These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Cognitive treatment of pathological gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the efficacy of a cognitive treatment for pathological gambling. Five pathological gamblers were treated in a multiple baseline across subjects design. Cognitive correction targeted the erroneous perceptions towards the notion of randomness. Four subjects reported a clinically significant decrease in the urge to gamble, an increase in their perception of control, and no longer met the DSM-IV

Robert Ladouceur; Caroline Sylvain; Hélčne Letarte; Isabelle Giroux; Christian Jacques

1998-01-01

2

Attentional biases among pathological gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pictorial stimuli were presented in a Stroop task paradigm that enabled the recording of attentional bias. The sample comprised 33 pathological slot machine gamblers (PG) and 22 control participants. The design of the study had one between-subjects factor – Group (PGs vs control), and two within-subject factors: (1) Stimulus meaning (win-related gambling stimuli vs neutral stimuli) and (2) Exposure (subliminal

Helge Molde; Stĺle Pallesen; Bjřrn Sćtrevik; Dag K. Hammerborg; Jon C. Laberg; Bjřrn-Helge Johnsen

2010-01-01

3

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pathological Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have evaluated efficacy of psychotherapies for pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (N = 231) were randomly assigned to (a) referral to Gamblers Anonymous (GA), (b) GA referral plus a cognitive-behavioral (CB) workbook, or (c) GA referral plus 8 sessions of individual CB therapy. Gambling and related problems were assessed…

Petry, Nancy M.; Ammerman, Yola; Bohl, Jaime; Doersch, Anne; Gay, Heather; Kadden, Ronald; Molina, Cheryl; Steinberg, Karen

2006-01-01

4

Interpersonal guilt in college student pathological gamblers  

PubMed Central

Background Interpersonal guilt is associated with psychopathology, but its relationship to pathological gambling has not been studied. Objectives This study examined the relationship between interpersonal guilt and pathological gambling. Methods In total, 1,979 college students completed a questionnaire containing the South Oaks Gambling Screen, Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire, and questions about substance use. Students identified as pathological gamblers (n = 145) were matched to non-problem gamblers with respect to demographics and substance use. Results Pathological gamblers had significantly higher interpersonal guilt than their non-problem gambling peers. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Pathological gambling college students have excessive interpersonal guilt, and these findings may lead to novel treatment approaches. PMID:22746179

Locke, Geoffrey W.; Shilkret, Robert; Everett, Joyce E.; Petry, Nancy M.

2013-01-01

5

Clinical and Personality Characteristics Associated with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Problem and Pathological Gamblers Recruited from the Community.  

PubMed

Problem and pathological gamblers (PPGs) are more likely than the general population to experience co-occurring psychiatric problems. However, the problem gambling literature has largely overlooked the importance of trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a prevalent co-occurring condition among PPGs. This study examined clinical differences between PPGs with and without a history of co-occurring PTSD. Lifetime PPGs (N = 150) recruited from community sources completed clinical assessments including measures of problem gambling severity, co-occurring psychiatric conditions, gambling motivations and personality traits. Over 19 % of the participants met criteria for a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD. Those presenting with PTSD histories were more likely to be women, and were more likely to have lifetime substance use disorder (abuse and/or dependence) and substance dependence, lifetime major depressive disorder, current dysthymic disorder, and lifetime and current anxiety disorder. Those with lifetime PTSD also were more likely to use gambling as a way to cope with negative emotions and experienced greater negative emotionality. Few PPGs (16 %) had ever sought treatment for their gambling problems. PTSD is a prevalent condition among individuals with lifetime PPG recruited from the community, and is associated with greater psychiatric co-morbidity among these populations. More research is needed to further understand the relationship between gambling and trauma, and better outreach is needed to encourage these individuals to seek treatment. PMID:24293017

Ledgerwood, David M; Milosevic, Aleks

2013-11-30

6

Subtyping pathological gamblers based on impulsivity, depression and anxiety  

PubMed Central

This study examined putative subtypes of pathological gamblers (PGs) based on the Pathways Model, and it also evaluated whether the subtypes would benefit differentially from treatment. Treatment-seeking PGs (N = 229) were categorized into Pathways subtypes based on scores from questionnaires assessing anxiety, depression and impulsivity. The Addiction Severity Index Gambling assessed severity of gambling problems at baseline, post-treatment and 12-month follow-up. Compared with Behaviorally Conditioned (BC) gamblers, Emotionally Vulnerable (EV) gamblers had higher psychiatric and gambling severity, and were more likely to have a parent with a psychiatric history. Antisocial Impulsive (AI) gamblers also had elevated gambling and psychiatric severity relative to BC gamblers. They were more likely to have antisocial personality disorder and had the highest legal and family/social severity scores. They were also most likely to have a history of substance abuse treatment, history of inpatient psychiatric treatment, and a parent with a substance use or gambling problem. AI and EV gamblers experienced greater gambling severity throughout treatment than BC gamblers, but all three subtypes demonstrated similar patterns of treatment response. Thus, the three Pathways subtypes differ based on some baseline characteristics, but subtyping did not predict treatment outcomes beyond a simple association with problem gambling severity. PMID:20822191

Ledgerwood, David M.; Petry, Nancy M.

2010-01-01

7

The Family Functioning of Female Pathological Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The available evidence suggests that pathological gambling significantly disrupts family relationships and has a substantial impact on family members. However, these conclusions are based almost exclusively on male pathological gamblers and their female spouses or partners. The current study, which was a secondary study derived from a treatment…

Dowling, Nicki; Smith, David; Thomas, Trang

2009-01-01

8

Pathological Gamblers Discount Probabilistic Rewards Less Steeply than Matched Controls  

PubMed Central

Nineteen treatment-seeking men meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling and 19 demographic-matched controls participated. Participants provided demographic information, information about their recent drug-use and gambling activities, and biological samples (to confirm drug abstinence). They also completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and two questionnaires designed to separately quantify probability and delay discounting. Pathological gamblers discounted probabilistic rewards significantly less steeply than matched controls. A significant correlation revealed that more shallow probability discounting was associated with higher SOGS scores. Across groups, there was no significant difference in delay discounting, although this difference approached significance when education and ethnicity were included as covariates. These findings, collected for the first time with pathological gamblers, are consistent with previous reports that problem-gambling college students discount probabilistic rewards less steeply than controls. The nature of the relation between probability discounting and severity of problem gambling is deserving of further study. PMID:19803627

Madden, Gregory J.; Petry, Nancy M.; Johnson, Patrick S.

2010-01-01

9

Decision making in pathological gambling: A comparison between pathological gamblers, alcohol dependents, persons with Tourette syndrome, and normal controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decision making deficits play an important role in the definition of pathological gambling (PG). However, only few empirical studies are available regarding decision making processes in PG. This study therefore compares decision making processes in PG and normal controls in detail using three decision making tasks examining general performance levels on these tasks as well as feedback processing using reaction

Anna E. Goudriaan; Jaap Oosterlaan; Edwin de Beurs; Wim van den Brink

2005-01-01

10

ORIGINAL PAPER Impaired Self-Awareness in Pathological Gamblers  

E-print Network

decision) and poor performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in a group of pathological gamblers (PG; n, and for investigating its possible causes. Keywords Pathological gambling Á Decision-making Á Uncertainty Á Insight DORIGINAL PAPER Impaired Self-Awareness in Pathological Gamblers Damien Brevers · Axel Cleeremans

Allman, John M.

11

Retaining Pathological Gamblers in Cognitive Behavior Therapy through Motivational Enhancement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Treatment for pathological gambling is in its infancy. Several cognitive and behavioral interventions have shown promise, but high attrition and relapse rates suggest that gamblers requesting treatment are not uniformly committed to change. This article describes an exploratory study with 9 severe pathological gamblers--in their majority horse…

Wulfert, Edelgard; Blanchard, Edward B.; Freidenberg, Brian M.; Martell, Rebecca S.

2006-01-01

12

Contextual Control of Delay Discounting by Pathological Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study demonstrated the relative impact of gambling and nongambling contexts on the degree of delay discounting by pathological gamblers. We used a delay-discounting task with 20 pathological gamblers in and out of the natural context in which they regularly gambled. For 16 of the 20 participants, it appeared that the difference of…

Dixon, Mark R.; Jacobs, Eric A.; Sanders, Scott

2006-01-01

13

Investigating risk factors for Internet gaming disorder: a comparison of patients with addictive gaming, pathological gamblers and healthy controls regarding the big five personality traits.  

PubMed

Engaging in online games has become increasingly important as a part of leisure activity in adolescents and adults. While the majority of people use these games in a healthy way, epidemiological studies show that some develop excessive use and symptoms that are related to those of substance-related addictions. Despite increasing research concerning the epidemiology of internet gaming disorder (IGD), predisposing factors have been examined to a lesser extent. Knowing about specific risk factors would help clarify the nosological features of IGD and enhance prevention and intervention. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between personality traits and IGD. A total of 115 patients meeting the criteria for IGD were compared to 167 control subjects displaying either regular or intense use of online games. Additionally, 115 patients meeting diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling were included. IGD was associated with higher neuroticism, decreased conscientiousness and low extraversion. The comparisons to pathological gamblers indicate that low conscientiousness and low extraversion in particular are characteristic of IGD. An integration of personality variables into an etiopathological model describing presumable mechanisms fostering and maintaining addictive online gaming is proposed. This model could be helpful for the theoretical understanding of addictive gaming, public health campaigns and psychoeducation within therapeutic settings. PMID:24247280

Müller, K W; Beutel, M E; Egloff, B; Wölfling, K

2014-01-01

14

Group therapy for pathological gamblers: a cognitive approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the efficacy of a group cognitive treatment for pathological gambling. Gamblers, meeting DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling, were randomly assigned to treatment (N=34) or wait-list control (N=24) conditions. Cognitive correction techniques were used first to target gamblers’ erroneous perceptions about randomness, and then to address issues of relapse prevention. The dependent measures used were the DSM-IV criteria

R. Ladouceur; C. Sylvain; C. Boutin; S. Lachance; C. Doucet; J. Leblond

2003-01-01

15

Neurological correlates of slot machine win size in pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

The present study examined the neurological correlates of slot machine gambling by pathological and nonpathological gamblers while undergoing an fMRI scanning procedure. Twenty-two total participants were exposed to a series of losses, small wins, and large wins on a computerized simulated slot machine. Results indicate that the two types of gamblers responded differently to the various game options, and that an apparent "dose effect" exists when small and big wins are compared for pathological gamblers. Specifically more neural activation occurred in the dopaminergic pathway under conditions of large wins. These data suggest that a non-drug substance such as gambling may mimic typical drug-dose effects shown in previous literature. Implications for the treatment of pathological gamblers are discussed. PMID:24607394

Dixon, Mark R; Wilson, Alyssa; Habib, Reza

2014-05-01

16

Psychological experience of gambling and subtypes of pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

Clinical experience and some empirical data suggest that different subtypes of gamblers may exist. This study examined psychometric properties of the Gambling Experience Measure (GEM) to establish support for differing subtypes of gamblers. In total, 149 treatment-seeking pathological gamblers completed the GEM and other instruments. A principal component analysis produced a three-factor solution that included gambling as a way to escape negative emotions (Escape), dissociating (Dissociation), and narcissism/seeking attention (Egotism). Multiple regression analyses revealed that being female and general dissociation was associated with Escape gambling. General dissociation was also related to the Dissociation factor. Male gender and impulsivity were associated with the Egotism factor. These data offer preliminary evidence of the validity and reliability of the GEM in distinguishing subgroups of gamblers. PMID:16919760

Ledgerwood, David M; Petry, Nancy M

2006-09-30

17

Time devours things: how impulsivity and time affect temporal decisions in pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

Impulsivity is associated with several psychiatric disorders in which the loss of control of a specific behavior determines the syndrome itself. One particularly interesting population characterized by reported high impulsivity and problematic decision-making are those diagnosed with pathological gambling. However the association between impulsivity and decision making in pathological gambling has been only partially confirmed until now. We tested 23 normal controls and 23 diagnosed pathological gamblers in an intertemporal choice task, as well as other personality trait measurements. Results showed that gamblers scored higher on impulsivity questionnaires, and selected a higher percentage of impatient choices (higher percentage of smaller, sooner rewards), when compared to normal controls. Moreover, gamblers were faster in terms of reaction times at selecting the smaller, sooner options and discounted rewards more rapidly over time. Importantly, regression analyses clarified that self-reported measures of impulsivity played a significant role in biasing decisions towards small but more rapidly available rewards. In the present study we found evidence for impulsivity in personality traits and decisions in pathological gamblers relative to controls. We conclude by speculating on the need to incorporate impulsivity and decision biases in the conceptualization of pathological gambling for a better understanding and treatment of this pathology. PMID:25296184

Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Rattin, Andrea; Guerreschi, Cesare; Sanfey, Alan G; Bonini, Nicolao

