Sample records for pathological gamblers personality

  1. Investigating facets of personality in adult pathological gamblers with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Davtian, Margarit; Reid, Rory C; Fong, Timothy W

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The present study explored facets of personality in a sample of pathological gamblers with ADHD (n = 52) and without ADHD (n = 43). Participants were assessed for psychopathology and gambling disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Facets of personality were assessed using the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised. Group differences emerged across several facets of personality when analyzed using multivariate statistics. Although both groups experienced difficulties in several areas compared with norming data (e.g., greater depression, higher impulsivity, lower self-esteem and lower self-discipline), these facets of personality were more pronounced in pathological gamblers with ADHD. Most notable among these differences are tendencies for gamblers with ADHD to experience greater levels of emotional instability, interpersonal sensitivity and stress proneness. Pathological gamblers with ADHD also appear to experience lower self-esteem, greater difficulty being assertive and lower levels of self-discipline. Surprisingly, both groups were comparable on facets of impulsivity. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers diagnosed with adult ADHD may experience additional challenges compared with pathological gamblers without ADHD. PMID:22815658

  2. Delay discounting by pathological gamblers.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Mark R; Marley, Janice; Jacobs, Eric A

    2003-01-01

    Discounting of delayed rewards by pathological gamblers was compared to discounting of delayed rewards by matched control nongambling participants. All participants completed a hypothetical choice task in which they made repeated choices between dollars 1,000 available after a delay and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The delay to the large amount of money was varied from 1 week to 10 years across conditions. Indifference points between immediate money and delayed money were identified at each delay condition by varying the amount of immediate money across choice trials. For the majority of participants, indifference points decreased monotonically across delays. Overall, gamblers discounted the delayed rewards more steeply than did control participants. PMID:14768665

  3. Pathological gamblers and a non-psychiatric control group taking gender differences into account.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; González-Ortega, Itxaso; de Corral, Paz; Polo-López, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify personality traits, emotional states and adjustment variables in a sample of pathological gamblers as compared to a non-gambling control group taking gender differences into account. The sample for this study consisted of 206 subjects (103 pathological gamblers and 103 non-psychiatric subjects from the general population matched for age and gender). Pathological gamblers had a lower educational level and a family history of alcohol abuse higher than non-gamblers. In turn, female gamblers were affected by unemployment and a lower socioeconomic status more often than female non-gamblers. Pathological gamblers were more anxious and impulsive and suffered from a poorer self-esteem than non-gamblers. Likewise, pathological gamblers had a greater history of other Axis I psychiatric disorders and were more often affected by anxiety and depression symptoms and showed a more problematic adjustment to everyday life than non-gamblers. Alcohol abuse was not higher in pathological gamblers than in non-gamblers, but, when gender was taken into account, male gamblers were more affected by alcohol abuse than male non-gamblers. Importantly 68.6% of female gamblers versus 9.8% of control group women reported being victims of intimate partner violence. These findings can be used to specifically inform prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:23866213

  4. Clinical and personality characteristics associated with post traumatic stress disorder in problem and pathological gamblers recruited from the community.

    PubMed

    Ledgerwood, David M; Milosevic, Aleks

    2015-06-01

    Problem and pathological gamblers (PPGs) are more likely than the general population to experience co-occurring psychiatric problems. However, the problem gambling literature has largely overlooked the importance of trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a prevalent co-occurring condition among PPGs. This study examined clinical differences between PPGs with and without a history of co-occurring PTSD. Lifetime PPGs (N = 150) recruited from community sources completed clinical assessments including measures of problem gambling severity, co-occurring psychiatric conditions, gambling motivations and personality traits. Over 19 % of the participants met criteria for a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD. Those presenting with PTSD histories were more likely to be women, and were more likely to have lifetime substance use disorder (abuse and/or dependence) and substance dependence, lifetime major depressive disorder, current dysthymic disorder, and lifetime and current anxiety disorder. Those with lifetime PTSD also were more likely to use gambling as a way to cope with negative emotions and experienced greater negative emotionality. Few PPGs (16 %) had ever sought treatment for their gambling problems. PTSD is a prevalent condition among individuals with lifetime PPG recruited from the community, and is associated with greater psychiatric co-morbidity among these populations. More research is needed to further understand the relationship between gambling and trauma, and better outreach is needed to encourage these individuals to seek treatment. PMID:24293017

  5. The Family Functioning of Female Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Nicki; Smith, David; Thomas, Trang

    2009-01-01

    The available evidence suggests that pathological gambling significantly disrupts family relationships and has a substantial impact on family members. However, these conclusions are based almost exclusively on male pathological gamblers and their female spouses or partners. The current study, which was a secondary study derived from a treatment…

  6. Pathological Gamblers Discount Probabilistic Rewards Less Steeply than Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Gregory J.; Petry, Nancy M.; Johnson, Patrick S.

    2010-01-01

    Nineteen treatment-seeking men meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling and 19 demographic-matched controls participated. Participants provided demographic information, information about their recent drug-use and gambling activities, and biological samples (to confirm drug abstinence). They also completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and two questionnaires designed to separately quantify probability and delay discounting. Pathological gamblers discounted probabilistic rewards significantly less steeply than matched controls. A significant correlation revealed that more shallow probability discounting was associated with higher SOGS scores. Across groups, there was no significant difference in delay discounting, although this difference approached significance when education and ethnicity were included as covariates. These findings, collected for the first time with pathological gamblers, are consistent with previous reports that problem-gambling college students discount probabilistic rewards less steeply than controls. The nature of the relation between probability discounting and severity of problem gambling is deserving of further study. PMID:19803627

  7. Retaining Pathological Gamblers in Cognitive Behavior Therapy through Motivational Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfert, Edelgard; Blanchard, Edward B.; Freidenberg, Brian M.; Martell, Rebecca S.

    2006-01-01

    Treatment for pathological gambling is in its infancy. Several cognitive and behavioral interventions have shown promise, but high attrition and relapse rates suggest that gamblers requesting treatment are not uniformly committed to change. This article describes an exploratory study with 9 severe pathological gamblers--in their majority horse…

  8. Investigating risk factors for Internet gaming disorder: a comparison of patients with addictive gaming, pathological gamblers and healthy controls regarding the big five personality traits.

    PubMed

    Müller, K W; Beutel, M E; Egloff, B; Wölfling, K

    2014-01-01

    Engaging in online games has become increasingly important as a part of leisure activity in adolescents and adults. While the majority of people use these games in a healthy way, epidemiological studies show that some develop excessive use and symptoms that are related to those of substance-related addictions. Despite increasing research concerning the epidemiology of internet gaming disorder (IGD), predisposing factors have been examined to a lesser extent. Knowing about specific risk factors would help clarify the nosological features of IGD and enhance prevention and intervention. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between personality traits and IGD. A total of 115 patients meeting the criteria for IGD were compared to 167 control subjects displaying either regular or intense use of online games. Additionally, 115 patients meeting diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling were included. IGD was associated with higher neuroticism, decreased conscientiousness and low extraversion. The comparisons to pathological gamblers indicate that low conscientiousness and low extraversion in particular are characteristic of IGD. An integration of personality variables into an etiopathological model describing presumable mechanisms fostering and maintaining addictive online gaming is proposed. This model could be helpful for the theoretical understanding of addictive gaming, public health campaigns and psychoeducation within therapeutic settings. PMID:24247280

  9. Altering the Magnitude of Delay Discounting by Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark R.; Holton, Bethany

    2009-01-01

    The present study explored the delay discounting of future and past monetary rewards by pathological gamblers. Using a multiple baseline design, following repeated exposure to choices between smaller immediate and larger delayed consequences, participants completed a relational responding task that attempted to alter the psychological functions of…

  10. Pathological gamblers are more vulnerable to the illusion of control in a standard associative learning task

    PubMed Central

    Orgaz, Cristina; Estévez, Ana; Matute, Helena

    2013-01-01

    An illusion of control is said to occur when a person believes that he or she controls an outcome that is uncontrollable. Pathological gambling has often been related to an illusion of control, but the assessment of the illusion has generally used introspective methods in domain-specific (i.e., gambling) situations. The illusion of control of pathological gamblers, however, could be a more general problem, affecting other aspects of their daily life. Thus, we tested them using a standard associative learning task which is known to produce illusions of control in most people under certain conditions. The results showed that the illusion was significantly stronger in pathological gamblers than in a control undiagnosed sample. This suggests (1) that the experimental tasks used in basic associative learning research could be used to detect illusions of control in gamblers in a more indirect way, as compared to introspective and domain-specific questionnaires; and (2), that in addition to gambling-specific problems, pathological gamblers may have a higher-than-normal illusion of control in their daily life. PMID:23785340

  11. Inpatient treatment for pathological gamblers in Germany: setting, utilization, and structure.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Ursula Gisela; Erbas, Beate; Stürmer, Marco; Arnold, Melanie; Wodarz, Norbert; Wolstein, Jörg

    2015-03-01

    In Germany, there are two different approaches to inpatient treatment of pathological gambling (PG): Facilities focusing on addiction or on psychosomatic illness. However, little is known about how these differences influence utilization and structure of treatment. Therefore, in our study, we analyzed all known German gambling inpatient treatment centers concerning patients' sex, age and number of comorbid disorders and evaluated an expert assessment of the treatment system, access to treatment, and structure characteristics of inpatient treatment facilities. In 2011, 2,229 pathological gamblers were treated. This amounts to 1 % of all past-year pathological gamblers. 90 % of the patients were men, 93 % had at least one comorbid disorder. Access to treatment was mostly gained via psychosocial counseling centers, but was not readily available. Facilities with addiction departments treated less pathological gamblers per year (29.3 gamblers) than facilities with psychosomatic departments (53.3 gamblers) or with both departments (76.4 gamblers). Treatment duration was significantly longer in addiction departments treating PG as secondary diagnosis only, with a low rate of gamblers on all patients, or treating few gamblers. Some facilities specialized on PG and treated more gamblers, had a higher rate of gamblers on all patients, and offered specific treatment programs. The impact of this specialization on treatment outcome is still unclear. Although treatment numbers have risen steadily for the past years, only a small fraction of affected gamblers seek inpatient treatment. Therefore, awareness to the disease and access to treatment needs to be improved. PMID:24375259

  12. Suicidal events among pathological gamblers: the role of comorbidity of axis I and axis II disorders.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian; Bischof, Gallus; John, Ulrich; Wurst, Friedrich Martin; Thon, Natasha; Lucht, Michael; Grabe, Hans Joergen; Rumpf, Hans-Juergen

    2015-02-28

    The risk for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among pathological gamblers is high compared to the general population. Little is known about the interplay of Axis I and Axis II disorders, severity of gambling disorder, and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The study aims to address this linkage. The sampling design of the study "Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology" (PAGE) included four recruitment channels: general population, gambling locations, project telephone hotline, and in-patient treatment for pathological gambling. A total of 442 study participants with lifetime pathological gambling received a clinical interview. The multivariate analysis showed mood disorders (Relative Risk Ratio, RRR=5.14, 95%-Confidence Interval, CI=2.91-9.07), substance use disorders (RRR=1.73, CI=1.02-2.94), and early onset of gambling disorder (RRR=0.96, CI=0.93-0.99) to be associated with suicidal ideation. Suicidal attempts were associated with female sex (RRR=3.58, CI=1.56-8.19), mood disorders (RRR=11.92, CI=4.70-30.26), and Cluster B personality disorders (RRR=2.40, CI=1.13-5.10). Among study participants with suicide attempts, more had a Cluster B personality disorder than among participants with ideation solely (RRR=3.08, CI=1.48-6.40). Among this large mixed sample of pathological gamblers, high proportions of individuals with suicidal events, multi-morbidity on Axis I, and a strong linkage to Cluster B personality disorders were found. PMID:25537488

  13. Mental health management of pathological gamblers by counseling and relaxation practices.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M G; Upadhyay, Awadhesh; Sharma, Vandana

    2013-10-01

    The present study examines the mental health management of pathological gamblers by counseling and relaxation practices. Fifty-five treated and 55 non-treated pathological gamblers were evaluated at S. I. Mental and Physical Health Society, Varanasi, India. The two groups were matched by age, ranging 20 to 53 years with a mean age of 36.2 years and mean length of uncontrollable gambling of 7.3 years. The Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire and the Death Anxiety Scale were administered to ascertain mental health and death anxiety on seven selected dimensions, including: anxiety, obsession, phobia, somatization, depression, hysteria, and death anxiety. Mean scores obtained on different variables were analyzed using a t-test of significance. Results indicated that the characteristic associated with treated pathological gamblers was phobia whereas the characteristics associated with non-treated pathological gamblers were anxiety, obsession, somatization, depression, and death anxiety. PMID:24066639

  14. Male and Female Pathological Gamblers: Bet in a Different Way and Show Different Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Díez, Dominica; Aragay, Núria; Soms, Mercč; Prat, Gemma; Casas, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Although in the last years several studies comparing male and female pathological gamblers have been published, most of them have been carried out using only samples of males. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in a sample of subjects diagnosed with pathological gambling (PG) attending three specialized outpatient units. Retrospective study was carried out of 96 patients (49% female and 51% male), comparing the main socio-demographic, clinical, and behavioral data. Most subjects (94%) met the criteria for pathological gambling. No significant differences between sexes were found in the severity of gambling behavior or the socio-demographic variables studied. Whereas slot machines were the main type of game for most subjects, a higher percentage of women were addicted to bingo (?2 (1, 4) = 5.19, p = .029 Cohen's d = 0.48) and had more than one type of game as a secondary addiction ?2 (1, 4) = 7.63, p = .006; Cohen's d = 0.59) . Women started gambling at a later age than men (t (94) = 2.95, p = .004; Cohen's d = 0.60), but developed a pattern of addiction faster ( t (94) = 2.95, p = .004; Cohen's d = -0.61) . Women also had higher comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders (?2 (1) = 7.28, p = .007; Cohen's d = 0.57), specifically with affective (?2 (1) = 11.31, p = .001; Cohen's d = 0.73) and personality disorders (?2 (1) = 4.71, p = .030; Cohen's d = 0.45). Our results indicate the existence of differences between women and men in the pattern of gambling behavior and in psychiatric comorbidity. These aspects should be considered in the design of treatment programs for pathological gamblers. PMID:26055264

  15. Characteristics of Treatment Seeking Finnish Pathological Gamblers: Baseline Data from a Treatment Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, Tuuli; Halme, Jukka; Pankakoski, Maiju; Sinclair, David; Alho, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behavior of 39 pathological gamblers who participated in our treatment study in 2009. The inclusion criteria of the study were: score of five or more on both the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and a pathological gambling screen based on the Diagnostic and Statistical…

  16. Randomized Trial of Internet-Delivered Self-Help with Telephone Support for Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlbring, Per; Smit, Filip

    2008-01-01

    Although effective therapies for pathological gambling exist, their uptake is limited to 10% of the target population. To lower the barriers for help seeking, the authors tested an online alternative in a randomized trial (N = 66). The participants were pathological gamblers not presenting with severe comorbid depression. A wait-list control was…

  17. Gambling motivation and passion: a comparison study of recreational and pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Back, Ki-Joon; Lee, Choong-Ki; Stinchfield, Randy

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the structural relationship among gambling motivation, gambling passion, and behavioral intentions to gamble between recreational and pathological gamblers. Specifically, this study aimed to shed light on the different ways in which gambling motivation and affective attitude are associated with recreational and pathological gamblers. Using a purposive sampling method, 400 subjects were selected for and participated in this study during their visits to a casino. Study results echoed the notion of distinctive and separate gambling motivations and passions between recreational and pathological gamblers. Also, results identified specific areas to which casino operators or policy makers should pay special attention in developing effective marketing strategies to promote responsible gambling. PMID:20680417

  18. Neurobehavioral Evidence for the "Near-Miss" Effect in Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, Reza; Dixon, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this translational study was twofold: (1) to contrast behavioral and brain activity between pathological and nonpathological gamblers, and (2) to examine differences as a function of the outcome of the spin of a slot machine, focusing predominately on the "Near-Miss"--when two reels stop on the same symbol, and that symbol is just…

  19. Neurobehavioral Evidence for the “Near-Miss” Effect in Pathological Gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Reza; Dixon, Mark R

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this translational study was twofold: (1) to contrast behavioral and brain activity between pathological and nonpathological gamblers, and (2) to examine differences as a function of the outcome of the spin of a slot machine, focusing predominately on the “Near-Miss”—when two reels stop on the same symbol, and that symbol is just above or below the payoff line on the third reel. Twenty-two participants (11 nonpathological; 11 pathological) completed the study by rating the closeness of various outcomes of slot machine displays (wins, losses, and near-misses) to a win. No behavioral differences were observed between groups of participants, however, differences in brain activity were found in the left midbrain, near the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area (SN / VTA). Near-miss outcomes uniquely activated brain regions associated with wins for the pathological gamblers and regions associated with losses for the nonpathological gamblers. Thus, near-miss outcomes on slot machines may contain both functional and neurological properties of wins for pathological gamblers. Such a translational approach to the study of gambling behavior may be considered an example that gives life to B. F. Skinner's conceptualization of the physiologist of the future. PMID:21119848

  20. Impulsivity and cognitive distortions in pathological gamblers attending the UK National Problem Gambling Clinic: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Michalczuk, R.; Bowden-Jones, H.; Verdejo-Garcia, A.; Clark, L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Pathological gambling (PG) is a form of behavioural addiction that has been associated with elevated impulsivity and also cognitive distortions in the processing of chance, probability and skill. We sought to assess the relationship between the level of cognitive distortions and state and trait measures of impulsivity in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Method Thirty pathological gamblers attending the National Problem Gambling Clinic, the first National Health Service clinic for gambling problems in the UK, were compared with 30 healthy controls in a case-control design. Cognitive distortions were assessed using the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS). Trait impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P, which includes scales of urgency, the tendency to be impulsive in positive or negative mood states. Delay discounting rates were taken as a state measure of impulsive choice. Results Pathological gamblers had elevated impulsivity on several UPPS-P subscales but effect sizes were largest (Cohen's d>1.4) for positive and negative urgency. The pathological gamblers also displayed higher levels of gambling distortions, and elevated preference for immediate rewards, compared to controls. Within the pathological gamblers, there was a strong relationship between the preference for immediate rewards and the level of cognitive distortions (R2=0.41). Conclusions Impulsive choice in the gamblers was correlated with the level of gambling distortions, and we hypothesize that an impulsive decision-making style may increase the acceptance of erroneous beliefs during gambling play. PMID:21733207

  1. Comorbid physical and mental illnesses among pathological gamblers: Results from a population based study in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Wong, Kim Eng; Chong, Siow Ann

    2015-06-30

    The aim of the current study was to examine the comorbidity of pathological gambling with other mental and physical disorders as well as to examine health related quality of life perceived by those with pathological gambling using data from a community survey in Singapore. All respondents were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen to screen for pathological gambling. The diagnosis of mental disorders was established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview; while chronic physical conditions were established using a checklist. The weighted lifetime prevalence of pathological gambling was 2.7%. After multiple logistic regression, age 18-34 years (OR=5.3, 95% CI=1.6-17.4), male gender (OR=7.8, CI=3.8-16.2), widowhood (OR=4.2, 95% CI=1.02-17.5), and those with pre-primary (OR=17.1, CI=4.9-59.1), primary (OR=5.3, CI=1.7-16.6), and secondary education (OR=6, CI=2.5-14.7) had significantly higher odds of having pathological gambling. Those of Malay (OR=0.1, 95% CI=0.07-0.2) and Indian ethnicity (OR=0.2, 95% CI=0.1-0.3) had significantly lower odds of having pathological gambling compared to those of Chinese ethnicity. Pathological gamblers had significantly higher odds of having comorbid mental and physical disorders than non-gamblers/non-problem gamblers. The significant association of comorbid mental and physical disorders among those with pathological gambling indicates a need to screen for these disorders and for their subsequent treatment. PMID:25912429

  2. Impulsivity as a Moderator and Mediator between Life Stress and Pathological Gambling among Chinese Treatment-Seeking Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-kum; Wu, Anise M. S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of impulsivity and its interplay with gambling correlates in influencing the severity of pathological gambling in Chinese societies. It also investigated the extent to which impulsivity would moderate and/or mediate the relationship between life stress and pathological gambling in 94 Chinese treatment-seeking gamblers.…

  3. Mapping brain volumetric abnormalities in never-treated pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Daniel; Rzezak, Patricia; Pereira, Fabricio R; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F; Santos, Luciana C; Duran, Fábio L S; Barreiros, Maria A; Castro, Cláudio C; Busatto, Geraldo F; Tavares, Hermano; Gorenstein, Clarice

    2015-06-30

    Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies to date have investigated brain abnormalities in association with the diagnosis of pathological gambling (PG), but very few of these have specifically searched for brain volume differences between PG patients and healthy volunteers (HV). To investigate brain volume differences between PG patients and HV, 30 male never-treated PG patients (DSM-IV-TR criteria) and 30 closely matched HV without history of psychiatric disorders in the past 2 years underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging with a 1.5-T instrument. Using Freesurfer software, we performed an exploratory whole-brain voxelwise volume comparison between the PG group and the HV group, with false-discovery rate correction for multiple comparisons (p<0.05). Using a more flexible statistical threshold (p<0.01, uncorrected for multiple comparisons), we also measured absolute and regional volumes of several brain structures separately. The voxelwise analysis showed no clusters of significant regional differences between the PG and HV groups. The additional analyses of absolute and regional brain volumes showed increased absolute global gray matter volumes in PG patients relative to the HV group, as well as relatively decreased volumes specifically in the left putamen, right thalamus and right hippocampus (corrected for total gray matter). Our findings indicate that structural brain abnormalities may contribute to the functional changes associated with the symptoms of PG, and they highlight the relevance of the brain reward system to the pathophysiology of this disorder. PMID:25952288

  4. Drinking patterns of pathological gamblers before, during, and after gambling treatment.

    PubMed

    Rash, Carla J; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Petry, Nancy M

    2011-12-01

    Despite the high co-occurrence of alcohol consumption and gambling, few studies have investigated alcohol use changes during gambling treatment. Using latent growth modeling, we examined weekly alcohol use trajectories of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers across 36 weeks, allowing rates of change to differ across the 12-week pretreatment, during-treatment and posttreatment periods. For these secondary data analyses, we retained drinking gamblers (N = 163) from a combined sample of two randomized clinical trials for the treatment of pathological gambling. Results indicated a decrease in alcohol use corresponding with treatment entry and maintenance of less drinking during treatment and posttreatment. Despite these decreases in alcohol use overall, 31% (50 of 163) of participants exhibited risky drinking during the treatment or posttreatment periods. Gender, age, at-risk drinking (at any point in the 36-week interval), baseline gambling severity, treatment condition, and gambling during treatment predicted latent alcohol use growth factors. Although entry into gambling treatment was temporally associated with reductions in alcohol use in this retrospective analysis, a substantial portion of the sample exhibited at-risk drinking after treatment entry, suggesting that interventions targeting reductions in alcohol use may be useful for this population. PMID:21928867

  5. An 8-week stress management program in pathological gamblers: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Linardatou, C; Parios, A; Varvogli, L; Chrousos, G; Darviri, C

    2014-09-01

    Stress plays a major role at the onset and relapse of pathological gambling (PG), but at the same time it can also be the aftermath of gambling behavior, thus revealing a reciprocal relationship. Although the role of stress has been well-documented, there is a paucity of studies investigating the effect of an adjunctive stress management program on PG. In this 8-week parallel randomized waitlist controlled trial pathological gamblers, already in the gamblers anonymous (GA) group, were assigned randomly in two groups, with the intervention group (n = 22) receiving an additional stress management program (consisting of education on diet and exercise, stress coping methods, relaxation breathing -RB- and progressive muscle relaxation -PMR). Self-reported measures were used in order to evaluate stress, depression, anxiety, sleep quality/disturbances, life-satisfaction and daily routine. The statistical analyses for the between group differences concerning the main psychosocial study outcomes revealed a statistically significant amelioration of stress, depression, anxiety symptoms and an increase of life-satisfaction and a better daily routine in participants of the intervention group. We hope that these will encourage researchers and clinicians to adopt stress management in their future work. PMID:24912736

  6. Daily Tobacco Smoking in Treatment-Seeking Pathological Gamblers: Clinical Correlates and Co-occurring Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Jon E.; Kim, Suck Won; Odlaug, Brian L.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Tobacco smoking and pathological gambling (PG) frequently co-occur. Little is known, however, about the clinical correlates and co-occurring psychiatric disorders in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers with and without daily tobacco smoking. Methods Among a sample of 465 consecutive treatment-seeking subjects with current DSM-IV PG, those with daily tobacco smoking were compared to those without daily tobacco smoking on measures of gambling symptom severity (South Oaks Gambling Screen [SOGS] and the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Pathological Gambling [PG-YBOCS]), types of gambling, social and legal problems, and co-occurring disorders. Results Two hundred and nine (44.9%) of the 465 subjects with PG reported current daily tobacco smoking. Gamblers with daily tobacco smoking as compared to those without had higher SOGS scores, had more severe PG-YBOCS behavior scores, endorsed more DSM-IV PG criteria, lost more money gambling, and were more likely to engage in non-strategic gambling, and were less likely to have a co-occurring mood disorder. Gamblers with daily tobacco smoking and a current substance use disorder reported a greater percentage of income lost to gambling during the past year. Conclusions Daily tobacco smoking in PG is common and associated with multiple important clinical features including more severe gambling and financial problems. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers with daily tobacco smoking might need unique or enhanced treatment strategies. PMID:19690628

  7. Randomized trial of brief motivational treatments for pathological gamblers: More is not necessarily better.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, David C; Currie, Shawn R; Currie, Gillian; Fick, Gordon H

    2009-10-01

    The efficacy of brief treatments for media-recruited pathological gamblers was tested in a randomized clinical trial design (N = 314). Two self-directed motivational interventions were compared with a 6-week waiting list control and a workbook only control. Brief motivational treatment involved a telephone motivational interview and a mailed self-help workbook. Brief motivational booster treatment involved a telephone motivational interview, a workbook, and 6 booster telephone calls over a 9-month period. Primary outcomes were gambling frequency and dollar losses. As hypothesized, brief and brief booster treatment participants reported less gambling at 6 weeks than those assigned to the control groups. Brief and brief booster treatment participants gambled significantly less often over the first 6 months of the follow-up than workbook only participants. However, the workbook only participants were as likely to have significantly reduced their losses over the year and to have not met criteria for pathological gambling. Contrary to the hypothesis, participants in the brief booster treatment group showed no greater improvement than brief treatment participants. These results provide further support for the value of brief motivational treatments for pathological gambling. PMID:19803574

  8. Person Perception and Personality Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Studies of person perception (people's impressions and beliefs about others) have developed important concepts and methods that can be used to help improve the assessment of personality disorders. They may also inspire advances in our knowledge of the nature and origins of these conditions. Information collected from peers and other types of informants is reliable and provides a perspective that often differs substantially from that obtained using questionnaires and interviews. For some purposes, this information is quite useful. Much remains to be learned about the incremental validity (and potential biases) associated with data from various kinds of informants. PMID:20539833

  9. A Randomized Trial of Brief Interventions for Problem and Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Ledgerwood, David M.; Morasco, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Limited research exists regarding methods for reducing problem gambling. Problem gamblers (N = 180) were randomly assigned to assessment only control, 10 min of brief advice, 1 session of motivational enhancement therapy (MET), or 1 session of MET plus 3 sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Gambling was assessed at baseline, at 6 weeks, and…

  10. Pathological gambling and personality disorders: an exploratory study with the IPDE.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2004-10-01

    This article describes the most frequent personality disorders related to pathological gambling. Participants included 50 pathological gamblers assessed with the IPDE, and 50 normative subjects from the general population with the same demographic features (age, sex, and socioeconomic level). Thirty-two percent of the clinical sample (vs. the 8% of the normative sample) showed at least one personality disorder. The most prevalent disorders were Borderline (16%), followed by Antisocial, Paranoid, Narcissistic, and Non-specified (8% each). Gamblers with personality disorders presented an average of 1.5 disorders and they reported higher gambling severity and more severe symptoms of anxiety, depression and alcohol abuse. The implications of this study for clinical practice and research are discussed. PMID:15519959

  11. Experimental analysis of the game in pathological gamblers: effect of the immediacy of the reward in slot machines.

    PubMed

    Chóliz, Mariano

    2010-06-01

    Slot machines are the most "addictive" games because (a) the disorder (pathological gambling) appears more rapidly in these games than with any other; (b) most patients who seek professional help are mainly addicted to electronic gambling, and (c) even though it is not the more frequent game, most of all the money spent on legal games of chance (at least in Spain) goes to slot machines. Structural characteristics of slot machines induce to gamble because electronic games show the main parameters of operant conditioning, mainly the immediacy of the reinforcement. Ten pathological gamblers played slot machine in two conditions: immediate and delayed reinforcement. The results corroborate the importance of the immediacy of the reinforcement in gambling, because when the result appears immediately (after 2 s), more games are played than when the result is delayed only 10 s. Critical issues in problem gambling prevention and public health are discussed. PMID:19882307

  12. Behavioral assessment of impulsivity in pathological gamblers with and without substance use disorder histories versus healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Ledgerwood, David M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Phoenix, Natalie; Petry, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Pathological gamblers (PGs) may have high levels of impulsivity, and a correlation between substance use disorders (SUD) and impulsivity is well established. However, only a handful of studies have attempted to assess impulsivity and other impulse-spectrum traits (e.g., sensation seeking) using a variety of behavioral and self-report measures in PGs and few examined the independent impact of SUDs. We compared 30 PGs without SUD histories, 31 PGs with SUD histories and 40 control participants on self-reported impulsivity, delayed discounting, attention/memory, response inhibition, risk taking, sensation seeking and distress tolerance measures. PGs, regardless of SUD history, discounted delayed rewards at greater rates than controls. PGs also reported acting on the spur of the moment, experienced trouble planning and thinking carefully, and noted greater attention difficulties than controls. PGs with SUD took greater risks on a risk-taking task than did PGs without SUD histories, but the two groups did not differ on any other measures of impulsivity. We conclude that PGs are more impulsive than non-problem gamblers in fairly specific ways, but PGs with and without SUD histories differ on few measures. More research should focus on specific ways in which PGs exhibit impulsivity to better address impulsive behaviors in treatment. PMID:19615829

  13. Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yansong; Sescousse, Guillaume; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction characterized by a chronic failure to resist the urge to gamble. It shares many similarities with drug addiction. Glucocorticoid hormones including cortisol are thought to play a key role in the vulnerability to addictive behaviors, by acting on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Based on our previous report of an imbalanced sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives in the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers (PGs), we investigated whether this imbalance was mediated by individual differences in endogenous cortisol levels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined the relationship between cortisol levels and the neural responses to monetary versus non-monetary cues, while PGs and healthy controls were engaged in an incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and erotic rewards. We found a positive correlation between cortisol levels and ventral striatal responses to monetary versus erotic cues in PGs, but not in healthy controls. This indicates that the ventral striatum is a key region where cortisol modulates incentive motivation for gambling versus non-gambling related stimuli in PGs. Our results extend the proposed role of glucocorticoid hormones in drug addiction to behavioral addiction, and help understand the impact of cortisol on reward incentive processing in PGs. PMID:24723862

  14. Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Li, Yansong; Sescousse, Guillaume; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction characterized by a chronic failure to resist the urge to gamble. It shares many similarities with drug addiction. Glucocorticoid hormones including cortisol are thought to play a key role in the vulnerability to addictive behaviors, by acting on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Based on our previous report of an imbalanced sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives in the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers (PGs), we investigated whether this imbalance was mediated by individual differences in endogenous cortisol levels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined the relationship between cortisol levels and the neural responses to monetary versus non-monetary cues, while PGs and healthy controls were engaged in an incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and erotic rewards. We found a positive correlation between cortisol levels and ventral striatal responses to monetary versus erotic cues in PGs, but not in healthy controls. This indicates that the ventral striatum is a key region where cortisol modulates incentive motivation for gambling versus non-gambling related stimuli in PGs. Our results extend the proposed role of glucocorticoid hormones in drug addiction to behavioral addiction, and help understand the impact of cortisol on reward incentive processing in PGs. PMID:24723862

  15. Female Pathological Gamblers--A Critical Review of the Clinical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Dahl, Alv A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that more and more women gamble and develop gambling problems and pathological gambling (PG). Research has further indicated that female and male PGs differ in their clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to do a critical review of the literature concerning clinical characteristics of female pathological

  16. Clinical profiles as a function of level and type of impulsivity in a sample group of at-risk and pathological gamblers seeking treatment.

    PubMed

    Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Wainstein, Laura; Feuillet, Fanny; Bouju, Gaëlle; Rocher, Bruno; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Sébille-Rivain, Véronique

    2012-06-01

    Level and type of impulsivity are essential variables to be taken into consideration during the initial evaluation of a pathological gambler. The aim of this study was to measure the score for 4 impulsivity-related traits (Urgency, (lack of) Premeditation, (lack of) Perseverance and Sensation seeking) in a sample group of at-risk and pathological gamblers, and to highlight any links with certain elements of clinical data. The UPPS Impulsive Behaviour Scale was administered to 84 problem gamblers seeking treatment. The severity of gambling disorders was evaluated using the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-IV. Psychiatric and addictive comorbidities were also explored. The results indicated that the score for the Urgency facet had a positive correlation with the severity of gambling disorders. It appeared that participants displayed different clinical profiles according to the level and type of impulsivity. Several of the UPPS scales were identified as risk factors for mood disorders, risk of suicide, alcohol use disorders, and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The results confirm both the complexity of the multi-dimensional concept of impulsivity and the reason why the UPPS is of interest for a more in-depth study of the subject. PMID:21698341

  17. Yohimbine-Induced Amygdala Activation in Pathological Gamblers: A Pilot Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Elman; Lino Becerra; Evelyne Tschibelu; Rinah Yamamoto; Edward George; David Borsook

    2012-01-01

    Rationale and ObjectivesThere is evidence that drug addiction is associated with increased physiological and psychological responses to stress. In this pilot functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we assessed whether a prototype behavioral addiction, pathological gambling (PG), is likewise associated with an enhanced response to stress.MethodsWe induced stress by injecting yohimbine (0.2–0.3 mg\\/kg, IV), an alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist that elicits

  18. Prevalence and predictors of pathological gambling: results from the St. Louis personality, health and lifestyle (SLPHL) study

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.; Grucza, Richard A.; Cottler, Linda B.; Womack, Sharon B.; Books, Samantha J.; Przybeck, Thomas R.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Cloninger, C. Robert

    2006-01-01

    Objectives We report the prevalence of and risk and protective factors for DSM-IV sub-threshold gambling (1–4 criteria) and pathological gambling disorder (PGD; 5–10 criteria) in a non-clinical household sample of St. Louis area gamblers. Methods Of the 7689 individuals contacted via Random Digit Dialing, 3292 were screened eligible. Of these, 1142 from households in 6 contiguous regions in Missouri and Illinois consented to participate and were mailed a St. Louis Area Personality, Health, and Lifestyle (SLPHL) Survey. Results Post-stratification weighted data (n = 913) indicate lifetime prevalence rates of 12.4% sub-threshold and 2.5% PGD (conditional prevalence = 21.5% and 4.3% respectively). Risk and protective factors for gambling severity varied in the sample. Conclusions Targeted prevention messages are warranted specifically for gamblers of varying risk for PGD. PMID:15804388

  19. Arousal and affective differences between student gamblers and non-gamblers during a card game.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Leone, Antonio; Campeau, Jennifer L; Harrington, Shawn J

    2012-12-01

    The current study examined the differences in arousal (physiologically and subjectively) between gamblers and non-gamblers. Thirty students from a mid-sized university took part in the study for a chance to win money in a gambling task. Nearly half of the participants identified themselves as non-gamblers and slightly more than half of the participants considered themselves gamblers. Findings indicated that gamblers experienced a significantly higher increase in physiological arousal (heart rate) compared to non-gamblers during the gambling experience. The results suggests the possibility that physiological arousal may play a role in the appeal of gambling to certain types of people. Furthermore, when gamblers suffered a loss at the end of the game, they reported feeling worse as compared to the non-gamblers and relative to their state before playing. Moreover, this affective change explained 28.6% of the variance in gambling behavior according to self-reports. Findings suggest that gamblers in our study may have been more personally invested in the gambling tasks, such that losing was more disappointing to the habitual gamblers than the non-gamblers. PMID:22057368

  20. Segmenting casino gamblers by motivation: A cluster analysis of Korean gamblers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Choong-Ki Lee; Yong-Ki Lee; Bo Jason Bernhard; Yoo-Shik Yoon

    2006-01-01

    While past research has explored why people become problem or pathological gamblers, the motivations of the broader gambling population have been largely neglected. This study examines casino gambling motivations for a sample of Korean gamblers. Specifically, this study attempts to segment the casino gambling market using a cluster analysis, and to explore differences between segments with respect to socio-demographic and

  1. Masochism and pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Richard J

    2015-03-01

    That all pathological gamblers have an "unconscious wish to lose," an idea first expressed by Freud and Bergler, is neither true nor useful; wrong as well, however, are the reasons for neglecting masochism in relation to gambling. There is a small but clinically significant subgroup of pathological gamblers who are masochistic. I present clinical vignettes and a more extended treatment account to illustrate its importance. Masochism has been a confusing concept. As used here it refers to the deliberate seeking of pain, loss, suffering, or humiliation. There may be pleasure in pain, or an obligatory combining of pleasure and pain. A sense of power and control may be achieved through suffering. The case material illustrates clinically useful types (sexual masochism, masochistic personality disorder, moral masochism, relational masochism) as well as some common masochistic dynamics encountered in the treatment of pathological gamblers. These masochistic patterns are often identifiable during the initial evaluation. Distinguishing features may include a reversal of normal attitudes about winning and losing, the absence of an early winning phase, sometimes a memorable early loss. Gamblers may sabotage opportunities for success or create unnecessary obstacles for themselves. Losing may be more comfortable than winning or may be overtly sexualized. PMID:25734872

  2. Relationship between personality organization and Young’s cognitive model of personality pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth H. M. Eurelings-Bontekoe; Patrick Luyten; Marcel IJssennagger; Michiel van Vreeswijk; Jurrijn Koelen

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between the psychodynamic concept of personality organization (PO) and Young’s cognitive model of personality pathology was studied in a sample of 117 patients that were referred to Schema Focused Therapy for severe personality pathology. Principal Component Analysis was used to reduce the number of Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and schema modes variables. The higher order factors identified were

  3. The externalizing spectrum in youth: incorporating personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Reardon, Kathleen W; De Clercq, Barbara; Sharp, Carla

    2014-07-01

    Although personality disorder characteristics are often grouped with externalizing problems in adults, little is known about the extent to which they define the externalizing spectrum in youth. We examined the extent to which personality pathology traits in youth reflected common and specific variance in externalizing problems and explored differentiation of these connections by age. Parents reported on physical aggression, rule-breaking, relational aggression, and personality pathology traits for 1080 youth (48.8% male) ages 6-18 years. Disagreeableness and emotional instability traits were correlated with a general externalizing factor as well as with specific behavioral subfactors. The magnitude of these correlations varied across age, with the highest magnitude evidenced during the developmental periods of greatest prevalence for the specific externalizing behavior subtype. Taken together, these findings suggest that personality pathology is tightly connected with externalizing problems in youth, especially during developmental periods when externalizing problems are common. PMID:24263222

  4. Personalized cancer medicine and the future of pathology.

    PubMed

    Moch, H; Blank, P R; Dietel, M; Elmberger, G; Kerr, K M; Palacios, J; Penault-Llorca, F; Rossi, G; Szucs, T D

    2012-01-01

    In February 2011, a group of pathologists from different departments in Europe met in Zurich, Switzerland, to discuss opportunities and challenges for pathology in the era of personalized medicine. The major topics of the meeting were assessment of the role of pathology in personalized medicine, its future profile among other biomedical disciplines with an interest in personalized medicine as well as the evolution of companion diagnostics. The relevance of novel technologies for genome analysis in clinical practice was discussed. The participants recognize that there should be more initiatives taken by the pathology community in companion diagnostics and in the emerging field of next-generation sequencing and whole genome analysis. The common view of the participants was that the pathology community has to be mobilized for stronger engagement in the future of personalized medicine. Pathologists should be aware of the challenges and the analytical opportunities of the new technologies. Challenges of clinical trial design as well as insurance and reimbursement questions were addressed. The pathology community has the responsibility to lead medical colleagues into embracing this new area of genomic medicine. Without this effort, the discipline of pathology risks losing its key position in molecular tissue diagnostics. PMID:22143935

  5. Pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

    2000-09-01

    With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG. PMID:10986732

  6. Comparison of Three Self-Report Measures of Personality Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Mayumi; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Levels of convergence among three measures of personality pathology, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+), the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders Questionnaire (SCID-IIQ) and the Multi-source Assessment of Personality Pathology (MAPP) were examined. Each questionnaire was administered three times in an alternating sequence over nine consecutive weekdays to a sample of college students. There was some degree of convergence among the three instruments, but there were also substantial empirical differences between them. The data suggest three related conclusions: (1) in general, the self-report version of the MAPP is more conservative than the other two questionnaires, (2) these questionnaires should not be considered interchangeable measures of the same constructs, and (3) the breadth of measurement provided varies as a function of both the questionnaire and the specific personality disorder being measured. PMID:20454642

  7. Personalized medicine for pathological circadian dysfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Skelton, Rachel L.; Kornhauser, Jon M.; Tate, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    The recent approval of a therapeutic for a circadian disorder has increased interest in developing additional medicines for disorders characterized by circadian disruption. However, previous experience demonstrates that drug development for central nervous system (CNS) disorders has a high failure rate. Personalized medicine, or the approach to identifying the right treatment for the right patient, has recently become the standard for drug development in the oncology field. In addition to utilizing Companion Diagnostics (CDx) that identify specific genetic biomarkers to prescribe certain targeted therapies, patient profiling is regularly used to enrich for a responsive patient population during clinical trials, resulting in fewer patients required for statistical significance and a higher rate of success for demonstrating efficacy and hence receiving approval for the drug. This personalized medicine approach may be one mechanism that could reduce the high clinical trial failure rate in the development of CNS drugs. This review will discuss current circadian trials, the history of personalized medicine in oncology, lessons learned from a recently approved circadian therapeutic, and how personalized medicine can be tailored for use in future clinical trials for circadian disorders to ultimately lead to the approval of more therapeutics for patients suffering from circadian abnormalities. PMID:26150790

  8. Adolescent pathological gambling in Kaunas, Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Skokauskas, Norbertas; Satkeviciute, Regina

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first survey of pathological gambling among adolescents in Kaunas, Lithuania. The results indicated that a large majority of adolescent (82.6%) have engaged in a variety of gambling activities. Although most respondents were classified as "occasional gamblers", there were significantly more females than males who were occasional gamblers and non-gamblers, and significantly more males than females who were regular gamblers. More adolescents surveyed had gambled on Tele-Lotto than on any other gambling activity. Based on Diagnostic statistical manual-IV-Multiple Response-Adapted for Juveniles, 4.2% of participants were categorized as pathological gamblers, with a further 9.1% classified as at-risk gamblers, 69.4% as social gamblers, and 17.3% as non-gamblers. Based on South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents, 5.2% (n = 43) of participants were categorized as pathological gamblers, with a further 10.5% (n = 88) classified as at-risk gamblers, 67% (n = 559) as social gamblers, and 17.3% (n = 145) as non-gamblers. The commonest reason given by adolescents for gambling were "enjoyment", "a chance to try luck" and "to win money"; however, the top reasons reported for pathological gambling were "to relax", "to distract myself from problems" and "to improve mood". Male gender, cognitive distortions regarding gambling, having parents who gamble and gamble too excess, using alcohol regularly, and smoking regularly were characteristics significantly associated with pathological gambling in adolescence. PMID:17454722

  9. Divergent Validity of Measures of Cognitive Distortions, Impulsivity, and Time Perspective in Pathological Gambling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James MacKillop; Emily J. Anderson; Bryan A. Castelda; Richard E. Mattson; Peter J. Donovick

    2006-01-01

    The present study assessed the divergent validity of several self-report and objective behavioral measures for assessing pathological gambling using three samples divided by South Oaks Gambling Scale score [Lesieur, & Blume (1987). American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1184–1188]: pathological gamblers, potential pathological gamblers, and non-pathological gamblers. Self-report measures included the Gamblers’ Beliefs Questionnaire [GBQ; Steenbergh, Meyers, May, & Whelan (2002).

