinforcement process in pathological gambling. To investigate this issue, the present study assessed the effects of the relatively selective dopamine D2 antagonist, haloperidol (3 mg, oral) on responses to actual gambling (15 min on a slot machine) in 20 non-comorbid

Martin Zack; Constantine X Poulos

2007-01-01

68

Personality judgment and personality pathology: self-other agreement in adolescents with conduct disorder.  

PubMed

We examine two issues linking personality pathology and judgment of traits within the Five-Factor Model of personality. We hypothesize that pathology moderates self-other agreement--"target" participants with pathology should be less judgable than participants without pathology. In addition, we hypothesize that pathology could partially produce agreement across a variety of traits, particularly those traits fundamental to the pathology. In an adolescent sample including a group with Conduct Disorder (CD) and a Control group, we examine agreement between adolescents' self-reports and their mothers' informant reports. Using trait-centered and person-centered perspectives, we find support for both hypotheses. Results have implications for understanding the processes affecting personality judgment, for increasing integration of traditional personality research and personality pathology, and for personality assessment. PMID:17489894

Furr, R Michael; Dougherty, Donald M; Marsh, Dawn M; Mathias, Charles W

2007-06-01

69

Effects of the atypical stimulant modafinil on a brief gambling episode in pathological gamblers with high vs. low impulsivity.  

PubMed

Pathological gambling (PG) is a serious psychiatric disorder afflicting 1-3% of the general population. Experimental evidence indicates shared neurochemical substrates for PG and psychostimulant addiction. Impulsivity characterizes one key subtype of PG. Therefore, medications that ameliorate psychostimulant addiction and impulsive syndromes might also benefit impulsive PG subjects. The atypical stimulant, modafinil reduces cocaine abuse and impulsivity in patients with ADHD. The present study sought to determine if modafinil (200 mg) would reduce the reinforcing effects of slot machine gambling in PG subjects, and if this effect was stronger in high (H-I) vs. low (L-I) impulsivity subjects (N = 20). A placebo-controlled, double-blind, counterbalanced, repeated measures design was employed. Apart from bet size, which declined uniformly in both groups under drug, modafinil had bi-directional effects in the two groups. In H-I subjects, the drug decreased desire to gamble, salience of Gambling words, disinhibition and risky decision-making. In L-I subjects, modafinil increased scores on these indices. Modafinil also differentially affected blood pressure response to the game in the two groups. These findings for modafinil appear to fit well with a growing literature demonstrating bi-directional effects of D2 agonists as a function of trait impulsivity. Impulsivity could critically moderate medication response in PG. PMID:18583430

Zack, M; Poulos, C X

2009-08-01

70

Relationship between personality organization and Young’s cognitive model of personality pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the psychodynamic concept of personality organization (PO) and Young’s cognitive model of personality pathology was studied in a sample of 117 patients that were referred to Schema Focused Therapy for severe personality pathology. Principal Component Analysis was used to reduce the number of Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and schema modes variables. The higher order factors identified were

Elisabeth H. M. Eurelings-Bontekoe; Patrick Luyten; Marcel IJssennagger; Michiel van Vreeswijk; Jurrijn Koelen

2010-01-01

71

The externalizing spectrum in youth: incorporating personality pathology.  

PubMed

Although personality disorder characteristics are often grouped with externalizing problems in adults, little is known about the extent to which they define the externalizing spectrum in youth. We examined the extent to which personality pathology traits in youth reflected common and specific variance in externalizing problems and explored differentiation of these connections by age. Parents reported on physical aggression, rule-breaking, relational aggression, and personality pathology traits for 1080 youth (48.8% male) ages 6-18 years. Disagreeableness and emotional instability traits were correlated with a general externalizing factor as well as with specific behavioral subfactors. The magnitude of these correlations varied across age, with the highest magnitude evidenced during the developmental periods of greatest prevalence for the specific externalizing behavior subtype. Taken together, these findings suggest that personality pathology is tightly connected with externalizing problems in youth, especially during developmental periods when externalizing problems are common. PMID:24263222

Tackett, Jennifer L; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Reardon, Kathleen W; De Clercq, Barbara; Sharp, Carla

2014-07-01

72

Pathological gambling.  

PubMed

With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG. PMID:10986732

Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

2000-09-01

73

The Gambler's Ruin Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet allows you to experience the fate of a gambler by simulating the whole gambling session in a matter of seconds. The applet plots the successive rises and falls of the capital during the whole duration of the game. It also displays the maximum and minimum values attained by the capital during the session and allows you to get precise information (by clicking at a point of the histogram) of the amount of capital after that particular bet.

Garsia, A. M.

2009-01-05

74

The validity of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale for assessing pathological grandiosity.  

PubMed

Although controversy surrounds the definition and measurement of narcissism, the claim that pathological grandiosity is central to the construct generates little disagreement. Yet representations of pathological grandiosity vary across measures of narcissism, leading to conceptual confusion in the literature. The validity of a DSM-based measure of pathological narcissism, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale (PDQ-4 NPD), was evaluated in 1 clinical and 3 nonclinical samples (total N=2,391) for its ability to measure pathological grandiosity. Findings were generally supportive: average scores were higher in the clinical than nonclinical samples and the PDQ-4 NPD scale correlated most strongly with (a) other measures of NPD; (b) other DSM Cluster B personality disorders; (c) traits involving antagonism, hostility, and assertiveness; and (d) interpersonal distress and disaffiliative dominance. However, the low internal consistency of the PDQ-4 NPD scale and unexpected associations with Cluster A and obsessive-compulsive features point to potential psychometric weaknesses with this instrument. These findings are useful for evaluating the PDQ-4 NPD scale and for informing ongoing debates regarding how to define and assess pathological narcissism. PMID:23101760

Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Ackerman, Robert A; Thomas, Katherine M; Morey, Leslie C; Skodol, Andrew E

2013-01-01

75

The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect…

Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

2012-01-01

76

Viewing relational aggression through multiple lenses: temperament, personality, and personality pathology.  

PubMed

Dispositional trait frameworks offer great potential to elucidate the nature and development of psychopathology, including the construct of relational aggression. The present study sought to explore the dispositional context of relational aggression across three dispositional frameworks: temperament, personality, and personality pathology. Participants comprised a large community sample of youth, aged 6 to 18 years (N = 1,188; 51.2% female). Ratings of children's relational aggression, temperament, personality, and personality pathology traits were obtained through parent report (86.3% mothers). Results showed convergence and divergence across these three dispositional frameworks. Like other antisocial behavior subtypes, relational aggression generally showed connections with traits reflecting negative emotionality and poor self-regulation. Relational aggression showed stronger connections with temperament traits than with personality traits, suggesting that temperament frameworks may capture more relationally aggressive content. Findings at the lower order trait level help differentiate relational aggression from other externalizing problems by providing a more nuanced perspective (e.g., both sociability and shyness positively predicted relational aggression). In addition, there was little evidence of moderation of these associations by gender, age, or age2, and findings remained robust even after controlling for physical aggression. Results are discussed in the broader context of conceptualizing relational aggression in an overarching personality-psychopathology framework. PMID:25047304

Tackett, Jennifer L; Kushner, Shauna C; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Smack, Avante J; Reardon, Kathleen W

2014-08-01

77

Personality pathology and cognitive-behavioral treatment of fear of flying.  

PubMed

Studies have been inconclusive about the influence of personality pathology on treatment outcome in anxiety disorders. In general, it has been presumed that treatment outcome is negatively influenced by the presence of personality pathology. This is a study of the prevalence of personality pathology among persons who were seeking help for fear of flying. Moreover, the effects of personality pathology on the results of a multimodal, standardized, cognitive-behavioral fear of flying treatment program employed by an agency that specializes in treating people with fear of flying were studied. Personality pathology was determined with a self-report questionnaire, which provides ICD-10 diagnoses of personality disorders and dimensional severity scores for personality pathology. Treatment outcome was assessed with three different fear of flying questionnaires. Based on clinical judgment after individual-case conceptualization, participants (N=922) were assigned to a particular treatment for fear of flying. Self-report data for fear of flying were collected at pretreatment and at 3, 6 and 12-month follow-ups in 659 participants who followed the 2-day treatment program. Moreover, the number of flights made in the year following treatment was determined.The results of this study showed that participants with personality pathology, mainly from cluster C (anxiety), report greater fear of flying before treatment than participants without personality pathology. After treatment fear of flying was significantly reduced. Presence of personality pathology was not predictive of the number of flights after treatment and scores on the VAFAS scale at short or long term. Only on two questionnaires for fear of flying collected at short-term participants with personality pathology obtained significantly higher scores, although the size of the differences was relatively small. It was concluded that participants with personality pathology also benefited from fear of flying treatment and that the presence of personality pathology although cannot be regarded as a contra indication for a standardized, cognitive-behavioral group treatment. PMID:12899899

Van Gerwen, Lucas J; Delorme, Christelle; Van Dyck, Richard; Spinhoven, Philip

2003-06-01

78

The relation between dimensions of normal and pathological personality and childhood maltreatment in incarcerated boys.  

PubMed

The relation between subtypes of maltreatment and dimensions of personality and personality pathology was investigated in a representative sample of 142 incarcerated Dutch male juveniles. Normal personality dimensions were assessed with the Big Five Inventory, the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire for Adolescents was used to measure pathological personality dimensions, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to assess childhood maltreatment. The five maltreatment subtypes were found to be differentially and uniquely related to the normal and pathological personality dimensions in juvenile delinquents. The association between the abusive subtypes and Emotional Dysregulation depended on the co-occurrence of neglect. It was concluded that subtypes of maltreatment are distinctively related to dimensions of personality and personality pathology, possibly due to specific gene-environment interactions. Further research on this interplay is needed to be able to recognize genetic vulnerability. Early identification of children at risk could aid to limit the long-term consequences of maltreatment. PMID:21158597

Nederlof, E; Van der Ham, J M; Dingemans, P M J A; Oei, T I

2010-12-01

79

Self-Other Knowledge Asymmetries in Personality Pathology  

PubMed Central

Objective Self-reports of personality provide valid information about personality disorders (PDs). However, informant-reports provide information about PDs that self-reports alone do not provide. The current paper examines if and when one perspective is more valid than the other in identifying PDs. Method Using a representative sample of adults 55 to 65 year of age (N = 991; 45% males), we compared the validity of self- and informant- (e.g., spouse, family, or friend) reports of the FFM traits in predicting PD scores (i.e., composite of interviewer, self-, and informant-reports of PDs). Results Self-reports (particularly of neuroticism) were more valid than informant-reports for most internalizing PDs (i.e., PDs defined by high neuroticism). Informant-reports (particularly of agreeableness and conscientiousness) were more valid than self-reports for externalizing and/or antagonistic PDs (i.e., PDs defined by low agreeableness, conscientiousness). Neither report was consistently more valid for thought disorder PDs (i.e., PDs defined by low extraversion). However, informant-reports (particularly of agreeableness) were more valid than self-reports for PDs that were both internalizing and externalizing (i.e., PDs defined by high neuroticism and low agreeableness). Conclusions The intrapersonal and interpersonal manifestations of PDs differ, and these differences influence who knows more about pathology. PMID:22583054

Carlson, Erika N.; Vazire, Simine; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2012-01-01

80

Social perspective coordination in youth with borderline personality pathology.  

PubMed

This study investigated social perspective coordination (SPC) in youth (15-24-year-olds) with first-presentation borderline personality disorder (BPD). SPC is defined as the capacity to differentiate and integrate the perspective of the self with the perspectives of others (Selman, Beardslee, Schultz, Krupa, & Podorefsky, 1986). Two groups: patients with full or sub-syndromal BPD (n = 30) and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 30) completed measures of SPC derived from the interpersonal negotiation strategies (INS) model (Selman et al., 1986). Compared with the MDD group, the BPD group responded to all vignettes with significantly lower SPC scores and SPC was a significant predictor of BPD status over and above self-reported, personality factors (Neuroticism and Agreeableness), attachment disturbance and functional impairment. These findings suggest that disturbances in social cognition are an important characteristic of individuals with BPD pathology. These difficulties extended beyond attachment contexts and were not limited to situations involving BPD-related themes of abandonment, deprivations or mistrust/abuse. PMID:22369170

Jennings, Tarni C; Hulbert, Carol A; Jackson, Henry J; Chanen, Andrew M

2012-02-01

81

Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissism and the DSM–5 Pathological Personality Trait Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Personality Disorders (4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 2000) personality disorders (PDs) that will be included in the DSM–5 will be diagnosed in an entirely different manner; the explicit criterion sets will be replaced with impairments in self and interpersonal functioning and personality traits from a 25-trait dimensional model of personality pathology. From a trait

Joshua D. Miller; Brittany Gentile; Lauren Wilson; W. Keith Campbell

2012-01-01

82

PERSONALITY AND OBJECT RELATIONAL PATHOLOGY IN YOUNG ADULT CHILDREN OF ALCOHOLICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some clinical reports suggest that adult children of alcoholics display personality pathology etiologically related in part to developmental object relational deficits. In this study, adult children of alcoholics (ACA) showed more personality pathology than controls and relatively lower levels of object relational development on a multivariate Rorschach measure. Findings from this exploratory correlational study are consistent with the clinically inferred

Stephen Hibbard

1989-01-01

83

How Useful Are Indices of Personality Pathology when Assessing Domestic Violence Perpetrators?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been considerable debate about profiling personality pathology when assessing and treating male perpetrators of domestic violence (DV). This study used the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) to explore the severity and diversity of male perpetrator personality pathology and response bias in a group of DV perpetrators being…

Gibbons, Peter; Collins, Marjorie; Reid, Corinne

2011-01-01

84

Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

Lee, Bonnie K.

2009-01-01

85

Level of Agreement between Self and Spouse in the Assessment of Personality Pathology  

PubMed Central

Informant reports can provide important information regarding the presence of pathological personality traits, and they can serve as useful supplements to self-report instruments. Ratings from a spouse may be a particularly valuable source of personality assessment because spouses are very well acquainted with the target person, have typically known the person for a long time, and witness behaviors across a variety of situations. In the current study, self- and spouse report measures based on the DSM-IV personality disorder criteria were collected from a non-clinical sample of 82 couples (N=164). Agreement between self- and spouse report for several pathological personality factors was significant and somewhat higher than has been found for self- and peer agreement. Nevertheless, the magnitude of self-spouse agreement was still moderate in size (Mean r=.36). Findings are discussed with regard to utilizing spouse-report in the assessment of personality pathology. PMID:21220382

South, Susan C.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Johnson, Jarrod; Turkheimer, Eric

2011-01-01

86

Level of Agreement between Self and Spouse in the Assessment of Personality Pathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Informant reports can provide important information regarding the presence of pathological personality traits, and they can serve as useful supplements to self-report instruments. Ratings from a spouse may be a particularly valuable source of personality assessment because spouses are very well acquainted with the target person, have typically…

South, Susan C.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Johnson, Jarrod; Turkheimer, Eric

2011-01-01

87

Multiple Personality and the Pathological Dissociation of Self.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the condition of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), which is defined as a separation of alternating personalities by rigid boundaries and amnestic barriers. It is proposed that MPD represents the end of a continuum of a defensive dissociation of the self that can result when a child employs a dissociative splitting of self…

Price, Reese E.

88

An Interpersonal Analysis of Pathological Personality Traits in "DSM-5"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proposed changes to the personality disorder section of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (5th ed.) places an increased focus on interpersonal impairment as one of the defining features of personality psychopathology. In addition, a proposed trait model has been offered to provide a means of capturing phenotypic…

Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.

2012-01-01

89

Parental Bonding and Personality Pathology Assessed by Clinician Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focused on the link between parental bonding and per- sonality pathology. We developed a clinician-report version of the Paren- tal Bonding Instrument (PBI; Parker, Tupling, and Brown, 1979), which 203 clinicians applied to a randomly selected patient in their care. The goal of the study was to examine the reliability and validity of a clini- cian-report PBI,

Eric Russ; Amy Heim; Drew Westen

2003-01-01

90

Pathology as a Factor of Personal Identity in Forensic Anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many forensic anthropology cases, the biological profile is not sufficient to achieve positive identification. In those\\u000a cases, bone pathology is a paramount criterion. Besides being crucial for identification, it can also give insights into cause\\u000a and manner of death.

Eugænia Cunha

91

A call to action: training pathology residents in genomics and personalized medicine.  

PubMed

Genomics and "medical sequencing" will revolutionize clinical laboratory diagnostics as the foundation for the new era of personalized medicine. However, the medical profession lags far behind the technology and business communities in recognizing and preparing for this change. Pathologists must take the lead in the application of genomics technologies, including whole-genome sequencing, to laboratory diagnostics and personalized medicine. As a critical first step in leading this change, we have established a first-in-the-nation resident curriculum in genomics and personalized medicine. Our goal is to catalyze the adoption of similar training modules in every pathology residency in North America. If we succeed in the widespread implementation of this type of training as a core competency in pathology, we will ensure that the discipline of pathology will lead rather than follow in the coming era of personalized medicine. PMID:20472839

Haspel, Richard L; Arnaout, Ramy; Briere, Lauren; Kantarci, Sibel; Marchand, Karen; Tonellato, Peter; Connolly, James; Boguski, Mark S; Saffitz, Jeffrey E

2010-06-01

92

Preoccupied Attachment and Emotional Dysregulation: Specific Aspects of Borderline Personality Disorder or General Dimensions of Personality Pathology?  

PubMed Central

Emotional dysregulation and impaired attachment are seen by many clinical researchers as central aspects of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Alternatively, these constructs may represent general impairments in personality that are nonspecific to BPD. Using multitrait-multimethod models, we examined the strength of associations among preoccupied attachment, difficulties with emotion regulation, BPD features, and features of two other personality disorders (i.e., antisocial and avoidant) in a combined psychiatric outpatient and community sample of adults. Results suggested that preoccupied attachment and difficulties with emotion regulation shared strong positive associations with each other and with each of the selected personality disorders. However, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation were more strongly related to BPD features than to features of other personality disorders. Our findings suggest that although impairments in relational and emotional domains may underlie personality pathology in general, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation also have specificity for understanding core difficulties in those with BPD. PMID:23586934

Scott, Lori N.; Kim, Yookyung; Nolf, Kimberly A.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

2013-01-01

93

The Joint Hierarchical Structure of Adolescent Personality Pathology: Converging Evidence from Two Approaches to Measurement  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the joint hierarchical structure of two measures of adolescent personality pathology within a community sample of Canadian adolescents. Method: Self-reported data on demographic information and pathological personality traits were obtained from 144 youth (Mage = 16.08 years, SD = 1.30). Personality pathology was measured using the youth-version of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP-Y; Linde, Stringer, Simms, & Clark, in press) and the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI; De Clercq, De Fruyt, Van Leeuwen, & Mervielde, 2006). Lower-order scales were subjected to structural hierarchical analyses. Results: Scales from the two measures were complementary in defining higher-order traits. Traits at the 4-factor level of the hierarchy (Need for Approval, Disagreeableness, Detachment, and Compulsivity) showed similarities and differences with previous results in adults. Conclusions: The current investigation integrated top-down and bottom-up measures for a comprehensive account of the higher-order hierarchy of adolescent personality pathology. Results are discussed in the context of convergence across approaches and in comparison with previous findings in adult samples. PMID:23970908

Kushner, Shauna C.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; De Clercq, Barbara

2013-01-01

94

Gamblers seeking treatment: Who does and who doesn't?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background and aims: As only a minority of pathological gamblers (PGr) presents for treatment, further knowledge about help-seeking behavior is required in order to enhance treatment utilization. The present study investigated factors associated with treatment participation in gamblers in Germany. As subclinical pathological gamblers (SPGr, fulfilling one to four DSM-IV-criteria) are target of early intervention due to high risk of transition to pathological gambling, they were subject of special interest. Methods: The study analyzed data from a general population survey (n = 234, SPGr: n = 198, PGr: n = 36) and a treatment study (n = 329, SPGr: n = 22, PGr: n = 307). A two-step weighting procedure was applied to ensure comparability of samples. Investigated factors included socio-demographic variables, gambling behavior, symptoms of pathological gambling and substance use. Results: In PGr, regular employment and non-German nationality were positively associated with being in treatment while gambling on the Internet and gaming machines and fulfilling more DSM-IV-criteria lowered the odds. In SPGr, treatment attendance was negatively associated with married status and alcohol consumption and positively associated with older age, higher stakes, more fulfilled DSM-IV criteria and regular smoking. Conclusions: In accordance to expectations more severe gambling problems and higher problem awareness and/or external pressure might facilitate treatment entry. There are groups with lower chances of being in treatment: women, ethnic minorities, and SPGr. We propose target group specific offers, use of Internet-based methods as possible adaptions and/or extensions of treatment offers that could enhance treatment attendance. PMID:25317343

BRAUN, BARBARA; LUDWIG, MONIKA; SLECZKA, PAWEL; BUHRINGER, GERHARD; KRAUS, LUDWIG

2014-01-01

95

Response Inhibition during Cue Reactivity in Problem Gamblers: An fMRI Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disinhibition over drug use, enhanced salience of drug use and decreased salience of natural reinforcers are thought to play an important role substance dependence. Whether this is also true for pathological gambling is unclear. To understand the effects of affective stimuli on response inhibition in problem gamblers (PRGs), we designed an affective Go\\/Nogo to examine the interaction between response inhibition

Ruth J. van Holst; Mieke van Holstein; Wim van den Brink; Dick J. Veltman; Anna E. Goudriaan

2012-01-01

96

Practicing pathology in the era of big data and personalized medicine.  

PubMed

The traditional task of the pathologist is to assist physicians in making the correct diagnosis of diseases at the earliest possible stage to effectuate the optimal treatment strategy for each individual patient. In this respect surgical pathology (the traditional tissue diagnosis) is but a tool. It is not, of itself, the purpose of pathology practice; and change is in the air. This January 2014 issue of Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology (AIMM) embraces that change by the incorporation of the agenda and content of the journal Diagnostic Molecular Morphology (DMP). Over a decade ago AIMM introduced and promoted the concept of "molecular morphology," and has sought to publish molecular studies that correlate with the morphologic features that continue to define cancer and many diseases. That intent is now reinforced and extended by the merger with DMP, as a logical and timely response to the growing impact of a wide range of genetic and molecular technologies that are beginning to reshape the way in which pathology is practiced. The use of molecular and genomic techniques already demonstrates clear value in the diagnosis of disease, with treatment tailored specifically to individual patients. Personalized medicine is the future, and personalized medicine demands personalized pathology. The need for integration of the flood of new molecular data, with surgical pathology, digital pathology, and the full range of pathology data in the electronic medical record has never been greater. This review describes the possible impact of these pressures upon the discipline of pathology, and examines possible outcomes. There is a sense of excitement and adventure. Active adaption and innovation are required. The new AIMM, incorporating DMP, seeks to position itself for a central role in this process. PMID:24326463

Gu, Jiang; Taylor, Clive R

2014-01-01

97

Practicing Pathology in the Era of Big Data and Personalized Medicine  

PubMed Central

The traditional task of the pathologist is to assist physicians in making the correct diagnosis of diseases at the earliest possible stage to effectuate the optimal treatment strategy for each individual patient. In this respect surgical pathology (the traditional tissue diagnosis) is but a tool. It is not, of itself, the purpose of pathology practice; and change is in the air. This January 2014 issue of Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology (AIMM) embraces that change by the incorporation of the agenda and content of the journal Diagnostic Molecular Morphology (DMP). Over a decade ago AIMM introduced and promoted the concept of “molecular morphology,” and has sought to publish molecular studies that correlate with the morphologic features that continue to define cancer and many diseases. That intent is now reinforced and extended by the merger with DMP, as a logical and timely response to the growing impact of a wide range of genetic and molecular technologies that are beginning to reshape the way in which pathology is practiced. The use of molecular and genomic techniques already demonstrates clear value in the diagnosis of disease, with treatment tailored specifically to individual patients. Personalized medicine is the future, and personalized medicine demands personalized pathology. The need for integration of the flood of new molecular data, with surgical pathology, digital pathology, and the full range of pathology data in the electronic medical record has never been greater. This review describes the possible impact of these pressures upon the discipline of pathology, and examines possible outcomes. There is a sense of excitement and adventure. Active adaption and innovation are required. The new AIMM, incorporating DMP, seeks to position itself for a central role in this process. PMID:24326463

Gu, Jiang; Taylor, Clive R.; Phil, D

2014-01-01

98

Internet-based CBT intervention for gamblers in Finland: experiences from the field.  

PubMed

From September 2007 to May 2011 a total of 471 participants (325 males and 146 females) signed up for an 8-week Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy offered for gamblers in Finland. Sixty-four percent of the participants were pathological gamblers (PGs) (NODS 5> points), 14% were problem gamblers (NODS 3-4 points) and 10% were at risk of gambling problems (NODS 1-2 points). Two hundred and twenty four participants completed the treatment and after the treatment period significant changes were found in the following variables: gambling related problems (NODS), gambling urge, impaired control of gambling, alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C), social consequences, gambling-related cognitive erroneous thoughts and depression (MARD-S). In this sample co-morbid alcohol consumption was stronger among males. The main finding of this study was that the onset age of gambling was associated with a greater amount of gambling-related cognitive erroneous thoughts. PMID:23398086

Castrén, Sari; Pankakoski, Maiju; Tamminen, Manu; Lipsanen, Jari; Ladouceur, Robert; Lahti, Tuuli

2013-06-01

99

'You never told me I would turn into a gambler': a first person account of dopamine agonist - induced gambling addiction in a patient with restless legs syndrome  

PubMed Central

Dopaminergic agents are commonly used and effective treatments for restless legs syndrome (RLS), a disabling sensorimotor disorder. Less known are some of the potentially disabling side effects of these treatments, particularly iatrogenic gambling addiction, as is described here. Here the authors present a 62-year-old man, with a 20–year history of RLS, who developed gambling addiction while on dopaminergic treatment. He was not forewarned of this side effect, nor was he ever screened for gambling behaviours prior to or during treatment. Eight months after discontinuation of dopaminergic treatment and after 10 sessions of cognitive–behavioural therapy for gambling addiction, his gambling behaviours have partially resolved. To our knowledge, this is the first ever first person account of this condition. To prevent the devastating consequences of gambling addiction or to minimise its impact by early intervention, the authors call for clinicians involved in treatment of RLS to follow these simple measures: screen patients for gambling behaviours prior to the onset and during dopaminergic treatment; forewarn patients of this potential side effect; and if patients screen positive, refer them to specialist gambling treatment services, in addition to making necessary changes to their medication regime. PMID:22678941

Jones, Henrietta Bowden; George, Sanju

2011-01-01

100

Identifying problem and compulsive gamblers.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To present a meta-analysis of current research on the prevalence, identification, and treatment of problem and compulsive gamblers. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Problem and compulsive gambling was not a socio-scientific concern until the last two decades. Hence research on this topic is limited. The summary and analysis for this paper relied on computer searches of journal and news abstracts in addition to direct contact with organizations addressing the identification and treatment of compulsive gamblers. MAIN MESSAGE: An estimated 5% of those who gamble run into problems. About 1% of those who gamble are predicted to experience serious problems. Successful treatment of problem and compulsive gambling continues to be a challenge. Although cognitive therapy has been the favoured approach, a combination of several therapeutic approaches is advocated. CONCLUSIONS: Problem and compulsive gambling can present a real health threat. As with other addictions, treatment strategies continue to be a baffling social problem. Aware and informed physicians can have a pivotal role in the difficult process of identifying, acknowledging, and remediating problem and compulsive gambling. PMID:10907572

van Es, R.

2000-01-01

101

Development of personality and the remission and onset of personality pathology.  

PubMed

The current study used the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders data set (Lenzenweger, 1999) to examine the development of personality traits in the context of the remission and onset of personality disorder (PD) symptoms. Despite high levels of stability, past research on the development of basic personality traits has also found a mean trend toward increased maturity and that individuals vary in their trajectories of trait development. Research on PD change has shown a similar pattern. We employed individual growth curve modeling to examine the relationship between personality trait development and PD symptom course. We found that both are indeed related and that remission in PD symptoms is associated with patterns of trait development associated with more rapid maturity. In contrast, deviating from the mean of trait development either through no change (i.e., stagnation) or change in the opposite direction (i.e., regression) was associated with developing PD symptoms over the course of the study. PMID:21967009

Wright, Aidan G C; Pincus, Aaron L; Lenzenweger, Mark F

2011-12-01

102

Development of Personality and the Remission and Onset of Personality Pathology  

PubMed Central

The current study uses the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders dataset (Lenzenweger, 1999) to examine the development of personality traits in the context of the remission and onset of personality disorder (PD) symptoms. Despite high levels of stability, past research that has examined the development of basic personality traits has also found a mean trend towards increased maturity, and that individuals vary in their trajectories of trait development. Research on PD change has shown a similar pattern. We employ individual growth curve modeling to examine the relationship between personality trait development and PD symptom course. We found that the two are indeed related, and that remission in PD symptoms is associated with patterns of trait development associated with more rapid maturity. In contrast, deviating from the mean of trait development either through no change (i.e., stagnation) or change in the opposite direction (i.e., regression) was associated with developing PD symptoms over the course of the study. PMID:21967009

Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.

2011-01-01

103

Counselling in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the gambling literature and the phases of the pathological gambler's career. Examines counseling approaches that have been used in the treatment of gambling, including psychotherapy, conjoint marital therapy, minimal interventions, behavioral counseling, and practical approaches to the treatment of adolescent problem gamblers. (Author/GCP)

Griffiths, Mark D.; MacDonald, Helen F.

1999-01-01

104

The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality for Youth (SNAP-Y): a new measure for assessing adolescent personality and personality pathology.  

PubMed

The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Youth Version (SNAP-Y) is a new, reliable self-report questionnaire that assesses 15 personality traits relevant to both normal-range personality and the alternative DSM-5 model for personality disorder. Community adolescents, 12 to 18 years old (N = 364), completed the SNAP-Y; 347 also completed the Big Five Inventory-Adolescent, 144 provided 2-week retest data, and 128 others completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent. Outpatient adolescents (N = 103) completed the SNAP-Y, and 97 also completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent. The SNAP-Y demonstrated strong psychometric properties, and structural, convergent, discriminant, and external validities. Consistent with the continuity of personality, results paralleled those in adult and college samples using the adult Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Second Edition (SNAP-2), from which the SNAP-Y derives and which has established validity in personality-trait assessment across the normal-abnormal continuum. The SNAP-Y thus provides a new, clinically useful instrument to assess personality traits and personality pathology in adolescents. PMID:23794180

Linde, Jennifer A; Stringer, Deborah; Simms, Leonard J; Clark, Lee Anna

2013-08-01

105

Pathological Gambling Among Youthful Multiple Substance Abusers in a Therapeutic Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Patients in a therapeutic community were questioned about their gambling behavior in order to find out what percentage of them were pathological gamblers. The South Oaks Gambling Screen (the SOGS) was used to screen the clients for gambling-related problems. Out of 100 residents tested, 14 were diagnosed as pathological gamblers and an additional 14 showed signs of problematic gambling.