2014-01-01

18

Time Devours Things: How Impulsivity and Time Affect Temporal Decisions in Pathological Gamblers  

PubMed Central

Impulsivity is associated with several psychiatric disorders in which the loss of control of a specific behavior determines the syndrome itself. One particularly interesting population characterized by reported high impulsivity and problematic decision-making are those diagnosed with pathological gambling. However the association between impulsivity and decision making in pathological gambling has been only partially confirmed until now. We tested 23 normal controls and 23 diagnosed pathological gamblers in an intertemporal choice task, as well as other personality trait measurements. Results showed that gamblers scored higher on impulsivity questionnaires, and selected a higher percentage of impatient choices (higher percentage of smaller, sooner rewards), when compared to normal controls. Moreover, gamblers were faster in terms of reaction times at selecting the smaller, sooner options and discounted rewards more rapidly over time. Importantly, regression analyses clarified that self-reported measures of impulsivity played a significant role in biasing decisions towards small but more rapidly available rewards. In the present study we found evidence for impulsivity in personality traits and decisions in pathological gamblers relative to controls. We conclude by speculating on the need to incorporate impulsivity and decision biases in the conceptualization of pathological gambling for a better understanding and treatment of this pathology. PMID:25296184

Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Rattin, Andrea; Guerreschi, Cesare; Sanfey, Alan G.; Bonini, Nicolao

2014-01-01

19

Altering the magnitude of delay discounting by pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

The present study explored the delay discounting of future and past monetary rewards by pathological gamblers. Using a multiple baseline design, following repeated exposure to choices between smaller immediate and larger delayed consequences, participants completed a relational responding task that attempted to alter the psychological functions of irrelevant stimuli and to affect subsequent delay discounting. Results support previous literature on the discounting of delayed consequences by pathological gamblers, illustrate that the discounting of past rewards occurs in a similar fashion to the well-documented literature on the discounting of future rewards, and that magnitude of discounting can be altered. PMID:19949514

Dixon, Mark R; Holton, Bethany

2009-01-01

20

Increased CSF Homocysteine in Pathological Gamblers Compared with Healthy Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neurocognitive disturbances suggesting a frontal lobe dysfunction have been observed in pathological gamblers and alcohol dependents. Given that a high homocysteine level has been suggested to be a mediating factor in alcohol-related cognitive decline, we have determined homocysteine and cobalamine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from 11…

Nordin, Conny; Sjodin, Ingemar

2009-01-01

21

Patterns of substance abuse among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance abuse patterns were reviewed for a group of patients admitted to the Gambling Treatment Program at the Brecksville Veterans Administration Medical Center.A retrospective chart review of 113 consecutively admitted patients between September 2000 and September 2001 found that 66.4% of pathological gamblers had a lifetime history of substance abuse or dependence at some point in their lives. A history

Otto Kausch

2003-01-01

22

Altering the Magnitude of Delay Discounting by Pathological Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explored the delay discounting of future and past monetary rewards by pathological gamblers. Using a multiple baseline design, following repeated exposure to choices between smaller immediate and larger delayed consequences, participants completed a relational responding task that attempted to alter the psychological functions of…

Dixon, Mark R.; Holton, Bethany

2009-01-01

23

Stages of Change in Treatment-Seeking Pathological Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transtheoretical model has been applied to many addictive disorders. In this study, psychometrics properties of the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) scale were evaluated in 234 pathological gamblers initiating treatment. Four components were identified--reflective of precontemplation, contemplation, action, and maintenance…

Petry, Nancy M.

2005-01-01

24

Clinical gender differences among adult pathological gamblers seeking treatment.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the gender-related differences in demographics, gambling measures, psychological functioning, and motivation for therapy in an outpatient sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. Participants in this multisite study included 103 adult outpatients (51 women and 52 men) meeting current DSM-IV-TR criteria for PG. Logistic regression was used to examine if gender was related together to categorical and continuous independent variables. Female gamblers were older than men and more likely to be divorced or widowed and to have a lower annual income. Women became more dependent on bingo and men on slot machines. Gambling motivation and the course of illness for both sexes were also different. Female gamblers were more anxious and with a poorer self-esteem than male gamblers and more affected by depressive symptoms; in turn, men were more impulsive and higher sensation seekers than women and more affected by drug/alcohol abuse. The 68.6% of female gamblers reported being victims of intimate partner violence. There were no gender differences about the motivation for treatment. Future research should examine gambling behaviors and psychological functioning and suggest treatment approaches to address specific goals according to these gender-related differences. PMID:20532964

Echeburúa, Enrique; González-Ortega, Itxaso; de Corral, Paz; Polo-López, Rocío

2011-06-01

25

Pathological gamblers are more vulnerable to the illusion of control in a standard associative learning task  

PubMed Central

An illusion of control is said to occur when a person believes that he or she controls an outcome that is uncontrollable. Pathological gambling has often been related to an illusion of control, but the assessment of the illusion has generally used introspective methods in domain-specific (i.e., gambling) situations. The illusion of control of pathological gamblers, however, could be a more general problem, affecting other aspects of their daily life. Thus, we tested them using a standard associative learning task which is known to produce illusions of control in most people under certain conditions. The results showed that the illusion was significantly stronger in pathological gamblers than in a control undiagnosed sample. This suggests (1) that the experimental tasks used in basic associative learning research could be used to detect illusions of control in gamblers in a more indirect way, as compared to introspective and domain-specific questionnaires; and (2), that in addition to gambling-specific problems, pathological gamblers may have a higher-than-normal illusion of control in their daily life. PMID:23785340

Orgaz, Cristina; Estévez, Ana; Matute, Helena

2013-01-01

26

Clinical Gender Differences Among Adult Pathological Gamblers Seeking Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to examine the gender-related differences in demographics, gambling measures, psychological functioning,\\u000a and motivation for therapy in an outpatient sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. Participants in this multisite\\u000a study included 103 adult outpatients (51 women and 52 men) meeting current DSM-IV-TR criteria for PG. Logistic regression\\u000a was used to examine if gender was related together to categorical

Enrique Echeburúa; Itxaso González-Ortega; Paz de Corral; Rocío Polo-López

2011-01-01

27

Inpatient treatment for pathological gamblers in Germany: setting, utilization, and structure.  

PubMed

In Germany, there are two different approaches to inpatient treatment of pathological gambling (PG): Facilities focusing on addiction or on psychosomatic illness. However, little is known about how these differences influence utilization and structure of treatment. Therefore, in our study, we analyzed all known German gambling inpatient treatment centers concerning patients' sex, age and number of comorbid disorders and evaluated an expert assessment of the treatment system, access to treatment, and structure characteristics of inpatient treatment facilities. In 2011, 2,229 pathological gamblers were treated. This amounts to 1 % of all past-year pathological gamblers. 90 % of the patients were men, 93 % had at least one comorbid disorder. Access to treatment was mostly gained via psychosocial counseling centers, but was not readily available. Facilities with addiction departments treated less pathological gamblers per year (29.3 gamblers) than facilities with psychosomatic departments (53.3 gamblers) or with both departments (76.4 gamblers). Treatment duration was significantly longer in addiction departments treating PG as secondary diagnosis only, with a low rate of gamblers on all patients, or treating few gamblers. Some facilities specialized on PG and treated more gamblers, had a higher rate of gamblers on all patients, and offered specific treatment programs. The impact of this specialization on treatment outcome is still unclear. Although treatment numbers have risen steadily for the past years, only a small fraction of affected gamblers seek inpatient treatment. Therefore, awareness to the disease and access to treatment needs to be improved. PMID:24375259

Buchner, Ursula Gisela; Erbas, Beate; Stürmer, Marco; Arnold, Melanie; Wodarz, Norbert; Wolstein, Jörg

2015-03-01

28

Association between posttreatment gambling behavior and harm in pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationship between posttreatment gambling behavior and harm in a sample of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. One year after initiating treatment, participants (n = 178) completed the Gambling Timeline Followback (D. C. Hodgins & K. Makarchuk, 2003; J. Weinstock, J. P. Whelan, & A. W. Meyers, 2004) and the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS; H. R. Lesieur & S. B. Blume, 1987), both of which assessed gambling behaviors and problems over the prior 6 months. Based upon self-reports of gambling-related problems on the SOGS, participants were classified as problem free (SOGS scores = 0) or symptomatic gamblers (SOGS scores > or = 1). Receiver operator characteristic curves evaluated classification by gambling behaviors for individuals classified in these 2 groups. Behavioral indicators for problem-free gambling were gambling no more than once per month, gambling for no more than 1.5 hr per month, and spending no more than 1.9% of monthly income on gambling. Alternative behavioral indicators were examined along a continuum of harm (SOGS cut-points of 1-5). These results provide preliminary data regarding intensity of gambling behavior associated with problem-free to probable pathological gambling in gamblers who presented for treatment. PMID:17563138

Weinstock, Jeremiah; Ledgerwood, David M; Petry, Nancy M

2007-06-01

29

The team approach: Developing an experiential knowledge base for the treatment of the pathological gambler  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is not surprising that developing professional competence in treating the pathological gambler is a major problem today, given the scarcity of treatment programs for pathological gambling. This paper explores a learning model which weaves together the experiential knowledge of the recovering pathological gambler with the skills of professional mental health clinicians. An example of this model is the team

Joanna Franklin; Joseph Ciarrocchi

1987-01-01

30

FDG-PET Study in Pathological Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Pathological gambling affects 1–3% of the adult population, and has high comorbidity. Although mood stabilizers and serotonin reuptake inhibitors have shown some efficacy in the treatment of this condition, there is little known about how these pharmacological interventions work. Methods: Twenty-one patients with pathological gambling, who met lifetime comorbid bipolar spectrum diagnoses, received baseline PET scans. Sixteen of these

Eric Hollander; Monte S. Buchsbaum; M. Mehmet Haznedar; Jessica Berenguer; Heather A. Berlin; William Chaplin; Chelain R. Goodman; Elizabeth M. LiCalzi; Randall Newmark; Stefano Pallanti

2008-01-01

31

Suicidal events among pathological gamblers: The role of comorbidity of axis I and axis II disorders.  

PubMed

The risk for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among pathological gamblers is high compared to the general population. Little is known about the interplay of Axis I and Axis II disorders, severity of gambling disorder, and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The study aims to address this linkage. The sampling design of the study "Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology" (PAGE) included four recruitment channels: general population, gambling locations, project telephone hotline, and in-patient treatment for pathological gambling. A total of 442 study participants with lifetime pathological gambling received a clinical interview. The multivariate analysis showed mood disorders (Relative Risk Ratio, RRR=5.14, 95%-Confidence Interval, CI=2.91-9.07), substance use disorders (RRR=1.73, CI=1.02-2.94), and early onset of gambling disorder (RRR=0.96, CI=0.93-0.99) to be associated with suicidal ideation. Suicidal attempts were associated with female sex (RRR=3.58, CI=1.56-8.19), mood disorders (RRR=11.92, CI=4.70-30.26), and Cluster B personality disorders (RRR=2.40, CI=1.13-5.10). Among study participants with suicide attempts, more had a Cluster B personality disorder than among participants with ideation solely (RRR=3.08, CI=1.48-6.40). Among this large mixed sample of pathological gamblers, high proportions of individuals with suicidal events, multi-morbidity on Axis I, and a strong linkage to Cluster B personality disorders were found. PMID:25537488

Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian; Bischof, Gallus; John, Ulrich; Wurst, Friedrich Martin; Thon, Natasha; Lucht, Michael; Grabe, Hans Joergen; Rumpf, Hans-Juergen

2015-02-28

32

A Comparison of Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adult Treatment-Seeking Pathological Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Pathological gambling is an increasing public health concern, but very little is known about this disorder in older adults. This study evaluated gambling and psychosocial problems across age groups in treatment-seeking gamblers. Design and Methods: At intake to gambling treatment programs, 343 pathological gamblers completed the Addiction…

Petry, Nancy M.

2002-01-01

33

Psychiatric co-morbidity in problem and pathological gamblers: investigating the confounding influence of alcohol use disorder.  

PubMed

Pathological gambling is known to be associated with a higher than average prevalence of psychological co-morbidities including a range of psychiatric conditions. A problem with much of this literature, however, is that such problems are also frequently found in populations affected by alcohol use disorder, which is common in populations of pathological gamblers. Accordingly, the principal aim of this study was to profile the comorbidities present in a sample of pathological gamblers, comparing those who did, and did not, additionally meet criteria for alcohol use disorder. A sample of 140 community-recruited regular gamblers completed a number of measures including the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire, NORC DSM-IV Screen Self-Administered and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Comparisons showed that most psychiatric conditions (and in particular personality disorders) were significantly more prevalent in those with a dual diagnosis, followed by problem gamblers and then by those with neither disorder. This suggests that high rates of psychiatric illness in pathological gambling may be strongly influenced by co-occurring alcohol problems. PMID:24315782

Abdollahnejad, Reza; Delfabbro, Paul; Denson, Linley

2014-03-01

34

Pathological gamblers demonstrate frontal lobe impairment consistent with that of methamphetamine-dependent individuals.  