  10. Prevalence of Cerebral Amyloid Pathology in Persons Without Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Willemijn J.; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Knol, Dirk L.; Tijms, Betty M.; Scheltens, Philip; Verhey, Frans R. J.; Visser, Pieter Jelle

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Cerebral amyloid-? aggregation is an early pathological event in Alzheimer disease (AD), starting decades before dementia onset. Estimates of the prevalence of amyloid pathology in persons without dementia are needed to understand the development of AD and to design prevention studies. OBJECTIVE To use individual participant data meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of amyloid pathology as measured with biomarkers in participants with normal cognition, subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). DATA SOURCES Relevant biomarker studies identified by searching studies published before April 2015 using the MEDLINE and Web of Science databases and through personal communication with investigators. STUDY SELECTION Studies were included if they provided individual participant data for participants without dementia and used an a priori defined cutoff for amyloid positivity. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Individual records were provided for 2914 participants with normal cognition, 697 with SCI, and 3972 with MCI aged 18 to 100 years from 55 studies. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Prevalence of amyloid pathology on positron emission tomography or in cerebrospinal fluid according to AD risk factors (age, apolipoprotein E [APOE] genotype, sex, and education) estimated by generalized estimating equations. RESULTS The prevalence of amyloid pathology increased from age 50 to 90 years from 10% (95% CI, 8%-13%) to 44% (95% CI, 37%-51%) among participants with normal cognition; from 12% (95% CI, 8%-18%) to 43% (95% CI, 32%-55%) among patients with SCI; and from 27% (95% CI, 23%-32%) to 71% (95% CI, 66%-76%) among patients with MCI. APOE-?4 carriers had 2 to 3 times higher prevalence estimates than noncarriers. The age at which 15% of the participants with normal cognition were amyloid positive was approximately 40 years for APOE?4?4 carriers, 50 years for ?2?4 carriers, 55 years for ?3?4 carriers, 65 years for ?3?3 carriers, and 95 years for ?2?3 carriers. Amyloid positivity was more common in highly educated participants but not associated with sex or biomarker modality. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among persons without dementia, the prevalence of cerebral amyloid pathology as determined by positron emission tomography or cerebrospinal fluid findings was associated with age, APOEgenotype, and presence of cognitive impairment. These findings suggest a 20- to 30-year interval between first development of amyloid positivity and onset of dementia. PMID:25988462

  11. Manipulating Slot Machine Preference in Problem Gamblers through Contextual Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastally, Becky L.; Dixon, Mark R.; Jackson, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Pathological and nonpathological gamblers completed a task that assessed preference among 2 concurrently available slot machines. Subsequent assessments of choice were conducted after various attempts to transfer contextual functions associated with irrelevant characteristics of the slot machines. Results indicated that the nonproblem gambling…

  12. The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome With Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect of personality pathology on time to remission of patients randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment strategies for depression and to determine whether personality pathology moderated the effect of treatment assignment on outcome. Method Individuals undergoing an episode of unipolar major depression (n = 275) received interpersonal psychotherapy (Klerman, Weissman, Rounsaville, & Chevron, 1984) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) pharmacotherapy for depression. Depressive symptoms were measured with the HRSD-17. Remission was a mean HRSD-17 score of 7 or below over a period of 3 weeks. Personality disorders were measured according to SCID-II diagnoses, and personality pathology was measured dimensionally by summing the positive probes on the SCID-II. Results The presence of at least 1 personality disorder was not a significant predictor of time to remission, but a higher level of dimensionally measured personality pathology and the presence of borderline personality disorder were associated with a longer time to remission. Personality pathology did not moderate the effect of treatment assignment on time to remission. Conclusions The findings suggest that depressed individuals with comorbid personality pathology generally fare worse in treatment for depression, although in this report, the effect of personality pathology did not differ by the type of treatment received. PMID:22823857

  13. The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect…

  14. Relationships: empirical contribution. Understanding personality pathology in adolescents: the five factor model of personality and social information processing.

    PubMed

    Hessels, Christel; van den Hanenberg, Danique; de Castro, Bram Orobio; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2014-02-01

    This study seeks to integrate two research traditions that lie at the base of the understanding of personality pathology in adolescents. The first research tradition refers to normal personality according to the Five Factor Model (FFM). The second tradition specifies the key feature of personality disorder as the capacity to mentalize, which can be reflected in Social Information Processing (SIP). In a clinical sample of 96 adolescents, the authors investigated response generation, coping strategy, and memories of past frustrating experiences as part of SIP, as mediator in the relationship between personality and personality pathology, and a possible moderating role of personality on the relationship between SIP and personality pathology. The hypothesized mediation, by which the effects of personality dimensions on personality pathology was expected to be mediated by SIP variables, was found only for the effect of Neuroticism, most specifically on BPD, which appeared to be mediated by memories the patients had about past frustrating conflict situations with peers. Some moderating effects of personality on the relationship between SIP variables and personality pathology were found, suggesting that high Agreeableness and sometimes low Neuroticism can buffer this relationship. These results suggest that personality dimensions and social cognitions both independently and together play a role in adolescents' personality pathology. PMID:24344893

  15. The facets of identity: Personality pathology assessment through the Inventory of Personality Organization.

    PubMed

    Preti, Emanuele; Prunas, Antonio; De Panfilis, Chiara; Marchesi, Carlo; Madeddu, Fabio; Clarkin, John F

    2015-04-01

    This work aims to further validate the object-relations-based model of personality pathology assessment, evaluating the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO), a self-report instrument for the assessment of personality organization according to O. Kernberg's model of personality pathology. Six hundred ninety-six nonclinical volunteers and 121 psychiatric patients completed a set of questionnaires including the IPO, the Severity Indices of Personality Problems, the Borderline Personality Disorder Checklist, the Response Evaluation Measure 71, and the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. Confirmatory factor-analyses on the IPO items supported the 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-factor solutions. The last (Instability of sense of self/others, Instability of goals, Instability of behaviors, Psychosis) resulted in relatively better fit indexes. Invariance across samples (nonclinical, clinical) and gender was confirmed. The 4 IPO subscales showed good levels of internal coherence and, in the nonclinical sample, good test-retest reliability. Associations with the convergent measures were in line with theoretical expectations and supported the benefit of adopting a 4-factor solution. The 4 factors showed the expected criterion relations: All the dimensions discriminated between clinical and nonclinical subjects, whereas only Instability of self/others and Instability of goals discriminated patients with borderline personality disorder from patients with other diagnoses. Our results suggest that the Italian version of the IPO is a reliable and valid tool for the assessment of personality organization according to Kernberg's model. Results are discussed in the context of the current directions in the evaluation of personality disorders proposed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25867838

  16. Assessment of problematic internet use by the Compulsive Internet Use Scale and the Internet Addiction Test: a sample of problematic and pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Guertler, Diana; Rumpf, Hans-Juergen; Bischof, Anja; Kastirke, Nadin; Petersen, Kay Uwe; John, Ulrich; Meyer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyze psychometric properties and validity of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) and the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and, second, to determine a threshold for the CIUS which matches the IAT cut-off for detecting problematic Internet use. A total of 292 subjects with problematic or pathological gambling (237 men, 55 women) aged 14-63 years and with private Internet use for at least 1 h per working or weekend day were recruited via different recruitment channels. Results include that both scales were internally consistent (Cronbach's ?=0.9) and had satisfactory convergent validity (r=0.75; 95% CI 0.70-0.80). The correlation with duration of private Internet use per week was significantly higher for the CIUS (r=0.54) compared to the IAT (r=0.40). Among all participants, 25.3% were classified as problematic Internet users based on the IAT with a cut-off?40. The highest proportion of congruent classified cases results from a CIUS cut-off ?18 (sensitivity 79.7%, specificity 79.4%). However, a higher cut-off (?21) seems to be more appropriate for prevalence estimation of problematic Internet use. PMID:24080838

  17. How Useful Are Indices of Personality Pathology when Assessing Domestic Violence Perpetrators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Peter; Collins, Marjorie; Reid, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    There has been considerable debate about profiling personality pathology when assessing and treating male perpetrators of domestic violence (DV). This study used the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) to explore the severity and diversity of male perpetrator personality pathology and response bias in a group of DV perpetrators being…

  18. Level of Agreement between Self and Spouse in the Assessment of Personality Pathology

    PubMed Central

    South, Susan C.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Johnson, Jarrod; Turkheimer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Informant reports can provide important information regarding the presence of pathological personality traits, and they can serve as useful supplements to self-report instruments. Ratings from a spouse may be a particularly valuable source of personality assessment because spouses are very well acquainted with the target person, have typically known the person for a long time, and witness behaviors across a variety of situations. In the current study, self- and spouse report measures based on the DSM-IV personality disorder criteria were collected from a non-clinical sample of 82 couples (N=164). Agreement between self- and spouse report for several pathological personality factors was significant and somewhat higher than has been found for self- and peer agreement. Nevertheless, the magnitude of self-spouse agreement was still moderate in size (Mean r=.36). Findings are discussed with regard to utilizing spouse-report in the assessment of personality pathology. PMID:21220382

  19. THE IMPACT OF PERSONALITY PATHOLOGY ON TREATMENT RESPONSE TO THERAPEUTIC LIFESTYLE CHANGE (TLC) FOR DEPRESSION

    E-print Network

    Hirani, Amyn

    2007-08-07

    and personality pathology, and several hypotheses have been proposed. Due to its potential clinical utility, the pathoplasty model (Klein, Wonderlich, & Shea, 1993; Shea & Yen, 2005) has informed the majority of research in this area. This model assumes... distinct etiology, but emphasizes the influence of each co-occurring condition on the presentation and clinical course of the other. In other words, personality pathology may influence the way in which depression is experienced and expressed...

  20. Measuring cognitive distortions in pathological gambling: review and meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Goodie, Adam S; Fortune, Erica E

    2013-09-01

    There is broad agreement that cognitive distortions are an integral component of the development, maintenance, and treatment of pathological gambling. There is no authoritative catalog of the distortions that are observed more frequently in pathological gamblers than in others, but several instruments have been successfully developed that measure various distortions of interest, which are reviewed. All of the prominent instruments include measures of the illusion of control (perceiving more personal control over events than is warranted), and almost all include measures of gambler's fallacy (the belief that after a string of one event, such as a coin landing heads, an alternative event, such as the coin landing tails, becomes more likely). Beyond these two errors, there is scant consensus on relevant errors, and a wide variety has been studied. Meta-analyses were conducted on differences between PGs and non-PGs in scores on six published instruments that were developed to measure distortions in gamblers. All instruments reveal large effects using Hedge's g statistic, suggesting that the impact of distortions on PG is robust. Several subscales, assigned diverse names by scale authors, can be viewed as reflecting common distortions. Those judged to assess gambler's fallacy show evidence of more robust effects sizes than those that assess illusion of control. It is recommended that future research focus more specifically on the impact of particular distortions on gambling disorders. PMID:23438249

  1. Pathological gambling: A comparison of gambling at German-style slot machines and "Classical" gambling.

    PubMed

    Fabian, T

    1995-09-01

    German-style slot machines and related legal issues are described. On the basis of a survey on 437 members of self-help groups (Gamblers Anonymous) in Germany, slot machine gamblers were compared with casino gamblers on such variables as sociodemographic data, gambling behaviour, financial expenditure, emotional experience while gambling, symptoms of pathological gambling, psychosocial consequences and gambling related delinquency. The casino gamblers' gambling behaviour is financially more extensive. There were similarities regarding the emotional intensity of the gambling experience. However the casino gamblers show more pronounced symptoms of pathological gambling and the psychosocial consequences of their gambling behaviour are more severe. In spite of these differences, the data show that for young people slot machines can be as stimulating and therefore as dangerous as casino gambling. The young slot machine gambler runs a similar risk of acquiring a pathological gambling habit as the casino gambler. PMID:24233548

  2. Gamblers seeking treatment: Who does and who doesn’t?

    PubMed Central

    BRAUN, BARBARA; LUDWIG, MONIKA; SLECZKA, PAWEL; BÜHRINGER, GERHARD; KRAUS, LUDWIG

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims: As only a minority of pathological gamblers (PGr) presents for treatment, further knowledge about help-seeking behavior is required in order to enhance treatment utilization. The present study investigated factors associated with treatment participation in gamblers in Germany. As subclinical pathological gamblers (SPGr, fulfilling one to four DSM-IV-criteria) are target of early intervention due to high risk of transition to pathological gambling, they were subject of special interest. Methods: The study analyzed data from a general population survey (n = 234, SPGr: n = 198, PGr: n = 36) and a treatment study (n = 329, SPGr: n = 22, PGr: n = 307). A two-step weighting procedure was applied to ensure comparability of samples. Investigated factors included socio-demographic variables, gambling behavior, symptoms of pathological gambling and substance use. Results: In PGr, regular employment and non-German nationality were positively associated with being in treatment while gambling on the Internet and gaming machines and fulfilling more DSM-IV-criteria lowered the odds. In SPGr, treatment attendance was negatively associated with married status and alcohol consumption and positively associated with older age, higher stakes, more fulfilled DSM-IV criteria and regular smoking. Conclusions: In accordance to expectations more severe gambling problems and higher problem awareness and/or external pressure might facilitate treatment entry. There are groups with lower chances of being in treatment: women, ethnic minorities, and SPGr. We propose target group specific offers, use of Internet-based methods as possible adaptions and/or extensions of treatment offers that could enhance treatment attendance. PMID:25317343

  3. Parents of young gamblers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon Moody

    1989-01-01

    A study of gambling among juveniles in the United Kingdom reveals that their favorite form of gambling, both in terms of percent participating and amounts spent, is playing “Amusement with Prizes” (i.e., slot) machines. These machines are widely, freely, and legally available to persons of all ages at amusement arcades, youth clubs, cafes, sports centers, bus and railroad stations, and

  4. The Joint Hierarchical Structure of Adolescent Personality Pathology: Converging Evidence from Two Approaches to Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Shauna C.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; De Clercq, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the joint hierarchical structure of two measures of adolescent personality pathology within a community sample of Canadian adolescents. Method: Self-reported data on demographic information and pathological personality traits were obtained from 144 youth (Mage = 16.08 years, SD = 1.30). Personality pathology was measured using the youth-version of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP-Y; Linde, Stringer, Simms, & Clark, in press) and the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI; De Clercq, De Fruyt, Van Leeuwen, & Mervielde, 2006). Lower-order scales were subjected to structural hierarchical analyses. Results: Scales from the two measures were complementary in defining higher-order traits. Traits at the 4-factor level of the hierarchy (Need for Approval, Disagreeableness, Detachment, and Compulsivity) showed similarities and differences with previous results in adults. Conclusions: The current investigation integrated top-down and bottom-up measures for a comprehensive account of the higher-order hierarchy of adolescent personality pathology. Results are discussed in the context of convergence across approaches and in comparison with previous findings in adult samples. PMID:23970908

  5. Practicing Pathology in the Era of Big Data and Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jiang; Taylor, Clive R.; Phil, D

    2014-01-01

    The traditional task of the pathologist is to assist physicians in making the correct diagnosis of diseases at the earliest possible stage to effectuate the optimal treatment strategy for each individual patient. In this respect surgical pathology (the traditional tissue diagnosis) is but a tool. It is not, of itself, the purpose of pathology practice; and change is in the air. This January 2014 issue of Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology (AIMM) embraces that change by the incorporation of the agenda and content of the journal Diagnostic Molecular Morphology (DMP). Over a decade ago AIMM introduced and promoted the concept of “molecular morphology,” and has sought to publish molecular studies that correlate with the morphologic features that continue to define cancer and many diseases. That intent is now reinforced and extended by the merger with DMP, as a logical and timely response to the growing impact of a wide range of genetic and molecular technologies that are beginning to reshape the way in which pathology is practiced. The use of molecular and genomic techniques already demonstrates clear value in the diagnosis of disease, with treatment tailored specifically to individual patients. Personalized medicine is the future, and personalized medicine demands personalized pathology. The need for integration of the flood of new molecular data, with surgical pathology, digital pathology, and the full range of pathology data in the electronic medical record has never been greater. This review describes the possible impact of these pressures upon the discipline of pathology, and examines possible outcomes. There is a sense of excitement and adventure. Active adaption and innovation are required. The new AIMM, incorporating DMP, seeks to position itself for a central role in this process. PMID:24326463

  6. Developmental Structuralist Approach to the Classification of Adaptive and Pathologic Personality Organizations: Infancy and Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Stanley I.; Lourie, Reginald S.

    This paper applies a developmental structuralist approach to the classification of adaptive and pathologic personality organizations and behavior in infancy and early childhood, and it discusses implications of this approach for preventive intervention. In general, as development proceeds, the structural capacity of the developing infant and child…

  7. Personality pathology and daily aspects of marital functioning.

    PubMed

    South, Susan C

    2014-04-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are associated with a host of interpersonal problems, including unstable and dysfunctional romantic relationships. In previous research, PD symptoms have been linked to one's own and spouse's self-reported level of marital satisfaction and marital conflict. The current study extends on this work by examining whether Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) PD criteria would predict aspects of daily marital functioning. A total of 99 newlywed couples (N = 198) recruited from the community were assessed for PD symptoms using a self-report measure and subsequently completed a 6-day diary protocol. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the association of PD symptoms with three major aspects of daily functioning: overall relationship sentiment, serious conflicts with one's spouse, and quality of interactions. Results indicated that PD symptoms significantly predicted aspects of all three measures of daily functioning. The individual PDs generally showed the greatest associations with aspects of conflict. Paranoid, schizoid, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive PD scores were significantly negatively related to overall relationship sentiment whereas Cluster A and Cluster C PD scores negatively predicted various daily interaction behaviors. Findings provide insight into the mechanisms that might explain the associations between PD symptoms and overall measures of relationship functioning. PMID:24364502

  8. The relation between personal relative deprivation and the urge to gamble among gamblers is moderated by problem gambling severity: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Callan, Mitchell J; Shead, N Will; Olson, James M

    2015-06-01

    One psychosocial factor that has been identified to motivate gambling is personal relative deprivation (PRD), which refers to resentment stemming from the belief that one is deprived of a desired and deserved outcome compared to some referent. Although several lines of evidence point to a positive association between PRD and the urge to gamble, the factors that might moderate this relation have yet to be investigated. Through a quantitative research synthesis, we sought to test (a) the overall relation between PRD and gambling urges among people reporting recent gambling experience, and (b) whether this relation is moderated by problem gambling severity. Meta-analysis revealed that, overall, higher self-reported PRD was associated with stronger urges to gamble (r=.26). A meta-regression revealed that, across studies, the strength of this relation depended on problem gambling severity, such that the relation between PRD and gambling urges was stronger among samples higher in average problem gambling severity. This pattern was corroborated by an analysis of the aggregated individual participant data (N=857), such that PRD predicted gambling urges only among participants higher in problem gambling severity. The potential practical implications and limitations of these results are discussed. PMID:25665918

  9. Can personality traits predict pathological responses to audiovisual stimulation?

    PubMed

    Yambe, Tomoyuki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Fukudo, Shin; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Shizuka, Kazuhiko; Nanka, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Akira; Abe, Ken-ichi; Shouji, Tomonori; Hongo, Michio; Tabayashi, Kouichi; Nitta, Shin-ichi

    2003-10-01

    The "Pockemon shock" is the most famous accident in the history of the broadcasting industry in Japan. Based on the experiences of this unfortunate accident from famous animation program "Pocket Monster", this study focused on the psychology and psychosomatics of the patients. A head-mounted display was used as the three-dimensional image presentation device and "Descent", a free software shooting game, was used as the software. Ten healthy adult male volunteers were used in this experiment after obtaining their informed consent. The oxygen metabolic change in the anterior lobe of the brain was measured by near infrared spectroscopy and recorded on an electrocardiogram. The mental scaling tendency of the object was analyzed using the type A behavior pattern and the hostility scaling. The Cook and Medley hostility (HO) scale from the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) was also used in this experiment. From this scaling methodology, the paranoid scale, cynicism scale, lie scale, social support quality and social support quantity were calculated. All measured time series data were kept in the normal range, and no fatal arrhythmia or epilepsy were observed during experiments. In some cases, the brain oxygen metabolism may completely differ for the objects of Type A and Type B behavior patterns. On the whole, correlation did not become significant in type A scaling and hostility scaling. In a comparison of the percent changes of the HF in HRV with lie scaling, significant negative correlation was observed. The social support quantity was calculated from Cook and Medley, and significant negative correlations were observed with percent changes of LF/HF in HRV. The lie scale and social support quantity are opposite scaling. The sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system have an opposite function also. Therefore, our results showed an interesting phenomenon, when considering the relationship between the autonomic function and the pathophysiological reaction to the audiovisual stimulations. As for the photo sensitive epilepsy, it was reported to be only 5-10% for all patients. Therefore, 90% or more of the cause could not be determined in patients who started a morbid response. The results in this study suggest that the autonomic function was connected to the mental tendency of the objects. By examining such directivity, it is expected that subjects, which show morbid reaction to an audiovisual stimulation, can be screened beforehand. PMID:14572681

  10. Do prior knowledge, personality and visual perceptual ability predict student performance in microscopic pathology?

    PubMed

    Helle, Laura; Nivala, Markus; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Ericsson, K Anders; Lehtinen, Erno

    2010-06-01

    OBJECTIVES There has been long-standing controversy regarding aptitude testing and selection for medical education. Visual perception is considered particularly important for detecting signs of disease as part of diagnostic procedures in, for example, microscopic pathology, radiology and dermatology and as a component of perceptual motor skills in medical procedures such as surgery. In 1968 the Perceptual Ability Test (PAT) was introduced in dental education. The aim of the present pilot study was to explore possible predictors of performance in diagnostic classification based on microscopic observation in the context of an undergraduate pathology course. METHODS A pre- and post-test of diagnostic classification performance, test of visual perceptual skill (Test of Visual Perceptual Skills, 3rd edition [TVPS-3]) and a self-report instrument of personality (Big Five Personality Inventory) were administered. In addition, data on academic performance (performance in histology and cell biology, a compulsory course taken the previous year, in addition to performance on the microscopy examination and final examination) were collected. RESULTS The results indicated that one personality factor (Conscientiousness) and one element of visual perceptual ability (spatial relationship awareness) predicted performance on the pre-test. The only factor to predict performance on the post-test was performance on the pre-test. Similarly, the microscopy examination score was predicted by the pre-test score, in addition to the histology and cell biology grade. The course examination score was predicted by two personality factors (Conscientiousness and lack of Openness) and the histology and cell biology grade. CONCLUSIONS Visual spatial ability may be related to performance in the initial phase of training in microscopic pathology. However, from a practical point of view, medical students are able to learn basic microscopic pathology using worked-out examples, independently of measures of personality or visual perceptual ability. This finding should reassure students about their abilities to improve with training independently of their scores on tests on basic abilities and personality. PMID:20604859

  11. Pathological Gambling Among Youthful Multiple Substance Abusers in a Therapeutic Community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HENRY R. LESIEUR; MARY HEINEMAN

    1988-01-01

    Summary Patients in a therapeutic community were questioned about their gambling behavior in order to find out what percentage of them were pathological gamblers. The South Oaks Gambling Screen (the SOGS) was used to screen the clients for gambling-related problems. Out of 100 residents tested, 14 were diagnosed as pathological gamblers and an additional 14 showed signs of problematic gambling.

  12. Adolescent precursors of adult borderline personality pathology in a high-risk community sample.

    PubMed

    Conway, Christopher C; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A

    2015-06-01

    Longitudinal studies of the exact environmental conditions and personal attributes contributing to the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) are rare. Furthermore, existing research typically examines risk factors in isolation, limiting our knowledge of the relative effect sizes of different risk factors and how they act in concert to bring about borderline personality pathology. The present study investigated the prospective effects of diverse acute and chronic stressors, proband psychopathology, and maternal psychopathology on BPD features in a high-risk community sample (N = 700) of youth followed from mid-adolescence to young adulthood. Multivariate analyses revealed significant effects of maternal externalizing disorder history, offspring internalizing disorder history, family stressors, and school-related stressors on BPD risk. Contrary to expectations, no interactions between chronically stressful environmental conditions and personal characteristics in predicting borderline personality features were detected. Implications of these findings for etiological theories of BPD and early screening efforts are discussed. PMID:25248011

  13. A Mutual Support Group for Young Problem Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    A Swedish mutual support group for young problem gamblers is described and discussed. During the study period, 116 weekly meetings occurred, usually involving six to ten participants; in total, 69 problem gamblers (66 male and three female), aged 17-25, and 23 partners and friends attended the meetings. Half the gamblers had problems with Internet…

  14. The gambler's fallacy in penalty shootouts.

    PubMed

    Braun, Sebastian; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2015-07-20

    A well-known bias in subjective perceptions of chance is the gambler's fallacy: people typically believe that a streak generated by a series of independent random draws, such as a coin toss, becomes increasingly more likely to break when the streak becomes longer [1]. In a fascinating study, Misirlisoy and Haggard [2] analysed sequential behavior of kickers and goalkeepers in penalty shootouts. They report that goalkeepers are prone to the gambler's fallacy: after a series of three kicks in the same direction, goalkeepers are more likely to dive in the opposite direction at the next kick. Here we argue, first, that a binomial test is more appropriate for testing gambler's fallacy than the tests employed by Misirlisoy and Haggard [2], and second, that penalty shootouts may not be well-suited to analyze the gambler's fallacy. Using a binomial test, we neither find statistically significant evidence for gambler's fallacy in Misirlisoy and Haggard's [2] original data, nor in extended data, nor in data from an idealised laboratory experiment that we ran to address the second point. In line with Misirlisoy and Haggard's [2] original result, we do, however, find evidence for a systematic pattern of goalkeeper's behavior that kickers could exploit. PMID:26196482

  15. Flow and dissociation: examination of mean levels, cross-links, and links to emotional well-being across sports and recreational and pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Brigitte; Ladouceur, Robert; Auclair, Amélie V; Vitaro, Frank

    2006-01-01

    To examine whether flow (Csikszentmihalyi (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. NY: Harper & Row) and dissociation (Jacobs (1986). Journal of Gambling Behavior, 2, 15-31) are experienced across sports and recreational and pathological gambling, we assessed a sample of 511 college students (256 females and 255 males, M age = 19.54) that was comprised of 14 pathological gamblers, 21 non-addicted gamblers, and 476 athletes. The findings showed that both flow and dissociation lay on a continuum of subjective experiences across activity groups. Specifically, pathological gamblers experienced lower levels of flow than athletes, whereas recreational gamblers lay in between the previous groups in this regard. In contrast, pathological gamblers experienced higher mean levels of dissociation than athletes and recreational gamblers who, in turn, were similar in this regard. A LISREL model showed that flow was positively associated with general emotional well-being, whereas dissociation was negatively associated with well-being. PMID:16826458

  16. Psychiatric, behavioral, and attitudinal correlates of avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality pathology in patients with binge-eating disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel F. Becker; Robin M. Masheb; Marney A. White; Carlos M. Grilo

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveWe examined correlates of avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality pathology—with respect to psychiatric comorbidity, eating disorder psychopathology, and associated psychologic factors—in patients with binge-eating disorder (BED).

  17. Are Irrational Beliefs and Depressive Mood More Common Among Problem Gamblers than Non-Gamblers? A Survey Study of Swedish Problem Gamblers and Controls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hĺkan Källmén; Patric Andersson; Anders Andren

    2008-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that problem gamblers are more prone to have irrational beliefs and depressed mood than non-gamblers.\\u000a Irrational beliefs refer to fallacious opinions about probabilities. Gamblers like to believe that chance games (i.e., roulette\\u000a and lottery) can be controlled and that the outcome of such games is dependent on the patterns of previous outcomes. The empirical\\u000a material

  18. Multimodal assessment of emotional reactivity in borderline personality pathology: The moderating role of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.; Gratz, Kim L.; Tull, Matthew T.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional reactivity has been theorized to play a central role in borderline personality (BP) pathology. Although growing research provides evidence for subjective emotional reactivity in BP pathology, research on physiological or biological reactivity among people with BP pathology is less conclusive. With regard to biological reactivity in particular, research on cortisol reactivity (a neurobiological marker of emotional reactivity) in response to stressors among individuals with BP pathology has produced contradictory results and highlighted the potential moderating role of PTSD-related pathology. Thus, this study sought to examine the moderating role of PTSD symptoms in the relation between BP pathology and both subjective (self-report) and biological (cortisol) emotional reactivity to a laboratory stressor. Participants were 171 patients in a residential substance use disorder treatment center. Consistent with hypotheses, results revealed a significant main effect of BP pathology on subjective emotional reactivity to the laboratory stressor. Furthermore, results revealed a significant interaction between BP pathology and PTSD symptoms in the prediction of cortisol reactivity, such that BP pathology was associated with heightened cortisol reactivity only among participants with low levels of PTSD symptoms. Similar findings were obtained when examining the interaction between BP pathology and the reexperiencing and avoidance/numbing symptoms of PTSD specifically. Results highlight the moderating role of PTSD symptoms in the BP-reactivity relation. PMID:23375184

  19. The effect of pathological gambling on families, marriages, and children.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Martha C; Forbush, Kelsie T; Schlinder, Jessica; Rosenman, Eugene; Black, Donald W

    2007-08-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is widely reported to have negative consequences on marriages, families, and children. Empirical evidence is only now accumulating but when put together with anecdotal information, the extent of these problems is clear. PG contributes to chaos and dysfunction within the family unit, disrupts marriages, leading to high rates of separation and divorce, and is associated with child abuse and neglect. Divorce rates are high, not surprising in light of reports that these marriages are often abusive. Research shows that the families of pathological gamblers are filled with members who gamble excessively, suffer from depressive or anxiety disorders, and misuse alcohol, drugs, or both. Families of persons with PG are also large, a variable independently related to family dysfunction. The authors review the evidence on the impact of PG on families, marriages, and offspring, and make recommendations for future research targeting these problems. PMID:17667890

  20. Pathological personality traits among patients with absent, current, and remitted substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Morey, Leslie C; Skodol, Andrew E; Sanislow, Charles A; Grilo, Carlos M; Ansell, Emily B; McGlashan, Thomas H; Markowitz, John C; Pinto, Anthony; Yen, Shirley; Shea, M Tracie; Gunderson, John G; Zanarini, Mary C; Stout, Robert L

    2011-11-01

    Personality traits may provide underlying risk factors for and/or sequelae to substance use disorders (SUDs). In this study Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) traits were compared in a clinical sample (N=704, age 18-45) with current, past, or no historical alcohol or non-alcohol substance use disorders (AUD and NASUD) as assessed by DSM-IV semi-structured interview. Results corroborated previous research in showing associations of negative temperament and disinhibition to SUD, highlighting the importance of these traits for indicating substance use proclivity or the chronic effects of substance use. Certain traits (manipulativeness, self-harm, disinhibition, and impulsivity for AUD, and disinhibition and exhibitionism for NASUD) were higher among individuals with current relative to past diagnoses, perhaps indicating concurrent effects of substance abuse on personality. The positive temperament characteristics detachment and entitlement distinguished AUDs and NASUDs, respectively, perhaps clarifying why this higher order trait tends to show limited relations to SUD generally. These findings suggest the importance of systematically integrating pathological and normative traits in reference to substance-related diagnosis. PMID:21782347

  1. Cognitive Inflexibility in Gamblers is Primarily Present in Reward-Related Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Boog, Michiel; Höppener, Paul; V D Wetering, Ben J M; Goudriaan, Anna E; Boog, Matthijs C; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2014-01-01

    One hallmark of gambling disorder (GD) is the observation that gamblers have problems stopping their gambling behavior once it is initiated. On a neuropsychological level, it has been hypothesized that this is the result of a cognitive inflexibility. The present study investigated cognitive inflexibility in patients with GD using a task involving cognitive inflexibility with a reward element (i.e., reversal learning) and a task measuring general cognitive inflexibility without such a component (i.e., response perseveration). For this purpose, scores of a reward-based reversal learning task (probabilistic reversal learning task) and the Wisconsin card sorting task were compared between a group of treatment seeking patients with GD and a gender and age matched control group. The results show that pathological gamblers have impaired performance on the neurocognitive task measuring reward-based cognitive inflexibility. However, no difference between the groups is observed regarding non-reward-based cognitive inflexibility. This suggests that cognitive inflexibility in GD is the result of an aberrant reward-based learning, and not based on a more general problem with cognitive flexibility. The pattern of observed problems is suggestive of a dysfunction of the orbitofrontal cortex, the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and the ventral regions of the striatum in gamblers. Relevance for the neurocognition of problematic gambling is discussed. PMID:25165438

  2. Cognitive Inflexibility in Gamblers is Primarily Present in Reward-Related Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Boog, Michiel; Höppener, Paul; v. d. Wetering, Ben J. M.; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Boog, Matthijs C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

    2014-01-01

    One hallmark of gambling disorder (GD) is the observation that gamblers have problems stopping their gambling behavior once it is initiated. On a neuropsychological level, it has been hypothesized that this is the result of a cognitive inflexibility. The present study investigated cognitive inflexibility in patients with GD using a task involving cognitive inflexibility with a reward element (i.e., reversal learning) and a task measuring general cognitive inflexibility without such a component (i.e., response perseveration). For this purpose, scores of a reward-based reversal learning task (probabilistic reversal learning task) and the Wisconsin card sorting task were compared between a group of treatment seeking patients with GD and a gender and age matched control group. The results show that pathological gamblers have impaired performance on the neurocognitive task measuring reward-based cognitive inflexibility. However, no difference between the groups is observed regarding non-reward-based cognitive inflexibility. This suggests that cognitive inflexibility in GD is the result of an aberrant reward-based learning, and not based on a more general problem with cognitive flexibility. The pattern of observed problems is suggestive of a dysfunction of the orbitofrontal cortex, the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and the ventral regions of the striatum in gamblers. Relevance for the neurocognition of problematic gambling is discussed. PMID:25165438

  3. Response perseveration and ventral prefrontal sensitivity to reward and punishment in male problem gamblers and smokers.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Michiel B; Veltman, Dick J; Goudriaan, Anna E; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; van den Brink, Wim

    2009-03-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is associated with maladaptive perseverative behavior, but the underlying mechanism and neural circuitry is not completely clear. Here, the hypothesis was tested that PG is characterized by response perseveration and abnormalities in reward and/or punishment sensitivity in the ventral frontostriatal circuit. Executive functioning was assessed to verify if these effects are independent of the dorsal frontostriatal circuit. A group of smokers was also included to examine whether impairments in PG generalize to substance use disorders. Response perseveration and reward/punishment sensitivity were measured with a probabilistic reversal-learning task, in which subjects could win and lose money. Executive functioning was measured with a planning task, the Tower of London. Performance and fMRI data were acquired in 19 problem gamblers, 19 smokers, and 19 healthy controls. Problem gamblers showed severe response perseveration, associated with reduced activation of right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in response to both monetary gain and loss. Results did not fully generalize to smokers. Planning performance and related activation of the dorsal frontostriatal circuit were intact in both problem gamblers and smokers. PG is related to response perseveration and diminished reward and punishment sensitivity as indicated by hypoactivation of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex when money is gained and lost. Moreover, intact planning abilities and normal dorsal frontostriatal responsiveness indicate that this deficit is not due to impaired executive functioning. Response perseveration and ventral prefrontal hyporesponsiveness to monetary loss may be markers for maladaptive behavior seen in chemical and nonchemical addictions. PMID:18830241

  4. Pathological gambling: understanding relapses and dropouts.

    PubMed

    Aragay, Núria; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Ramos-Grille, Irene; Cardona, Sara; Garrido, Gemma; Anisul Islam, Mohammed; Menchón, José M; Vallčs, Vicenç

    2015-02-01

    There is little available information on the factors that influence relapses and dropouts during therapy for pathological gambling (PG). The aim of this study was to determine socio-demographic, clinical, personality, and psychopathological predictors of relapse and dropout in a sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. A total of 566 consecutive outpatients diagnosed with PG according to DSM-IV-TR criteria were included. All patients underwent an individualized cognitive-behavioral treatment program. We analyzed predictors of relapse during 6months of treatment and during the subsequent 6months of follow-up, and predictors of dropout over the entire therapeutic program. Eighty patients (14.1%) experienced at least one relapse during the entire follow-up of the study: 50 (8.8%) within the treatment period and 12 (2.1%) during the subsequent 6-month follow-up period. The main predictors of relapse were single marital status, spending less than 100euros/week on gambling, active gambling behavior at treatment inclusion, and high scores on the TCI-R Harm Avoidance personality dimension. One hundred fifty-seven patients (27.8%) missed 3 or more therapeutic sessions over the entire therapeutic program. The main predictors of dropout were single marital status, younger age, and high scores on the TCI-R Novelty Seeking personality dimension. The presence of these factors at inclusion should be taken into account by physicians dealing with PG patients. PMID:25434846

  5. Differences in Characteristics of Asian American and White Problem Gamblers Calling a Gambling Helpline

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Declan T.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Wu, Ran; Potenza, Marc N.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The characteristics of Asian American and white problem gamblers using a gambling helpline were examined to identify race-related differences. Method Logistic regression analyses were conducted on data obtained from callers to a gambling helpline serving Southern New England in 2000–2003, inclusive. Results Of the 144 phone calls used in the analyses, 72 were from Asian American callers and 72 were from white callers who were matched on gender, education, income, marital/cohabitation status, and age. Race-related differences were observed in forms of gambling problems, psychiatric problems secondary to gambling, substance use problems, and family history. Asian American gamblers were more likely to report suicide attempts related to gambling and problems with non-strategic gambling. White gamblers were more likely to report both casino and non-casino gambling problems and personal and familial alcohol use problems. High proportions of both groups reported problems with strategic gambling, gambling-related anxiety, family and financial problems secondary to gambling, financial debt, daily tobacco use, and a family history of problem gambling. Conclusions Race-related differences should be considered in optimizing prevention and treatment strategies related to problem gambling. PMID:19238123

  6. Altering the gambler's maladaptive life goals.

    PubMed

    Aubry, W E

    1975-01-01

    This paper will serve as an explanation of how clinical counselors from various schools of thought, e.g., Freudian, Transactional Analysis, and Adlerian, work with or treat the excessive gambler. Because the presentation is short, it will be impossible to thoroughly cover the three schools of thought in depth. However, because of the writer's bias, the paper will examine in some detail the way in which an Adlerian counselor or therapist encourages his maladaptive clients to act and think more constructively, i.e., give up excessive gambling. PMID:1126767

  7. Psychological Factors that Promote and Inhibit Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morasco, Benjamin J.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Ledgerwood, David M.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes qualitative data regarding psychological factors that may affect gambling behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Participants (n = 84) diagnosed with pathological gambling were treated in a clinical trial examining the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Qualitative data were collected from…

  8. The impact of gambling advertising: Problem gamblers report stronger impacts on involvement, knowledge, and awareness than recreational gamblers.