HENRY R. LESIEUR; MARY HEINEMAN

1988-01-01

106

Narcissism at the crossroads: Phenotypic description of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social\\/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review documents two themes of emphasis found in phenotypic descriptions of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social\\/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Clinical theories of narcissism spanning 35 years consistently describe variations in the expression of pathological narcissism that emphasize either grandiosity or vulnerable affects and self-states. Recent research in social\\/personality psychology examining the structure of narcissistic personality traits consistently finds

Nicole M. Cain; Aaron L. Pincus; Emily B. Ansell

2008-01-01

107

Characterizing Pathological Narcissism in Terms of the HEXACO Model of Personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the grandiose and vulnerable subscales of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al.\\u000a (Psychological Assessment, 21, 365-379, 2009)) in the context of the HEXACO model of personality. Based upon previous research, we predicted that grandiose aspects of\\u000a narcissism would be related to high extraversion, low emotionality, and low agreeableness, while vulnerable aspects of narcissism\\u000a would be

Konrad Bresin; Kathryn H. Gordon

2011-01-01

108

Pathological Gambling and Age: Differences in personality, psychopathology, and response to treatment variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to ascertain the possible differences in personality, psychopathology, and response to treatment in pathological gambling according to age. The sample, comprising 67 participants, was divided into three groups: 32.6% with ages ranging between 17 and 26 years, 31.3% between 27 and 43 years, and 35.8% over 44 years of age.The participants were administered the

A. González-Ibáñez; M. Mora; J. Gutiérrez-Maldonado; A. Ariza; M. R. Lourido-Ferreira

2005-01-01

109

Personality Pathology and Mental Health Treatment Seeking in a Community Sample of Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Sampling issues are extremely important in studies of psychopathology, especially with regard to the investigation of personality disorders (PDs). Many studies rely on clinical samples while others have focused on representative samples of community residents. Do people who qualify for a PD diagnosis seek and receive mental health services with greater (or possibly reduced) frequency compared to others in the community? Do community-based studies of PDs include people who have been treated? Analyses presented here examine connections between personality pathology and various aspects of treatment seeking in a representative sample of 1,630 middle-aged adults who completed a semi-structured diagnostic interview (SIDP-IV). Results demonstrate a disorder specific effect. Antisocial, borderline, avoidant, and dependent PDs are associated with increased levels of seeking treatment. Four PDs are associated with greater length of treatment. After accounting for lifetime presence of major depression and alcohol dependence, borderline, avoidant, and dependent pathology remained associated with increased treatment seeking. These findings point to several conclusions, including: 1) community samples do include a substantial proportion of people who have received various kinds of mental health services, 2) the association between personality pathology and mental health treatment seeking is not fully explained by comorbid depression and alcohol dependence. PMID:24343963

Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2012-01-01

110

Personality Pathology Predicts Outcomes in a Treatment-Seeking Sample with Bipolar I Disorder  

PubMed Central

We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a clinical trial to explore the relationship between degree of personality disorder (PD) pathology (i.e., number of subthreshold and threshold PD symptoms) and mood and functioning outcomes in Bipolar I Disorder (BD-I). Ninety-two participants completed baseline mood and functioning assessments and then underwent 4 months of treatment for an index manic, mixed, or depressed phase acute episode. Additional assessments occurred over a 28-month follow-up period. PD pathology did not predict psychosocial functioning or manic symptoms at 4 or 28 months. However, it did predict depressive symptoms at both timepoints, as well as percent time symptomatic. Clusters A and C pathology were most strongly associated with depression. Our findings fit with the literature highlighting the negative repercussions of PD pathology on a range of outcomes in mood disorders. This study builds upon previous research, which has largely focused on major depression and which has primarily taken a categorical approach to examining PD pathology in BD. PMID:24516762

Wenze, Susan J.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Weinstock, Lauren M.; Miller, Ivan W.

2014-01-01

111

Validation of the FFM PD count technique for screening personality pathology in later middle-aged and older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the applicability of the five factor model (FFM) to capture personality pathology coincided with the development of a FFM personality disorder (PD) count technique, which has been validated in adolescent, young, and middle-aged samples. This study extends the literature by validating this technique in an older sample. Five alternative FFM PD counts based upon the Revised NEO Personality

Joke Van den Broeck; Gina Rossi; Barbara De Clercq; Eva Dierckx; Leen Bastiaansen

2012-01-01

112

Preparing Addiction Specialists to Include Case Management and Vocational Rehabilitation Services in the Treatment Model for Problem Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Professionals in the field of addictions view problems associated with recovery management across multiple domains. This exploratory study utilized concept mapping and pattern matching methodology to conceptualize the resulting 7 domains of concern for treatment and aftercare of problem and pathological gamblers. The information can be used by educators as they enhance their curriculum to address recovery management issues for

Margaret K. Glenn; Sebastián R. Díaz; Carolyn Hawley

2009-01-01

113

A Comparison Study of the Behavior and Practices of Casino Gamblers as Compared to Those Gamblers of Sport Book Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the behavior of gamblers who have a specific area of preferred gambling. Some gamblers prefer casino games such as table games and slots while others prefer sports betting or pari-mutuel wagering. The intention of this study was to identify differences in behaviors, activities, and attitudes of gamblers that indulge in different types of gambling. This information will

Pender B. Noriega; Li-Chun Lin

2003-01-01

114

A Test of Social Cognitive Theory Reciprocal and Sequential Effects: Hope, Superstitious Belief and Environmental Factors among Lottery Gamblers in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) hypotheses of reciprocal and sequential effects among person, environment variables and behavior. The study examined the\\u000a impact of hope, superstitious belief and environmental factors on the frequency, amounts of lottery gambling and chasing of\\u000a particular numbers among Thai lottery gamblers. One hundred and fifty gamblers who visited two temples in Bangkok to

Vanchai Ariyabuddhiphongs; Nathanat Chanchalermporn

2007-01-01

115

Are there differential relationships between different types of childhood maltreatment and different types of adult personality pathology?  

PubMed

While considerable data support the relationship between childhood trauma and adult personality pathology in general, there is little research investigating the specific relationships between different types of childhood maltreatment and adult personality disorders. The present study tested a model incorporating five a priori hypotheses regarding the association between distinct forms of childhood maltreatment and personality pathology in 231 psychiatric patients using multiple self-report measures (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4th Edition, Child Trauma Questionnaire, Conflict in Tactics Scale Parent-Child Child-Adult, and Multidimensional Neglectful Behavior Scale). Step-wise linear regressions supported three out of five hypotheses, suggesting independent relationships between: physical abuse and antisocial personality disorder traits; emotional abuse and Cluster C personality disorder traits; and maternal neglect and Cluster A personality disorder traits after controlling for co-occurring maltreatment types and personality disorder traits. Results did not support an independent relationship between sexual abuse and borderline personality traits nor between emotional abuse and narcissistic personality disorder traits. Additionally, there were three unexpected findings: physical abuse was independently and positively associated with narcissistic and paranoid traits and negatively associated with Cluster C traits. These findings can help refine our understanding of adult personality pathology and support the future development of clinical tools for survivors of childhood maltreatment. PMID:24268580

Cohen, Lisa Janet; Tanis, Thachell; Bhattacharjee, Reetuparna; Nesci, Christina; Halmi, Winter; Galynker, Igor

2014-01-30

116

Child maltreatment, personality pathology, and stalking victimization among male and female college students.  

PubMed

Self-report college student surveys on childhood maltreatment, and borderline and narcissistic personality features are examined to determine their influence on stalking victimization vulnerability. Stalking victimization was measured using Spitzberg and Cupach's (2008) Obsessive Relational Intrusion scale. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models were run separately for men (N = 677) and women (N = 1,017). Results indicated childhood sexual maltreatment and borderline traits were associated with stalking victimization among both men and women. These were the only significant relationships for men (R2 = .10). For women, stalking victimization was also associated with narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability and with a child sexual abuse by borderline features interaction (R2 = .13), demonstrating women reporting prior sexual abuse and borderline personality pathology are especially vulnerable. Methodological and policy implications are discussed. PMID:24834749

Ménard, Kim S; Pincus, Aaron L

2014-01-01

117

Using Neural Networks to Model the Behavior and Decisions of Gamblers, in Particular, Cyber-Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the use of neural networks (a type of artificial intelligence) and an empirical data sample of, inter\\u000a alia, the amounts of bets laid and the winnings\\/losses made in successive games by a number of cyber-gamblers to longitudinally\\u000a model gamblers’ behavior and decisions as to such bet amounts and the temporal trajectory of winnings\\/losses. The data was\\u000a collected

Victor K. Y. Chan

2010-01-01

118

Heterogeneity of interpersonal problems among depressed young adults: Associations with substance abuse and pathological personality traits  

PubMed Central

This study extended previous theory and research on interpersonal heterogeneity in depression by identifying groups of depressed young adults who differ in their type and degree of interpersonal problems, and by examining patterns of pathological personality traits and alcohol abuse among these groups. We examined the interpersonal problems, personality traits, and alcohol-related problems of 172 college students with at least moderate levels of self-reported depression on the Patient Health Questionnaire (Spitzer, Kroenke, & Williams, 1999). Scores from the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems – Short Circumplex (Soldz, Budman, Demby, & Merry, 1995) were subjected to latent profile analysis, which classified individuals into five distinct groups defined by the types of interpersonal problems they experience (dominant, warm, submissive, cold, and undifferentiated). As hypothesized, groups did not differ in depression severity, but did show predicted patterns of differences on normative and maladaptive personality traits, as well as alcohol-related problems. The presence of clinically meaningful interpersonal heterogeneity in depression may have important implications for designing more individualized treatments and prevention efforts for depression that target diverse associated interpersonal problems. PMID:23560433

Dawood, Sindes; Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

119

Pathological gambling in Missouri.  

PubMed

Riverboat casinos were introduced in 1994, and there are now eleven gambling venues in Missouri, in addition to the lottery. Gambling is monitored by the Missouri Gaming Commission which was established to supervise gambling operations in the state, and minimize criminal involvement. The Commission also operates programs for problem gamblers that are described. Pathological gambling has become a major problem in Missouri and elsewhere, and its characteristics and clinical management are reviewed herein. PMID:17133745

Black, Donald W; Shaw, Martha

2006-01-01

120

Really not god: Secularization and pragmatism in Gamblers Anonymous.  

PubMed

The paper argues that despite maintaining the image of a twelve-step organization, the central theme of the history of Gamblers Anonymous (GA) in the United States is the increasing secularization of the program of the recovery. The paper documents the increasing secularization and pragmatism of Gamblers Anonymous, as reflected in key documents, despite the spiritual vision of its founding member. The author speculates on why Gamblers Anonymous took a secularized development path. Further research is called for. PMID:24234922

Browne, B R

1994-09-01

121

Personality Pathology and Alcohol Dependence at Midlife in a Community Sample  

PubMed Central

The present study examined the association between personality pathology (PP) and alcohol dependence (AD; both lifetime and in the past 12 months) among middle-aged to older adults incorporating three sources of assessment, specifically, diagnostic interviews as well as self- and informant reports. We collected data from a representative sample of community participants (N = 1,630; ages 54 – 65 years) and their informants (N = 1,462). Measures employed were the substance use disorder sections of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview Schedule for Mental Disorders, the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text rev.; DSM–IV–TR SIDP) and the NEO-Personality Inventory–Revised (Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R., Revised NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) manual, 1992, Odessa, FL, Psychological Assessment Resources; self-report and informant versions). To complement the diagnostic interview for personality disorders (PDs), we utilized a PD-count technique derived from the five-factor model (FFM), which provided an index of PP liability. Factors representing lifetime and past-12 month AD were regressed on each of the 10 PP factors constructed from the SIDP interview, as well as self-report and informant FFM-count scores. Lifetime diagnosis of AD was positively associated with higher scores on several PP measures, including paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PP. There was an inverse relation between lifetime AD and the factor score for obsessive– compulsive PP. With regard to AD in the past 12 months, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PP factors were significantly associated with increased risk for AD, whereas the obsessive– compulsive and schizoid PP factors were associated with decreased risk for AD. The present data indicate that features of antisocial and borderline PP continue to exhibit a relatively strong association with risk for AD in later middle age. PMID:23230852

Agrawal, Arpana; Narayanan, Gitanjali; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2013-01-01

122

Cognitive Inflexibility in Gamblers is Primarily Present in Reward-Related Decision Making  

PubMed Central

One hallmark of gambling disorder (GD) is the observation that gamblers have problems stopping their gambling behavior once it is initiated. On a neuropsychological level, it has been hypothesized that this is the result of a cognitive inflexibility. The present study investigated cognitive inflexibility in patients with GD using a task involving cognitive inflexibility with a reward element (i.e., reversal learning) and a task measuring general cognitive inflexibility without such a component (i.e., response perseveration). For this purpose, scores of a reward-based reversal learning task (probabilistic reversal learning task) and the Wisconsin card sorting task were compared between a group of treatment seeking patients with GD and a gender and age matched control group. The results show that pathological gamblers have impaired performance on the neurocognitive task measuring reward-based cognitive inflexibility. However, no difference between the groups is observed regarding non-reward-based cognitive inflexibility. This suggests that cognitive inflexibility in GD is the result of an aberrant reward-based learning, and not based on a more general problem with cognitive flexibility. The pattern of observed problems is suggestive of a dysfunction of the orbitofrontal cortex, the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and the ventral regions of the striatum in gamblers. Relevance for the neurocognition of problematic gambling is discussed. PMID:25165438

Boog, Michiel; Hoppener, Paul; v. d. Wetering, Ben J. M.; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Boog, Matthijs C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

2014-01-01

123

Cue-induced craving increases impulsivity via changes in striatal value signals in problem gamblers.  

PubMed

Impulsive behavior such as steep temporal discounting is a hallmark of addiction and is associated with relapse. In pathological gamblers, discounting may be further increased by the presence of gambling-related cues in the environment, but the extent to which the gambling relatedness of task settings affects reward responses in gambling addiction is debated. In the present study, human problem gamblers made choices between immediate rewards and individually tailored larger-but-later rewards while visual gambling-related scenes were presented in the background. N = 17 participants were scanned using fMRI, whereas N = 5 additional participants completed a behavioral version of the task. Postscan craving ratings were acquired for each image, and behavioral and neuroimaging data were analyzed separately for high- and low-craving trials (median split analysis). Discounting was steeper for high versus low craving trials. Neuroimaging revealed a positive correlation with model-based subjective value in midbrain and striatum in low-craving trials that was reversed in high-craving trials. These findings reveal a modulation of striatal reward responses in gamblers by addiction-related cues, and highlight a potentially important mechanism that may contribute to relapse. Cue-induced changes in striatal delayed reward signals may lead to increased discounting of future rewards, which might in turn affect the likelihood of relapse. PMID:24672019

Miedl, Stephan F; Büchel, Christian; Peters, Jan

2014-03-26

124

A unifying perspective on personality pathology across the life span: Developmental considerations for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposed changes in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V )i nclude replacing current personality disorder (PD) categories on Axis II with a taxonomy of dimensional maladaptive personality traits. Most of the work on dimensional models of personality pathology, and on personality disorders per se, has been conducted on young and middle-aged adult populations.

Jennifer L. Tackett; Steve Balsis; Thomas F. Oltmanns; ROBERT F. KRUEGERc

2009-01-01

125

Desperate Housewives: An Analysis of the Characterisations of Female Gamblers Portrayed in Gambling Movies in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines portrayals of female gamblers in recent Hong Kong movies. The authors report that the depiction of female gamblers is very different from that of male gamblers in the movies made in the same period. Whereas the male gamblers are pitching a lonely and desperate battle against an evil opponent, the female gamblers portrayed in…

Ohtsuka, Keis; Chan, Chi Chuen

2009-01-01

126

Behavioral Treatment for Pathological Gambling in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present investigation examined a behavior-analytic clinical treatment package designed to reduce the pathological gambling of 3 individuals with acquired brain injury. A prior history of pathological gambling of each patient was assessed via caregiver report, psychological testing, and direct observation of gambling behavior. Using an 8-week…

Guercio, John M.; Johnson, Taylor; Dixon, Mark R.

2012-01-01

127

The Gambler’s Fallacy Is Associated with Weak Affective Decision Making but Strong Cognitive Ability  

PubMed Central

Humans demonstrate an inherent bias towards making maladaptive decisions, as shown by a phenomenon known as the gambler’s fallacy (GF). The GF has been traditionally considered as a heuristic bias supported by the fast and automatic intuition system, which can be overcome by the reasoning system. The present study examined an intriguing hypothesis, based on emerging evidence from neuroscience research, that the GF might be attributed to a weak affective but strong cognitive decision making mechanism. With data from a large sample of college students, we found that individuals’ use of the GF strategy was positively correlated with their general intelligence and executive function, such as working memory and conflict resolution, but negatively correlated with their affective decision making capacities, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task. Our result provides a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying the GF, which highlights the significant role of affective mechanisms in adaptive decision-making. PMID:23071701

Xue, Gui; He, Qinghua; Lei, Xuemei; Chen, Chunhui; Liu, Yuyun; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Dong, Qi; Bechara, Antoine

2012-01-01

128

The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality for Youth (SNAP-Y): A New Measure for Assessing Adolescent Personality and Personality Pathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Youth Version (SNAP-Y) is a new, reliable self-report questionnaire that assesses 15 personality traits relevant to both normal-range personality and the alternative "DSM"-5 model for personality disorder. Community adolescents, 12 to 18 years old (N = 364), completed the SNAP-Y; 347…

Linde, Jennifer A.; Stringer, Deborah; Simms, Leonard J.; Clark, Lee Anna

2013-01-01

129

The Profiles of Gamblers Seeking Counseling Services Evidence from Chinese Gamblers in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study maps the demographic profiles of 4,480 clients of ten problem gambling services in Hong Kong. It attempts to identify help-seekers' characteristics associated with gender, adolescent onset of gambling, and suicidal thoughts\\/attempts. This aggregation of data to form a gambler service user profile among Hong Kong Chinese is the first of its kind. Service and research implications are discussed.

CYNTHIA LEUNG; SANDRA TSANG

2011-01-01

130

Internet Gambling: An Online Empirical Study Among Student Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been noted that the introduction of the Internet to gambling activities may change some of the fundamental situational\\u000a and structural characteristics and make them potentially more addictive and\\/or problematic. This study examined some of the\\u000a differences between Internet gamblers and non-Internet gamblers. Based on past literature it was hypothesised that (1) males\\u000a would be significantly more likely to

Mark Griffiths; Andrew Barnes

2008-01-01

131

[Inbred disgust propensity in the aspect of the development of pathological personality].  

PubMed

Correlations between inborn (constituional) disgust propensity, dynamics of personality disorders and development of contamination fear in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were studied in 54 patients with milder forms of mysophobia. Three types of contamination fear characterized by different combinations of disgust propensity and personality traits were singled out. Clinical features of OCD were shown to correspond to premorbid personality while denotative characteristics of OCD were correlated with constituional phenomenon of disgust propensity. The results suggest that disgust propensity is a stable personality dimension contributing to the development of contamination fear. PMID:23096030

Belova, N A

2012-01-01

132

Internalizing-externalizing Psychopathology and Personality Pathology As Predictors of Treatment Rejection in Substance Users.  

E-print Network

??Substance use disorders (SUDs) are often comorbid with other psychopathology such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and personality disorders. While some research suggests individuals with… (more)

Lewis, Jonathan James

2013-01-01

133

Behavioral treatment for pathological gambling in persons with acquired brain injury.  

PubMed

The present investigation examined a behavior-analytic clinical treatment package designed to reduce the pathological gambling of 3 individuals with acquired brain injury. A prior history of pathological gambling of each patient was assessed via caregiver report, psychological testing, and direct observation of gambling behavior. Using an 8-week one-on-one client-patient format, a treatment program was developed in which the patient learned about the antecedents, consequences, and motivating operations that controlled the emission of gambling behavior. Data were collected on both self-report of gambling urges and behavior following therapy and during in situ gambling opportunities. The therapy program reduced urges to gamble and actual gambling for all patients. The potential of behavior-analytic therapy for reducing the pathological gambling of patients with and without brain injury is discussed. PMID:23060663

Guercio, John M; Johnson, Taylor; Dixon, Mark R

2012-01-01

134

Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems\\u000a model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal–spiritual disconnections of pathological\\u000a gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT’s theoretical foundations, main constructs, and\\u000a treatment interventions are illustrated in a progression of six clinical phases. Promise of CCT’s systemic conceptualization\\u000a and interventions

Bonnie K. Lee

2009-01-01

135

Self-and Peer Perspectives on Pathological Personality Traits and Interpersonal Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares the relationship between personality disorders and interpersonal problems as obtained by self-report and peer-report measures. Participants (N=393) were administered self-and peer-report versions of the Peer Inventory for Personality Disorder and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-64. Canonical analyses demonstrated…

Clifton, Allan; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2005-01-01

136

Personality, Pathology, and The Act of Creation: The Case of Alfred Hitchcock  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Recent biographies of Alfred Hitchcock—especially Spoto's (1983)—have emphasized the deterministic role of Hitchcock's emotional problems in his art. Such analyses of Hitchcock's personality and creativity touch on classic issues of the relationship between art and artist. However, any reduction of artistic themes like those in Hitchcock's films into terms of personal psychopathology is inadequate for apprehending artistic creation.

Stanton Peele

1986-01-01

137

Personality, Pathology, and The Act of Creation: The Case of Alfred Hitchcock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent biographies of Alfred Hitchcock—especially Spoto's (1983)—have emphasized the deterministic role of Hitchcock's emotional problems in his art. Such analyses of Hitchcock's personality and creativity touch on classic issues of the relationship between art and artist. However, any reduction of artistic themes like those in Hitchcock's films into terms of personal psychopathology is inadequate for apprehending artistic creation.

Stanton Peele

1986-01-01

138

Statistical, Practical, Clinical, and Personal Significance: Definitions and Applications in Speech-Language Pathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To discuss constructs and methods related to assessing the magnitude and the meaning of clinical outcomes, with a focus on applications in speech-language pathology. Method: Professionals in medicine, allied health, psychology, education, and many other fields have long been concerned with issues referred to variously as practical…

Bothe, Anne K.; Richardson, Jessica D.

2011-01-01

139

Personalized medicine and development of targeted therapies: the upcoming challenge for diagnostic molecular pathology. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to continuous technical developments and new insights into the high complexity of many diseases, molecular pathology is a rapidly growing field gaining center stage in the clinical management of tumors as well as in the pharmaceutical development of new anti-cancer drugs. The application of novel compounds in clinical trials has revealed promising results; however, the current diagnostic procedures available

Manfred Dietel; Christine Sers

2006-01-01

140

Imbalance in the sensitivity to different types of rewards in pathological gambling.  

PubMed

Pathological gambling is an addictive disorder characterized by a persistent and compulsive desire to engage in gambling activities. This maladaptive behaviour has been suggested to result from a decreased sensitivity to experienced rewards, regardless of reward type. Alternatively, pathological gambling might reflect an imbalance in the sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives. To directly test these two hypotheses, we examined how the brain reward circuit of pathological gamblers responds to different types of rewards. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared the brain responses of 18 pathological gamblers and 20 healthy control subjects while they engaged in a simple incentive task manipulating both monetary and visual erotic rewards. During reward anticipation, the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers showed a differential response to monetary versus erotic cues, essentially driven by a blunted reactivity to cues predicting erotic stimuli. This differential response correlated with the severity of gambling symptoms and was paralleled by a reduced behavioural motivation for erotic rewards. During reward outcome, a posterior orbitofrontal cortex region, responding to erotic rewards in both groups, was further recruited by monetary gains in pathological gamblers but not in control subjects. Moreover, while ventral striatal activity correlated with subjective ratings assigned to monetary and erotic rewards in control subjects, it only correlated with erotic ratings in gamblers. Our results point to a differential sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary rewards in pathological gambling, both at the motivational and hedonic levels. Such an imbalance might create a bias towards monetary rewards, potentially promoting addictive gambling behaviour. PMID:23757765

Sescousse, Guillaume; Barbalat, Guillaume; Domenech, Philippe; Dreher, Jean-Claude

2013-08-01

141

The Relationship Between Pathological Gambling and Sensation Seeking: The Role of Subscale Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research investigating the relationship between gambling and sensation seeking has yet to establish conclusively whether pathological\\u000a gamblers (PGs) are more or less sensation seeking than nonpathological gamblers (NPGs). Sensation seeking is usually measured\\u000a with the Zuckerman et al. (J Consult Clin Psychol 46:139–149, 1978) SS Scale form V (SSS-V). Whereas previous studies relied\\u000a on the SSS-V total score, the current

Erica E. Fortune; Adam S. Goodie

2010-01-01

142

Psychophysiological Assessment of Compulsive Gamblers' Arousal to Gambling Cues: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychophysiological assessments measuring heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and skin resistance level were conducted on 7 male compulsive gamblers and on 7 age and gender matched controls while both groups performed mental arithmetic and listened to individualized tapes of the gamblers' preferred form of gambling and an individualized fear tape. Heart rate responses of the gamblers to the

Edward B. Blanchard; Edelgard Wulfert; Brian M. Freidenberg; Loretta S. Malta

2000-01-01

143

Gamblers' habits: empirical evidence on the behavior of regulars, newcomers and dropouts.  

PubMed

Electronic gambling offers the opportunity to analyze huge and unbiased data sets of automatically recorded actual gambling behavior. This study refers to data on 2,127,887 poker playing identities from the Online Poker Database of the University of Hamburg (OPD-UHH) to analyze three subgroups of gamblers: regulars, newcomers, and dropouts. Their gambling habits over 6 months are analyzed in total, as well as over time. Regulars show a much higher involvement than non-regulars and increase their playing volume slightly over the observation period. Newcomers have a lower involvement than non-newcomers and most of them decrease their playing volume over time. Still, there is a small group of newcomers which increases their playing volume sharply and is, hence, very interesting for the industry as well as for the early prevention of pathological gambling. Dropouts have a higher gambling involvement than newcomers but play less than players who have not stopped stop gambling. Most dropouts also show a decreasing playing volume before dropping out. An analysis of the correlations between different variables of gambling habits shows that most of them reinforce each other, for example: gamblers with a higher total playing time tend to play at more tables simultaneously. Only playing frequency is a moderating variable of gambling involvement. PMID:22562549

Fiedler, Ingo

2013-06-01

144

Long-Term Outcome of Inpatient Psychotherapy for Adolescents (IPA) With Personality Pathology.  

PubMed

Little is known about the effectiveness of treatment programs for adolescents with personality disorders (PDs). This descriptive study investigated long-term outcomes of inpatient psychotherapy for adolescents (IPA). In addition, predictors of long-term treatment effects were investigated. Seventy adolescents who completed their treatment were followed during and after their stay in IPA. Semistructured interviews were used to assess Axis I and Axis II disorders. Patients completed questionnaires to measure symptom severity and personality styles and functioning. Patients showed improvements (d ranging from .18 to .80). After leaving IPA, a small relapse rate was shown. Higher levels of dependency or more Cluster C PD traits significantly predicted positive long-term treatment outcome. Although IPA might be effective for a particular group of adolescents, mean long-term treatment effects were at best modest. Given the high costs of IPA, developing adjustments to IPA and their guidelines is warranted to ensure cost-effectiveness. PMID:24689768

Feenstra, Dine J; Laurenssen, Elisabeth M P; Timman, Reinier; Verheul, Roel; Busschbach, Jan J V; Hutsebaut, Joost

2014-10-01

145

Associations between Pathological Gambling and Psychiatric Comorbidity among Help-Seeking Populations in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

Problem gambling is complex and often comorbid with other mental health problems. Unfortunately, gambling studies on comorbid psychiatric disorders among Chinese communities are extremely limited. The objectives of this study were to (a) determine the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers; (b) compare the demographic profiles and clinical features of pathological gamblers with and without comorbid psychiatric disorders; (c) explore the associations between pathological gambling and psychiatric disorders and their temporal relationship. Participants (N = 201) who sought gambling counseling were examined by making Axis-I diagnoses including mood disorders, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, substance use disorders, anxiety disorders, and adjustment disorder. Results showed that 63.7% of participants had lifetime comorbid psychiatric disorder. The most common comorbid psychiatric mental disorders were mood disorders, adjustment disorder, and substance use disorders. Pathological gamblers with psychiatric comorbidities were significantly more severe in psychopathology, psychosocial functioning impairment, and gambling problems than those without the disorders. PMID:22778700

Shek, Daniel T. L.; Chan, Elda M. L.; Wong, Ryan H. Y.

2012-01-01

146

Are psychology university student gamblers representative of non-university students and general gamblers? A comparative analysis.  

PubMed

Students recruited from psychology undergraduate university populations are commonly used in psychology research, including gambling studies. However, the extent to which the use of this subpopulation produces findings that can be extrapolated to other groups is questionable. The present study was designed to compare results from university-recruited psychology student gamblers to those obtained from a sample of gamblers recruited from the general population that also included students. An online survey measuring gambling behavior and Internet gambling, attitudes and knowledge about gambling and problem gambling severity was posted on websites accessed by gamblers. Participants were recruited from two sources, a psychology undergraduate university population (n = 461) and online websites (n = 4,801). Results showed university-recruited students differed significantly from both adults and students recruited from the general population in respect to demographic variables and gambling behavior. Psychology undergraduate students were younger, more likely to be female, and had lower incomes. When relevant demographic variables were controlled, psychology undergraduate students were found to gamble less frequently, at different times, and to be at lower-risk for gambling-related problems, but had more irrational beliefs and more negative attitudes towards gambling than gamblers recruited from the general population. Results suggest that caution should be used in extrapolating findings from research using university-recruited psychology student gamblers to wide community populations due to differences related to gambling thoughts, attitudes and behaviors. PMID:23065178

Gainsbury, Sally M; Russell, Alex; Blaszczynski, Alex

2014-03-01

147

Desperate Housewives: An Analysis of the Characterisations of Female Gamblers Portrayed in Gambling Movies in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines portrayals of female gamblers in recent Hong Kong movies. The authors report that the depiction of female\\u000a gamblers is very different from that of male gamblers in the movies made in the same period. Whereas the male gamblers are\\u000a pitching a lonely and desperate battle against an evil opponent, the female gamblers portrayed in the movies are

Keis Ohtsuka; Chi Chuen Chan

2009-01-01

148

Motives and methods of under-age casino gamblers.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have documented that under-age gambling is quite common. The present study employs interviews of 48 university students who gambled under-age to determine the motives and methods associated with casino gambling by minors. The information gathered in these interviews indicates that access to casinos is easily attained, that the risk of exposure once gambling is minimal, and the motivations of under-age gamblers differ in important ways from that of adults, as access to alcohol, accompanying parents, and the desire to experience the "forbidden fruit" of casino gambling are commonly mentioned motivations by under-age gamblers. PMID:17096203

Giacopassi, David; Stitt, B Grant; Nichols, Mark

2006-12-01

149

Neuroimaging of structural pathology and connectomics in traumatic brain injury: Toward personalized outcome prediction?  

PubMed Central

Recent contributions to the body of knowledge on traumatic brain injury (TBI) favor the view that multimodal neuroimaging using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and fMRI, respectively) as well as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has excellent potential to identify novel biomarkers and predictors of TBI outcome. This is particularly the case when such methods are appropriately combined with volumetric/morphometric analysis of brain structures and with the exploration of TBI-related changes in brain network properties at the level of the connectome. In this context, our present review summarizes recent developments on the roles of these two techniques in the search for novel structural neuroimaging biomarkers that have TBI outcome prognostication value. The themes being explored cover notable trends in this area of research, including (1) the role of advanced MRI processing methods in the analysis of structural pathology, (2) the use of brain connectomics and network analysis to identify outcome biomarkers, and (3) the application of multivariate statistics to predict outcome using neuroimaging metrics. The goal of the review is to draw the community's attention to these recent advances on TBI outcome prediction methods and to encourage the development of new methodologies whereby structural neuroimaging can be used to identify biomarkers of TBI outcome. PMID:24179732

Irimia, Andrei; Wang, Bo; Aylward, Stephen R.; Prastawa, Marcel W.; Pace, Danielle F.; Gerig, Guido; Hovda, David A.; Kikinis, Ron; Vespa, Paul M.; Van Horn, John D.