PubMed

Using tests that are frequently administered by neuropsychologists, the authors investigated whether pathological gambling is associated with frontal lobe abnormalities. The sample comprised 10 pathological gamblers, 25 methamphetamine-dependent subjects, and 19 matched comparison subjects. The pathological gamblers and methamphetamine-dependent subjects performed significantly less well than comparison subjects, and the gamblers' test scores were comparable to those of the methamphetamine-dependent participants. The overall magnitude of the effect size was large. These findings demonstrate that the severity of frontal lobe dysfunction in pathological gambling is similar to that observed in methamphetamine-dependent individuals on frequently used clinical measures. PMID:17827415

Kalechstein, Ari D; Fong, Timothy; Rosenthal, Richard J; Davis, Alice; Vanyo, Heidi; Newton, Thomas F

2007-01-01

35

Subtypes of French pathological gamblers: comparison of sensation seeking, alexithymia and depression scores.  

PubMed

Recent data suggest the importance of identifying subtypes of pathological gamblers. This research studies sensation seeking, alexithymia and depression among a general population of French gamblers who play different types of game. Those games include games available in cafés (two cafés located in Paris suburb) like lottery, scratch-cards, etc., horse betting at the racetrack (five racetracks closest to Paris), slot machines and traditional games (roulette and card games) at the casino of Enghien-les-Bains (casino nearest to Paris). Sensation seeking was measured with the SSS form V, alexithymia with the TAS-20, and depression with the BDI-13. Pathological racetrack gamblers (42 males; mean age 29.1 years), who play active games involving skills, have the highest sensation seeking scores and are the most prone to alexithymia. Pathological gamblers playing the slot machines (12 males; 15 females; mean age 35.7 years) and games available in cafés (57 males; mean age 32.6 years), thus playing passive games that involve chance only, have low sensation seeking scores. Slot machines gamblers display alexithymia and have the highest depression scores. Pathological gamblers playing traditional games (15 males; mean age 37.8 years), games that involve strategy, do not perform well on any of these scales. These findings are consistent with the idea that clinically distinct subgroups of pathological gamblers can be identified. People displaying typical features could be attracted by specific games. PMID:19636683

Bonnaire, Céline; Bungener, Catherine; Varescon, Isabelle

2009-12-01

36

Mental health management of pathological gamblers by counseling and relaxation practices.  

PubMed

The present study examines the mental health management of pathological gamblers by counseling and relaxation practices. Fifty-five treated and 55 non-treated pathological gamblers were evaluated at S. I. Mental and Physical Health Society, Varanasi, India. The two groups were matched by age, ranging 20 to 53 years with a mean age of 36.2 years and mean length of uncontrollable gambling of 7.3 years. The Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire and the Death Anxiety Scale were administered to ascertain mental health and death anxiety on seven selected dimensions, including: anxiety, obsession, phobia, somatization, depression, hysteria, and death anxiety. Mean scores obtained on different variables were analyzed using a t-test of significance. Results indicated that the characteristic associated with treated pathological gamblers was phobia whereas the characteristics associated with non-treated pathological gamblers were anxiety, obsession, somatization, depression, and death anxiety. PMID:24066639

Sharma, M G; Upadhyay, Awadhesh; Sharma, Vandana

2013-10-01

37

Drinking Patterns of Pathological Gamblers Before, During, and After Gambling Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the high co-occurrence of alcohol consumption and gambling, few studies have investigated alcohol use changes during gambling treatment. Using latent growth modeling, we examined weekly alcohol use trajectories of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers across 36 weeks, allowing rates of change to differ across the 12-week pretreatment, during-treatment and posttreatment periods. For these secondary data analyses, we retained drinking gamblers (N

Carla J. Rash; Jeremiah Weinstock; Nancy M. Petry

2011-01-01

38

Differences in Cognitive Distortions Between Pathological and Non-Pathological Gamblers with Preferences for Chance or Skill Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive distortions have been thought to play an important role in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling.\\u000a The present study investigated whether severity of gambling problems and gamblers’ preference for chance or skill games were\\u000a related to two sub-factors of cognitive distortions as measured by the Gamblers Belief Questionnaire: Luck\\/Perseverance, which\\u000a reflects an individual’s perception that chance is favorable

Helga MyrsethGeir; Geir Scott Brunborg; Magnus Eidem

2010-01-01

39

Personality Disorders and Pathological Gambling: Comorbidity and Treatment Dropout Predictors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the personality disorders (PDs) among French-speaking Canadian gamblers seeking cognitive and behavioural treatment (CBT) in an external setting. One hundred pathological gamblers were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II (SCID-II) in four different treatment centres for problem gambling. Sixty-four per cent had at least one comorbid PD according to the semi-structured interview based

Olivier Pelletier; Robert Ladouceur; Josée Rhéaume

2008-01-01

40

Correlates of depressive symptom severity in problem and pathological gamblers in couple relationships.  

PubMed

Problem and pathological gamblers (PPG) often suffer from depressive symptoms. Gambling problems have negative consequences on multiple aspects of gamblers' lives, including family and marital relationships. The objectives of the current study were to (1) replicate the results of studies that have suggested a stronger and more significant relationship between gambling and depression in PPG than in non-problem gamblers (NPG) and (2) explore specific correlates of depressive symptom severity in PPG in couple relationships. Variables demonstrated to be significantly correlated with depressive symptoms in the general population were selected. It was hypothesized that gender, age, gambler's mean annual income, perceived poverty, employment status, clinical status (i.e., problem or pathological gambler versus non-problem gambler), trait anxiety, alcoholism, problem-solving skills, and dyadic adjustment would be significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Sixty-seven PPG were recruited, primarily from an addiction treatment center; 40 NPG were recruited, primarily through the media. Results revealed that PPG reported significantly greater depressive symptoms than did NPG. Further, elevated trait anxiety and poor dyadic adjustment were demonstrated to be significant and specific correlates of depressive symptom severity in PPG. These findings contribute to the literature on depressive symptomatology in PPG in relationships, and highlight the importance of the influence of the couple relationship on PPG. PMID:23149512

Poirier-Arbour, Alisson; Trudel, Gilles; Boyer, Richard; Harvey, Pascale; Goldfarb, Maria Rocio

2014-03-01

41

Characteristics of Treatment Seeking Finnish Pathological Gamblers: Baseline Data from a Treatment Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behavior of 39 pathological gamblers who participated in our treatment study in 2009. The inclusion criteria of the study were: score of five or more on both the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and a pathological gambling screen based on the Diagnostic and Statistical…

Lahti, Tuuli; Halme, Jukka; Pankakoski, Maiju; Sinclair, David; Alho, Hannu

2013-01-01

42

Randomized Trial of Internet-Delivered Self-Help with Telephone Support for Pathological Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although effective therapies for pathological gambling exist, their uptake is limited to 10% of the target population. To lower the barriers for help seeking, the authors tested an online alternative in a randomized trial (N = 66). The participants were pathological gamblers not presenting with severe comorbid depression. A wait-list control was…

Carlbring, Per; Smit, Filip

2008-01-01

43

Gambling motivation and passion: a comparison study of recreational and pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the structural relationship among gambling motivation, gambling passion, and behavioral intentions to gamble between recreational and pathological gamblers. Specifically, this study aimed to shed light on the different ways in which gambling motivation and affective attitude are associated with recreational and pathological gamblers. Using a purposive sampling method, 400 subjects were selected for and participated in this study during their visits to a casino. Study results echoed the notion of distinctive and separate gambling motivations and passions between recreational and pathological gamblers. Also, results identified specific areas to which casino operators or policy makers should pay special attention in developing effective marketing strategies to promote responsible gambling. PMID:20680417

Back, Ki-Joon; Lee, Choong-Ki; Stinchfield, Randy

2011-09-01

44

Crime, antisocial personality and pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the hypothesized causal relationship between pathological gambling and gambling-related illegal behaviors, 77 patients seeking behavioral treatment for excessive gambling and 32 members of Gamblers Anonymous were administered a structured interview schedule. Data on the incidence, nature and extent of both gambling and non-gambling related illegal behaviors was obtained and DSM-III (A.P.A., 1980) criteria for Antisocial personality were used

Alex Blaszczynski; Neil McConaghy; Anna Frankova

1989-01-01

45

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Pathological and At-Risk Gamblers Seeking Treatment: A Hidden Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The links between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders have been the subject of numerous papers. Few studies, however, have focused specifically on the relationship between ADHD and behavioural addictions. The aim of this study was to (i) examine the frequency of pathological and at-risk gamblers having a previous history of ADHD; (ii) give details of

Marie Grall-Bronnec; Laura Wainstein; Jennyfer Augy; Gaëlle Bouju; Fanny Feuillet; Jean-Luc Vénisse; Véronique Sébille-Rivain

2011-01-01

46

Randomized Trial of Brief Motivational Treatments for Pathological Gamblers: More Is Not Necessarily Better  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The efficacy of brief treatments for media-recruited pathological gamblers was tested in a randomized clinical trial design (N = 314). Two self-directed motivational interventions were compared with a 6-week waiting list control and a workbook only control. Brief motivational treatment involved a telephone motivational interview and a mailed…

Hodgins, David C.; Currie, Shawn R.; Currie, Gillian; Fick, Gordon H.

2009-01-01

47

Neurobehavioral Evidence for the "Near-Miss" Effect in Pathological Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this translational study was twofold: (1) to contrast behavioral and brain activity between pathological and nonpathological gamblers, and (2) to examine differences as a function of the outcome of the spin of a slot machine, focusing predominately on the "Near-Miss"--when two reels stop on the same symbol, and that symbol is just…

Habib, Reza; Dixon, Mark R.

2010-01-01

48

On being attracted to the possibility of a win: reward sensitivity (via gambling motives) undermines treatment seeking among pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

Unfortunately, only a small percent of pathological gamblers seek the professional help they need. In the current study, we test the idea that individual differences in reward sensitivity should predict whether a pathological gambler has sought treatment-the odds of treatment seeking should decrease as reward sensitivity increases. This hypothesis rests on the proposition that reward sensitive pathological gamblers should find treatment seeking aversive because doing so would remove a route to reward. We also tested those motivations to gamble that are positively reinforcing (social affliction and self-enhancement) as a possible mechanism by which reward sensitivity undermines treatment seeking-we did not anticipate negatively reinforcing motivations (e.g., coping) to be a mechanistic variable. Ninety-two pathological gamblers completed a large-scale survey that contained the variables of interest. As predicted, pathological gamblers were less likely to have sought treatment as reward sensitivity increased. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by social affiliation motivations to gamble, but not self-enhancement or coping motives. Reward sensitive gamblers did not wish to seek treatment to the extent that they were motivated to gamble for the social interactions it provides-seeking treatment would cut this avenue of affiliation with others. In light of these results, we suggest health care professionals take reward sensitivity into account when trying to promote treatment seeking, to say nothing of the social affiliation motives that underlie the reward sensitivity-treatment seeking link. PMID:23740351

Sztainert, Travis; Wohl, Michael J A; McManus, Justin F; Stead, John D H

2014-12-01

49

Predictors of treatment outcome among Asian pathological gamblers (PGs): clinical, behavioural, demographic, and treatment process factors.  

PubMed

Research on predictors of treatment outcome among pathological gamblers (PGs) is inconclusive and dominated by studies from Western countries. Using a prospective longitudinal design, the current study examined demographic, clinical, behavioural and treatment programme predictors of gambling frequency at 3, 6 and 12-months, among PGs treated at an addiction clinic in Singapore. Measures included the Hospital anxiety and depression scale, gambling symptom assessment scale (GSAS), personal well-being index (PWI), treatment perception questionnaire and gambling readiness to change scale. Treatment response in relation to changes in symptom severity, personal wellbeing and abstinence were also assessed. Abstinence rates were 38.6, 46.0 and 44.4 % at 3, 6 and 12-months respectively. Significant reductions in gambling frequency, GSAS, and improvement in PWI were reported between baseline and subsequent outcome assessments, with the greatest change occurring in the initial three months. No demographic, clinical, behavioural or treatment programme variable consistently predicted outcome at all three assessments, though treatment satisfaction was the most frequent significant predictor. However, being unemployed, having larger than average debts, poor treatment satisfaction and attending fewer sessions at the later stages of treatment were associated with significantly poorer outcomes, up to 1-year after initiating treatment. These findings show promise for the effectiveness of a CBT-based treatment approach for the treatment of predominantly Chinese PGs. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Taken together, the findings suggest early treatment satisfaction is paramount in improving short-term outcomes, with baseline gambling behaviour and treatment intensity playing a more significant role in the longer term. PMID:22945784

Guo, Song; Manning, Victoria; Thane, Kyaw Kyaw Wai; Ng, Andrew; Abdin, Edimansyah; Wong, Kim Eng

2014-03-01

50

Impulsivity as a Moderator and Mediator between Life Stress and Pathological Gambling among Chinese Treatment-Seeking Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of impulsivity and its interplay with gambling correlates in influencing the severity of pathological gambling in Chinese societies. It also investigated the extent to which impulsivity would moderate and/or mediate the relationship between life stress and pathological gambling in 94 Chinese treatment-seeking gamblers.…

Tang, Catherine So-kum; Wu, Anise M. S.