    PubMed

    Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune A; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Stĺle

    2015-06-01

    Although there is a general lack of empirical evidence that advertising influences gambling participation, the regulation of gambling advertising is hotly debated among academic researchers, treatment specialists, lobby groups, regulators, and policymakers. This study contributes to the ongoing debate by investigating perceived impacts of gambling advertising in a sample of gamblers drawn from the general population in Norway (n = 6,034). Three dimensions of advertising impacts were identified, representing perceived impacts on (a) gambling-related attitudes, interest, and behavior ("involvement"); (b) knowledge about gambling options and providers ("knowledge"); and (c) the degree to which people are aware of gambling advertising ("awareness"). Overall, impacts were strongest for the knowledge dimension, and, for all 3 dimensions, the impact increased with level of advertising exposure. Those identified as problem gamblers in the sample (n = 57) reported advertising impacts concerning involvement more than recreational gamblers, and this finding was not attributable to differences in advertising exposure. Additionally, younger gamblers reported stronger impacts on involvement and knowledge but were less likely to agree that they were aware of gambling advertising than older gamblers. Male gamblers were more likely than female gamblers to report stronger impacts on both involvement and knowledge. These findings are discussed with regard to existing research on gambling advertising as well as their implications for future research and policy-making. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25730628

  9. Behavioral Treatment for Pathological Gambling in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guercio, John M.; Johnson, Taylor; Dixon, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation examined a behavior-analytic clinical treatment package designed to reduce the pathological gambling of 3 individuals with acquired brain injury. A prior history of pathological gambling of each patient was assessed via caregiver report, psychological testing, and direct observation of gambling behavior. Using an 8-week…

  10. Adult Separation Anxiety and TCI-R Personality Dimensions in Patients with Anxiety, Alcohol Use, and Gambling: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Di Nicola, Marco; Pini, Stefano; Janiri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nowadays, adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) is an established diagnostic category but is little investigated in subjects with addictive behaviours. Objective. To assess the presence of ASAD among patients with addictive disorders in comparison with anxiety patients and measure the personality correlates in all these groups. Methods. 103 outpatients, meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for anxiety disorders (38 patients), alcohol dependence (30 patients), or pathological gambling (35 patients), were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms (SCI-SAS) and the Adult Separation Anxiety Checklist (ASA-27) for separation anxiety and by the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R) for personality characteristics. Results. ASAD is detected in 34.2% of anxiety patients, 13.3% of alcoholics, and 11.4% of gamblers. Separation anxiety scores correlate positively with harm avoidance and negatively with self-directedness in all groups; further correlations are seen among addictive patients only, that is, self-transcendence for gamblers and cooperativeness for both alcoholics and gamblers. Conclusions. The prevalence of ASAD is lower among addictive patients than in those with anxiety disorders; correlations are found between separation anxiety and specific TCI-R dimensions, with some matching across the three diagnostic groups. PMID:25105134

  11. Are psychology university student gamblers representative of non-university students and general gamblers? A comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Russell, Alex; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2014-03-01

    Students recruited from psychology undergraduate university populations are commonly used in psychology research, including gambling studies. However, the extent to which the use of this subpopulation produces findings that can be extrapolated to other groups is questionable. The present study was designed to compare results from university-recruited psychology student gamblers to those obtained from a sample of gamblers recruited from the general population that also included students. An online survey measuring gambling behavior and Internet gambling, attitudes and knowledge about gambling and problem gambling severity was posted on websites accessed by gamblers. Participants were recruited from two sources, a psychology undergraduate university population (n = 461) and online websites (n = 4,801). Results showed university-recruited students differed significantly from both adults and students recruited from the general population in respect to demographic variables and gambling behavior. Psychology undergraduate students were younger, more likely to be female, and had lower incomes. When relevant demographic variables were controlled, psychology undergraduate students were found to gamble less frequently, at different times, and to be at lower-risk for gambling-related problems, but had more irrational beliefs and more negative attitudes towards gambling than gamblers recruited from the general population. Results suggest that caution should be used in extrapolating findings from research using university-recruited psychology student gamblers to wide community populations due to differences related to gambling thoughts, attitudes and behaviors. PMID:23065178

  12. Characteristics of tobacco-smoking problem gamblers calling a gambling helpline.

    PubMed

    Potenza, Marc N; Steinberg, Marvin A; McLaughlin, Susan D; Wu, Ran; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; George, Tony P; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have examined the smoking behaviors of problem gamblers. A high proportion of problem gamblers calling a gambling helpline reported daily tobacco smoking (43.1%). Problem gamblers reporting daily tobacco smoking more frequently acknowledged depression and suicidality secondary to gambling, gambling-related arrests, alcohol and drug use problems, mental health treatment, and problems with casino slot machine gambling. The findings substantiate the relationship in problem gamblers between tobacco smoking and psychiatric symptomatology, particularly other substance use problems. The high proportion of callers reporting daily tobacco smoking highlights the need for enhanced smoking cessation efforts in problem gamblers. PMID:15764425

  13. The Serenity Prayer: Secularism and Spirituality in Gamblers Anonymous

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Ferentzy; Wayne Skinner; Paul Antze

    2010-01-01

    Gamblers Anonymous (GA) has long been described in the scientific literature as more secular in orientation than similar 12-step fellowships such as Alcoholics Anonymous. Through interviews and meeting observations during the course of two studies (beginning in 2003), we found this reputation well earned, with GA putting considerably less emphasis on the “12 steps” themselves. The latter is a spiritual

  14. Internet Gambling Behavior in a Sample of Online Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Jessica; Derevensky, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined Internet gambling behavior in a sample of online gamblers. Participants (N = 563; 382 male; ages 18-over 65) were recruited from a banner placed in an online newsletter. Questionnaires were completed online and assessed demographic information, game-play patterns (e.g., frequency, duration, wagering), preferred type of…

  15. Altering the "Near-Miss" Effect in Slot Machine Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Jackson, James E.; Habib, Reza

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the potential for recreational gamblers to respond as if certain types of losing slot machine outcomes were actually closer to a win than others (termed the "near-miss effect"). Exposure to conditional discrimination training and testing disrupted this effect for 10 of the 16 participants. These 10 participants demonstrated…

  16. Online therapy: Implications for problem gamblers and clinicians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Griffiths; Gerry Cooper

    2003-01-01

    It is clear that clinicians working in the field of problem gambling cannot afford to ignore the Internet. Psychological advice, help and treatment for gamblers are no exceptions with both counselling and psychotherapy entering the computer age. Such help comes under a variety of guises including Internet counselling, online therapy, webcounselling, cybertherapy, E-therapy, and cybercounselling (all on this partial list

  17. Cross-species approaches to pathological gambling: a review targeting sex differences, adolescent vulnerability and ecological validity of research tools.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, Ruud; Davies, William; Dellu-Hagedorn, Francoise; Goudriaan, Anna E; Granon, Sylvie; Homberg, Judith; Rivalan, Marion; Swendsen, Joel; Adriani, Walter

    2013-12-01

    Decision-making plays a pivotal role in daily life as impairments in processes underlying decision-making often lead to an inability to make profitable long-term decisions. As a case in point, pathological gamblers continue gambling despite the fact that this disrupts their personal, professional or financial life. The prevalence of pathological gambling will likely increase in the coming years due to expanding possibilities of on-line gambling through the Internet and increasing liberal attitudes towards gambling. It therefore represents a growing concern for society. Both human and animal studies rapidly advance our knowledge on brain-behaviour processes relevant for understanding normal and pathological gambling behaviour. Here, we review in humans and animals three features of pathological gambling which hitherto have received relatively little attention: (1) sex differences in (the development of) pathological gambling, (2) adolescence as a (putative) sensitive period for (developing) pathological gambling and (3) avenues for improving ecological validity of research tools. Based on these issues we also discuss how research in humans and animals may be brought in line to maximize translational research opportunities. PMID:23867802

  18. Pathology and Molecular Medicine

    E-print Network

    Haykin, Simon

    Pathology and Molecular Medicine ANATOMICAL PATHOLOGY GRAND ROUNDS 2012 / 2013 TIME: 12:30 - 1:30 p. Pollett Mount Sinai Hospital University of Toronto Personalized Medicine in GI Oncologic Pathology ROUNDS ARE SPONSORED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF PATHOLOGY AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE Updated: October5, 2012 #12;

  19. Health behaviour and body mass index among problem gamblers: results from a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Algren, Maria H; Ekholm, Ola; Davidsen, Michael; Larsen, Christina V L; Juel, Knud

    2015-06-01

    Problem gambling is a serious public health issue. The objective of this study was to investigate whether past year problem gamblers differed from non-problem gamblers with regard to health behaviour and body mass index (BMI) among Danes aged 16 years or older. Data were derived from the Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys in 2005 and 2010. Past year problem gambling was defined using the lie/bet questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between past year problem gambling and health behaviour and BMI. Problem gambling was associated with unhealthy behaviour and obesity. The odds of smoking was significantly higher among problem gamblers than among non-problem gamblers. Further, the odds of high-risk alcohol drinking and illicit drug use were significantly higher among problem gamblers. The prevalence of sedentary leisure activity, unhealthy diet pattern and obesity was higher among problem gamblers than among non-problem gamblers. The associations found in this study remained significant after adjustment for sex, age, educational and cohabiting status as well as other risk factors. Our findings highlight the presence of a potential, public health challenge and elucidate the need for health promotion initiatives targeted at problem gamblers. Furthermore, more research is needed in order to understand the underlying social mechanism of the association between problem gamblers and unhealthy behaviour. PMID:24390713

  20. Gambling Accessibility: A Scale to Measure Gambler Preferences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan M. MooreAnna; Anna C. Thomas; Michael Kyrios; Glen Bates; Denise Meredyth

    2011-01-01

    Geographic closeness of gambling venues is not the only aspect of accessibility likely to affect gambling frequency. Perceived\\u000a accessibility of gambling venues may include other features such as convenience (e.g., opening hours) or “atmosphere”. The\\u000a aim of the current study was to develop a multidimensional measure of gamblers’ perceptions of accessibility, and present\\u000a evidence for its reliability and validity. We

  1. Emotion: empirical contribution. Maternal borderline personality pathology and infant emotion regulation: examining the influence of maternal emotion-related difficulties and infant attachment.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Kim L; Kiel, Elizabeth J; Latzman, Robert D; Elkin, T David; Moore, Sarah Anne; Tull, Matthew T

    2014-02-01

    Evidence suggests that maternal borderline personality (BP) pathology increases offspring risk. This study examined the relations between maternal BP pathology and related emotional dysfunction (including emotion regulation [ER] difficulties and emotional intensity/reactivity) and infant ER difficulties. Specifically, we examined both self-focused and caregiver-focused ER behaviors and the modulation of emotional expressions (one indicator of ER in young children) in response to fear- and anger-eliciting stimuli among 101 infants (12 to 23 months old) of mothers with and without clinically relevant BP pathology. The authors also examined the moderating role of mother-infant attachment. Findings of a series of multiple regression mediation analyses revealed an indirect effect of maternal BP pathology on infant ER difficulties through maternal emotional dysfunction, with maternal ER difficulties facilitating an indirect effect of maternal BP pathology on expressivity-related indicators of infant ER difficulties and maternal emotional intensity/reactivity linking maternal BP pathology to lower self-focused ER for infants in insecure-resistant attachment relationships. PMID:24344887

  2. Pathological gambling induced by dopamine antagonists: a case report.

    PubMed

    Grötsch, Philipp; Lange, Claudia; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Lang, Undine

    2015-03-01

    Pathological gambling is defined as inappropriate, persistent, and maladaptive gambling behaviour. It is a non-pharmacological addiction classified as an impulse control disorder. However, pathological gambling has been associated with dopamine agonist use. Here we report of a 28-year-old man with a first major depressive episode and a post-traumatic stress disorder who has been treated with a combination of the serotonine/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor duloxetine and the tricyclic antidepressant maprotiline. The administration of antipsychotic flupentixole (up to 7 mg) turned this slight online poker gambler into an excessive gambler. Only after the discontinuation of the antidopaminergic agents and the switch to bupropion did this gambling behaviour stop which suggests a causal relationship between dopamine antagonists and pathological gambling. PMID:24356928

  3. The relationship of pathological gambling to criminality behavior in a sample of Polish male offenders

    PubMed Central

    Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Beata

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Severe problem gambling is most often related to income producing offences such as larceny and embezzlement. In addition, the high rate of relapse to gambling problems and the link between gambling debts and crime have clinical, forensic and penitentiary implications. Considering the data from the literature presented here I decided to form and empirically verify a hypothesis that incarcerated men with a diagnosis of pathological gambling are characterized by psychopathic personality disorders, alcohol problems and criminality. Material/Methods The groups of participants encompassed 90 men 26–52 years of age, serving a criminal sentence. All participants had to fulfil the following clinical criteria: a) be interviewed by a psychiatrist and diagnosed with pathological gambling and/or antisocial personality disorders b) obtain a result in the PCL-R test; c) estimate the relationship between gambling problems and crime. Taking into consideration the abovementioned criteria three patient test groups were formed: Group 1, which included those for whom gambling had led to crime; Group 2, where gambling was a part of a criminal lifestyle, and Group 3, in which the mutual relationship between gambling and crime was unclear. Results The participants were diagnosed as pathological gamblers (DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10) and psychopaths (PCL-R). Those tested differed with regard to the intensification of the personality disturbance tested, the co-occurrence of other disturbances, particularly psychoactive addictions, the motivations for taking up gambling, and the type of criminal activity. Conclusions The hypothesis was confirmed that incarcerated men with a diagnosis of pathological gambling are characterized by psychopathic personality disorders, alcohol problems and criminality. PMID:22037748

  4. A unifying perspective on personality pathology across the life span: Developmental considerations for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    TACKETT, JENNIFER L.; BALSIS, STEVE; OLTMANNS, THOMAS F.; KRUEGER, ROBERT F.

    2010-01-01

    Proposed changes in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) include replacing current personality disorder (PD) categories on Axis II with a taxonomy of dimensional maladaptive personality traits. Most of the work on dimensional models of personality pathology, and on personality disorders per se, has been conducted on young and middle-aged adult populations. Numerous questions remain regarding the applicability and limitations of applying various PD models to early and later life. In the present paper, we provide an overview of such dimensional models and review current proposals for conceptualizing PDs in DSM-V. Next, we extensively review existing evidence on the development, measurement, and manifestation of personality pathology in early and later life focusing on those issues deemed most relevant for informing DSM-V. Finally, we present overall conclusions regarding the need to incorporate developmental issues in conceptualizing PDs in DSM-V and highlight the advantages of a dimensional model in unifying PD perspectives across the life span. PMID:19583880

  5. Casino gambling increases heart rate and salivary cortisol in regular gamblers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Meyer; Berthold P Hauffa; Manfred Schedlowski; Cornelius Pawlak; Michael A Stadler; Michael S Exton

    2000-01-01

    Background: Although the effects of gambling on cardiovascular parameters have been documented, no data exists describing the effect of gambling on stress hormone secretion. Our study investigated the effect of gambling on heart rate and salivary cortisol in a casino environment.Methods: Ten male gamblers participated in both an experimental and control session. In the experimental session, gamblers played a game

  6. A Typology of UK Slot Machine Gamblers: A Longitudinal Observational and Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Slot machine gambling is a popular leisure activity worldwide yet there has been very little research into different types of slot machine gamblers. Earlier typologies of slot machine gamblers have only concentrated on adolescents in arcade environments. This study presents a new typology of slot machine players based on over 1000 h of participant…

  7. All in the Family: Help-Seeking by Significant Others of Problem Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hing, Nerilee; Tiyce, Margaret; Holdsworth, Louise; Nuske, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Problem gambling can significantly affect the lives of concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers, especially family members, but little is known about their help-seeking activities and experiences. This paper explores help-seeking by CSOs of problem gamblers and their related motivators and barriers. A telephone interview was…

  8. Characteristics and Help-Seeking Behaviors of Internet Gamblers Based on Most Problematic Mode of Gambling

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies of problem Internet gamblers have failed to distinguish whether their problem gambling relates to Internet or land-based gambling modes. Therefore, characteristics and help-seeking behaviors of people whose gambling problems relate specifically to Internet gambling are unknown, but could inform the optimal alignment of treatment and support services with the needs and preferences of problem gamblers. Objective This study aimed to compare (1) characteristics of problem Internet gamblers and problem land-based gamblers and (2) uptake of different types and modes of help between problem Internet gamblers and problem land-based gamblers. Hypothesis 1 was that problem Internet gamblers are less likely to seek help. Hypothesis 2 was that problem Internet gamblers are more likely to use online modes of help. Methods A sample of 620 respondents meeting criteria for problem gambling was drawn from an online survey of 4594 Australian gamblers. Respondents were recruited through advertisements on gambling and gambling help websites, Facebook, and Google. Measures consisted of gambling participation; proportion of gambling on the Internet; most problematic mode of gambling; help seeking from 11 different sources of formal help, informal help, and self-help for gambling problems; psychological distress (Kessler 6); problem gambling severity (Problem Gambling Severity Index, PGSI); and demographics. Results Problem Internet gamblers were significantly more likely than problem land-based gamblers to be male (?2 1=28.3, P<.001, ?=0.21), younger (t 616.33=4.62, P<.001, d=0.37), have lower psychological distress (?2 1=5.4, P=.02, ?=0.09), and experience problems with sports and race wagering (?2 4=228.5, P<.001, ?=0.61). Uptake of help was significantly lower among problem Internet compared to problem land-based gamblers (?2 1=6.9, P<.001, ?=0.11), including from face-to-face services, gambling helplines, online groups, self-exclusion from land-based venues, family or friends, and self-help strategies. Both problem Internet and problem land-based gamblers had similarly low use of online help. However, problem land-based gamblers (37.6%, 126/335) were significantly more likely to have sought land-based formal help compared to problem Internet gamblers (23.5%, 67/285; ?2 1=14.3, P<.001, ?=0.15). Conclusions The findings suggest that more targeted and innovative efforts may be needed to increase use of gambling help by problem Internet gamblers. Alternatively, their lower PGSI and K6 scores suggest Internet problem gamblers may have less need for gambling-related help. This is the first known study to classify problem Internet gamblers as those whose problem gambling specifically relates to Internet gambling. Further research is needed to better understand why help-seeking rates are lower among Internet problem gamblers. PMID:25567672

  9. The Vulnerable Faces of Pathological Gambling

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Pathological gambling is an emerging psychiatric disorder that has medical, psychiatric, and social consequences. Recently, research has been focusing on identifying which portions of the population are most vulnerable to developing problems related to ongoing gambling. Specific populations of interest have included adolescents, elderly, minorities, those with comorbid psychiatric or substance use disorders, and gender differences. Each group possesses unique biological, psychological, and/or social characteristics that confer a vulnerability to develop pathological gambling behaviors. Being able to recognize those who are at risk to become pathological gamblers is the first step toward developing effective prevention and early intervention programs. This is Part Two of a three-part series on pathological gambling. Part One appeared in the March issue of Psychiatry 2005. PMID:21179650

  10. Multidimensional comparison of personality characteristics of the Big Five model, impulsiveness, and affect in pathological gambling and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae Yeon; Shin, Young-Chul; Lim, Se-Won; Park, Hye Youn; Shin, Na Young; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Hye-Yoon; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2012-09-01

    The phenomenological resemblance between pathological gambling (PG) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has led to suggestions that PG be categorized as an obsessive-compulsive-spectrum disorder (OCSD). This study aimed to explore whether PG resembles OCD in terms of personality and temperament. Fifteen patients with PG, 18 patients with OCD, and 33 healthy control subjects were included in the study. The study subjects were all male and drug naďve. We analyzed data obtained from three self-report questionnaires assessing personality, impulsiveness, and affect: the short version of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Participants with PG and OCD demonstrated less conscientiousness (F = 7.089, P = .002) and less openness to experience (F = 6.268, P = .003) and less positive affect (F = 15.816, P < .001) than did healthy controls. The two diagnostic groups did not differ from each other with respect total BIS-11 scores, but those with OCD showed more neuroticism than did those with PG and healthy controls ( F = 9.556, P < .001), and those with PG obtained higher scores on the non-planning impulsiveness factor of BIS-11 than did those with OCD or healthy controls ( F = 9,835, P < .001). PG and OCD share similar profiles in terms of personality and temperament. This study provides phenomenological evidence supporting the conceptualization of PG as an OCSD. PMID:21938524

  11. An examination of the correlates of fearless dominance and self-centered impulsivity among high-frequency gamblers.

    PubMed

    Maples, Jessica L; Miller, Joshua D; Fortune, Erica; MacKillop, James; Campbell, W Keith; Lynam, Donald R; Lance, Chuck E; Goodie, Adam S

    2014-06-01

    The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) is a commonly used assessment of psychopathy. Questions have been raised, however, regarding the validity of its Fearless Dominance (FD) factor. In the current study, the correlations manifested by FD and Self-centered Impulsivity (ScI) in relation to external criteria were examined in a sample of gamblers. Two key hypotheses were also tested: (a) does FD perform differently when paired with high scores on ScI, and (b) does FD serve as an index of narcissism. As expected, FD and ScI manifested a divergent pattern of correlations such that only ScI was associated with psychopathology or impairment. FD's relations with the external criteria were not generally moderated by scores on ScI. FD was significantly correlated with narcissism, but the two differed such that only narcissism was associated with any degree of maladaptivity. It remains unclear whether FD should be considered a core component of psychopathy. PMID:24344842

  12. Social responsibility tools in online gambling: a survey of attitudes and behavior among Internet gamblers.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Mark D; Wood, Richard T A; Parke, Jonathan

    2009-08-01

    To date, little empirical research has focused on social responsibility in gambling. This study examined players' attitudes and behavior toward using the social responsibility tool PlayScan designed by the Swedish gaming company Svenska Spel. Via PlayScan, players have the option to utilize various social responsibility control tools (e.g., personal gaming budgets, self-diagnostic tests of gambling habits, self-exclusion options). A total of 2,348 participants took part in an online questionnaire study. Participants were clientele of the Svenska Spel online gambling Web site. Results showed that just over a quarter of players (26%) had used PlayScan. The vast majority of those who had activated PlayScan (almost 9 in 10 users) said that PlayScan was easy to use. Over half of PlayScan users (52%) said it was useful; 19% said it was not. Many features were seen as useful by online gamblers, including limit setting (70%), viewing their gambling profile (49%), self-exclusion facilities (42%), self-diagnostic problem gambling tests (46%), information and support for gambling issues (40%), and gambling profile predictions (36%). In terms of actual (as opposed to theoretical) use, over half of PlayScan users (56%) had set spending limits, 40% had taken a self-diagnostic problem gambling test, and 17% had used a self-exclusion feature. PMID:19594379

  13. `Chasing' in gambling behavior: personality and cognitive determinants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B Breen; Marvin Zuckerman

    1999-01-01

    The phenomenon of `chasing' has been identified as one of the central characteristics of the behavior of pathological gamblers [American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., DSM IV). Washington, DC: APA]. It consists of more frequent involvement, increased persistence and elevated monetary risk in an effort to recoup money that has been lost. The

  14. [The change of pathology in the era of personalized medicine using the example of discordant KRAS mutational status in metastasized colorectal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Hekeler, E; Zoller, W G; Wiedorn, K H; Bosse, A

    2012-11-01

    Modern pathology has developed from "omega" to "alpha" and is vital for therapy and follow-up of tumor treatment today. Pathology has a key role as part of personalized medicine. It is possible to intervene therapeutically into the molecular genetic intricacy of tumors by establishing predictive biomarkers with corresponding tumor therapeutic agents.By identifying the KRAS mutational status at the metastasized colorectal carcinoma, a statement about the benefit of an anti-EGFR-therapy can be given, which is nowadays the basis of diagnostic and therapy of this cancer.For a long period of time a high concordance between primary and metastases inside the KRAS status was taken for granted. Meanwhile, there are many studies demonstrating a possibly underestimated high degree of discordance. The identification of discordances might gather a subcollective, which partially holds a KRAS wild type tissue and thereby might respond with a partial remission. Thus, the survival time of these patients and their quality of living could be successfully improved. PMID:23111797

  15. Formal Comparison of Dual-Parameter Temporal Discounting Models in Controls and Pathological Gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Jan; Miedl, Stephan Franz; Büchel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Temporal or delay discounting refers to the phenomenon that the value of a reward is discounted as a function of time to delivery. A range of models have been proposed that approximate the shape of the discount curve describing the relationship between subjective value and time. Recent evidence suggests that more than one free parameter may be required to accurately model human temporal discounting data. Nonetheless, many temporal discounting studies in psychiatry, psychology and neuroeconomics still apply single-parameter models, despite their oftentimes poor fit to single-subject data. Previous comparisons of temporal discounting models have either not taken model complexity into account, or have overlooked particular models. Here we apply model comparison techniques in a large sample of temporal discounting datasets using several discounting models employed in the past. Among the models examined, an exponential-power model from behavioural economics (CS model, Ebert & Prelec 2007) provided the best fit to human laboratory discounting data. Inter-parameter correlations for the winning model were moderate, whereas they were substantial for other dual-parameter models examined. Analyses of previous group and context effects on temporal discounting with the winning model provided additional theoretical insights. The CS model may be a useful tool in future psychiatry, psychology and neuroscience work on inter-temporal choice. PMID:23226198

  16. Slot Machine Preferences of Pathological and Recreational Gamblers Are Verbally Constructed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark R.; Bihler, Holly L.; Nastally, Becky L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study attempted to alter preferences for concurrently available slot machines of equal payout through the development of equivalence classes and subsequent transfers of functions. Participants rated stimuli consisting of words thought to be associated with having a gambling problem (e.g., "desperation" and "debt"), words associated…

  17. Effect of executive functioning, decision-making and self-reported impulsivity on the treatment outcome of pathologic gambling

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Moya, Eva M.; Ochoa, Cristian; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Aymamí, Maria Neus; Gómez-Peńa, Mónica; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Santamaría, Juanjo; Moragas, Laura; Bove, Francesca; Menchón, José M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Impairments in self-regulatory behaviour reflect a deficit in executive functioning and decision-making, as well as higher levels of self-reported impulsivity, and may be involved in the development and maintenance of addictive disorders. We sought to explore the association between self-reported impulsivity and neurocognitive measures, and their association with treatment outcome in pathologic gambling. Methods We assessed patients with pathologic gambling using executive functioning and decision-making tests and self-report measures of impulsivity. Patients underwent cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) for pathologic gambling. Results We included 88 patients (8% women) in our study. High self-reported extravagance was associated with poor performance in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT)-ABCD version. High impulsiveness, low disorderliness, high exploratory excitability (trend), poor backward block span and poor IGT-EFGH scores (trend) predicted dropout. We observed no self-reported or neurocognitive predictors of relapse or number of treatment sessions attended. Limitations Most participants were slot-machine gamblers seeking treatment. No follow-up data and no control group were included in the study. The missing sample (i.e., individuals who were recruited and assessed in the pretreatment stage but who chose not to begin treatment) had higher extravagance scores than the final sample. Conclusion Neurocognitive reward sensitivity was related to self-reported overspending behaviour. Self-regulatory impairments (especially rash impulsiveness and punishment sensitivity) and executive dysfunction predicted only dropout of CBT in participants with pathologic gambling. Different neurocognitive processes and personality traits might mediate treatment response to psychological therapy of pathologic gambling according to the specific target variable assessed. PMID:21138656

  18. Examining the gambling behaviors of chinese online lottery gamblers: are they rational?

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jia

    2015-06-01

    In this research, we explore a unique Chinese peer to peer (P2P) online lottery gambling data (n = 388,123) and examine the rationality of Chinese online lottery gamblers. We show that Chinese online lottery gamblers are irrational in the sense that they are significantly affected by the lottery winning history of others even though this winning history is shown to be merely an exogenous random shock. Specifically, in this Chinese P2P online lottery gambling game, some of the lottery gamblers (named the proposers) propose lottery packages first, and then, other lottery gamblers (named the followers) will follow by choosing among the different packages and deciding on how much to purchase. The past lottery winning return rate of each proposer is provided as public information and calculated as the ratio between her past winning money and wager. It is shown that this past return rate is merely a random shock because winning in the past cannot predict anything about the performance in the future. However, we find that Chinese online P2P lottery gamblers are significantly more likely to join a lottery package if it is proposed by proposers with higher return rates. PMID:24420960

  19. Application of Gambler's Ruin Model to Sediment Transport Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, C.; Wu, N.

    2013-12-01

    This study develops a Gambler's ruin model of sediment particle interaction between bed material and water column inflows. Given several transitions between the bed material and the water column, this study calculates the probabilities starting from a given number of sediment particles to the maximum allowable number of sediment particles in the water column and the mean time that the particles remain in the water column. The model is used to simulate the effective risk of the water treatment plant reaching limits in the water quality standard. The model is also used to quantify variability in the effective risk of exceeding the maximum carrying capacity of the Shihmen reservoir basin. The modeling results, including the expected value and variance in sediment concentrations as well as the confidence interval of effective risk, are presented. Parameter of laboratory experiments of Samaga et al. (1986) Probability of sediment particles reaching the total load number of particles in the water column versus particle diameter. (M1-7, M1-8 and M1-9 run; dm= 0.57 mm; ?g = 3.41).

  20. Gambling habits of athletes and nonathletes classified as disordered gamblers.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Stephen M; Loubier, Sherri L

    2010-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the forms of gambling that were the most prevalent in those having problems with their gambling. High-risk individuals who were experiencing difficulties with their gambling were examined. Specifically, the gambling behaviors of current athletes, former athletes, and nonathletes were investigated. Only members of these 3 groups with elevated scores on the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) were tested. Specifically, only those classified as disordered gamblers (SOGS score > or = 3) were recruited. Among these individuals with high SOGS scores, former athletes were more likely to participate in skill-based forms of gambling such as sports gambling and poker card playing, whereas nonathletes were more likely to partake in gambling games that were based predominately on chance factors. Also, former athletes were more likely to wager on the sport they had once played. Findings suggest that a competitive spirit may lead athletes to involvement in skill-based forms of gambling. While other explanations were considered, preliminary indicators support this view. PMID:21053765

  1. Using cross-game behavioral markers for early identification of high-risk internet gamblers.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Julia; LaPlante, Debi A; Nelson, Sarah E; Shaffer, Howard J

    2013-09-01

    Using actual gambling behavior provides the opportunity to develop behavioral markers that operators can use to predict the development of gambling-related problems among their subscribers. Participants were 4,056 Internet gamblers who subscribed to the Internet betting service provider bwin.party. Half of this sample included multiple platform gamblers who were identified by bwin.party's Responsible Gambling (RG) program; the other half were controls randomly selected from those who had the same first deposit date. Using the daily aggregated Internet betting transactions for gamblers' first 31 calendar days of online betting activities at bwin.party, we employed a 2-step analytic strategy: (a) applying an exploratory chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) decision tree method to identify characteristics that distinguished a subgroup of high-risk Internet gamblers from the rest of the sample, and (b) conducting a confirmatory analysis of those characteristics among an independent validation sample. This analysis identified two high-risk groups (i.e., groups in which 90% of the members were identified by bwin.party's RG program): Group 1 engaged in three or more gambling activities and evidenced high wager variability on casino-type games; Group 2 engaged in two different gambling activities and evidenced high variability for live action wagers. This analysis advances an ongoing research program to identify potentially problematic Internet gamblers during the earliest stages of their Internet gambling. Gambling providers and public policymakers can use these results to inform early intervention programs that target high-risk Internet gamblers. PMID:24059836

  2. The Enduring Impact of Borderline Personality Pathology: Risk for Threatening Life Events in Later Middle-Age

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Marci E.J.; Powers, Abigail D.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Both neuroticism and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are associated with increased frequency of stressful life events in young adults. It is not clear, however, whether this effect extends to later life because BPD is apparently diminished in frequency and severity when people reach middle adulthood. This issue was examined in a representative, community sample of men and women between the ages of 55 and 64 (N=1,234). Ten DSM-IV PDs and neuroticism were assessed at baseline using a semi-structured interview (SIDP-IV) and questionnaire (NEO-PI-R). Life events were measured 6 months later with a self-report questionnaire (LTE-Q) followed by a telephone interview. BPD features and neuroticism predicted increased frequency of life events, based on both self and interviewer-adjusted reports of negative life events. Avoidant and paranoid PD features predicted decreased frequency of negative life events. Approximately 42% of events reported on the LTE-Q were discounted following the telephone interview; higher scores on BPD symptoms were associated with more adjustments to self-report of threatening experiences. These findings indicate that symptoms of BPD and neuroticism continue to have a harmful impact on the lives of older adults. PMID:22022953

  3. Mental pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Janet

    1905-01-01

    Discusses the direction taken and the developments made in the investigation of mental pathology, in the area of pathological psychology. The study of oscillations of mind brought to light by pathological psychology, call attention to the neglected phenomena of fatigue, sleep, emotions, various forms of intoxication, and neuropathic disorders. The modifications of mental states illustrated by semi-normal, semi-pathological conditions of

  4. Genetic basis of delay discounting in frequent gamblers: examination of a priori candidates and exploration of a panel of dopamine-related loci

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Joshua C; MacKillop, James

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Delay discounting is a behavioral economic index of impulsivity that reflects preferences for small immediate rewards relative to larger delayed rewards. It has been consistently linked to pathological gambling and other forms of addictive behavior, and has been proposed to be a behavioral characteristic that may link genetic variation and risk of developing addictive disorders (i.e., an endophenotype). Studies to date have revealed significant associations with polymorphisms associated with dopamine neurotransmission. The current study examined associations between delay discounting and both previously linked variants and a novel panel of dopamine-related variants in a sample of frequent gamblers. Methods Participants were 175 weekly gamblers of European ancestry who completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire to assess delay discounting preferences and provided a DNA via saliva. Results In a priori tests, two loci previously associated with delayed reward discounting (rs1800497 and rs4680) were not replicated, however, the long form of DRD4 VNTR was significantly associated with lower discounting of delayed rewards. Exploratory analysis of the dopamine-related panel revealed 11 additional significant associations in genes associated with dopamine synthesis, breakdown, reuptake, and receptor function (DRD3, SLC6A3, DDC, DBH, and SLC18A2). An aggregate genetic risk score from the nominally significant loci accounted for 17% of the variance in discounting. Mediational analyses largely supported the presence of indirect effects between the associated loci, delay discounting, and pathological gambling severity. Conclusions These findings do not replicate previously reported associations but identify several novel candidates and provide preliminary support for a systems biology approach to understand the genetic basis of delay discounting. PMID:25365808

  5. Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Predict Attentional Bias in Non-problem Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Grant, Leigh D; Bowling, Alison C

    2014-05-29

    Problem gambling has been identified as a public health concern in Australia, and a considerable proportion of regular gamblers may be at risk of developing gambling related problems. Attentional bias to salient cues has been observed in substance addictions, and to some extent, in problem gamblers. This bias appears to be indicative of an increase in sensitisation to salient cues as a result of continued reforcement of a related behaviour. To test for an attentional bias to gambling-related stimuli in non-problem gamblers, the relationships between gambling frequency, gambling attitudes and beliefs (GABS-23), and attentional bias were investigated. Participants (N = 38) viewed simultaneous pairs of gambling-related and neutral images and performed a dot probe task, during which their eye-movements were recorded. This enabled both direct and indirect measures of attentional bias to be obtained. Gambling frequency and GABS-23 scores predicted both direct and indirect measures of a bias in the maintenance of attention to gambling cues. No bias in attentional engagement was found. These results suggest that regular gamblers who have not yet developed any related problems show signs of sensitisation to gambling cues and may be at risk of progressing further towards problem gambling. PMID:24871298

  6. The Stubborn Logic of Regular Gamblers: Obstacles and Dilemmas in Cognitive Gambling Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Delfabbro

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive studies into gambling behaviour have shown that many gamblers misinterpret the odds of gambling activities, hold false beliefs about skill and luck, and over-estimate their subjective chances of success. Accordingly, providing accurate information about gambling in venues, or on slot-machines, would appear to be a sensible way to enhance the ‘safety’ of gambling products. Unfortunately, such ideas for educating

  7. A Preliminary Outcome Study of an Outpatient Treatment Program for Gamblers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Sheldon; And Others

    The Gamblers Treatment Clinic (GTC) opened in 1982 as a New York State Office of Mental Health Demonstration Program. The basic premise of the GTC is that excessive gambling is a disorder of impulse control. Treatment, conducted in the community in a time-limited fashion, attempts to uncover the underlying dynamics that precipitate disorders of…

  8. Problem Gambling Features and Gendered Gambling Domains Amongst Regular Gamblers in a Swedish Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Jessika; Romild, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate, from a gender perspective, how different features of problem gambling present in men and women who gamble regularly in Sweden were distributed in four domains based on gambling type (chance or strategy) and setting (public or domestic). Problem gambling features were based on the nine items in the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). It was hypothesized that men and women gamble in different domains. Further, it was hypothesized that male gamblers overall experienced more problems with gambling than female gamblers, although in the same domains they would report the same level of problems. A further hypothesis predicted that regular female gamblers would experience more health and social problems and men would experience more financial difficulties. Interviews with a subsample of gamblers (n?=?3191) from a Swedish nationally representative sample (n?=?8179) was used to examine how features of problem gambling correspond with gender and the domains. Only the first hypothesis was fully supported. Men were more likely to participate in forms of gambling requiring strategy in a public setting, and women were more likely to participate in chance-based gambling in a domestic setting. Male and female gamblers had similar levels of problem gambling in the bi-variate analysis, but if controlling for age and gambling in multiple domains, women were more at risk than men. Additionally, men and women presented similar health and economic situations. The differences between male and female gamblers in Sweden have implications for research and prevention. PMID:24634562

  9. Pathological gambling and couple: towards an integrative systemic model.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Diana; Relvas, Ana Paula

    2014-06-01

    This article is a critical literature review of pathological gambling focused in the family factors, particularly in the couple dynamics. Its main goal is to develop an explicative integrative systemic model of pathological gambling, based in these couple dynamics. To achieve that aim, a bibliography search was made, using on-line data bases (e.g., EBSCO Host) and recognized books in pathological gambling subject, as well as in the systemic approach in general. This process privileged the recent works (about 70 % of the reviewed literature was published in the last decade), however, also considered some classic works (the oldest one dates back to 1970). The guiding focus of this literature search evolves according to the following steps: (1) search of general comprehension of pathological gambling (19 references), (2) search specification to the subject "pathological gambling and family" (24 references), (3) search specification to the subject "pathological gambling and couple"(11 references), (4) search of systemic information which integrates the evidence resulted in the previous steps (4 references). The developed model is constituted by different levels of systemic complexity (social context, family of origin, couple and individual) and explains the problem as a signal of perturbation in the marital subsystem vital functions (e.g., power and control) though the regularities of marital dynamics of pathological gamblers. Furthermore, it gives theoretical evidence of the systemic familiar intervention in the pathological gambling. PMID:23423730

  10. The stubborn logic of regular gamblers: obstacles and dilemmas in cognitive gambling research.

    PubMed

    Delfabbro, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive studies into gambling behaviour have shown that many gamblers misinterpret the odds of gambling activities, hold false beliefs about skill and luck, and over-estimate their subjective chances of success. Accordingly, providing accurate information about gambling in venues, or on slot-machines, would appear to be a sensible way to enhance the 'safety' of gambling products. Unfortunately, such ideas for educating gamblers may be difficult to implement in practice because of limitations and conceptual dilemmas in the cognitive literature. Irrational beliefs about gambling may be difficult to falsify, are often highly idiosyncratic and context-bound, and may stem more from the selective misuse of information than from a lack of knowledge about gambling activities. Drawing evidence from recent research into gambling-related cognitions, this paper examines the key elements of irrational-belief systems, and how this work might usefully inform the design of future consumer information initiatives. PMID:14973395

  11. Instant Ticket Purchasing by Ontario Baby Boomers: Increasing Risk for Problem Gamblers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharine M. Papoff; Joan E. Norris

    2009-01-01

    Instant ticket purchase gambling (ITPG) is pervasive in Ontario and has features that mimic slot machine play. Previous researchers\\u000a have reported that ITPG is one preferred activity for at-risk\\/problem gamblers. In the general Canadian population, rate of\\u000a participation in ITPG is second only to lottery ticket gambling. Both are particularly favored by youth and seniors. The next\\u000a cohort of seniors

  12. Predictors of Problem Gambling Severity in Treatment Seeking Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounslow, Vanessa; Smith, David; Battersby, Malcolm; Morefield, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Problem gambling has become a widespread problem following the rapid expansion of electronic gaming machines into hotels and clubs over the last 10 years. Recent literature indicates that certain factors can influence problem gambling severity, such as psychiatric co-morbidity and personality traits, gambling related cognitions, substance use and…

  13. Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology 20 Pathology and Diagnostic Pathology and adenocarcinoma ·Application of molecular pathology to pathological diagnosis · Discovery of cancer therapy target and acceleration of pathological diagnostic processes Investigation of the development of EB virus

  14. Pathological Gambling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorne M. Korman; Tony Toneatto; Wayne Skinner

    ?? The diagnosis of pathological gambling first appeared in the third edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 1980, and appears again in DSM-IV (APA, 1994). Although the DSM-IV categorizes pathological gambling as an impulse-control disorder not elsewhere categorized, the criteria specified for diagnosing this disorder are somewhat similar to those for alcohol and substance dependence

  15. Gambling cognition and subjective well-being as mediators between perceived stress and problem gambling: a cross-cultural study on White and Chinese problem gamblers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Oei, Tian Po

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to delineate various pathways whereby cognitive and emotional vulnerabilities triggered by stress would lead to disruptive gambling. A multiple mediation framework was proposed to specify that gambling cognition and subjective well-being would mediate the influence of perceived stress on problem gambling. The cross-cultural validity of the proposed framework was examined with 132 White gamblers in Australia and 154 Chinese gamblers in China. They completed psychological scales on perceived stress, gambling expectancy bias, gambling refusal efficacy, negative affect, life satisfaction, and problem gambling. Compared to Chinese gamblers, White gamblers reported higher levels of perceived stress, gambling expectancy bias, and problem gambling as well as more pervasive negative affect and lower levels of life satisfaction. Results showed that the proposed multiple mediation framework fit the data better than two alternative plausible models. Life satisfaction and gambling refusal efficacy were two consistent mediators across White and Chinese gamblers. PMID:21604831

  16. Pulmonary pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daphne E. deMello

    2004-01-01

    Common causes of neonatal respiratory distress include meconium aspiration, pneumonia, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, pneumothorax and cystic adenomatoid malformation. Genomics and proteomics have enabled the recent recognition of several additional disorders that lead to neonatal death from respiratory disease. These are broadly classified as disorders of lung homeostasis and have pathological features of proteinosis, interstitial pneumonitis or lipidosis.

  17. Pathological Gambling: Relationship to Obesity, Self-Reported Chronic Medical Conditions, Poor Lifestyle Choices, and Impaired Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Black, Donald W.; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Background Pathological gambling (PG) is an important public health problem that is prevalent, costly to society, and associated with substance misuse, depression, domestic violence, crime, and suicide. Despite these challenges, little is known about the physical health and medical correlates of PG. The goal of this project was to assess self-reported chronic medical conditions, medication usage, lifestyle choices, health care utilization, quality of life variables, and body mass index (BMI) in persons with and without PG. Methods Subjects with PG and community controls were systematically assessed for their medical health, lifestyle choices, medication usage, and health care utilization. We administered the Medical Outcome Study Short-Form 36 Health Survey to assess perceived health and quality of life. BMI was calculated for all subjects. Obesity was defined as having a BMI ? 30 kg/m2. Results We compared 95 subjects with DSM-IV PG (South Oaks Gambling Screen [SOGS] score ? 5) and 91 control subjects without PG (SOGS ? 2) selected through random digit dialing from the general community. PG subjects and controls were similar in age and gender. Persons with PG had more medical and mental health conditions than controls, and were more likely to avoid regular exercise, smoke ? 1 pack/day, drink ? 5 servings of caffeine daily, and watch television ? 20 hours/week. They had more emergency department visits for physical and mental health conditions, were more likely to have been psychiatrically hospitalized in the past year, and were more likely to take psychotropic medication. They were less likely to have had regular dental visits and were more likely to put off medical care due to financial problems. Severity of gambling was positively correlated with number of medical conditions. Persons with PG had poorer self-reported health perceptions on all but one SF-36 subscale. Importantly, persons with PG had a higher BMI than controls and were more likely to be obese. Conclusions PG is associated with obesity, chronic medical conditions, poor lifestyle choices, worse quality of life, and the use of costly forms of medical care. Pathological gamblers are less likely to receive regular dental care and are more likely to be unable to pay for medical care. The implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22938650

  18. Bachelor of Science in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Bachelor of Science in Speech- Language Pathology and Audiology Speech-language pathologists to persons with hearing loss and problems with balance. The speech-language pathology and audiology program-Language Pathology and Audiology Speech-language pathology and audiology are professions consistently rated among

  19. Cocaine Dependent Individuals and Gamblers Present Different Associative Learning Anomalies in Feedback-Driven Decision Making: A Behavioral and ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ana; Catena, Andrés; Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Megías, Alberto; Perales, José C

    2013-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that addicts behave less flexibly than healthy controls in the probabilistic reversal learning task (PRLT), in which participants must gradually learn to choose between a probably rewarded option and an improbably rewarded one, on the basis of corrective feedback, and in which preferences must adjust to abrupt reward contingency changes (reversals). In the present study, pathological gamblers (PG) and cocaine dependent individuals (CDI) showed different learning curves in the PRLT. PG also showed a reduced electroencephalographic response to feedback (Feedback-Related Negativity, FRN) when compared to controls. CDI's FRN was not significantly different either from PG or from healthy controls. Additionally, according to Standardized Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography analysis, cortical activity in regions of interest (previously selected by virtue of their involvement in FRN generation in controls) strongly differed between CDI and PG. However, the nature of such anomalies varied within-groups across individuals. Cocaine use severity had a strong deleterious impact on the learning asymptote, whereas gambling intensity significantly increased reversal cost. These two effects have remained confounded in most previous studies, which can be hiding important associative learning differences between different populations of addicts. PMID:23516173

  20. Cocaine Dependent Individuals and Gamblers Present Different Associative Learning Anomalies in Feedback-Driven Decision Making: A Behavioral and ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Ana; Catena, Andrés; Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Megías, Alberto; Perales, José C.