2012-01-01

150

Initial thoughts on viewing pathological gambling from a physiological and intrapsychic structural perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an effort to integrate the contributions of various theoretical orientations in psychology, psychiatry, and neuropsychology into a framework that facilitates the understanding and treatment of pathological gambling. It is the belief of the author that pathological gamblers in particular and perhaps addicted individuals in general lack elements in basic internal structures. Such deficits may involve a biological

Loreen J. Rugle

1993-01-01

151

Sleep and Gambling Severity in a Community Sample of Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although sleep has been extensively studied in substance related disorders, sleep has yet to be examined as thoroughly in gambling related disorders. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between gambling severity and sleep disturbances in a sample of non-treatment seeking gamblers (N = 96) using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS).

Iman Parhami; Aaron Siani; Richard J. Rosenthal; Stephanie Lin; Michael Collard; Timothy W. Fong

2012-01-01

152

Detection of Problem Gambler Subgroups Using Recursive Partitioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The multivariate socio-demographic risk factors for problem gambling have been well documented. While this body of research is valuable in determining risk factors aggregated across various populations, the majority of studies tend not to specifically identify particular subgroups of problem gamblers based on the interaction between variables. The…

Markham, Francis; Young, Martin; Doran, Bruce

2013-01-01

153

Application of gambler's ruin model to sediment transport problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gambler's ruin model of particle interaction between channel bed and flow is developed.The probability of reaching the maximum allowable particle number in flow is calculated.The effective risk of the treatment plant failing to handle the turbidity can be estimated.Variability in the effective risk of exceeding the maximum reservoir carrying capacity is quantified.

Tsai, Christina W.; Hsu, Yaowen; Lai, Kung-Chung; Wu, Nai-Kuang

2014-03-01

154

A case of pathological gambling--its features and mangement.  

PubMed

Pathological gambling (PG) represents the end spectrum of gambling behaviours. It is characterised by constantly recurring gambling behaviour which is maladaptive. This case illustrates how an Asian woman pathological gambler progresses through the different stages of development of the gambling habit, and how a multi-modal treatment approach has helped her regain psychosocial function. In addition, the maintenance factors, typical and atypical associated features, and difficulties in the management of such a case are highlighted. PMID:11513060

Lim, K D

2001-05-01

155

Pathology and Molecular Medicine  

E-print Network

. Pollett Mount Sinai Hospital University of Toronto Personalized Medicine in GI Oncologic PathologyPathology and Molecular Medicine ANATOMICAL PATHOLOGY GRAND ROUNDS 2012 / 2013 TIME: 12:30 - 1:30 p ROUNDS ARE SPONSORED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF PATHOLOGY AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE Updated: October5, 2012 #12;

Haykin, Simon

156

Pathological gambling: A review of the literature (prepared for the American Psychiatric Association task force on DSM-IV committee on disorders of impulse control not elsewhere classified)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a review of the literature on pathological gambling prepared for the work group on disorders of impulse control, not elsewhere classified of the American Psychiatric Association. It introduces the new DSM-IV criteria as well as outlines the phases of the career of the pathological gambler. Research discussed includes that on pathological gambling and psychiatric disorders, substance abuse, family

Henry R. Lesieur; Richard J. Rosenthal

1991-01-01

157

Internet Self-Exclusion: Characteristics of Self-Excluded Gamblers and Preliminary Evidence for Its Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary scientific evidence indicates that online gamblers are more likely to be problem gamblers and thus point to the\\u000a need for effective protection measures. This study focuses on an online self-exclusion program and seeks to comprehensively\\u000a examine the benefits of this measure. It was intended to collect detailed information on the characteristics of self-excluded\\u000a internet gamblers and to examine the

Tobias Hayer; Gerhard Meyer

2011-01-01

158

Gender Differences in Characteristics of Chinese Treatment-Seeking Problem Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 952 (841 men and 111 women) Chinese treatment-seeking problem gamblers completed self-report assessment forms.\\u000a Female in contrast to male gamblers were more likely to be older, married, less educated, and without employment. Female gamblers\\u000a also started gambling at an older age, had a shorter gambling history, preferred casino and mahjong gambling, and reported\\u000a more somatic complaints and

Catherine So-kum Tang; Anise M. S. Wu; Joe Y. C. Tang

2007-01-01

159

Subtypes of Disordered Gamblers: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)  

PubMed Central

Aims To derive empirical subtypes of problem gamblers based on etiological and clinical characteristics described in the Pathways Model, using data from a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults. Design & Measurement Data were collected from structured diagnostic face-to-face interviews using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-IV version IV (AUDADIS-IV). Setting The study utilized data from U.S. National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Participants All disordered gambling participants (N = 581) from a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of civilian non-institutionalized adults aged 18 years or older. Findings Latent class analyses indicated the best-fitting model was a three-class solution. Those in the largest class (Class 1: 51%, n=295) reported the lowest overall levels of psychopathology including gambling problem severity and mood disorders. In contrast, respondents in Class 2 (20%, n=117) had a high probability of endorsing past-year substance use disorders, moderate probabilities of having parents with alcohol/drug problems and of having a personality disorder, and the highest probability for past-year mood disorders. Respondents in Class 3 (29%, n=169) had the highest probabilities of personality and prior-to-past year mood disorders, substance use disorders, separation/divorce, drinking-related physical fights, and parents with alcohol/drug problems and/or a history of ASPD. Conclusions Three subtypes of disordered gamblers can be identified, roughly corresponding to the sub-types of the Pathways Model, ranging from a subgroup with low levels of gambling severity and psychopathology to one with high levels of gambling problem severity and comorbid psychiatric disorders. PMID:23072599

Nower, Lia; Martins, Silvia S.; Lin, Keng-Han; Blanco, Carlos

2014-01-01

160

‘I was Independent since I was Born’: Pre-Immigration Traumatic Experiences and Pathological Gambling in Four Chinese Canadians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trauma and adverse childhood events are found in the pre-immigration histories of a cohort of four Chinese Canadian pathological gamblers. The nature of their traumatic experiences, consisting of loss and abandonment, neglect and deprivation, physical and emotional abuse, socioeconomic and political oppression, is elucidated and described. The impact of pre-immigration trauma and its relationship to the development of pathological gambling

Bonnie Lee; Jason Solowoniuk; Mary Fong

2007-01-01

161

A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling\\u000a problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of\\u000a these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members of a local society and participation

Per Binde

162

Internet Gambling Behavior in a Sample of Online Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined Internet gambling behavior in a sample of online gamblers. Participants (N?=?563; 382 male; ages 18–over 65) were recruited from a banner placed in an online newsletter. Questionnaires were completed\\u000a online and assessed demographic information, game-play patterns (e.g., frequency, duration, wagering), preferred type of play,\\u000a and problem gambling (using the DSM-IV). In addition, participation in gambling-type games

Jessica McBride; Jeffrey Derevensky

2009-01-01

163

Female frequent Internet gamblers: a qualitative study investigating the role of family, social situation and work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study undertaken was a qualitative study of 25 females in the UK who gambled at least twice a week on the Internet. Volunteers were recruited from a wide range of sources. The sample included 16 problem gamblers (PGs) and nine frequent gamblers. Most of the women spent considerable periods at home and Internet gambling was something to do that

Roslyn Corney; Janette Davis

2010-01-01

164

Recruiting Gamblers from the General Population for Research Purposes: Outcomes from Two Contrasting Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple means exist by which gamblers including problem gamblers may be recruited from the general population for research survey purposes. However, there appears to be limited discussion in the published literature about the relative merits of one or other approach. This paper addresses this gap, in part, by reporting the experiences of…

Williams, Jeremy D.; Pulford, Justin; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max

2010-01-01

165

Personal Luck Usage Scale (PLUS): psychometric validation of a measure of gambling-related belief in luck as a personal possession  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luck is by definition a random event. However, many people believe luck to be something it is not – an internal, personal quality. An obstacle for understanding personal luck and its sequelae among gamblers has been the lack of a psychometrically sound measure. The current paper reports the development of the Personal Luck Usage Scale (PLUS). In Studies 1 and

Michael J. A. Wohl; Melissa J. Stewart; Matthew M. Young

2011-01-01

166

Measuring pathological gambling in children: The case of fruit machines in the U.K  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alleged incidence of addiction to fruit machine gambling among children in the U.K. has highlighted the need for a measure to define and count pathological gambling in children. The DSM-IV criteria, which are being refined to diagnose pathological gambling in adults, was adapted for use with pre-adult gamblers. The resulting DSM-IV-J criteria were tested using a questionnaire survey on

Sue Fisher

1992-01-01

167

Treatment of Pathological Gambling Using a Guided Self-Change Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological gamblers are prone to leave treatment early and often display low levels of motivation within treatment. Use of brief treatments that emphasize reducing client ambivalence through motivational techniques may help increase the likelihood of treatment compliance. This case study describes a 5-session treatment of pathological gambling using a brief and motivationally focused cognitive—behavioral guided self-change (GSC) approach. The 36-year-old

Damon Lipinski; James P. Whelan; Andrew W. Meyers

2007-01-01

168

Real Limits in the Virtual World: Self-Limiting Behavior of Internet Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent expansion of Internet gambling has stimulated debate, policy, and research on this relatively new phenomenon and\\u000a its potential consequences. The current study focuses on bettors experiencing problems by sampling Internet gamblers who imposed\\u000a limits on the amount they were allowed to deposit to a betting site. We analyzed the betting transactions over 18 months of\\u000a all gamblers who subscribed

Sarah E. Nelson; Debi A. LaPlante; Allyson J. Peller; Anja Schumann; Richard A. LaBrie; Howard J. Shaffer

2008-01-01

169

Gambling Motivations, Money-Limiting Strategies, and Precommitment Preferences of Problem Versus Non-Problem Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies attempting to identify the specific ‘addictive’ features of electronic gaming machines (EGMs) have yielded largely\\u000a inconclusive results, suggesting that it is the interaction between a gambler’s cognitions and the machine, rather than the\\u000a machine itself, which fuels excessive play. Research has reported that machine players with gambling problems adopt a number\\u000a of erroneous cognitive perceptions regarding the probability of

Lia Nower; Alex Blaszczynski

2010-01-01

170

An examination of the correlates of fearless dominance and self-centered impulsivity among high-frequency gamblers.  

PubMed

The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) is a commonly used assessment of psychopathy. Questions have been raised, however, regarding the validity of its Fearless Dominance (FD) factor. In the current study, the correlations manifested by FD and Self-centered Impulsivity (ScI) in relation to external criteria were examined in a sample of gamblers. Two key hypotheses were also tested: (a) does FD perform differently when paired with high scores on ScI, and (b) does FD serve as an index of narcissism. As expected, FD and ScI manifested a divergent pattern of correlations such that only ScI was associated with psychopathology or impairment. FD's relations with the external criteria were not generally moderated by scores on ScI. FD was significantly correlated with narcissism, but the two differed such that only narcissism was associated with any degree of maladaptivity. It remains unclear whether FD should be considered a core component of psychopathy. PMID:24344842

Maples, Jessica L; Miller, Joshua D; Fortune, Erica; MacKillop, James; Campbell, W Keith; Lynam, Donald R; Lance, Chuck E; Goodie, Adam S

2014-06-01

171

Characteristics of Problem Gamblers 56 Years of Age or Older: A Statewide Study of Casino Self-Excluders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gambling among older adults appears to be increasing, though little is known about the characteristics of older adult problem gamblers. The purpose of this study was to compare older adults to younger and middle-aged adults in a cohort of problem gamblers participating in a state-administered casino self-exclusion program. Self-reported problem gamblers (N = 1,601) who voluntary banned themselves from Missouri

Lia Nower; Alex Blaszczynski

2008-01-01

172

Social responsibility tools in online gambling: a survey of attitudes and behavior among Internet gamblers.  

PubMed

To date, little empirical research has focused on social responsibility in gambling. This study examined players' attitudes and behavior toward using the social responsibility tool PlayScan designed by the Swedish gaming company Svenska Spel. Via PlayScan, players have the option to utilize various social responsibility control tools (e.g., personal gaming budgets, self-diagnostic tests of gambling habits, self-exclusion options). A total of 2,348 participants took part in an online questionnaire study. Participants were clientele of the Svenska Spel online gambling Web site. Results showed that just over a quarter of players (26%) had used PlayScan. The vast majority of those who had activated PlayScan (almost 9 in 10 users) said that PlayScan was easy to use. Over half of PlayScan users (52%) said it was useful; 19% said it was not. Many features were seen as useful by online gamblers, including limit setting (70%), viewing their gambling profile (49%), self-exclusion facilities (42%), self-diagnostic problem gambling tests (46%), information and support for gambling issues (40%), and gambling profile predictions (36%). In terms of actual (as opposed to theoretical) use, over half of PlayScan users (56%) had set spending limits, 40% had taken a self-diagnostic problem gambling test, and 17% had used a self-exclusion feature. PMID:19594379

Griffiths, Mark D; Wood, Richard T A; Parke, Jonathan

2009-08-01

173

Predictors of irrational thinking in regular slot machine gamblers.  

PubMed

Previous research has suggested that irrational thinking may play a central role in the maintenance of behavior in slot machine gambling (M. B. Walker, 1992b). The present study is an evaluation of the validity and predictors of irrational thinking in a sample of regular gamblers (N = 20) drawn from the general community. The results were generally consistent with earlier findings; 75% of gambling-related cognitions were found to be irrational. Irrationality was unrelated to the amount of money lost or won during sessions but was positively related to risk taking. The most common irrational cognitions included false beliefs concerning the extent to which outcomes could be controlled or predicted and the attribution of human qualities (personification) to gambling devices. Gender comparisons showed that women were more likely than men to personify the machines. The validity of the speaking-aloud approach and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:10766103

Delfabbro, P H; Winefield, A H

2000-03-01

174

Problem and pathological gambling in a sample of casino patrons.  

PubMed

Relatively few studies have examined gambling problems among individuals in a casino setting. The current study sought to examine the prevalence of gambling problems among a sample of casino patrons and examine alcohol and tobacco use, health status, and quality of life by gambling problem status. To these ends, 176 casino patrons were recruited by going to a Southern California casino and requesting that they complete an anonymous survey. Results indicated the following lifetime rates for at-risk, problem, and pathological gambling: 29.2, 10.7, and 29.8%. Differences were found with regards to gambling behavior, and results indicated higher rates of smoking among individuals with gambling problems, but not higher rates of alcohol use. Self-rated quality of life was lower among pathological gamblers relative to non-problem gamblers, but did not differ from at-risk or problem gamblers. Although subject to some limitations, our data support the notion of higher frequency of gambling problems among casino patrons and may suggest the need for increased interventions for gambling problems on-site at casinos. PMID:20549549

Fong, Timothy W; Campos, Michael D; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Davis, Alice; Marco, Adrienne; Pecanha, Viviane; Rosenthal, Richard J

2011-03-01

175

Internet-Based Treatment of Pathological Gambling with a Three-Year Follow-Up  

PubMed Central

Effective therapies for pathological gambling exist, but their use is limited to about 10% of the target population. In an attempt to lower the barriers for help, Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) has been shown to be effective when delivered to anon-depressed sample with pathological gambling. This study sought to extend this finding to a larger, more representative population, and also test a model to predict responder status. Following advertisement, a total of 284 participants started an 8-week ICBT programme with minimal therapist contact via e-mail and weekly telephone calls of less than 15 min. The average time spent on each participant, including telephone conversations, e-mail, and administration, was 4 h. In addition to a mixed effects model to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment, two logistic regression analyses were performed with the following eight pre-defined response predictor variables: work-life satisfaction, primary gambling activity, debts due to gambling, social support, personal yearly salary, alcohol consumption, stage of change, and dissociative gambling. ICBT resulted in statistically significant reductions in the scores of pathological gambling, anxiety, and depression as well as an increase in quality of life compared to pre-treatment levels. Follow-ups carried out in the treatment group at 6, l8, and 36 months indicated that treatment effects were sustained. Using the eight predictor variable model rendered an acceptable predictive ability to identify responders both at post-test (AUC = .72, p < .01) and at 36-month follow-up (AUC = .70, p < .01). We conclude that ICBT for pathological gamblers, even if depressed, can be effective and that outcome can partly be predicted by pre-treatment characteristics. PMID:22620990

Carlbring, Per; Degerman, Nicklas; Jonsson, Jakob; Andersson, Gerhard

2012-01-01

176

The Inventory of Gambling Situations in Problem and Pathological Gamblers Seeking Alcohol and Drug Abuse Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying situations in which individuals gamble may be important for developing or improving treatments, but few instruments exist for examining high-risk gambling situations. This study evaluated the factor structure of the Inventory of Gambling Situations (IGS), an instrument that assesses situations that may lead to gambling episodes. Individuals seeking alcohol and drug abuse treatment who were identified as problem or

Nancy M. Petry; Carla J. Rash; Carlos Blanco

2010-01-01

177

Formal Comparison of Dual-Parameter Temporal Discounting Models in Controls and Pathological Gamblers  

PubMed Central

Temporal or delay discounting refers to the phenomenon that the value of a reward is discounted as a function of time to delivery. A range of models have been proposed that approximate the shape of the discount curve describing the relationship between subjective value and time. Recent evidence suggests that more than one free parameter may be required to accurately model human temporal discounting data. Nonetheless, many temporal discounting studies in psychiatry, psychology and neuroeconomics still apply single-parameter models, despite their oftentimes poor fit to single-subject data. Previous comparisons of temporal discounting models have either not taken model complexity into account, or have overlooked particular models. Here we apply model comparison techniques in a large sample of temporal discounting datasets using several discounting models employed in the past. Among the models examined, an exponential-power model from behavioural economics (CS model, Ebert & Prelec 2007) provided the best fit to human laboratory discounting data. Inter-parameter correlations for the winning model were moderate, whereas they were substantial for other dual-parameter models examined. Analyses of previous group and context effects on temporal discounting with the winning model provided additional theoretical insights. The CS model may be a useful tool in future psychiatry, psychology and neuroscience work on inter-temporal choice. PMID:23226198

Peters, Jan; Miedl, Stephan Franz; Buchel, Christian

2012-01-01

178

Expertise and gambling: Using Type 2 signal detection theory to investigate differences between regular gamblers and nongamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental investigation into how individuals make decisions under uncertainty when faced with different payout structures in the context of gambling. Type 2 signal detection theory was utilized to compare sensitivity to bias manipulations between regular nonproblem gamblers and nongamblers in a novel probability-based gambling task. The results indicated that both regular gamblers and nongamblers responded to

Sara E. Lueddeke; Philip A. Higham

2011-01-01

179

Personality and eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives of review. This chapter reviews research findings from 2005 and 2006 regarding dimensional personality traits, categorical personality disorders and dimensional personality pathology, and categorical person- ality subtypes in eating disorders. Summary of recent findings. Approaches linking specific personality traits to eating pathology have demonstrated the predictive validity of perfec- tionism and impulsiveness. Impulsive behaviors are associated with com- pulsivity

Kristin M von Ranson

180

Using cross-game behavioral markers for early identification of high-risk internet gamblers.  

PubMed

Using actual gambling behavior provides the opportunity to develop behavioral markers that operators can use to predict the development of gambling-related problems among their subscribers. Participants were 4,056 Internet gamblers who subscribed to the Internet betting service provider bwin.party. Half of this sample included multiple platform gamblers who were identified by bwin.party's Responsible Gambling (RG) program; the other half were controls randomly selected from those who had the same first deposit date. Using the daily aggregated Internet betting transactions for gamblers' first 31 calendar days of online betting activities at bwin.party, we employed a 2-step analytic strategy: (a) applying an exploratory chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) decision tree method to identify characteristics that distinguished a subgroup of high-risk Internet gamblers from the rest of the sample, and (b) conducting a confirmatory analysis of those characteristics among an independent validation sample. This analysis identified two high-risk groups (i.e., groups in which 90% of the members were identified by bwin.party's RG program): Group 1 engaged in three or more gambling activities and evidenced high wager variability on casino-type games; Group 2 engaged in two different gambling activities and evidenced high variability for live action wagers. This analysis advances an ongoing research program to identify potentially problematic Internet gamblers during the earliest stages of their Internet gambling. Gambling providers and public policymakers can use these results to inform early intervention programs that target high-risk Internet gamblers. PMID:24059836

Braverman, Julia; LaPlante, Debi A; Nelson, Sarah E; Shaffer, Howard J

2013-09-01

181

Proposed Changes in Personality and Personality Disorder Assessment and Diagnosis for DSM5 Part I: Description and Rationale  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major reconceptualization of personality psychopathology has been proposed for DSM-5 that identifies core impairments in personality functioning, pathological personality traits, and prominent pathological personality types. A comprehensive personality assessment consists of four components: levels of personality functioning, personality disorder types, pathological personality trait domains and facets, and general criteria for personality disorder. This four-part assessment focuses attention on identifying

Andrew E. Skodol; Lee Anna Clark; Donna S. Bender; Robert F. Krueger; Leslie C. Morey; Roel Verheul; Renato D. Alarcon; Carl C. Bell; Larry J. Siever; John M. Oldham

2011-01-01

182

Group therapy for women problem gamblers: A space of their own  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a grounded theory analysis produced from in-depth interviews with 14 women participating in group counselling for problem gambling. Themes emerged from this analysis that provided insights into effective counselling practices for women problem gamblers. The results explore the impact of a group therapy approach in addressing the needs of these women. Participants indicated that

Noëlla Piquette-Tomei; Erika Norman; Sonya Corbin Dwyer; Evelyn McCaslin

2008-01-01

183

A Pilot Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program for Problem Gamblers in a Rural Australian Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An innovative pilot treatment program was developed for problem gamblers living in rural areas of Australia using cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) modified from an established specialist therapy service. The standard 12 weekly group program was delivered on site by adapting it to two 1 week blocks with daily group sessions and 1 week of patient…

Oakes, Jane; Gardiner, Paula; McLaughlin, Kristin; Battersby, Malcolm

2012-01-01

184

Amphetamine Primes Motivation to Gamble and Gambling-Related Semantic Networks in Problem Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that gambling can induce effects that closely resemble a psychostimulant drug effect. Modest doses of addictive drugs can prime motivation for drugs with similar properties. Together, these findings imply that a dose of a psychostimulant drug could prime motivation to gamble in problem gamblers. This study assessed priming effects of oral D-amphetamine (AMPH) (30 mg) in a

Martin Zack; Constantine X Poulos

2004-01-01

185

Effects of accuracy feedback versus monetary contingency on arousal in high and low frequency gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects on arousal of feedback regarding prediction accuracy without monetary gain or loss versus accuracy feedback combined with monetary contingency involved in most gambling. Physiological and subjective arousal was assessed in frequent (n = 35; 16 females) and infrequent gamblers (n = 35; 16 females) during participation in a laboratory gambling game. Both samples consisted of

Kevin J. Roby; Mark A. Lumley

1995-01-01

186

Psychometric evaluation of the inventory of Gambling Motives, Attitudes and Behaviours (GMAB) among Chinese gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to evaluate and refine the Inventory of Gambling Motives, Attitudes and Behaviours (GMAB) specifically designed to assess gambling-related cognitions and behaviours of Chinese gamblers with a random sample of 697 Chinese adults in Macao who were interviewed by telephone. Confirmatory factor analysis generally replicated the basic factor structure of the three domains of GMAB although the

Anise M. S. Wu; Vivienne Y. K. Tao; Kwok-kit Tong; Shu Fai Cheung

2012-01-01

187

Amphetamine primes motivation to gamble and gambling-related semantic networks in problem gamblers.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that gambling can induce effects that closely resemble a psychostimulant drug effect. Modest doses of addictive drugs can prime motivation for drugs with similar properties. Together, these findings imply that a dose of a psychostimulant drug could prime motivation to gamble in problem gamblers. This study assessed priming effects of oral D-amphetamine (AMPH) (30 mg) in a within-subject, counter-balanced, placebo-controlled design in problem gamblers (n=10), comorbid gamblerdrinkers (n=6), problem drinkers (n=8), and healthy controls (n=12). Modified visual analog scales assessed addictive motivation and subjective effects. A modified rapid reading task assessed pharmacological activation of words from motivationally relevant and irrelevant semantic domains (Gambling, Alcohol, Positive Affect, Negative Affect, Neutral). AMPH increased self-reported motivation for gambling in problem gamblers. Severity of problem gambling predicted positive subjective effects of AMPH and motivation to gamble under the drug. There was little evidence that AMPH directly primed motivation for alcohol in problem drinkers. On the reading task, AMPH produced undifferentiated improvement in reading speed to all word classes in Nongamblers. By contrast, in the two problem gambler groups, AMPH improved reading speed to Gambling words while profoundly slowing reading speed to motivationally irrelevant Neutral words. The latter finding was interpreted as directly congruent with models, which contend that priming of addictive motivation involves a linked suppression of motivationally irrelevant stimuli. This study provides experimental evidence that psychostimulant-like neurochemical activation is an important component of gambling addiction. PMID:14571257

Zack, Martin; Poulos, Constantine X

2004-01-01

188

A Preliminary Outcome Study of an Outpatient Treatment Program for Gamblers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gamblers Treatment Clinic (GTC) opened in 1982 as a New York State Office of Mental Health Demonstration Program. The basic premise of the GTC is that excessive gambling is a disorder of impulse control. Treatment, conducted in the community in a time-limited fashion, attempts to uncover the underlying dynamics that precipitate disorders of…

Blackman, Sheldon; And Others

189

The current status and future direction of self-help treatments for problem gamblers.  

PubMed

The self-help treatment (SHT) studies for other psychological problems significantly outweigh those for problem gambling. Currently, very little is published about the application and efficacy of various forms of SHTs for problem gambling. Thus, this paper reviews the self-help literature (using the PsycINFO database--all years up to April 2008) to stimulate further research in this area for problem gambling. The findings show that SHTs in problem gambling are still in their infancy. Although the problem gambling literature has mainly reported on two forms of SHTs with problem gamblers (i.e. use of self-help manuals and audiotapes), the review discuss utilizing a wide range of SHTs with problem gamblers. These include written materials (e.g. self-help books and treatment manuals), audiotapes, videotapes, computer-based SHTs implemented on palmtop computers, desktop computers, via telephone (Interactive Voice Response systems--IVR) or via the Internet and virtual reality applications. These SHTs would suit those problem gamblers who are not accessing professional treatment due to shame, guilt, fear of stigma, privacy concerns or financial difficulties, as well as those living in rural areas or with less severe gambling problems. The review also suggest future protocols for conducting further research in this area with problem gamblers, highlighting a need for a cohesive theory to guide research. PMID:18760868

Raylu, Namrata; Oei, Tian P S; Loo, Jasmine

2008-12-01

190

Reward-Sensitivity, Inhibition of Reward-Seeking, and Dorsolateral Prefrontal Working Memory Function in Problem Gamblers not in Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the central role of perseverative chasing in problem gambling, the present study sought to find evidence for three hypothesized\\u000a components of perseveration in problem gamblers: reward-sensitivity dominance, deficient inhibition of reward-seeking behavior,\\u000a and working memory deficits. This was the first attempt to examine working memory deficits in problem gamblers using a conditional\\u000a association task, which is associated with posterior-dorsolateral

Victor Leiserson; Robert O. Pihl

2007-01-01

191

Pathological Gambling Subtypes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

2009-01-01

192

Concordance Between the SOGS-RA and the DSM-IV Criteria for Pathological Gambling Among Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the possible differences in the classification of adolescent gamblers when using the South Oaks Gambling Screen—Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA; K. C. Winters, R. D. Stinchfield, & J. Fulkerson, 1993) versus a clinical interview that was based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for pathological gambling. A total of 631

Robert Ladouceur; Francine Ferland; Christiane Poulin; Frank Vitaro; Jamie Wiebe

2005-01-01

193

[Pathological gambling].  

PubMed

The case of a patient with a pathological urge to gamble is presented. Until 1990, gambling casinos were prohibited in Denmark. In 1990, a new law was enforced which permitted six casinos in Denmark. Previously, no reports were available in the medical literature concerning pathological gambling in Denmark. The incidence of pathological gambling will probably increase as a consequence of the new law. PMID:1509552

Krag, N J

1992-06-29

194

Gender differences in mental health characteristics and gambling among African-American adolescent gamblers  

PubMed Central

This study explores gender differences in lifetime and recent substance use/internalizing behavior, childhood externalizing behavior and gambling preferences among African-American youth gamblers. Data are from a prospective study of a community sample of 452 urban African-American youth that began at entry into first grade and was followed for ten years. Gambling was associated with high teacher ratings of childhood externalizing behaviors among males, and with high parent ratings of childhood impulsivity and hyperactivity among both genders. Internalizing behavior was associated with female gambling. No male-female differences in substance use/lifetime conduct disorder among gamblers were noted. Gambling preferences/frequency differed across genders. PMID:18393056

Martins, Silvia S.; Storr, Carla L.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Chilcoat, Howard D.

2008-01-01

195

A randomized controlled trial of a single session motivational intervention for concerned gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivational interviewing (MI) is a promising brief intervention for people who wish to cut down or quit gambling. The study was a randomized clinical trial that tested the efficacy of a single face-to-face MI compared with a control interview (CI) for reducing gambling behaviours in individuals who expressed concerns about their gambling. Eighty-one media recruited gamblers were followed at 1,

Katherine M. Diskin; David C. Hodgins

2009-01-01

196

Characteristics and Gender Differences Among Self-Excluded Casino Problem Gamblers: Missouri Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explores gender-related differences in the demographic and gambling-related characteristics of 2670 problem gamblers participating in a state-administered (Missouri) casino self-exclusion program between 2001 and 2003. Female (n=1298, 48.4%) and male (n=1372, 51.1%) participants ranged in age from 21 to 84 years. Gender-related differences were noted among demographic variables, patterns of gambling behavior, reasons for self-exclusion, and involvement in

Lia Nower; Alex Blaszczynski

2006-01-01

197

Non-Participant or Gambler: Investment Decisions of Low-Wealth Households  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical analyses show that low-wealth households tend to be non-participants concerning risky assets and tend to hold a large portfolio share of risky asset if they participate at all (gamblers). So far, few theoretical models have been able to satisfactorily provide a joint understanding of these two observations. This paper solves a novel life-cycle model in which social links to

Fangyi Jin

2008-01-01

198

Gambling motivations, money-limiting strategies, and precommitment preferences of problem versus non-problem gamblers.  

PubMed

Studies attempting to identify the specific 'addictive' features of electronic gaming machines (EGMs) have yielded largely inconclusive results, suggesting that it is the interaction between a gambler's cognitions and the machine, rather than the machine itself, which fuels excessive play. Research has reported that machine players with gambling problems adopt a number of erroneous cognitive perceptions regarding the probability of winning and the nature of randomness. What is unknown, however, is whether motivations for gambling and attitudes toward pre-session monetary limit-setting vary across levels of gambling severity, and whether proposed precommitment strategies would be useful in minimizing excessive gambling expenditures. The current study explored these concepts in a sample of 127 adults, ages 18 to 81, attending one of four gambling venues in Queensland, Australia. The study found that problem gamblers were more likely than other gamblers to play machines to earn income or escape their problems rather than for fun and enjoyment. Similarly, they were less likely to endorse any type of monetary limit-setting prior to play. They were also reticent to adopt the use of a 'smart card' or other strategy to limit access to money during a session, though they indicated they lost track of money while gambling and were rarely aware of whether they were winning or losing during play. Implications for precommitment policies and further research are discussed. PMID:20084433

Nower, Lia; Blaszczynski, Alex

2010-09-01

199

Modeling the Association between 43 Different Clinical and Pathological Variables and the Severity of Cognitive Impairment in a Large Autopsy Cohort of Elderly Persons  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the association between mini-mental status examination (MMSE) scores proximal to death and the values of 43 different clinical and pathological parameters. Studies were performed using data from 334 elderly, longitudinally evaluated research subjects who had undergone autopsy and satisfied inclusion criteria from an initial study group of 501. Interindividual variance in MMSE scores was used as a surrogate for the severity of cognitive impairment linked to aging (CILA). A statistical linear regression-based model provided a framework for assessing the parameters with significant, direct impact on CILA severity. Strong association between CILA and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology, especially isocortical neurofibrillary tangles, was evident. The pattern of association between AD lesion densities with cognitive impairment severity was biologically informative, with neuritic plaques having more impact in relatively high-functioning individuals. Abundant isocortical Lewy bodies tended to be an additive pathology correlating with final MMSE scores approximately 10 points lower. In a subset of cases we found evidence for association between TDP-43-related pathology and CILA severity, independent of AD or hippocampal sclerosis. There was no support for independent association between CILA severity and most evaluated indices including diffuse plaques, argyrophilic grains, heart disease, education level, apolipoprotein E alleles or diabetes. PMID:19021630

Nelson, Peter T.; Abner, Erin L.; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Smith, Charles D.; Davis, Daron G.; Poduska, John W.; Patel, Ela; Mendiondo, Marta S.; Markesbery, William R.