2012-01-01

51

Evaluation of a physical activity program for pathological gamblers in treatment.  

PubMed

It has been demonstrated that craving for gambling is associated with anxiety and depression in pathological gamblers. Exercise has been shown to reduce anxiety and depression, as well as positively influence abstinence rates in individuals with substance use disorders. In this study, we examined the impact of a physical activity program in 33 pathological gamblers. We also analyzed the association between craving and plasmatic levels of stress hormones (adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, and prolactin). The program involved eight 50-min sessions. Craving was assessed 24 h before, immediately before, and immediately after each session, as well as on a weekly basis. Before and after the program, we evaluated gambling behavior, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and plasma levels of stress hormones. We identified a significant reduction in craving following each session and at the end of the program. There was improvement in anxiety, depressive symptoms, and gambling behavior. The post-session reduction in craving was accompanied by post-program reductions in craving and anxiety but not by a post-program reduction in depressive symptoms. The craving reduction was associated with a variation in prolactin levels but not with variations in levels of cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone. PMID:22661334

Angelo, Daniela Lopes; Tavares, Hermano; Zilberman, Monica Levit

2013-09-01

52

An 8-week stress management program in pathological gamblers: a pilot randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Stress plays a major role at the onset and relapse of pathological gambling (PG), but at the same time it can also be the aftermath of gambling behavior, thus revealing a reciprocal relationship. Although the role of stress has been well-documented, there is a paucity of studies investigating the effect of an adjunctive stress management program on PG. In this 8-week parallel randomized waitlist controlled trial pathological gamblers, already in the gamblers anonymous (GA) group, were assigned randomly in two groups, with the intervention group (n = 22) receiving an additional stress management program (consisting of education on diet and exercise, stress coping methods, relaxation breathing -RB- and progressive muscle relaxation -PMR). Self-reported measures were used in order to evaluate stress, depression, anxiety, sleep quality/disturbances, life-satisfaction and daily routine. The statistical analyses for the between group differences concerning the main psychosocial study outcomes revealed a statistically significant amelioration of stress, depression, anxiety symptoms and an increase of life-satisfaction and a better daily routine in participants of the intervention group. We hope that these will encourage researchers and clinicians to adopt stress management in their future work. PMID:24912736

Linardatou, C; Parios, A; Varvogli, L; Chrousos, G; Darviri, C

2014-09-01

53

[Pathological gambling and personality disorders: a pilot-study with the MCMI-II].  

PubMed

In this paper, the most frequent personality disorders related to pathological gambling are described. A sample of 50 pathological gamblers, who were assessed with the MCMI-II before treatment, and of 50 normative subjects from general population with the same demographic features (age, sex and socioeconomic level) was selected. According to the results, the 40% of clinical sample (versus the 14% of normative sample) showed at least one personality disorder. The most prevalent one was the Narcissistic (32%), followed by the Antisocial and Passive-Aggressive (16% each one of them). Furthermore, the gamblers with personality disorders presented an average of 2.2 disorders and tended to be more impulsive. Likewise pathological gamblers abused of alcohol, showed a mild anxiety and were not so adapted to everyday life as much as the control group. Finally, implications of this study for clinical practice and future research in this field are commented upon. PMID:17296071

Fernández Montalvo, Javier; Echeburúa, Enrique

2006-08-01

54

Pathological Gambling: Psychosomatic, emotional and marital difficulties as reported by the Gambler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two parallel self-administered surveys were distributed at three conferences of Gamblers Anonymous. One survey was for members of Gamblers Anonymous and the other was for members of GamAnon. Approximately 500 respondents completed the surveys. This article is a report of some of the data from the gamblers' survey. This survey focused on two time periods of the compulsive gambler's life—during

Valerie C. Lorenz; Robert A. Yaffee

1986-01-01

55

The Structure of Pathological Gambling among Korean Gamblers: A Cluster and Factor Analysis of Clinical and Demographic Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the underlying structure of the demographic and clinical characteristics of level 3 (i.e., pathological) Korean casino gamblers. The participants reported their gambling behavior and clinical characteristics known to be associated with gambling problems (e.g., alcohol use problems, eating disorders, depression, anxiety, and…

Lee, Tae Kyung; LaBrie, Richard A.; Grant, Jon E.; Kim, Suck Won; Shaffer, Howard J.

2008-01-01

56

To play or not to play: a personal dilemma in pathological gambling.  

PubMed

Research has shown that healthy people would rather avoid losses than gamble for even higher gains. On the other hand, research on pathological gamblers (PGs) demonstrates that PGs are more impaired than non-pathological gamblers in choice under risk and uncertainty. Here, we investigate loss aversion by using a rigorous and well-established paradigm from the field of economics, in conjunction with personality traits, by using self-report measures for PGs under clinical treatment. Twenty pathological gamblers, at the earlier and later stages of clinical treatment, were matched to 20 non-gamblers (NG). They played a "flip coin task" by deciding across 256 trials whether to accept or reject a 50-50 bet with a variable amount of gains and losses. They completed questionnaires aimed at assessing impulsivity. Compared to NG, pathological gamblers, specifically those in the later stages of therapy, were more loss averse and accepted a lower number of gambles with a positive expected value, whereas their impulsivity traits were significantly higher. This study shows for the first time that changes in loss aversion, but not in personality traits, are associated with the time course of pathology. These findings can be usefully employed in the fields of both gambling addiction and decision-making. PMID:25024055

Giorgetta, Cinzia; Grecucci, Alessandro; Rattin, Andrea; Guerreschi, Cesare; Sanfey, Alan G; Bonini, Nicolao

2014-11-30

57

Social cost of pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological gambling creates enormous problems for the afflicted individuals, their families, employers, and society, and has numerous disastrous financial consequences. The present study evaluates the financial burdens of pathological gambling by questioning pathological gamblers in treatment in Gamblers Anonymous (n=60; 56 males, 4 females; mean age = 40 years old) about personal debts, loss of productivity at work, illegal activities,

Robert Ladouceur; Jean-Marie Boisvert; Michel Pépin; Michel Loranger; Caroline Sylvain

1994-01-01

58

Age of Onset in Pathological Gambling: Clinical, Therapeutic and Personality Correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to explore the association between age of onset of gambling problems and current psychopathological and clinical\\u000a status, personality profile and therapeutic outcome in a sample of pathological gamblers. A total of 904 consecutive pathological\\u000a gambling patients were administered several instruments about gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality. They received\\u000a a 4-month cognitive-behavioral group treatment. Information of dropouts and relapses

Susana Jimenez-MurciaEva; Eva M. Álvarez-Moya; Randy Stinchfield; Fernando Fernández-Aranda; Roser Granero; Neus Aymamí; Mónica Gómez-Peńa; Nuria Jaurrieta; Francesca Bove; José M. Menchón

2010-01-01

59

A Personality-Based Latent Class Analysis of Emerging Adult Gamblers.  

PubMed

Increases in access to gambling venues have been accompanied by increased gambling behavior among young adults. The present research examined associations among Five Factor Model personality traits, motives for gambling, and gambling behavior and problems using latent class analysis. College students (N = 220) completed online measures of personality and gambling behavior as part of a larger intervention trial. Agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with indicators of gambling behavior. Low agreeableness and high neuroticism were associated with gambling-specific motives, particularly for less frequently endorsed motives. Personality-based latent class analyses of emerging adult gamblers revealed support for three distinct groups reflecting a resilient personality group, a normative personality group, and a vulnerable personality group, which were further differentiated by gambling behaviors and gambling-specific motives. Associations between personality traits and gambling-specific motives highlight potential heterogeneity among college students who gamble. Together, findings suggest that the correlational and latent class-based analyses, as well as the personality and motivation analyses, present complementary information with respect to the attributes of college student gamblers. Implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:25228408

Tackett, Jennifer L; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Rinker, Dipali V; Neighbors, Clayton

2014-09-17

60

The Structure of Pathological Gambling among Korean Gamblers: A Cluster and Factor Analysis of Clinical and Demographic Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the underlying structure of the demographic and clinical characteristics of level 3 (i.e., pathological)\\u000a Korean casino gamblers. The participants reported their gambling behavior and clinical characteristics known to be associated\\u000a with gambling problems (e.g., alcohol use problems, eating disorders, depression, anxiety, and impulsivity). Factor analysis\\u000a identified three domains underlying level 3 gambling: emotional instability, reward sensitivity\\/drive, and

Tae Kyung Lee; Richard A. LaBrie; Jon E. Grant; Suck Won Kim; Howard J. Shaffer

2008-01-01

61

A Gamblers Clustering Based on Their Favorite Gambling Activity.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify profiles of gamblers to explain the choice of preferred gambling activity among both problem and non-problem gamblers. 628 non-problem and problem gamblers were assessed with a structured interview including "healthy" (sociodemographic characteristics, gambling habits and personality profile assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory-125) and "pathological" [diagnosis of pathological gambling, gambling-related cognitions (GRCs) and psychiatric comorbidity] variables. We performed a two-step cluster analysis based solely on "healthy" variables to identify gamblers' profiles which typically reflect the choice of preferred gambling activity. The obtained classes were then described using both "healthy" and "pathological" variables, by comparing each class to the rest of the sample. Clusters were generated. Class 1 (Electronic Gaming Machines gamblers) showed high cooperativeness, a lower level of GRC about strategy and more depressive disorders. Class 2 (games with deferred results gamblers) were high novelty seekers and showed a higher level of GRC about strategy and more addictive disorders. Class 3 (roulette gamblers) were more often high rollers and showed a higher level of GRC about strategy and more manic or hypomanic episodes and more obsessive-compulsive disorders. Class 4 (instant lottery gamblers) showed a lower tendency to suicide attempts. Class 5 (scratch cards gamblers) were high harm avoiders and showed a lower overall level of GRC and more panic attacks and eating disorders. The preference for one particular gambling activity may concern different profiles of gamblers. This study highlights the importance of considering the pair gambler-game rather than one or the other separately, and may provide support for future research on gambling and preventive actions directed toward a particular game. PMID:25192752

Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Renard, Noëlle; Legauffre, Cindy; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Gorsane, Mohamed-Ali; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

2014-09-01

62

Personality Characteristics and Risk-Taking Tendencies Among Adolescent Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight hundred and seventeen high school students in the Montreal region completed the DSM-IV-J diagnostic gambling measure, High School Personality Questionnaire (HSPQ), Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS), along with a gambling questionnaire ascertaining gambling participation and gambling-related behaviours. Eight of fourteen personality factors assessed by the HSPQ, as well as three of the four subscales of the SSS differed by

Rina Gupta; Jeffrey L. Derevensky; Stephen Ellenbogen

2006-01-01

63

Pathological Gambling in Estonia: Relationships with Personality, Self-Esteem, Emotional States and Cognitive Ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to changes in gambling accessibility during the last decade gambling has become more widespread in Estonia and the prevalence\\u000a of pathological gambling has sharply increased. The present study attempts to identify psychological characteristics of Estonian\\u000a pathological gamblers. It has been shown that a wide range of social, economic, and individual factors (e.g. personality traits\\u000a and emotional states) predict the

Pille-Riin Kaare; René Mőttus; Kenn Konstabel

2009-01-01

64

Comfort for uncertainty in pathological gamblers: A fMRI study.  