    2013-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that addicts behave less flexibly than healthy controls in the probabilistic reversal learning task (PRLT), in which participants must gradually learn to choose between a probably rewarded option and an improbably rewarded one, on the basis of corrective feedback, and in which preferences must adjust to abrupt reward contingency changes (reversals). In the present study, pathological gamblers (PG) and cocaine dependent individuals (CDI) showed different learning curves in the PRLT. PG also showed a reduced electroencephalographic response to feedback (Feedback-Related Negativity, FRN) when compared to controls. CDI’s FRN was not significantly different either from PG or from healthy controls. Additionally, according to Standardized Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography analysis, cortical activity in regions of interest (previously selected by virtue of their involvement in FRN generation in controls) strongly differed between CDI and PG. However, the nature of such anomalies varied within-groups across individuals. Cocaine use severity had a strong deleterious impact on the learning asymptote, whereas gambling intensity significantly increased reversal cost. These two effects have remained confounded in most previous studies, which can be hiding important associative learning differences between different populations of addicts. PMID:23516173

  1. Instant ticket purchasing by Ontario baby boomers: increasing risk for problem gamblers.

    PubMed

    Papoff, Katharine M; Norris, Joan E

    2009-06-01

    Instant ticket purchase gambling (ITPG) is pervasive in Ontario and has features that mimic slot machine play. Previous researchers have reported that ITPG is one preferred activity for at-risk/problem gamblers. In the general Canadian population, rate of participation in ITPG is second only to lottery ticket gambling. Both are particularly favored by youth and seniors. The next cohort of seniors will be Canada's baby boomers, one-third of whom live in Ontario. Secondary analysis of Statistics Canada data revealed that adults in this cohort who buy instant gambling tickets (N = 1781) are significantly different from the complete group of their age peers (N = 4266) in number of activities pursued and frequency of involvement. At-risk/problem gambling prevalence was 10.2% amongst Ontario baby boomers who participate in instant ticket gambling, significantly higher than the 6.7% found amongst the total group of baby boom gamblers. For those who reported experiencing one or more of the Canadian Problem Gambling Index indicators for problem gambling (N = 237), 73% were buying instant tickets. Future research should consider cohort effects and explore combinations of preferred gambling activities that may increase risk for problem gambling. Social policy recommendations include the use of all ITPG venues as key locations for promoting awareness of problem gambling treatment services. PMID:19247820

  2. White problem gamblers discount delayed rewards less steeply than their African American and Hispanic counterparts.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Leonardo F; Petry, Nancy M

    2014-06-01

    Impulsivity is a core process underlying addictive behaviors, including nonpharmacological addictive behaviors such as problem gambling. Although considerable attention has been given to the investigation of delay discounting within the context of addiction-related behaviors, relatively little research has examined the relationship between discounting and individual variables, such as race/ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to compare discounting rates in the three most prevalent racial/ethnic groups in the United States: Whites, African Americans, and Hispanics. The study was conducted with 315 problem gamblers. Participants completed a delay-discounting questionnaire involving choices between a smaller amount of money delivered immediately and a larger amount delivered later. A hyperbolic discounting function estimated delay-discounting rates based on participants' indifference points obtained via the questionnaires. Results showed significant effects of race/ethnicity on delay discounting. White gamblers discounted delayed money at lower rates than African Americans and Hispanics, even after controlling for confounding variables. These data suggest that among individuals who develop problem gambling, Whites are less impulsive than African Americans and Hispanics, at least in terms of choosing between delayed and immediate reinforcers. These results have implications for evaluating the onset and treatment of addictive disorders from a health-disparities perspective. PMID:24955678

  3. Problem gamblers are hyposensitive to wins: an analysis of skin conductance responses during actual gambling on electronic gaming machines.

    PubMed

    Lole, Lisa; Gonsalvez, Craig J; Barry, Robert J; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2014-06-01

    Physiological arousal is purportedly a key determinant in the development and maintenance of gambling behaviors, with problem gambling conceptualized in terms of abnormal autonomic responses. Theoretical conceptualizations of problem gambling are discordant regarding the nature of deficit in this disorder; some accounts posit that problem gamblers are hypersensitive to reward, and others that they are hyposensitive to reward and/or punishment. Previous research examining phasic electrodermal responses in gamblers has been limited to laboratory settings, and reactions to real gaming situations need to be examined. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) to losses, wins, and losses disguised as wins (LDWs) were recorded from 15 problem gamblers (PGs) and 15 nonproblem gamblers (NPGs) while they wagered their own money during electronic gaming machine play. PGs demonstrated significantly reduced SCRs to reward. SCRs to losses and LDWs did not differ for either PGs or NPGs. This hyposensitivity to wins may reflect abnormalities in incentive processing, and may represent a potential biological marker for problem gambling. PMID:24588340

  4. Characteristics of Internet Gamblers among a Sample of Students at a Large, Public University in Southwestern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shead, N. Will; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Fong, Timothy W.; Gupta, Rina

    2012-01-01

    There is a current lack of descriptive information on college students who gamble on the Internet. With the increasing popularity of Internet gambling, this study aimed to better understand the profile of Internet gamblers among a sample of college students. Of 909 students at the University of California-Los Angeles who completed an online…

  5. All for the Winner: An Analysis of the Characterization of Male Gamblers in Hong Kong Movies with Gambling Theme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Chi Chuen; Ohtsuka, Keis

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the characterization of male gamblers in popular Hong Kong movies in the past 50 years. A total of nine Hong Kong films with gambling themes were selected for analysis. The criteria for selection of the films were as follows: the movies in which the protagonists are portrayed by well known Hong Kong actors that…

  6. Pulmonary pathology.

    PubMed

    deMello, Daphne E

    2004-08-01

    Common causes of neonatal respiratory distress include meconium aspiration, pneumonia, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, pneumothorax and cystic adenomatoid malformation. Genomics and proteomics have enabled the recent recognition of several additional disorders that lead to neonatal death from respiratory disease. These are broadly classified as disorders of lung homeostasis and have pathological features of proteinosis, interstitial pneumonitis or lipidosis. These pathological changes result from inherited disorders of surfactant proteins or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Abnormal lung vascular development is the basis for another cause of fatal neonatal respiratory distress, alveolar capillary dysplasia with or without associated misalignment of veins. Diagnosis of these genetically transmitted disorders is important because of the serious implications for future siblings. There is also a critical need for establishing an archival tissue bank to permit future molecular biological studies. PMID:15251148

  7. Female Sexual-Offenders: Personality Pathology as a Mediator of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Sexual Abuse Perpetration against Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…

  8. Reviewing Two Types of Addiction – Pathological Gambling and Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Jazaeri, Seyed Amir; Habil, Mohammad Hussain Bin

    2012-01-01

    Gambling, including pathological gambling and problem gambling, has received increased attention from clinicians and researchers over the past three decades since gambling opportunities have expanded around the world. Gambling disorders affect 0.2–5.3% of adults worldwide, although measurement and prevalence varies according to the screening instruments and methods used, and availability and accessibility of gambling opportunities. Several distinct treatment approaches have been favorably evaluated, such as cognitive behavioral and brief treatment models and pharmacological interventions. Although promising, family therapy and support from Gamblers Anonymous are less well empirically supported. Gambling disorders are highly comorbid with other mental health and substance use disorders, and a further understanding is needed of both the causes and treatment implications of this disorder. This article reviews definition, causes and associated features with substance abuse, screening and diagnosis, and treatment approaches. PMID:22661800

  9. A counselling line for problem and pathological gambling in South Africa: Preliminary data analysis

    PubMed Central

    SINCLAIR, HEIDI; PRETORIUS, ADELE; STEIN, DAN J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Various countries and states have established telephone counselling lines for people with pathological or problem gambling. Data from such services may contribute to describing systematically the nature of gambling problems in a particular area. To date, however, few data have been published on such a telephone counselling line in a low or middle income country. Method: Data on calls to the telephone counselling line of the National Responsible Gambling Foundation of South Africa were captured over a 6-month period. Such data include socio-demographic variables, the primary reason for calling, the source of the referral, preferred method of gambling, impairment as a consequence of gambling, and history of treatment for psychiatric disorders, comorbid alcohol abuse and illicit drug use. Results: Calls were received from a broad range of people; the mean age of callers was 37 years, the majority were male (62%) and many were married (45%). Primary reasons for calling included the feeling of being unable to stop gambling without the help of a professional (41%), financial concerns (32%), legal problems (13%), pressure from family (10%), and suicidal thoughts (2%). The majority of callers contacted the counselling line after having heard about it by word of mouth (70%). The most common forms of gambling were slot machines (51%) and casino games (21%). Fourteen percent of callers reported having received help for other psychiatric disorders, 11% reported alcohol use disorders and 6% illicit drug use. Conclusion: These data from South Africa are consistent with prior research indicating that pathological and problem gambling are seen in a range of socio-demographic groups, and that such behaviour is associated with significant morbidity and comorbidity. More work is needed locally to inform younger gamblers, gamblers using the informal gambling sector, and unemployed gamblers of the existing telephone counselling lines. PMID:25317344

  10. Initial Construction and Validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincus, Aaron L.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pimentel, Claudia A.; Cain, Nicole M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levy, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal…

  11. Prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in treatment-seeking problem gamblers: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cowlishaw, Sean; Jackson, Alun C; Merkouris, Stephanie S; Francis, Kate L; Christensen, Darren R

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this paper was to systematically review and meta-analyse the prevalence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders (DSM-IV Axis I disorders) among treatment-seeking problem gamblers. Methods: A systematic search was conducted for peer-reviewed studies that provided prevalence estimates of Axis I psychiatric disorders in individuals seeking psychological or pharmacological treatment for problem gambling (including pathological gambling). Meta-analytic techniques were performed to estimate the weighted mean effect size and heterogeneity across studies. Results: Results from 36 studies identified high rates of co-morbid current (74.8%, 95% CI 36.5–93.9) and lifetime (75.5%, 95% CI 46.5–91.8) Axis I disorders. There were high rates of current mood disorders (23.1%, 95% CI 14.9–34.0), alcohol use disorders (21.2%, 95% CI 15.6–28.1), anxiety disorders (17.6%, 95% CI 10.8–27.3) and substance (non-alcohol) use disorders (7.0%, 95% CI 1.7–24.9). Specifically, the highest mean prevalence of current psychiatric disorders was for nicotine dependence (56.4%, 95% CI 35.7–75.2) and major depressive disorder (29.9%, 95% CI 20.5–41.3), with smaller estimates for alcohol abuse (18.2%, 95% CI 13.4–24.2), alcohol dependence (15.2%, 95% CI 10.2–22.0), social phobia (14.9%, 95% CI 2.0–59.8), generalised anxiety disorder (14.4%, 95% CI 3.9–40.8), panic disorder (13.7%, 95% CI 6.7–26.0), post-traumatic stress disorder (12.3%, 95% CI 3.4–35.7), cannabis use disorder (11.5%, 95% CI 4.8–25.0), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (9.3%, 95% CI 4.1–19.6), adjustment disorder (9.2%, 95% CI 4.8–17.2), bipolar disorder (8.8%, 95% CI 4.4–17.1) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (8.2%, 95% CI 3.4–18.6). There were no consistent patterns according to gambling problem severity, type of treatment facility and study jurisdiction. Although these estimates were robust to the inclusion of studies with non-representative sampling biases, they should be interpreted with caution as they were highly variable across studies. Conclusions: The findings highlight the need for gambling treatment services to undertake routine screening and assessment of psychiatric co-morbidity and provide treatment approaches that adequately manage these co-morbid disorders. Further research is required to explore the reasons for the variability observed in the prevalence estimates. PMID:25735959

  12. Pathology and Molecular Medicine

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Michael

    Pathology and Molecular Medicine ANATOMICAL PATHOLOGY GRAND ROUNDS 2010 / 2011 TIME: 12:30 - 1:30 p treat cancer without a pathological diagnosis? The Yemen experience. October 21st MUMC ­ 1A3 Dr. S. Tang SPEAKER: TOPIC: January 13th MDCL ­ 3023 Dr. F. DeNardi HRLMP ­ McMaster University TBA ­ GI Pathology

  13. Pathology and Molecular Medicine

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Michael

    Pathology and Molecular Medicine ANATOMICAL PATHOLOGY GRAND ROUNDS 2011 / 2012 TIME: 12:30 - 1:30 p Standards2 Quality ­ Guidelines for Quality Management in Surgical Pathology Professional Practices Sciences GI Pathology November 10th MDCL ­ 2232 Dr. Robin Edwards McMaster University Professionalism

  14. The Relationship Between Pathological Gambling and Sensation Seeking: The Role of Subscale Scores

    PubMed Central

    Fortune, Erica E.

    2010-01-01

    Research investigating the relationship between gambling and sensation seeking has yet to establish conclusively whether pathological gamblers (PGs) are more or less sensation seeking than nonpathological gamblers (NPGs). Sensation seeking is usually measured with the Zuckerman et al. (J Consult Clin Psychol 46:139–149, 1978) SS Scale form V (SSS-V). Whereas previous studies relied on the SSS-V total score, the current study uses two samples to demonstrate the importance of the SSS-V subscales, which include Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TA), Experience Seeking (ES), Disinhibition (DS), and Boredom Susceptibility (BS). In two samples, strong intrascale correlations between DS and BS, and between TA and ES, suggest that certain subscales reflect similar underlying characteristics. In both samples PGs displayed higher scores than NPGs on the DS and BS subscales, with mean differences in Sample 2 reaching significant levels for both DS and BS. Results support the notion that the SSS-V can be divided into concepts reflecting actual behavior, based on the DS and BS subscales, and hypothetical behavior, based on the TA and ES subscales. Furthermore, PGs appear to have a preference for the more behavioral subscales while NPGs show a preference for the more hypothetical subscales. Reasons for the subscale divisions and preferences are discussed. PMID:19943092

  15. The effect of including a monetary motive item on the gambling motives questionnaire in a sample of moderate gamblers.

    PubMed

    Dechant, Kristianne; Ellery, Michael

    2011-06-01

    This study explored the factor structure of the Gambling Motives Questionnaire (GMQ) with a large stratified sample of 839 moderate gamblers (49% female; median age category = 45-54 years) and examined the effect of including a monetary motive item on GMQ factor structure. Participants responded to a telephone survey in which they were asked how often they gamble for each of 16 reasons, including the 15 GMQ motives and an additional motive: "to win money". Exploratory principal components analysis of the 15 GMQ items revealed three factors, together accounting for 49.04% of the total variance in GMQ scores. The factors tapped enhancement, coping and social motives, although only the coping subscale displayed strong internal consistency. A second exploratory principal components analysis of the 15 GMQ items and the monetary motive item continued to reveal three factors tapping enhancement, coping and social motives. The addition of the monetary motive item strengthened the independence of the components and dramatically improved the internal consistency of the enhancement factor. The results suggest that the psychometric properties of the GMQ, when used with a population of moderate gamblers, may be considerably strengthened with only minor modifications. PMID:20496161

  16. Gambling Cognition and Subjective Well-Being as Mediators Between Perceived Stress and Problem Gambling: A Cross-Cultural Study on White and Chinese Problem Gamblers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine So-kum Tang; Tian Po Oei

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to delineate various pathways whereby cognitive and emotional vulnerabilities triggered by stress would lead to disruptive gambling. A multiple mediation framework was proposed to specify that gambling cognition and subjective well-being would mediate the influence of perceived stress on problem gambling. The cross-cultural validity of the proposed framework was examined with 132 White gamblers in Australia and

  17. Pathology (Gregg) Clinical Organizational Structure

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Molecular Pathology (Gregg) Clinical Organizational Structure Department Chair (Howell) Vice Chair, Strategic Technology (Levenson) Vice Chair, Research (Wan) Senior Director, Anatomic Pathology (Bishop) Vice (Jin) Surgical Pathology (Bishop) Directors of: Senior Director, Clinical Pathology (Gregg) Progenitor

  18. Clinical Profile and Psychiatric Comorbidity of Treatment-Seeking Individuals with Pathological Gambling in South-Africa.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Heidi; Pasche, Sonja; Pretorius, Adele; Stein, Dan J

    2014-12-01

    Pathological gambling is a prevalent and disabling mental illness, which is frequently associated with mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. However, there is relatively little data on comorbidity in individuals with pathological gambling from low and middle income countries such as South-Africa. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to assess the frequency of DSM-IV-TR disorders among 100 male and 100 female treatment-seeking individuals with pathological gambling in South-Africa. The Sheehan Disability Scale was used to assess functional impairment. In a South-African sample of individuals with pathological gambling, the most frequent current comorbid psychiatric disorders were major depressive disorder (28 %), anxiety disorders (25.5 %) and substance use disorders (10.5 %). Almost half of the individuals had a lifetime diagnosis of major depressive disorder (46 %). Female pathological gamblers were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with a comorbid major depressive disorder or generalised anxiety disorder than their male counterparts. Data from South-Africa are consistent with previously published data from high income countries. Psychiatric comorbidity is common among individuals with pathological gambling. PMID:25472500

  19. SNOMED CT in pathology.

    PubMed

    García-Rojo, Marcial; Daniel, Christel; Laurinavicius, Arvydas

    2012-01-01

    Pathology information systems have been using SNOMED II for many years, and in most cases, they are in a migration process to SNOMED CT. COST Action IC0604 (EURO-TELEPATH) has considered terminology normalization one of its strategic objectives. This paper reviews the use of SNOMED CT in healthcare, with a special focus in pathology. Nowadays, SNOMED CT is mainly used for concept search and coding of clinical data. Some ontological errors found in SNOMED CT are described. The Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative has fostered the use of SNOMED CT, also in Pathology, as recommended in the Supplement Anatomic Pathology Structured Reports of the IHE Anatomic Pathology Technical Framework. Rule governing concept post-coordination is also described. Some recent initiatives are trying to define a SNOMED CT subset for Pathology. The Spanish Society of Pathology has defined a subset for specimens and procedures in Pathology. Regarding diagnosis coding, the morphological abnormality sub-hierarchy of SNOMED CT need to be significantly extended and improved to become useful for pathologists. A consensus is needed to encode pathology reports with the adequate hierarchies and concepts. This will make the implementation of pathology structured reports more feasible. PMID:22925793

  20. Handheld computing in pathology

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-01-01

    Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

  1. Prevention of pathological gambling: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Jason P; Nicki, Richard M

    2007-01-01

    Although the gambling industry is expanding rapidly throughout North America and around the world, there are only a few empirically evaluated programs aimed at the prevention of pathological gambling (PG). The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of a new prevention program aimed at PG. The Stop & Think! program was designed to teach at-risk video lottery terminal (VLT) gamblers cognitive restructuring and problem-solving skills that may help to prevent the development of PG. These skills were taught through a variety of methods - including an automated educational presentation, video and text vignettes, audio training tapes, and skill rehearsal. The program was evaluated using a randomized, 2-group experimental design with a wait-list control group and pre-, post-, and follow-up measures. Results indicated that, compared with the control group, the experimental group was less at risk for developing a gambling problem after the program. The experimental group endorsed fewer gambling-related cognitive distortions, engaged in less VLT gambling, and had lower scores on a measure of PG. The results of this study provide the basis for the implementation of the Stop & Think! program in the province of Prince Edward Island, Canada, and perhaps other jurisdictions too. PMID:17530493

  2. Response Perseveration and Ventral Prefrontal Sensitivity to Reward and Punishment in Male Problem Gamblers and Smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michiel B de Ruiter; Dick J Veltman; Anna E Goudriaan; Jaap Oosterlaan; Zsuzsika Sjoerds; Wim van den Brink; MB de Ruiter

    2009-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is associated with maladaptive perseverative behavior, but the underlying mechanism and neural circuitry is not completely clear. Here, the hypothesis was tested that PG is characterized by response perseveration and abnormalities in reward and\\/or punishment sensitivity in the ventral frontostriatal circuit. Executive functioning was assessed to verify if these effects are independent of the dorsal frontostriatal circuit.

  3. Conscientiousness and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas B. Samuel; Thomas A. Widiger

    2011-01-01

    A dimensional perspective on personality disorder hypothesizes that the current diagnostic categories represent maladaptive variants of general personality traits. However, a fundamental foundation of this viewpoint is that dimensional models can adequately account for the pathology currently described by these categories. While most of the personality disorders have well established links to dimensional models that buttress this hypothesis, obsessive–compulsive personality

  4. Psychopharmacologic treatment of pathologic aggression.

    PubMed

    Fava, M

    1997-06-01

    Several drugs are apparently effective in treating pathologic anger and aggression. Because many of the studies on aggressive populations allowed the use of concomitant medications, it is unclear whether the efficacy of each drug in a particular population is dependent on the presence of other medications, such as antipsychotic agents. Finally, one needs to be circumspect in inferring efficacy of a particular drug in aggressive patients with neuropsychiatric conditions other than the ones in which some efficacy has been established. Lithium appears to be an effective treatment of aggression among nonepileptic prison inmates, mentally retarded and handicapped patients, and among conduct-disordered children with explosive behavior. Certainly, lithium would be the treatment of choice in bipolar patients with excessive irritability and anger outbursts, and it has been shown to be effective in this population. Anticonvulsant medications are the treatment of choice for patients with outbursts of rage and abnormal EEG findings. The efficacy of these drugs in patients without a seizure disorder, however, remains to be established, with the exception perhaps of valproate and carbamazepine. In fact, dyphenylhydantoin did not appear to be effective in treating aggressive behavior in children with temper tantrums and was found to be effective in only a prison population. There is some evidence for the efficacy of carbamazepine and valproate in treating pathologic aggression in patients with dementia, organic brain syndrome, psychosis, and personality disorders. As Yudofsky et al point out in their review of the literature, although traditional antipsychotic drugs have been used widely to treat aggression, there is little evidence for their effectiveness in treating aggression beyond their sedative effect in agitated patients or their antiaggressive effect among patients whose aggression is related to active psychosis. Antipsychotic agents appear to be effective in treating psychotic aggressive patients, conduct-disordered children, and mentally retarded patients, with only modest effects in the management of pathologic aggression in patients with dementia. Furthermore, at least in one study, these drugs were found to be associated with increased aggressiveness in mentally retarded subjects. On the other hand, atypical antipsychotic agents (i.e., clozapine, risperidone, and olanzapine) may be more effective than traditional antipsychotic drugs in aggressive and violent populations, as they have shown efficacy in patients with dementia, brain injury, mental retardation, and personality disorders. Similarly, benzodiazepines can reduce agitation and irritability in elderly and demented populations, but they also can induce behavioral disinhibition. Therefore, one should be careful in using this class of drugs in patients with pathologic aggression. Beta-blockers appear to be effective in many different neuropsychiatric conditions. These drugs seem effective in reducing violent and assaultive behavior in patients with dementia, brain injury, schizophrenia, mental retardation, and organic brain syndrome. As pointed out by Campbell et al in their review of the literature, however, systematic research is lacking, and little is known about the efficacy and safety of beta-blockers in children and adolescents with pathologic aggression. Although widely used in the management of pathologic aggression, the use of this class of drugs has been limited partially by marked hypotension and bradycardia, which are side effects common at the higher doses. The usefulness of the antihypertensive drug clonidine in the treatment of pathologic aggression has not been assessed adequately, and only marginal benefits were observed with this drug in irritable autistic and conduct disorder children. Psychostimulants seem to be effective in reducing aggressiveness in brain-injured patients as well as in violent adolescents with oppositional or conduct disorders, particu PMID:9196923

  5. Risk-taking and pathological gambling behavior in Huntington’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Kalkhoven, Carla; Sennef, Cor; Peeters, Ard; van den Bos, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a genetic, neurodegenerative disorder, which specifically affects striatal neurons of the indirect pathway, resulting in a progressive decline in muscle coordination and loss of emotional and cognitive control. Interestingly, predisposition to pathological gambling and other addictions involves disturbances in the same cortico-striatal circuits that are affected in HD, and display similar disinhibition-related symptoms, including changed sensitivity to punishments and rewards, impulsivity, and inability to consider long-term advantages over short-term rewards. Both HD patients and pathological gamblers also show similar performance deficits on risky decision-making tasks, such as the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). These similarities suggest that HD patients are a likely risk group for gambling problems. However, such problems have only incidentally been observed in HD patients. In this review, we aim to characterize the risk of pathological gambling in HD, as well as the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Especially with the current rise of easily accessible Internet gambling opportunities, it is important to understand these risks and provide appropriate patient support accordingly. Based on neuropathological and behavioral findings, we propose that HD patients may not have an increased tendency to seek risks and start gambling, but that they do have an increased chance of developing an addiction once they engage in gambling activities. Therefore, current and future developments of Internet gambling possibilities and related addictions should be regarded with care, especially for vulnerable groups like HD patients. PMID:24765067

  6. Pathology Case Study: Hemoptysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Holst, Valerie

    This is a pulmonary pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55 year old female has spontaneously occurring hemoptysis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, radiology, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

  7. Pathology Case Study: Headache

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nine, Jeff S.

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. In this case, a 79 year old male with headaches and sinus problems is evaluated. The patient previously had "an inverted papilloma resected." Using the gross description, microscopic description, and images provided, students are encouraged to test their knowledge of pathology and diagnose the patient's medical problem. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

  8. ADVERTISEMENT: ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF PATHOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    ADVERTISEMENT: ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF PATHOLOGY CLINICAL HEMATOLOGY/HEMATOPATHOLOGY The Department of Pathology at Stanford University School of Medicine seeks to fill two of Pathology in the Medical Center Professoriate. The major criterion for appointment

  9. [Personality disorders and aging].

    PubMed

    Calvet, Benjamin; Péricaud, Marion; Parneix, Mathieu; Bricaud, Magali; Lavigne, Benjamin; Clément, Jean-Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Personality disorder can be defined as an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that markedly deviates from the expectations of the individual's culture. With aging, personality disorders may improve or worsen. Their prevalence in the elderly is slightly lower than the prevalence in young adult. Furthermore, their comorbidity and co-occurrence are the rule with an increased risk of late decompensation. Categorical approach used in the current international classifications (ICD-10 and DSM-5) is not adapted to the specificities of the elderly with consequent overrepresentation of "unspecified personality disorder". However, a pathological personality tends to complicate all interventions for somatic or psychological care in the elderly. Thus, this review describes changes in personality disorders related to aging in order to help the clinician to better identify these disorders. Indeed, recognizing a pathological personality in the elderly improves its management both in the field of mental health and in somatic disorders in which the role of personality must be evaluated. Personality and its disorders should therefore be taken into account in all geriatric practices, in particular in the context of cognitive disorders. PMID:24939408

  10. Building a knowledge base for systems pathology.

    PubMed

    Michael, Holger; Hogan, Jennifer; Kel, Alexander; Kel-Margoulis, Olga; Schacherer, Frank; Voss, Nico; Wingender, Edgar

    2008-11-01

    Translating the exponentially growing amount of omics data into knowledge usable for a personalized medicine approach poses a formidable challenge. In this article-taking diabetes as a use case-we present strategies for developing data repositories into computer-accessible knowledge sources that can be used for a systemic view on the molecular causes of diseases, thus laying the foundation for systems pathology. PMID:19073714

  11. Recent advances in bone marrow biopsy pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon van der Walt

    2009-01-01

    The second quarter of 2009 saw steady advances in bone marrow biopsy (BMB) pathology. The following publications are a personal\\u000a selection of the highlights. Quality issues in diagnostic immunohistochemistry for BMB have largely been ignored in external\\u000a quality assurance programmes, and this issue is highlighted. In other areas, publications reflecting advances in flow cytometry\\u000a and aspirate morphology are discussed where

  12. PEDIATRIC PATHOLOGY FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, Andrew

    of developmental pathology including Cytogenetics. The Clinical Oncology and Pediatric Pathology Programs PEDIATRIC PATHOLOGY FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM at the UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA #12 ...................................................................................................................................................... 7 Pediatric Anatomical Pathology Rotation

  13. The relationship between borderline personality and obesity.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2013-04-01

    Obesity is a significant health problem in the United States. Therefore, it is extremely important to understand potential clinical associations with obesity, including personality pathology. From studies of personality disorders in other types of eating pathology, it appears that restrictive personality disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder) are associated with restrictive eating pathology (e.g., anorexia nervosa, restricting type) whereas impulsive personality disorders (e.g., borderline personality disorder) are associated with impulsive eating pathology (e.g., anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder). Because binge eating disorder is oftentimes associated with an obese status, it seems likely that borderline personality disorder may also be associated with obesity. At the present time, there appear to be nine accessible studies in this area, comprising 639 obese individuals. While rates of borderline personality disorder in these studies vary from 2.2 to 94.1 percent, 10 of 19 measures detected this disorder at rates of 25 percent or higher, and the average of all percentages is 26.9 percent. Findings appear to support the association between impulsive personality pathology and impulsive eating pathology, and underscore that a significant minority of obese individuals may suffer from borderline personality disorder. PMID:23696958

  14. Pathology of Treated GI Neoplasia Pathology section seminar

    E-print Network

    Magee, Derek

    Pathology of Treated GI Neoplasia Pathology section seminar Liverpool DDF meeting Tuesday 19th June for LGD #12;#12;p53 #12;BSG/DDF 2012 Pathology Slide Seminar Dr Adrian C Bateman Southampton University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust Southampton Cellular Pathology #12;History · 56 year old man · Refractory

  15. THE BANFF PATHOLOGY COURSE GASTROINTESTINAL/LIVER PATHOLOGY UPDATE

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, Andrew

    THE BANFF PATHOLOGY COURSE GASTROINTESTINAL/LIVER PATHOLOGY UPDATE September 3 - 6, 2014 The Rimrock Resort Hotel Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine University of Calgary and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology University of Alberta http://.banffpathology.ucalgary.ca Ms Carol Burrows

  16. Axis II pathology in outpatients with dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Dell, P F

    1998-06-01

    Forty-two outpatients with dissociative identity disorder (DID) and 16 outpatients with dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS) were administered the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). DID patients manifested severe personality pathology (BR > 84) on a mean of 4.0 MCMI-II scales: avoidant (76%), self-defeating (68%), borderline (53%), and passive-aggressive (45%). DDNOS cases had severe personality pathology on fewer MCMI-II scales (mean = 1.69): avoidant (50%) and self-defeating (31%). The DID and DDNOS groups differed in their scores on the DES (means = 54.9 vs. 25.9), the PK-PTSD scale of the MMPI-2 (means = 33.6 vs. 21.7), and in the incidence of severe borderline pathology (53% vs. 6%). These data on personality pathology in DID patients are virtually identical to those of seven previous studies of personality pathology in chronic PTSD patients (i.e., avoidant, self-defeating, borderline, and passive-aggressive). Such robust convergence of findings supports the construct validity of DID as a form of posttraumatic disorder and suggests that there is a quite predictable personologic core to the clinical picture of severely traumatized individuals. PMID:9653419

  17. Pathological gambling, co-occurring disorders, clinical presentation, and treatment outcomes at a university-based counseling clinic.

    PubMed

    Soberay, Adam; Faragher, J Michael; Barbash, Melissa; Brookover, Amanda; Grimsley, Paul

    2014-03-01

    It is the intent of this study to examine the relationship between the number of co-occurring disorders in a sample of pathological gamblers and variables associated with clinical presentation and treatment outcomes. Participants were given screening tools for four common psychological disorders: the hands depression screen, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire, the Carroll-Davidson generalized anxiety disorder screen, and the Sprint-4 PTSD Screen. The number of co-occurring disorders, as indicated by the results of these screening instruments, was compared to severity of gambling problems at outset of treatment, as measured by the NORC diagnostic screen for gambling problems-self administered. The number of co-occurring disorders was also compared to psychosocial functioning at the outset of treatment, as well as level of improvement in psychosocial functioning through treatment. Psychosocial functioning was measured using the Outcome Questionnaire 45 (OQ-45). The number of co-occurring disorders was compared to participant satisfaction with the therapeutic relationship as measured by the working alliance inventory-short form. Results suggest that co-occurring disorders are commonplace among treatment seeking pathological gamblers. Over 86 % of the sample screened positively for at least one of the four targeted psychological disorders. Furthermore, the number of co-occurring disorders was found to be positively related to severity of gambling problems at outset of treatment and negatively related to level of psychosocial functioning at outset of treatment. However, the number of co-occurring disorders was not found to be significantly related to level of improvement in psychosocial functioning through treatment. Overall, those that attended at least six sessions reported significantly improved psychosocial functioning by the end of their sixth session. Finally, the number of co-occurring disorders was not found to be significantly related to participants' reported level of satisfaction with the therapeutic relationship. PMID:23297170

  18. Pathologic” Fractures: Should These Be Included in Epidemiologic Studies of Osteoporotic Fractures?

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Taylor, Allison J.; Matthews, Robert S.; Ray, Midge; Becker, David J.; Gary, Lisa C.; Kilgore, Meredith L.; Morrisey, Michael A.; Saag, Kenneth G; Warriner, Amy; Delzell, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Analyses of osteoporosis-related fractures that use administrative data often exclude pathologic fractures (ICD-9 733.1x) due to concern that these are caused by cancer. We examined “pathologic” fractures of the vertebrae and hip to evaluate their contribution to fracture incidence and assessed the evidence for a malignancy. Methods We studied U.S. Medicare beneficiaries age ? 65 with new fractures identified using ICD-9 diagnosis codes 733.13 (pathologic vert), 805.0, 805.2, 805.4, 805.8 (non-pathologic vert); and 733.14 (pathologic hip), 820.0, 820.2 820.8 (non-pathologic hip). We further examined the proportion of cases with a diagnosis of a malignancy proximate to the fracture. Results We identified 44,120 individuals with a vertebral fracture and 60,354 with a hip fracture. Approximately 50% of vertebral fractures and 3% of hip fractures were coded as pathologic. For only approximately 25% of persons with a “pathologic” vertebral fracture ICD-9 code, but 66% of persons with a “pathologic” hip fracture, there was evidence of a possible cancer diagnosis. Conclusion Among U.S. Medicare beneficiaries, one-fourth of pathologic vertebral fracture and two-thirds of pathologic hip fracture cases had evidence for a malignancy. Particularly for vertebral fractures, excluding persons with pathologic fractures in epidemiologic analyses that utilize administrative claims data substantially underestimates the burden of fractures due to osteoporosis. PMID:19184268

  19. The clustering of psychiatric disorders in high-risk gambling populations.

    PubMed

    Abdollahnejad, Mohammad Reza; Delfabbro, Paul; Denson, Linley

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the associations between psychiatric disorders and pathological gambling (PG) and the clustering of psychiatric disorders in high risk gambler populations. The sample comprised 140 regular gamblers who were recruited from the general public. A variety of self- report and semi structured questionnaires was administered, including the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, The Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4th Edition, NORC DSM-IV Screen for Gambling Problems Self- administered and Problem Gambling Severity Index. Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders and personality disturbances were found to be more prevalent amongst pathological gamblers than other gamblers with the strongest differences observed for mood and anxiety-related disorders. Almost two-thirds of pathological gamblers reported both an anxiety or mood disorder in conjunction with another type of disorder. These differences between the gambling groups existed even after controlling for gender. The results highlight the high rates of co-morbidity in pathological gamblers in the community and the extent to which anxiety and mood disorders co-existing with other forms of pathology. These results highlight the significant challenges facing treatment services in the treatment of PG and the extent to which this should be treated as the primary disorder. PMID:23774993

  20. Pathology waste includes: Transgenic animals.

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    Pathology waste includes: · Transgenic animals. · Potentially transgenic animals including, "no of as a hazardous chemical waste. The tissues or carcasses can then be disposed of as pathology waste. Labeling Requirements For Pathology Waste: · All pathology waste must be placed in a red bag and labeled with the words

  1. Competitiveness facets and sensation seeking as predictors of problem gambling among a sample of university student gamblers.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nicholas; Newby, Jennifer; Klein, Rupert G

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to problem gambling (PG) is imperative. Individual differences in sensation seeking (SS), as measured by the Sensation Seeking Scale Form (SSS-V), have been found to be predictive of PG among university student samples. However, what is less clear, is if the four SSS-V subscales capture unique facets of SS that are particularly predictive of PG. Much less studied than SS, competitiveness has also been found to be predictive of PG. The Competitiveness Orientation Measure (COM) is a newly developed measure of competitiveness, comprising of four facets. The main purpose of the current study was to examine if these four facets of competitiveness predicted variance in PG over and above the variance predicted by the four SSS-V subscales. Participants included 158 university student gamblers. Sequential regression analysis showed that after accounting for gender, age, and the four SSS-V subscales the only facet of the COM found to be a significant predictor of PG severity was Dominant Competitiveness. Dominant Competitiveness predicted an additional 11 % of PG severity. These results provide support for the Dominant Competitiveness subscale of the COM as having utility in predicting PG over and above the predictive utility of the SSS-V subscales. Practical implications for the current findings are discussed. PMID:24337941

  2. Pathology Case Study: Petechiae

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lopez-Plaza, Iliana

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 6-hour-old baby was found to have petechiae. Visitors are given the case description and the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.

  3. Pathology Case Study: Hyperammonemia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Diven, Warren

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a female neonate only two days old became lethargic and developed focal seizures. Visitors are given the high performance liquid chromatography, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical chemistry.

  4. Plant Pathology Career Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the American Phytopathological Society (APS), this Careers & Placement website is open to both members and non-members. The site allows job seekers and employers to view available job openings and candidates; post a resume or vita for free; and post a job opening (fee required). Job seekers can also sign up for free, bi-monthly email notifications regarding recent job openings. In addition, the APS Careers website connects to a list of hyperlinked plant pathology programs at universities across the country, and to a downloadable brochure about careers in plant pathology.

  5. Pathology Case Study: Seizures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dickman, Paul S.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 24-day-old baby is failing to thrive and experiencing seizures. Visitors are given the microscopic description, with images, the results of the postmortem examination, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

  6. Pathology Case Study: Peritonitis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nine, Jeff S.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 70-year-old man has peritonitis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gastrointestinal pathology.

  7. Vascular pathology and osteoarthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Findlay

    2007-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that vascular pathology plays a role in the initiation and\\/or progression of the major disease of joints: osteoarthritis (OA). Potential mechanisms are: episodically reduced blood flow through the small vessels in the subchondral bone at the ends of long bones, and related to this, reduced interstitial fluid flow in subchondral bone. Blood flow may be reduced

  8. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology

    PubMed Central

    Mandelker, Diana; Lee, Roy E.; Platt, Mia Y.; Riedlinger, Gregory; Quinn, Andrew; Rao, Luigi K. F.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Mahowald, Michael; Lane, William J.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Baron, Jason M.; McClintock, David S.; Kuo, Frank C.; Lebo, Matthew S.; Gilbertson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program's core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists. PMID:24843823

  9. Increasing pathology utilisation lies behind increasing pathology costs.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, M; Good, A

    2013-07-01

    Recent increases in pathology costs per scheme member are a concern to medical schemes and pathologists alike. To better understand the observed increasing costs, the National Pathology Group commissioned Prognosys to analyse the trends affecting these increases. We found that these increases are driven by inflation, increases in utilisation, and redistribution of the burden of cost. The identification of utilisation as a cost driver for pathology services is noteworthy as almost all pathology services are by referral from another doctor. PMID:23802203

  10. Personal Genomics, Personalized Medicine,

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    Personal Genomics, Personalized Medicine, & YOU Carrie Iwema, PhD, MLS 21st May 2012 AAAS/Science Translational Medicine panel discussion; MLA 2012 #12;Timeline: Human Genome Sequence HSLS, U.Pitt 1995 2014 2000 2003 2007 2007 2010 Human Genome Draft Sequence Complete Human Reference Genome Individual Human

  11. Pathology in East Timor.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Stephen R

    2002-10-01

    East Timor is the newest nation in Southeast Asia and, with its recent turbulent history, also one of the poorest. Infectious and parasitic diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria are endemic, and the poor infrastructure in the wake of Indonesia's sudden withdrawal has left the country with enormous health challenges. Australia's key role in the emergence of East Timor as an independent country brings with it a long-term interest in the future development of its health services, including pathology. PMID:12408349

  12. Pathology Case Study: Hydrocephalus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. In this particular study an otherwise healthy 9 month old infant is presented with hydrocephalus. The case study provides test results and images along with microscopic photos and description. Clicking on the final diagnosis provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment.

  13. [Specialised pediatric pathology service].

    PubMed

    Grinenko, A Ia; Glukhovets, N G

    2005-01-01

    Leningrad Regional Children's Bureau of Pathology was established in May 1992. The program of this bureau consisted of: revealing causes of early and late abortions; assessment of ultrasound diagnosis of congenital deficiencies of fetus development and clinical assessment of chronic placental insufficiency; pathogenetic explanation of intrauterine fetuses death; prognosis of neonatal pathology; systemic analysis of dynamics of perinatal, natal and infant mortality; organisation of independant expertise of medical causes of reproductive losses. The following principles in the work of the bureau were established: 1) mass investigation of placentas of newborns; 2) use of urgent pathomorphological diagnosis which allows to present information about placentas not later than 24 hrs after the delivery; 3) complex investigation of placentas with the use of various methods; 4) systemic informational analysis of placental pathology; 5) constant updating of physicians knowledge in the field of practical placentology. Results of mass placentas investigation show a principal pathogenetic role of ascending infection in perinatal mortality in opportunistic pathogenic microflora with the development of inflammatory responses in the system mother-placenta-fetus. PMID:15822796

  14. Reasons for seeking help for a gambling problem: the experiences of gamblers who have sought specialist assistance and the perceptions of those who have not.

    PubMed

    Pulford, Justin; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max; Clarke, Dave; Hodgins, David; Williams, Jeremy

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents reasons for help-seeking data as reported by users of a national gambling helpline (help-seekers, HS, n = 125) as well as data pertaining to perceived reasons for seeking help as reported by gamblers recruited from the general population (non-help-seekers, NHS, n = 104). All data were collected via a structured, multi-modal survey. Participants in both groups considered help-seeking to be motivated by multiple factors (mean of 6.8 and 10.6 responses, respectively). Responses indicative of financial concern were most frequently reported by both HS and NHS participants (82 & 90%, respectively). Over a third of HS participants (35%) also identified financial concern as their primary reason for seeking help and 50% of NHS participants perceived financial concern to be the primary motivator for seeking help in a problem gambling context. Common types of secondary influence (other than financial concern) included psychological distress (HS & NHS participants), problem prevention (HS participants), rational thought (HS participants), physical health issues (HS participants), and relationship issues (NHS participants). The implications for promoting greater or earlier help-seeking activity amongst problem gamblers are discussed. PMID:19050996

  15. Applications in hip pathology.

    PubMed

    Husson, J-L; Mallet, J-F; Huten, D; Odri, G-A; Morin, C; Parent, H-F

    2010-05-01

    Everyday clinical practice frequently leads us to suspect a close relationship between the lumbar spine and the hip-joints. Sagittal balance fundamentally expresses a postural strategy mobilizing the dynamic structure of the lumbar-pelvic-femoral complex in an authentic balance by which obligatory coupled movements transmit stresses in a single structure, the spine, to the two-part structure of the lower limbs, and vice-versa. Flexion contracture is a frequent hip pathology, but congenital dislocation and ankylosis of the hip have the greatest impact on the spine, due to excessive mechanical strain and/or spinal malalignment, which is initially supple but becomes fixed. Clinical analysis, backed up if necessary by infiltration tests and imaging, guides indications for surgical management. These considerations suggest a general attitude that considers not just the hip itself, for which the patient is consulting, but the lumbar-pelvic-femoral complex as a whole (and also the knee) before undertaking total hip replacement. Femoro-acetabular impingement is a recently described pathology associating morphological hip-joint abnormality and labral and joint cartilage lesions, leading to early osteoarthritis of the hip. Abnormal spinal or pelvic parameters have not been found associated with femoro-acetabular impingement. Congenital pelvic tilt is a benign and often overlooked pathology in children. Supra- and infra-pelvic pelvic tilt in childhood palsy raises the difficult strategic issue of how to get these children in their wheelchair with a well-balanced spine over a straight pelvis and frontally and sagittally balanced hips. PMID:20447890

  16. [Cyberknife and benign pathologies].