2009-01-01

200

Neurological Soft Signs in Individuals with Pathological Gambling  

PubMed Central

Increased neurological soft signs (NSSs) have been found in a number of neuropsychiatric syndromes, including chemical addiction. The present study examined NSSs related to perceptual-motor and visuospatial processing in a behavioral addiction viz., pathological gambling (PG). As compared to mentally healthy individuals, pathological gamblers displayed significantly poorer ability to copy two- and three-dimensional figures, to recognize objects against a background noise, and to orient in space on a road-map test. Results indicated that PG is associated with subtle cerebral cortical abnormalities. Further prospective clinical research is needed to address the NSSs' origin and chronology (e.g., predate or follow the development of PG) as well as their response to therapeutic interventions and/or their ability to predict such a response. PMID:23593341

Elman, Igor; Gurvits, Tamara V.; Tschibelu, Evelyne; Spring, Justin D.; Lasko, Natasha B.; Pitman, Roger K.

2013-01-01

201

Chasing losses in online poker and casino games: characteristics and game play of Internet gamblers at risk of disordered gambling.  

PubMed

Disordered Internet gambling is a psychological disorder that represents an important public health issue due to the increase in highly available and conveniently accessible Internet gambling sites. Chasing losses is one of the few observable markers of at-risk and problem gambling that may be used to detect early signs of disordered Internet gambling. This study examined loss chasing behaviour in a sample of Internet casino and poker players and the socio-demographic variables, irrational beliefs, and gambling behaviours associated with chasing losses. An online survey was completed by 10,838 Internet gamblers (58% male) from 96 countries. The results showed that Internet casino players had a greater tendency to report chasing losses than poker players and gamblers who reported chasing losses were more likely to hold irrational beliefs about gambling and spend more time and money gambling than those who reported that they were unaffected by previous losses. Gamblers who played for excitement and to win money were more likely to report chasing losses. This study is one of the largest ever studies of Internet gamblers and the results are highly significant as they provide insight into the characteristics and behaviours of gamblers using this mode of access. PMID:24746392

Gainsbury, Sally M; Suhonen, Niko; Saastamoinen, Jani

2014-07-30

202

Pathology Reports  

Cancer.gov

A fact sheet that describes the type of information that may be found in a pathology report, the document that contains results of the visual and microscopic examination of tissue removed during a biopsy or surgery.

203

Diagnosis, Pathology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pathology has long been associated with medical development and patient treatment and care. Throughout history pathologists have been trained to observe and recognize abnormalities to diagnose and treat the condition.

2009-12-26

204

Predictors of Problem Gambling Severity in Treatment Seeking Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem gambling has become a widespread problem following the rapid expansion of electronic gaming machines into hotels and clubs over the last 10 years. Recent literature indicates that certain factors can influence problem gambling severity, such as psychiatric co-morbidity and personality traits, gambling related cognitions, substance use and…

Hounslow, Vanessa; Smith, David; Battersby, Malcolm; Morefield, Kate

2011-01-01

205

Female sexual-offenders: Personality pathology as a mediator of the relationship between childhood sexual abuse history and sexual abuse perpetration against others  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of abuse.

Kelly Christopher; Catherine J. Lutz-Zois; Amanda R. Reinhardt

2007-01-01

206

Female Sexual-Offenders: Personality Pathology as a Mediator of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Sexual Abuse Perpetration against Others  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…

Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.

2007-01-01

207

White problem gamblers discount delayed rewards less steeply than their African American and Hispanic counterparts.  

PubMed

Impulsivity is a core process underlying addictive behaviors, including nonpharmacological addictive behaviors such as problem gambling. Although considerable attention has been given to the investigation of delay discounting within the context of addiction-related behaviors, relatively little research has examined the relationship between discounting and individual variables, such as race/ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to compare discounting rates in the three most prevalent racial/ethnic groups in the United States: Whites, African Americans, and Hispanics. The study was conducted with 315 problem gamblers. Participants completed a delay-discounting questionnaire involving choices between a smaller amount of money delivered immediately and a larger amount delivered later. A hyperbolic discounting function estimated delay-discounting rates based on participants' indifference points obtained via the questionnaires. Results showed significant effects of race/ethnicity on delay discounting. White gamblers discounted delayed money at lower rates than African Americans and Hispanics, even after controlling for confounding variables. These data suggest that among individuals who develop problem gambling, Whites are less impulsive than African Americans and Hispanics, at least in terms of choosing between delayed and immediate reinforcers. These results have implications for evaluating the onset and treatment of addictive disorders from a health-disparities perspective. PMID:24955678

Andrade, Leonardo F; Petry, Nancy M

2014-06-01

208

Characteristics of Internet Gamblers among a Sample of Students at a Large, Public University in Southwestern United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a current lack of descriptive information on college students who gamble on the Internet. With the increasing popularity of Internet gambling, this study aimed to better understand the profile of Internet gamblers among a sample of college students. Of 909 students at the University of California-Los Angeles who completed an online…

Shead, N. Will; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Fong, Timothy W.; Gupta, Rina

2012-01-01

209

All for the Winner: An Analysis of the Characterization of Male Gamblers in Hong Kong Movies with Gambling Theme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to investigate the characterization of male gamblers in popular Hong Kong movies in the past 50 years. A total of nine Hong Kong films with gambling themes were selected for analysis. The criteria for selection of the films were as follows: the movies in which the protagonists are portrayed by well known Hong Kong actors that…

Chan, Chi Chuen; Ohtsuka, Keis

2011-01-01

210

Characteristics of Internet Gamblers Among a Sample of Students at a Large, Public University in Southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a current lack of descriptive information on college students who gamble on the Internet. With the increasing popularity of Internet gambling, this study aimed to better understand the profile of Internet gamblers among a sample of college students. Of 909 students at the University of California-Los Angeles who completed an online survey, 8.1% reported gambling for money on

N. Will Shead; Jeffrey L. Derevensky; Timothy W. Fong; Rina Gupta

2012-01-01

211

Transplantation Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The aim of this chapter is to provide a practical, concise review of transplantation pathology. A brief review of transplantation\\u000a immunology is given to put some of the aspects of clinical transplantation care into perspective. Complications of transplantation\\u000a common to all organs are also addressed. All the criteria for diagnosis are highlighted in boxed tables for easy reference\\u000a with illustrations

Oscar W. Cummings

212

Reviewing Two Types of Addiction – Pathological Gambling and Substance Use  

PubMed Central

Gambling, including pathological gambling and problem gambling, has received increased attention from clinicians and researchers over the past three decades since gambling opportunities have expanded around the world. Gambling disorders affect 0.2–5.3% of adults worldwide, although measurement and prevalence varies according to the screening instruments and methods used, and availability and accessibility of gambling opportunities. Several distinct treatment approaches have been favorably evaluated, such as cognitive behavioral and brief treatment models and pharmacological interventions. Although promising, family therapy and support from Gamblers Anonymous are less well empirically supported. Gambling disorders are highly comorbid with other mental health and substance use disorders, and a further understanding is needed of both the causes and treatment implications of this disorder. This article reviews definition, causes and associated features with substance abuse, screening and diagnosis, and treatment approaches. PMID:22661800

Jazaeri, Seyed Amir; Habil, Mohammad Hussain Bin

2012-01-01

213

A counselling line for problem and pathological gambling in South Africa: Preliminary data analysis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective: Various countries and states have established telephone counselling lines for people with pathological or problem gambling. Data from such services may contribute to describing systematically the nature of gambling problems in a particular area. To date, however, few data have been published on such a telephone counselling line in a low or middle income country. Method: Data on calls to the telephone counselling line of the National Responsible Gambling Foundation of South Africa were captured over a 6-month period. Such data include socio-demographic variables, the primary reason for calling, the source of the referral, preferred method of gambling, impairment as a consequence of gambling, and history of treatment for psychiatric disorders, comorbid alcohol abuse and illicit drug use. Results: Calls were received from a broad range of people; the mean age of callers was 37 years, the majority were male (62%) and many were married (45%). Primary reasons for calling included the feeling of being unable to stop gambling without the help of a professional (41%), financial concerns (32%), legal problems (13%), pressure from family (10%), and suicidal thoughts (2%). The majority of callers contacted the counselling line after having heard about it by word of mouth (70%). The most common forms of gambling were slot machines (51%) and casino games (21%). Fourteen percent of callers reported having received help for other psychiatric disorders, 11% reported alcohol use disorders and 6% illicit drug use. Conclusion: These data from South Africa are consistent with prior research indicating that pathological and problem gambling are seen in a range of socio-demographic groups, and that such behaviour is associated with significant morbidity and comorbidity. More work is needed locally to inform younger gamblers, gamblers using the informal gambling sector, and unemployed gamblers of the existing telephone counselling lines.

SINCLAIR, HEIDI; PRETORIUS, ADELE; STEIN, DAN J.

2014-01-01

214

A latent class analysis of DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.  

PubMed

With rapid increases in gambling opportunities over the past decade, gambling has emerged as an important social and public health concern. The pending revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) has prompted a flurry of empirical research evaluating the extant diagnostic classification scheme; however few studies have evaluated the pathological gambling criteria. This paper utilized latent class analysis (LCA) to empirically derive and validate a typology of gamblers. LCA was applied to the 10 DSM-IV pathological gambling criteria utilizing data from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=11,104). LCA identified three latent classes which largely differed according to severity. The majority of respondents were assigned to the no gambling problems class (93.3%). Gamblers in the moderate gambling problems class (6.1%) primarily endorsed the preoccupation, tolerance, and chasing criteria. The pervasive gambling problems class (0.6%) endorsed the majority of the criteria. A number of significant differences between the classes emerged as a function of demographic, psychiatric and substance use disorders. The findings offer a heuristic and clinically useful typology of gamblers. Support for a continuum of gambling-related problems reiterate the need for assessment, prevention, and treatment strategies that reflect this more nuanced understanding of gambling. PMID:21247638

Carragher, Natacha; McWilliams, Lachlan A

2011-05-15

215

The gambler's ruin problem, genetic algorithms, and the sizing of populations.  

PubMed

This paper presents a model to predict the convergence quality of genetic algorithms based on the size of the population. The model is based on an analogy between selection in GAs and one-dimensional random walks. Using the solution to a classic random walk problem-the gambler's ruin-the model naturally incorporates previous knowledge about the initial supply of building blocks (BBs) and correct selection of the best BB over its desired quality of the solution, as well as the problem size and difficulty. The accuracy of the model is verified with experiments using additively decomposable functions of varying difficulty. The paper demonstrates how to adjust the model to account for noise present in the fitness evaluation and for different tournament sizes. PMID:10491464

Harik, G; Cantu-Paz, E; Goldberg, D E; Miller, B L

1999-01-01

216

A randomized controlled trial of a single session motivational intervention for concerned gamblers.  

PubMed

Motivational interviewing (MI) is a promising brief intervention for people who wish to cut down or quit gambling. The study was a randomized clinical trial that tested the efficacy of a single face-to-face MI compared with a control interview (CI) for reducing gambling behaviours in individuals who expressed concerns about their gambling. Eighty-one media recruited gamblers were followed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months post-intervention. At 12 months post-intervention participants in the MI condition spent significantly less money on gambling per month, gambled fewer days per month, and reported significantly less distress than participants in the CI condition. Participants in both conditions showed overall reduction in gambling problem severity. PMID:19249015

Diskin, Katherine M; Hodgins, David C

2009-05-01

217

[Responsible gambling: is it an alternative for prevention and treatment of pathological gambling?].  

PubMed

This paper deals with the new development of controlled gambling embedded in a harm-reduction context as a viable solution both for primary prevention at school and for treatment of some kinds of problematic gamblers. Pathological gambling significantly improves with psychological therapies, such as stimulus control and in vivo exposure with response prevention or cognitive interventions. In some cases psychopharmacological therapy may complement the benefits of treatment for pathological gambling when patients have comorbid depression or high impulsivity. However, in this mental disorder the goal of treatment (total abstinence or controlled gambling) is currently a controversial issue. Controlled gambling may be a therapeutic option for young gamblers or patients without severe dependence. Furthermore, controlled gambling may be a relevant issue for health education in schools, with a view to teaching teenagers how to cope with actual and virtual exposure to gambling. Likewise, the gambling industry and governments are involved in harm minimization initiatives. Thus, it is necessary to coordinate a program of research that includes the industry, science, and public representatives, based on cooperative research that will permit the introduction of controlled gambling within a global strategic framework. We discuss the relevance of this review for clinical practice and for future research, as well as the unsolved problems in this field. PMID:19115019

Echeburua, Enrique; de Corral, Paz

2008-01-01

218

The Effect of Including a Monetary Motive Item on the Gambling Motives Questionnaire in a Sample of Moderate Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the factor structure of the Gambling Motives Questionnaire (GMQ) with a large stratified sample of 839\\u000a moderate gamblers (49% female; median age category = 45–54 years) and examined the effect of including a monetary motive item\\u000a on GMQ factor structure. Participants responded to a telephone survey in which they were asked how often they gamble for each\\u000a of 16 reasons,

Kristianne Dechant; Michael Ellery

2011-01-01

219

Contingent Gambling-Drinking Patterns and Problem Drinking Severity Moderate Implicit Gambling-Alcohol Associations in Problem Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although problem gambling and problem drinking often co-occur, the processes underlying this association are not well understood. This study investigated the effects of contingent gambling-drinking patterns and problem drinking severity on implicit gambling-alcohol associations. Participants were 144 (34 female) problem gamblers. The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) measured severity of problem gambling. The Brief Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (BMAST) measured

Martin Zack; Sherry H. Stewart; Raymond M. Klein; Pamela Loba; Fofo Fragopoulos

2005-01-01

220

Personality Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality disorders (PDs) represent some of the most insidious and challenging psychiatric conditions that clinicians encounter,\\u000a and often create unwarranted and unwanted conflicts in clinical settings. The reasons for these conflicts lie at the core\\u000a of the PD pathology, namely, a fundamental impairment in interpersonal relationships that leads to a variety of maladaptive,\\u000a inappropriate, or outrageous behaviors that the affected

Marc E. Agronin

221

Characteristics of problem gamblers 56 years of age or older: a statewide study of casino self-excluders.  

PubMed

Gambling among older adults appears to be increasing, though little is known about the characteristics of older adult problem gamblers. The purpose of this study was to compare older adults to younger and middle-aged adults in a cohort of problem gamblers participating in a state-administered casino self-exclusion program. Self-reported problem gamblers (N = 1,601) who voluntary banned themselves from Missouri casinos from 2001 to 2003 were categorized by age as younger adults (ages 21 to 35; n = 490), middle-aged adults (ages 36 to 55; n = 950), and older adults (ages 56 to 79; n = 161), and were compared with respect to demographic variables, gambling participation, and reasons for self-exclusion. Older adult self-excluders typically began gambling in midlife, experienced gambling problems around age 60, reported preferences for nonstrategic forms of gambling, and identified fear of suicide as the primary reason for self-excluding. Implications for intervention, prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:18808247

Nower, Lia; Blaszczynski, Alex

2008-09-01

222

DSM-5 Personality Traits and DSM-IV Personality Disorders  

PubMed Central

Two issues pertinent to the DSM-5 proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5 traits as assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 explained a substantial proportion of variance in DSM-IV PDs as assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+, and trait indicators of the six proposed DSM-5 PDs were mostly specific to those disorders with some exceptions. Regression analyses support the DSM-5 hybrid model in that pathological traits and an indicator of general personality pathology severity provided incremental information about PDs. Findings are discussed in the context of broader issues around the proposed DSM-5 model of personality disorders. PMID:22250660

Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Krueger, Robert F.

2014-01-01

223

A Communication Perspective on Video Lottery Terminals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video Lottery Terminals (VLT) are associated with pathological gambling and with most of the requests for help in combating gambling addiction. Embeddedness of a person in his or her social network is among the communicational factors that may help explain this phenomenon. To verify this, we compared ego networks of VLT gamblers, of gamblers of games with low request for

Johanne Saint-Charles; Pierre Mongeau; Jean-François Biron

2008-01-01

224

Pathological Gambling: A Review of Phenomenological Models and Treatment Modalities for an Underrecognized Psychiatric Disorder  

PubMed Central

Pathological gambling (PG) is a prevalent and highly disabling impulse-control disorder. Two dominant phenomenological models for PG have been presented in the literature. According to one model, PG is included as an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder, while according to the second model, PG represents a form of nonpharmacologic addiction. In this article, we present an expanded conceptualization of the phenomenology of PG. On the basis of our clinical research experience and a review of data in the field, we propose 3 subtypes of pathological gamblers: the “impulsive” subtype, the “obsessive-compulsive” subtype, and the “addictive” subtype. We also review the current pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment strategies for PG. A further aim of this article is to encourage awareness of the importance of improved screening procedures for the early detection of PG. PMID:17245454

Dannon, Pinhas N.; Lowengrub, Katherine; Gonopolski, Yehudit; Musin, Ernest; Kotler, Moshe

2006-01-01

225

Comorbidity issues in the pharmacological treatment of pathological gambling: a critical review  

PubMed Central

Background Pathological Gambling (PG) is an impulse control disorder often comorbid with other psychopathology, particularly bipolar spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and substance abuse. This paper reviews the published literature on the pharmacological management of PG, highlighting how clinical and subclinical comorbid psychopathology influences the choice of pharmacological treatment. Methods Using Medline, the authors reviewed relevant articles published on this topic from1995 to 2005, focusing on the best-designed studies for inclusion. Results Much of the literature on PG-treatment presupposes different theories regarding this disorder. Data suggest the utility of differentiating the pharmacotherapy of pathological gamblers in light of their comorbid profile, specifically assessing for comorbid bipolar, ADHD, OCD, and substance abuse disorders. Conclusion Decisions about pharmacological treatment of PG should take into account current and previous comorbid disorders which influence treatment selection. PMID:16216125

2005-01-01

226

Characteristics and gender differences among self-excluded casino problem gamblers: Missouri data.  

PubMed

The present study explores gender-related differences in the demographic and gambling-related characteristics of 2670 problem gamblers participating in a state-administered (Missouri) casino self-exclusion program between 2001 and 2003. Female (n=1298, 48.4%) and male (n=1372, 51.1%) participants ranged in age from 21 to 84 years. Gender-related differences were noted among demographic variables, patterns of gambling behavior, reasons for self-exclusion, and involvement in self-help, counseling, and bankruptcy services. Female self-excluders were more likely than males to be older at time of application, African American, and either retired, unemployed or otherwise outside the traditional workforce. In addition, female self-excluders were more likely to report a later age of gambling onset, a shorter period between onset and self-exclusion, a preference for non-strategic forms of gambling and prior bankruptcy. The main predictors for female participation in self-exclusion included a desire to gain control and prevent suicide and referral by a counselor. The desire to save the marriage was a motivating factor for all participants. Findings suggest that the most efficacious treatment strategies with this group will include family systemic therapy and financial management in addition to pharmaco-treatment and culturally-sensitive individual therapy. PMID:16374658

Nower, Lia; Blaszczynski, Alex

2006-01-01

227

The Relationship Between Pathological Gambling and Sensation Seeking: The Role of Subscale Scores  

PubMed Central

Research investigating the relationship between gambling and sensation seeking has yet to establish conclusively whether pathological gamblers (PGs) are more or less sensation seeking than nonpathological gamblers (NPGs). Sensation seeking is usually measured with the Zuckerman et al. (J Consult Clin Psychol 46:139–149, 1978) SS Scale form V (SSS-V). Whereas previous studies relied on the SSS-V total score, the current study uses two samples to demonstrate the importance of the SSS-V subscales, which include Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TA), Experience Seeking (ES), Disinhibition (DS), and Boredom Susceptibility (BS). In two samples, strong intrascale correlations between DS and BS, and between TA and ES, suggest that certain subscales reflect similar underlying characteristics. In both samples PGs displayed higher scores than NPGs on the DS and BS subscales, with mean differences in Sample 2 reaching significant levels for both DS and BS. Results support the notion that the SSS-V can be divided into concepts reflecting actual behavior, based on the DS and BS subscales, and hypothetical behavior, based on the TA and ES subscales. Furthermore, PGs appear to have a preference for the more behavioral subscales while NPGs show a preference for the more hypothetical subscales. Reasons for the subscale divisions and preferences are discussed. PMID:19943092

Fortune, Erica E.

2010-01-01

228

Acamprosate and Baclofen were Not Effective in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: Preliminary Blind Rater Comparison Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Pathological gambling (PG) is a highly prevalent and disabling impulse control disorder. A range of psychopharmacological options are available for the treatment of PG, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, opioid receptor antagonists, anti-addiction drugs, and mood stabilizers. In our preliminary study, we examined the efficacy of two anti-addiction drugs, baclofen and acamprosate, in the treatment of PG. Materials and Methods: Seventeen male gamblers were randomly divided into two groups. Each group received one of the two drugs without being blind to treatment. All patients underwent a comprehensive psychiatric diagnostic evaluation and completed a series of semi-structured interviews. During the 6-months of study, monthly evaluations were carried out to assess improvement and relapses. Relapse was defined as recurrent gambling behavior. Results: None of the 17 patients reached the 6-months abstinence. One patient receiving baclofen sustained abstinence for 4?months. Fourteen patients succeeded in sustaining abstinence for 1–3?months. Two patients stopped attending monthly evaluations. Conclusion: Baclofen and acamprosate did not prove efficient in treating pathological gamblers. PMID:21713109

Dannon, Pinhas N.; Rosenberg, Oded; Schoenfeld, Netta; Kotler, Moshe

2011-01-01

229

Rotator Cuff Pathology  

MedlinePLUS

... Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon Rotator Cuff Pathology Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... locking and a feeling of instability. Rotator cuff pathology ranges from a normal, asymptomatic aging process to ...

230

The effect of including a monetary motive item on the gambling motives questionnaire in a sample of moderate gamblers.  

PubMed

This study explored the factor structure of the Gambling Motives Questionnaire (GMQ) with a large stratified sample of 839 moderate gamblers (49% female; median age category = 45-54 years) and examined the effect of including a monetary motive item on GMQ factor structure. Participants responded to a telephone survey in which they were asked how often they gamble for each of 16 reasons, including the 15 GMQ motives and an additional motive: "to win money". Exploratory principal components analysis of the 15 GMQ items revealed three factors, together accounting for 49.04% of the total variance in GMQ scores. The factors tapped enhancement, coping and social motives, although only the coping subscale displayed strong internal consistency. A second exploratory principal components analysis of the 15 GMQ items and the monetary motive item continued to reveal three factors tapping enhancement, coping and social motives. The addition of the monetary motive item strengthened the independence of the components and dramatically improved the internal consistency of the enhancement factor. The results suggest that the psychometric properties of the GMQ, when used with a population of moderate gamblers, may be considerably strengthened with only minor modifications. PMID:20496161

Dechant, Kristianne; Ellery, Michael

2011-06-01

231

Gambling Cognition and Subjective Well-Being as Mediators Between Perceived Stress and Problem Gambling: A Cross-Cultural Study on White and Chinese Problem Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to delineate various pathways whereby cognitive and emotional vulnerabilities triggered by stress would lead to disruptive gambling. A multiple mediation framework was proposed to specify that gambling cognition and subjective well-being would mediate the influence of perceived stress on problem gambling. The cross-cultural validity of the proposed framework was examined with 132 White gamblers in Australia and

Catherine So-kum Tang; Tian Po Oei

2011-01-01

232

The Pathways Model as Harm Minimization for Youth Gamblers in Educational Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence studies have indicated that a significant percentage of school-age youth exhibit problem or pathological gambling behaviors. However, to date there are few guidelines to assist educators in identifying those at risk and incorporating harm-reduction strategies into school curricula. This paper proposes using the Pathways Model of pathological gambling (Blaszczynski, 1998; Blaszczynski & Nower, 2002) as a harm-minimization strategy to

Lia Nower; Alex Blaszczynski

2004-01-01

233

Personality and Personality Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mental disorders that most clearly relate to personality are the personality disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the support for the hypothesis that the personality disorders of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) represent variants of normal personality traits. We focus in particular on the efforts to

Thomas A. Widiger; Paul T. Costa

1994-01-01

234

Problem and pathological gambling in North American Aboriginal populations: a review of the empirical literature.  

PubMed

This literature review attempts to: estimate Aboriginal population prevalence rates for problem and pathological gambling and compare these rates to the general population; determine factors associated with the Aboriginal population problem gambling behaviour; and identify other salient findings and issues. Materials used in the review were drawn from available research literature and bibliographies. There were no time restrictions or study design criteria included in the review. Key words used: Aboriginal, Indians, First Nations, Native, lotteries, gambling, casinos, and gaming. Eleven descriptive studies were identified. Gambling appears to be problematic among Aboriginal people. Aboriginal adolescents have higher rates of problem gambling, as do Aboriginal adults for both problem and pathological gambling than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. The odds ratios indicate that the Aboriginal population has a problem gambling behaviour rate 2.2 to 15.69 times higher than the non-Aboriginal population. A number of factors associated with Aboriginal population problem and pathological gambling were identified. Gambling literature specific to the Aboriginal population is limited and there is extensive variation in estimates of their increased risk. Several associated factors were identified but whether these are specific to the Aboriginal population or to all problem and pathological gamblers needs to be determined. More research, particularly qualitative, into these factors is warranted. PMID:11705211

Wardman, D; el-Guebaly, N; Hodgins, D

2001-01-01

235

A Study of a Pathological Liar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was hypothesized that a pathological liar might be characterized by a construct system atypically loose over a wide range of conventional, socially relevant constructs. Evidence consistent with this hypothesis was obtained from the Thought Disorder Grid (TDG) and by a marked response bias on the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI). (Author)

Stones, M. J.

1976-01-01

236

Prevention of pathological gambling: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Although the gambling industry is expanding rapidly throughout North America and around the world, there are only a few empirically evaluated programs aimed at the prevention of pathological gambling (PG). The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of a new prevention program aimed at PG. The Stop & Think! program was designed to teach at-risk video lottery terminal (VLT) gamblers cognitive restructuring and problem-solving skills that may help to prevent the development of PG. These skills were taught through a variety of methods - including an automated educational presentation, video and text vignettes, audio training tapes, and skill rehearsal. The program was evaluated using a randomized, 2-group experimental design with a wait-list control group and pre-, post-, and follow-up measures. Results indicated that, compared with the control group, the experimental group was less at risk for developing a gambling problem after the program. The experimental group endorsed fewer gambling-related cognitive distortions, engaged in less VLT gambling, and had lower scores on a measure of PG. The results of this study provide the basis for the implementation of the Stop & Think! program in the province of Prince Edward Island, Canada, and perhaps other jurisdictions too. PMID:17530493

Doiron, Jason P; Nicki, Richard M

2007-01-01

237

Handheld computing in pathology  

PubMed Central

Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

2012-01-01

238

Personality Disorder Symptoms and Marital Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pathological personality is strongly linked with interpersonal impairment, yet no study to date has examined the relationship between concurrent personality pathology and dysfunction in marriage--a relationship that most people find central to their lives. In a cross-sectional study of a community sample of married couples (N = 82), the authors…

South, Susan C.; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2008-01-01

239

In vivo evidence for greater amphetamine-induced dopamine release in pathological gambling: a positron emission tomography study with [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO.  

PubMed

Drug addiction has been associated with deficits in mesostriatal dopamine (DA) function, but whether this state extends to behavioral addictions such as pathological gambling (PG) is unclear. Here we used positron emission tomography and the D3 receptor-preferring radioligand [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO during a dual-scan protocol to investigate DA release in response to oral amphetamine in pathological gamblers (n=12) and healthy controls (n=11). In contrast with human neuroimaging findings in drug addiction, we report the first evidence that PG is associated with greater DA release in dorsal striatum (54-63% greater [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO displacement) than controls. Importantly, dopaminergic response to amphetamine in gamblers was positively predicted by D3 receptor levels (measured in substantia nigra), and related to gambling severity, allowing for construction of a mechanistic model that could help explain DA contributions to PG. Our results are consistent with a hyperdopaminergic state in PG, and support the hypothesis that dopaminergic sensitization involving D3-related mechanisms might contribute to the pathophysiology of behavioral addictions. PMID:24322203

Boileau, I; Payer, D; Chugani, B; Lobo, D S S; Houle, S; Wilson, A A; Warsh, J; Kish, S J; Zack, M

2014-12-01

240

Linguistic Disorders and Pathologies  

E-print Network

Linguistic Disorders ^.- 'Ã?Â¥ and Pathologies An International Handbook Edited by Gerhard Blanken York 1993 #12;11. Acquired Organic Pathologies of Language Behavior Neurolinguistic Disorders Santo. The Joumai of Nervous and Mental Disease, 80, 48-61. Van Dongen, H., Van Harskamp, F., Loonen, M. (1977

Butterworth, Brian

241

[Personality disorders and aging].  

PubMed

Personality disorder can be defined as an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that markedly deviates from the expectations of the individual's culture. With aging, personality disorders may improve or worsen. Their prevalence in the elderly is slightly lower than the prevalence in young adult. Furthermore, their comorbidity and co-occurrence are the rule with an increased risk of late decompensation. Categorical approach used in the current international classifications (ICD-10 and DSM-5) is not adapted to the specificities of the elderly with consequent overrepresentation of "unspecified personality disorder". However, a pathological personality tends to complicate all interventions for somatic or psychological care in the elderly. Thus, this review describes changes in personality disorders related to aging in order to help the clinician to better identify these disorders. Indeed, recognizing a pathological personality in the elderly improves its management both in the field of mental health and in somatic disorders in which the role of personality must be evaluated. Personality and its disorders should therefore be taken into account in all geriatric practices, in particular in the context of cognitive disorders. PMID:24939408

Calvet, Benjamin; Péricaud, Marion; Parneix, Mathieu; Bricaud, Magali; Lavigne, Benjamin; Clément, Jean-Pierre

2014-06-01

242

Pathology Case Study: Hemoptysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a pulmonary pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55 year old female has spontaneously occurring hemoptysis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, radiology, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Holst, Valerie; Yousem, Sam

2007-08-28

243

Pathology Case Study: Headache  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. In this case, a 79 year old male with headaches and sinus problems is evaluated. The patient previously had "an inverted papilloma resected." Using the gross description, microscopic description, and images provided, students are encouraged to test their knowledge of pathology and diagnose the patient's medical problem. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

Nine, Jeff S.

2007-11-28

244

Careers in Plant Pathology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brochure reads easily and features pictures of plant pathologists in action, curious-looking disease symptoms and microscopic views of pathogens. This tool is intended to inspire more young scientists to consider plant pathology as a career choice.

Margaret Daughtrey (American Phytopathological Society;)

2004-01-01

245

Personal Genomics, Personalized Medicine,  

E-print Network

Personal Genomics, Personalized Medicine, & YOU Carrie Iwema, PhD, MLS 21st May 2012 AAAS/Science Translational Medicine panel discussion; MLA 2012 #12;Timeline: Human Genome Sequence HSLS, U.Pitt 1995 2014 2000 2003 2007 2007 2010 Human Genome Draft Sequence Complete Human Reference Genome Individual Human

Napp, Nils

246

Pathological gambling, co-occurring disorders, clinical presentation, and treatment outcomes at a university-based counseling clinic.  