PubMed

This study examined neural anticipation of monetary reward in pathological gamblers (PG) by varying the type of uncertainty associated with the reward. Ten PG and ten controls were scanned while deciding whether to accept ("bet" option, featuring high-uncertain monetary rewards) or reject ("safe" option, featuring low-certain rewards) a bet, within situations of decision-making under risk (probability of the "bet" reward is known) or ambiguity (probability of the "bet" reward is unknown). During decision under risk (as compared to ambiguity), controls exhibited activation in brain areas involved in reward processing (putamen), interoception (insula) and cognitive control (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; middle frontal gyrus). By contrast, PG exhibited no differential brain activation as a function of the type of uncertainty associated with the "bet" option. Moreover, prior choosing of the "safe" option (as compared to "bet" choices), controls exhibited activation in the posterior insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and middle frontal gyrus. By contrast, PG exhibited higher neural activation during the elaboration of "bet" choices, and in motivational-arousal areas (caudate; putamen; posterior insula). Between-groups contrasts revealed that, as compared to controls, PG showed (i) decreased neural activity in the globus pallidus for decision-making under risk, as opposed to decision under ambiguity, and (ii) increased neural activity within the putamen prior to bet choices, as opposed to safe choices. These findings suggest that (i) unlike control participants, a variation in the level of uncertainty associated with monetary rewards seems to have no significant impact on PGs' decision to gamble and (ii) PG exhibit stronger brain activation while anticipating high-uncertain monetary rewards, as compared with lower-certain rewards. PMID:25277841

Brevers, Damien; Bechara, Antoine; Hermoye, Laurent; Divano, Luisa; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier

2015-02-01

65

Person Perception and Personality Pathology  

PubMed Central

Studies of person perception (people's impressions and beliefs about others) have developed important concepts and methods that can be used to help improve the assessment of personality disorders. They may also inspire advances in our knowledge of the nature and origins of these conditions. Information collected from peers and other types of informants is reliable and provides a perspective that often differs substantially from that obtained using questionnaires and interviews. For some purposes, this information is quite useful. Much remains to be learned about the incremental validity (and potential biases) associated with data from various kinds of informants. PMID:20539833

Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Turkheimer, Eric

2010-01-01

66

Pathological gambling and personality disorders: an exploratory study with the IPDE.  

PubMed

This article describes the most frequent personality disorders related to pathological gambling. Participants included 50 pathological gamblers assessed with the IPDE, and 50 normative subjects from the general population with the same demographic features (age, sex, and socioeconomic level). Thirty-two percent of the clinical sample (vs. the 8% of the normative sample) showed at least one personality disorder. The most prevalent disorders were Borderline (16%), followed by Antisocial, Paranoid, Narcissistic, and Non-specified (8% each). Gamblers with personality disorders presented an average of 1.5 disorders and they reported higher gambling severity and more severe symptoms of anxiety, depression and alcohol abuse. The implications of this study for clinical practice and research are discussed. PMID:15519959

Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Echeburúa, Enrique

2004-10-01

67

A Randomized Trial of Brief Interventions for Problem and Pathological Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited research exists regarding methods for reducing problem gambling. Problem gamblers (N = 180) were randomly assigned to assessment only control, 10 min of brief advice, 1 session of motivational enhancement therapy (MET), or 1 session of MET plus 3 sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Gambling was assessed at baseline, at 6 weeks, and…

Petry, Nancy M.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Ledgerwood, David M.; Morasco, Benjamin

2008-01-01

68

A Randomized Trial of Brief Interventions for Problem and Pathological Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited research exists regarding methods for reducing problem gambling. Problem gamblers (N = 180) were randomly assigned to assessment only control, 10 min of brief advice, 1 session of motivational enhancement therapy (MET), or 1 session of MET plus 3 sessions of cognitive–behavioral therapy. Gambling was assessed at baseline, at 6 weeks, and at a 9-month follow-up. Relative to assessment

Nancy M. Petry; Jeremiah Weinstock; David M. Ledgerwood; Benjamin Morasco

2008-01-01

69

Shame regulation in personality pathology.  

PubMed

Drawing on extant work on shame and emotion regulation, this article proposes that three broad forms of maladaptive shame regulation strategies are fundamental in much of personality pathology: Prevention (e.g., dependence, fantasy), used preemptively, lessens potential for shame; Escape (e.g., social withdrawal, misdirection) reduces current or imminent shame; Aggression, used after shame begins, refocuses shame into anger directed at the self (e.g., physical self-harm) or others (e.g., verbal aggression). This article focuses on the contributions of shame regulation to the development and maintenance of personality pathology, highlighting how various maladaptive shame regulation strategies may lead to personality pathology symptoms, associated features, and dimensions. Consideration is also given to the possible shame-related constructs necessitating emotion regulation (e.g., shame aversion and proneness) and the points in the emotion process when regulation can occur. PMID:21895346

Schoenleber, Michelle; Berenbaum, Howard

2012-05-01

70

Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers  

PubMed Central

Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction characterized by a chronic failure to resist the urge to gamble. It shares many similarities with drug addiction. Glucocorticoid hormones including cortisol are thought to play a key role in the vulnerability to addictive behaviors, by acting on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Based on our previous report of an imbalanced sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives in the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers (PGs), we investigated whether this imbalance was mediated by individual differences in endogenous cortisol levels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined the relationship between cortisol levels and the neural responses to monetary versus non-monetary cues, while PGs and healthy controls were engaged in an incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and erotic rewards. We found a positive correlation between cortisol levels and ventral striatal responses to monetary versus erotic cues in PGs, but not in healthy controls. This indicates that the ventral striatum is a key region where cortisol modulates incentive motivation for gambling versus non-gambling related stimuli in PGs. Our results extend the proposed role of glucocorticoid hormones in drug addiction to behavioral addiction, and help understand the impact of cortisol on reward incentive processing in PGs. PMID:24723862

Li, Yansong; Sescousse, Guillaume; Dreher, Jean-Claude

2014-01-01

71

The Prevalence of Comorbid Personality Disorders in Treatment-Seeking Problem Gamblers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to systematically review and meta-analyze the prevalence of comorbid personality disorders among treatment-seeking problem gamblers. Almost one half (47.9%) of problem gamblers displayed comorbid personality disorders. They were most likely to display Cluster B disorders (17.6%), with smaller proportions reporting Cluster C disorders (12.6%) and Cluster A disorders (6.1%). The most prevalent personality disorders were narcissistic (16.6%), antisocial (14.0%), avoidant (13.4%), obsessive-compulsive (13.4%), and borderline (13.1%) personality disorders. Sensitivity analyses suggested that these prevalence estimates were robust to the inclusion of clinical trials and self-selected samples. Although there was significant variability in reported rates, subgroup analyses revealed no significant differences in estimates of antisocial personality disorder according to problem gambling severity, measure of comorbidity employed, and study jurisdiction. The findings highlight the need for gambling treatment services to conduct routine screening and assessment of co-occurring personality disorders and to provide treatment approaches that adequately address these comorbid conditions. PMID:25248010

Dowling, Nicki A; Cowlishaw, S; Jackson, A C; Merkouris, S S; Francis, K L; Christensen, D R

2014-09-23

72

Female Pathological Gamblers--A Critical Review of the Clinical Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent evidence indicates that more and more women gamble and develop gambling problems and pathological gambling (PG). Research has further indicated that female and male PGs differ in their clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to do a critical review of the literature concerning clinical characteristics of female pathological

Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Dahl, Alv A.

2009-01-01

73

Psychometric evaluation of the gambling self-efficacy questionnaire with treatment-seeking pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

Gambling-related self-efficacy has been shown to correspond with treatment success and maintenance of treatment gains. Accordingly, there is a need for gambling assessment measures that have been validated with treatment-seeking individuals. In this study, we reported on the evaluation of a measure of perceived self-efficacy to control gambling behavior in high-risk relapse situations, the Gambling Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (GSEQ; May, Whelan, Steenbergh, & Meyers, 2003). Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses provided some support for the original single-factor solutions, but also suggested the presence of individual patterns of self-efficacy across high-risk situations. The GSEQ demonstrated convergence with indices of problem-gambling severity and scores on the measure significantly increased across a brief cognitive-behavioral intervention. The sensitivity and specificity were evaluated and the findings supported that an average self-efficacy rating of 70% corresponded with indices of pathological gambling. PMID:25180557

Winfree, Walter R; Ginley, Meredith K; Whelan, James P; Meyers, Andrew W

2014-12-01

74

The factorial structure of pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological gambling has been characterised by DSM-III-R and DSM-IV as a disorder of impulse control with a proportion of gamblers identified as meeting criteria for a co-morbid diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder. To date, empirical evidence in support of the notion that pathological gamblers as a group manifest elevated traits of impulsivity remains equivocal. Principal components analysis was used to

Zachary Steel; Alex Blaszczynski

1996-01-01

75

Prevalence and predictors of pathological gambling: results from the St. Louis personality, health and lifestyle (SLPHL) study  

PubMed Central

Objectives We report the prevalence of and risk and protective factors for DSM-IV sub-threshold gambling (1–4 criteria) and pathological gambling disorder (PGD; 5–10 criteria) in a non-clinical household sample of St. Louis area gamblers. Methods Of the 7689 individuals contacted via Random Digit Dialing, 3292 were screened eligible. Of these, 1142 from households in 6 contiguous regions in Missouri and Illinois consented to participate and were mailed a St. Louis Area Personality, Health, and Lifestyle (SLPHL) Survey. Results Post-stratification weighted data (n = 913) indicate lifetime prevalence rates of 12.4% sub-threshold and 2.5% PGD (conditional prevalence = 21.5% and 4.3% respectively). Risk and protective factors for gambling severity varied in the sample. Conclusions Targeted prevention messages are warranted specifically for gamblers of varying risk for PGD. PMID:15804388

Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.; Grucza, Richard A.; Cottler, Linda B.; Womack, Sharon B.; Books, Samantha J.; Przybeck, Thomas R.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Cloninger, C. Robert

2006-01-01

76

Emergent Issues in Assessing Personality Pathology: Illustrations from Two Studies of Adolescent Personality and Related Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As illustrated by two articles that each investigate personality pathology and its correlates in adolescents—Aelterman et\\u000a al. (2010) on obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) from a dimensional personality perspective, and Barry and Wallace (2010) on indicators of pathological and normative development of youth narcissism—this commentary discusses four important assessment\\u000a issues that have become more salient as the field considers a shift,

Lee Anna Clark

2010-01-01

77

The interpersonal core of personality pathology  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that personality pathology is, at its core, fundamentally interpersonal. We review the proposed DSM-5 Section 3 redefinition of personality pathology involving self and interpersonal dysfunction, which we regard as a substantial improvement over the DSM-IV (and DSM-5 Section 2) definition. We note similarities between the proposed scheme and contemporary interpersonal theory and interpret the DSM-5 Section 3 definition using the underlying assumptions and evidence base of the interpersonal paradigm in clinical psychology. We describe how grounding the proposed DSM-5 Section 3 definition in interpersonal theory, and in particular a focus on the “interpersonal situation”, adds to its theoretical texture, empirical support, and clinical utility. We provide a clinical example that demonstrates the ability of contemporary interpersonal theory to augment the DSM-5 definition of personality pathology. We conclude with directions for further research that could clarify the core of personality pathology, and how interpersonal theory can inform research aimed at enhancing the DSM-5 Section 3 proposal and ultimately justify its migration to DSM-5 Section 2. PMID:23735037

Hopwood, Christopher J.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pincus, Aaron L.

2013-01-01

78

Alexithymia and Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to study the relationship between alexithymia and gambling in a community sample of pathological gamblers. Pathological, problem and non-problem gamblers were recruited from the community via advertisements and completed an assessment of their gambling behavior and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Alexithymia was higher among male pathological gamblers who identified slot machines, cards, and lotteries

Tony Toneatto; Julia Lecce; Michael Bagby

2009-01-01

79

Dopamine DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A and DAT1 VNTR polymorphisms are associated with a cognitive flexibility profile in pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

Like drug addiction, pathological gambling (PG) has been associated with impairments in executive functions and alterations in dopaminergic functioning; however, the role of dopamine (DA) in the executive profile of PG remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify whether the DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A-rs1800497 and the DAT1-40 bp VNTR polymorphisms are associated with cognitive flexibility (measured by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Trail Making Test (TMT)) and inhibition response (measured by Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT)), in a clinical sample of 69 PG patients. Our results showed an association between DA functioning and cognitive flexibility performance. The Taq1A A1+ (A1A2/A1A1) genotype was associated with poorer TMT performance (p<0.05), while DAT1 9-repeat homozygotes displayed better WCST performance (p<0.05) than either 10-repeat homozygotes or heterozygotes. We did not find any association between the DRD2 or DAT1 polymorphisms and the inhibition response. These results suggested that pathological gamblers with genetic predispositions toward lower availability of DA and D2 receptor density are at a higher risk of cognitive flexibility difficulties. Future studies should aim to shed more light on the genetic mechanisms underlying the executive profile in PG. PMID:25237117

Fagundo, Ana B; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; de la Torre, Rafael; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Gené, Manel; Barrot, Carme; Sánchez, Cristina; Alvarez-Moya, Eva; Ochoa, Cristian; Aymamí, Maria Neus; Gómez-Peńa, Mónica; Menchón, Jose M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

2014-12-01

80

Normal personality versus pathological personality: dimensional and predictive study.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to replicate the previous relationship between the Zuckerman personality model and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ) and to evaluate the contribution of the facets and factors from Zuckerman's new instrument Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA-PQ) versus the old Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire to the four clusters of the DAPP-BQ. The sample consisted of 443 subjects from the general population of both sexes. The ZKA-PQ dimensions predicted between 35 % and 61% of the DAPP-BQ cluster variance and facets between 54% and 63%. Local regression graphical analysis (LOESS) showed that neuroticism and aggressiveness are the dimensions most related with emotional dysregulation. Sensation seeking and aggressiveness were associated with dissocial behaviour. Neuroticism and extraversion (negative) were associated with social avoidance and activity and sensation seeking (negative) with compulsiveness. The new ZKA-PQ improves the psychometric properties of the old Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire. Both dimensional personality measures can play a role in the prediction of the future DSM-V personality disorder dimensional system. PMID:24343978

Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Angel; Balada, Ferran

2013-11-01

81

Differential Gambling Motivations and Recreational Activity Preferences Among Casino Gamblers.  