    PubMed

    Lallemand, F; Janvary, Z L; Jansen, N; Coucke, Ph

    2011-11-01

    Conventional radiotherapy is known to be an effective treatment approach even for "benign" pathologies. However, this kind of treatment yields a high potential for side effects. The Cyberknife, a robotic stereotactic radiotherapy device, enables to offset a large proportion of the disadvantages encountered with conventional radiotherapy essentially through the high precision of dose administration and sparing of healthy tissues. Therefore, it seems to be a treatment of choice in the approach of some benign intracranial diseases. We review published data on indications and outcome of Cyberknife for intracranial "non-malignant" disease. PMID:22216729

  17. Cancer: pathological nuclear reprogramming?

    PubMed

    Goding, Colin R; Pei, Duanqing; Lu, Xin

    2014-08-01

    The ability of stem cells to self-renew and generate different lineages during development and organogenesis is a fundamental, tightly controlled, and generally unidirectional process, whereas the 'immortality' of cancer cells could be regarded as pathological self-renewal. The molecular mechanisms that underpin the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells are remarkably similar to those that are deregulated in cancer - so much so that aberrant reprogramming is tumorigenic. The similarities also suggest that mutations in genes implicated in DNA methylation dynamics might represent a hallmark of cancers with a stem cell origin, and they highlight an alternative view of cancer that may be of clinical benefit. PMID:25030952

  18. Pathology Case Study: Seizures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology of a 51 year-old man with epilepsy. Images and results from a neurological examination are provided in this case. The patientâ??s diagnosis is found in the â??Final Diagnosisâ?ť section, which also includes a detailed description of the condition from the contributing doctors. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of neuropathology.

  19. Pathology Case Study: Fevers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kulich, Scott

    The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors in the health sciences field. In this case, a 68-year-old male patient experiencing fevers, chills, an associated non-productive cough, and weight loss was admitted to the hospital for examination. The â??Gross Description,â?ť â??Microscopic Description,â?ť and â?? Microbiologyâ?ť sections provide key information and images that contributed to the patientâ??s diagnosis. Clicking on the â??Final Diagnosisâ?ť provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment from the contributing doctors.

  20. The Diagnostic Conference Planning Questionnaire for Speech-Language Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Gail Ruppert

    1990-01-01

    The article describes a tool to increase professional effectiveness in supervisory conferencing in speech-language pathology based on the dual areas of role expectations for clinicians and personal needs as derived from Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The conferencing questionnaire aids in recognizing the needs of the supervisee, stating problems,…

  1. Population Density and Pathology: What Are the Relationships for Man?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galle, Omer R.; And Others

    Evidence of high population density's serious inhibiting effects on the reproductive, aggressive, withdrawal and sexual behavior of various animals, motivated a study of human pathology in overcrowded areas. Ecological relationships in Chicago and their impact on human behavior were assessed. The number of persons per acre, Standardized Mortality…

  2. Pathological Narcissism and Interpersonal Behavior in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Michael J.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Conroy, David E.; Hyde, Amanda L.; Ram, Nilam

    2014-01-01

    The Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) has been proposed as a useful meta-framework for integrating contextual differences in situations with individual differences in personality pathology. In this article, we evaluated the potential of combining the CAPS meta-framework and contemporary interpersonal theory to investigate how individual differences in pathological narcissism influenced interpersonal functioning in daily life. University students (N = 184) completed event-contingent reports about interpersonal interactions across a 7-day diary study. Using multilevel regression models, we found that combinations of narcissistic expression (grandiosity, vulnerability) were associated with different interpersonal behavior patterns reflective of interpersonal dysfunction. These results are among the first to empirically demonstrate the usefulness of the CAPS model to conceptualize personality pathology through the patterning of if-then interpersonal processes. PMID:23205698

  3. The Pathology Laboratory Act 2007 explained.

    PubMed

    Looi, Lai-Meng

    2008-06-01

    The past century has seen tremendous changes in the scope and practice of pathology laboratories in tandem with the development of the medical services in Malaysia. Major progress was made in the areas of training and specialization of pathologists and laboratory technical staff. Today the pathology laboratory services have entered the International arena, and are propelled along the wave of globalization. Many new challenges have emerged as have new players in the field. Landmark developments over the past decade include the establishment of national quality assurance programmes, the mushrooming of private pathology laboratories, the establishment of a National Accreditation Standard for medical testing laboratories based on ISO 15189, and the passing of the Pathology Laboratory Act in Parliament in mid-2007. The Pathology Laboratory Act 2007 seeks to ensure that the pathology laboratory is accountable to the public, meets required standards of practice, participates in Quality Assurance programmes, is run by qualified staff, complies with safety requirements and is subject to continuous audit. The Act is applicable to all private laboratories (stand alone or hospital) and laboratories in statutory bodies (Universities, foundations). It is not applicable to public laboratories (established and operated by the government) and side-room laboratories established in clinics of registered medical or dental practitioners for their own patients (tests as in the First and Second Schedules respectively). Tests of the Third Schedule (home test blood glucose, urine glucose, urine pregnancy test) are also exempted. The Act has 13 Parts and provides for control of the pathology laboratory through approval (to establish and maintain) and licensing (to operate or provide). The approval or license may only be issued to a sole proprietor, partnership or body corporate, and then only if the entity includes a registered medical practitioner. Details of personnel qualifications and laboratory practices are left to be specified by the Director-General of Health, providing for a formal recognition process and room for revision as pathology practices evolve. Encompassed in the responsibilities of the licensee is the requirement that samples are received and results issued through, and management vested in, a registered medical or dental practitioner. This effectively prohibits "walk-ins" to the laboratory and indiscriminate public screening. The requirement for a person-in-charge in accordance with class and speciality of laboratory ensures that the laboratory is under the charge of the pathology profession. Examined carefully, the requirements of the Act are similar to laboratory accreditation, but are backed by legislation. Many of these details will be spelt out in the Regulations, and these in turn are likely to fall back on National professional guidelines, as accreditation does. Although not at first obvious, enforcement of the Act is based on self-regulation by pathology laboratory professionals. Sincere professional input is thus required to embrace its philosophy, ensure rational and transparent enforcement of legislation, and develop National guidelines for good pathology practices upon which enforcement may be based. PMID:19108405

  4. Sexuality, Personality, and Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KAMRYN T. EDDY; CATHERINE M. NOVOTNY; DREW WESTEN

    2004-01-01

    To assess sexuality, personality, and eating pathology in women with eating disorders (EDs), we asked a random sample of 234 clinicians to describe an ED patient (age 16–65). Restricting AN patients tended to be childlike and prim\\/proper, while BN patients tended to be flirtatious and promiscuous. A constricted\\/overcontrolled personality predicted a childlike sexuality independent of AN diagnosis, and an undercontrolled,

  5. Model Bill of Rights for People Receiving Audiology or Speech-Language Pathology Services

    MedlinePLUS

    Model Bill of Rights for People Receiving Audiology or Speech-Language Pathology Services Clients as consumers receiving ... exercise these rights on the person's behalf. This model bill of rights is an official statement of ...

  6. Glenoid labrum pathology.

    PubMed

    Clavert, P

    2015-02-01

    The glenoid labrum is the fibrocartilage of the shoulder joint, anchoring the joint capsule and shoulder ligaments. Morphology varies regionally, especially in the superior and anterior region; these variants can sometimes be confused with pathological aspects. The labrum is often involved in shoulder pathology, by single trauma or, more often, repeated microtrauma. It seems logical to classify and to describe tears according to two criteria: the sector involved, and associated pain or instability. In the superior labrum, SLAP lesions are the most frequent. These combine labral lesion and lesion of the proximal insertion of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon. The most frequent form is SLAP II. They may be associated with instability or not. In the antero-inferior and postero-inferior labrum, lesions are mainly due to instability, particularly Bankart lesions (capsulolabral avulsion) anteriorly and Kim's lesion posteriorly. Circumferential labral lesions may be found in unstable shoulder. Finally, postero-superior lesions involve Walch's internal impingement: repeated contact between the deep surface of the cuff and the labrum, which takes on a degenerative aspect, with a kissing lesion of the cuff. There is no general rule for management: some labral lesions are resected and others fixed. The cause (which is usually shoulder instability), however, needs to be assessed and treated. PMID:25596985

  7. Error in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Foucar, E

    2001-12-01

    Error in anatomic pathology is a topic that is currently making the difficult transition from a problem peculiar to a subset of poorly trained or otherwise inadequate pathologists to a problem shared by the specialty of pathology. This transition will involve a number of difficult steps, including sorting error from both inherent diagnostic uncertainty andfrom variations in practice patterns from which no evidence-based best practice has emerged. Identification of error will require scientifically valid diagnostic gold standards, and in those areas of diagnosis without such a standard, the identification of and response to error will continue to be heavily influenced by hindsight bias and subjective opinion. The pathologist, like other physicians, has limited options to "make things right" following a significant error The silver lining is that many errors have the potential to prompt changes that will prevent future patient harm. Unfortunately, a dysfunctional legal system that values punishment and transfer of assets over future improvements in health care has wrung much of the positive potential out of error, leaving only the damaged patient and damaged pathologist. PMID:11993701

  8. ADVERTISEMENT: Tenure track assistant professor in Pathology

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    ADVERTISEMENT: Tenure track assistant professor in Pathology The Department of Pathology and cellular mechanisms of disease. The Department of Pathology supports high quality basic science research-eligible in Clinical Pathology or Anatomic Pathology/Clinical Pathology, are encouraged to apply. The successful

  9. Personality Disorder Symptoms Are Differentially Related to Divorce Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Disney, Krystle L.; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55–64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM–IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM–IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression analyses showed Paranoid and Histrionic personality disorder symptoms to be consistently and positively associated with number of divorces across all three sources of personality assessment. Conversely, Avoidant personality disorder symptoms were negatively associated with number of divorces. The present paper provides new information about the relationship between divorce and personality pathology at a developmental stage that is understudied in both domains. PMID:23244459

  10. [Human person and personalism].

    PubMed

    Sgreccia, Elio

    2013-01-01

    The first part of this article is an analysis of the historical and philosophical evolution of the concept of human person, from antiquity to present times, including an outline of its major developments. The second part deals critically with reductionist and empiricist positions -particularly Engelhardt's and of utilitarianism- exposing some of its practical implications in the realm of Bioethics. Finally the author concludes with an enunciation of what would constitute a conceptual basis for the ontological foundation of Personal Bioethics derived from the initial framework of intuitive ideas first outlined by Sgreccia in the eighties. PMID:23745824

  11. Interpersonal perception and personality disorders: Utilization of a thin slice approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline N. W. Friedman; Thomas F. Oltmanns; Eric Turkheimer

    2007-01-01

    Study 1 expands upon previous research by looking at the ability of untrained raters to detect pathological traits within a normal population of college students. In Study 1, 30-s video clips of 81 target persons were shown to 42 raters. Ratings of traits of personality disorders made by thin slice raters reliably predicted scores on the personality pathology measures obtained

  12. Is pathological gambling moderated by age?

    PubMed

    Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Stinchfield, Randy; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Fröberg, Frida; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peńa, Mónica; Pérez-Serrano, Miriam; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2014-06-01

    The age of a patient is a strong moderator of both the course and the evolution of disorders/diseases. However, the effects of current age in pathological gambling (PG) have rarely been examined. The aim of this study is to explore the moderating effects of the patients' current age in relation to personality traits and clinical outcomes of PG. A total sample of 2,309 treatment-seeking patients for PG, diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, participated in this study and were assessed with the Diagnostic Questionnaire for Pathological Gambling according to DSM-IV criteria, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Symptom Checklist, the Temperament and Character Inventory-R, and other clinical and psychopathological measures. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts showed linear trends in the relationship between age and PG: the older the patient, the more comorbid health problems were visible. The presence of additional quadratic trends also suggests that age plays a significant role in moderating the possibility of existing PG problems and general psychopathology. No interaction term was found between age and sex, but it was present for age and some personality traits: self-transcendence and reward dependence (these two traits were only relevant to the level of impairment due to PG at specific ages). This study suggests that the patients' age influences psychopathological and clinical aspects associated to PG. Intervention in the earliest manifestations of this complex problem is essential in order to better address the need of successful treatment planning. PMID:23494243

  13. Recurrent pathological jealousy.

    PubMed

    Hollender, M H; Fishbein, J H

    1979-08-01

    A 36-year-old man suffered from pathological jealousy during three marriages. The episodes involving delusions of infidelity were usually preceded by premonitory symptoms. At first, the patient responded by discontinuing his medication (a phenothiazine) so that he might remain vigilant. Later he came to recognize the premonitory symptoms as signals indicating a need for help, and he would request hospitalization. In the periods between his marriages he was never troubled by feelings of jealousy. The chief determinant of delusions of infidelity in this instance, as in three reported by Docherty and Ellis, seemed to be exposure to the mother's extramarital sexual relations. This case, in which three different wives were subjected to the same pattern of behavior, would seem to be an exception to the rule that if marital problems occur both partners are responsible for creating them. PMID:469516

  14. Pathology Case Study: Epilepsy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    French, Jacqueline A.

    This neuropathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent learning tool for students and instructors in the health science fields. In this case, a 27-year-old female presents with a history of seizures. A detailed patient history along with gross and microscopic images of the patientâ??s brain are included in this case study. The official diagnosis found in the â??Final Diagnosisâ?ť section is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  15. Pathology Case Study: Lymphocytosis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Contis, Lydia C.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes "a 72-year-old white male who presented to an outside facility with chest pain of 24 hours duration." Visitors are given patient history, admission data, peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, including images. They are also given flow cytometry and cytogenic data as well as molecular genetics, with images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

  16. Personality disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Personality disorders are a group of mental health conditions in which a person has a long-term pattern ... Causes of personality disorders are unknown. Genetic and ... a role. Mental health professionals categorize these disorders ...

  17. Personality, Addiction, Dopamine: Insights from Parkinson's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Dagher; Trevor W. Robbins

    2009-01-01

    In rare instances, patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may become addicted to their own medication or develop behavioral addictions such as pathological gambling. This is surprising because PD patients typi- cally have a very low incidence of drug abuse and display a personality type that is the polar opposite of the addictive personality. These rare addictive syndromes, which appear to

  18. Early detection of pathological gambling: betting on GPs' beliefs and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Achab, Sophia; Chatton, Anne; Khan, Riaz; Thorens, Gabriel; Penzenstadler, Louise; Zullino, Daniele; Khazaal, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is an addictive disorder with harm related to the high psychiatric comorbidity and increased suicidal risk. Prevalence rates in general population range from 0.2% to 2.1%. Problem gamblers are hard to attract to treatment programs for several proper reasons and for obstacles (e.g., accessibility). To address these obstacles, primary care (where the problem gambling (PrG) prevalence seems to be 6.2%) has a crucial role to play (i.e., identifying and referring patients to specialized treatment programs and treating at first line when needed and possible) in the era of online gambling offer expansion. The present work aimed to collect data on resources in the field from GPs themselves, using a 24-item online questionnaire. Swiss French-speaking participants were asked about their screening practice and knowledge. The results state that the vast majority of them are aware of the existence and the potential impact of PrG on their patients. However, PrG screening is not systematic and their knowledge of adequate treatments or referral methods is scarce. GPs being central to health screening in general, targeted advice and training on short screening tools and better knowledge of referral pathways should be promoted and continued to empower the GP's management skills in a public health approach. PMID:25243136

  19. An overview of the treatment of severe narcissistic pathology.

    PubMed

    Kernberg, Otto F

    2014-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of narcissistic personality disorders as they present clinically along a spectrum of severity ranging from the best functioning forms of pathological narcissism to the most threatening to the patient's psychosocial and physical survival. It proposes a general interpretive psychoanalytic stance with all these clinical syndromes that range from standard psychoanalysis to a specific psychoanalytical psychotherapy for the most repressive and life threatening conditions that may not respond to standard psychoanalysis proper. This general psychoanalytic approach is placed into the context of related developments in contemporary psychoanalytic understanding of pathological narcissism and its treatment. PMID:24902768

  20. Behavioral activation for pathological grief.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anthony; Rummel, Clair; Garrison-Diehn, Christina; Sewell, M Todd

    2013-01-01

    The death of a significant other often entails far-reaching changes in individuals' life that can contribute to pathological grief responses. This article reviews 3 prominent theories of grief resolution, highlights common factors proposed to be associated with pathological grief responses, and suggests that behavioral activation (Martell, Addis, & Jacobson, 2001) may address the factors contributing to pathological grieving. Behavioral activation applied to pathological grief may address loss related disruption by engaging bereaved individuals in their social environment and increasing contact with positive reinforcers that maintain sense of self. Two case studies are provided to demonstrate how behavioral activation can be adapted to remediate environmental disengagement, avoidance, and rumination typical of pathological grief responses. PMID:24517521

  1. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  2. Microchimerism in Endocrine Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Rust, Daniel W.

    2015-01-01

    Chimerism in an individual refers to the coexistence of cells arising from two distinct organisms. It can arise iatrogenically via transplant or blood transfusion, and physiologically via twin to twin transfer, or from trafficking between mother and fetus during pregnancy. Many of the diseases associated with microchimerism affect the endocrine system (e.g., autoimmune thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus type 1). Microchimerism is relevant to endocrine pathology because (a) it is associated with pregnancy, a condition of complex endocrine physiology; (b) maternofetal and feto-maternal cellular migration must involve the placenta, itself an endocrine organ; and (c) in some species, chimerism results in states of intersexuality, a condition intimately involved with endocrine physiology. Studies of feto-maternal microchimerism in the thyroid have documented the presence of fetal cells in association with Hashimoto thyroiditis, Graves’ disease, thyroid adenoma, and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Studies of materno-fetal microchimerism have documented the presence of maternal cells in juvenile diabetes and other pediatric conditions. Microchimerism plays a potential role in the repair of diseased thyroid and pancreatic tissues. PMID:19214801

  3. Contingency Learning in Alcohol Dependence and Pathological Gambling: Learning and Unlearning Reward Contingencies

    PubMed Central

    Vanes, Lucy D; van Holst, Ruth J; Jansen, Jochem M; van den Brink, Wim; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) and pathological gambling (PG) are characterized by dysfunctional reward processing and their ability to adapt to alterations of reward contingencies is impaired. However, most neurocognitive tasks investigating reward processing involve a complex mix of elements, such as working memory, immediate and delayed rewards, and risk-taking. As a consequence, it is not clear whether contingency learning is altered in AD or PG. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine performance in a deterministic contingency learning task, investigating discrimination, reversal, and extinction learning. Methods Thirty-three alcohol-dependent patients (ADs), 28 pathological gamblers (PGs), and 18 healthy controls (HCs) performed a contingency learning task in which they learned stimulus–reward associations that were first reversed and later extinguished while receiving deterministic feedback throughout. Accumulated points, number of perseverative errors and trials required to reach a criterion in each learning phase were compared between groups using nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis rank-sum tests. Regression analyses were performed to compare learning curves. Results PGs and ADs did not differ from HCs in discrimination learning, reversal learning, or extinction learning, on the nonparametric tests. Regression analyses, however, showed differences in the initial speed of learning: PGs were significantly faster in discrimination learning compared to ADs, and both PGs and ADs learned slower than HCs in the reversal learning and extinction phases of the task. Conclusions Learning rates for reversal and extinction were slower for the alcohol-dependent group and PG group compared to HCs, suggesting that reversing and extinguishing learned contingencies require more effort in ADs and PGs. This implicates a diminished flexibility to overcome previously learned contingencies. PMID:24821534

  4. Abnormalities of functional brain networks in pathological gambling: a graph-theoretical approach

    PubMed Central

    Tschernegg, Melanie; Crone, Julia S.; Eigenberger, Tina; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Lemčnager, Tagrid; Mann, Karl; Thon, Natasha; Wurst, Friedrich M.; Kronbichler, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies of pathological gambling (PG) demonstrate alterations in frontal and subcortical regions of the mesolimbic reward system. However, most investigations were performed using tasks involving reward processing or executive functions. Little is known about brain network abnormalities during task-free resting state in PG. In the present study, graph-theoretical methods were used to investigate network properties of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in PG. We compared 19 patients with PG to 19 healthy controls (HCs) using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT). None of the examined global metrics differed between groups. At the nodal level, pathological gambler showed a reduced clustering coefficient in the left paracingulate cortex and the left juxtapositional lobe (supplementary motor area, SMA), reduced local efficiency in the left SMA, as well as an increased node betweenness for the left and right paracingulate cortex and the left SMA. At an uncorrected threshold level, the node betweenness in the left inferior frontal gyrus was decreased and increased in the caudate. Additionally, increased functional connectivity between fronto-striatal regions and within frontal regions has also been found for the gambling patients. These findings suggest that regions associated with the reward system demonstrate reduced segregation but enhanced integration while regions associated with executive functions demonstrate reduced integration. The present study makes evident that PG is also associated with abnormalities in the topological network structure of the brain during rest. Since alterations in PG cannot be explained by direct effects of abused substances on the brain, these findings will be of relevance for understanding functional connectivity in other addictive disorders. PMID:24098282

  5. Molecular pathology of lung cancer: key to personalized medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Cheng; Riley E Alexander; Gregory T MacLennan; Oscar W Cummings; Rodolfo Montironi; Antonio Lopez-Beltran; Harvey M Cramer; Darrell D Davidson; Shaobo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The majority of lung adenocarcinoma patients with epidermal growth factor receptor- (EGFR) mutated or EML4–ALK rearrangement-positive tumors are sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Both primary and acquired resistance in a significant number of those patients to these therapies remains a major clinical problem. The specific molecular mechanisms associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance are not fully understood. Clinicopathological observations suggest

  6. Occipitocervical junction: imaging, pathology, instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Benke, Michael; Yu, Warren D; Peden, Sean C; O'Brien, Joseph R

    2011-10-01

    The occipitocervical junction (OCJ) is a highly specialized area of the spine. Understanding the unique anatomy, imaging, and craniometry of this area is paramount in recognizing and managing the potentially devastating effects that pathology has on it. Instrumentation techniques continue to evolve, the goal being to safely obtain durable, rigid constructs that allow immediate stability, anatomical alignment, and osseous fusion. This article reviews the pathologic conditions at the OCJ and the current instrumentation and fusion options available for treatment. The general orthopedist needs to recognize the pathology common in this region and appropriately refer patients for treatment. PMID:22263204

  7. Pathology Case Study: Renal Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christakos, Peter

    This is a pediatric pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 19-month-old boy has a renal mass. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

  8. Proudly sponsored by the Department of Pathology

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Proudly sponsored by the Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine "The Challenge patient journeys Display: Real time diagnostics in surgery and molecular pathology approaches that have potential to be disruptive healthcare tools Proudly sponsored by the Department of Pathology & Laboratory

  9. NOAAINMFS Developments National Registry of Marine Pathology

    E-print Network

    NOAAINMFS Developments National Registry of Marine Pathology Opens, Seeks Fish Disease Information Registry of Marine Pathology makes available to marine and estuarine biologists and patholo- gists- ment facility consists of slidecollections illustrating pathology, parasitism, or anomalies in species

  10. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

  11. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

  12. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

  13. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

  14. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

  15. The Neuropathology of Older Persons with and Without Dementia from Community versus Clinic Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Julie A.; Aggarwal, Neelum T.; Barnes, Lisa; Boyle, Patricia; Bennett, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Community-based cohorts of older persons may differ neuropathologically from clinic-based cohorts. This study investigated age-related pathologies in persons with and without dementia and included autopsied participants from two community-based cohorts, the Rush Religious Orders Study (n = 386) and the Memory and Aging Project (n = 195), and one clinic-based cohort, the Clinical Core of the Rush Alzheimer’s Disease Center (n = 392). Final clinical diagnoses included no cognitive impairment (n = 202), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 150), probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (n = 474), possible AD (n = 88), and other dementias (n = 59). Postmortem diagnoses included pathologic AD, cerebral infarcts, and Lewy body disease. Community-based persons with clinical AD had less severe AD pathology (p < 0.001) and had more cerebral infarcts (p < 0.001) compared to clinic-based persons. Additionally, community-based persons with MCI had more infarcts compared to clinic-based persons. Overall, there was a higher proportion of Lewy bodies and atypical pathologies in the clinic-based compared to the community-based cohorts (p < 0.001). Community-based persons with probable AD show less severe AD pathology and more often have infarcts and mixed pathologies; those with MCI more often have infarcts and mixed pathologies. Overall, clinic-based persons have more Lewy bodies and atypical pathologies. The spectrum of pathologies underlying cognitive impairment in clinic-based cohorts differs from community-based cohorts. PMID:19749406

  16. DIRECTOR OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY In this position, the selected candidate will have major responsibility for all of surgical pathology

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    DIRECTOR OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY In this position, the selected candidate will have major responsibility for all of surgical pathology diagnostic services including gynecologic pathology, neuropathology, renal pathology, uropathology and general surgical pathology. The Stanford Department of Pathology

  17. DIRECTOR OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY In this position, the selected candidate will have major responsibility for all of surgical pathology

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    DIRECTOR OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY In this position, the selected candidate will have major responsibility for all of surgical pathology diagnostic services including gynecologic pathology, renal pathology, uropathology and general surgical pathology. The Stanford Department of Pathology provides diagnostic services

  18. Personality Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. ...

  19. Evidence for the criterion validity and clinical utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (Ns = 299, 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability with established indices of normal personality traits, psychopathology and clinical concerns, and pathological personality traits. Overall, the pattern of correlations supported the convergent and discriminate validity of grandiose and vulnerable conceptualizations of pathological narcissism as measured by the PNI. Clinical utility was assessed by evaluating the extent to which clinicians without specific training in pathological narcissism as well as clinicians with expertise in pathological narcissism could accurately predict the correlates of PNI grandiosity and vulnerability with normal and pathological personality traits and psychopathology. The rcontrast-cv coefficient (Westen & Rosenthal, 2003) provided a global index of accuracy in clinicians’ predictions that was more fully elaborated by examining systematic discrepancies across groups. Overall, novice and expert clinicians were generally able to predict criterion correlations, with some exceptions (e.g., counter to predictions, pathological narcissism was negatively associated with treatment resistance). These results provide further evidence regarding the validity and utility of the narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability constructs as measured by the PNI. PMID:22315481

  20. Digital pathology and image analysis in tissue biomarker research.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Peter W; Bankhead, Peter; Wang, Yinhai; Hutchinson, Ryan; Kieran, Declan; McArt, Darragh G; James, Jacqueline; Salto-Tellez, Manuel

    2014-11-01

    Digital pathology and the adoption of image analysis have grown rapidly in the last few years. This is largely due to the implementation of whole slide scanning, advances in software and computer processing capacity and the increasing importance of tissue-based research for biomarker discovery and stratified medicine. This review sets out the key application areas for digital pathology and image analysis, with a particular focus on research and biomarker discovery. A variety of image analysis applications are reviewed including nuclear morphometry and tissue architecture analysis, but with emphasis on immunohistochemistry and fluorescence analysis of tissue biomarkers. Digital pathology and image analysis have important roles across the drug/companion diagnostic development pipeline including biobanking, molecular pathology, tissue microarray analysis, molecular profiling of tissue and these important developments are reviewed. Underpinning all of these important developments is the need for high quality tissue samples and the impact of pre-analytical variables on tissue research is discussed. This requirement is combined with practical advice on setting up and running a digital pathology laboratory. Finally, we discuss the need to integrate digital image analysis data with epidemiological, clinical and genomic data in order to fully understand the relationship between genotype and phenotype and to drive discovery and the delivery of personalized medicine. PMID:25034370

  1. [Personality disorders and schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Smulevich, A B

    2011-01-01

    Interactions of constitutional character anomalies with endogenous disease are considered. Deformation of personality structure caused by the endogenous process in light of traditional conceptions (personality disorders (PD) as the perversion of inherent traits or the formation of new traits due to the schizophrenic defect) and current conceptions (PD as Axis II disorders, comorbid to psychopathological presentations of Axis I, "recovery" conception) are viewed on the basis of amplification mechanisms, "splitting" etc that do not principally alter the initial premorbid structure. These correlations do not explain all the diversity of interactions between the abnormal personality structure and endogenous process. A mechanism of this interaction is realized according to the complete "substitution" of constitutional properties by psychopathological presentations of the previous psychosis. The data obtained suggest that these clinical formations further do not undergo the reverse development but, maintaining its syndrome completeness, during the stabilization of the schizophrenic process reduce to the level of "minor psychiatric disorders", i.e. to the level of border-line psychiatric pathology and duplicate the psychosis. Just in these cases the state may be determined as PD acquired during the lifetime per se. Based on the matrix reflecting the residual signs of the process, the restoration of the personality is implemented. PMID:21350405

  2. Perception testing in surgical pathology.

    PubMed

    Berbaum, K S; Platz, C

    1988-10-01

    A test predictive of mature pathologic expertise could be of great value in the selection of individuals entering the field. Some individuals may have an aptitude superior to others to discriminate images based on the discovery of distinctive image features. This may enhance their ability to draw pathologic conclusions from clinical images and may favorably affect their performance as pathologists. A form of the Facial Recognition Test was administered to pathology residents and faculty to test this hypothesis. Facial recognition results correlated well with resident performance measured by overall faculty ratings, but only marginally with performance measured by scores on "direct recognition" slides of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists' in-service pathology exams. These preliminary results indicate that testing of visual discrimination may be predictive of resident performance in pathology. A test of this type could eventually be useful in selection and self selection of resident candidates and in development of remedial training for residents experiencing difficulty in learning morphologic interpretation. PMID:3169722

  3. ADVERTISEMENT: Tenure track assistant professors in Pathology

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    ADVERTISEMENT: Tenure track assistant professors in Pathology The Department of Pathology related to molecular and cellular mechanisms of disease. The Department of Pathology supports high quality of the Department of Pathology. Applicants must have a Ph.D., M.D., or M.D./Ph.D. degree. Applicants who are board

  4. ANNUAL SPEECH PATHOLOGY HONOURS RESEARCH MINICONFERENCE 2012

    E-print Network

    ANNUAL SPEECH PATHOLOGY HONOURS RESEARCH MINICONFERENCE 2012 Every year the Speech Pathology CRICOSProviderCode00301J(WA),02637B(NSW) All interested are welcome. This invitation extends to Speech Pathology.Yuen@curtin.edu.au Telephone +61 8 9266 7984 or visit psych.curtin.edu.au School of Psychology & Speech Pathology Monday 15th

  5. Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Hypertension

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Horn, Kevin D.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 20-year-old man has a history of pulmonary hypertension. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

  6. Pathology Case Study: Lung Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bastacky, Sheldon

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in learning. A 59-year-old patient with a history of smoking was admitted for a biopsy of his recently transplanted liver. Laboratory results, X-ray images, microscopic descriptions and images are provided to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The doctor's official conclusions and references are included in the "Final Diagnosis" section. Students entering health sciences fields will find this resource very helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

  7. Pathology Case Study: Testicular Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fowler, Jason C.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 18-year-old male with "painless enlargement of the right testes over a period of several months, initially attributed to a sports injury." Visitors are given admission data along with gross and microscopic description, including images and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

  8. Pathology Case Study: Chronic Sinusitis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Becich, Michael J.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man reported a history of chronic sinusitis that was not responding to nasal and antibiotic treatments. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of head and neck pathology.

  9. Pathology Case Study: Hepatitis C

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Richert, Charles A.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 43-year-old male with Hepatitis C has had a laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

  10. Pathology Case Study: Metastasizing Tumor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rao, Uma N. M.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman presented with a low-grade sarcoma with features of plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor in the subcutaneous soft tissue of left posterior thigh. Visitors can view both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

  11. Pathology Case Study: Pigmented Lesion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ejadi, Samuel

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 69-year-old man has a pigmented lesion on his right ear. Visitors are given the patient history and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

  12. Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hardy, Hunter T.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older woman developed a renal mass without evidence of angiomyolipoma. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in endocrine pathology.

  13. Pathology Case Study: Mediastinal Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fowler, Jason C.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man complained of diaphoresis nausea and substernal chest pain through his left arm. Subsequent tests revealed a mediastinal mass with both fatty and solid components. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

  14. Pathology Case Study: Postmenopausal Bleeding

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chen, Lei

    This gynecologic pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 57-year-old female with postmenopausal bleeding. The patientâ??s history, and results from a pelvic ultrasound are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  15. Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Duggal, Neil

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâ??s history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

  16. Pathology Case Study: Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    DeFrances, Marie C.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with a large range of symptoms from chills and fever to underdeveloped calf muscles. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

  17. Pathology Case Study: Skin Lesion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Holst, Valerie

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman with uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma with focal squamous differentiation arising in complex atypical hyperplasia. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

  18. The role of responsible gambling strategy and gambling passion in the online gamblers' decision-making process: revising the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaeseok; Chen, Chih-Chien; Song, Hak-Jun; Lee, Choong-Ki

    2014-06-01

    This study revised the theory of planned behavior (TPB) by incorporating the new concepts of gambling passion and responsible gambling strategy (RGS) to predict gamblers' intention to gamble in online sports betting. The data were collected at the end of March in 2012 through an online gambling website. The findings indicated that the inclusion of two types of gambling passion and two types of RGS explains online gambling intention well. Specifically, out of the original antecedent predictors of TPB, attitude toward online gambling was positively related to harmonious passion. Subjective norm had a positive relationship with both harmonious and obsessive passion. The results also showed that perceived behavioral control does not have a significant effect on the two gambling passions but has a direct and significant influence on behavioral intention. Additionally, the compulsory RGS had a negative effect on obsessive passion, whereas supplementary RGS had concurrent positive impacts on harmonious and obsessive passion. Lastly, the two gambling passions were notable predictors of behavioral intention toward online sports betting. PMID:23334577

  19. Pathology Service "Keen Minds to Explore the Dark Continents of Disease: A History of the Pathology

    E-print Network

    Mootha, Vamsi K.

    Pathology Service "Keen Minds to Explore the Dark Continents of Disease: A History of the Pathology, Chief of Pathology and Robert Young, MD. The rich history of pathology at the Massachusetts General. This book offers a detailed account of the history of the Mass General Pathology department, a unique view

  20. katherine henderson Pathology Slide Scanning rev1 Page 1 10/21/14 Scanning in Pathology

    E-print Network

    katherine henderson Pathology Slide Scanning rev1 Page 1 10/21/14 Scanning in Pathology Pathology and multi-function printers, which also allow scanning. Whole Slide Scanning for Virtual Pathology: Use be dropped off in Surgpath Available Spectrum Server/ Pathology Digital Slide Collection Use Path course

  1. Career Opportunities in The Intersociety Committee on Pathology Information, Inc.

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yan

    · Lung #12;Pathology Specialties (Fellowship Training) Mixed Specialties: · Forensic Pathology academic department in U.S. has a vacancy (130 medical schools; 155 training programs) · PathologyCareer Opportunities in PATHOLOGY The Intersociety Committee on Pathology Information, Inc. #12

  2. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  3. Total claviculectomy for pathological fractures.

    PubMed

    Spar, I

    1977-01-01

    Two patients with pathological fractures of the clavicle were treated by total claviculectomy with relief of symptoms. Subsequent drooping of the shoulder with mild weakness of the affected upper extremity seems related to the loss of normal arcuate shoulder motion that is dependent upon the yardarm function of the clavicle. PMID:608283

  4. Central mechanisms of pathological pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohini Kuner

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain is a major challenge to clinical practice and basic science. The peripheral and central neural networks that mediate nociception show extensive plasticity in pathological disease states. Disease-induced plasticity can occur at both structural and functional levels and is manifest as changes in individual molecules, synapses, cellular function and network activity. Recent work has yielded a better understanding of

  5. Normal versus pathological voice signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EVERTHON S. FONSECA; JOS E C. PEREIRA

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a method to analyze the time-frequency characteristics to distinguish pathological voices from patients with Reinke's edema and nodules in vocal folds was developed. Daubechies discrete wavelet transform (DWT) components of approximation and detail in convenient scales of frequency for different voice signals were used to analyze the time-frequency signal characteristics. In this work, 71 voice signals were

  6. ORIGINAL PAPER Journal of Pathology

    E-print Network

    Kenny, Paraic

    of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA 2 Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA 3 Medical Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA 5 Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY

  7. Towards DSM-V: considering other withdrawal-like symptoms of pathological gambling disorder

    PubMed Central

    CUNNINGHAM-WILLIAMS, RENEE M.; GATTIS, MAURICE N.; DORE, PETER M.; SHI, PEICHANG; SPITZNAGEL, EDWARD L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite clinical reports of other withdrawal-like symptoms, the DSM-IV considers only restlessness/irritability as a withdrawal-like criterion comprising pathological gambling disorder (PGD). We explored whether this criterion should be broadened to include other gambling withdrawal-like symptoms. Community-recruited adult gamblers (n = 312) participated in telephone interviews about gambling and related behaviors as a part of a larger psychometric study. Frequency and chi-square analyses described the association of gambling withdrawal-like symptoms by gambling disorder status. Multinomial forward selection logistic regression obtained a multivariate model describing the simultaneous relationship between these symptoms and gambling disorder status. One-quarter of the sample experienced the DSM-IV PGD criterion of restlessness/irritability. However, 41% experienced additional gambling withdrawal-like symptoms when attempting to quit or control gambling. A model including restlessness/irritability and three additional non-DSM-IV withdrawal-like symptoms (i.e. feelings of anger, guilt, and disappointment) is a stronger model of gambling disorder (?2 = 217.488; df = 8, p < 0.0001; R2 = 0.5428; p < 0.0001) than restlessness/irritability alone (?2 = 151.278; df = 2, p < 0.0001; R2 = 0.4133). The overlap of gambling withdrawal-like symptoms with substance use withdrawal (11%) and depressive symptoms (34%) failed to fully account for these associations with gambling disorder status. Future PGD conceptualization and potential criteria revisions for DSM-V may warrant a broader inclusion of gambling withdrawal-like symptoms. PMID:19197945

  8. Diagnostic pathology in 2012: development of digital pathology in an open access journal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Herein we describe and interpret the digital world of diagnostic surgical pathology, and take the in Pathology leading Open Access Journal Diagnostic Pathology as example. Virtual slide http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1944221953867351 PMID:23305209

  9. Narcissistic personality disorder in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Skodol, Andrew E; Bender, Donna S; Morey, Leslie C

    2014-10-01

    The criteria for personality disorders in Section II of DSM-5 have not changed from those in DSM-IV. Therefore, the diagnosis of Section II narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) will perpetuate all of the well-enumerated shortcomings associated with the diagnosis since DSM-III. In this article, we will briefly review problems associated with Section II NPD and then discuss the evolution of a new model of personality disorder and the place in the model of pathological narcissism and NPD. The new model was intended to be the official approach to the diagnosis of personality pathology in DSM-5, but was ultimately placed as an alternative in Section III for further study. The new model is a categorical-dimensional hybrid based on the assessment of core elements of personality functioning and of pathological personality traits. The specific criteria for NPD were intended to rectify some of the shortcomings of the DSM-IV representation by acknowledging both grandiose and vulnerable aspects, overt and covert presentations, and the dimensionality of narcissism. In addition, criteria were assigned and diagnostic thresholds set based on empirical data. The Section III representation of narcissistic phenomena using dimensions of self and interpersonal functioning and relevant traits offers a significant improvement over Section II NPD. PMID:23834518

  10. Department of Pathology Medical Service Plan Clinical Pathology Coagulation Laboratory Patient Information Label

    E-print Network

    Dai, Yang

    Department of Pathology ­ Medical Service Plan Clinical Pathology ­ Coagulation Laboratory Patient or coagulopathy screen, interpretation and report 85396 Coagulation/fibrinolysis assay 85576-26 26, 91 Platelet

  11. Rotator cuff and subacromial pathology.

    PubMed

    Yablon, Corrie M; Jacobson, Jon A

    2015-07-01

    Both MRI and ultrasound (US) demonstrate equivalent accuracy in the evaluation of the rotator cuff. Both modalities have their advantages, disadvantages, and pitfalls. Radiography is an important complementary modality in that it can demonstrate occult sources of shoulder pain. MRI is recommended for the evaluation of shoulder pain in patients?pathology is frequently identified. However, in patients?>?40 years, US should be the first-line modality because the incidence of rotator cuff pathology increases with age. US is useful to guide procedures such as subacromial injection and calcific tendinosis lavage. Radiologists should be knowledgeable of both MRI and US of the shoulder to tailor these examinations to the specific needs of their patients. PMID:26021584

  12. Pathology Case Study: Stillborn Fetus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Klatt, Edward C., 1951-

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a 29 year old Hispanic woman who delivered a stillborn fetus with a estimated gestation of 29 weeks. Visitors are provided with patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in perinatal pathology.

  13. Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Distention

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rao, Uma N. M.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 60-year-old woman who presented with a history of marked abdominal distention lasted for several months with associated progressive fatigue, progressive weight loss and fever. Visitors are given patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.

  14. Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Nodules

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Arnold, Sonya

    This pediatric pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. The learning objectives located at the top of the page are a great way for students to evaluate their learning progress. This case involves a 12-year-old girl presenting with recurrent lung nodules. Images from chest x-rays and a lung biopsy provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâ??s diagnosis. A description of these images is also provided. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  15. Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gregorio, Remigio

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes "a 46-year-old gentleman with a persistent right lower lobe pulmonary mass after a successfully treated cavitary pneumonia 5 months ago." Visitors are given patient history along with radiology findings and images. They are also given gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

  16. Personality Disorder in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A controlled study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rocco D. Crino; Gavin Andrews

    1996-01-01

    In order to assess Axis II pathology in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder patients as compared to other anxiety disorder patients, the Personality Disorder Examination was administered to 258 anxiety disorder patients. In contrast to a number of recent reports, a low rate of personality disorder diagnoses were found in the OCD sample as well as the anxiety disorder control subjects. The

  17. Personality dimensions in panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladan Starcevic; E. H. Uhlenhuth; Stephanie Fallon; Dorothy Pathak

    1996-01-01

    To make a dimensional assessment of personality in individuals with pathological anxiety, the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) was administered to 32 patients with panic disorder (PD) and 49 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The most striking findings were a substantially increased score on the harm avoidance dimension in both groups of patients, and a lack of significant differences between

  18. Optical diagnostics of liver pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randeberg, Lise L.; Haugen, Olav A.; Svaasand, Lars O.

    2003-10-01

    The applicability of reflectance spectroscopy to detect pathological changes in human liver tissue was investigated. Post mortem reflectance spectra were collected from liver tissue originating from 13 individuals. A point counting method was applied to determine relative areas of connective tissue, liver cells with or without fat vacuoles, and vascular spaces in the liver. Preliminary results show that the amount of fat and connective tissue in liver can be estimated from reflectance spectra.

  19. [Pathologic anatomy of large fetuses].