PubMed

It is the intent of this study to examine the relationship between the number of co-occurring disorders in a sample of pathological gamblers and variables associated with clinical presentation and treatment outcomes. Participants were given screening tools for four common psychological disorders: the hands depression screen, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire, the Carroll-Davidson generalized anxiety disorder screen, and the Sprint-4 PTSD Screen. The number of co-occurring disorders, as indicated by the results of these screening instruments, was compared to severity of gambling problems at outset of treatment, as measured by the NORC diagnostic screen for gambling problems-self administered. The number of co-occurring disorders was also compared to psychosocial functioning at the outset of treatment, as well as level of improvement in psychosocial functioning through treatment. Psychosocial functioning was measured using the Outcome Questionnaire 45 (OQ-45). The number of co-occurring disorders was compared to participant satisfaction with the therapeutic relationship as measured by the working alliance inventory-short form. Results suggest that co-occurring disorders are commonplace among treatment seeking pathological gamblers. Over 86 % of the sample screened positively for at least one of the four targeted psychological disorders. Furthermore, the number of co-occurring disorders was found to be positively related to severity of gambling problems at outset of treatment and negatively related to level of psychosocial functioning at outset of treatment. However, the number of co-occurring disorders was not found to be significantly related to level of improvement in psychosocial functioning through treatment. Overall, those that attended at least six sessions reported significantly improved psychosocial functioning by the end of their sixth session. Finally, the number of co-occurring disorders was not found to be significantly related to participants' reported level of satisfaction with the therapeutic relationship. PMID:23297170

Soberay, Adam; Faragher, J Michael; Barbash, Melissa; Brookover, Amanda; Grimsley, Paul

2014-03-01

247

An Empirical Examinination of Jacobs' General Theory of Addictions: Do Adolescent Gamblers Fit the Theory?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines 817 adolescent High School students' gambling behavior. Participants completed the DSM-IV-J, a gambling screen examining severity of gambling problems along with the High School Personality Questionnaire (HSPQ), the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and a questionnaire devised by the authors inquiring about gambling behavior, substance abuse, alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking. The study seeks to test

Rina Gupta; Jeffrey L. Derevensky

1998-01-01

248

Interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism: a social relations analysis.  

PubMed

Impairments in self and interpersonal functioning are core features of personality pathology. Clinical theory and research indicate that compromised self-awareness and distorted interpersonal perceptions are particularly prominent in individuals exhibiting pathological narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Therefore we conducted a study to gain a better understanding of interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism. A large sample (N=437) of moderately acquainted individuals assigned to 1 of 93 small mixed-sex groups completed self- and informant ratings on the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) in a round-robin design. The social relations model (SRM) was used to partition the variance in dyadic ratings to investigate several hypotheses about interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism. SRM analyses demonstrated evidence of assimilation (the tendency to perceive and rate others similarly) and consensus (the extent to which multiple observers form similar impressions of another person) in interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism. Results also indicated modest self-other agreement and assumed similarity (the tendency for people to perceive others as similar to themselves) for PNI higher order factors and subscale ratings. Finally, results suggested that individuals high in pathological narcissism had some awareness of how peers would rate them (metaperception) but believed that others would rate them similarly to how they rated themselves. PMID:23406324

Lukowitsky, Mark R; Pincus, Aaron L

2013-01-01

249

The clustering of psychiatric disorders in high-risk gambling populations.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to examine the associations between psychiatric disorders and pathological gambling (PG) and the clustering of psychiatric disorders in high risk gambler populations. The sample comprised 140 regular gamblers who were recruited from the general public. A variety of self- report and semi structured questionnaires was administered, including the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, The Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4th Edition, NORC DSM-IV Screen for Gambling Problems Self- administered and Problem Gambling Severity Index. Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders and personality disturbances were found to be more prevalent amongst pathological gamblers than other gamblers with the strongest differences observed for mood and anxiety-related disorders. Almost two-thirds of pathological gamblers reported both an anxiety or mood disorder in conjunction with another type of disorder. These differences between the gambling groups existed even after controlling for gender. The results highlight the high rates of co-morbidity in pathological gamblers in the community and the extent to which anxiety and mood disorders co-existing with other forms of pathology. These results highlight the significant challenges facing treatment services in the treatment of PG and the extent to which this should be treated as the primary disorder. PMID:23774993

Abdollahnejad, Mohammad Reza; Delfabbro, Paul; Denson, Linley

2014-12-01

250

Residency choices by graduating medical students: why not pathology?  

PubMed

Pathology is an unpopular residency choice for medical students worldwide. In some countries, this has contributed to a crisis in pathologist human resources that has affected the quality of clinical laboratories. Several previous studies have used information from junior medical students and from residents to suggest ways of improving pathology recruitment. There are, however, no published studies of pathology residency choice that focus on the senior medical students who must be recruited. This study uses focus groups of senior medical students to explore both general and pathology-specific influences on residency choice. Several general influences are identified, including students' expectations for their future clinical practices, their own clinical rotation experiences, influences from other people including mentors, and their choice to reject certain fields. Several specific antipathology influences are also revealed, including negative stereotypes about pathologists, a perceived incompatibility of personality between most medical students (extroverted) and pathologists (introverted), and perceptions of pathologists as being in some ways nonmedical. The most important antipathology influence was that, from the students' perspective, pathology was utterly invisible in clinical practice. Most students did not consider and then reject a pathology residency: instead, pathology was completely ignored. Given the importance of clerkship electives in influencing medical student career choice, promoting clerkship experiences in pathology may improve recruitment. However, departments of pathology must first make pathology visible to students and teach them how pathologists contribute to clinical care. PMID:21292295

Hung, Tawny; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra; Ford, Jason C

2011-06-01

251

Changing spousal roles and their effect on recovery in gamblers anonymous: GamAnon, social support, wives and husbands.  

PubMed

This paper examines changing spousal roles and their effects upon recovery in Gamblers Anonymous (GA). It is based upon a qualitative study designed to gage uniformity as well as variations in approaches to recovery in GA. Interviews were conducted with 39 GA members (26 men, 13 women; mean age 56.5 years). Though the study was based in the Toronto area, only 13 interviews involved participants from that region. Phone interviews were conducted with GA members from various regions of both Canada and the US. GamAnon, GA's sister fellowship, has been designed for anyone affected seriously by someone's gambling problem. In practice, GamAnon comprises mostly women--spouses of male GA members--who traditionally have taken a keen interest in the ways in which their husbands achieve and maintain abstinence from gambling. Changing spousal roles have led to fewer women joining GamAnon, as many opt instead to part with troubled spouses. As well, more women are attending GA than in the past, typically with husbands who are disinclined to join GamAnon. All of this has drastically altered how GA members pursue recovery. These changes and their implications are discussed. PMID:20033264

Ferentzy, Peter; Skinner, Wayne; Antze, Paul

2010-09-01

252

Pathology Case Study: Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 24-day-old baby is failing to thrive and experiencing seizures. Visitors are given the microscopic description, with images, the results of the postmortem examination, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

Dickman, Paul S.; Lyons, Valerie

2009-09-16

253

Pathology Case Study: Hyperammonemia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a female neonate only two days old became lethargic and developed focal seizures. Visitors are given the high performance liquid chromatography, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical chemistry.

Diven, Warren; Martens, Jeff; Schubert, Eric

2007-09-06

254

Bronchiolitis. Pathologic considerations.  

PubMed

Bronchiolitis represents a cellular and mesenchymal reaction involving bronchioles. The interplay between the cellular infiltrate and the mesenchymal reaction affects the lumen size, lamina propria, muscular layer, and bronchiolar adventitia. The result is a variety of clinical, radiologic, and functional patterns of bronchiolar disease. The anatomy of the small airways is discussed, and a pathologic classification applicable to the surgical pathology of bronchiolitis is presented. The classification is practical and includes asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cellular bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, bronchiolitis obliterans (including bronchiolitis obliterans with intraluminal polyps and constrictive bronchiolitis), dust-related small airway fibrosis, and (postinflammatory) bronchiolar scarring and peribronchiolar fibrosis. PMID:9426525

Colby, T V

1998-01-01

255

Pathology Case Study: Petechiae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 6-hour-old baby was found to have petechiae. Visitors are given the case description and the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.

Lopez-Plaza, Iliana; Nester, Theresa; Qu, Lirong

2008-03-26

256

Pathology Case Study: Peritonitis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 26-year-old woman has had a 13-year history of poorly controlled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Visitors are given both the patient history and laboratory results, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

Anhalt, John P.; Macauley, Robert; Pasculle, A. W.; Sheaffer, John; Torbenson, Michael

2007-10-05

257

Pathology Case Study: Peritonitis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 70-year-old man has peritonitis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gastrointestinal pathology.

Nine, Jeff S.

2007-12-12

258

From Symptoms to Neurobiology: Pathological Gambling in the Light of the New Classification in DSM-5.  

PubMed

Pathological gambling (PG), as defined until recently in the DSM-IV, shares many clinical characteristics with substance use disorders (SUDs), such as craving and loss of control. Moreover, an increasing body of literature also revealed neurobiological similarities between PG and substance-related addictions. Further, specific treatments for SUD are also effective in pathological gamblers. These observations resulted in a recent change in the diagnostic classification of PG in DSM-5: maladaptive gambling behavior is now subsumed as 'gambling disorder' (GD) under the category 'substance-related and addictive disorders'. On the basis of similarities in clinical characteristics between GD and SUDs, this article proposes 3 main clusters of diagnostic criteria: 'loss of control', 'craving/withdrawal' and 'neglect of other areas in life'. These symptom clusters can then be related to the experimental paradigms commonly used in the neuroscience of addiction, including neuropsychological, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies. In this paper, we present the neurobiological evidence for PG by focusing on key functional magnetic resonance imaging studies related to these 3 symptom clusters. It is concluded that these symptom clusters provide a useful framework for systematic comparisons of new evidence in GD and SUDs in the future. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25359489

Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anna E

2014-01-01

259

Can personality disorders be changed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a long time character pathology, or personality disorder as it is known today, was associated with therapeutic nihilism.\\u000a The general idea was that people with character pathology have a qualitatively different character make-up than healthy people.\\u000a Their character was considered to be unchangeable which explained the lack of therapeutic success. Recent insights have radically\\u000a changed this view. Specialised treatments

Arnoud Arntz; David Bernstein

2006-01-01

260

Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

Westphal, James R.

2008-01-01

261

Pathology and Molecular Medicine  

E-print Network

treat cancer without a pathological diagnosis? The Yemen experience. October 21st MUMC ­ 1A3 Dr. S. Tang HRLMP - McMaster University Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid: The Bethesda Reporting System-Mozes University of Toronto Cancer stem cells in different molecular subtypes of breast cancer. May MDCL ­ 3023

Thompson, Michael

262

Pathological fractures in children  

PubMed Central

Pathological fractures in children can occur as a result of a variety of conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases and infection to tumours. Fractures through benign and malignant bone tumours should be recognised and managed appropriately by the treating orthopaedic surgeon. The most common benign bone tumours that cause pathological fractures in children are unicameral bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, non-ossifying fibromas and fibrous dysplasia. Although pathological fractures through a primary bone malignancy are rare, these should be recognised quickly in order to achieve better outcomes. A thorough history, physical examination and review of plain radiographs are crucial to determine the cause and guide treatment. In most benign cases the fracture will heal and the lesion can be addressed at the time of the fracture, or after the fracture is healed. A step-wise and multidisciplinary approach is necessary in caring for paediatric patients with malignancies. Pathological fractures do not have to be treated by amputation; these fractures can heal and limb salvage can be performed when indicated. PMID:23610658

De Mattos, C. B. R.; Binitie, O.; Dormans, J. P.

2012-01-01

263

Pathological gambling: Psychosomatic, emotional and marital difficulties as reported by the spouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two parallel self-administered surveys were distributed at three conferences of Gamblers Anonymous. One survey was for members of Gamblers Anonymous and the other was for members of GamAnon. Approximately 500 respondents completed the surveys, with 215 having completed the questionnaire for the spouse. This article is a report of some of the data from the spouse's survey. This survey focused

Valerie C. Lorenz; Robert A. Yaffee

1988-01-01

264

Antisocial Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter discusses the medical understanding of antisocial personality disorder (APSD), including research concerning\\u000a its etiology, prevalence, pathology, differential diagnosis, and treatment. ASPD, and the closely related diagnosis of psychopathy,\\u000a seem to be products of a strong genetic disposition interacting with a variety of environmental contributions. Epidemiological\\u000a studies indicate that ASPD and psychopathy are much more prevalent in men than

Karen J. Derefinko; Thomas A. Widiger

265

Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology  

PubMed Central

Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program's core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists. PMID:24843823

Mandelker, Diana; Lee, Roy E.; Platt, Mia Y.; Riedlinger, Gregory; Quinn, Andrew; Rao, Luigi K. F.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Mahowald, Michael; Lane, William J.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Baron, Jason M.; McClintock, David S.; Kuo, Frank C.; Lebo, Matthew S.; Gilbertson, John R.

2014-01-01

266

Increasing pathology utilisation lies behind increasing pathology costs.  

PubMed

Recent increases in pathology costs per scheme member are a concern to medical schemes and pathologists alike. To better understand the observed increasing costs, the National Pathology Group commissioned Prognosys to analyse the trends affecting these increases. We found that these increases are driven by inflation, increases in utilisation, and redistribution of the burden of cost. The identification of utilisation as a cost driver for pathology services is noteworthy as almost all pathology services are by referral from another doctor. PMID:23802203

Lawrie, M; Good, A

2013-07-01

267

Pathology Case Study: Sepsis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology where a 74 year old man with a history of diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, inferior wall myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. He was admitted for a left femoral-popliteal bypass graft. The case study provides both gross and microscopic descriptions along with pertinent laboratory studies in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

Callahan, Debra L.

2009-10-08

268

Pathology of the breast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular pathology, comprising cytopathology and histopathology, is an essential component of the management of breast disease. The range of benign and malignant conditions encountered by the breast pathologist is diverse. Benign changes are common and may present as localized masses (e.g. fibroadenoma), diffuse textural alterations (e.g. fibrocystic change), nipple discharge (e.g. intraduct papilloma) or as microcalcifications on mammographic examination (e.g.

Adrian C Bateman

2004-01-01

269

Pathology Case Study: Hydrocephalus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. In this particular study an otherwise healthy 9 month old infant is presented with hydrocephalus. The case study provides test results and images along with microscopic photos and description. Clicking on the final diagnosis provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment.

2007-08-20

270

Impact of mode of display and message content of responsible gambling signs for electronic gaming machines on regular gamblers.  

PubMed

Harm-minimization strategies aim to reduce gambling-related risks; however, minimal evidence supports the effectiveness of current strategies involving the placement of warning signs in gambling venues and on electronic gaming machines (EGMs). This qualitative replication study evaluated the differential effect of pop-up messages compared to static signs and the content of messages on EGMs on recall, thoughts, and behaviors assessed during the session and at 2-week follow-up. In Study 1, 127 regular EGM gamblers (male = 97, mean age = 20.3) recruited from a university student population attended a laboratory where they were randomly assigned to play a computer-based simulated EGM analogue displaying signs that differed by (a) mode of presentation (pop-up and static) and (b) message content (informative, self-appraisal, and control/blank). In Study 2, an identical methodology was used but included the use of a simulated EGM within an in vivo gaming setting with 124 regular EGM players (male = 81, mean age = 44.1). Results from both studies showed that pop-up messages were recalled more effectively than static messages immediately and at 2-week follow-up. Pop-up messages reportedly had a significantly greater impact on within-session thoughts and behaviors. Messages encouraging self-appraisal resulted in significantly greater effect on self-reported thoughts and behaviors during both the experimental session and in subsequent EGM play. These findings support the effectiveness of pop-up messages containing self-appraisal messages as an appropriate harm-minimization initiative. PMID:19730998

Monaghan, Sally; Blaszczynski, Alex

2010-03-01

271

Personality disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Personality disorders are a group of mental health conditions in which a person has a long-term pattern ... Causes of personality disorders are unknown. Genetic and ... a role. Mental health professionals categorize these disorders ...

272

Pathology of clinical and preclinical Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized neuropathologically by the presence of amyloid plaques, neuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). These lesions occur not only in demented individuals with AD but also in non-demented persons. In non-demented individuals, amyloid and neuritic plaques are usually accompanied with NFTs and are considered to represent asymptomatic or preclinical AD (pre-AD) pathology. Here, we defined and characterized neuropathological differences between clinical AD, non-demented pre-AD, and non-AD control cases. Our results show that clinical AD may be defined as cases exhibiting late stages of NFT, amyloid, and neuritic plaque pathology. This is in contrast to the neuropathological changes characteristic of pre-AD, which display early stages of these lesions. Both AD and pre-AD cases often exhibit cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD), and when they do, these AD-related pathologies were at early stages in pre-AD cases and at late stages in symptomatic AD. Importantly, NFTs, GVD, and CAA were also observed in non-AD cases, i.e., in cases without amyloid plaque pathology. Moreover, soluble and dispersible, high-molecular-weight amyloid ?-protein (A?) aggregates detected by blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were elevated in clinical AD compared to that in pre-AD and non-AD cases. Detection of NFTs, GVD, and CAA in cases without amyloid plaques, presently classified as non-AD, is consistent with the idea that NFTs, GVD, and CAA may precede amyloid plaque pathology and may represent a pre-amyloid plaque stage of pre-AD not yet considered in the current recommendations for the neuropathological diagnosis of AD. Our finding of early stages of AD-related NFT, amyloid, and GVD pathology provides a more clear definition of pre-AD cases that is in contrast to the changes in clinical AD, which is characterized by late stages of these AD-related pathologies. The observed elevation of soluble/dispersible A? aggregates from pre-AD compared to that in AD cases suggests that, in addition to more widespread AD-related pathologies, soluble/dispersible A? aggregates in the neuropil play a role in the conversion of pre-AD to clinical AD. PMID:24077890

Thal, Dietmar Rudolf; von Arnim, Christine; Griffin, W Sue T; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu; Mrak, Robert E; Attems, Johannes; Upadhaya, Ajeet Rijal

2013-11-01

273

"Pathological" Cantor manifolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The n-dimensional compact topological space is called to be a Cantor Manifold (CM), if it is not a sum of two proper closed subsets with (n-2)-dimensional intersection. It is by definition a Strongly Cantor Manifold (SCM), if it is not a countable sum of proper closed subsets with no more than (n-2)-dimensional pairwise intersection. We shall call our space a Pathological Cantor Manifold (PCM) if it is CM, but not SCM. In this note we give some examples to investigate "how bad" can be the structure of PCM's.

Todorov, Vladimir

2012-11-01

274

Forest & Shade Tree Pathology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forest & Shade Tree Pathology is a site created by Jim Worrall, a former professor at the College of Environmental Science and Forestry. The major focus of this resource is the study of tree diseases, "their causes (etiology), factors that affect their spread (epidemiology), ecological and economic impacts, and management." The site is divided into four sections: "Main Topics" such as fungi, root diseases and wilts; "General Topics," which includes quizzes, references, and links to other forest health sites; "Disease Profiles," which includes information on specific diseases like chestnut blight and armillaria root disease; and "Disease Notes," which contains news and updates on specific diseases.

2008-02-01

275

Pathology Case Study: Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 7-year-old girl is experiencing episodic seizures. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including neuroimaging results, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology. [ASC

Al-Hindi, Hindi; Subach, Brian R.

2007-10-15

276

Pathology Case Study: Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology of a 51 year-old man with epilepsy. Images and results from a neurological examination are provided in this case. The patientâÂÂs diagnosis is found in the âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ section, which also includes a detailed description of the condition from the contributing doctors. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of neuropathology.

2008-04-08

277

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA -2118-2526  

E-print Network

& Disease Co-Director, Stanford Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Professor of PathologyDepartment of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East of Brain Reserve Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine in Early Alzheimer's Disease Patients

Finzi, Adrien

278

Population Density and Pathology: What Are the Relationships for Man?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence of high population density's serious inhibiting effects on the reproductive, aggressive, withdrawal and sexual behavior of various animals, motivated a study of human pathology in overcrowded areas. Ecological relationships in Chicago and their impact on human behavior were assessed. The number of persons per acre, Standardized Mortality…

Galle, Omer R.; And Others

279

Personality disorder symptoms are differentially related to divorce frequency.  

PubMed

Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55-64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression analyses showed Paranoid and Histrionic personality disorder symptoms to be consistently and positively associated with number of divorces across all three sources of personality assessment. Conversely, Avoidant personality disorder symptoms were negatively associated with number of divorces. The present paper provides new information about the relationship between divorce and personality pathology at a developmental stage that is understudied in both domains. PMID:23244459

Disney, Krystle L; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F

2012-12-01

280

Personality Disorder Symptoms Are Differentially Related to Divorce Frequency  

PubMed Central

Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55–64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM–IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM–IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression analyses showed Paranoid and Histrionic personality disorder symptoms to be consistently and positively associated with number of divorces across all three sources of personality assessment. Conversely, Avoidant personality disorder symptoms were negatively associated with number of divorces. The present paper provides new information about the relationship between divorce and personality pathology at a developmental stage that is understudied in both domains. PMID:23244459

Disney, Krystle L.; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2013-01-01

281

Qualitative and Quantitative Distinctions in Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The categorical–dimensional debate has catalyzed a wealth of empirical advances in the study of personality pathology. However, this debate is merely one articulation of a broader conceptual question regarding whether to define and describe psychopathology as a quantitatively extreme expression of normal functioning or as qualitatively distinct in its process. In this article I argue that dynamic models of personality

Aidan G. C. Wright

2011-01-01

282

Personality, Addiction, Dopamine: Insights from Parkinson's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rare instances, patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may become addicted to their own medication or develop behavioral addictions such as pathological gambling. This is surprising because PD patients typi- cally have a very low incidence of drug abuse and display a personality type that is the polar opposite of the addictive personality. These rare addictive syndromes, which appear to

Alain Dagher; Trevor W. Robbins

2009-01-01

283

Conceptualization and treatment of personality disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an emerging consensus that the essence of personality pathology consists of difficulties with self-identity and chronic interpersonal dysfunction. The nature of normal and abnormal attachment to others, attention control, affect regulation, and the autobiographical self are related developmentally to the early caregiving context. Psychotherapeutic intervention for adults with personality disorders across many schools of psychotherapy is focused on

John F. Clarkin

2006-01-01

284

Pathology Case Study: Fevers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors in the health sciences field. In this case, a 68-year-old male patient experiencing fevers, chills, an associated non-productive cough, and weight loss was admitted to the hospital for examination. The âÂÂGross Description,â âÂÂMicroscopic Description,â and â Microbiologyâ sections provide key information and images that contributed to the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. Clicking on the âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment from the contributing doctors.

Kulich, Scott; Pasculle, A. W.

2007-12-17

285

Pathology Case Study: Lymphocytosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes "a 72-year-old white male who presented to an outside facility with chest pain of 24 hours duration." Visitors are given patient history, admission data, peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, including images. They are also given flow cytometry and cytogenic data as well as molecular genetics, with images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

Contis, Lydia C.; Nambiar, Ashok; Pindzola, Ander

2009-04-14

286

Pathology Case Study: Epilepsy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This neuropathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent learning tool for students and instructors in the health science fields. In this case, a 27-year-old female presents with a history of seizures. A detailed patient history along with gross and microscopic images of the patientâÂÂs brain are included in this case study. The official diagnosis found in the âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ section is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

French, Jacqueline A.; Mcgarvey, Michael; Mourelatos, Zissimos; Wells, Gregg

2008-12-29

287

The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder  

PubMed Central

Background The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) were investigated in a clinical sample presenting for treatment of perfectionism. Method This study explored the utility of perfectionism in predicting pathological worry in a sample of individuals with elevated perfectionism and GAD (n?=?36). Following this, the study examined whether perfectionism could predict a principal GAD diagnosis in the full sample (n?=?42). Results Scores on the perfectionism dimensions Concern over Mistakes, Personal Standards, and Clinical Perfectionism significantly predicted pathological worry among participants with GAD after controlling for gender and depression. The perfectionism dimension Doubts about Actions significantly predicted whether individuals from the full sample received a principal diagnosis of GAD. Conclusions These findings support certain dimensions of perfectionism having significant associations with pathological worry and GAD. PMID:24693946

2014-01-01

288

The pathological status of exercise dependence  

PubMed Central

Objectives—This study was concerned with the concept of exercise dependence. Levels of psychological morbidity, personality profiles, and exercise beliefs were compared among subjects screened for exercise dependence and eating disorders. Method—Adult female exercisers were allocated on the basis of questionnaire screening to one of the following groups: primary exercise dependence (n = 43); secondary exercise dependence, where there was the coincidence of exercise dependence and an eating disorder (n = 27); eating disorder (n =14); control, where there was no evidence of either exercise dependence or eating disorder (n = 110). Questionnaire assessment was undertaken of psychological morbidity, self esteem, weight and body shape dissatisfaction, personality, and exercise beliefs. Results—Aside from a higher incidence of reported menstrual abnormalities, the primary exercise dependence group was largely indistinguishable from the controls. In stark contrast, the secondary exercise dependence group reported higher levels of psychological morbidity, neuroticism, dispositional addictiveness, and impulsiveness, lower self esteem, greater concern with body shape and weight, as well as with the social, psychological, and aesthetic costs of not exercising than the controls, but differed little from the eating disorder group. Conclusions—In the absence of an eating disorder, women identified as being exercise dependent do not exhibit the sorts of personality characteristics and levels of psychological distress that warrant the construction of primary exercise dependence as a widespread pathology. Key Words: exercise dependence; eating disorders; personality; self esteem; neuroticism; psychological morbidity PMID:10786869

Bamber, D.; Cockerill, I.; Carroll, D.

2000-01-01

289

[Pathological gambling and Parkinson disease].  

PubMed

Pathological gambling (PG) is defined by the DSM IV criteria as inappropriate, persistent, and maladaptive gambling behavior that has repercussions on family, personal, and professional life. It is classified as an impulse control disorder and is widely understood as a nonpharmacological addiction. PG has been reported as a complication in the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD). The prevalence of PG in PD has been reported to range between 1.7 and 7% compared to a prevalence of approximately 1% in the general population. Though there is no survey that indicates the prevalence of PG in Japanese PD patients, problematic gambling behaviors in PD are occasionally observed. In addition to PG other impulse control behaviors and punding (repetitive stereotyped behavior) are recognized as components of the dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), which is characterized by the compulsive use of dopaminergic medications, including levodopa and subcutaneous apomorphine. Though PG can occur with DDS it often occurs in isolation. The vast majority of PG seen in PD is related to dopamine agonists (DA). With regard to the administration of oral DA, pramipexole may induce a higher degree of PG than other types of oral DA due to its disproportionate stimulation of dopamine D3 receptors. However, the differences between the observed effects of various classes of oral DA were insignificant. PG associated with levodopa mono-therapy is uncommon, but in the majority of cases levodopa is co-prescribed. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) was recently introduced to treat advanced PD. An improvement in PG symptoms following STN-DBS has been reported due to a marked decrease in dopaminergic medications. However, in some patients, PG developed following STN-DBS despite the significant reduction or discontinuation of DA. STN-DBS per se may be a potential initiator of PG. Younger age of PD onset, novelty seeking personality traits, history of alcohol abuse, and impulsivity traits were significant predictors of PG. Patients especially those with individual susceptibility to PG should be warned of the potential risks of PG before DA treatment is initiated. PMID:18807938

Fujimoto, Ken-Ichi

2008-09-01

290

Personality Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...

291

Personal space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews major findings of personal-space research in clinical psychology, personality, demographic studies (including sex, age, cross-cultural studies), and studies of the effects of familiarity and affinity. The substantial lack of consistent findings in the literature is attributed to the lack of experimental controls in most of the personal-space research. It is suggested that researchers explore personal space using multivariate techniques.

Gary W. Evans; Roger B. Howard

1973-01-01

292

Forest pathology in Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

Gardner, D. E.

2003-01-01

293

Epigenetic perspective on behavior development, personality, and personality disorders.  

PubMed

After 30 years of clinical work and research based on categorical criteria for personality disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders - DSM IV TR) and (International Classification of Diseases - ICD 10th revision), a solid conceptual understanding and treatment of these disorders have not been established. For the field to move forward, it is imperative that future classifications introduce major revisions of the concept, diagnosis, and classification of personality disorders. This paper proposes one such revision. Based on recent advances in molecular biology and epigenetics, we define personality disorders as maladaptive syndromes developed trough person-environment interaction. We conceptualize maladaptation as a failure of integrative functions of personality (i.e., those that carry out adaptive processes) caused by strong biogenetic dispositions or by pathological environmental effects, or both. Hence, accurate diagnosis of personality disorder depends upon neurobiological (innate) and adaptive (interactive) etiological factors. We propose a 2-step diagnostic algorithm for personality disorders: adaptive processes (i.e., character) are used to diagnose maladaptation, whereas biological aspects (i.e., temperament) are used to specify dominant clinical presentation and for differential diagnosis. We suggest that the term "Personality Disorder" be replaced by a more appropriate term "Adaptation Disorder" as the latter reflects more accurately the real nature of the disorder and distributes the causality of maladaptive syndromes more evenly, between the person and the environment. Diagnostic, research, and treatment advantages of the proposed solution are discussed in some detail. PMID:20562740

Svrakic, Dragan M; Cloninger, Robert C

2010-06-01

294

Pediatric Forensic Pathology in Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric forensic pathology is an area of medicine that has only received attention relatively recently as a subspecialization of forensic pathology dealing with cases involving children, i.e., it is the study of diseases and injuries of children with subsequent medicolegal interpretation of findings for police and the courts. Unfortunately, the mere naming of an area of medicine does not automatically

Roger W. Byard; Henry F. Krous

2004-01-01

295

Pathology waste includes: Transgenic animals.  

E-print Network

Collection" form. · We will pick up your waste within 1-3 days. University of California, IrvinePathology waste includes: · Transgenic animals. · Potentially transgenic animals including, "no of as a hazardous chemical waste. The tissues or carcasses can then be disposed of as pathology waste. Labeling

George, Steven C.

296

College of Medicine PAT Pathology  

E-print Network

College of Medicine PAT Pathology KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped: Admission to first year, College of Medicine. PAT 823 MECHANISMS OF DISEASE AND TREATMENT/PATHOLOGY. (9 approved electives offered by the various departments in the College of Medicine. The intent is to provide

MacAdam, Keith

297

Behavioral activation for pathological grief.  

PubMed

The death of a significant other often entails far-reaching changes in individuals' life that can contribute to pathological grief responses. This article reviews 3 prominent theories of grief resolution, highlights common factors proposed to be associated with pathological grief responses, and suggests that behavioral activation (Martell, Addis, & Jacobson, 2001) may address the factors contributing to pathological grieving. Behavioral activation applied to pathological grief may address loss related disruption by engaging bereaved individuals in their social environment and increasing contact with positive reinforcers that maintain sense of self. Two case studies are provided to demonstrate how behavioral activation can be adapted to remediate environmental disengagement, avoidance, and rumination typical of pathological grief responses. PMID:24517521

Papa, Anthony; Rummel, Clair; Garrison-Diehn, Christina; Sewell, M Todd

2013-01-01

298

[Personal identity and multiple personality].  