PubMed

This study investigated three different types of gamblers (recreational, problem, and pathological gamblers) to determine differences in gambling motivations and recreational activity preferences among casino gamblers. We collected data from 600 gamblers recruited in an actual gambling environment inside a major casino in South Korea. Findings indicate that motivational factors of escape, sightseeing, and winning were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. When looking at motivations to visit the casino, pathological gamblers were more likely to be motivated by winning, whereas recreational gamblers were more likely to be motivated by scenery and culture in the surrounding casino area. Meanwhile, the problem gamblers fell between these two groups, indicating higher preferences for non-gambling activities than the pathological gamblers. As this study builds upon a foundational previous study by Lee et al. (Psychiatry Investig 6(3):141-149, 2009), the results of this new study were compared with those of the previous study to see if new developments within a resort-style casino contribute to changes in motivations and recreational activity preferences. PMID:25398482

Lee, Choong-Ki; Bernhard, Bo Jason; Kim, Jungsun; Fong, Timothy; Lee, Tae Kyung

2014-11-15

82

Differences in Addiction Severity between Social and Probable Pathological Gamblers among Substance Abusers in Treatment in Rio de Janeiro  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a strong association between pathological gambling and substance abuse. The objective of this study is to identify the differences between substance abusers with and without gambling problems. A cross sectional study was conducted interviewing with Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), alcohol and drug…

Mathias, Ana Carolina R.; Vargens, Renata W.; Kessler, Felix H.; Cruz, Marcelo S.

2009-01-01

83

Where did all the pathological gamblers go? Gambling symptomatology and stage of change predict attrition in longitudinal research.  

PubMed

Attrition can introduce a systematic bias that can negatively affect validity (Cook and Campbell, Quasi-experimentation: design and analysis issues for field settings. Rand McNally, Chicago, 1979). Current longitudinal research in gambling, however, has generally overlooked the reasons for attrition. The current research examined the relationship between pathological gambling symptomatology, stage of change and attrition. Three hundred and seventy-nine participants were contacted 12 months after initially participating in a study on gambling for a follow-up session. Logistic regression revealed those in the contemplation and preparation stages of change reported higher levels of pathological gambling symptomatology and were more likely to drop out of the study compared to those in the precontemplation stage. As predicted, gambling symptomatology mediated the relationship between stages of change and attrition. The implication for longitudinal research on gambling as well as extant findings that have used this methodological approach is discussed. PMID:20306327

Wohl, Michael J A; Sztainert, Travis

2011-03-01

84

Masochism and pathological gambling.  

PubMed

That all pathological gamblers have an "unconscious wish to lose," an idea first expressed by Freud and Bergler, is neither true nor useful; wrong as well, however, are the reasons for neglecting masochism in relation to gambling. There is a small but clinically significant subgroup of pathological gamblers who are masochistic. I present clinical vignettes and a more extended treatment account to illustrate its importance. Masochism has been a confusing concept. As used here it refers to the deliberate seeking of pain, loss, suffering, or humiliation. There may be pleasure in pain, or an obligatory combining of pleasure and pain. A sense of power and control may be achieved through suffering. The case material illustrates clinically useful types (sexual masochism, masochistic personality disorder, moral masochism, relational masochism) as well as some common masochistic dynamics encountered in the treatment of pathological gamblers. These masochistic patterns are often identifiable during the initial evaluation. Distinguishing features may include a reversal of normal attitudes about winning and losing, the absence of an early winning phase, sometimes a memorable early loss. Gamblers may sabotage opportunities for success or create unnecessary obstacles for themselves. Losing may be more comfortable than winning or may be overtly sexualized. PMID:25734872

Rosenthal, Richard J

2015-01-01

85

Where Did All the Pathological Gamblers Go? Gambling Symptomatology and Stage of Change Predict Attrition in Longitudinal Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attrition can introduce a systematic bias that can negatively affect validity (Cook and Campbell, Quasi-experimentation: design\\u000a and analysis issues for field settings. Rand McNally, Chicago, 1979). Current longitudinal research in gambling, however, has generally overlooked the reasons for attrition. The current research\\u000a examined the relationship between pathological gambling symptomatology, stage of change and attrition. Three hundred and seventy-nine\\u000a participants were

Michael J. A. Wohl; Travis Sztainert

2011-01-01

86

Personality judgment and personality pathology: self-other agreement in adolescents with conduct disorder.  

PubMed

We examine two issues linking personality pathology and judgment of traits within the Five-Factor Model of personality. We hypothesize that pathology moderates self-other agreement--"target" participants with pathology should be less judgable than participants without pathology. In addition, we hypothesize that pathology could partially produce agreement across a variety of traits, particularly those traits fundamental to the pathology. In an adolescent sample including a group with Conduct Disorder (CD) and a Control group, we examine agreement between adolescents' self-reports and their mothers' informant reports. Using trait-centered and person-centered perspectives, we find support for both hypotheses. Results have implications for understanding the processes affecting personality judgment, for increasing integration of traditional personality research and personality pathology, and for personality assessment. PMID:17489894

Furr, R Michael; Dougherty, Donald M; Marsh, Dawn M; Mathias, Charles W

2007-06-01

87

Effects of the atypical stimulant modafinil on a brief gambling episode in pathological gamblers with high vs. low impulsivity.  

PubMed

Pathological gambling (PG) is a serious psychiatric disorder afflicting 1-3% of the general population. Experimental evidence indicates shared neurochemical substrates for PG and psychostimulant addiction. Impulsivity characterizes one key subtype of PG. Therefore, medications that ameliorate psychostimulant addiction and impulsive syndromes might also benefit impulsive PG subjects. The atypical stimulant, modafinil reduces cocaine abuse and impulsivity in patients with ADHD. The present study sought to determine if modafinil (200 mg) would reduce the reinforcing effects of slot machine gambling in PG subjects, and if this effect was stronger in high (H-I) vs. low (L-I) impulsivity subjects (N = 20). A placebo-controlled, double-blind, counterbalanced, repeated measures design was employed. Apart from bet size, which declined uniformly in both groups under drug, modafinil had bi-directional effects in the two groups. In H-I subjects, the drug decreased desire to gamble, salience of Gambling words, disinhibition and risky decision-making. In L-I subjects, modafinil increased scores on these indices. Modafinil also differentially affected blood pressure response to the game in the two groups. These findings for modafinil appear to fit well with a growing literature demonstrating bi-directional effects of D2 agonists as a function of trait impulsivity. Impulsivity could critically moderate medication response in PG. PMID:18583430

Zack, M; Poulos, C X

2009-08-01

88

Dimensional assessment of personality pathology in patients with eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined patients with eating disorders on personality pathology using a dimensional method. Female subjects who met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for eating disorder (n=136) were evaluated and compared to an age-controlled general population sample (n=68). We assessed 18 features of personality disorder with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology — Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). Factor analysis and cluster analysis were

Elliot M Goldner; Suja Srikameswaran; Marsha L Schroeder; W. John Livesley; C. Laird Birmingham

1999-01-01

89

Using neural networks to model the behavior and decisions of gamblers, in particular, cyber-gamblers.  

PubMed

This article describes the use of neural networks (a type of artificial intelligence) and an empirical data sample of, inter alia, the amounts of bets laid and the winnings/losses made in successive games by a number of cyber-gamblers to longitudinally model gamblers' behavior and decisions as to such bet amounts and the temporal trajectory of winnings/losses. The data was collected by videoing Texas Holdem gamblers at a cyber-gambling website. Six "persistent" gamblers were identified, totaling 675 games. The neural networks on average were able to predict bet amounts and cumulative winnings/losses in successive games accurately to three decimal places of the dollar. A more important conclusion is that the influence of a gambler's skills, strategies, and personality on his/her successive bet amounts and cumulative winnings/losses is almost totally reflected by the pattern(s) of his/her winnings/losses in the few initial games and his/her gambling account balance. This partially invalidates gamblers' illusions and fallacies that they can outperform others or even bankers. For government policy-makers, gambling industry operators, economists, sociologists, psychiatrists, and psychologists, this article provides models for gamblers' behavior and decisions. It also explores and exemplifies the usefulness of neural networks and artificial intelligence at large in the research on gambling. PMID:19593655

Chan, Victor K Y

2010-03-01

90

SLEEP AND GAMBLING SEVERITY IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE OF GAMBLERS  

PubMed Central

Although sleep has been extensively studied in substance related disorders, it has yet to be examined as thoroughly in gambling-related disorders. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between gambling severity and sleep disturbances in a sample of non-treatment seeking gamblers (N = 96) using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Mean ESS scores for recreational, problem, and pathological gamblers were 4.13, 5.81, and 8.69, respectively, with a significant difference between pathological gamblers and both problem (P = .007) and recreational gamblers (P < .001). Mean PSQI scores for recreational, problem, and pathological gamblers were 3.35, 5.30, and 5.44, respectively, with a significant difference in sleep quality between recreational and problem gamblers (P = .018), as well as recreational and pathological gamblers (P = .008). As the first study to use objective sleep measures, these findings will not only increase awareness of this relationship, but also provide a foundation on which others can investigate the benefits of screening and adjunct treatment for sleep disorders in the gambling population. PMID:22356670

Parhami, Iman; Siani, Aaron; Rosenthal, Richard J.; Lin, Stephanie; Collard, Michael; Fong, Timothy W.

2012-01-01

91

Dimensions of personality pathology in adolescents: relations to DSM-IV personality disorder symptoms.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to relate and compare two approaches to personality pathology in adolescents. Dimensions of personality pathology, assessed by the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire for Adolescents (DAPP-BQ-A; Tromp & Koot, 2008), were related to DSM-IV personality disorder (PD) symptoms in 168 adolescents referred for mental health services. Correlational analyses revealed that the DAPP-BQ-A higher- and lower-order dimensions were related to PD symptoms in predictable ways. Regression analyses showed that for all but three PDs (Schizoid, Schizotypal, and Passive-Aggressive), lower-order dimensions accounted for unique variance, after controlling for gender, age, and co-occurring PD symptoms. It is concluded that dimensional assessment may provide valuable information on adolescent personality pathology, and facilitate the study of developmental antecedents of adult personality pathology. PMID:19817631

Tromp, Noor B; Koot, Hans M

2009-10-01

92

The externalizing spectrum in youth: incorporating personality pathology.  

PubMed

Although personality disorder characteristics are often grouped with externalizing problems in adults, little is known about the extent to which they define the externalizing spectrum in youth. We examined the extent to which personality pathology traits in youth reflected common and specific variance in externalizing problems and explored differentiation of these connections by age. Parents reported on physical aggression, rule-breaking, relational aggression, and personality pathology traits for 1080 youth (48.8% male) ages 6-18 years. Disagreeableness and emotional instability traits were correlated with a general externalizing factor as well as with specific behavioral subfactors. The magnitude of these correlations varied across age, with the highest magnitude evidenced during the developmental periods of greatest prevalence for the specific externalizing behavior subtype. Taken together, these findings suggest that personality pathology is tightly connected with externalizing problems in youth, especially during developmental periods when externalizing problems are common. PMID:24263222

Tackett, Jennifer L; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Reardon, Kathleen W; De Clercq, Barbara; Sharp, Carla

2014-07-01

93

Pathways to Pathological Gambling: Identifying Typologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of explanatory models of pathological gambling fail to differentiate specific typologies of gamblers despite recognition of the multi-factorial causal pathways to its development. All models inherently assume that gamblers are a homogenous population; therefore theoretically derived treatments can be effectively applied to all pathological gamblers. This article describes a comprehensive and alternative conceptual-pathway model that identifies three main

Alex Blaszczynski

2000-01-01

94

Dysfunctional Cognitions in Personality Pathology: The Structure and Validity of the Personality Belief Questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Background This study examines the structure of the Personality Belief Questionnaire (PBQ), a self-report instrument designed to assess dysfunctional beliefs associated with personality pathology, as proposed by the cognitive theory of personality dysfunction. Methods The PBQ was examined using exploratory factor analysis with responses from 438 depressed outpatients, and confirmatory factor analysis with responses from 683 treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatients. All participants were assessed for personality disorder using a standard clinical interview. The validity of the resulting factor structure was assessed in the combined sample (N=1121) by examining PBQ scores for patients with and without personality disorder diagnoses. Results Exploratory and confirmatory analyses converged to indicate that the PBQ is best described by 7 empirically identified factors: 6 assess dysfunctional beliefs associated with forms of personality pathology recognized in DSM-IV. Validity analyses revealed that those diagnosed with a personality disorder evidenced a higher average score on all factors, relative to those without these disorders. Subsets of patients diagnosed with specific DSM-IV personality disorders scored higher, on average, on the factor associated with their respective diagnosis, relative to all other factors. Conclusions The pattern of results has implications for the conceptualization of personality pathology. To our knowledge, no formal diagnostic or assessment system has yet systematically incorporated the role of dysfunctional beliefs into its description of personality pathology. The identification of dysfunctional beliefs may not only aid in case conceptualization, but may provide unique targets for psychological treatment. Recommendations for future personality pathology assessment systems are provided. PMID:21910933

Fournier, Jay C.; DeRubeis, Robert J.; Beck, Aaron T.