    PubMed

    Iakovtsova, A F; Grishchenko, V I; Gubina-Vakulik, G I; Sorokina, I V; Simacheva, A V

    1986-01-01

    A controlled clinicomorphological study of 170 big fetuses versus 70 medium body mass fetuses (controls) was performed with a special emphasis on the endocrine regulation in the functional system mother-placenta-fetus. Clinically, there was no evidence of mother's endocrine system pathology, though morphological studies (histological, histochemical, morphometric, immunofluorescent) revealed significant morphofunctional peculiarities of adenohypophysis, epiphysis, thyroid gland, adrenal cortex, endocrine apparatus of the pancreas and placenta in big fetuses in comparison with those in medium body mass fetuses. PMID:3800683

  20. Pathological defects in congenital myopathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline A. Sewry

    2008-01-01

    Congenital myopathies are a molecularly, pathologically and clinically heterogenous group of disorders defined by hypotonia\\u000a and muscle weakness, that usually present at birth or early childhood, in association with a characteristic morphological\\u000a defect. The most common morphological defects are nemaline rods, cores of varying size, central nuclei, and type I fibre hypotrophy,\\u000a with or without an additional abnormality. The defective

  1. Choroid plexus: biology and pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hartwig Wolburg; Werner Paulus

    2010-01-01

    The choroid plexus is an epithelial–endothelial vascular convolute within the ventricular system of the vertebrate brain.\\u000a It consists of epithelial cells, fenestrated blood vessels, and the stroma, dependent on various physiological or pathological\\u000a conditions, which may contain fibroblasts, mast cells, macrophages, granulocytes or other infiltrates, and a rich extracellular\\u000a matrix. The choroid plexus is mainly involved in the production of

  2. Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, Noura B.; Gratuze, Maud; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Bretteville, Alexis; Planel, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include senile plaques of ?-amyloid (A?) peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF). NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD. Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99%) is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease. Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM) might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since Tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia. PMID:24574966

  3. Forensic pathology and the autopsy.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, C S

    1984-06-01

    Questionnaires sent to representative medicolegal jurisdictions in the United States showed that medicolegal necropsies comprise a substantial proportion of the total number of autopsies performed. Qualitative differences between customary hospital autopsies and their forensic counterparts include autopsy bias, the importance of trauma, biological variability, and medicolegal logic. Because of these differences, medicolegal autopsies have an important role to play in the education of undergraduate and graduate medical students and should be incorporated into the training programs of academic departments of pathology. PMID:6547300

  4. Pathological organizations and psychic retreats in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Kadish, Yael Adira

    2012-04-01

    A set of characteristic symptoms allow for the relatively straightforward diagnosis of eating disorders. Simultaneously and paradoxically, underlying the eating disorders are a wide variety of personality organizations/disorders, stretching from the neurotic to the borderline and narcissistic, and even to conditions approaching psychosis. This paper will argue that the inherent commonalities can be ascribed to pathological organizations of a similar nature and quality, operational across the spectrum of eating disorders and functioning in a particular, sadomasochistic way. The typical forms that eating disorders take are based on the specific ways that food and the body are used, that is, symptom manifestation. These distinctive symptom manifestations appear to be related to Steiner's (1982, 1993) notion of a psychic retreat. Pathological organizations and psychic retreats are latent until called upon either sporadically or continuously. When activated, these defensive structures operate like a complex psychic skeleton around which the unique psychodynamics of each patient become rearranged and thereby transformed. PMID:22489814

  5. Preoccupation as a mode of pathologic distance regulation.

    PubMed

    Lansky, M R

    This paper describes a defensive pattern, pathologic preoccupation, that is used to hide emotional absence under a mask of rationalization, in regard to loyalties outside the family. Observations and clinical data drawn from both individuals and families are used. The emphasis is on preoccupation as a transpersonal process of defense and on the resistances to treatment that result. The patient's struggle with the past against identification derives from representations of the family of origin in which the same-sex parent figures as an object of contempt or shame. Pathologic distance regulation must be understood through the manifest defensive operation of narcissistically vulnerable persons, that is, by the nature of binding and unbinding that occurs among real people, not just in fantasy. PMID:4086186

  6. Pathology of human influenza revisited.

    PubMed

    Kuiken, Thijs; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2008-09-12

    The pathology of human influenza has been studied most intensively during the three pandemics of the last century, the last of which occurred in 1968. It is important to revisit this subject because of the recent emergence of avian H5N1 influenza in humans as well as the threat of a new pandemic. Uncomplicated human influenza virus infection causes transient tracheo-bronchitis, corresponding with predominant virus attachment to tracheal and bronchial epithelial cells. The main complication is extension of viral infection to the alveoli, often with secondary bacterial infection, resulting in severe pneumonia. Complications in extra-respiratory tissues such as encephalopathy, myocarditis, and myopathy occur occasionally. Sensitive molecular and immunological techniques allow us to investigate whether these complications are a direct result of virus infection or an indirect result of severe pneumonia. Human disease from avian influenza virus infections is most severe for subtype H5N1, but also has been reported for H7 and H9 subtypes. In contrast to human influenza viruses, avian H5N1 virus attaches predominantly to alveolar and bronchiolar epithelium, corresponding with diffuse alveolar damage as the primary lesion. Viremia and extra-respiratory complications appear to be more common for infections with avian H5N1 virus than with human influenza viruses. Further understanding and comparison of the pathology of human and avian influenza virus infections only can be achieved by directed and careful pathological analysis of additional influenza cases. PMID:19230162

  7. Radiologic-pathologic correlation of musculoskeletal lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    This atlas correlates the pathologic and radiologic features of a wide variety of lesions of the bone and soft tissue. Multiple imaging techniques are illustrated with an emphasis on plain radiographs. The author stresses the interpretation of radiographic images in terms of underlying pathology rather than as isolated images. Illustrations of plain radiographs and other radiographic imaging techniques are correlated with numerous micro- and macroscopic pathologic illustrations showing typical histologic and gross pathologic features.

  8. Person Tracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keni Bernardin; Rainer Stiefelhagen; Aristodemos Pnevmatikakis; Oswald Lanz; Alessio Brutti; Josep R. Casas; Gerasimos Potamianos

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a One of the most basic building blocks for the understanding of human actions and interactions is the accurate detection and\\u000a tracking of persons in a scene. In constrained scenarios involving at most one subject, or in situations where persons can\\u000a be confined to a controlled monitoring space or required to wear markers, sensors, or microphones, these tasks can be solved

  9. Exploring the Association between Emotional Abuse and Childhood Borderline Personality Features: The Moderating Role of Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Kim L.; Latzman, Robert D.; Tull, Matthew T.; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the extant literature on borderline personality disorder has focused on the course, consequences, and correlates of this disorder among adults. However, little is known about childhood borderline personality (BP) features, or the factors associated with the emergence of BP pathology in childhood. A greater understanding of childhood BP…

  10. Graduate Student SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Long, Nicholas

    1 Graduate Student Handbook SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY PROGRAM STEPHEN F. AUSTIN STATE UNIVERSITY P;2 Dear Prospective student: Welcome to the Program website for Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology in Stephen F Austin State University. The field of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology is concerned

  11. Pathology in heuristic search Mitja Lustrek

    E-print Network

    Lu?trek, Mitja

    1 Pathology in heuristic search Mitja Lustrek Jozef Stefan Institute Department of Intelligent, showed the opposite. This paradox was termed minimax pathology. Our real- valued minimax model demonstrates that appropriate modeling of the heuristic error is enough to eliminate the pathology. We examine

  12. DEPARTMENT OF PLANT SCIENCES AND PLANT PATHOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    DEPARTMENT OF PLANT SCIENCES AND PLANT PATHOLOGY Montana State University Bozeman, MT Graduate and Plant Pathology Graduate Student Policies & Procedures Page 2 April 4, 2013 precedence over Pathology Graduate Student Policies & Procedures Page 3 April 4, 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION

  13. Undergraduate Student SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Long, Nicholas

    Undergraduate Student Handbook SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY PROGRAM STEPHEN F. AUSTIN STATE UNIVERSITY and Disorders Program #12;2 Contents SECTION PAGE 1.0 Speech-Language Pathology Program 4 1.1 History 4 1-Language-Hearing Association 27 #12;4 1.0 SFASU SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY AND AUDIOLOGY PROGRAM 1.1 History The Speech

  14. DIALETHEISM, SEMANTIC PATHOLOGY, AND THE OPEN PAIR

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    DIALETHEISM, SEMANTIC PATHOLOGY, AND THE OPEN PAIR Bradley Armour-Garb and James A. Woodbridge Over wish to address the dialetheist's treatment of cases of semantic pathology and to pose a worry, afflicting both consistent and inconsistent proposals for resolving semantic pathology. Thus, while our

  15. Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology Unique, hands-on study programs for students, biochemistry, plant physiology and agronomy. Plant Pathology Option Most research projects in this option are problem-oriented and pertain to major plant pathological problems in the state. Current research projects

  16. Plant Pathology 290 Graduate Seminar Series

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    Plant Pathology 290 Graduate Seminar Series Fall 2014 CRN: 57411 Mondays 9:00-10:00am 115 Hutchison Storer Seminar Speaker Professor, Plant Pathology University of Wisconsin-Madison Multi-gene copy number Detection of plant diseases by smell October 27 Jeremy Warren, PhD Candidate, Plant Pathology Exit Seminar

  17. Personalized ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Porter, LF; Black, GCM

    2014-01-01

    Porter L.F., Black G.C.M. Personalized ophthalmology. Clin Genet 2014: 86: 1–11. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2014 Ophthalmology has been an early adopter of personalized medicine. Drawing on genomic advances to improve molecular diagnosis, such as next-generation sequencing, and basic and translational research to develop novel therapies, application of genetic technologies in ophthalmology now heralds development of gene replacement therapies for some inherited monogenic eye diseases. It also promises to alter prediction, diagnosis and management of the complex disease age-related macular degeneration. Personalized ophthalmology is underpinned by an understanding of the molecular basis of eye disease. Two important areas of focus are required for adoption of personalized approaches: disease stratification and individualization. Disease stratification relies on phenotypic and genetic assessment leading to molecular diagnosis; individualization encompasses all aspects of patient management from optimized genetic counseling and conventional therapies to trials of novel DNA-based therapies. This review discusses the clinical implications of these twin strategies. Advantages and implications of genetic testing for patients with inherited eye diseases, choice of molecular diagnostic modality, drivers for adoption of personalized ophthalmology, service planning implications, ethical considerations and future challenges are considered. Indeed, whilst many difficulties remain, personalized ophthalmology truly has the potential to revolutionize the specialty. PMID:24665880

  18. The interface between multiple personality, spirit mediumship, and hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Richeport, M M

    1992-01-01

    In this paper I draw parallels between multiple personality, spirit mediumship, and hypnosis from historical, anthropological, and clinical perspectives. I emphasize Milton H. Erickson's view of multiple personalities as not necessarily pathological but as potential resources. He employed hypnosis to gain access to personalities and to transform their behavior from involuntary to voluntary actions. I discuss similarities between this view and the use of spirits as a resource with mediums. Natural trance therapies in other cultures offer a new perspective for viewing the normalcy or pathology of "other selves." PMID:1543146

  19. Toxicologic Pathology, 33:441448, 2005 Copyright C by the Society of Toxicologic Pathology

    E-print Network

    Bortolotti, Gary R.

    Toxicologic Pathology, 33:441­448, 2005 Copyright C by the Society of Toxicologic Pathology ISSN: 0192-6233 print / 1533-1601 online DOI: 10.1080/01926230590953097 Skeletal Pathology in White Storks of Veterinary Pathology, 2 Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada 3

  20. Anatomic and Clinical Pathology PATH 422a. Faculty: Pathology Faculty with LSUHSC-NO Faculty appointments

    E-print Network

    Anatomic and Clinical Pathology PATH 422a. Faculty: Pathology Faculty with LSUHSC-NO Faculty: 1.) To become familiar with surgical pathology grossing technique and tissue sign-out procedures. 2 related to anatomic pathology including fine needle aspiration, autopsy, surgical specimen grossing

  1. Personality disorder symptoms and marital functioning.

    PubMed

    South, Susan C; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2008-10-01

    Pathological personality is strongly linked with interpersonal impairment, yet no study to date has examined the relationship between concurrent personality pathology and dysfunction in marriage--a relationship that most people find central to their lives. In a cross-sectional study of a community sample of married couples (N = 82), the authors used multilevel modeling to estimate the association of self- and spouse-reported symptoms of personality disorder (PD) with levels of marital satisfaction and verbal aggression and perpetration of physical violence. Inclusion of self- and spouse report of total PD symptoms resulted in improved model fit and greater variance explained, with much of the improvement coming after the addition of spouse report. The incremental validity of spouse report for several of the 10 PD scales was supported for marital satisfaction and verbal aggression, particularly for the Borderline and Dependent PD scales. PMID:18837594

  2. Borderline Personality Characteristics and Treatment Outcome in Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for PTSD in Female Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Stephanie B.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies report that comorbid borderline personality pathology is associated with poorer outcomes in the treatment of Axis I disorders. Given the high rates of comorbidity between borderline personality pathology and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it is essential to determine whether borderline symptomatology affects PTSD treatment…

  3. [Personality disorders and psychopathology following trauma. Reflection on diagnostic classification].

    PubMed

    Wöller, W; Kruse, J

    2003-11-01

    Pervasive personality disorders have been shown to be long-term sequelae of cumulative childhood physical and sexual traumatization. This finding is not reflected in DSM-IV and ICD-10 classifications where post-traumatic stress disorder is confined to intrusions, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal. However, there is growing evidence that trauma etiology should be taken into account in planning treatment for personality disorders. It is not yet clear whether childhood traumatization is more strongly associated with borderline personality disorder than with other personality disorders. The finding of a substantial overlap between borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder gives rise to discussions concerning the relationship of these two pathologies. PMID:14598033

  4. Pathology Case Study: Chronic Hypertension

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Schubert, Eric

    This is a clinical chemistry case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 57-year-old female has longstanding hypertension and peripheral vascular disease. Visitors are given catheterization procedure data and retroperitoneal ultrasound findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

  5. Pathology Case Study: Intraventricular Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bilbao, Juan M., 1938-

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 22-year-old previously healthy woman was admitted to the hospital following a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Visitors are given admission data, CT scan images as well as microscopic description and images in order to provide the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

  6. Pathology Case Study: Flank Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ohori, N. Paul

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man noticed a large and painful mass on his right flank. A previous mass had been removed surgically but developed a post- operation fever and related difficulties. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of clinical microbiology.

  7. Pathology Case Study: Macrocytic Anemia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bahler, David

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older man suffering from chronic bronchitis and macrocytic anemia also developed persistent flu symptoms. Visitors view the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

  8. Pathology Case Study: Cervical Lymphadenopathy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Contis, Lydia C.

    This is a hematopathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 17-year-old female has cervical lymphadenopathy. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

  9. Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids: clinical, pathologic and genetic studies of a new kindred

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhiko Baba; Bernardino Ghetti; Matthew C. Baker; Ryan J. Uitti; Michael L. Hutton; Keiji Yamaguchi; Thomas Bird; Wenlang Lin; Michael W. DeLucia; Dennis W. Dickson; Zbigniew K. Wszolek

    2006-01-01

    Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by cerebral white matter degeneration with axonal spheroids leading to progressive cognitive and motor dysfunction. We report clinical and pathological features, as well as molecular genetic analysis, of a family with HDLS. A pedigree consisting of 27 persons in 5 generations contained 6 affected individuals. Dementia and

  10. [Computerized EEG and personality].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Pérez, A; Martínez López-Coterilla, M; Fajardo López, A; Lardelli Claret, A

    1989-01-01

    The ordinary EEG, on only showing qualitative malfunction of abnormal graphoelements in the tracings, proves itself insufficient to go into the analysis of psychological and psycho-pathological problems. Since computerised studies of EEG permit quantitative comparisons, we tried to apply them in correlation with the characteristics of the personality classified also with quantitative criteria, such as those offered in the personality inventory 16 PF; from which have been chosen the so-called factors of the second order, and the subjectivity-objectivity factors. The test was carried out on 100 voluntary subjects from Almeria (Spain), all with High School grades, between 18 and 40 years of age, of both sexes, all right-handed, without neuro-psychiatric history, and with normal ordinary EEGs. From the statistical analysis of the results one could deduce that there are significant specific relationships from the computerised EEG, with those secondary polar values of 16 PF: high and low anxiety, extroversion-introversion. Subjects with low anxiety presented a significant increase of the alpha band opposed to the subjects with high anxiety. There is a significant differences in power of the frontal areas between extrovert and introvert subjects. The extroverted subjects have a greater power of the right side and the introverted subjects a greater power of the left. PMID:2698596

  11. THE GRADUATE PROGRAM IN CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Luo, Haoxiang

    THE GRADUATE PROGRAM IN CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY FACULTY AND STUDENT HANDBOOK: REQUIREMENTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES DEPARTMENT OF PATHOLOGY VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY Revised November, 2009 #12;Pathology Graduate ........................................................................................................ 4 Electives in the Department of Pathology

  12. ADVERTISEMENT: ASSISTANT, ASSOCIATE OR FULL PROFESSOR OF PATHOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    ADVERTISEMENT: ASSISTANT, ASSOCIATE OR FULL PROFESSOR OF PATHOLOGY OF CLINICAL HEMATOLOGY LABORATORY The Department of Pathology at Stanford University. Candidates must be board certified in clinical pathology, anatomic pathology or both

  13. [Informed consent for aortic pathology].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hideyuki

    2014-09-01

    Obtaining informed consent from patients and their families before surgery, particularly for aortic pathology, is a necessary, and very important, step. This is because, although the risk of death from asymptomatic disease is underestimated in many cases, surgery for aortic pathology is generally associated with higher risks of mortality and morbidity than that in other fields. The importance of informed consent is the same in principle even in emergency cases. The surgeon must faithfully provide accurate medical information to the patient and family members, including a summary of the patient's condition, the purposes and necessity of treatment, alternatives, details of the procedure, risks, and possible postoperative complications. Extra consideration should be given to offering explanations at a level appropriate for the individual patient, according to factors such as age-group, philosophy, and comprehension ability, to ensure that patients fully understand and are in a position to make a decision of their own volition. The process of giving information and obtaining informed consent offers a prime opportunity to build a strong surgeon-patient relationship. PMID:25549434

  14. Personal Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on personal finance is designed to provide all Marines with the ability to manage their financial affairs successfully. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students, a course introduction, and a study guide (guidelines to…

  15. Investigative pathology: leading the post-genomic revolution.

    PubMed

    Berman, David M; Bosenberg, Marcus W; Orwant, Robin L; Thurberg, Beth L; Draetta, Gulio F; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Loda, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The completion of the Human Genome Project and the development of genome-based technologies over the past decade have set the stage for a new era of personalized medicine. By all rights, molecularly trained investigative pathologists should be leading this revolution. Singularly well suited for this work, molecular pathologists have the rare ability to wed genomic tools with unique diagnostic skills and tissue-based pathology techniques for integrated diagnosis of human disease. However, the number of pathologists with expertise in genome-based research has remained relatively low due to outdated training methods and a reluctance among some traditional pathologists to embrace new technologies. Moreover, because budding pathologists may not appreciate the vast selection of jobs available to them, they often end up choosing jobs that focus almost entirely on routine diagnosis rather than new frontiers in molecular pathology. This review calls for changes aimed at rectifying these troubling trends to ensure that pathology continues to guide patient care in a post-genomic era. PMID:21986811

  16. Character pathology and neuropsychological test performance in remitted opiate dependence

    PubMed Central

    Prosser, James M; Eisenberg, Daniel; Davey, Emily E; Steinfeld, Matthew; Cohen, Lisa J; London, Edythe D; Galynker, Igor I

    2008-01-01

    Background Cognitive deficits and personality pathology are prevalent in opiate dependence, even during periods of remission, and likely contribute to relapse. Understanding the relationship between the two in vulnerable, opiate-addicted patients may contribute to the design of better treatment and relapse prevention strategies. Methods The Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory (MCMI) and a series of neuropsychological tests were administered to three subject groups: 29 subjects receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MM), 27 subjects in protracted abstinence from methadone maintenance treatment (PA), and 29 healthy non-dependent comparison subjects. Relationships between MCMI scores, neuropsychological test results, and measures of substance use and treatment were examined using bivariate correlation and regression analysis. Results MCMI scores were greater in subjects with a history of opiate dependence than in comparison subjects. A significant negative correlation between MCMI scores and neuropsychological test performance was identified in all subjects. MCMI scores were stronger predictors of neuropsychological test performance than measures of drug use. Conclusion Formerly methadone-treated opiate dependent individuals in protracted opiate abstinence demonstrate a strong relationship between personality pathology and cognitive deficits. The cause of these deficits is unclear and most likely multi-factorial. This finding may be important in understanding and interpreting neuropsychological testing deficiencies in opiate-dependent subjects. PMID:19019247

  17. [Instability of personality characteristics and personality disorders during the lifespan: effects for assessment in older adults].

    PubMed

    Tummers, J H A; Derksen, J L L; van Alphen, S P J

    2010-04-01

    The instability of personality characteristics and personality disorders during the lifespan is the topic of this literature search. It concerns the effects of this instability for personality assessment in older adults. Five longitudinal studies, based on the Big Five model of Costa & McCrae, support the hypothesis that personality characteristics change during the lifespan. Neuroticism, extraversion and openness decrease with age. In contrast, altruism and conscientiousness increase with age. One longitudinal and three cross-sectional studies of personality pathology indicate age-specific changes in the expression of (mal) adaptive personality characteristics. Besides that, nearly one third of the DSM criteria for Axis II personality disorders are insufficiently applicable to older people, based on a large cross sectional study. Therefore the temporal instability of personality characteristics and the limited validity of the Axis II criteria complicate personality assessment in older adults. Improvements could be found in major standardization studies of personality questionnaires in elderly patients in mental health care and nursing home care. Significant changes in the DSM, such as the development of an age specific and multidimensional approach to personality disorders is also recommended. PMID:20443285

  18. Pathology Case Study: Dog Bites

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Driscoll, Eileen

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old male with a past medical history significant for lymphoma (in remission). The patient is a health care worker who presented to the emergency room because of a dog bite. Visitors are given a patient history and culture findings, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

  19. Placental pathology in antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Levy, R A; Avvad, E; Oliveira, J; Porto, L C

    1998-01-01

    One of the major targets of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) is the placenta, the evolution of which during pregnancy has been well documented. Histopathological findings are related to gestational age, and several physiologic and pathologic alterations that occur during its development. The major findings in placentae from aPL positive patients are thrombosis, acute atherosis, a decreased number of syncytio-vascular membranes, increased number of syncytial knots and obliterative arteriopathy. These findings are not specific to the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and sometimes do not correlate with the fetal outcome. Histopathological study of placentae may elucidate mechanisms of action of aPL in fetal loss and other obstetric complications. In addition, it may assist in the investigation of the differential diagnosis between APS and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Immunohistochemical studies of local placental proteins contribute to this differential diagnosis. PMID:9814679

  20. Proteome analysis in thyroid pathology.

    PubMed

    Pagni, Fabio; L'Imperio, Vincenzo; Bono, Francesca; Garancini, Mattia; Roversi, Gaia; De Sio, Gabriele; Galli, Manuel; Smith, Andrew James; Chinello, Clizia; Magni, Fulvio

    2015-08-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has continuously increased due to its detection in the preclinical stage. Clinical research in thyroid pathology is focusing on the development of new diagnostic tools to improve the stratification of nodules that have biological, practical and economic consequences on the management of patients. Several clinical questions related to thyroid carcinoma remain open and the use of proteomic research in the hunt for new targets with potential diagnostic applications has an important role in the solutions. Many different proteomic approaches are used to investigate thyroid lesions, including mass spectrometry profiling and imaging technologies. These approaches have been applied to different human tissues (cytological specimens, frozen sections, formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue or Tissue Micro Arrays). Moreover, other specimens are used for biomarker discovery, such as cell lines and the secretome. Alternative approaches, such as metabolomics and lipidomics, are also used and integrated within proteomics. PMID:26132359

  1. Pathology Case Study: Lymphoplasmacytic Infiltrate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Whisnant, Richard

    This hematopathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves a 40-year-old woman presenting with a nodule in the skin on the left jaw line. Images from a biopsy of the nodule provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâ??s diagnosis. A description of these images, and the patientâ??s immunohistochemistry and molecular studies are also provided. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  2. Pathology Case Study: Cystic Tumor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dunn, Jean

    This cytogenetics case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 21-year-old male presented with a mass in his right thigh. Prior to this, the patient was healthy and had no major health concerns. The tumor was removed and the attending doctor ordered a cytogenetic analysis of the specimen. The results from that analysis along with microscopic images and electron photomicrographs of the tumor are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  3. Pathology Case Study: Immunoglobulin Deficiency

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lopez-Plaza, Iliana

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 60-year-old man was admitted to the Emergency Department with severe back pain. The patientâ??s medical history and detailed description of her symptoms after admittance to the hospital are included in the â??Patient Historyâ?ť section. Results from laboratory tests are also provided in a table. After looking at the â??Patient Historyâ?ť and â??Laboratory Investigationsâ?ť sections, students should proceed on to the â??Questionsâ?ť section, where they can test their knowledge of diagnostics. Then test your answers with the official findings in the â??Diagnosisâ?ť section. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of transfusion medicine.

  4. Pathology Case Study: Bilateral Pneumonia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Davie, James

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 75 year old woman "with a past medical history of significant for a 6 month history of cryoglobulinemia with vasculitis, congestive heart failure, hypertension, cryptogenic cirrhosis, peripheral vascular disease, chronic renal insufficiency, anemia, degenerative joint disease, and diverticulitis." Visitors are provided with patient history, admission data, and microscopic findings (lung), including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

  5. Glomerular Disease: Looking beyond Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, Roger C.; Alpers, Charles E.; Holzman, Lawrence B.; He, John C.; Salant, David J.; Chugh, Sumant S.; Natarajan, Rama; Trachtman, Howard; Brasile, Lauren; Star, Robert A.; Rys-Sikora, Krystyna E.; Moxey-Mims, Marva M.

    2014-01-01

    The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases–supported Kidney Research National Dialogue asked the scientific community to formulate and prioritize research objectives aimed at improved understanding of kidney function and disease progression. Over the past 2 years, 1600 participants posted almost 300 ideas covering all areas of kidney disease. An overriding theme that evolved through these discussions is the need to move beyond pathology to take advantage of basic science and clinical research opportunities to improve diagnostic classification and therapeutic options for people with primary glomerular disease. High-priority research areas included focus on therapeutic targets in glomerular endothelium and podocytes, regenerating podocytes through developmental pathways, use of longitudinal phenotypically defined disease cohorts to improve classification schemes, identifying biomarkers, disease-specific therapeutics, autoantibody triggers, and changing the clinical research culture to promote participation in clinical trials. Together, these objectives provide a path forward for improving clinical outcomes of glomerular disease. PMID:24700796

  6. Substance abuse, pathological gambling, and impulsiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy M Petry

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated behavioral and self-report indices of impulsiveness in pathological gambling substance abusers (n=27), non-pathological gambling substance abusers (n=63), and non-pathological gambling\\/non-substance abusing controls (n=21). The Bechara card task measured preferences for decks of cards that ranged in magnitude and probability of delayed and immediate rewards and punishers. The Stanford Time Perception Inventory (STPI) assessed orientation to the future,

  7. Pharmacological treatments in pathological gambling

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and often disabling psychiatric condition characterized by intrusive urges to engage in deleterious gambling behaviour. Although common and financially devastating to individuals and families, there currently exist no formally approved pharmacotherapeutic interventions for this disorder. This review seeks to examine the history of medication treatments for PG. A systematic review of the 18 double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy studies conducted for the treatment of pathological gambling was conducted. Study outcome and the mean dose of medication administered was documented in an effort to determine a preferred medication choice in this population. A variety of medication classes have been examined in the treatment of PG with varying results. Antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilizers have demonstrated mixed results in controlled clinical trials. Although limited information is available, opioid antagonists and glutamatergic agents have demonstrated efficacious outcomes, especially for individuals with PG suffering from intense urges to engage in the behaviour. Given that several studies have demonstrated their efficacy in treating the symptoms associated with PG, opioid antagonists should be considered the first line treatment for PG at this time. Most published studies, however, have employed relatively small sample sizes, are of limited duration and involve possibly non-representative clinical groups (e.g. those without co-occurring psychiatric disorders). Response measures have varied across studies. Heterogeneity of PG treatment samples may also complicate identification of effective treatments. Identification of factors related to treatment response will help inform future studies and advance treatment strategies for PG. PMID:22979951

  8. Pathological classification of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Pollo, B

    2012-04-01

    The tumors of the central nervous system are classified according to the last international classification published by World Health Organization. The Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System was done on 2007, based on morphological features, growth pattern and molecular profile of neoplastic cells, defining malignancy grade. The neuropathological diagnosis and the grading of each histotype are based on identification of histopathological criteria and immunohistochemical data. The histopathology, also consisting of findings with prognostic or predictive relevance, plays a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors. The recent progresses on radiological, pathological, immunohistochemical, molecular and genetic diagnosis improved the characterization of brain tumors. Molecular and genetic profiles may identify different tumor subtypes varying in biological and clinical behavior. To investigate new therapeutic approaches is important to study the molecular pathways that lead the processes of proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, anaplastic transformation. Different molecular biomarkers were identified by genetic studies and some of these are used in neuro-oncology for the evaluation of glioma patients, in particular combined deletions of the chromosome arms 1p and 19q in oligodendroglial tumors, methylation status of the O-6 methylguanine- DNA methyltransferase gene promoter and alterations in the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway in adult malignant gliomas, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 gene mutations in diffuse gliomas, as well as BRAF status in pilocytic astrocytomas. The prognostic evaluation and the therapeutic strategies for patients depend on synthesis of clinical, pathological and biological data: histological diagnosis, malignancy grade, gene-molecular profile, radiological pictures, surgical resection and clinical findings (age, tumor location, "performance status"). PMID:22617234

  9. Orientations of psychotic activity in defensive pathological organizations.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul

    2014-06-01

    The author reviews some clinical experiences of the treatment of personality disordered patients suffering from internal domination of ego functioning by a defensive pathological organization. In particular, the function and purpose of perverse, sadistic attacks by the organization on the ego are considered and questions pertaining to technique are raised. It is suggested that different forms of sadistic, subjugating activity by pathological organizations may denote differences in intent borne of the type and severity of the psychopathology of the individual. Patients with severe narcissistic psychopathology for whom object contact has become associated with the arousal of intense psychotic anxieties seem more likely to be subjected to an invasive, annihilatory imperative by the pathological organization, the purpose of which appears to be to obliterate the experience of contact with any differentiated object, to avoid emotion and to use coercion to enforce a primitive identification by the ego with the psychotic organization in the mind. Certain patients with less severe narcissistic psychopathology, yet for whom object contact can also be associated with the arousal of psychotic anxieties due to intense or persistent conflict with the object, sometimes expressed as organized sadomasochistic clinging to a punishing and punished object (for example, in certain borderline or depressed patients) exhibit sadistic attacks that serve less to annihilate object contact and more to intrusively control and punish the object. Observations of these phenomena have been made by a number of psychoanalysts in recent decades and these contributions are discussed. This paper is addressed primarily to the implications for technique with such patients, particularly a need for triangulation of their experiences of oppression in order to loosen the controls over the ego by the pathological organization. PMID:24620792

  10. Metacognitive dysfunctions in personality disorders: correlations with disorder severity and personality styles.

    PubMed

    Semerari, Antonio; Colle, Livia; Pellecchia, Giovanni; Buccione, Ivana; Carcione, Antonino; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Nicolň, Giuseppe; Procacci, Michele; Pedone, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    Metacognitive impairment is crucial to explaining difficulties in life tasks of patients with personality disorders (PDs). However, several issues remain open. There is a lack of evidence that metacognitive impairments are more severe in patients with PDs. The relationship between severity of PD pathology and the extent of metacognitive impairment has not been explored, and there has not been any finding to support the linking of different PDs with specific metacognitive profiles. The authors administered the Metacognitive Assessment Interview to 198 outpatients with PDs and 108 outpatients with no PDs, differentiating overall severity from stylistic elements of personality pathology. Results showed that metacognitive impairments were more severe in the group with PDs than in the control group, and that metacognitive dysfunctions and the severity of the PD were highly associated. Positive correlations were found between specific metacognitive dysfunctions and specific personality styles. Results suggest that metacognitive impairments could be considered a common pathogenic factor for PDs. PMID:24689762

  11. Plant Pathology: Past to PresentPlant Pathology: Past to Present Illustrated Storybook

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Frank Tainte (American Phytopathological Society; )

    1998-01-01

    Plant Pathology: Past to Present is an illustrated storybook describing the origin, relevance, and science of plant pathology. The story unfolds as if told by Anton deBary, father of plant pathology, and is suitable for elementary and secondary students to adults.

  12. Indexing and filing of pathological illustrations.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R A; Fawkes, R S; Beck, J S

    1975-01-01

    An inexpensive feature card retrieval system has been combined with the Systematised Nomenclature of Pathology (SNOP) to provide simple but efficient means of indexing and filing 2 in. x 2 in. transparencies within a department of pathology. Using this system 2400 transparencies and the associated index cards can be conveniently stored in one drawer of a standard filing cabinet. Images PMID:1123438

  13. Shame and Gender Issues in Pathological Narcissism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John OLeary; Fred Wright

    1986-01-01

    This article demonstrates the importance of a close monitoring of the emotion of shame in psychoanalysis. Shame is distinguished from guilt, and its special relationship to pathological narcissism is discussed. A typology of narcissistic pathology is also described, which is mediated by the extent to which grandiosity is consciously experienced by the patient. Specifically, where grandiosity is conscious and central,

  14. Pathological Gambling and Related Problems among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Robert; Boudreault, Normand; Jacques, Christian; Vitaro, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Evaluates the prevalence of pathological gambling and related problems among 3,426 students in junior and senior high schools in Quebec City. Results indicate that 77% have gambled in the last twelve months and 13% gamble at least once a week. Results also reveal that pathological gambling is associated with drug and alcohol use, poor grades, and…

  15. Pathological Demand Avoidance: Exploring the Behavioural Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    "Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand…

  16. Personality Disorder Symptoms and Marital Functioning

    PubMed Central

    South, Susan C.; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    Pathological personality is strongly linked with interpersonal impairment, yet, no study to date has examined the relationship between concurrent personality pathology and dysfunction in marriage—a relationship most people find central to their lives. In a cross-sectional study of a community sample of married couples (N=82), multilevel modeling was used to estimate the association of self- and spouse reported PD symptoms with levels of marital satisfaction and verbal aggression and perpetration of physical violence. Including self- and spouse report of total PD symptoms resulted in improved model fit and greater variance explained, with much of the improvement coming after the addition of spouse-report. The incremental validity of spouse-report of several of the ten PD scales was supported for marital satisfaction and verbal aggression, particularly for borderline and dependent PD features. PMID:18837594

  17. Personal Services Agreements Policy

    E-print Network

    Personal Services Agreements Policy Responsible Administrative Units: Human Resources Finance and Administration (DPA) Personnel Rules, Chapter 10, govern the procurement of personal services, personal services and disseminate policies and procedures establishing a Personal Services Review Program. While the State Personnel

  18. [Pathology seen in French "Hikikomori"].

    PubMed

    Furuhashi, Tadaaki; Figueiredo, Cristina; Pionnié-Dax, Nancy; Fansten, Maďa; Vellut, Natacha; Castel, Pierre-Henri

    2012-01-01

    Young people who meet the definition of "Hikikomori" have come to be seen in France since around 2008. However, simply "fitting the definition" does not necessarily mean that they are the same as "Hikikomori" in Japan. Rather, it is important to ask what kind of young people "fit the definition of Hikikomori in France" and what kind of pathology they have. With these questions, our Japanese-French joint research team comprising specialists in various fields conducted a survey of "Hikikomori" in French youth, with support from a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research B (overseas research), and started a comparative joint study on "Hikikomori" in Japan and "Hikikomori" in France. In that study it was found that whereas one aspect of "Hikikomori" in Japan is described by the word déraillement (coming off the "rails"), "Hikikomori" in France is a state closer to dropping out and is accompanied by a type of "sense of insufficiency". This "sense of insufficiency" is above all related to something in the society and culture of France, and an investigation of how it is linked to "Hikikomori" is an issue for the future. PMID:23234197

  19. [Pathological diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Tamaru, Jun-ichi

    2014-03-01

    This lymphoma was recognized by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832. In 1865, Samuel Wilks named it Hodgkin disease. Now, the term Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is acceptable over Hodgkin disease. Since the neoplastic cells of the disease is well-recognized to be a lymphoid cell, especially B lymphocyte. In WHO classification published in 2008, HLs are divided into two entities: Classical HL and nodular lymphocyte predominat HL. The former is composed of four different subtypes: nodular sclerosis (NS), mixed cellularity (MC), lymphocyte rich (LR), and lymphocyte depletion (LD). HL is characterized by the morphological feature comprising a minority of neoplastic cells, Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells and popcorn (LP) cells and a majority of non-neoplastic reactive cells. Antigen receptor gene analyses by prevailing molecular methods and flow cytometry are not appropriate method for the diagnosis of HL, because of small number of neoplastic cells. They are, however, very useful in the differential diagnosis to rule out other lymphomas. Even the present when science progressed, pathological (morphological and immunohistochemical) examination is very worth for diagnosis of HL. PMID:24724402

  20. Pathological Gambling: Neuropsychopharmacology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Scott A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) affects about 0.2–2% of adults and the impact extends to family members, employers and society as a whole. Recent research has identified similarities in the pathophysiologies of PG and substance use disorders (SUDs). As such, findings regarding SUDs provide a framework for investigating PG. The aims of the manuscript are two-fold. First, we will briefly revivew neural systems implicated in PG. Cortico-limbic circuitry involving the ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are discussed as are the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioids, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This background will provide a framework for reviewing the psychopharmacological treatments that have been tested for efficacy and safety in treating PG. Of medications, the strongest data suggest the efficacy and tolerability of opioid antagonists in the treatment of PG, and other agents have varying degree of empirical support. As behavioral therapies have also shown efficacy, they will be briefly considered as well. Future research is needed to understand how treatments work in PG and for whom specific treatments might work best. PMID:24349964

  1. Pathological aspects of Australian Stringhalt.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, R F; Huntington, P J; Friend, S C; Jeffcott, L B; Luff, A R; Finkelstein, D K

    1992-05-01

    Nine horses with clinical signs of Australian Stringhalt were killed and tissues collected for a detailed pathological study. Lesions were limited to peripheral nerves and muscles. The most severely affected nerves were the superficial and deep peroneal, distal tibial, plantar digital, volar and recurrent laryngeal nerve with changes characterised by a selective loss of large diameter myelinated fibres with various degrees of demyelination, fibrosis, Schwann cell proliferation and onion-bulb formation. A routine evaluation of the brain and spinal cord by light microscopy failed to reveal any consistent abnormalities. Morphometric analysis of deep peroneal and recurrent laryngeal nerves confirmed the reduced number of large diameter myelinated axons. Teased fibre preparations of these nerves did not show any abnormalities in internodal distance. The most severe muscle lesions were in the long and lateral digital extensors, cranial tibial, dorsal cricoarytenoid, gracilis and lateral deep digital flexor with extensive atrophy of fibres and diffuse fibrosis. Histochemical evaluation of the long digital extensor from 3 affected horses showed an abnormally wide distribution in fibre size and a reduction in type II fibres compared with controls. These lesions are consistent with a distal axonopathy leading to neurogenic muscle atrophy. The distribution of neuromuscular lesions in Australian Stringhalt may be explained by the susceptibility of longer, larger myelinated nerve fibres to injury, but the cause for this distal axonopathy remains unknown. PMID:1606929

  2. Practical pathology of aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M.

    2011-01-01

    Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington. PMID:22953032

  3. Multidimensional assessment of personality in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures

    PubMed Central

    Reuber, M; Pukrop, R; Bauer, J; Derfuss, R; Elger, C

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) have evidence of maladaptive personality, and whether they have a single or several different typical pathological personality profiles. Methods: Patients were recruited from the department of epileptology, Bonn, Germany. In all, 85 patients with PNES and 63 with epilepsy completed a postal questionnaire including the dimensional assessment of personality pathology – basic questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). The DAPP-BQ was also completed by 100 healthy volunteers. The groups were compared and the PNES group was subjected to cluster analysis. Results: Patients with PNES had a greater degree of personality abnormality than clinical and non-clinical controls. There were several clusters of personality pathology. The profile of the largest cluster (n = 43) resembled that found in borderline personality disorder, that of the second largest (n = 37) was characterised by an overly controlled personality, that of the third (n = 4) was similar to the profile in avoidant personality disorder. Outcome differed between clusters. Conclusions: Maladaptive personality is common in patients with PNES. PNES are associated with several distinct profiles of pathological personality. This is relevant because outcome differed between profiles. PMID:15090571

  4. Compulsive buying tendencies and personal finances.

    PubMed

    Spinella, Marcello; Lester, David; Yang, Bijou

    2014-12-01

    In a community sample of 225 adults, scores on the Compulsive Buying Scale were associated with scores on the subscales of the Executive Personal Finance Scale (rs = -.35 to -.70) and the Money Attitudes Scale (positively with using money for impressing others, and negatively with saving and planning). The results suggested that common tendencies toward compulsive buying may not be pathological, but merely associated with attitudes toward money in general and financial management habits. PMID:25457090

  5. Are pathological narcissism and psychopathy different constructs or different names for the same thing? A study based on Italian nonclinical adult participants.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Andrea; Pincus, Aaron L; Borroni, Serena; Munteanu, Arina Ferrari; Maffei, Cesare

    2014-06-01

    To understand the similarities and differences in personality traits and moral disengagement associated with pathological narcissism and psychopathy, 740 Italian active community members who voluntarily participated in the study were administered the Italian versions of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, the HEXACO Personality Inventory, and the Moral Disengagement Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that low Honesty-Humility and Antagonism (i.e., low Agreeableness) were personality traits common to both pathological narcissism and psychopathy, whereas low Conscientiousness was only related to psychopathy. Different associations with the HEXACO-PI scales and facets were observed for narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability, as well as for primary psychopathy and secondary psychopathy. Moral disengagement represented a common feature of pathological narcissism and psychopathy that was related to narcissistic vulnerability and to primary and secondary psychopathy, but not to narcissistic grandiosity. PMID:24511898

  6. Personal Timeline

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rebecca Teed

    For this homework assignment, students have to draw two scaled timelines. The first is a personal timeline. They need to come up with the events themselves, an easy task that will build confidence for student who are intimidated by science and math. Following guidelines, they decide on a scale, and draw a linear timeline on which they plot their chosen events. Most students will primarily include recent events. They are asked to identify and explain any patterns in their timeline. Students should note the clustering at the present, and describe the emphasis on the present as resulting from memory, relevance to future hopes and worries, etc. The second timeline is more traditional. The students are given 16 Earth history events with dates and asked to draw another timeline, using the procedure from the personal timeline, but the line is already drawn for them. They will probably recognize most of the events on the list, and will be keeping them in order and spacing them out on the timeline. They are once again asked to identify and explain patterns and should recognize the emphasis on the present. This time, availability of fossils/rocks and relevance to current conditions and problems are good answers.

  7. Factors associated with disordered gambling in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the socio-demographic characteristics of non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers and pathological gamblers, to investigate the association between gambling related factors and perceived health and well-being among the three subgroups of gamblers, and to analyse simultaneously socio-demographic characteristics, gambling related factors and perceived health and well-being and the severity of disordered gambling (problem gamblers and pathological gamblers). Methods The data were collected through a nationwide telephone survey in 2011. Participants were selected through a random population sample of 15-74-year-old Finns. From that sample, persons with any past-year gambling involvement (N?=?3451) were selected for a subsample for the descriptive and inferential analysis in the present paper. Gambling was assessed using the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Statistical significance was determined by chi-squared tests. The odds ratio and effect size were computed by using multivariate-adjusted multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results The most significant socio-demographic characteristics (male gender, young age, education ?12 years), gambling related factors (slot machine gambling, internet gambling) and perceived health and well-being (feeling lonely, smoking daily, risky alcohol consumption, mental health problems) explained 22.9 per cent of the variation in the severity of disordered gambling. Conclusion Male gender and loneliness were found to be associated with problem gambling in particular, along with smoking and risky alcohol consumption. Mental health problems and risky alcohol consumption were associated with pathological gambling. These identified associations between disordered gambling, mental health problems and risky alcohol consumption should be taken into consideration when implementing screenings of disordered gambling. PMID:23816162

  8. Personal construct psychology and personal selling performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard E. Plank; Joel N. Greene

    1996-01-01

    Proposes an alternative approach to understanding personal selling performance based on personal construct psychology, a cognitively based personality paradigm, originally formulated in clinical psychology by George Kelly. Explains how personal construct psychology theory (PCT), which reflects a constructivist epistemology, provides a conceptual framework for understanding and predicting sales performance. Demonstrates how PCT can be integrated with existing theoretical models of

  9. Where is multidimensional perfectionism in DSM-5? A question posed to the DSM-5 personality and personality disorders work group.