PubMed

The present study analyses the internal organization of self concepts in a woman who meets the DSM III criteria of multiple personality disorder. The aim of this single case study, was to assess the personal identity of this patient, the degree of internal coherence and the hierarchical structure of the descriptions of self and others in the frame of cognitive theories of personality. After the clinical observation, the experimental procedure is presented. It consists in asking the patient to describe her different roles or alternated personalities (N = 12), as well as the target persons of her familial and social environment (N = 8) on the basis of a preestablished list of adjectives (extracted from the 16 P.F. Cattell sphere of personality). The factorial analysis of the contingency table: traits attributed x persons described shows a Guttman like hierarchical structure. Similarities and differences between the descriptions can be ordered on a unidimensional order, the multiple roles or personalities being no more complex nor simple than the target persons. The present results have been discussed in reference to cognitive theories of personality and their utility in studying personal identity and multiple personality. PMID:3223683

de Bonis, M; Charlot, V; Hardy, P; Féline, A

1988-01-01

299

Integrating a developmental perspective in dimensional models of personality disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that manifestations of personality pathology are traceable in early years of life. Nevertheless, the existing diagnostic nomenclature contains little recognition of childhood antecedents of adult personality disorders (PD). The current paper suggests that these childhood antecedents are more readily recognized to the extent that the personality disorders are themselves understood as configurations of extreme Five-Factor Model

Barbara De Clercq; Filip De Fruyt; Thomas A. Widiger

2009-01-01

300

Contingency Learning in Alcohol Dependence and Pathological Gambling: Learning and Unlearning Reward Contingencies  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) and pathological gambling (PG) are characterized by dysfunctional reward processing and their ability to adapt to alterations of reward contingencies is impaired. However, most neurocognitive tasks investigating reward processing involve a complex mix of elements, such as working memory, immediate and delayed rewards, and risk-taking. As a consequence, it is not clear whether contingency learning is altered in AD or PG. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine performance in a deterministic contingency learning task, investigating discrimination, reversal, and extinction learning. Methods Thirty-three alcohol-dependent patients (ADs), 28 pathological gamblers (PGs), and 18 healthy controls (HCs) performed a contingency learning task in which they learned stimulus–reward associations that were first reversed and later extinguished while receiving deterministic feedback throughout. Accumulated points, number of perseverative errors and trials required to reach a criterion in each learning phase were compared between groups using nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis rank-sum tests. Regression analyses were performed to compare learning curves. Results PGs and ADs did not differ from HCs in discrimination learning, reversal learning, or extinction learning, on the nonparametric tests. Regression analyses, however, showed differences in the initial speed of learning: PGs were significantly faster in discrimination learning compared to ADs, and both PGs and ADs learned slower than HCs in the reversal learning and extinction phases of the task. Conclusions Learning rates for reversal and extinction were slower for the alcohol-dependent group and PG group compared to HCs, suggesting that reversing and extinguishing learned contingencies require more effort in ADs and PGs. This implicates a diminished flexibility to overcome previously learned contingencies. PMID:24821534

Vanes, Lucy D; van Holst, Ruth J; Jansen, Jochem M; van den Brink, Wim; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Goudriaan, Anna E

2014-01-01

301

Abnormalities of functional brain networks in pathological gambling: a graph-theoretical approach  

PubMed Central

Functional neuroimaging studies of pathological gambling (PG) demonstrate alterations in frontal and subcortical regions of the mesolimbic reward system. However, most investigations were performed using tasks involving reward processing or executive functions. Little is known about brain network abnormalities during task-free resting state in PG. In the present study, graph-theoretical methods were used to investigate network properties of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in PG. We compared 19 patients with PG to 19 healthy controls (HCs) using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT). None of the examined global metrics differed between groups. At the nodal level, pathological gambler showed a reduced clustering coefficient in the left paracingulate cortex and the left juxtapositional lobe (supplementary motor area, SMA), reduced local efficiency in the left SMA, as well as an increased node betweenness for the left and right paracingulate cortex and the left SMA. At an uncorrected threshold level, the node betweenness in the left inferior frontal gyrus was decreased and increased in the caudate. Additionally, increased functional connectivity between fronto-striatal regions and within frontal regions has also been found for the gambling patients. These findings suggest that regions associated with the reward system demonstrate reduced segregation but enhanced integration while regions associated with executive functions demonstrate reduced integration. The present study makes evident that PG is also associated with abnormalities in the topological network structure of the brain during rest. Since alterations in PG cannot be explained by direct effects of abused substances on the brain, these findings will be of relevance for understanding functional connectivity in other addictive disorders. PMID:24098282

Tschernegg, Melanie; Crone, Julia S.; Eigenberger, Tina; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Fauth-Buhler, Mira; Lemenager, Tagrid; Mann, Karl; Thon, Natasha; Wurst, Friedrich M.; Kronbichler, Martin

2013-01-01

302

APSnet: Advanced Plant Pathology Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Phytopathological Society (APS) is a professional society dedicated to "high-quality, innovative plant pathology research." Founded in 1908, the APS continues to provide educational resources for those seeking to learn more about the science of plant pathology. One way they work to accomplish this goal is through this particular section of their website. The materials on this site include "Plant Disease Management Simulations", "Laboratory Exercises", and "Topics in Plant Pathology". The "Topics in Plant Pathology" area includes topical articles that deal with various aspects of plant pathology, including the use of reverse genetic tools for investigating gene function and the population genetics of plant pathogens. Moving on, the "Laboratory Exercises" area contains two activities that can be used by college students studying plant pathology. The "Plant Disease Management" area contains a handful of simulations that will help students learn about the spread and management of some common plant diseases. Finally, the site is rounded out by an illustrated glossary of plant pathology.

303

[Psychopathology and achievement motivation in adolescents with pathological internet use].  

PubMed

In Germany, the internet is used by 69.4% of the population or 49 million people, and 100% of adolescents (between 14 to 19 years of age) spend time in the internet at least occasionally. An excessive use of the internet may lead to negative psychosocial consequences and changes in behaviour. This phenomenon is named "pathological internet use". Until now, there are only few studies published that investigate mental well being in German adolescents with pathological internet use. 16 participants of an outpatient treatment program for pathological internet use and 16 healthy adolescents were compared on self-reported levels of psychopathology (SPS-J), achievement motivation (FLM 7-13) and personal experience of attention deficit (FEDA). There were no differences in age, gender, intelligence or education between the two groups. Pathological internet users exhibited significantly elevated scores on self-esteem problems and the summary score of the SPS-J and significantly lower scores on FLM 7-13-dimensions "achievement ambition" and "perseverance/diligence" compared to controls. The results revealed that adolescents with pathological internet use report a higher level of psychopathology and lower levels of achievement motivation and drive. These findings should be taken into account when conceptualizing treatments for pathological internet users. PMID:22242254

Wartberg, Lutz; Sack, Peter-Michael; Petersen, Kay-Uwe; Thomasius, Rainer

2011-01-01

304

Pathology Case Study: Renal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a pediatric pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 19-month-old boy has a renal mass. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

Christakos, Peter; Dickman, Paul S.

2009-08-17

305

The Relationship Between Personality Organization as Assessed by Theory-Driven Profiles of the Dutch Short Form of the MMPI and Self-Reported Features of Personality Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the relationships between features of personality organization (PO) as assessed by theory driven profiles of the Dutch Short Form of the MMPI (DSFM; Luteijn & Kok, 1985) and 2 self-report measures of personality pathology, that is, the Dutch Inventory of Personality Organization (Berghuis, Kamphuis, Boedijn, & Verheul, 2009) and the Dutch Schizotypy Personality Questionnaire–Revised (Vollema

Elisabeth H. M. Eurelings-Bontekoe; Patrick Luyten; Mila Remijsen; Jurrijn Koelen

2010-01-01

306

Personal Pronouns Personal Pronouns [viwakilishi nafsi  

E-print Network

Lesson 4: Personal Pronouns Personal Pronouns [viwakilishi nafsi] There are three personal pronouns in Swahili: A). First person pronoun B). Second person pronoun C). Third person pronoun Each personal pronoun has a singular and a plural form. A). First Person Pronoun Umoja [singular

307

Pathological preoccupation with video games.  

PubMed

Controversy continues concerning the harmfulness of video game use by children. The author encountered clearly pathological preoccupation with video games in a preadolescent. The child had stolen, forged checks, and skipped school to continue using video games. He and his mother were physically abused by his father. Placement of the child in a residential treatment center with martial and family therapy resulted in resolution of the patient's pathological use of video games. PMID:2295578

Keepers, G A

1990-01-01

308

Detection of peripheral nerve pathology  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare accuracy of ultrasound and MRI for detecting focal peripheral nerve pathology, excluding idiopathic carpal or cubital tunnel syndromes. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients referred for neuromuscular ultrasound to identify patients who had ultrasound and MRI of the same limb for suspected brachial plexopathy or mononeuropathies, excluding carpal/cubital tunnel syndromes. Ultrasound and MRI results were compared to diagnoses determined by surgical or, if not performed, clinical/electrodiagnostic evaluation. Results: We identified 53 patients who had both ultrasound and MRI of whom 46 (87%) had nerve pathology diagnosed by surgical (n = 39) or clinical/electrodiagnostic (n = 14) evaluation. Ultrasound detected the diagnosed nerve pathology (true positive) more often than MRI (43/46 vs 31/46, p < 0.001). Nerve pathology was correctly excluded (true negative) with equal frequency by MRI and ultrasound (both 6/7). In 25% (13/53), ultrasound was accurate (true positive or true negative) when MRI was not. These pathologies were typically (10/13) long (>2 cm) and only occasionally (2/13) outside the MRI field of view. MRI missed multifocal pathology identified with ultrasound in 6 of 7 patients, often (5/7) because pathology was outside the MRI field of view. Conclusions: Imaging frequently detects peripheral nerve pathology and contributes to the differential diagnosis in patients with mononeuropathies and brachial plexopathies. Ultrasound is more sensitive than MRI (93% vs 67%), has equivalent specificity (86%), and better identifies multifocal lesions than MRI. In sonographically accessible regions ultrasound is the preferred initial imaging modality for anatomic evaluation of suspected peripheral nervous system lesions. PMID:23553474

Seelig, Michael J.; Baker, Jonathan C.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Pestronk, Alan

2013-01-01

309

Controversies in pediatric forensic pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric forensic pathology is an emerging medical subspecialty that spans the area between pediatric and forensic pathology.\\u000a Advances in both of these fields have increased the sophistication of diagnoses, with overlap of disorders that might present\\u000a to either the pediatric or forensic pathologist, adding further layers of complexity. Not surprisingly, therefore, there are\\u000a important ethical and medical controversies in pediatric

Henry F. Krous; Roger W. Byard

2005-01-01

310

42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

2011-10-01

311

42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

2012-10-01

312

42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

2013-10-01

313

42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

2010-10-01

314

An epidemiological study of rotator cuff pathology using The Health Improvement Network database.  

PubMed

Little is known about the incidence of rotator cuff pathology or its demographic associations in the general population. We undertook a large epidemiological study of rotator cuff pathology in the United Kingdom using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. The incidence of rotator cuff pathology was 87 per 100,000 person-years. It was more common in women than in men (90 cases per 100,000 person-years in women and 83 per 100,000 person-years in men; p < 0.001). The highest incidence of 198 per 100,000 person-years was found in those aged between 55 and 59 years. The regional distribution of incidence demonstrated an even spread across 13 UK health authorities except Wales, where the incidence was significantly higher (122 per 100,000 person-years; p < 0.001). The lowest socioeconomic group had the highest incidence (98 per 100,000 person-years). The incidence has risen fourfold since 1987 and as of 2006 shows no signs of plateauing. This study represents the largest general population study of rotator cuff pathology reported to date. The results obtained provide an enhanced appreciation of the epidemiology of rotator cuff pathology and may help to direct future upper limb orthopaedic services. PMID:24589790

White, J J E; Titchener, A G; Fakis, A; Tambe, A A; Hubbard, R B; Clark, D I

2014-03-01

315

Mystery Person  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features a mathematical game called "Mystery Person." The author describes how the Mystery Person game was tried with first-graders [age 6]. The Mystery games involve the generation of key questions, the coordination of information--often very complex information--and the formulation of consequences based on this coordination.…

O'Brien, Tom

2011-01-01

316

Personal Finance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter presents four articles designed to help business educators educate learners in grades K-12 about personal finance. "Now More Than Ever: The Need for Financial Literacy" examines the following topics: evidence that the United States is becoming a nation of debtors; the plummeting personal savings rate; the increasing complexity of…

Wagner, June G.

2003-01-01

317

Personal Information Request Request for Personal Information  

E-print Network

Personal Information Request Request for Personal Information Request for Correction of Personal Information Personal information on this form is collected under Newfoundland and Labrador's Access to, your personal information. (See attached instructions) 1. To Which Public Body Are You Making

deYoung, Brad

318

Introduction to the special issue on personality assessment in the DSM-5.  

PubMed

The DSM-5 is poised to dramatically reshape the way clinicians and researchers assess personality by reconfiguring the conceptualization of DSM-IV personality disorders. This special issue brings together leading scholars in personality pathology, including members of the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Pathology Work Group, as well as personality assessors operating from a variety of theoretical perspectives, to describe various facets of these changes and their potential impacts and in some cases to propose alternative solutions. As we describe in this brief introductory article, the articles in this special issue highlight several important and controversial issues in the transition to DSM-5 personality assessment. PMID:22804670

Hopwood, Christopher J; Huprich, Steven K

2011-07-01

319

The behavioral economics of substance use disorders: reinforcement pathologies and their repair.  

PubMed

The field of behavioral economics has made important inroads into the understanding of substance use disorders through the concept of reinforcer pathology. Reinforcer pathology refers to the joint effects of (a) the persistently high valuation of a reinforcer, broadly defined to include tangible commodities and experiences, and/or (b) the excessive preference for the immediate acquisition or consumption of a commodity despite long-term negative outcomes. From this perspective, reinforcer pathology results from the recursive interactions of endogenous person-level variables and exogenous environment-level factors. The current review describes the basic principles of behavioral economics that are central to reinforcer pathology, the processes that engender reinforcer pathology, and the approaches and procedures that can repair reinforcement pathologies. The overall goal of this review is to present a new understanding of substance use disorders as viewed by recent advances in behavioral economics. PMID:24679180

Bickel, Warren K; Johnson, Matthew W; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G

2014-01-01

320

Lifetime Prevalence of Pathological Gambling Among American Indian and Hispanic American Veterans  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of pathological gambling among 1228 American Indian and Hispanic American veterans in the southwest and north central regions of the United States. Methods. We surveyed a community sample of American Indian and Hispanic American veterans to obtain data on psychiatric disorder and treatment. Results. American Indian veterans had a 10% lifetime prevalence of pathological gambling. The Hispanic American lifetime prevalence was less than that of the American Indian veterans but higher than the prevalence found for Hispanic American veterans in other surveys. Comorbid conditions associated with pathological gambling included substance, mood, and antisocial personality disorders. Ready access to casino gambling may encourage, support, or contribute to high rates of pathological gambling in both men and women. Conclusions. A 70% lifetime comorbidity of psychiatric disorders suggests that early interventions for pathological gambling should consider common psychiatric conditions rather than focusing on pathological gambling alone. PMID:15855466

Westermeyer, Joseph; Canive, Jose; Garrard, Judith; Thuras, Paul; Thompson, James

2005-01-01

321

A Direct, Controlled, Blind Family Study of DSM-IV Pathological Gambling  

PubMed Central

Objective Pathological gambling is a major public health problem. We sought to examine the familiality of pathological gambling and determine patterns of familial aggregation of disorders. Method We assessed probands with DSM-IV pathological gambling, controls, and their first-degree relatives. Detailed family history information was collected on relatives who were deceased or unavailable. Results Ninety-five pathological gambling probands, 91 controls, and their 1,075 first-degree relatives over age 18 (537 relatives of pathological gambling probands, 538 relatives of controls) were evaluated between February 2005 and June 2010. Relatives were assessed blind to proband status. Best estimate diagnoses were assigned. Rates of lifetime pathological gambling (definite/probable) was significantly greater among the first-degree relatives of probands with pathological gambling than among comparison relatives (11% vs 1%, OR = 8.19, P < .001). The prevalence of pathological gambling and subclinical pathological gambling combined was 16% and 3% in case and control relatives, respectively (OR = 6.57, P < .001). Pathological gambling relatives had higher rates of major depression (OR = 1.49, P < .05), bipolar disorder (OR = 3.82, P < .05), any mood disorder (OR = 1.59, P < .05), social anxiety disorder (OR = 4.76, P < .01), any substance use disorder (OR = 1.47, P < .05), posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 2.59, P < .05), and antisocial personality disorder (OR = 3.72, P < .001). Antisocial personality disorder (OR = 3.12, P < .01), social anxiety disorder (OR = 4.15, P < .01), and posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 2.85, P < .05) were more frequent in case relatives independent of the presence of pathological gambling. Age at onset of pathological gambling in case probands (< 40 years/? 40 years) was not related to familiality in their first-degree relatives (OR = 1.03, P = .927). Conclusions Pathological gambling is familial. Mood and substance use disorders may emerge as a consequence of the pathological gambling or as a more complex syndrome. In contrast, antisocial personality disorder, social anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder may share a common familial etiology with pathological gambling. The phenotype may extend beyond pathological gambling to include subclinical forms of the disorder. PMID:24500179

Black, Donald W.; Coryell, William H.; Crowe, Raymond R.; McCormick, Brett; Shaw, Martha C.; Allen, Jeff

2014-01-01

322

Evidence for the criterion validity and clinical utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory  

PubMed Central

In this study we evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (Ns = 299, 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability with established indices of normal personality traits, psychopathology and clinical concerns, and pathological personality traits. Overall, the pattern of correlations supported the convergent and discriminate validity of grandiose and vulnerable conceptualizations of pathological narcissism as measured by the PNI. Clinical utility was assessed by evaluating the extent to which clinicians without specific training in pathological narcissism as well as clinicians with expertise in pathological narcissism could accurately predict the correlates of PNI grandiosity and vulnerability with normal and pathological personality traits and psychopathology. The rcontrast-cv coefficient (Westen & Rosenthal, 2003) provided a global index of accuracy in clinicians’ predictions that was more fully elaborated by examining systematic discrepancies across groups. Overall, novice and expert clinicians were generally able to predict criterion correlations, with some exceptions (e.g., counter to predictions, pathological narcissism was negatively associated with treatment resistance). These results provide further evidence regarding the validity and utility of the narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability constructs as measured by the PNI. PMID:22315481

Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

323

Personal Computers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the hardware, software, applications, and current proliferation of personal computers (microcomputers). Includes discussions of microprocessors, memory, output (including printers), application programs, the microcomputer industry, and major microcomputer manufacturers (Apple, Radio Shack, Commodore, and IBM). (JN)

Toong, Hoo-min D.; Gupta, Amar

1982-01-01

324

The neurobiology of pathological gambling.  

PubMed

Despite relatively high prevalence rates and significant morbidity and mortality associated with pathological gambling (PG), our understanding of the neurobiological basis of PG lags in comparison to that for other psychiatric illnesses of comparable magnitude. An improved understanding of the neurobiology of PG would facilitate targeted investigations into more effective treatments. Emerging data suggest shared neurobiological features determine in part pathological gambling and substance use disorders. These findings both challenge current conceptualizations of addictions and provide a substantial basis of knowledge on which to design investigations into the understanding and treatment of pathological gambling. The findings that substance use disorders and the behavioral "addiction" of PG share common causative features raise the question as to what extent other compulsive disorders (eg, compulsive shopping, compulsive sexual behaviors, compulsive computer use) might be biologically related. PMID:11447573

Potenza, M N

2001-07-01

325

Metallothionein polymorphisms in pathological processes.  

PubMed

Metallothioneins (MTs) are a class of metal-binding proteins characterized by a high cysteine content and low molecular weight. MTs play an important role in metal metabolism and protect cells against the toxic effects of radiation, alkylating agents and oxygen free radicals. The evidence that individual genetic characteristics of MTs play an important role in physiological and pathological processes associated with antioxidant defense and detoxification inspired targeted studies of genetic polymorphisms in a clinical context. In recent years, common MT polymorphisms were identified and associated with, particularly, western lifestyle diseases such as cancer, complications of atherosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes mellitus along with related complications. This review summarizes all evidence regarding MT polymorphisms of major human MTs (MT1, MT2, MT3 and MT4), their relation to pathological processes, and outlines specific applications of MTs as a set of genetic markers for certain pathologies. PMID:24068159

Raudenska, Martina; Gumulec, Jaromir; Podlaha, Ondrej; Sztalmachova, Marketa; Babula, Petr; Eckschlager, Tomas; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Masarik, Michal

2014-01-01

326

The Spoken Autobiography: A Powerful Tool in Group Psychotherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Writing as a therapeutic tool is not new. The unique approach described in this article, however, requires the writing and oral delivery of a personal autobiography as an early component of group psychotherapy for pathological gamblers. The spoken autobiography expedites group process through its early development of group cohesiveness, catharsis,…

Adkins, Bonnie J.; And Others

1985-01-01

327

Diagnostic Change and Personality Stability Following Functional Restoration Treatment in Chronic Low Back Pain Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined personality pathology in a group of patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) using both diagnostic interviews and dimensional self-report instruments. A group of CLBP patients (N = 125) was assessed before functional restoration treatment and compared with a matched normal comparison group (N = 75). The CLBP group evidenced broad personality pathology in all assessment modes

Jeffrey R. Vittengl; Lee Anna Clark; Erin Owen-Salters; Robert J. Gatchel

1999-01-01

328

Pathology Case Study: Lung Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in learning. A 59-year-old patient with a history of smoking was admitted for a biopsy of his recently transplanted liver. Laboratory results, X-ray images, microscopic descriptions and images are provided to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The doctor's official conclusions and references are included in the "Final Diagnosis" section. Students entering health sciences fields will find this resource very helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

Bastacky, Sheldon; Holst, Valerie

2007-10-17

329

Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Hypertension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 20-year-old man has a history of pulmonary hypertension. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

Horn, Kevin D.

2007-08-16

330

Pathology Case Study: Dilated Cardiomyopathy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with a large range of symptoms from chills and fever to underdeveloped calf muscles. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

Defrances, Marie C.; Lee, Robert E.

2008-05-14

331

Pathology Case Study: Skin Lesion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman with uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma with focal squamous differentiation arising in complex atypical hyperplasia. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Holst, Valerie; Jones, Mirka W.; Quintana, Paulina

2007-10-01

332

Pathology Case Study: Maculopapular Rash  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 38-year-old woman with a history of morbid obesity and gastric bypass surgery complains of fatigue, sore throat, and rash. Visitors are given the physical examination results and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Flynn, Kevin J.; Malone, Mark

2007-11-21

333

Pathology Case Study: Liver Transplant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 34-year-old is experiencing complications following a liver transplant. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

Richert, Charles A.

2007-08-22

334

Pathology Case Study: Renal Failure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 36-year-old man has had two kidney transplants. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

Richert, Charles A.

2007-08-27

335

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 72-year-old man has abdominal pain, anorexia, and weight loss but no significant past medical history. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

Nine, Jeff S.; Weir, Ed

2007-12-03

336

Pathology Case Study: Renal Insufficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 74-year-old man has been referred to the hospital for renal insufficiency complicating scleroderma. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.

Bastacky, Sheldon; Perry, Linda

2007-09-03

337

Pathology Case Study: Renal Insufficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with chronic renal insufficiency, congestive heart failure, and diarrhea. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.

Bastacky, Sheldon; Parizhskaya, Maria

2007-10-31

338

Pathology Case Study: Chronic Sinusitis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man reported a history of chronic sinusitis that was not responding to nasal and antibiotic treatments. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of head and neck pathology.

Becich, Michael J.; Fowler, Jason C.

2008-04-28

339

Pathology Case Study: Mediastinal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man complained of diaphoresis nausea and substernal chest pain through his left arm. Subsequent tests revealed a mediastinal mass with both fatty and solid components. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

Fowler, Jason C.; Rao, Uma N.

2008-12-25

340

Pathology Case Study: Pigmented Lesion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 69-year-old man has a pigmented lesion on his right ear. Visitors are given the patient history and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Ejadi, Samuel

2007-09-12

341

Pathology Case Study: Hepatitis C  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 43-year-old male with Hepatitis C has had a laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

Richert, Charles A.

2007-08-21

342

Pathology Case Study: Metastasizing Tumor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman presented with a low-grade sarcoma with features of plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor in the subcutaneous soft tissue of left posterior thigh. Visitors can view both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

Rao, Uma N.; Rostami, Sassan

2009-02-17

343

Pathology Case Study: Back Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman who presented with two months of back pain. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Lu, Zhengbin; Schoedel, Karen

2009-04-17

344

Pathology Case Study: Testicular Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 18-year-old male with "painless enlargement of the right testes over a period of several months, initially attributed to a sports injury." Visitors are given admission data along with gross and microscopic description, including images and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

Fowler, Jason C.; Halpern, Melissa B.; Rao, Uma N.

2008-08-19

345

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older woman developed a renal mass without evidence of angiomyolipoma. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in endocrine pathology.

Hardy, Hunter T.

2008-10-16

346

A core curriculum for clinical fellowship training in pathology informatics  

PubMed Central

Background: In 2007, our healthcare system established a clinical fellowship program in Pathology Informatics. In 2010 a core didactic course was implemented to supplement the fellowship research and operational rotations. In 2011, the course was enhanced by a formal, structured core curriculum and reading list. We present and discuss our rationale and development process for the Core Curriculum and the role it plays in our Pathology Informatics Fellowship Training Program. Materials and Methods: The Core Curriculum for Pathology Informatics was developed, and is maintained, through the combined efforts of our Pathology Informatics Fellows and Faculty. The curriculum was created with a three-tiered structure, consisting of divisions, topics, and subtopics. Primary (required) and suggested readings were selected for each subtopic in the curriculum and incorporated into a curated reading list, which is reviewed and maintained on a regular basis. Results: Our Core Curriculum is composed of four major divisions, 22 topics, and 92 subtopics that cover the wide breadth of Pathology Informatics. The four major divisions include: (1) Information Fundamentals, (2) Information Systems, (3) Workflow and Process, and (4) Governance and Management. A detailed, comprehensive reading list for the curriculum is presented in the Appendix to the manuscript and contains 570 total readings (current as of March 2012). Discussion: The adoption of a formal, core curriculum in a Pathology Informatics fellowship has significant impacts on both fellowship training and the general field of Pathology Informatics itself. For a fellowship, a core curriculum defines a basic, common scope of knowledge that the fellowship expects all of its graduates will know, while at the same time enhancing and broadening the traditional fellowship experience of research and operational rotations. For the field of Pathology Informatics itself, a core curriculum defines to the outside world, including departments, companies, and health systems considering hiring a pathology informatician, the core knowledge set expected of a person trained in the field and, more fundamentally, it helps to define the scope of the field within Pathology and healthcare in general. PMID:23024890

McClintock, David S.; Levy, Bruce P.; Lane, William J.; Lee, Roy E.; Baron, Jason M.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Onozato, Maristela L.; Kim, JiYeon; Dighe, Anand S.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Kuo, Frank; Black-Schaffer, Stephen; Gilbertson, John R.

2012-01-01

347

Narcissistic personality disorder in DSM-5.  

PubMed

The criteria for personality disorders in Section II of DSM-5 have not changed from those in DSM-IV. Therefore, the diagnosis of Section II narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) will perpetuate all of the well-enumerated shortcomings associated with the diagnosis since DSM-III. In this article, we will briefly review problems associated with Section II NPD and then discuss the evolution of a new model of personality disorder and the place in the model of pathological narcissism and NPD. The new model was intended to be the official approach to the diagnosis of personality pathology in DSM-5, but was ultimately placed as an alternative in Section III for further study. The new model is a categorical-dimensional hybrid based on the assessment of core elements of personality functioning and of pathological personality traits. The specific criteria for NPD were intended to rectify some of the shortcomings of the DSM-IV representation by acknowledging both grandiose and vulnerable aspects, overt and covert presentations, and the dimensionality of narcissism. In addition, criteria were assigned and diagnostic thresholds set based on empirical data. The Section III representation of narcissistic phenomena using dimensions of self and interpersonal functioning and relevant traits offers a significant improvement over Section II NPD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23834518

Skodol, Andrew E; Bender, Donna S; Morey, Leslie C

2014-10-01

348

The Registry of Forensic Pathology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of the Registry of Forensic Pathology since its origin in 1958 is discussed, and an analysis of various factors involved in nearly 900 cases is given. Information concerning the contribution of cases as well as the selection, diagnostic co...

C. J. Stahl

1968-01-01

349

Pathological Gambling: A General Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the course of history, gambling has been a popular activity across most cultures. In the United States, gambling has transitioned from early acceptance to prohibition to widespread proliferation. For most, gambling is a relaxing and recreational activity; however, for some individuals gambling becomes more than harmless fun. The most severe form of gambling, pathological gambling, is recognized as a

Larry L. Ashley; Karmen K. Boehlke

2012-01-01

350

Pathological characteristics of esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

The pathological characteristics of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, which include regularly occurring multiple carcinogenic lesions (MLs), severe dysplasia (SD) and direct intramural infiltration (DI), were investigated using large pathological sections. A total of 52 esophageal cancer patients underwent surgical resection and were diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Large sections of the surgical resection specimens were then made for pathological examination. The actual length of the carcinoma was calculated during surgery from the length determined microscopically. ML, SD and DI were identified during pathological examination of the large sections by microscope and were statistically analyzed. The lesion lengths obtained by the various inspection methods differed from each other. ML, SD and DI were identified in 15, 28 and 41 patients, respectively. Furthermore, a higher incidence of DI was observed in patients with lymphatic infiltration or those with a later stage of disease. ML, SD and DI were identified as characteristics of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and ML and DI were found to correlate with lymphatic infiltration. PMID:25013466

SHI, HONG-YUN; ZHU, SHU-CHAI; SHEN, WEN-BIN; LIU, MIAO-LING

2014-01-01

351

Learning Biology with Plant Pathology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph contains 10 plant pathology experiments that were written to correspond to portions of a biology curriculum. Each experiment is suitable to a biology topic and designed to encourage exploration of those biological concepts being taught. Experiments include: (1) The Symptoms and Signs of Disease; (2) Koch's Postulates; (3)…

Carroll, Juliet E.

352

ORIGINAL PAPER Journal of Pathology  

E-print Network

of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA 2 Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA 3 Medical Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA 5 Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY

Kenny, Paraic

353

Bone remodeling in pathologic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bone remodeling in pathologic conditions was studied with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Benign and malignant ossification were examined in cases of myositis ossificans, ossifying fibroma, osteoid osteoma, and osteosarcoma, Resorption of bone due to invasion by non-ossifying tumors was found in cases of squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, ameloblastoma, and multiple myeloma. Bone formation due to excessive production of

J. Sela

1977-01-01

354

Cardiac pathology in fatal electrocution.  

PubMed

Electrocution is mostly unintentional and occurs in domestic environment or in form of an occupational hazard. Electrical burns sustained in domestic environment or otherwise are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The present report describes the pathological changes in the heart as observed in a case of fatal electrocution. PMID:24612995

Shetty, B Suresh Kumar; Kanchan, Tanuj; Acharya, Jenash; Naik, Ramadas

2014-11-01

355

Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Imaging to Pathology  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review is to describe the multimodal imaging (ultrasound, magnetic resonance, computed tomography, and nuclear medicine) of primary hyperparathyroidism and its correlation to the pathological findings. In the last decades, imaging science has progressed a great deal. Accurate preoperative localization of the involved glands is essential for surgical success. PMID:23230541

Piciucchi, Sara; Barone, Domenico; Gavelli, Giampaolo; Dubini, Alessandra; Oboldi, Devil; Matteuci, Federica

2012-01-01

356

Bioactive lipids in pathological retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic retinopathy is common that occurs in diabetics with long-standing hyperglycemia that is characterized by inappropriate angiogenesis. This pathological angiogenesis could be a sort of physiological proliferative response to injury by the endothelium. Recent studies suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a significant role in this angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic growth factor that

Qi Ma; Jun-hui SHEN; Sheng-rong SHEN; Undurti N Das

2012-01-01

357

Frontier in Pathology: SY24-1 DIGITAL PATHOLOGY 101 (FRONTIERS OF PATHOLOGY).  