2013-01-01

95

Pathological gambling.  

PubMed

With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG. PMID:10986732

Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

2000-09-01

96

Dimensional assessment of personality pathology in patients with eating disorders.  

PubMed

This study examined patients with eating disorders on personality pathology using a dimensional method. Female subjects who met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for eating disorder (n = 136) were evaluated and compared to an age-controlled general population sample (n = 68). We assessed 18 features of personality disorder with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology - Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to derive three clusters of patients. A five-factor solution was obtained with limited intercorrelation between factors. Cluster analysis produced three clusters with the following characteristics: Cluster 1 members (constituting 49.3% of the sample and labelled 'rigid') had higher mean scores on factors denoting compulsivity and interpersonal difficulties; Cluster 2 (18.4% of the sample) showed highest scores in factors denoting psychopathy, neuroticism and impulsive features, and appeared to constitute a borderline psychopathology group; Cluster 3 (32.4% of the sample) was characterized by few differences in personality pathology in comparison to the normal population sample. Cluster membership was associated with DSM-IV diagnosis -- a large proportion of patients with anorexia nervosa were members of Cluster 1. An empirical classification of eating-disordered patients derived from dimensional assessment of personality pathology identified three groups with clinical relevance. PMID:10220006

Goldner, E M; Srikameswaran, S; Schroeder, M L; Livesley, W J; Birmingham, C L

1999-02-22

97

Factorial Structure of Pathological Personality as Evaluated by Peers  

PubMed Central

This study explored how individuals apply features of personality disorders (PDs) to peers. Members of groups nominated peers who exhibited symptoms for each of the 10 PDs in the DSM–IV. Data were gathered in 2 samples: 1st-year college students (n = 1,440) and Air Force recruits (n = 2,075). The peer method reliably identified group members exhibiting specific PD features. Factor analyses identified a clearly interpretable structure relevant to the pathological personality constructs being assessed. The structure replicated well across samples and showed expected relationships to broader models of normal personality. However, cross-method correlations of factor scores were only moderate, suggesting that peer reports are reliably different from self-reports regarding the presence of pathological personality traits. PMID:12653416

Thomas, Cannon; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2015-01-01

98

Gambling onset and progression in a sample of at-risk gamblers from the general population.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to investigate gambling-related behavior, onset and progression in a sample of at-risk gamblers from the community. A national household survey was conducted in Brazil, covering individuals 14 years old or older. Subjects were screened for at-risk gambling, those testing positive answered a questionnaire about gambling progression, preferred games and DSM-IV pathological gambling criteria. Out of 3007 respondents, 118 were considered at-risk gamblers according to the Lie/Bet Questionnaire. According to the DSM-IV, 32.7% and 24.9% of those were considered problem and pathological gamblers, respectively. Early at-risk gamblers (onset prior to 20 years of age), were more likely to be male, to prefer non-commercially structured games, and to chase losses while gambling. Young pathological gamblers (under 35 years of age) progressed faster from regular to problem gambling (roughly 2 years) than mature pathological gamblers (12 years). Such findings had not been described before because previous reports focused mostly on clinical samples that lack young, male, early-onset gamblers. Gambling programs have not satisfactorily covered this segment of gamblers. Outreach strategies and early interventions should be provided to prevent these individuals from rapidly evolving into pathological gambling. PMID:24656520

Carneiro, Elizabeth; Tavares, Hermano; Sanches, Marcos; Pinsky, Ilana; Caetano, Raul; Zaleski, Marcos; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

2014-05-30

99

Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Pathology and Cognitive Domains in Older Persons  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relation of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) to cognitive domains in older community-dwelling persons with and without dementia. Methods Subjects were 404 persons in the Religious Orders Study, a cohort study of aging, who underwent annual clinical evaluations, including 19 neuropsychological tests from which 5 cognitive domain and global summary scores were derived, and brain autopsy at time-of-death (mean age-at-death 86). Using amyloid-? immunostaining, CAA severity was graded in 5 regions (midfrontal, inferior temporal, angular, calcarine, and hippocampal cortices), as 0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe, and 4 = very severe. Because severity was related across regions (all rs > 0.63), and almost all persons had some CAA, we averaged regional CAA scores and created class variable predictors for no-to-minimal (<0.5), mild-to-moderate (0.5-2.5) and moderate-to-very severe CAA (>2.5). Results CAA was very common (84.9%; 94 had no-to-minimal, 233 mild-to-moderate, and 76 moderate-to-very severe disease) and was related to AD pathology (rs = 0.68). In linear regression analyses controlling for age, sex, education, AD pathology, infarcts, and Lewy bodies, moderate-to-very severe CAA was associated with lower perceptual speed (p = 0.012) and episodic memory (p = 0.047), but not semantic memory, working memory, visuospatial skills, or a composite of all cognitive measures. No associations of mild-to-moderate CAA with cognition were found. Dementia did not modify these findings. Interpretation CAA pathology is very common in older community-dwelling persons and is associated with AD pathology. Moderate-to-very severe CAA, but not mild-to-moderate CAA, is associated with lower performance in specific cognitive domains, most notably perceptual speed, separately from the effect of AD pathology. PMID:21387377

Arvanitakis, Zoe; Leurgans, Sue E.; Wang, Zhenxin; Wilson, Robert S.; Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.

2011-01-01

100

Pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder in Axis I disorders.  

PubMed

This paper presents available information on the comorbidity of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and pathological narcissism with major mental illness. A review of empirical studies reporting on the prevalence of NPD in Axis I disorders, and of theoretical and clinical literature on narcissistic pathology in major mental illness, forms the basis for an analysis of this interface. The results show that prevalence rates of NPD in Axis I disorders rarely exceed those found in the general psychiatric or personality disorder populations (i.e., less than 22%). NPD was found at high rates in individuals with a substance use disorder (12-38%) or bipolar disorder (4-47%); it was present at very low rates or absent in persons with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Higher prevalence rates were reported in the studies that used the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory I or II than in those that employed the Structured interview for DSM-III Personality Disorders or the Structured Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders--Revised. There is no evidence implicating a significant relationship between NPD and any specific Axis I disorder. A comparison of theoretical and clinical studies with empirical ones reveals major differences in the views regarding the presence and significance of NPD in Axis I disorders. However, the results highlight trends of interacting comorbidity between NPD and substance use disorders, bipolar disorder, depression, and anorexia nervosa. PMID:9384963

Ronningstam, E

1996-01-01

101

Pathological gambling: A comparison of gambling at German-style slot machines and “Classical” gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

German-style slot machines and related legal issues are described. On the basis of a survey on 437 members of self-help groups (Gamblers Anonymous) in Germany, slot machine gamblers were compared with casino gamblers on such variables as sociodemographic data, gambling behaviour, financial expenditure, emotional experience while gambling, symptoms of pathological gambling, psychosocial consequences and gambling related delinquency. The casino gamblers'

Thomas Fabian

1995-01-01

102

Retrospective and Prospective Reports of Precipitants to Relapse in Pathological Gambling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A prospective design was used to explore the precipitants of relapse in a naturalistic sample of pathological gamblers (N = 101) who had recently quit gambling. Relapse rates were high; only 8% were entirely free of gambling during the 12-month follow-up. Relapses were highly variable but occurred most frequently in the evening, when the person

Hodgins, David C.; el-Guebaly, Nady

2004-01-01

103

Divergent Validity of Measures of Cognitive Distortions, Impulsivity, and Time Perspective in Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study assessed the divergent validity of several self-report and objective behavioral measures for assessing pathological gambling using three samples divided by South Oaks Gambling Scale score [Lesieur, & Blume (1987). American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1184–1188]: pathological gamblers, potential pathological gamblers, and non-pathological gamblers. Self-report measures included the Gamblers’ Beliefs Questionnaire [GBQ; Steenbergh, Meyers, May, & Whelan (2002).

James MacKillop; Emily J. Anderson; Bryan A. Castelda; Richard E. Mattson; Peter J. Donovick

2006-01-01

104

Anger in pathological gambling: clinical, psychopathological, and personality correlates.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the association between pathological gambling (PG) and anger by assessing whether psychopathology and personality are related to PG and to evaluate gender differences. The sample comprised 71 PGs and 37 healthy controls. Anger, psychopathology and personality were assessed with the STAXI-2, SCL-90-R and TCI-R respectively. Gender did not affect anger expression after stratifying by diagnostic condition (p > .05). Among PG patients, anger, psychopathology and personality measures were correlated with good effect-size (r > .30). Scores in the Anger Temperament (B = 0.21, p = .038) and Anger External-Expression (B = 0.27, p = .029) scales were positively associated with PG severity scores. Anger expression in PG should be considered in future treatment programs. PMID:25011386

Aymamí, Neus; Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Krug, Isabel; Gunnard, Katarina; Santamaría, Juan José; Bueno, Blanca; Jaurrieta, Nuria; Gómez-Peńa, Mónica; Álvarez-Moya, Eva; Claes, Laurence; Fagundo, Ana Beatriz; Menchón, José Manuel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

2014-01-01

105

Book review of quit compulsive gambling: The action plan for gamblers and their families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gordon Moody's 15 chapter book is a very personalized, and in places autobiographical, account of the impact of compulsive gambling on both the gambler and his\\/her family. It is not only a self-help book aimed at compulsive gamblers but is also aimed at their families and friends, and for members of the caring professions and agencies. Chapter 1 examines \\

Mark Griffiths

1991-01-01

106

Personality Pathology of Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder Without Accompanying Intellectual Impairment in Comparison to Adults With Personality Disorders.  

PubMed

Differentiating autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) without accompanying intellectual impairment from personality disorders is often challenging. Identifying personality traits and personality pathology specific to ASD might facilitate diagnostic procedure. We recruited a sample of 59 adults with ASD without accompanying intellectual impairment, 62 individuals with narcissistic personality disorder, 80 individuals with borderline personality disorder, and 106 nonclinical controls. Personality traits, measured with the neo-personality inventory-revised (NEO-PI-R), and personality pathology, measured with the dimensional assessment of personality pathology (DAPP-BQ), were assessed. Personality traits and personality pathology specific to ASD could be identified. ASD individuals scored significantly lower on the NEO-PI-R scales extraversion and openness to experience and significantly higher on the DAPP-BQ scales inhibitedness and compulsivity relative to all other groups. Diagnostic implications are discussed. PMID:25022250

Strunz, Sandra; Westphal, Linda; Ritter, Kathrin; Heuser, Isabella; Dziobek, Isabel; Roepke, Stefan

2014-07-15

107

Development of an Indigenous Inventory GMAB (Gambling Motives, Attitudes and Behaviors) for Chinese Gamblers: An Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scale development in the extant gambling literature has been dominated by pathological gamblers, but the non- or sub-clinical\\u000a gamblers have been overlooked. Moreover, most scales are predominantly based on Western samples; only a few of the scales\\u000a have Chinese versions validated with Chinese samples. A rarely explored niche still exists for the development of an indigenous\\u000a scale for Chinese gamblers.

Vivienne Y. K. TaoAnise; Anise M. S. Wu; Shu Fai Cheung; Kwok Kit Tong

2011-01-01

108

The Gambler's Ruin Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet allows you to experience the fate of a gambler by simulating the whole gambling session in a matter of seconds. The applet plots the successive rises and falls of the capital during the whole duration of the game. It also displays the maximum and minimum values attained by the capital during the session and allows you to get precise information (by clicking at a point of the histogram) of the amount of capital after that particular bet.

Garsia, A.M.