    PubMed

    Ayearst, Lindsay E; Flett, Gordon L; Hewitt, Paul L

    2012-10-01

    A radical reworking of Axis II has been proposed for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders whereby personality disorder categories will be replaced by a trait dimensional model of personality pathology. Perfectionism is specified as a lower order facet of Compulsivity within this proposed model. This marginalization of the perfectionism construct is inconsistent with the empirical literature that suggests that perfectionism is an important dimension of maladaptive personality in its own right, complete with its own set of more specific lower order facets. Further, perfectionism in the current proposed system is relevant only to the characterization of the obsessive-compulsive personality disorder type, despite compelling empirical research that demonstrates that various dimensions of perfectionism are differentially associated with personality pathology of all kinds. The present article reviews existing research on the role of various dimensions of perfectionism in personality disorder, highlights these seemingly ignored areas of the perfectionism literature, and discusses the problems and consequences that will arise if perfectionism continues to be defined narrowly and is largely excluded from dimensional models of personality pathology. PMID:22452778

  10. [Pathology of gestational trophoblastic tumors].

    PubMed

    Vuong, P N; Guillet, J L; Houissa-Vuong, S; Lhommé, C; Proust, A; Cristalli, B

    2000-12-01

    Gestational trophoblastic tumours result from an abnormal proliferation of different types of trophoblasts. The morphological pattern, together with the immunohistochemical aspect, the cytogenetic data and the clinical profile, helps identify each pathological entity. Hydatiform moles represent malformed placentas caused by genetic aberrations of the villous trophoblast. A complete hydatiform mole displays an hydropic degeneration of all the chorionic villi with a more or less marked proliferation of trophoblasts. A partial hydatiform mole is made up of molar vesicles interspersed with normal chorionic villi. In an invasive hydatiform mole or chorioma destruens, molar vesicles penetrate the myometrium giving rise to a mass distorting the uterine wall. A choriocarcinoma is a malignant proliferation of atypical villous trophoblasts without villi formation. Necrosis, haemorrhage, vascular invasion and distant metastases strongly compromise its outcome. A trophoblastic implantation site tumor, clearly less frequent, results from a proliferation of extravillous trophoblasts, particular for their secretion of human placental lactogen hormone (hPL). This tumour, exceptionally malignant, should be differentiated from the exaggerated placental site and its variants. Except for the placental site trophoblastic tumour, and whatever the outcome (benign or malignant), all gestational trophoblastic tumours secrete the beta-subunit of the chorionic gonadotropic hormone (beta-hCG) more or less abundantly. The serum or urinary level of this unit is proportional to the tumour volume and represents a fundamental basis for the follow-up of these tumours. Multidisciplinary care of high-risk cases allows us to cure the disease, and helps the patient recover her reproductive uterine function. PMID:11192198

  11. NADPH Oxidases in Vascular Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Konior, Anna; Schramm, Agata; Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in vascular disease. While there are many possible sources of ROS, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases play a central role. They are a source of “kindling radicals,” which affect other enzymes, such as nitric oxide synthase endothelial nitric oxide synthase or xanthine oxidase. This is important, as risk factors for atherosclerosis (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking) regulate the expression and activity of NADPH oxidases in the vessel wall. Recent Advances: There are seven isoforms in mammals: Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4, Nox5, Duox1 and Duox2. Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and Nox5 are expressed in endothelium, vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, or perivascular adipocytes. Other homologues have not been found or are expressed at very low levels; their roles have not been established. Nox1/Nox2 promote the development of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and inflammation. Nox4 may have a role in protecting the vasculature during stress; however, when its activity is increased, it may be detrimental. Calcium-dependent Nox5 has been implicated in oxidative damage in human atherosclerosis. Critical Issues: NADPH oxidase-derived ROS play a role in vascular pathology as well as in the maintenance of normal physiological vascular function. We also discuss recently elucidated mechanisms such as the role of NADPH oxidases in vascular protection, vascular inflammation, pulmonary hypertension, tumor angiogenesis, and central nervous system regulation of vascular function and hypertension. Future Directions: Understanding the role of individual oxidases and interactions between homologues in vascular disease is critical for efficient pharmacological regulation of vascular NADPH oxidases in both the laboratory and clinical practice. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2794–2814. PMID:24180474

  12. Impaired Decisional Impulsivity in Pathological Videogamers

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment. Results In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time. Conclusions We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management. PMID:24146789

  13. Borderline Personality

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2004-01-01

    BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER (BPD) IS A COMPLEX AXIS II Phenomenon that is typically described in a psychological or psychiatric context. In this article, we translate the various aspects of BPD to the primary care setting. Previous work in this area has explored specific relationships between BPD and individual medical disorders or between BPD and general somatic symptoms, but the synthesis of these findings and their augmentation with cogent psychological theory is new to the field. Specifically, we highlight the prevalence rate of BPD in the primary care setting, the effects on healthcare utilization, the themes of somatic preoccupation and somatization disorder, several medical syndromes that illustrate the dynamics of the disorder in the medical setting, and the relationship of BPD to disability. We believe that the BPD concept needs to extend beyond its traditional psychological/psychiatric borders to include the subset of BPD patients with somatic symptoms who are seen in primary care settings. PMID:21197375

  14. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies.

    PubMed

    Zaiac, Martin N; Walker, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Nail abnormalities can arise in conjunction with or as a result of systematic pathologies. These pathologies include single-organ diseases, multisystemic diseases, and drug-induced insults. Clinical signs associated with these conditions include dyschromias, vascular alterations, periungual tissue changes, textural dystrophies, contour alterations, and growth-rate alterations. The associated systemic pathologies may affect any part of the nail apparatus, including the nail matrix, the nail plate, the nail bed, the underlying vasculature, and the periungual tissues. The anatomical location and extent of damage determine the clinically manifested anomaly. PMID:24079592

  15. Pathology Case Study: Hemangioma and Severe Thrombocytopenia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bontempo, Franklin

    This is a transfusion pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 3-week-old female has hemangioma and severe thrombocytopenia. Visitors are given laboratory values and images, and are granted the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transfusion pathology medicine.

  16. Pathology Case Study: Chronic Myalgias After Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Giuliani, Michael J.

    This is a skeletal muscle pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 48 year old women has chronic myalgias. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in skeletal muscle pathology medicine.

  17. Pathology Case Study: Right Thigh Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rao, Uma N. M.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with a painless mass in his right medial thigh, without an incidence of trauma. Visitors can view pathological findings, including images, to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

  18. Pathology Case Study: Bladder Outlet Obstruction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chung, Wen-Wei

    This is a genitourinary pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 84-year-old man has a bladder outlet obstruction. Visitors are given microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

  19. Pathology Case Study: Anterior Cervical Neck Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Schubert, Eric

    This is a head & neck pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old male has an increasing neck mass with a choking feeling. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in head and neck pathology.

  20. Postscript: Untangling the Gambler's Fallacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yanlong; Tweney, Ryan D.; Wang, Hongbin

    2010-01-01

    In this postscript the authors applaud Hahn and Warren's effort in their reply to remove the ambiguity in distinguishing events such as occurrence, occurrence at least once, and nonoccurrence in Hahn and Warren (2009). Still, it appears that differences between us exist regarding the nature of waiting time and its connections to the probability of…

  1. ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF PATHOLOGY HEMATOPATHOLOGY/CLINICAL HEMATOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF PATHOLOGY HEMATOPATHOLOGY/CLINICAL HEMATOLOGY The Department of Pathology at Stanford University School of Medicine seeks to fill two of Pathology in the Medical Center Professoriate. The major criterion for appointment

  2. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

  6. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

  7. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Personality Disorders in Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer S. Cheavens; Thomas R. Lynch

    Personality disorders, by DSM-IV (American Psychological Association, 1994) definition, are long-standing\\/stable, first evidenced\\u000a in adolescence or early adulthood, and have associated pervasive difficulties in both interpersonal and impulsive functioning.\\u000a Based on these criteria, it is difficult to adequately assess personality pathology in older adults for whom adolescence and\\u000a early adulthood may have occurred decades ago. Additionally, several authors have argued

  8. Molecular pathology and age estimation.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Christoph; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie

    2010-12-15

    Over the course of our lifetime a stochastic process leads to gradual alterations of biomolecules on the molecular level, a process that is called ageing. Important changes are observed on the DNA-level as well as on the protein level and are the cause and/or consequence of our 'molecular clock', influenced by genetic as well as environmental parameters. These alterations on the molecular level may aid in forensic medicine to estimate the age of a living person, a dead body or even skeletal remains for identification purposes. Four such important alterations have become the focus of molecular age estimation in the forensic community over the last two decades. The age-dependent accumulation of the 4977bp deletion of mitochondrial DNA and the attrition of telomeres along with ageing are two important processes at the DNA-level. Among a variety of protein alterations, the racemisation of aspartic acid and advanced glycation endproducs have already been tested for forensic applications. At the moment the racemisation of aspartic acid represents the pinnacle of molecular age estimation for three reasons: an excellent standardization of sampling and methods, an evaluation of different variables in many published studies and highest accuracy of results. The three other mentioned alterations often lack standardized procedures, published data are sparse and often have the character of pilot studies. Nevertheless it is important to evaluate molecular methods for their suitability in forensic age estimation, because supplementary methods will help to extend and refine accuracy and reliability of such estimates. PMID:20702051

  9. Balancing immunity and pathology in visceral leishmaniasis

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Engwerda Experimental visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by infection with Leishmania donovani results: Leishmania; liver; spleen; pathology; granuloma Leishmania parasites of different species cause a broad. Leishmania parasites are obligate intra- cellular protozoan parasites that are transmitted

  10. Forensic veterinary pathology, today's situation and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ottinger, T; Rasmusson, B; Segerstad, C H A; Merck, M; Goot, F V D; Olsén, L; Gavier-Widén, D

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the current status of forensic veterinary pathology, a survey was composed directed at pathology laboratories and institutes, mostly in Europe. The questions included number of and type of cases, resources available, level of special training of the investigating pathologists and the general view on the current status and future of the discipline. The surveys were sent to 134 laboratories and were returned by 72 respondents of which 93 per cent work on forensic pathology cases. The results indicate scarcity of training opportunities and special education, and insufficient veterinary-specific reference data and information on forensic analyses. More cooperation with human forensic pathology was desired by many respondents, as was more interaction across country borders. PMID:25013083

  11. Problem and Pathological Gambling among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinchfield, Randy; Hanson, William E.; Olson, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines problem and pathological gambling among college students and reports on prevalence rate, risk and protective factors, prevention and intervention, and recommendations for college student personnel and other university administrators.

  12. The plant pathology of native plant restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Restoration of ecologically degraded sites will benefit from the convergence of knowledge drawn from such disparate and often compartmentalized (and heretofore not widely considered) areas of research as soil microbial ecology, plant pathology and agronomy. Restoration following biological control w...

  13. Clearance of pathological antibodies using biomimetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Copp, Jonathan A.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Luk, Brian T.; Hu, Che-Ming J.; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Kang; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-01-01

    Pathological antibodies have been demonstrated to play a key role in type II immune hypersensitivity reactions, resulting in the destruction of healthy tissues and leading to considerable morbidity for the patient. Unfortunately, current treatments present significant iatrogenic risk while still falling short for many patients in achieving clinical remission. In the present work, we explored the capability of target cell membrane-coated nanoparticles to abrogate the effect of pathological antibodies in an effort to minimize disease burden, without the need for drug-based immune suppression. Inspired by antibody-driven pathology, we used intact RBC membranes stabilized by biodegradable polymeric nanoparticle cores to serve as an alternative target for pathological antibodies in an antibody-induced anemia disease model. Through both in vitro and in vivo studies, we demonstrated efficacy of RBC membrane-cloaked nanoparticles to bind and neutralize anti-RBC polyclonal IgG effectively, and thus preserve circulating RBCs. PMID:25197051

  14. Unexpected pathology during laparoscopic bariatric surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Finnell; A. K. Madan; C. A. Ternovits; S. J. Menachery; D. S. Tichansky

    2007-01-01

    Background  The popularity of bariatric surgery has increased in recent years with the escalating incidence of morbid obesity in our society.\\u000a The improvement in minimally invasive technology and the increased number of laparoscopic bariatric procedures being performed\\u000a have resulted in the discovery of unexpected pathology not suspected preoperatively. The authors hypothesized that the occurrence\\u000a of unexpected pathology is not associated with

  15. Story of Plant Pathology: Past to Present

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Palmer, Kate Salley

    The American Phytopathological Society (APS) has recently launched an illustrated, narrated version of "Plant Pathology: Past to Present" -- a storybook written by plant pathologists to "help people and young students, in particular, to understand the importance of plant diseases." Visitors follow Heinrich Anton deBary, the "Father of Plant Pathology," on a virtual tour of plant diseases and their impact on human history. English and Spanish versions of the story cover everything from wheat rust fungus to tulip break and beyond.

  16. Pathology Case Study: Small Bowel Malabsorption

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Agostini, Rocco

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a child developed bowel transplantation. Visitors are given the microscopic descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

  17. NCI-Frederick PHL - Molecular Pathology

    Cancer.gov

    The Molecular Pathology Group (MPG) is a recent addition to the laboratory Animal Science Program (LASP), at the Frederick, Maryland campus of the National Cancer Institute. This Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. group is actively working to expand high-quality, pathology-based research application support available to NCI investigators and their collaborators. Its primary role is to extend the capabilities of the existing Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.

  18. Personality characteristics of two types of male exhibitionists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory E. Forgac; Edward J. Michaels

    1982-01-01

    Hypothesized that exhibitionists without other criminal involvement (pure type) have different personality characteristics than exhibitionists with nonexhibitionistic criminal involvement (criminal type): In particular, the criminal type exhibits greater pathology and sociopathy. 30 pure type and 54 criminal type exhibitionists referred to a forensic clinic were compared on tests, including Goldberg indexes for differentiating normal from deviant and psychiatric from sociopathic

  19. The Dark Triad of personality: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delroy L. Paulhus; Kevin M. Williams

    2002-01-01

    Of the offensive yet non-pathological personalities in the literature, three are especially prominent: Machiavellianism, subclinical narcissism, and subclinical psychopathy. We evaluated the recent contention that, in normal samples, this ‘Dark Triad’ of constructs are one and the same. In a sample of 245 students, we measured the three constructs with standard measures and examined a variety of laboratory and self-report

  20. Sexual abuse, residential schooling and probable pathological gambling among Indigenous Peoples.

    PubMed

    Dion, Jacinthe; Cantinotti, Michael; Ross, Amélie; Collin-Vézina, Delphine

    2015-06-01

    Sexual abuse leads to short-term and long-lasting pervasive outcomes, including addictions. Among Indigenous Peoples, sexual abuse experienced in the context of residential schooling may have led to unresolved grief that is contributing to social problems, such as pathological (disordered) gambling. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between child sexual abuse, residential schooling and probable pathological gambling. The participants were 358 Indigenous persons (54.2% women) aged between 18 and 87 years, from two communities and two semi-urban centers in Quebec (Canada). Probable pathological gambling was evaluated using the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and sexual abuse and residential schooling were assessed with dichotomous questions (yes/no). The results indicate an 8.7% past-year prevalence rate of pathological gambling problems among participants, which is high compared with the general Canadian population. Moreover, 35.4% were sexually abused, while 28.1% reported having been schooled in a residential setting. The results of a logistic regression also indicate that experiences of child sexual abuse and residential schooling are associated with probable pathological gambling among Indigenous Peoples. These findings underscore the importance of using an ecological approach when treating gambling, to address childhood traumas alongside current addiction problems. PMID:25816756

  1. Dependent personality disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Dependent personality disorder is a mental health condition in which people depend too much on others to meet their emotional ... Cause of dependent personality disorder is unknown. The disorder usually ... is one of the most common personality disorders and is ...

  2. Personal Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Hilary D.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of personal systems on formal library and secondary information services use are analyzed. Conclusions are that personal information systems are not personalized libraries;'' formal library services should concentrate on developing complimentary programs. (9 references) (Author)

  3. Personal Financial Certificate Program

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    Finance Personal Financial Planning Certificate Program Curriculum satisfies the CFP Board-known, uncompromising standard of academic excellence. #12;Personal Financial Planning Certificate Program Market profession. University of California, Irvine Extension's Program in Personal Financial Planning is registered

  4. Sub-Classification of Lateral Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma by Pathologic Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Won Gu; Jang, Eun Kyung; Choi, Yun Mi; Song, Dong Eun; Sung, Tae-Yon; Yoon, Jong Ho; Chung, Ki-Wook; Hong, Suck Joon; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Han, Ji Min; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2015-01-01

    Background Lateral cervical lymph node (LCLN) metastasis, or pathologic N1b disease, is an important risk factor in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, many patients have favorable prognosis even with pathologic N1b patients in clinical practice. The study aims to identify high- and intermediate-risk groups based on initial pathologic characteristics in these patients. Patients This study included 518 classical PTC patients confirmed as pathologic N1b at initial surgery between 2001 and 2010. All patients underwent a single fixed activity (5.6 GBq) of radioactive I-131 remnant ablation. Results Patients with a primary tumor larger than 4 cm, gross extrathyroidal extension, metastatic LN larger than 3 cm, or greater than 10 metastatic LCLN were classified as high-risk group. These comprehensive pathologic criteria were retrieved from cox proportional hazard models. Twenty two percent of patients (n = 113) were classified as high-risk and 78% (n = 405) as intermediate-risk group. Successful ablation was identified in only 32% of the patients in the high-risk group and 61% in the intermediate-risk group (p < 0.001). The difference between the two risk groups was independent to gender. There was a significant difference in disease-free survival between the high- and intermediate- risk N1b groups during 5.1 years of median follow-up (84% vs. 59%, p < 0.001). Distant metastasis was more prevalent in the high-risk group (20%) than in the intermediate-risk group (4%, p < 0.001). Conclusions The prognosis of PTC patients with LCLN metastasis varies depending on initial pathologic characteristics. We proposed the comprehensive pathologic criteria for sub-classification of N1b into high- and intermediate-risk groups and this sub-classification may permit personalized management of N1b PTC patients. PMID:26186205

  5. Significant Others and Gambling Treatment Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prajkta J. Ingle; Jeffrey Marotta; Garnett McMillan; Jennifer P. Wisdom

    2008-01-01

    Aims This study investigates the effect of significant others on treatment outcomes among treated pathological gamblers. Design This is a cohort study of individuals who received gambling treatment. Setting Oregon Problem Gambling Services (OPGS) for gamblers and their family members. Participants 4,410 adult gamblers who were discharged from treatment between August, 2001 and April, 2007. Measurements OPGS enrollment forms provided

  6. Borderline personality disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Personality disorder - borderline ... Cause of borderline personality disorder is unknown. Genetic, family, and social factors are thought to play roles. Risk factors for BPD include: Abandonment in ...

  7. Pathological pregnancy and psychological symptoms in women.

    PubMed

    Bjelanovi?, Vedran; Babi?, Dragan; Oreskovi?, Slavko; Tomi?, Vajdana; Martinac, Marko; Juras, Josip

    2012-09-01

    Pregnancy is followed by many physiologic, organic and psychological changes and disorders, which can become more serious in pregnancy followed by complications, especially in women with pathological conditions during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to find out and analyze the prevalence and intensity of psychological disorders in women with pathological conditions during pregnancy and compare it with conditions in pregnant women who had normal development of pregnancy. The research is approved by the Ethical committee of the Mostar University Hospital Center, and it was made in accordance with Helsinki declaration and good clinical practices. The research conducted section for pathology of pregnancy of Department for gynecology and obstetrics of the Mostar University Hospital Center. It included 82 pregnant women with disorders in pregnancy developement and control group consisted of pregnant women who had normal development of pregnancy. The research work was conducted from September 2007 to August 2008 in Mostar University Hospital Center. Pregnant women had Standard and laboratory tests, Ultrasound. CTG examinations were done for all pregnant women and additional tests for those women with complications during pregnancy. Pregnant women completed sociobiographical, obstetrical-clinical and psychological SCL 90-R questionnaire. Pregnant women with pathological pregnancy exibited significantly more psychological symptoms in comparison to pregnant women with normal pregnancy (p < 0.001 to p = 0.004). Frequency and intensity of psychical symptoms and disorders statisticly are more characteristic in pathological pregnancy (61%/40.6%). The statistical data indicate a significantly higher score of psychological disorders in those pregnant women with primary school education (p = 0.050), those who take more than 60% carbohydrates (p = 0.001), those with pathological CTG records (p < 0.001), those with pathological ultrasound results (p < 0.001 to 0.216) and those pregnant women with medium obesity and obesity (p = 0.046). Body mass index (BMI) during normal pregnancy development is lower (p = 0.002) but the levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL and LDL in blood are higher Blood pressure in pregnant women with pathological pregnancy was statistically significantly higher (p < 0.001). Diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome were found in 19 pregnant women with the pathological pregnancy. Statistically, in those women, a significantly higher appearance of psychological symptoms and disorders was observed in comparison to the pregnant women without metabolic syndrome (p < 0.001). The research has shown that 87.8% from all pregnant women included in this study have been hospitalized due to premature birth, hypertensive disorders, and diabetes in pregnancy, and also due to bleeding in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. PMID:23213943

  8. College of Agriculture, Food and Environment PPA Plant Pathology

    E-print Network

    MacAdam, Keith

    College of Agriculture, Food and Environment PPA Plant Pathology KEY: # = new course * = course STUDY IN PLANT PATHOLOGY. (1-4) Independent study in Plant Pathology under the supervision of a faculty member. Prereq: Consent of appropriate instructor. PPA 400G PRINCIPLES OF PLANT PATHOLOGY. (3) To present

  9. Personalized medicine: CCO's vision, accomplishments and future plans.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jennifer; Kamel-Reid, Suzanne; Rutherford, Michael; Hart, Jennifer; Melamed, Saul; Pollett, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Personalized medicine is a rapidly expanding field, with the potential to improve patient care. Its benefits include increasing efficiency in cancer screening, diagnosis and treatment through early detection, targeted therapy and identifying individuals with an underlying genetic risk for cancer or adverse outcomes. Through the work of Cancer Care Ontario (CCO)'s Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Program, a number of initiatives have been undertaken to support developments in personalized medicine. In keeping with the momentum of recent accomplishments, CCO has led the formation of the Personalized Medicine Steering Committee to develop a comprehensive provincial genetics strategy for the future of cancer care. PMID:25562133

  10. A cognitive model of pathological worry

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Colette R.; Mathews, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We present an evidence-based model of pathological worry in which worry arises from an interaction between involuntary (bottom-up) processes, such as habitual biases in attention and interpretation favouring threat content, and voluntary (top-down) processes, such as attentional control. At a pre-conscious level, these processes influence the competition between mental representations when some correspond to the intended focus of attention and others to threat distracters. Processing biases influence the probability of threat representations initially intruding into awareness as negative thoughts. Worry in predominantly verbal form then develops, influenced by conscious processes such as attempts to resolve the perceived threat and the redirection of attentional control resources to worry content, as well as the continuing influence of habitual processing biases. After describing this model, we present evidence for each component process and for their causal role in pathological worry, together with implications for new directions in the treatment of pathological worry. PMID:22863541

  11. Pathologic gambling in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gschwandtner, U; Aston, J; Renaud, S; Fuhr, P

    2001-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease frequently have depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. We observed two patients who had episodes of pathologic gambling. At the same time, their Parkinson's disease deteriorated and they initiated self-medication with dopaminergic drugs. In both patients, signs were present of an addiction to dopaminergic medication. Pathologic gambling ceased in these patients after a few months. The significance of an insufficient dopaminergic reward system in patients with stereotypical addictive-like behavior (e.g., pathologic gambling) is discussed in this report. The most likely explanation for this newly recognized behavioral disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease is enhanced novelty seeking as a consequence of overstimulation of mesolimbic dopamine receptors resulting from addiction to dopaminergic drugs. PMID:11391129

  12. Pathology Case Study: Flu-Like Symptoms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Klionsky, Bernard

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a "37-year-old white female who was in excellent health until three years prior, when she developed flu-like symptoms." Visitors are given an extensive patient history along with pathologic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

  13. Department of Pathology-Case Studies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students in the health sciences learn from case studies, patient histories, and a variety of other means. In recent years, a number of medical schools in the United States have contributed to medical education by placing slide collections, pathology reports, and other related materials online. The University of Pittsburgh's School of Medicine is part of this delightful trend, and they have placed a number of case studies culled from their Department of Pathology's files here on this site. Visitors can look over these files by patient history or diagnosis, and all told, there are well over 500 cases offered here. Visitors can read the pathology reports, view selections of related medical images and scans, and also read the final diagnosis report.

  14. Pathology Case Study: Fever, Purpura and Hypotension

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anhalt, John P.

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. In this case, a 20 year old male college student is admitted to the emergency room with "general malaise, low-grade fever, and purplish discoloration on his face. Using the information provided, which includes patient and social history, images and descriptions from his physical exam, the hospital course and microscopic images, students are encouraged to test their knowledge of pathology and diagnose the patient's medical condition. You can check your diagnosis against the official conclusions in the "Final Diagnosis" section. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

  15. Pathology Case Study: An Adrenal Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Finkelstein, Sidney

    This endocrine pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. A 71-year-old female experiencing â??fainting spellsâ?ť is the focus of this case. The patientâ??s history, gross description, and microscopic description of test results are provided to aid readers in understanding the patientâ??s diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of endocrine pathology.

  16. A cognitive model of pathological worry.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Colette R; Mathews, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    We present an evidence-based model of pathological worry in which worry arises from an interaction between involuntary (bottom-up) processes, such as habitual biases in attention and interpretation favouring threat content, and voluntary (top-down) processes, such as attentional control. At a pre-conscious level, these processes influence the competition between mental representations when some correspond to the intended focus of attention and others to threat distracters. Processing biases influence the probability of threat representations initially intruding into awareness as negative thoughts. Worry in predominantly verbal form then develops, influenced by conscious processes such as attempts to resolve the perceived threat and the redirection of attentional control resources to worry content, as well as the continuing influence of habitual processing biases. After describing this model, we present evidence for each component process and for their causal role in pathological worry, together with implications for new directions in the treatment of pathological worry. PMID:22863541

  17. Personality-based clusters in bulimia nervosa: differences in clinical variables and ecological momentary assessment.

    PubMed

    Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Smyth, Joshua; Miltenberger, Raymond

    2007-06-01

    The present study examined whether personality-based subgroups of bulimic individuals differed in eating disorder behavior, comorbid psychopathology, treatment history, and momentary assessments of mood and behavior. Participants completed an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) protocol for a period of 2 weeks. Latent profile analysis on the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology revealed 3 groupings of bulimic participants: Interpersonal-emotional, Stimulus seeking-hostile, and Low personality pathology. The personality-based groups differed in histories of mood, anxiety, substance use disorders, features of borderline personality disorder, treatment history, and several momentary measures. These findings suggest that personality variation within the bulimia nervosa diagnostic construct may be associated with meaningful conceptual and clinical differences, including daily experiences in the natural environment. PMID:17536944

  18. Thromboelastography in women with pathological pregnancies: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Ai-ming; Huang, Xin-qiang; Jiang, Wen; Jia, Xiao-ning

    2014-03-01

    ABNORMALITIES during pregnancy are regarded as pathological pregnancy. Early detection of anomalies is urgent to take measures as soon as possible to prevent serious pregnancy complications. Procoagulant-anticoagulant imbalance is often the pathological basis of many pathological pregnancy conditions, leading to a hypercoagulable state. We compared the thromboelastographic parameters between pathological pregnancy and normal pregnancy patients, evaluated the value of thromboelastography in early detecting pathological pregnancy and predicting postpartum hemorrhage. PMID:24698684

  19. Adult attachment to transitional objects and borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Hooley, Jill M; Wilson-Murphy, Molly

    2012-04-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by tumultuous, unstable personal relationships, difficulty being alone, and an inability to self-soothe. This may explain why patients with BPD tend to develop strong attachments to transitional objects such as stuffed animals. Research in hospital settings has linked the use of transitional objects to the presence of BPD. Using a nonclinical community sample (N = 80) we explored the link between attachments to transitional objects and various aspects of personality pathology, as well as to childhood trauma, and parental rearing styles. People who reported intense current attachments to transitional objects were significantly more likely to meet criteria for a BPD diagnosis than those who did not; they also reported more childhood trauma, rated their early caregivers as less supportive, and had more attachment problems as adults. Heavy emotional reliance on transitional objects in adulthood may be an indicator of underlying pathology, particularly BPD. PMID:22486448

  20. Educational Toward a cardiovascular pathology training Report on the forum held in Vancouver, March 6, 2004, Society for Cardiovascular Pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaetano Thienea; Anton E. Beckerb; L. Maximilian Bujac; John T. Fallond; Bruce M. McManuse; Frederick J. Schoenf; Gayle L. Wintersf

    Cardiovascular pathology is a subspecialty of anatomic pathology that requires both clinical education and expertise in contemporary physiopathology. The Society for Cardiovascular Pathology sponsored a special workshop within the frame of the USCAP Annual Meeting, held in Vancouver, March 6-12, 2004, to address the present and future role of cardiovascular pathology in research, clinical care, and education. Clearly, the recruitment

  1. Pathology Case Study: History of Colonic Adenocarcinoma

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grant, Maurice R.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 69-year-old man with a history of colonic adenocarcinoma has metastasis to the liver, bladder and rectum. Visitors are given the gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gastrointestinal pathology.

  2. Pathology Case Study: Parasites in the Blood

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Navina, Sarah

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 58-year-old presents to emergency care with "fever, malaise and bodyache noted after returning from a two-day trip to Brazil." Visitors are given the patient history and hospital course description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology. [ASC

  3. Pathology Case Study: Hypertension of Unknown Etiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dallasta, Linda

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a sixty-nine year old woman has renal mass. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.

  4. Pathology Case Study: Confusion, Agitation and Unresponsiveness

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aronica, Patricia

    This is a clinical chemistry case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 20-year-old male has confusion, agitation and unresponsiveness after ingesting a handful of â??seeds.â?ť Visitors are given laboratory data and are granted the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical chemistry.

  5. Pathology Case Study: Elevated Tricyclic Antidepressant Levels

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Harrison, James

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 38-year-old woman was found to have "elevated tricyclic antidepressant levels during a routine clinic visit." Visitors are given the physical exam notes, electrocardiography, and laboratory tests, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical chemistry.

  6. Mast cells and oral pathologies: A Review.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Reet; Dahiya, Parveen; Goyal, Niti; Kumar, Mukesh; Sharma, Neeta; Saini, Hans Raj

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are resident cells of several types of tissues and contain many granules rich in histamine and heparin. They are distributed preferentially about the micro-vascular endothelial cells in the oral mucosa. These cells play a key role in the inflammatory process and thus their number has been found to be altered in various oral pathological conditions such as oral pyogenic granuloma, oral lichen planus, leukoplakia, oral squamous cell carcinoma, periapical cysts etc. The present review article is aimed to describe the alteration in the number of MCs along with their probable roles in these pathological conditions. PMID:25810632

  7. Treatment of pathological gambling - integrative systemic model.

    PubMed

    Mladenovi?, Ivica; Lažeti?, Goran; Le?i?-Toševski, Dušica; Dimitrijevi?, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    Pathological gambling was classified under impulse control disorders within the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) (WHO 1992), but the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition (DSM-V), (APA 2013), has recognized pathological gambling as a first disorder within a new diagnostic category of behavioral addictions - Gambling disorder. Pathological gambling is a disorder in progression, and we hope that our experience in the treatment of pathological gambling in the Daily Hospital for Addictions at The Institute of Mental Health, through the original "Integrative - systemic model" would be of use to colleagues, dealing with this pathology. This model of treatment of pathological gambling is based on multi-systemic approach and it primarily represents an integration of family and cognitive-behavioral therapy, with traces of psychodynamic, existential and pharmacotherapy. The model is based on the book "Pathological gambling - with self-help manual" by Dr Mladenovic and Dr Lazetic, and has been designed in the form of a program that lasts 10 weeks in the intensive phase, and then continues for two years in the form of "extended treatment" ("After care"). The intensive phase is divided into three segments: educational, insight with initial changes and analysis of the achieved changes with the definition of plans and areas that need to be addressed in the extended treatment. "Extended treatment" lasts for two years in the form of group therapy, during which there is a second order change of the identified patient, but also of other family members. Pathological gambling has been treated in the form of systemic-family therapy for more than 10 years at the Institute of Mental Health (IMH), in Belgrade. For second year in a row the treatment is carried out by the modern "Integrative-systemic model". If abstinence from gambling witihin the period of one year after completion of the intensive phase of treatment is taken as the main criterion of the effectiveness of our model, at this time it exceeds 90%. Given the relatively short period of application, it is necessary to continue to monitor and evaluate the model after 5 years. PMID:25751445

  8. Pathology Case Study: Systemic Lupus Erythematosis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kelly, Robert

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 45-year-old woman has a history of proteinuria, skin rash, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and Waldenstromâ??s Macroglobulinemia. Visitors are given the patient history and serum electrophoresis, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical immunology.

  9. Pathology Case Study: Acute Renal Failure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bastacky, Sheldon

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older man with a history of hypertension and prostatic hyperplasia presents with three months of fever, malaise, anorexia, and weight loss. Visitors are given both the microscopic description and patient history, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.

  10. Pathology Case Study: Severe Headache and Fever

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anhalt, John P.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old male transplant patient is suffering severe headaches. Visitors are given the hospital course record, radiographic and histologic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology and transplant pathology.

  11. Pathology Case Study: Permanent Intravascular Catheter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Baxter, Carla

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 33-year-old man diagnosed with Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia has developed a fever following chemotherapy and stem cell transplant. Visitors are given the patient's gram stain, cultures, biochemical profile, and susceptibility, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

  12. Pathology Case Study: Jaundice and Weight Loss

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bastacky, Sheldon

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 35-year-old man from Thailand has presented to the hospital with "jaundice, fatigue and weight loss of 10 to 15 pounds over the past few months." Visitors are given the patient history and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in surgical pathology.

  13. Pathology Case Study: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Finkelstein, Sidney

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 64-year-old woman with a long history of IBS presents with a recent "exacerbation of diarrhea, increased abdominal cramping, and weight loss." Visitors are given both the gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gastrointestinal pathology.

  14. Pathology Case Study: Extremely Labored Breathing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Johnson, Douglas R.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 68-year-old white female with a "history of coronary artery disease, angina, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presented with marked respiratory distress." Visitors are given admission data along with laboratory workup in order to give them the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical immunology.

  15. Pathology Case Study: Left Thyroid Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hari, Raj

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 66 year old man who presented with a left thyroid mass. Visitors are given patient history, admission data, and gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in endocrine pathology.

  16. Pathology Case Study: A Nasal Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lu, Zhengbin

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman with history of ductal carcinoma in-situ of breast presented with a nasal mass. Visitors can view the immunohistochemistry and microscopic descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of surgical pathology.

  17. Pathology Case Study: Right Neck Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bastacky, Sheldon

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an elderly woman developed a right parotid gland tumor, and experienced regrowth after its removal. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in head and neck pathology.

  18. Pathology Case Study: Hyperglycosuria and Normoglycemia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bastacky, Sheldon

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which man came in with a history of coronary artery disease, presenting with proteinuria of approximately 2-years duration and hyperglycosuria with normoglycemia. Visitors can view microscopic descriptions, including images, and blood tests in order to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of genitourinary pathology.

  19. Pathology Case Study: Large Right Lung Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Melhem, Mona

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with chest pain after 25 years of smoking. Tests revealed significant problems with the heart and lungs before the man suddenly went into cardiac arrest and died. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students learning autopsy pathology.

  20. Pathology Case Study: Bloody Vaginal Discharge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dickson, H.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an elderly woman experienced bloody vaginal discharge long after menopause. Visitors are given both the microscopic pap smear and biopsy findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gynecologic pathology.

  1. Pathology Case Study: Left Chest Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bastacky, Sheldon

    This soft tissue pathology case, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, illustrates the process of diagnosing the cause of a patientâ??s chest and back pain. A chest X-ray and CT scan revealed a chest mass. A biopsy of the mass was performed. Microscopic images of the biopsy are included in the case study along with a gross description and image of the specimen. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with the diagnostic process and techniques.

  2. Pathology Case Study: Palpable Breast Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Flanagan, Melina

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 43-year-old woman has, over the last two months, noticed a palpable and enlarging breast mass. Visitors are given the gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in surgical pathology.

  3. Pathology Case Study: Left Flank Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Whisnant, Richard

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man complained of a mildly painful mass in his left flank that had been present for six years. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

  4. Pathology Case Study: Elevated Ammonia Levels

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chikwava, Kudakwashe

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 15-year-old boy presents to the hospital with a five-day history of nausea, vomiting, and low-grade fever. Visitors are given the examination and laboratory results, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical chemistry.

  5. Pathology Case Study: Left Paravertebral Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cohen, Lance

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 20-month-old boy presents with flaccid paralysis of the lower extremities. Visitors are given both the clinical course, diagnostic biopsy results, and the autopsy diagnoses, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

  6. Pathology Case Study: Right Testicular Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jaffe, Ronald

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a young man discovered a mass on his right testicle following a previous left orchiectomy at the age of 8, thyroidectomy at the age of 11, and removal of numerous skin lesions. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of pediatric pathology.

  7. Pathology Case Study: Complications of Pregnancy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a pregnant woman experienced venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gynecologic pathology.

  8. Pathology Case Study: Left Upper Neck Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Craig, Fiona

    This surgical pathology case, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, illustrates the process of diagnosing the cause of a mass in the patientâ??s neck. Gross and microscopic descriptions of the surgically removed mass are included in the case study to aid in understanding the diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with the diagnostic process and techniques.

  9. Anatomical variants and pathologies of the vermix

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Swati; Verde, Franco; Johnson, Pamela T.; Fishman, Elliot K.

    2015-01-01

    The appendix may demonstrate a perplexing range of normal and abnormal appearances on imaging exams. Familiarity with the anatomy and anatomical variants of the appendix is helpful in identifying the appendix on ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Knowledge of the variety of pathologies afflicting the appendix and of the spectrum of imaging findings may be particularly useful to the emergency radiologist for accurate diagnosis and appropriate guidance regarding clinical and surgical management. In this pictorial essay, we review appendiceal embryology, anatomical variants such as Amyand hernias, and pathologies from appendicitis to carcinoid, mucinous, and nonmucinous epithelial neoplasms. PMID:24570122

  10. SHORT REPORT: EVALUATION OF HEPATIC FIBROSIS IN PERSONS CO-INFECTED WITH SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI AND HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAULINE N. M. MWINZI; DIANA M. S. KARANJA; IRERI KAREKO; PHILLIP W. MAGAK; ALLOYS S. S. ORAGO; DANIEL G. COLLEY; W. EVAN SECOR

    To investigate whether infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) affects fibrosis develop- ment in patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni, we evaluated schistosomiasis-induced pathology in the livers of Kenyan patients co-infected with HIV-1. Compared with persons with schistosomiasis alone (n 58), there were no significant differences in distribution of ultrasound-detectable pathology in persons with HIV-1 co-infection (n 23). Similarly, serum

  11. Pathological mimics of chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, N A

    1991-01-01

    When all of the macroscopic and microscopic features of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are present, the correct diagnosis is usually made without difficulty. When some of the changes are absent, the accuracy of diagnosis is reduced. This review has outlined those diseases which feature some of these pathological changes and may masquerade as idiopathic chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Some of the pathological mimics are iatrogenic while other common diseases, such as bacterial infection, ischaemia, and diverticulosis may produce confusing histological appearances. The picture is complicated by the fact that many of these pathological imitators may themselves cause or predispose to chronic inflammatory bowel disease, or may complicate chronic inflammatory bowel disease. For example, drugs and infectious agents are recognisable causes of relapse in ulcerative colitis; Crohn's disease may cause diverticulitis in patients with diverticulosis; and lymphoma may complicate ulcerative colitis. It behooves all practising histopathologists to recognise these mimics of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease to ensure appropriate management for patients with inflammatory pathology of the intestines. Images PMID:1918397

  12. Some pathological abnormalities of New Zealand fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Diggles

    2003-01-01

    A number of pathological abnormalities previously unrecorded in New Zealand fishes are described. A silver trevally (Pseudocaranx dentex) captured from the Bay of Islands exhibited swim bladder ectasia. Black oreo (Allocyttus niger) and smooth oreo (Pseudocyttus maculatus) had cysts of unknown aetiology (CUEs) in the gills at prevalences up to 76% and 81%, respectively, in some fishing areas. The CUEs

  13. ELASTIC IMAGE REGISTRATION AND PATHOLOGY DETECTION

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    . Challenges in 3D Brain Imaging The complexity of human brain structure mandates the use of engineering, Division of Brain Mapping, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA CONTENTS I. Challenges in 3D Brain Imaging Pathology Detection Analyzing Brain Data Digital Brain Atlases Measuring Anatomical Differences

  14. Skeletal muscle pathology in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Zielonka, Daniel; Piotrowska, Izabela; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T; Mielcarek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine stretch within the huntingtin protein (HTT). The neurological symptoms, that involve motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances, are caused by neurodegeneration that is particularly widespread in the basal ganglia and cereberal cortex. HTT is ubiquitously expressed and in recent years it has become apparent that HD patients experience a wide array of peripheral organ dysfunction including severe metabolic phenotype, weight loss, HD-related cardiomyopathy and skeletal muscle wasting. Although skeletal muscles pathology became a hallmark of HD, the mechanisms underlying muscular atrophy in this disorder are unknown. Skeletal muscles account for approximately 40% of body mass and are highly adaptive to physiological and pathological conditions that may result in muscle hypertrophy (due to increased mechanical load) or atrophy (inactivity, chronic disease states). The atrophy is caused by degeneration of myofibers and their replacement by fibrotic tissue is the major pathological feature in many genetic muscle disorders. Under normal physiological conditions the muscle function is orchestrated by a network of intrinsic hypertrophic and atrophic signals linked to the functional properties of the motor units that are likely to be imbalanced in HD. In this article, we highlight the emerging field of research with particular focus on the recent studies of the skeletal muscle pathology and the identification of new disease-modifying treatments. PMID:25339908

  15. Skeletal muscle pathology in Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Zielonka, Daniel; Piotrowska, Izabela; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T.; Mielcarek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine stretch within the huntingtin protein (HTT). The neurological symptoms, that involve motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances, are caused by neurodegeneration that is particularly widespread in the basal ganglia and cereberal cortex. HTT is ubiquitously expressed and in recent years it has become apparent that HD patients experience a wide array of peripheral organ dysfunction including severe metabolic phenotype, weight loss, HD-related cardiomyopathy and skeletal muscle wasting. Although skeletal muscles pathology became a hallmark of HD, the mechanisms underlying muscular atrophy in this disorder are unknown. Skeletal muscles account for approximately 40% of body mass and are highly adaptive to physiological and pathological conditions that may result in muscle hypertrophy (due to increased mechanical load) or atrophy (inactivity, chronic disease states). The atrophy is caused by degeneration of myofibers and their replacement by fibrotic tissue is the major pathological feature in many genetic muscle disorders. Under normal physiological conditions the muscle function is orchestrated by a network of intrinsic hypertrophic and atrophic signals linked to the functional properties of the motor units that are likely to be imbalanced in HD. In this article, we highlight the emerging field of research with particular focus on the recent studies of the skeletal muscle pathology and the identification of new disease-modifying treatments. PMID:25339908

  16. FOREST PATHOLOGY Root and Butt Rot Diseases

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    FOREST PATHOLOGY Root and Butt Rot Diseases M Garbelotto, University of California ­ Berkeley. Indeed, root and butt rots cause more economic damage to commercial forestry in the temperate world than, and basidiomycetes. Root and butt rots, instead, are exclusively caused by fungi belonging to the homo

  17. Whole-slide imaging: routine pathologic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Toby C; Swapp, Ryan E; Kaplan, Keith J

    2012-05-01

    Digital pathology systems offer pathologists an alternate, emerging mechanism to manage and interpret information. They offer increasingly fast and scalable hardware platforms for slide scanning and software that facilitates remote viewing, slide conferencing, archiving, and image analysis. Deployed initially and validated largely within the research and biopharmaceutical industries, WSI is increasingly being implemented for direct patient care. Improvements in image quality, scan times, and imageviewing browsers will hopefully allow pathologists to more seamlessly convert to digital pathology, much like our radiology colleagues have done before us. However, WSI creates both opportunities and challenges. Although niche applications of WSI technology for clinical, educational, and research purposes are clearly successful, it is evident that several areas still require attention and careful consideration before more widespread clinical adoption of WSI takes place. These include regulatory issues, development of standards of practice and validation guidelines, workflow modifications, as well as defining situations where WSI technology will really improve practice in a cost-effective way. Current progress on these and other issues, along with improving technology, will no doubt pave the way for increased adoption over the next decade, allowing the pathology community as a whole to harness the true potential of WSI for patient care. The digital decade will likely redefine how pathology is practiced and the role of the pathologist. PMID:22498580

  18. Tail and pelvis pathologies of ankylosaurian dinosaurs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria M. Arbour; Philip J. Currie

    2011-01-01

    Ankylosaurid dinosaurs had modified distal caudal vertebrae (the handle) and large terminal caudal osteoderms (the knob), which together form the tail club. The tail club may have been used as a weapon. Ankylosaur pelvic and caudal elements were surveyed for evidence of healing wounds that may indicate traumatic injury, and which could support clubbing behaviour. No pathologies were found in

  19. Drama: Transforming the Pathology of Compulsive Repetition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Toni L.