PubMed

This symposium will provide participants with a broad introductory overview of the field of digital pathology (DP), including: 1) Applications, benefits and limitations of DP. 2) DP technology issues (primarily whole slide imaging). 3) Regulatory, workflow and financial considerations. 4) Hands-on session focused on basic digital slide viewing using a variety of digital slides if possible.We will also cover the recently updated guidelines from the American Telemedicine Association on Telepathology, with particular reference to their impact on use of digital pathology. PMID:25188072

Hassell, Lewis Allen; Soenksen, Dirk; Stratman, Curtis; Chlipala, Elizabeth; Pantanowitz, Liron

2014-10-01

358

Personalities and alimentary behaviors in obese patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actual tendency in the care of obese patients is the association of dietetic information with an eating behavior therapy. Studies attempting to attribute the origin of obesity to psychiatric pathologies are contradictory. We studied whether certain eating disorders are more specific to a personality type. We studied eating disorders with the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) test in 281 obese

A Golay; I Hagon; D Painot; P Rouget; A. F Allaz; Y Morel; J Nicolet; M Archinard

1997-01-01

359

Personality and Social Development of Handicapped Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are the personality and social development of children with physical handicaps, intellectual difficulties, or social and emotional disturbances, and recommended is the actual observation of the interactions of handicapped children with others in naturalistic situations. Stressed is the importance of pathological social interactions to…

Baldwin, Clara P.; Baldwin, Alfred L.

360

Personal Revelation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Activity: You are going to develop a scripture chain that teaches us how we can receive Personal Revelation. Remember, when we talk to Heavenly Father we call it prayer. When Heavenly Father responds to us by the Holy Ghost we call it Personal Revelation. Teaching Emphasis (Core) I cannot use any language that describes to you what a revelation is. Somebody said, How can I tell if I have a revelation? I have had a feeling that such and such is true. How can I be sure? ...Revelation is something you experience, and the way that ...

Vasas, Brother

2008-10-15

361

Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Neuroendocrine tumors are ubiquitous neoplasms that may occur anywhere in the human body. Although these tumors have been\\u000a recognized for more than 100 years, a unifying concept regarding classification has been controversial, and concepts introduced\\u000a a century ago are still kept in use in today’s nomenclature. In addition, some of the current entities encompassed in the\\u000a rubric of neuroendocrine carcinomas

Neda Kalhor; Saul Suster; Cesar A. Moran

362

Personal Finance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on personal finance is designed to provide all Marines with the ability to manage their financial affairs successfully. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students, a course introduction, and a study guide (guidelines to…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

363

Diagnostic pathology in 2012: development of digital pathology in an open access journal  

PubMed Central

Abstract Herein we describe and interpret the digital world of diagnostic surgical pathology, and take the in Pathology leading Open Access Journal Diagnostic Pathology as example. Virtual slide http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1944221953867351 PMID:23305209

2013-01-01

364

Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Nodules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pediatric pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. The learning objectives located at the top of the page are a great way for students to evaluate their learning progress. This case involves a 12-year-old girl presenting with recurrent lung nodules. Images from chest x-rays and a lung biopsy provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. A description of these images is also provided. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Arnold, Sonya; Hasegawa, Susan

2009-05-08

365

Pathology of lymphoma in HIV  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Individuals with HIV infection have a greatly increased risk of developing malignancies, even when HIV infection is successfully controlled with antiretrovirals. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is considered an AIDS-defining entity, and this disease is currently the most common type of cancer in HIV-infected individuals in the US and Europe. Here we describe the different types of lymphomas occurring in individuals with AIDS, and the most relevant pathologic features helpful for histologic and immunohistochemical diagnosis. Recent findings The incidence of some AIDS-related lymphoma subtypes has changed since the introduction of combined antiretroviral therapy, and some of the diagnostic methodologies have evolved. New biomarkers of disease have been identified, which may be useful for diagnosis. Summary Better pathological classification strategies and deeper molecular understanding of the different lymphoma subtypes that occur in people with AIDS will begin to allow the transition to more precise diagnosis and targeted treatments. PMID:23942293

Cesarman, Ethel

2014-01-01

366

Pathology Case Study: Retroperitoneal Masses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains two case studies presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology: one in which a man was experiencing increased pain in his left flank over the course of three weeks, and the second one in which a women experiencing persistent right lower quadrant pain shows a retroperitoneal lesion on CT scan. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patients. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.

Dorvault, Christine; Fernandes, Shaila; Yousem, Sam

2007-10-29

367

Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes "a 46-year-old gentleman with a persistent right lower lobe pulmonary mass after a successfully treated cavitary pneumonia 5 months ago." Visitors are given patient history along with radiology findings and images. They are also given gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Gregorio, Remigio; Johnson, Douglas R.; Nodit, Laurentia; Yousem, Sam

2009-03-11

368

Pathology Case Study: Stillborn Fetus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a 29 year old Hispanic woman who delivered a stillborn fetus with a estimated gestation of 29 weeks. Visitors are provided with patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in perinatal pathology.

Klatt, Edward C., 1951-; Mccune, Ryan

2008-12-08

369

Pathology Case Study: Postmenopausal Bleeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This gynecologic pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 57-year-old female with postmenopausal bleeding. The patientâÂÂs history, and results from a pelvic ultrasound are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Chen, Lei; Kanbour, Anisa; Kessinger, Rovena L.

2008-12-15

370

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Distention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 60-year-old woman who presented with a history of marked abdominal distention lasted for several months with associated progressive fatigue, progressive weight loss and fever. Visitors are given patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.

Rao, Uma N.; Sepulveda, Antonia; Yu, Hongbo

2009-03-18

371

Pathology of hereditary breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are predisposed to breast cancer. The BRCA1-associated breast cancers have distinct morphology, being more often medullary-like, triple negative and showing a ‘basal’ phenotype. On the other hand, BRCA2 and BRCAX cancers are a heterogeneous group without a specific phenotype. When incorporated into risk assessment models, pathology data improves prediction of carrier

Leonard Da Silva; Sunil R Lakhani

2010-01-01

372

Pedal nail pathology: biomechanical implications.  

PubMed

Proper treatment of pedal nail disorders requires a thorough understanding of the underlying etiology. As a class, biomechanical abnormalities constitute an important cause of pedal nail dystrophy. These biomechanical etiologies have been presented with regard to the three body planes. Treatments using biomechanical and orthopedic principles were explored, with an emphasis on counteracting abnormal dynamic and static forces. Additionally, sports that have a high correlation of nail pathologies have been discussed with prevention as the key element to treatment. PMID:2650843

Rzonca, E C; Lupo, P J

1989-04-01

373

Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology  

PubMed Central

The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include senile plaques of ?-amyloid (A?) peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF). NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD. Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99%) is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease. Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM) might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since Tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia. PMID:24574966

El Khoury, Noura B.; Gratuze, Maud; Papon, Marie-Amelie; Bretteville, Alexis; Planel, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

374

Pathology Case Study: Visual Disturbances  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a neuropathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 49 year old woman has visual disturbances. Visitors are given the microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Bilbao, Juan M., 1938-; Horvath, Eva, Ph.D.; Kovacs, Kalman; Syro, Luis; Uribe, Humberto; Vidal, Sergio

2009-08-18

375

Pathology of deaths associated with \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To study the postmortem pathology associated with ring substituted amphetamine (amphetamine derivatives) misuse. METHODS: The postmortem findings in deaths associated with the ring substituted amphetamines 3,4-methylenedioxymethyl-amphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA, eve) were studied in seven young white men aged between 20 and 25 years. RESULTS: Striking changes were identified in the liver, which varied from foci of individual

C M Milroy; J C Clark; A R Forrest

1996-01-01

376

A Dimensional Model of Personality Disorder: Incorporating DSM Cluster A Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors articulate an expanded dimensional model of personality pathology to better account for symptoms of DSM-defined Cluster A personality disorders. Two hundred forty participants (98 first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, 92 community control participants, and 50 first-degree relatives of probands with bipolar disorder) completed a dimensional personality pathology questionnaire, a measure of schizotypal characteristics, and

Jennifer L. Tackett; Amy L. Silberschmidt; Robert F. Krueger; Scott R. Sponheim

2008-01-01

377

Pathological organizations and psychic retreats in eating disorders.  

PubMed

A set of characteristic symptoms allow for the relatively straightforward diagnosis of eating disorders. Simultaneously and paradoxically, underlying the eating disorders are a wide variety of personality organizations/disorders, stretching from the neurotic to the borderline and narcissistic, and even to conditions approaching psychosis. This paper will argue that the inherent commonalities can be ascribed to pathological organizations of a similar nature and quality, operational across the spectrum of eating disorders and functioning in a particular, sadomasochistic way. The typical forms that eating disorders take are based on the specific ways that food and the body are used, that is, symptom manifestation. These distinctive symptom manifestations appear to be related to Steiner's (1982, 1993) notion of a psychic retreat. Pathological organizations and psychic retreats are latent until called upon either sporadically or continuously. When activated, these defensive structures operate like a complex psychic skeleton around which the unique psychodynamics of each patient become rearranged and thereby transformed. PMID:22489814

Kadish, Yael Adira

2012-04-01

378

[Update pulmonary pathology : Report of the Pulmonary Pathology Working Group of the German Society of Pathology].  

PubMed

The Pulmonary Pathology Working Group of the German Society of Pathology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pathologie DGP) can look back on an eventful year. Apart from the autumn meeting in Bremen in November 2012 and the sessions at the annual DGP congress in Heidelberg in May 2013, several articles dealing with the classification of pulmonary carcinoids as well as predictive analyses of cytological specimens and small biopsies of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) could be published with support and co-authorship of a large number of members of the working group. In this report, the key aspects of the last year's activities of the working group are summarized, including molecular diagnosis of lung tumors, NSCLC classification, neuroendocrine tumors, TNM and R classification, interstitial lung diseases, pneumoconioses, and pleural mesothelioma. PMID:24196640

Junker, K; Länger, F; Schnabel, P

2013-11-01

379

Photomatrix LED therapy of extensive cutaneous pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard sources of radiation have not sufficient efficiency at treating spatially extended pathology, especially when pathologic areas involve opposite sides of the human being's body or when they are uneven in shape. The typical examples of such pathology are extensive burns, oedema, inflammatory processes, infectious wounds, actinic keratosis, psoriasis, arthritis and neurological diseases. Superbright LEDs gathered in a matrix and

Vladimir P. Zharov; Y. A. Menyaev; I. Z. Zharova; Dmitry O. Leviev; V. N. Tsarev; V. P. Sarantsev; Jozko Krusic

2000-01-01

380

Immunohistochemistry in surgical pathology: principles and practice.  

PubMed

The extent to which data from immunohistochemical (IHC) staining are useful is critically dependent not only upon the proper performance and control of the method but also upon appropriate interpretation. A decade ago an individual pathologist may have nurtured a reasonable expectation of achieving a comprehensive understanding of the IHC literature across the whole field of pathology. Today such an expectation is clearly unreasonable with a simple Medline search of the IHC literature postdating the general adoption of antigen retrieval (arbitrarily 1996), yielding more than 100,000 "relevant" articles. The problem is compounded by enormous variability in sample preparation, by the literally thousands of antibodies that are available in catalogs, by the complexity of the tissue section environment, exactly which cells stain, or which do not, and by the subjective assessment of the presence and intensity of specific staining.This chapter describes attempts being made to address these issues. It also outlines the practical steps that may be taken to maximize effectiveness and reproducibility of IHC results within a lab. Adopting a "total test" mindset with attention to every phase of the process is the key initial step.The rapid growth of predictive markers, companion diagnostics, or advanced personalized diagnostics merely serves to underline the inadequacies of IHC and to reinforce the necessity for improved standardization, consistent interpretation, and precise quantification that almost certainly will involve the introduction of new internal and external reference standards, plus digital assistance in interpretation and quantification. PMID:25015143

Taylor, Clive R

2014-01-01

381

Pathology Case Study: Pancreatic Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 72-year-old man with a history of prostatic adenocarcinoma is presented with left flank pain. Gross and microscopic images and descriptions of a needle biopsy of the pancreas are provided in the âÂÂPreoperative Studiesâ section. A âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ section is also found here, which includes a detailed description of the condition from the contributing doctors. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Deal, Karen; Rao, Uma N.

2009-05-01

382

Pathology Case Study: Progressive Tetraparesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This neuropathology case, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, illustrates the process of diagnosing the cause of a patientâÂÂs progressive weakening of the limbs. Microscopic images of a biopsy specimen are included in the case study along with a gross description and image of the specimen. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with the diagnostic process and techniques.

Da Costa, Cristiane C.; Giannetti, Alexandre V.; Perpãâ©tuo, Francisco O.; Pittella, Josãâ© E.

2009-01-21

383

Radiographic correlation in orthopedic pathology.  

PubMed

Radiographic correlation is an essential adjunct for the accurate diagnosis of orthopedic lesions, yet it is a skill neglected by pathologists. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate why performing this correlation is an essential part of the diagnostic process and not merely an interesting adjunct to the surgical pathology of orthopedic lesions. The relationships between x-rays and tissues are explored with an emphasis on bone and soft tissue composition and structure. In addition, the rudiments of complementary imaging studies and how to incorporate their data into diagnoses are examined. PMID:16096379

Klein, Michael J

2005-07-01

384

Pathology Case Study: Macrocytic Anemia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older man suffering from chronic bronchitis and macrocytic anemia also developed persistent flu symptoms. Visitors view the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

Bahler, David; Kulich, Scott; Shekhter-Levin, Sofia

2008-05-05

385

Pathology Case Study: Chronic Hypertension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a clinical chemistry case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 57-year-old female has longstanding hypertension and peripheral vascular disease. Visitors are given catheterization procedure data and retroperitoneal ultrasound findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

Schubert, Eric

2007-08-23

386

Ultrasound evaluation of scrotal pathology.  

PubMed

Palpable scrotal mass, acute scrotal pain, and enlarged scrotum are common scenarios in clinical practice. The imaging modality of choice to evaluate scrotal pathology is ultrasound (US). US is key in determining if a palpable abnormality is extratesticular or intratesticular and cystic or solid. US findings help narrow the differential to benign or malignant causes. Extratesticular lesions are more common and usually benign. Rarely, extratesticular solid lesions are malignant but US features are nonspecific. Accurately diagnosing rare benign intratesticular lesions is vital to avoid unnecessary orchiectomy. This article reviews extratesticular and intratesticular lesions presenting as a palpable mass and other conditions commonly seen. PMID:22498445

Mirochnik, Brandon; Bhargava, Puneet; Dighe, Manjiri K; Kanth, Nalini

2012-03-01

387

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 65-year-old man is complaining of abdominal pain. Visitors are given the radiology, gross and microscopic descriptions, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostics, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

Latulippe, Steven; Ohori, N. P.

2007-12-05

388

Pathology Case Study: Gait Disorders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman with a 20-year history of gait disorders and dizziness. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

2009-04-21

389

Preclinical AD Workgroup staging: pathological correlates and potential challenges  

PubMed Central

The National Institute on Aging Preclinical Alzheimer’s disease Workgroup (PADW) has issued a preliminary report with recommendations for classifying preclinical Alzheimer’s disease (pAD) according to 3 early disease stages. Here we examine the PADW recommendations in relation to neuropathological features in a large, consecutive series of cognitively intact elderly persons, autopsied within a year after cognitive testing (n = 126 cognitively intact patients with mean age 83.7 years at death). Subjects were grouped based on a hypothetical construct correlating pathological features with PADW stages. Many cognitively intact individuals were classifiable as pAD (53/126 or 43%), as expected based on epidemiological and biomarker studies. Of these, most (48%) were in “stage 3”, which corresponds to amyloid pathology with early neurodegeneration. As with prior studies, our data indicate that the development of neocortical neurofibrillary tangles is the key pathological event that is not observed in pAD cases: Braak stages III or IV pathology are hence not truly a substrate for “intermediate likelihood” that cognitive impairment is due to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We also stress the importance of comorbid non-Alzheimer’s disease brain pathologies (hippocampal sclerosis, neocortical alpha-synucleinopathy, cerebrovascular disease, and brains with hippocampal neurofibrillary tangles but no cortical amyloid plaques) that can contribute to the development of cognitive impairment, or which may serve as confounds in the application of the PADW recommendations. While the final recommendations from the PADW working group have not yet been released, this preliminary analysis provides a perspective on those recommendations from a neuropathological point of view. PMID:21507528

Jicha, Gregory A.; Abner, Erin L.; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Riley, Kathryn P.; Cooper, Gregory E.; Stiles, Nancy; Mendiondo, Marta S.; Smith, Charles D.; Van Eldik, Linda J.; Nelson, Peter T.

2011-01-01

390

Borderline Personality Characteristics and Treatment Outcome in Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for PTSD in Female Rape Victims  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies report that comorbid borderline personality pathology is associated with poorer outcomes in the treatment of Axis I disorders. Given the high rates of comorbidity between borderline personality pathology and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it is essential to determine whether borderline symptomatology affects PTSD treatment…

Clarke, Stephanie B.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Resick, Patricia A.

2008-01-01

391

Personal Timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For this homework assignment, students have to draw two scaled timelines. The first is a personal timeline. They need to come up with the events themselves, an easy task that will build confidence for student who are intimidated by science and math. Following guidelines, they decide on a scale, and draw a linear timeline on which they plot their chosen events. Most students will primarily include recent events. They are asked to identify and explain any patterns in their timeline. Students should note the clustering at the present, and describe the emphasis on the present as resulting from memory, relevance to future hopes and worries, etc. The second timeline is more traditional. The students are given 16 Earth history events with dates and asked to draw another timeline, using the procedure from the personal timeline, but the line is already drawn for them. They will probably recognize most of the events on the list, and will be keeping them in order and spacing them out on the timeline. They are once again asked to identify and explain patterns and should recognize the emphasis on the present. This time, availability of fossils/rocks and relevance to current conditions and problems are good answers.

Teed, Rebecca

392

Oral contraception and breast pathology.  

PubMed

After a rapid examination of the international literature concerning human, animal, histological and epidemiological experimental data, the Authors state that the use of oral contraceptives considerably reduces the risk of benign disease of the breast. This risk reduction seems to be connected to the presence of progestin in this type of contraception. The Authors then expound the data regarding a group of patients (3527), who came to the center for the diagosis and prevention of cancer of the breast at the S. Martino hospital of Genoa during the years 1977-1980. The results of the study are comparable to those found in international literature, in that they confirm the protective effect of hormonal contraception on benign pathology of the breast. Finally we have shown the data of the retrospective and prospective studies conducted up till now on the effects of hormonal contraception on malignant breast pathology. In conclusion we have shown which lines of study should be taken in order to clarify once and for all the links existing between estroprogestins and cancer of the breast. PMID:6794288

Ragni, N; Boccardo, E; Viglino, S; Larosa, E

1981-06-01

393

Personality Profiles in Eating Disorders: Rethinking the Distinction Between Axis I and Axis II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Like other DSM-IV axis I syn- dromes, eating disorders are diagnosed without respect to personality, which is coded on axis II. The authors assessed the utility of segregating eating disorders and personality pathology and examined the extent to which personality patterns ac- count for meaningful variation within axis I eating disorder diagnoses. Method: One hundred three experienced psychiatrists and

Drew Westen; D. Jennifer Harnden-Fischer

2001-01-01

394

Seasonal mood change and personality: an investigation of genetic co-morbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical observations and empirical studies suggest that Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is related to personality. The present study estimates the genetic and environmental correlations between the Global Seasonality Score (GSS) from the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire and personality measures, assessed using the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP) in a volunteer sample of

Kerry L Jang; Raymond W Lam; Julie A Harris; Philip A Vernon; W. John Livesley

1998-01-01

395

Beyond acute appendicitis: imaging and pathologic spectrum of appendiceal pathology.  

PubMed

While acute appendicitis is a common and important clinical problem, a variety of other disease processes can affect the appendix. Simple and perforated appendicitis, tip appendicitis, and stump appendicitis share a common clinical presentation including anorexia, right lower quadrant pain, and fever. By imaging, most cases of acute appendicitis exhibit luminal dilation, wall thickening, and periappendiceal inflammatory stranding. In tip appendicitis, these changes are isolated to the distal appendix, often with an obstructing appendicolith. Perforated appendicitis can exhibit mural discontinuity, periappendiceal abscess, and/or extraluminal appendicoliths. After appendectomy, the appendiceal remnant or "stump" can become inflamed, often necessitating repeat surgery. Inflammatory bowel disease can involve the terminal ileum, secondarily involving the appendix, or may primarily involve the appendix. Patient symptoms can be chronic in such cases, and mucosal hyperenhancement is a pronounced imaging feature. In asymptomatic patients without appendiceal inflammation, the appendix can be dilated by intraluminal material such as inspissated succus in cystic fibrosis or mucus from benign appendiceal mucocele. Finally, neoplasms such as typical appendiceal carcinoid tumor and mucinous adenocarcinoma can involve the appendix. Carcinoids are often small and incidentally discovered at pathologic examination, while malignant mucinous adenocarcinoma tends to present with advanced disease including pseudomyxoma peritonei. Cecal cancers can also obstruct the appendiceal lumen and cause acute appendicitis; an astute radiologist can recognize this prospectively and facilitate definitive resection (right hemicolectomy) at the time of surgery. Attention to mural features, cecal configuration, and periappendiceal inflammation is essential to the correct prospective diagnosis of complicated appendicitis and less common appendiceal pathologies. PMID:24414145

Gaetke-Udager, Kara; Maturen, Katherine E; Hammer, Suntrea G

2014-10-01

396

Borderline Personality  

PubMed Central

BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER (BPD) IS A COMPLEX AXIS II Phenomenon that is typically described in a psychological or psychiatric context. In this article, we translate the various aspects of BPD to the primary care setting. Previous work in this area has explored specific relationships between BPD and individual medical disorders or between BPD and general somatic symptoms, but the synthesis of these findings and their augmentation with cogent psychological theory is new to the field. Specifically, we highlight the prevalence rate of BPD in the primary care setting, the effects on healthcare utilization, the themes of somatic preoccupation and somatization disorder, several medical syndromes that illustrate the dynamics of the disorder in the medical setting, and the relationship of BPD to disability. We believe that the BPD concept needs to extend beyond its traditional psychological/psychiatric borders to include the subset of BPD patients with somatic symptoms who are seen in primary care settings. PMID:21197375

Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

2004-01-01

397

Pathology Case Study: Lymphoplasmacytic Infiltrate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hematopathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves a 40-year-old woman presenting with a nodule in the skin on the left jaw line. Images from a biopsy of the nodule provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. A description of these images, and the patientâÂÂs immunohistochemistry and molecular studies are also provided. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Whisnant, Richard

2009-06-12

398

Pathology Case Study: Bilateral Pneumonia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 75 year old woman "with a past medical history of significant for a 6 month history of cryoglobulinemia with vasculitis, congestive heart failure, hypertension, cryptogenic cirrhosis, peripheral vascular disease, chronic renal insufficiency, anemia, degenerative joint disease, and diverticulitis." Visitors are provided with patient history, admission data, and microscopic findings (lung), including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

Davie, James; Graur, Octavia; Sheaffer, John

2008-12-12

399

Pathology of new bronchopulmonary dysplasia.  

PubMed

Technological advances, improved ventilatory strategies and better nursing techniques, coupled with the use of prenatal steroids and postnatal surfactant, have resulted in the survival of smaller and more immature infants. Preterm infants likely to develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) are born during the canalicular phase of lung development at 24-26 weeks, a time when alveolar and distal vascular development commences. The histopathologic lesions of severe airway injury and alternating sites of overinflation and fibrosis in 'old' BPD have been replaced in 'new' BPD with the pathologic changes of large, simplified alveolar structures, a dysmorphic capillary configuration and variable interstitial cellularity and/or fibroproliferation. Airway and vascular lesions, when present, tend to occur in infants who over time develop more severe disease. The alveolar and capillary hypoplasia of new BPD will require the development of specific therapies, but avoiding volutrauma, oxidant injury and inflammation/infection will improve lung morphology. PMID:12667832

Coalson, Jacqueline J

2003-02-01

400

Pathology Case Study: Cystic Tumor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This cytogenetics case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 21-year-old male presented with a mass in his right thigh. Prior to this, the patient was healthy and had no major health concerns. The tumor was removed and the attending doctor ordered a cytogenetic analysis of the specimen. The results from that analysis along with microscopic images and electron photomicrographs of the tumor are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Dunn, Jean; Mnuskin, Anna; Surti, Urvashi

2009-05-04

401

Pathology Case Study: Breast Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 54 year-old woman presented with a âÂÂleft breast nodule.â Visitors are given the patientâÂÂs history, mammogram image, and the results from a fine needle aspiration (including images), and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Students can check their conclusions by clicking on the âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ section, which provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease.

Deal, Karen; Kanbour, Anisa; Nath, Manju E.

2009-08-31

402

Pathology Case Study: Dog Bites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old male with a past medical history significant for lymphoma (in remission). The patient is a health care worker who presented to the emergency room because of a dog bite. Visitors are given a patient history and culture findings, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

Iscoll, Eileen; Lourduraj, Leena T.; Pasculle, A. W.

2008-11-17

403

The Neuropsychopharmacology of Pathological Gambling  

PubMed Central

Pathological gambling (PG) is an impulse control disorder with prevalence estimates in the range of 0.2–2% in the general population. PG can significantly impact one’s ability to function as it may negatively influence social, financial, and occupational aspects of life. Historically, PG has received relatively little attention from researchers and clinicians, and few treatments, particularly pharmacological, have been both validated and widely employed. Given the clinical relevance of PG, it is important that researchers examine pharmacological and behavioral treatments for their safety and efficacy and that clinicians use empirically validated therapies. Multiple neurochemicals, including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and opioids, and related neurocircuitry, particularly ventral cortico-striatal pathways, have been implicated in PG. The neurobiological rationale for therapies, particularly pharmacological ones, is reviewed with a perspective on the generation of improved prevention and treatment strategies for PG. PMID:24288522

Zakeri, Kourosh; Potenza, Marc N.

2013-01-01

404

Substance abuse, pathological gambling, and impulsiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated behavioral and self-report indices of impulsiveness in pathological gambling substance abusers (n=27), non-pathological gambling substance abusers (n=63), and non-pathological gambling\\/non-substance abusing controls (n=21). The Bechara card task measured preferences for decks of cards that ranged in magnitude and probability of delayed and immediate rewards and punishers. The Stanford Time Perception Inventory (STPI) assessed orientation to the future,

Nancy M Petry

2001-01-01

405

Personality Disorder Symptoms and Marital Functioning  

PubMed Central

Pathological personality is strongly linked with interpersonal impairment, yet, no study to date has examined the relationship between concurrent personality pathology and dysfunction in marriage—a relationship most people find central to their lives. In a cross-sectional study of a community sample of married couples (N=82), multilevel modeling was used to estimate the association of self- and spouse reported PD symptoms with levels of marital satisfaction and verbal aggression and perpetration of physical violence. Including self- and spouse report of total PD symptoms resulted in improved model fit and greater variance explained, with much of the improvement coming after the addition of spouse-report. The incremental validity of spouse-report of several of the ten PD scales was supported for marital satisfaction and verbal aggression, particularly for borderline and dependent PD features. PMID:18837594

South, Susan C.; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2008-01-01

406

Borderline Personality Disorder and Psychosis: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early views of borderline personality disorder (BPD) were based on the idea that patients with this pathology were “on the\\u000a border” of psychosis. However, more recent studies have not supported this view, although they have found evidence of a malevolent\\u000a interpersonal evaluation and a significant proportion of BPD patients showing psychotic symptoms. For example, in one study,\\u000a 24% of BPD

Sven Barnow; Elisabeth A. Arens; Simkje Sieswerda; Ramona Dinu-Biringer; Carsten Spitzer; Simone Lang

2010-01-01

407

[Pathological diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma].  

PubMed

This lymphoma was recognized by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832. In 1865, Samuel Wilks named it Hodgkin disease. Now, the term Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is acceptable over Hodgkin disease. Since the neoplastic cells of the disease is well-recognized to be a lymphoid cell, especially B lymphocyte. In WHO classification published in 2008, HLs are divided into two entities: Classical HL and nodular lymphocyte predominat HL. The former is composed of four different subtypes: nodular sclerosis (NS), mixed cellularity (MC), lymphocyte rich (LR), and lymphocyte depletion (LD). HL is characterized by the morphological feature comprising a minority of neoplastic cells, Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells and popcorn (LP) cells and a majority of non-neoplastic reactive cells. Antigen receptor gene analyses by prevailing molecular methods and flow cytometry are not appropriate method for the diagnosis of HL, because of small number of neoplastic cells. They are, however, very useful in the differential diagnosis to rule out other lymphomas. Even the present when science progressed, pathological (morphological and immunohistochemical) examination is very worth for diagnosis of HL. PMID:24724402

Tamaru, Jun-ichi

2014-03-01

408

Cerebellar pathology in tuberous sclerosis.  

PubMed

Cerebellar involvement in tuberous sclerosis is rare and generally nonsymptomatic. The authors describe a cerebellar tuber in a 5-year-old boy with tuberous sclerosis. A CT scan at age 2 years showed the characteristic cortical, white matter, and subependymal lesions of tuberous sclerosis. At 5 years, when the patient was symptomatic with ataxia, the CT and MRI scans revealed additionally the presence of a right cerebellar enhancing lesion with edema. A total surgical resection was undertaken. The cerebellar lesion was very firm and demonstrated marked disorganization of neuronal architecture in the cerebellar folia, with bizzare ectopic neurons in the molecular and granule cell layers and white matter, along with calcification, gliosis, and Rosenthal fiber deposition. Balloon cells with glassy, pale, eosinophilic cytoplasm were also present. There was a marked loss of myelin in the white matter, with significant vacuolation and gliosis. Electron microscopy documented abundant lysosomal inclusions, prominent rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes, microtubules, intermediate filaments, and synaptic contacts. While there is much speculation as to the precise nature of cerebellar pathology in tuberous sclerosis, this case demonstrates conclusively that the cerebellar lesions reflect anomolous neuronal development and migration akin to supratentorial lesions and can rarely be symptomatic. PMID:9805358

Jay, V; Edwards, V; Musharbash, A; Rutka, J T

1998-01-01

409

Pathologizing sexual deviance: a history.  

PubMed

This article provides a historical perspective on how both American and European psychiatrists have conceptualized and categorized sexual deviance throughout the past 150 years. During this time, quite a number of sexual preferences, desires, and behaviors have been pathologized and depathologized at will, thus revealing psychiatry's constant struggle to distinguish mental disorder--in other words, the "perversions," "sexual deviations," or "paraphilias"--from immoral, unethical, or illegal behavior. This struggle is apparent in the works of 19th- and early-20th-century psychiatrists and sexologists, but it is also present in the more recent psychiatric textbooks and diagnostic manuals, such as the consecutive editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). While much of the historical literature revolves around the controversy over homosexuality, this article also reviews the recent medicohistorical and sociohistorical work on other forms of sexual deviance, including the diagnostic categories listed in the latest edition, the DSM-IV-TR: exhibitionism, voyeurism, fetishism, frotteurism, pedophilia, sexual masochism, sexual sadism, and transvestic fetishism. PMID:23480073

De Block, Andreas; Adriaens, Pieter R

2013-01-01

410

Pathological Gambling: Neuropsychopharmacology and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Pathological gambling (PG) affects about 0.2–2% of adults and the impact extends to family members, employers and society as a whole. Recent research has identified similarities in the pathophysiologies of PG and substance use disorders (SUDs). As such, findings regarding SUDs provide a framework for investigating PG. The aims of the manuscript are two-fold. First, we will briefly revivew neural systems implicated in PG. Cortico-limbic circuitry involving the ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are discussed as are the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioids, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This background will provide a framework for reviewing the psychopharmacological treatments that have been tested for efficacy and safety in treating PG. Of medications, the strongest data suggest the efficacy and tolerability of opioid antagonists in the treatment of PG, and other agents have varying degree of empirical support. As behavioral therapies have also shown efficacy, they will be briefly considered as well. Future research is needed to understand how treatments work in PG and for whom specific treatments might work best. PMID:24349964

Bullock, Scott A.; Potenza, Marc N.

2013-01-01

411

PERSONALITY DISORDERS AS MALADAPTIVE, EXTREME VARIANTS OF NORMAL PERSONALITY: BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER AND NEUROTICISM IN A SUBSTANCE USING SAMPLE  

PubMed Central

Although the current diagnostic manual conceptualizes personality disorders (PDs) as categorical entities, an alternative perspective is that PDs represent maladaptive extreme versions of the same traits that describe normal personality. Existing evidence indicates that normal personality traits, such as those assessed by the five-factor model (FFM), share a common structure and obtain reasonably predictable correlations with the PDs. However, very little research has investigated whether PDs are more extreme than normal personality traits. Utilizing item-response theory analyses, the authors of the current study extend previous research to demonstrate that the diagnostic criterion for borderline personality disorder and FFM neuroticism could be fit along a single latent dimension. Furthermore, the authors’ findings indicate that the borderline criteria assessed the shared latent trait at a level that was more extreme (d = 1.11) than FFM neuroticism. This finding provides further evidence for dimensional understanding of personality pathology and suggests that a trait model in DSM-5 should span normal and abnormal personality functioning, but focus on the extremes of these common traits. PMID:24044664

Samuel, Douglas B.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Ball, Samuel A.

2014-01-01

412

Forensic molecular pathology of violent deaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

In forensic pathology, while classical morphology remains a core procedure to investigate deaths, a spectrum of ancillary procedures has been developed and incorporated to detail the pathology. Among them, postmortem biochemistry is important to investigate the systemic pathophysiological changes involved in the dying process that cannot be detected by morphology. In addition, recent advances in molecular biology have provided a

Hitoshi Maeda; Bao-li Zhu; Takaki Ishikawa; Tomomi Michiue

2010-01-01

413

Plasma endorphin levels in pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its formal definition as a disorder of impulse control, pathological gambling has come under the generic label of addictive disorders with subjective excitement and physiological arousal as the major motivating factor. Individual differences in autonomic\\/cortical arousability in interaction with irregular schedules of reinforcement have been postulated to be important determinant factors in the pathogenesis of pathological gambling (Anderson &

Alex P. Blaszczynski; Simon W. Winter; Neil McConaghy

1986-01-01

414

Pathological Gambling and Related Problems among Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the prevalence of pathological gambling and related problems among 3,426 students in junior and senior high schools in Quebec City. Results indicate that 77% have gambled in the last twelve months and 13% gamble at least once a week. Results also reveal that pathological gambling is associated with drug and alcohol use, poor grades, and…

Ladouceur, Robert; Boudreault, Normand; Jacques, Christian; Vitaro, Frank

1999-01-01

415

Postdoctoral Fellowship Pathology and Molecular Medicine  

E-print Network

Postdoctoral Fellowship Pathology and Molecular Medicine The Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, invites applications for a 1 year Clinical Chemistry / Immunology fellowship Laboratory Medicine Program in the area of Clinical Mass Spectrometry, with emphasis on method development

Haykin, Simon

416

Graduate Student SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY  

E-print Network

is wide ­ covering variety of Speech, Language and hearing disorders from birth to old age. Speech-Language1 Graduate Student Handbook SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY PROGRAM STEPHEN F. AUSTIN STATE UNIVERSITY P;2 Dear Prospective student: Welcome to the Program website for Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology

Long, Nicholas

417

FOREST PATHOLOGY Root and Butt Rot Diseases  

E-print Network

. Indeed, root and butt rots cause more economic damage to commercial forestry in the temperate world thanFOREST PATHOLOGY Root and Butt Rot Diseases M Garbelotto, University of California ­ Berkeley Diseases caused by root rots figure prominently amongst the most-studied pathologies of forest trees

California at Berkeley, University of

418

Specific body image pathology in acute schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a wide phenomenological interest in body image pathology in schizophrenia, there has been little systematic empirical research. This study aimed at establishing the specificity of body image pathology in patients with schizophrenia, its changes during acute treatment, and its association with other symptom factors. Cognitive (thoughts\\/beliefs regarding the body — body concept), affective (body satisfaction — body cathexis) and

Stefan Priebe; Frank Röhricht

2001-01-01

419

Pathological findings in breast reduction surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective analysis of pathological findings in 157 female patients undergoing breast reduction is presented. In 33 months 295 breasts were reduced. 25.6% of these patients had an abnormal pathology report, but no cases of premalignant disease or breast cancer were found.A postal questionnaire sent to consultant members of the British Association of Plastic Surgeons in 1994 found 89% routinely

O. G. Titley; A. P. Armstrong; J. L. Christie; M. F. T. Fatah

1996-01-01

420

Bachelor of Speech and Language Pathology  

E-print Network

. This is a relatively new area of study in speech and language therapy, so research is required to provide evidence about the most effective methods of rehabilitation. Phoebe Macrae PhD in Speech and Language TherapyBachelor of Speech and Language Pathology Bachelor of Speech and Language Pathology Career

Hickman, Mark

421

Plant Pathology: Past to PresentPlant Pathology: Past to Present Illustrated Storybook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plant Pathology: Past to Present is an illustrated storybook describing the origin, relevance, and science of plant pathology. The story unfolds as if told by Anton deBary, father of plant pathology, and is suitable for elementary and secondary students to adults.

Frank Tainte (American Phytopathological Society;); Kate Salley Palmer (American Phytopathological Society;)

1998-01-01

422

The digital pathologies of chronic laminitis.  

PubMed

This review indicates that the patient-to-patient uniqueness commonly seen in chronic laminitis represents the variable presence of the digital pathologies. Although some degree of mechanical failure is always present, the secondary metabolic and growth dysplasias, vascular pathologies, and sepsis may or may not be evident. The presence and severity of these pathologies appear to have a more significant impact on the prognosis of individual cases than does the displacement of the distal phalanx. It should be reiterated that it is often the combined presence of these individual pathologies that gives rise to the patient that is totally refractory to treatment. In the absence of these pathologies, many horses with significant displacement of the distal phalanx are not in pain and are not in need of treatment. It thus follows that a key to the improved rehabilitation of difficult patients is focusing research on the physiopathology and diagnosis of these nonmechanical problems. PMID:10472120

Grosenbaugh, D A; Morgan, S J; Hood, D M

1999-08-01

423

Can computer personalities be human personalities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study demonstrates that (1) computer personalities can be easily created using a minimal set of cues, and (2) that people will respond to these personalities in the same way they would respond to similar human personalities. The present study focuses on the “simikirityattraction hypothesis,” which predicts that people will prefer to interact with others who are similar in

Clifford Nass; Youngme Moon; B. J. Fogg; Byron Reeves; Chris Dryer

1995-01-01

424

Antisocial personality disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Antisocial personality disorder is a mental health condition in which a person has a long-term pattern of manipulating, ... Cause of antisocial personality disorder is unknown. Genetic ... as child abuse, are believed to contribute to the development ...

425

Personality and Alzheimer's Risk  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Related MedlinePlus Pages Alzheimer's Disease Mental Health Women's Health Transcript Can personality influence a person’s risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease? That’s a question researchers ...

426

Dependent personality disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Dependent personality disorder is a mental health condition in which people depend too much on others to meet their emotional ... Cause of dependent personality disorder is unknown. The disorder usually ... is one of the most common personality disorders and is ...

427

Paranoid personality disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Personality disorder - paranoid ... Cause of paranoid personality disorder is unknown. The disorder appears to be more common in families with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia and delusional ...

428

Impaired Decisional Impulsivity in Pathological Videogamers  

PubMed Central

Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment. Results In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time. Conclusions We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management. PMID:24146789

Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie

2013-01-01

429

Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: the Danish National Pathology Registry and Data Bank.  

PubMed

Diagnostic histological and cytological specimens are routinely stored in pathology department archives. These biobanks are a valuable research resource for many diseases, particularly if they can be linked to high quality population-based health registries, allowing large retrospective epidemiological studies to be carried out. Such studies are of significant importance, for example in the search for novel prognostic and predictive biomarkers in the era of personalized medicine. Denmark has a wealth of highly-regarded population-based registries that are ideally suited to conduct this type of epidemiological research. We describe two recent additions to these databases: the Danish National Pathology Registry (DNPR) and its underlying national online registration database, the Danish Pathology Data Bank (DPDB). The DNPR and the DPDB contain detailed nationwide records of all pathology specimens analyzed in Denmark since 1997, and an incomplete but nonetheless valuable record of specimens from some pathology departments dating back to the 1970s. The data are of high quality and completeness and are sufficient to allow precise and efficient localization of the specimens. We describe the relatively uncomplicated procedures required to use these pathology databases in clinical research and to gain access to the archived specimens. PMID:20865103

Erichsen, Rune; Lash, Timothy L; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen J; Bjerregaard, Beth; Vyberg, Mogens; Pedersen, Lars

2010-01-01

430

Pathology Case Study: Cutaneous Nodules and Ulcers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which presents "a 67 year old white male who underwent orthotopic cardiac transplantation in 1986 for cardiomyopathy." Visitors are given patient history, admission data, and pathological findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Abernethy, John; Ariyanayagam-Baksh, Shashi

2008-04-29

431

Sternal metastases and associated pathological fractures.  

PubMed Central

A review of 839 necropsies revealed 415 cases of malignant neoplasm, 63 of which were found to have evidence of metastatic spread to the sternum. Nineteen of these metastases resulted in pathological sternal fractures. Fine detail radiography proved a quick and accurate technique for detecting these lesions post mortem. The characteristics of pathological sternal fractures were compared with traumatic sternal fractures with respect to deformity and healing. Pathological fractures of the sternum demonstrate a tendency to greater deformity and slower healing than traumatic sternal fractures. Images PMID:929487

Urovitz, E P; Fornasier, V L; Czitrom, A A

1977-01-01

432

Pathology Case Study: Chronic Myalgias After Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a skeletal muscle pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 48 year old women has chronic myalgias. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in skeletal muscle pathology medicine.

Giuliani, Michael J.; Lacomis, David

2009-09-10

433

Pathology Case Study: Anterior Cervical Neck Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a head & neck pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old male has an increasing neck mass with a choking feeling. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in head and neck pathology.

Schubert, Eric

2007-08-31

434

Pathology Case Study: Right Thigh Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with a painless mass in his right medial thigh, without an incidence of trauma. Visitors can view pathological findings, including images, to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

Rao, Uma N.; Zheng, Su

2009-02-12

435

Pathology Case Study: Bladder Outlet Obstruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a genitourinary pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 84-year-old man has a bladder outlet obstruction. Visitors are given microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

Chung, Wen-Wei

2009-08-21

436

Pathology Case Study: Hemangioma and Severe Thrombocytopenia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a transfusion pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 3-week-old female has hemangioma and severe thrombocytopenia. Visitors are given laboratory values and images, and are granted the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transfusion pathology medicine.

Bontempo, Franklin; Dorvault, Christine

2007-10-09

437

Are pathological narcissism and psychopathy different constructs or different names for the same thing? A study based on Italian nonclinical adult participants.  

PubMed

To understand the similarities and differences in personality traits and moral disengagement associated with pathological narcissism and psychopathy, 740 Italian active community members who voluntarily participated in the study were administered the Italian versions of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, the HEXACO Personality Inventory, and the Moral Disengagement Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that low Honesty-Humility and Antagonism (i.e., low Agreeableness) were personality traits common to both pathological narcissism and psychopathy, whereas low Conscientiousness was only related to psychopathy. Different associations with the HEXACO-PI scales and facets were observed for narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability, as well as for primary psychopathy and secondary psychopathy. Moral disengagement represented a common feature of pathological narcissism and psychopathy that was related to narcissistic vulnerability and to primary and secondary psychopathy, but not to narcissistic grandiosity. PMID:24511898

Fossati, Andrea; Pincus, Aaron L; Borroni, Serena; Munteanu, Arina Ferrari; Maffei, Cesare

2014-06-01

438

Psychotherapy for personality disorders: 18 months' follow-up of the ullevål personality project.  

PubMed

The Ullevål Personality Project is a randomized controlled trial (N = 114) initiated as a response to the limited evidence justifying provision of day hospital treatment for patients with personality disorders (PDs). A step-down model (CP) consisting of initial short-term day hospital treatment followed by conjoint group and individual outpatient treatment was compared with outpatient individual psychotherapy (OIP). The patients were evaluated at baseline, 8 months, and 18 months on a wide range of clinical measures assessing symptoms, interpersonal problems, psychosocial functioning, and personality pathology. This study indicates that eclectic psychotherapy provided by private practitioners has at least as good an effect upon personality-disordered patients as a more comprehensive day hospital and outpatient follow-up treatment. However, this study has to be supplemented with a cost-benefit analysis before any consideration of implications for health care planning. PMID:20420475

Arnevik, Espen; Wilberg, Theresa; Urnes, Øyvind; Johansen, Merete; Monsen, Jon T; Karterud, Sigmund

2010-04-01

439

University of California, Irvine-Pathology Extraction Pipeline: The pathology extraction pipeline for information extraction from pathology reports.  

PubMed

We describe Pathology Extraction Pipeline (PEP)-a new Open Health Natural Language Processing pipeline that we have developed for information extraction from pathology reports, with the goal of populating the extracted data into a research data warehouse. Specifically, we have built upon Medical Knowledge Analysis Tool pipeline (MedKATp), which is an extraction framework focused on pathology reports. Our particular contributions include additional customization and development on MedKATp to extract data elements and relationships from cancer pathology reports in richer detail than at present, an abstraction layer that provides significantly easier configuration of MedKATp for extraction tasks, and a machine-learning-based approach that makes the extraction more resilient to deviations from the common reporting format in a pathology reports corpus. We present experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of our pipeline for information extraction in a real-world task, demonstrating performance improvement due to our approach for increasing extractor resilience to format deviation, and finally demonstrating the scalability of the pipeline across pathology reports for different cancer types. PMID:25155030

Ashish, Naveen; Dahm, Lisa; Boicey, Charles

2014-12-01

440

Modernity and narcissistic personality disorder.  

PubMed

Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a trait-based disorder that can be understood as a pathological amplification of narcissistic traits. While temperamental vulnerability and psychological adversity are risk factors for NPD, sociocultural factors are also important. This review hypothesizes that increases in narcissistic traits and cultural narcissism could be associated with changes in the prevalence of NPD. These shifts seem to be a relatively recent phenomenon, driven by social changes associated with modernity. While the main treatment for NPD remains psychotherapy, that form of treatment is itself a product of modernity and individualism. The hypothesis is presented that psychological treatment, unless modified to address the specific problems associated with NPD, could run the risk of supporting narcissism. PMID:22800179

Paris, Joel

2014-04-01

441

Postscript: Untangling the Gambler's Fallacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this postscript the authors applaud Hahn and Warren's effort in their reply to remove the ambiguity in distinguishing events such as occurrence, occurrence at least once, and nonoccurrence in Hahn and Warren (2009). Still, it appears that differences between us exist regarding the nature of waiting time and its connections to the probability of…

Sun, Yanlong; Tweney, Ryan D.; Wang, Hongbin

2010-01-01

442

TDP-43 pathology in primary progressive aphasia and frontotemporal dementia with pathologic Alzheimer disease  

PubMed Central

The clinical syndrome of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) can be associated with a variety of neuropathologic diagnoses at autopsy. Thirty percent of cases have Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology, most often in the usual distribution, which defies principles of brain–behavior organization, in that aphasia is not symptomatic of limbic disease. The present study investigated whether concomitant TDP-43 pathology could resolve the lack of clinicoanatomic concordance. In this paper, 16 cases of clinical PPA and 10 cases of primarily non-aphasic frontotemporal dementia (FTD), all with AD pathology, were investigated to determine whether their atypical clinical phenotypes reflected the presence of additional TDP-43 pathology. A comparison group consisted of 27 cases of pathologic AD with the typical amnestic clinical phenotype of probable AD. Concomitant TDP-43 pathology was discovered in only three of the FTD and PPA but in more than half of the typical amnestic clinical phenotypes. Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) was closely associated with TDP-43 pathology when all groups were combined for analysis. Therefore, the clinical phenotypes of PPA and FTD in cases with pathologic AD are only rarely associated with TDP-43 proteinopathy. Furthermore, medial temporal TDP-43 pathology is more tightly linked to HS than to clinical phenotype. These findings challenge the current notions about clinicopathologic correlation, especially about the role of multiple pathologies. PMID:20361198

Mishra, Manjari; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; White, Charles L.; Johnson, Nancy; Rademaker, Alfred; Weitner, Bing Bing; Deng, Han-Xiang; Dubner, Steven D.; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, Marsel

2010-01-01

443

[Whose borderline is it? Hypothesized etiologies of borderline personality].  

PubMed

Borderline personality is a well known concept in psychiatric literature, however, not fully understood as to its very nature. This article presents a short review of hypothesized etiologies of the borderline personality, starting with so called traditional theories, namely, borderline personality as a consolidated personality organization, in which the patient pathologically deals with his or her inner aggression, or with an enduring developmental failure. More modern hypotheses focus on possible childhood sexual abuse as the origin of the borderline, viewing the adult personality as a chronic, unresolved, post-traumatic disorder. Additionally, a neuro-epigenetic view hypothesized that a unique congenital neurological structure interacts with consequential events in early childhood to create the borderline personality. PMID:19264013

Gil, Tsvi E

2008-11-01

444

Marital Status, Childhood Maltreatment, and Family Dysfunction: A Controlled Study of Pathological Gambling  

PubMed Central

Background Pathological gambling is a prevalent public health problem associated with depression, substance misuse, crime, and suicide. Despite these challenges, little attention has been directed to examining its negative consequences on families and marriages, including divorce rates, childhood maltreatment, and family dysfunction. Method From February 2005 to June 2010, subjects with DSM-IV-defined pathological gambling and community controls were assessed for marital and family variables and indices of childhood maltreatment. The Family Assessment Device (FAD) was used to evaluate family functioning. Results Ninety-five subjects with DSM-IV pathological gambling and 91 control subjects without pathological gambling were recruited and assessed. They were similar in age, gender, and employment status. Persons with pathological gambling were more likely than controls to have ? 1 divorce (odds ratio [OR] = 2.56; 95% Cl, 1.35-4.87; P=.004), to live alone (OR=4.49; 95% Cl, 1.97-10.25; P<.001), and to report any type of childhood maltreatment (OR =4.02; 95% Cl, 2.12-7.64; P<.001). They did not differ on number of siblings or ordinal position among siblings. Pathological gambling subjects reported significantly worse family functioning than control subjects as assessed by all 7 FAD subscales. On the FAD general functioning subscale, 55% of pathological gambling families and 33% of control families were rated “unhealthy” (OR = 2.17; 95% Cl, 1.14–4.12; P=.018). Severity of gambling was positively correlated with divorce, childhood maltreatment, and the FAD roles subscale. Conclusions People with pathological gambling are more likely than controls to have been divorced, to live alone, and to report having experienced childhood maltreatment than controls. They also report greater family dysfunction. PMID:23140646

Black, Donald W.; Shaw, Martha C.; McCormick, Brett A.; Allen, Jeff

2012-01-01

445

CLINICAL AND MOLECULAR PATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF SEVERE  

E-print Network

CLINICAL AND MOLECULAR PATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF SEVERE CHILDHOOD AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE MUSCULAR Campbell Severe childhood autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy (SCARMD) has recently been identified and inheritance is autosomally recessive, as evidenced by the disease's appearance in either sex. Serum CK

Campbell, Kevin P.

446

Problem and Pathological Gambling among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter examines problem and pathological gambling among college students and reports on prevalence rate, risk and protective factors, prevention and intervention, and recommendations for college student personnel and other university administrators.

Stinchfield, Randy; Hanson, William E.; Olson, Douglas H.

2006-01-01

447

International review of experimental pathology. Volume 27  

SciTech Connect

This book reviews the experimental pathology advancements made in recent years. Specifically discussed are - Epstein-Barr virus pathogenesis, immune deficient diseases, Hodgkin's disease, lymphomas and other lymphoproliferative disorders.

Richter, G.W.; Epstein, M.A.

1985-01-01

448

Forensic veterinary pathology, today's situation and perspectives.  

PubMed

To investigate the current status of forensic veterinary pathology, a survey was composed directed at pathology laboratories and institutes, mostly in Europe. The questions included number of and type of cases, resources available, level of special training of the investigating pathologists and the general view on the current status and future of the discipline. The surveys were sent to 134 laboratories and were returned by 72 respondents of which 93 per cent work on forensic pathology cases. The results indicate scarcity of training opportunities and special education, and insufficient veterinary-specific reference data and information on forensic analyses. More cooperation with human forensic pathology was desired by many respondents, as was more interaction across country borders. PMID:25013083

Ottinger, T; Rasmusson, B; Segerstad, C H A; Merck, M; Goot, F V D; Olsén, L; Gavier-Widén, D

2014-11-01

449

Molecular pathology of bone tumours: diagnostic implications.  

PubMed

Alongside histomorphology and immunohistochemistry, molecular pathology is now established as one of the cornerstones in the tissue diagnosis of bone tumours. We describe the principal molecular pathological techniques employed, and each of the bone tumour entities where their identified characteristic molecular pathological changes can be detected to support and confirm the suspected histological diagnosis. Tumours discussed include fibrous dysplasia, classical and subtype osteosarcomas, central and surface cartilaginous tumours, Ewing's sarcoma, vascular tumours, aneurysmal bone cyst, chordoma, myoepithelioma, and angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma. This is a rapidly evolving field with discoveries occurring every few months, and some of the newer entities (the Ewing's-like sarcomas), which are principally identified by their molecular pathology characteristics, are discussed. PMID:24428620

Puls, Florian; Niblett, Angela J; Mangham, D Chas

2014-03-01

450

American Academy of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology  

MedlinePLUS

... care and practice. The Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology (AAOMP) represents the dental specialty that identifies and manages diseases affecting the oral and maxillofacial regions and investigates the causes, processes and effects ...

451

Depressive personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the theoretical construct of depressive personality disorder and its related research. The history of depressive personality disorder is reviewed. It is concluded that differing theories converge on similar descriptions and mechanisms of development for the depressive personality disorder. Substantial empirical work supports the diagnostic distinctiveness of depressive personality disorder in clinical populations. Past and current assessment devices

Steven K. Huprich

1998-01-01

452

NCI-Frederick PHL - Molecular Pathology  

Cancer.gov

The Molecular Pathology Group (MPG) is a recent addition to the laboratory Animal Science Program (LASP), at the Frederick, Maryland campus of the National Cancer Institute. This Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. group is actively working to expand high-quality, pathology-based research application support available to NCI investigators and their collaborators. Its primary role is to extend the capabilities of the existing Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.

453

Human Vision Pathology Diagnostics by Photogrammetrics Means  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the reasons of such vision pathology as human stereoscopic vision capability dysfunction is an asymmetry of a human face. As a rule, such dysfunctions occur as early as in the babyhood, when diagnostic methods applied for adults are ineffective. Early diagnostics and prophylaxis could help in treatment of such pathology and face 3D modeling is one of the promising ways to solve this problem.

Murynin, A.; Knyaz, V.; Mateev, I.

2014-06-01

454

Story of Plant Pathology: Past to Present  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Phytopathological Society (APS) has recently launched an illustrated, narrated version of "Plant Pathology: Past to Present" -- a storybook written by plant pathologists to "help people and young students, in particular, to understand the importance of plant diseases." Visitors follow Heinrich Anton deBary, the "Father of Plant Pathology," on a virtual tour of plant diseases and their impact on human history. English and Spanish versions of the story cover everything from wheat rust fungus to tulip break and beyond.

Palmer, Kate S.; Ruhl, Gail E.; Tainter, Frank H.

455

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

2011-10-01

456

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

2010-10-01

457

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

2013-10-01

458

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

2012-10-01

459

Forensic pathology--Catch 22. A no-win situation(?).  

PubMed

The practice of forensic pathology finds itself in the unenviable position of existing in a political environment, the existence of which depends upon compromise. The professional pathologist cannot compromise ethically, morally, or legally. As a practical fact of life, most of us find ourselves in the compromising position and with the compromising attitude of "you get what you pay for." The end result all too often is tragedy for those who depend on our observations, our conclusions, our practice of medicine. What has not been widely recognized apparently is the all too common consequence of the personal jeopardy that the forensic pathologist is placed in--defenseless, friendless, disgraced, and left with a severely tarnished professional reputation. PMID:3788913

Root, I

1986-09-01

460

The Dark Triad of personality: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the offensive yet non-pathological personalities in the literature, three are especially prominent: Machiavellianism, subclinical narcissism, and subclinical psychopathy. We evaluated the recent contention that, in normal samples, this ‘Dark Triad’ of constructs are one and the same. In a sample of 245 students, we measured the three constructs with standard measures and examined a variety of laboratory and self-report

Delroy L. Paulhus; Kevin M. Williams

2002-01-01

461

Internalizing and Externalizing Personality Dimensions and Clinical Problems in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ostensible psychiatric comorbidity can sometimes be explained by shared relations between diagnostic constructs and higher order internalizing and externalizing dimensions. However, this possibility has not been explored with regard to comorbidity between personality pathology and other clinical constructs in adolescents. In this study,…

Hopwood, Christopher J.; Grilo, Carlos M.

2010-01-01

462

Dental needs of persons with developmental disabilities in orange county  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because developmentally disabled individuals, in general, have poorer dental health than other populations and because developmentally disabled individuals face more situations which contribute to dental pathology, it is important to understand their special dental needs. A dental program developed for persons with developmental disabilities in rural Northern California has proven to be modestly successful to date. The present study was

Walter E. Clevenger; Tim Wigal; Nick Salvati; Rhys Burchill; Francis M. Crinella

1993-01-01

463

Acute leukemias of childhood: pathologic features.  

PubMed

Major advances have been made in the diagnosis and therapy of childhood leukemia over the last two decades (Zuelzer and Flatz, 1960; Miller, 1980; Steinhorn and Myers, 1981; Kobrinsky et al., 1980). Sophisticated phenotypic analysis of these leukemias has partially revealed their complexity; there are at least three to five distinct clinical pathological entities in the childhood leukemia groups. Improved therapy has resulted in marked increases in survival and cures. Less attention has been given to the pathology of childhood leukemia, although the frequency and complexity of tissue examinations have greatly increased. In particular, the pathologic manifestation of relapses, detection of focal leukemia after treatment and the pathology of complications have not been systematically reviewed. Our goal was to look at all of the pathologic manifestations of leukemia and to relate these manifestations to homogeneous patient populations grouped by their type of leukemia. Therefore all of the cytologic, hematologic, histopathologic, ultrastructural and immunologic materials on a consecutive group of leukemic children seen at Vanderbilt from 1970 to 1981 were reviewed; pathologic manifestations of leukemia were then analysed in relationship to diagnostic categories. PMID:3874813

Swerdlow, S H; Glick, A D; Cousar, J B; Collins, R D

1985-01-01

464

[Treatment of visceral pathology in patients with trauma].  

PubMed

The problem of visceral pathology in patients with trauma that was intensively investigated by the scientists during the period of Great Patriotic War and in post-war period remains actual in our days. The purpose of investigation is to study the possibilities, peculiarities and efficiency of diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation and medical examination of the casualties suffering from visceral pathology in different periods after trauma in conditions of therapeutic hospital as well as the peculiarities of their regular medical checkup at the post-hospital stage. It will allow to use more widely the therapeutic beds for the complex medical support of this patient group. 692 patients admitted in different periods after mild mechanical trauma complicated by different visceral diseases were investigated in conditions of therapeutic hospital. After the complex investigation the following conclusion was drawn: the casualties with mild closed injury complicated by visceral pathology even in the early posttraumatic period can be send to the therapeutic hospital where the adequate medical care will be rendered. It is especially important during the simultaneous mass admission of the casualties in the time of natural disaster and catastrophes, in conditions of military operations when the surgical subunits of medical evacuation stages will be full of persons who require the active resuscitation and surgical intervention. Complex medical support of the casualties with visceral changes in the late periods after trauma is the many-sided process connected with solution of therapeutic, rehabilitation, expert-and-diagnostic problems that are fully in the sphere of specialists of therapeutic institutions. PMID:12722361

Shepelenko, A F; Shepelenko, N D; Khatskevich, V L; Stukov, V I

2003-02-01

465

Avoiding the major complication of ophthalmic pathology: misdiagnosis. A review of three common diagnostic challenges.  

PubMed

Abstract Diagnostic errors in ophthalmic pathology are not uncommon. Pathology is a very subjective specialty with several biases dependent on such factors as training, experience, practice patterns, personal anecdotes, and inevitable human error. In addition to these factors, there are many cases where difficulty in diagnosis lies in differentiating between two very closely related, or similar appearing, entities that may have vastly different prognostic consequences. In this paper, we review three challenging areas wherein diagnostic dilemmas may occur. We outline some of the lessons we have learned in arriving at a correct diagnosis, which includes an admission of one's own limitations requiring consultation with other pathology subspecialists, and the use of immunohistochemistry. PMID:25325875

Rashid, Alia; Jakobiec, Frederick A

2014-11-01

466

Application of immunohistochemistry in breast pathology: a review and update.  

PubMed

Context .- Immunohistochemistry is a valuable tool in routine breast pathology, used for both diagnostic and prognostic parameters. The diagnostic immunomarkers are the scope of this review. Most breast lesions can be diagnosed on routine hematoxylin-eosin sections; however, in several scenarios, such as morphologically equivocal cases or metastatic tumors of unknown primary, the appropriate application of immunohistochemistry adds true value in reaching an accurate diagnosis. Objective .- To evaluate the diagnostic utility of the most commonly studied immunomarkers in the field of breast pathology by review of the literature, using the database of indexed articles in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland) from 1976 to 2013. Data Sources .- Literature review, and author's research data and personal practice experience. Conclusions .- The appropriate use of immunohistochemistry by applying a panel of immunomarkers and using a standardized technical and interpretational method will complement the morphologic assessment and aid in the accurate classification of difficult breast lesions and the identification of metastasis from a breast primary. PMID:25427042

Liu, Haiyan

2014-12-01

467

Comparison between immigrant and Spanish native-born pathological gambling patients.  

PubMed

The study compared clinical, psychopathological, and personality profiles between immigrants and Spanish native-born pathological gambling patients. A total of 1,601 native-born and 133 immigrant patients attending treatment at a specialized hospital unit were administered a battery of questionnaires during clinical assessment. Outcome measures were compared between both groups and the incremental predictive accuracy of the area of origin was examined using a regression model. Native-born Spaniards showed a mean 2.6 yr. greater duration of the disorder, while immigrants scored higher on South Oaks Gambling Screen, frequency of going to casinos, and total money spent (in a single day and/or to recover losses). General psychopathology and personality scores did not differ between the cohorts. However, immigration from Asia had a statistically significantly incremental validity for pathological gambling in South Oaks Gambling Screen scores. Both cohorts shared more similarities than differences in their gambling profiles. PMID:22662410