    1998-01-01

    Highlights aspects of Freud's discussions on the "fort-da" game and the process of transference and countertransference in their connection to psychological aspects of dramatic activity. Concludes that from the pathological need to repeat can come therapeutic possibilities in the human tendency for people to restage and reobserve their lives. (SR)

  20. Integrating veterinary pathology into basic research

    E-print Network

    Doran, Simon J.

    Integrating veterinary pathology into basic research Tuesday 17 April 2012 University of Surrey, Guildford There is a global shortage of veterinary pathologists and scientists which could soon have a lasting impact on human and veterinary health and medicine. Seventy five percent of the emerging

  1. Schistosomiasis as a worldwide problem: Pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franz von Lichtenberg

    1975-01-01

    Low?grade schistosome infection is often well tolerated, except for the danger of ectopic lesions; the risk of life?threatening pathology increases with rising worm burdens. At present, quantitative stool or urine egg counts do not reliably measure individual infection intensity, especially in adult patients, and more precise methods are needed on which to base therapeutic decisions. Timely schistosomicidal treatment will prevent

  2. Transcatheter Therapeutic Embolization of Genitourinary Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Ward, John F; Velling, Thomas E

    2000-01-01

    With the advent of smaller vascular catheters and improved imaging techniques, percutaneous transcatheter embolization has become a valuable adjunct for the treatment of patients with various genitourinary pathologic conditions. Multiple embolic agents are now employed in an array of situations to devascularize organs, stop bleeding, and occlude passageways. PMID:16985760

  3. Radiologic image library for pathology related searches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Ferdeghini; P. Marcheschi; A. Bozzi; R. Prediletto; A. Benassi

    2004-01-01

    Clinical environments require that information systems provide efficient access to the stored data. The actual effort is devoted to the evolution from archives towards integrated databases, including both data and images, allowing the researcher as well as the clinician to perform longitudinal and transversal studies, based on keys, lemmas and notes describing both pictorial and pathological features. The present study

  4. Preface: Insect Pathology, 2nd ed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pathology is an essential component of entomology and provides a non-chemical alternative for insect pest management. There are several groups of organisms that can infect and kill insects including viruses, fungi, microsporidia, bacteria, protists, and nematodes. The dilemma in insect patho...

  5. Tau protein pathology in neurodegenerative diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Grazia Spillantini; Michel Goedert

    1998-01-01

    Abundant tau-positive neurofibrillary lesions constitute a defining neuropathological characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. Filamentous tau pathology is also central to a number of other dementing disorders, such as Pick's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration and familial frontotemporal dementia and Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). The discovery of mutations in the tau gene in FTDP-17 has firmly established the relevance

  6. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  7. Plant pathology Histopathology of the interaction between

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    fabae Speg is the causal agent of leaf, stem and pod spot disease of faba beans, Vicia faba L. Various in resistance to artificial inoculation among faba bean genotypes were demonstrat- ed in field trials (Jellis etPlant pathology Histopathology of the interaction between Ascochyta fabae and Vicia faba

  8. Pathological Nurturance: The Root of Marital Discord

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crandall, John W.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental dynamic in the troubled marriage is seen as pathological nurturance, i.e., the perversion of the sense of caring. Derived from the early role reversal, it leads the spouses to take up hopeless tasks of recompense and rescue. The result is resistive, discordant behaviors as a means of coping. (Author)

  9. Skeletal Muscle Immortalized pathological human myoblasts

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    those associated with muscle aging, and for developing innovative gene-based, cell-dependent kinase 4-expressing vectors, we were able to generate a battery of immortalized human muscle stem-cellSkeletal Muscle Immortalized pathological human myoblasts: towards a universal tool for the study

  10. Abdominal Pathology in Patients With Diabetes Ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Pant, Nicole; Kadaria, Dipen; Murillo, Luis C; Yataco, Jose C; Headley, Arthur S; Freire, Amado X

    2012-01-20

    INTRODUCTION: The objective is to describe the incidence and nature of significant abdominal pathologies in patients with diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) and abdominal pain. METHODS: Retrospective chart review (N = 86) of patients with DKA from January 1, 2005, to January 31, 2010, was performed. Data included demographics, comorbidities, compliance, chief complaints and physical findings, blood count, metabolic profile, lactic acid, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), amylase, lipase, anion gap, arterial gases, imaging and final diagnosis. Continuous variables were described as mean ± standard deviation and compared with the Student's t test. Categorical variables were expressed as percentages (%) and compared with the Mantel-Haenszel ? test. Univariate analysis was conducted among patients with and without significant abdominal pain and also with and without significant abdominal pathology. Two lipase strata were created at 400 U. Multivariate model to identify limits (confidence interval) of the estimated risk imposed by the predictor found significant in univariate analysis. A P value of ?0.05 was considered significant. Stat View 5.0 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) was used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: In patients with abdominal pain, 17% had significant abdominal pathology mainly acute pancreatitis (AP). Serum amylase and lipase level were found to be an indicator of significant underlying pathology (both P values ?0.001). The logistic model created showed that patients with lipase level ?400 U have a 7% increased risk of having AP with confidence interval of 0.01 to 0.6. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with DKA and abdominal pain with lipase >400 U have an increased risk of significant underlying abdominal pathology (AP). PMID:22270401

  11. Intelligent security and privacy solutions for enabling personalized telepathology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Starting with the paradigm change of health systems towards personalized health services, the paper introduces the technical paradigms to be met for enabling ubiquitous pHealth including ePathology. The system-theoretical, architecture-centric approach to mobile, pervasive and autonomous solutions has to be based on an open component system framework such as the Generic Component Model. The crucial challenge to be met for comprehensive interoperability is multi-disciplinary knowledge representation, which must be integrated into the aforementioned framework. The approach is demonstrated for security and privacy services fundamental for any eHealth or ePathology environment. PMID:21489199

  12. Systems pathology—or how to solve the complex problem of predictive pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Dietel; Reinhold Schäfer

    2008-01-01

    To understand the extreme complexity of biological events requires a systemic approach. This holds particularly for the disordered\\u000a biological interactions that are characteristic of disease, the subject of pathology. Which options are available to untie\\u000a the Gordian knot? In this contribution, the potential role of systems biology and, as a further development, systems pathology\\u000a will be discussed.

  13. The sensitivity in the IR spectrum of the intact and pathological tissues by laser biophotometry.

    PubMed

    Ravariu, Cristian; Bondarciuc, Ala

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we use the laser biophotometry for in vivo investigations, searching the most sensitive interactions of the near-infrared spectrum with different tissues. The experimental methods are based on the average reflection coefficient (ARC) measurements. For healthy persons, ARC is the average of five values provided by the biophotometer. The probe is applied on dry skin with minimum pilosity, in five regions: left-right shank, left-right forearm, and epigastrium. For the pathological tissues, the emitting terminal is moved over the suspected area, controlling the reflection coefficient level, till a minimum value occurs, as ARC-Pathological. Then, the probe is moved on the symmetrical healthy region of the body to read the complementary coefficient from intact tissue, ARC-Intact, from the same patient. The experimental results show an ARC range between 67 and 59 mW for intact tissues and a lower range, up to 58-42 mW, for pathological tissues. The method is efficient only in those pathological processes accompanied by variable skin depigmentation, water retention, inflammation, thrombosis, or swelling. Frequently, the ARC ranges are overlapping for some diseases. This induces uncertain diagnosis. Therefore, a statistical algorithm is adopted for a differential diagnosis. The laser biophotometry provides a quantitative biometric parameter, ARC, suitable for fast diagnosis in the internal and emergency medicine. These laser biophotometry measurements are representatives for the Romanian clinical trials. PMID:23748801

  14. Personal identity, multiple personality, and hypnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Sutcliffe; Jean Jones

    1962-01-01

    The concept of multiple personality ia critically examined in the light of its historical development. Various conceptions of multiple personality are considered: aa a diagnostic fashion; aa a product of shaping in therapy; as a product of hypnotic suggestion; as simulation; and aa an extension of characteristica found in “normal” personslitiea. These considerations lead to the conclusion that the significant

  15. DSM-5 personality traits discriminate between posttraumatic stress disorder and control groups.

    PubMed

    James, Lisa M; Anders, Samantha L; Peterson, Carly K; Engdahl, Brian E; Krueger, Robert F; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2015-07-01

    The relevance of personality traits to the study of psychopathology has long been recognized, particularly in terms of understanding patterns of comorbidity. In fact, a multidimensional personality trait model reflecting five higher-order personality dimensions-negative affect, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism-is included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and represented in the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). However, evaluation of these dimensions and underlying personality facets within clinical samples has been limited. In the present study, we utilized the PID-5 to evaluate the personality profile elevation and composition of 150 control veterans and 35 veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Results indicated that veterans with PTSD endorsed significantly more personality pathology than control veterans, with scores on detachment and psychoticism domains most clearly discriminating between the two groups. When personality domain scores were considered as parts of each subject's personality profile, a slightly different picture emerged. Specifically, the PTSD composition was primarily characterized by detachment and negative affect, followed by disinhibition, psychoticism, and antagonism in that order of relative importance. The profile of the control group was significantly different, mostly accounted for differences in antagonism and psychoticism. Using these complementary analytic strategies, the findings demonstrate the relevance of personality pathology to PTSD, highlight internalizing features of PTSD, and pave the way for future research aimed at evaluating the role of shared maladaptive personality traits in underlying the comorbidity of PTSD and related disorders. PMID:25862564

  16. Back to the Future: Personality and Assessment and Personality Development

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Brent W.

    2009-01-01

    In this essay I consider the future of personality development in light of the past effects of Personality and Assessment on the field of personality in general and personality development in particular. The essay is organized around 1) the effect of Mischel's book on the foundational theories informing personality development; 2) definitions of personality traits; 3) an alternative model of personality traits, described as the sociogenomic model of personality traits, that can bridge the divide that still characterizes the field of personality development; 4) the application of the sociogenomic model of personality traits to issues of personality trait development, and 5) a “Newtonian” vision for the future of personality psychology. PMID:20161194

  17. The pathology of congenital lung lesions.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Darren J; Gould, Steve J

    2015-08-01

    The spectrum of complications associated with congenital lung malformation is wide. They can range from fetal hydrops in utero to postnatal problems of ventilation, obstruction and infection; presentation may occur from the neonatal period to adulthood. Many lesions will remain asymptomatic while at the other end of the complication spectrum, there is a small risk of neoplasia associated with some forms of cystic lung. A better understanding of the pathology has shown that bronchial atresia/obstruction is the likely hidden pathology underlying many congenital lung lesions leading to downstream cystic maldevelopment. Earlier diagnosis has led to increasing difficulties in ascribing malformations to conventional categories that were originally described in postnatal lungs. It is probably more important to be aware of the potential combination of vascular and airway connections and complications than to try and prescribe a classification of pulmonary lesions associated with rigid definitions. PMID:26051050

  18. Incidental bony pathology when reporting trauma orthopantomograms.

    PubMed

    Macanovic, M; Gangidi, S; Porter, G; Brown, S; Courtney, D; Porter, J

    2010-10-01

    Radiologists frequently report orthopantomograms (OPTs) and other views of the mandible, most often in patients who have suffered facial trauma. These examinations may reveal incidental pathology. It is important that radiologists are aware of the radiological appearances and the clinical significance of these lesions. In this review we will present examples of the more common odontogenic lesions including: radicular cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, and also examples of non-odontogenic pathology: bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) and chronic osteomyelitis. Although some of the lesions will require computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for further lesion characterization and evaluation of the surrounding tissues, we are going to focus on the plain film appearances. We will also briefly discuss the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and treatment of these lesions. PMID:20797471

  19. Natural pathology of the Baboon (Papio spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Bommineni, Yugendar R.; Dick, Edward J.; Malapati, Adinarayana R.; Owston, Michael A.; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Baboons are useful animal models for biomedical research, but the natural pathology of the baboon is not as well defined as other non-human primates. Methods A computer search for all morphologic diagnoses from baboon necropsies at the Southwest National Primate Research Center was performed and included all the natural deaths and animals euthanized for natural causes. Results A total of 10,883 macroscopic or microscopic morphologic diagnoses in 4297 baboons were documented and are presented by total incidence, relative incidence by sex and age-group, and mean age of occurrence. The most common diagnoses in descending order of occurrence were hemorrhage, stillborn, amyloidosis, colitis, spondylosis, and pneumonia. The systems with the most diagnoses were the digestive, urogenital, musculoskeletal, and respiratory. Conclusion This extensive evaluation of the natural pathology of the baboon should be an invaluable biomedical research resource. PMID:21226714

  20. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Richard J; Balint, Peter V; Szkudlarek, Marcin; Filippucci, Emilio; Backhaus, Marina; D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Sanchez, Esperanza Naredo; Iagnocco, Annamaria; Schmidt, Wolfgang A; Bruyn, George A W; Bruyn, George; Kane, David; O'Connor, Philip J; Manger, Bernhard; Joshua, Fred; Koski, Juhani; Grassi, Walter; Lassere, Marissa N D; Swen, Nanno; Kainberger, Franz; Klauser, Andrea; Ostergaard, Mikkel; Brown, Andrew K; Machold, Klaus P; Conaghan, Philip G

    2005-12-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints in a short period of time. However, there are scarce data regarding its validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness to change, making interpretation and comparison of studies difficult. In particular, there are limited data describing standardized scanning methodology and standardized definitions of US pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis. PMID:16331793

  1. Pathology of renal cell carcinoma: an update.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Cheng, Liang; Vidal, Alfredo; Scarpelli, Marina; Kirkali, Ziya; Blanca, Ana; Montironi, Rodolfo

    2013-04-01

    The use of classic and newer methodologies, including histopathology, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics, and molecular diagnostic techniques, has greatly influenced distinctions between various types of renal carcinoma. The most recent World Health Organization classification of renal neoplasms encompassed nearly 50 distinctive renal neoplasms. These categories have been expanded during recent years, incorporating newer histotypes, thus suggesting that the next revision of this classification will incorporate some of the recently recognized entities. In this review we examine the clinicopathologic and genetic features of renal carcinomas most often seen in clinical practice. Emphasis is placed on defining risk categories by incorporating pathologic predictive paradmeters and tumor histotypes. Since pathology of renal cell cancer is a rapidly evolving field, we also include brief comments on newer tumor variants for which there currently is not enough clinicopathologic information to permit classification as distinctive tumor histotypes. PMID:23700715

  2. Pathology Case Study: Post Transfusion Hemolysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hari, Raj

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old female with a 20 year history of systemic lupus erythematosis with a history of deep venous thrombosis and a recent myocardial infarct. Visitors are given patient history and admission data along with data results from the resulting transfusion reaction investigation. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.

  3. Pathology Case Study: Progressive Shortness of Breath

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gregorio, Remigio

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 67-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with worsening dyspnea and cough for 8 months and new onset chest pain. Visitors are given patient history, immunohistochemistry, and both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

  4. Pathology Case Study: Cystic Intracerebral Tumor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Arora, R.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 21-year-old man experienced an episode of seizures. The patientâ??s medical history and detailed description of her symptoms after admittance to the hospital are included in the â??Patient Historyâ?ť section. Results from a cranial MRI along with microscopic description and images from a frontal lobectomy are provided here to help aid in understanding the diagnosis. The â??Final Diagnosisâ?ť section contains the attending doctorâ??s final diagnosis of the patient with commentary, and a detailed pathology. References are also included in this section. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of neuropathology.

  5. Pathology Case Study: Sore Throat and Leukocytosis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Holst, Valerie

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. A 68 year old female with a sore throat is the focus of this particular case. The patient's history reveals an increased white blood cell count, anemia and thrombocytopenia. A list of the her current medication, as well as the microscopic description, cell images, and flow cytometry are also included in the case file. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics. Students are encouraged to examine each aspect of the case and test their diagnostic skills against the official findings in the "Final Diagnosis" section.

  6. Pathology Case Study: Parotid Gland Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dacic, Sanja

    The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. In this particular case, a 53-year-old woman was treated for a â??progressively enlarging, painless mass in the area of the left parotid gland.â?ť Gross and microscopic images and descriptions of the specimen removed from the patient are included in the case study. The â??Final Diagnosisâ?ť section provides the official diagnosis of the patient and a detailed description provided by the contributing doctors. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of head and neck pathology.

  7. Pathology Case Study: Enlarging Right Parotid Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lopes, M. Beatriz S.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 35-year-old man with no significant past medical history who developed a firm mass below the right ear over the past several months. Visitors are given patient history, radiology findings, and both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology.

  8. Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Bloating and Discomfort

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dunn, Jean

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 64-year-old woman initially diagnosed with acute myelogenous leukemia. Visitors are given an extensive patient history, radiology findings, and both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient using the findings before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

  9. Pathology Case Study: Large Anterior Abdominal Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pushkar, Irina

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 72 year old woman who presents with a three day history of constipation and a five year history of a large anterior abdominal mass in the right lower quadrant. Visitors are provided with patient history, admission data, hospital treatment course, and gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in surgical pathology.

  10. Pathology Case Study: Right Upper Quadrant Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dorvault, Christine

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology where a two-year-old white female was seen for a routine well child exam. On physical examination, a right upper quadrant mass was palpable. The case study provides radiologic findings, gross description and microscopic description in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

  11. Pathological changes in anabolic androgenic steroid users.

    PubMed

    Lusetti, Monia; Licata, Manuela; Silingardi, Enrico; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Palmiere, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Several classes of recreational and prescription drugs have additional effects on the heart and vasculature, which may significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality in chronic users. The study presented herein focuses on pathological changes involving the heart possibly due to anabolic androgenic steroid use. The role these hormones may play in their occurrence of sudden cardiac death is also investigated. 98 medico-legal cases including 6 anabolic androgenic steroid users were retrospectively reviewed. Autopsies, histology, immunohistochemistry, biochemistry and toxicology were performed in all cases. Pathological changes consisted of various degrees of interstitial and perivascular fibrosis as well as fibroadipous metaplasia and perineural fibrosis within the myocardium of the left ventricle. Within the limits of the small number of investigated cases, our results appear to confirm former observations on this topic and suggest anabolic androgenic steroid's potential causative role in the pathogenesis of sudden cardiac deaths in chronic users. PMID:26048507

  12. Physiological and pathological consequences of cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Burton, Dominick G A; Krizhanovsky, Valery

    2014-11-01

    Cellular senescence, a permanent state of cell cycle arrest accompanied by a complex phenotype, is an essential mechanism that limits tumorigenesis and tissue damage. In physiological conditions, senescent cells can be removed by the immune system, facilitating tumor suppression and wound healing. However, as we age, senescent cells accumulate in tissues, either because an aging immune system fails to remove them, the rate of senescent cell formation is elevated, or both. If senescent cells persist in tissues, they have the potential to paradoxically promote pathological conditions. Cellular senescence is associated with an enhanced pro-survival phenotype, which most likely promotes persistence of senescent cells in vivo. This phenotype may have evolved to favor facilitation of a short-term wound healing, followed by the elimination of senescent cells by the immune system. In this review, we provide a perspective on the triggers, mechanisms and physiological as well as pathological consequences of senescent cells. PMID:25080110

  13. Methods of Studying Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Shontz, Franklin C.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a method that permits answering research questions of general importance by examining individuals in a comprehensive, whole-person manner. Discusses their use in two studies of persons with spinal cord injuries. (LLL)

  14. Cryptosporidium: Infection - Immunocompromised Persons

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Who might be immunocompromised or have a weakened immune system? Examples of persons with weakened immune systems include ... times. How does cryptosporidiosis affect you if your immune system is severely weakened? In persons with AIDS and ...

  15. Unlocking Personality Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieger, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    This article examines some of the intricacies of personality types and their effect on career choices. Proposes that knowing students' Myers-Briggs personality types can help school counselors guide them down the right career path. (GCP)

  16. Pathological Gambling: Biological and Clinical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Topf, Jocelyn L.; Yip, Sarah W.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2009-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is categorized as an impulse control disorder (ICD). Phenomenological, neurobiological and pharmacological data suggest similarities in the pathophysiologies of substance use disorders (SUDs) and PG. Both behavioral and pharmacological approaches, including those that have been empirically validated for SUDs, have shown promise in the treatment of PG. Findings from biological studies of PG are reviewed, and treatment approaches based on controlled studies are summarized. PMID:20161094

  17. On the Existence of Pathological Detonation Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C M

    2003-07-11

    Pathological detonation waves with velocities greater than Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) have been proposed theoretically but never observed experimentally in gaseous, liquid or solid explosives. Two types of pathological chemical reaction zones have been identified within the Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring (ZND) model: an exothermic chemical decomposition with a mole decrease during from the von Neumann spike state to the C-J state and an exothermic reaction followed by an endothermic reaction (eigenvalue detonation). The high temperatures reached in detonation reaction zones cause sufficient radial and atom formation to insure overall mole increases in gaseous H{sub 2} + O{sub 2} detonations. Aluminized explosives exhibit a slight mole decrease when the solid aluminum particles are oxidized, but this does not negate the large mole increase that occurs during explosive decomposition. Porous solid explosives whose products form with more cold compression energy than that of the solid are an unlikely possibility for pathological detonation. Eigenvalue detonations have been postulated for H{sub 2} + Cl{sub 2} gas phase detonations and for plastic bonded solid explosives if endothermic binder decomposition follows exothermic explosive decomposition. Chemical kinetic and physical arguments are presented to eliminate these possible pathological detonations. In the case of H{sub 2} + Cl{sub 2}, highly vibrationally excited HCl molecules dissociate Cl{sub 2} molecules during the exothermic portion of the reaction zone rather than later in the flow process. In the plastic bonded explosives, the binders are located on the surfaces of explosive particles and thus are exposed to ''hot spots'' created by the three-dimensional Mach stem shock front. Any remaining binder material rapidly reacts in collisions with the high, vibrationally excited reaction products formed during explosive decomposition. Therefore eigenvalue detonations are extremely unlikely to occur in gaseous, liquid or solid explosives.

  18. Oral premalignant lesions: from the pathological viewpoint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiyuki Izumo

    2011-01-01

    Under the widely used World Health Organization (WHO) classification for the pathological diagnosis of oral premalignant lesions,\\u000a dysplasia, which is graded as mild, moderate or severe, and carcinoma in situ (CIS), which is a non-invasive carcinoma, are\\u000a classified as precursor lesions of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Since the first edition (Wahi et al. International histological\\u000a classification of tumours no. 4,

  19. Noninflammatory fallopian tube pathology in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Merlini; Mehrak Anooshiravani; Aaron Vunda; Irene Borzani; Marcello Napolitano; Sylviane Hanquinet

    2008-01-01

    Noninflammatory tubal abnormalities are rare in children and usually not well covered by traditional educational material.\\u000a The presenting symptoms are nonspecific and are common to many other conditions, so its preoperative diagnosis is rarely made.\\u000a The purpose of this study was to review the hospital charts and imaging findings in children and sexually inactive adolescents\\u000a who showed fallopian tube pathology.

  20. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: Pathology and prognosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroko Ide; Tsutomu Nakamura; Kazuhiko Hayashi; Takeshi Endo; Ataru Kobayashi; Reiki Eguchi; Fujio Hanyu

    1994-01-01

    Between 1985 and 1992 a total of 403 patients with resected thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were evaluated histopathologically, and various pathologic findings related to survival were examined. Concerning depth of tumor invasion, 8 (2%) cases were pTis, 110 (27%) were pT1, 48 (12%) were pT2, 202 (50%) were pT3, and 35 (9%) were pT4. Lymphatic invasion was detected in

  1. Placental Pathology in Fetal Bartter Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda M. Ernst; Vinita Parkash

    2002-01-01

    Bartter syndrome, which presents clinically with polyuria, urinary potassium loss, hypokalemia, hypercalciuria, and alkalosis,\\u000a is an autosomal recessive disorder with mutations in genes encoding the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter, the chloride channel CLC-NKB,\\u000a and the potassium channel ROMK. Prenatal diagnosis of Bartter syndrome is now possible; however, there are no reports of the\\u000a placental pathology associated with fetal Bartter syndrome. We present

  2. The pathology of viral hepatitis in chimpanzees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Popper; Jules L. Dienstag; Stephen M. Feinstone; Harvey J. Alter; Robert H. Purcell

    1980-01-01

    Serial biopsy specimens (up to 21) of 39 chimpanzees who received inocula of defined infectivity containing hepatitis virus A (9 animals), B (7 animals), and non-A-non-B (24 animals) were evaluated under code for light-microscopic alterations. These studies demonstrated the basic pathologic features seen in human viral hepatitis, although to a lesser degree. These included besides hepatocytic degeneration and necrosis lobular

  3. Human pathological basis of blood vessels and stromal tissue for nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    The recent development of nanotechnology has already produced clinically applicable "nanodrugs," which are largely dependent on a novel concept for the drug delivery system. Thus the elucidation of local pharmacokinetics of nanodrugs is indispensable for the further development of nanomedicine; however, the detailed pathophysiology associated with nano-sized materials especially in pathologic lesions has not been well-described. In this review article, the microscopic appearance of vascular pericytes in addition to endothelial cells is discussed in the normal state and also in several pathological conditions which could be the major targets for nanomedicine. Moreover, the role of stromal tissue including myofibroblasts is also focused on, as well as inflammatory cells. Finally, the significance of disease-specific tissue structure in the establishment of personalized nanomedicine is discussed. PMID:24462455

  4. Guidelines for the delivery of speech-language pathology and audiology services in home care.

    PubMed

    1990-09-01

    Due to changing demographics, consumer preference, and priorities of the total health care delivery system, home care services are increasingly vital to the safety, well-being, and quality of life of many people. Consequently, the number of persons who need home-based speech-language pathology and audiology services is increasing. These guidelines cover the professional service components and related aspects of the home care model. It is ASHA's position that home-based speech-language pathology and audiology services should be conducted by certified (and licensed where applicable) speech-language pathologists and audiologists, or by individuals who meet the educational requirements for certification and are receiving the supervised experience required for certification (Asha, 1981). These guidelines have been formulated to assist the speech-language pathologist and audiologist providing services in the unique environment of the home. The intent of these guidelines is to facilitate integration of services, cost-effectiveness and quality of client care. PMID:2222567

  5. College of Agricultural Sciences Botany and Plant Pathology

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    College of Agricultural Sciences Botany and Plant Pathology Jay W. Pscheidt & Cynthia M. Ocamb Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry (12th Edition) College of Science Botany and Plant Pathology Bruce Mc

  6. CONFOUNDERS IN INTERPRETING PATHOLOGY FOR SAFETY AND RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of pathology assessment to toxicity assessment is invaluable but often not clearly understood. Pathology endpoints are the central response around which human health risk assessment is frequently determined; therefore, it is important that the general toxicology ...

  7. On-Line Glossary of Technical Terms in Plant Pathology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cornell University's Department of Plant Pathology provides this online glossary of technical terms in plant pathology. From abaxial to zygote, this lengthy resource offers definitions accompanied by diagrams, photographs, reference texts, and pronunciation options.

  8. Pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease. A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Gabriella; Barone, Paolo; Trojano, Luigi; Vitale, Carmine

    2013-07-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) and other Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs), such as hypersexuality, compulsive eating and buying, are often reported in Parkinson's disease (PD). The prevalence of PG is 2.2%-7% in treated PD patients, which is higher than the background population rate. As other non motor symptoms in PD, PG is frequently under-reported by patients and caregivers and may be under-recognized by the treating physicians. Factors associated with PG include male sex, younger age or younger age at PD onset, personal or family history of substance abuse or ICD, a personality profile characterized by impulsiveness, and treatment with dopamine agonists (DA) more than with levodopa (l-dopa). The DA effect seems to be a class effect and not specific for any DA. Neurofunctional studies suggest that medication-induced downregulation of frontostriatal connections and upregulation of striatum might combine to induce impulsive behavior. A dysfunction of fronto-subcortical circuits in PD patients with PG is also supported by neuropsychological findings of impaired executive control and monitoring abilities. Management of ICDs in PD is complex, and until now only discontinuation and/or tapering of DA treatment seem to be an effective management strategy for ICDs in PD. There is no empirical evidence supporting the use of psychiatric drugs for PG such as antipsychotics and antidepressants. Data regarding the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS), particularly of subthalamic nucleus, on PG and ICDs in PD are still limited and sometimes conflicting since improvement of PG or new onset of PG after surgery have been reported. PMID:23490464

  9. Platelet parameters in healthy and pathological pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Maconi, Mariacaterina; Cardaropoli, Simona; Cenci, A M

    2012-01-01

    Changes in platelet count (PLT) are very important during pregnancy. Many platelet disorders occur during pregnancy and a reduction in PLT is the most common hemostasis abnormality identified, and this has important implications for mother and foetus. Many of these disorders share clinical and laboratory features, making accurate diagnosis difficult. The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals of platelet parameters for some of the more important pathologies associated to pregnancy (pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, autoimmune disorders, viral infections) using the automated hematology analyzer Sysmex XE-2100 and to evaluate the difference between healthy and pathological pregnancy. We enrolled in our study 100 pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy. The parameters analyzed included PLT, platelet distribution width, and mean platelet volume (MPV). We found statistically significant difference in PLT in pre-eclampsia, autoimmune disorders, and viral infections. Our results demonstrated also a statistically significant difference in MPV in pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes. Our results allow the clinicians to detect hematologic change by simple complete blood count useful for the management of the pathological pregnancies. In conclusion, the overall picture of platelet disorders is extremely variegated, leading to numerous diagnostic and therapeutic problems whose solutions require close collaboration between clinicians and laboratory specialists. PMID:24833533

  10. Photomatrix LED therapy of extensive cutaneous pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharov, Vladimir P.; Menyaev, Yulian A.; Zharova, I. Z.; Leviev, Dmitry O.; Tsarev, V. N.; Sarantsev, V. P.; Krusic, Joze

    2000-05-01

    Standard sources of radiation have not sufficient efficiency at treating spatially extended pathology, especially when pathologic areas involve opposite sides of the human being's body or when they are uneven in shape. The typical examples of such pathology are extensive burns, oedema, inflammatory processes, infectious wounds, actinic keratosis, psoriasis, arthritis and neurological diseases. Superbright LEDs gathered in a matrix and grasping the area of irradiation are the most suitable sources of radiation. This article presents the result of investigation of the effectiveness of various types of the blue-to-infrared spectrum range LED array that allow irradiating a surface with an area from several cm2 to several thousand cm2 including the whole human being's body with the intensity varying from 1 to 100 mW/cm2. Besides the matrixes, composed of separate light diodes, modular systems with separate monolithic hybrid chips with a high density of positioning the sources of radiation are considered. The peculiarities and results of applying such systems to treat oedema, cancer, weight regulation, neurological diseases, different infections diseases in combination with PDT, stomatitis and paradontosis are analyzed. The parameters of the photomatrix LED for different spectral regions and different geometry from flat shape to semispherical and cylindrical are presented. The perspective combination photomatrix LED with another therapeutical devices including photovacuum and photomagnetic therapy are considered.

  11. [Pathology of dermatoglyphics in ocular diseases].

    PubMed

    Tarc?, A

    2000-01-01

    The paper studies dermatoglyphics, viewed from a pathological perspective, on a group of 200 blind subjects or suffering from other grave congenital ocular affections, many of them hereditary, living in the province of Moldavia, from which 400 finger prints and palms have been collected. The observation to be made in that the advanced degree of sight's affection, up to the total loss, is correlated with an ample and strong pathological charge of the digital and palmar dermatoglyphic image of the subjects affected, suggestively expressed at the sample's level by a higher incidence of the distortions with serious medical implications, quite close to that recorded at deaf-mutes, mental handicapped people, in the grave congenital cardio-vascular affections, or at parents with malformed children from Moldavia. From the multitude of dermatoglyphic distortions put into evidence, the author considers that it is only one that might be specific to the serious congenital grave ocular affections, that is a certain disposal of the epidermal ridges, as a dense or very dense network at the level of the Th/I, in a ratio of 80% with women and 38% with men. The very high frequency of this distortion for females subjects might assume that the gene responsible for such a pathological configuration is placed on chromosome X. PMID:12089910

  12. A perspective on digital and computational pathology

    PubMed Central

    Ramamurthy, Bhagavathi; Coffman, Frederick D.; Cohen, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    The digitization of images has not only led to increasingly sophisticated methods of quantitating information from those images themselves, but also to the development of new physics-based techniques for extracting information from the original specimen and presenting this as visual data in both two and three-dimensional (3D) forms. This evolution of an image-based discipline has reached maturity in Radiology, but it is only just beginning in Pathology. An historical perspective is provided both on the current state of computational imaging in pathology and of the factors that are impeding further progress in the development and application of these approaches. Emphasis is placed on barriers to the dissemination of information in this area. The value of computational imaging in basic and translational research is clear. However, while there are many examples of “virtual diagnostics” in Radiology, there are only relatively few in Pathology. Nevertheless, we can do cellular level analysis of lesions accessible by endoscopic or catheterization procedures, and a number of steps have been taken toward real-time imaging as adjuncts to traditional biopsies. Progress in computational imaging will greatly expand the role of pathologists in clinical medicine as well as research.

  13. Metabolic Shifts during Aging and Pathology.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yina; Li, Ji

    2015-03-01

    The heart is a very special organ in the body and has a high requirement for metabolism due to its constant workload. As a consequence, to provide a consistent and sufficient energy a high steady-state demand of metabolism is required by the heart. When delicately balanced mechanisms are changed by physiological or pathophysiological conditions, the whole system's homeostasis will be altered to a new balance, which contributes to the pathologic process. So it is no wonder that almost every heart disease is related to metabolic shift. Furthermore, aging is also found to be related to the reduction in mitochondrial function, insulin resistance, and dysregulated intracellular lipid metabolism. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as an energy sensor to detect intracellular ATP/AMP ratio and plays a pivotal role in intracellular adaptation to energy stress. During different pathology (like myocardial ischemia and hypertension), the activation of cardiac AMPK appears to be essential for repairing cardiomyocyte's function by accelerating ATP generation, attenuating ATP depletion, and protecting the myocardium against cardiac dysfunction and apoptosis. In this overview, we will talk about the normal heart's metabolism, how metabolic shifts during aging and different pathologies, and how AMPK regulates metabolic changes during these conditions. © 2015 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 5: 667-686, 2015. PMID:25880509

  14. Pathology of inhalational anthrax animal models.

    PubMed

    Twenhafel, N A

    2010-09-01

    Anthrax is a lethal disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. There are three principal forms of the disease in humans-cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalational-depending on the route of exposure. Of these, inhalational anthrax is the most dangerous; it is rapidly fatal; and it has been used as a deadly biological warfare agent in the last decade. Suitable animal models of inhalational anthrax have been utilized to study pathogenesis of disease, investigate bacterial characteristics such as virulence, and test effectiveness of vaccines and therapeutics. To date, mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, and nonhuman primates are the principal animal species used to study inhalational anthrax. Mice are valuable in studying early pathogenesis and bacterial characteristics. Few pathologic changes occur in the mouse models but may include marked bacteremia and lymphocyte destruction in the spleen and mediastinal lymph nodes. Rabbits and guinea pigs rapidly develop fulminate systemic disease, and pathologic findings often include necrotizing lymphadenitis; splenitis; pneumonia; vasculitis; and hemorrhage, congestion, and edema in multiple tissues. Nonhuman primates consistently develop the full range of classic lesions of human inhalational anthrax, including meningitis; lymphadenitis; splenitis; mediastinitis; pneumonia; vasculitis; and hemorrhage, congestion, and edema in multiple tissues. This review focuses on basic characteristics of the bacterium and its products, key aspects of pathogenesis, and the pathologic changes commonly observed in each animal model species. PMID:20656900

  15. [Incidental finding of pathological coagulation parameters].

    PubMed

    Luxembourg, B; Lindhoff-Last, E

    2014-10-01

    Pathological coagulation parameters may reflect life-threatening hemorrhagic or thromboembolic diseases but may also be a laboratory result without any clinical significance, result from in vitro phenomena or preanalytical errors. This article gives an overview of potential pitfalls in coagulation diagnostics, lists the differential diagnoses of pathological coagulation parameters and describes further steps in the diagnostic approach to clarify pathological results. The focus lies on coagulation parameters that are frequently determined in routine clinical investigations, e.g. platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and fibrinogen. Besides heparin, fondaparinux, danaparoid, and vitamin K antagonists, direct factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors are nowadays available for therapeutic anticoagulation. This article gives an overview of the influence of anticoagulants on coagulation parameters which depends on the dose, the time of the last administration, as well as the method used for the determination of coagulation parameters. Moreover, common reasons for elevation of the fibrin degradation product D-dimer are presented. The clinical utility of D-dimer assays is limited by their poor specificity. Elevated D-dimer concentrations can be found in various diseases and also under normal physiological circumstances (e.g. in the elderly). Thus, the most useful clinical application of D-dimer is evidence of normal values to essentially rule out venous thromboembolism. PMID:25190093

  16. Effect of Purpose in Life on the Relation Between Alzheimer Disease Pathologic Changes on Cognitive Function in Advanced Age

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Patricia A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Wilson, Robert S.; Yu, Lei; Schneider, Julie A.; Bennett, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Context Purpose in life is associated with a substantially reduced risk of Alzheimer disease (AD), but the neurobiologic basis of this protective effect remains unknown. Objective To test the hypothesis that purpose in life reduces the deleterious effects of AD pathologic changes on cognition in advanced age. Design A longitudinal, epidemiologic, clinicopathologic study of aging was conducted that included detailed annual clinical evaluations and brain autopsy. Participants Two hundred forty-six community-based older persons from the Rush Memory and Aging Project participated. Main Outcome Measures Purpose in life was assessed via structured interview, and cognitive function was evaluated annually and proximate to death. On postmortem examination, 3 indexes of AD pathologic features were quantified: global AD pathologic changes, amyloid, and tangles. The associations of disease pathologic changes and purpose in life with cognition were examined using linear regression and mixed models. Results Purpose in life modified the association between the global measure of AD pathologic changes and cognition (mean [SE] parameter estimate, 0.532 [0.211]; P=.01), such that participants who reported higher levels of purpose in life exhibited better cognitive function despite the burden of the disease. Purpose in life also reduced the association of tangles with cognition (parameter estimate, 0.042 [0.019]; P=.03), and the protective effect of purpose in life persisted even after controlling for several potentially confounding variables. Furthermore, in analyses examining whether purpose in life modified the association between AD pathologic effects and the rate of cognitive decline, we found that higher levels of purpose in life reduced the effect of AD pathologic changes on cognitive decline (parameter estimate, 0.085 [0.039]; P=.03). Conclusion Higher levels of purpose in life reduce the deleterious effects of AD pathologic changes on cognition in advanced age. PMID:22566582

  17. Editorial: personality and situations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iven Van Mechelen; Boele De Raad

    1999-01-01

    During the last few decades the personality domain has witnessed several major controversies, including the person-situation debate and the debates on accurate reflection versus systematic distortion, on nomothetic versus idiographic approaches, on nature-nurture, etc. Within these controversies several sharp contrasts and pendulum movements have stood out. In particular, regarding the person-situation debate, during the late sixties global personality traits have

  18. Perspective: Balancing Personalized Medicine and Personalized Care

    PubMed Central

    Cornetta, Kenneth; Brown, Candy Gunther

    2013-01-01

    The current description of personalized medicine by the National Institutes of Health is “the science of individualized prevention and therapy.” Although physicians are just beginning to see the promise of genetic medicine coming to fruition, the rapid pace of sequencing technology, informatics, and computer science predict a true revolution in the ability to care for patients in the near future. The enthusiasm expressed by researchers is well founded, but the expectations voiced by the public do not center on advancing technology. Rather, patients are asking for personalized care: a holistic approach that considers an individual’s physical, mental, and spiritual well-being. This perspective considers psychological, religious, and ethical challenges that may arise as the precision of preventive medicine improves. Psychological studies already highlight the barriers to single gene testing and suggest significant barriers to the predictive testing envisioned by personalized medicine. Certain religious groups will likely mount opposition if they believe personalized medicine encourages embryo selection. If the technology prompts cost-containment discussions, those concerned about the sanctity of life may raise ethical objections. Consequently, the availability of new scientific developments does not guarantee advances in treatment because patients may prove unwilling to receive and act upon personalized genetic information. This perspective highlights current efforts to incorporate personalized medicine and personalized care into the medical curriculum, genetic counseling, and other aspects of clinical practice. As these efforts are generally independent, the authors offer recommendations for physicians and educators so that personalized medicine can be implemented in a manner that meets patient expectations for personalized care. PMID:23348082

  19. Therapy of multiple personality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaretta K. Bowers; Sylvia Brecher-marer; Bernauer W. Newton; Zygmunt Piotrowski; Thea C. Spyer; William S. Taylor; John G. Watkins

    1971-01-01

    In multiple personality, conflicting portions of the original personality have become 2 or more, largely disparate and autonomous personalities. Being a portion, each may be called a subpersonality. Of each 2 subpersonalities, at least one has some amnesia for the other.The therapist must be especially competent, particularly if he uses any hypnosis, deep analysis, or strong suggestion. He must avoid

  20. Attachment and Personality Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Preeti; Sharan, Pratap

    2007-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) arise from core psychopathology of interpersonal relationships and understanding of self and others. The distorted representations of self and others, as well as unhealthy relationships that characterize persons with various PDs, indicate the possibility that persons with PDs have insecure attachment. Insecure…