109

The Hierarchical Structure of DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits  

PubMed Central

A multidimensional trait system has been proposed for representing personality disorder (PD) features in DSM-5 to address problematic classification issues such as comorbidity. In this model, which may also assist in providing scaffolding for the underlying structure of major forms of psychopathology more generally, 25 primary traits are organized by 5 higher order dimensions: Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism. We examined a) the generalizability of the structure proposed for DSM-5 PD traits and b) the potential for an integrative hierarchy based upon DSM-5 PD traits to represent the dimensions scaffolding psychopathology more generally. A large sample of student participants (N=2,461) completed the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, which operationalizes the DSM-5 traits. Exploratory factor analysis replicated the initially reported five-factor structure as indicated by high factor congruencies. The two-, three-, and four- factor solutions estimated in the hierarchy of the DSM-5 traits bear close resemblance to existing models of common mental disorders, temperament, and personality pathology. Thus, beyond the description of individual differences in personality disorder, the trait dimensions might provide a framework for the metastructure of psychopathology in the DSM-5 and the integration of a number of ostensibly competing models of personality trait covariation. PMID:22448740

Wright, Aidan G.C.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Markon, Kristian E.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Krueger, Robert F.

2012-01-01

110

The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome With Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect of personality pathology on time to remission of patients randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment strategies for depression and to determine whether personality pathology moderated the effect of treatment assignment on outcome. Method Individuals undergoing an episode of unipolar major depression (n = 275) received interpersonal psychotherapy (Klerman, Weissman, Rounsaville, & Chevron, 1984) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) pharmacotherapy for depression. Depressive symptoms were measured with the HRSD-17. Remission was a mean HRSD-17 score of 7 or below over a period of 3 weeks. Personality disorders were measured according to SCID-II diagnoses, and personality pathology was measured dimensionally by summing the positive probes on the SCID-II. Results The presence of at least 1 personality disorder was not a significant predictor of time to remission, but a higher level of dimensionally measured personality pathology and the presence of borderline personality disorder were associated with a longer time to remission. Personality pathology did not moderate the effect of treatment assignment on time to remission. Conclusions The findings suggest that depressed individuals with comorbid personality pathology generally fare worse in treatment for depression, although in this report, the effect of personality pathology did not differ by the type of treatment received. PMID:22823857

Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

2012-01-01

111

Manipulating Slot Machine Preference in Problem Gamblers through Contextual Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pathological and nonpathological gamblers completed a task that assessed preference among 2 concurrently available slot machines. Subsequent assessments of choice were conducted after various attempts to transfer contextual functions associated with irrelevant characteristics of the slot machines. Results indicated that the nonproblem gambling…

Nastally, Becky L.; Dixon, Mark R.; Jackson, James W.

2010-01-01

112

The development of pathological gambling in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and the social, psychological and cultural conditions of pathological gambling reported by 42 interviewed pathological gamblers were compared with data from 63 pathological gamblers identified by case-finding. The two studies gave similar results. Gambling on horse races, roulette and bingo were the only types showing a progressive increase in involvement over time. When gambling heavily 40% of the

Cecilia Bergh; Eckart Kiihlhorn

1994-01-01

113

The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect…

Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

2012-01-01

114

The facets of identity: Personality pathology assessment through the Inventory of Personality Organization.  

PubMed

This work aims to further validate the object-relations-based model of personality pathology assessment, evaluating the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO), a self-report instrument for the assessment of personality organization according to O. Kernberg's model of personality pathology. Six hundred ninety-six nonclinical volunteers and 121 psychiatric patients completed a set of questionnaires including the IPO, the Severity Indices of Personality Problems, the Borderline Personality Disorder Checklist, the Response Evaluation Measure 71, and the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. Confirmatory factor-analyses on the IPO items supported the 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-factor solutions. The last (Instability of sense of self/others, Instability of goals, Instability of behaviors, Psychosis) resulted in relatively better fit indexes. Invariance across samples (nonclinical, clinical) and gender was confirmed. The 4 IPO subscales showed good levels of internal coherence and, in the nonclinical sample, good test-retest reliability. Associations with the convergent measures were in line with theoretical expectations and supported the benefit of adopting a 4-factor solution. The 4 factors showed the expected criterion relations: All the dimensions discriminated between clinical and nonclinical subjects, whereas only Instability of self/others and Instability of goals discriminated patients with borderline personality disorder from patients with other diagnoses. Our results suggest that the Italian version of the IPO is a reliable and valid tool for the assessment of personality organization according to Kernberg's model. Results are discussed in the context of the current directions in the evaluation of personality disorders proposed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25867838

Preti, Emanuele; Prunas, Antonio; De Panfilis, Chiara; Marchesi, Carlo; Madeddu, Fabio; Clarkin, John F

2015-04-01

115

A comparison of university student and community gamblers: Motivations, impulsivity, and gambling cognitions  

PubMed Central

Background and aims: The present study tested whether the associations among motivational, cognitive, and personality correlates of problem gambling severity differed across university student gamblers (n = 123) and gamblers in the general adult community (n = 113). Methods: The participants completed a survey that included standardized measures of gambling motivation, gambling related cognitions, and impulsivity. The survey also asked participants to report the forms of gambling in which they engaged to test whether gambling involvement (number of different forms of gambling) was related to problem gambling severity. After completing the survey, participants played roulette online to examine whether betting patterns adhered to the gambler’s fallacy. Results: Gambling involvement was significantly related to problem gambling severity for the community sample but not for the student sample. A logistic regression analysis that tested the involvement, motivation, impulsivity and cognitive correlates showed that money motivation and gambling related cognitions were the only significant independent predictors of gambling severity. Adherence to the gambler’s fallacy was stronger for students than for the community sample, and was associated with gambling related cognitions. Discussion: The motivational, impulsivity and cognitive, and correlates of problem gambling function similarly in university student gamblers and in gamblers from the general adult community. Interventions for both groups should focus on the financial and cognitive supports of problem gambling. PMID:25215214

Marmurek, Harvey H. C.; Switzer, Jessica; D’Alvise, Joshua

2014-01-01

116

Self-Other Knowledge Asymmetries in Personality Pathology  

PubMed Central

Objective Self-reports of personality provide valid information about personality disorders (PDs). However, informant-reports provide information about PDs that self-reports alone do not provide. The current paper examines if and when one perspective is more valid than the other in identifying PDs. Method Using a representative sample of adults 55 to 65 year of age (N = 991; 45% males), we compared the validity of self- and informant- (e.g., spouse, family, or friend) reports of the FFM traits in predicting PD scores (i.e., composite of interviewer, self-, and informant-reports of PDs). Results Self-reports (particularly of neuroticism) were more valid than informant-reports for most internalizing PDs (i.e., PDs defined by high neuroticism). Informant-reports (particularly of agreeableness and conscientiousness) were more valid than self-reports for externalizing and/or antagonistic PDs (i.e., PDs defined by low agreeableness, conscientiousness). Neither report was consistently more valid for thought disorder PDs (i.e., PDs defined by low extraversion). However, informant-reports (particularly of agreeableness) were more valid than self-reports for PDs that were both internalizing and externalizing (i.e., PDs defined by high neuroticism and low agreeableness). Conclusions The intrapersonal and interpersonal manifestations of PDs differ, and these differences influence who knows more about pathology. PMID:22583054

Carlson, Erika N.; Vazire, Simine; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2012-01-01

117

Assessment of problematic internet use by the Compulsive Internet Use Scale and the Internet Addiction Test: a sample of problematic and pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

This study aims to analyze psychometric properties and validity of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) and the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and, second, to determine a threshold for the CIUS which matches the IAT cut-off for detecting problematic Internet use. A total of 292 subjects with problematic or pathological gambling (237 men, 55 women) aged 14-63 years and with private Internet use for at least 1 h per working or weekend day were recruited via different recruitment channels. Results include that both scales were internally consistent (Cronbach's ?=0.9) and had satisfactory convergent validity (r=0.75; 95% CI 0.70-0.80). The correlation with duration of private Internet use per week was significantly higher for the CIUS (r=0.54) compared to the IAT (r=0.40). Among all participants, 25.3% were classified as problematic Internet users based on the IAT with a cut-off?40. The highest proportion of congruent classified cases results from a CIUS cut-off ?18 (sensitivity 79.7%, specificity 79.4%). However, a higher cut-off (?21) seems to be more appropriate for prevalence estimation of problematic Internet use. PMID:24080838

Guertler, Diana; Rumpf, Hans-Juergen; Bischof, Anja; Kastirke, Nadin; Petersen, Kay Uwe; John, Ulrich; Meyer, Christian

2014-01-01

118

Roulette gamblers and gamblers at electronic game machines: Where are the differences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an unselected group of 46 excessive gamblers who came for psychiatric help or for an expert opinion on legal responsibility, two different groups of gamblers are compared: roulette gamblers and those who played at German-style slot machines. In all excessive gamblers, childhood developmental limitations as well as disorders in the ability to form and maintain partner relationships in later

Hans-Ludwig Kroeber

1992-01-01

119

How Useful Are Indices of Personality Pathology when Assessing Domestic Violence Perpetrators?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been considerable debate about profiling personality pathology when assessing and treating male perpetrators of domestic violence (DV). This study used the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) to explore the severity and diversity of male perpetrator personality pathology and response bias in a group of DV perpetrators being…

Gibbons, Peter; Collins, Marjorie; Reid, Corinne

2011-01-01

120

Altering the DSM-III criteria for pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a critique and revision of the diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling in DSM-III, a field trial of the revised criteria was conducted. Four groups of individuals (762 in all) were surveyed: Gamblers Anonymous members, college students, hospital employees, and outpatients in treatment for pathological gambling. The revised criteria were found to discriminate effectively between pathological gamblers and others. In

Henry R. Lesieur

1988-01-01

121

Social, psychological and physical consequences of pathological gambling in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social, psychological and physical consequences of pathological gambling reported by 42 pathological gamblers recruited mainly by advertising were compared with data on 63 pathological gamblers identified by case-finding within districts of probation, in- and out-patient psychiatric care and social welfare authorities. The two studies gave similar results. Financial breakdown, impaired relations with family and friends, and psychological problems occurred in

Cecilia Bergh; Eckart Kfihlhorn

1994-01-01

122

Clinical and behavioral evaluation of pathological gambling in Barcelona, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses both the clinical characteristics and gambling behavior of 45 pathological gamblers (40 male, 5 female, average age 41) in a psychiatric hospital in Barcelona, Spain. These pathological gamblers tend to have other addictions and psychiatric disorders in addition to their pathological gambling. Suicidal ideation and attempts were one of the most frequent complications with these patients. Slot

Angels Gonzŕlez Ibŕńez; Pilar V. Mercadé; Ma Neus Aymamí Sanromŕ; Carolina Pastor Cordero

1992-01-01

123

Clinical Features of Pathological Gambling in an Addictions Treatment Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the prevalence and descriptive psychopathology of pathological gambling in a heterogeneous treatment sample of 372 substance users. About 14% of male participants and 10% of female participants were identified as presumptive pathological gamblers (PGs) on the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). The authors contrasted 49 PGs with 323 participants who were not pathological gamblers (NPGs) on a

James Langenbucher; Lawrence Bavly; Erich Labouvie; Pilar M. Sanjuan; Christopher S. Martin

2001-01-01

124

Identifying personality pathology associated with major depressive episodes: incremental validity of informant reports.  

PubMed

Major limitations are associated with the use of a single source of information to assess personality pathology. The construct validity of standardized interviews and informant reports on personality pathology has been established relative to other measures of personality pathology, but it is also important to consider these measures in relation to other constructs that should be related to personality pathology. One example is major depression. In this study, we evaluated whether less common clinical methods of assessment for measuring the same personality pathology constructs, including semistructured interviews and informant reports, demonstrate unique validity, using major depressive episode (MDE) as the external criterion. This analysis focuses on a representative, community-based sample of 1,437 participants and informants. We conducted a hierarchical logistic regression analysis and determined the order of entering the predictor variables based on likelihood of being used in a clinical setting as well as empirical recommendations. Each step of our regression model significantly increased our ability to predict lifetime MDE, including self, interviewer, and informant reports of personality pathology. Overall, these findings indicate that multiple sources of personality assessment provide unique information about the relationship between maladaptive personality traits and a history of MDE. Thus, semistructured diagnostic interviews and informant reports can be used as a resource to improve the validity of personality assessments. PMID:24004355

Galione, Janine N; Oltmanns, Thomas F

2013-01-01

125

Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

Lee, Bonnie K.

2009-01-01

126

Pathological personality traits can capture DSM-IV personality disorder types.  

PubMed

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) includes an alternative diagnostic approach to the assessment of personality disorders (PDs) in Section III with the aim of stimulating further research. Diagnosis of a PD using this approach is predicated on the presence of personality impairment and pathological personality traits. The types of traits present (e.g., callousness vs. emotional lability) are used to derive DSM-IV PD scores. Concerns have been raised, however, that such a trait-based approach will yield PD constructs that differ substantially from those generated using the approaches articulated in previous iterations of the DSM. We empirically examined this issue in a sample of 109 adults who were currently receiving mental health treatment. More specifically, we examined the correlations between interview-based PD scores derived from DSM-IV to DSM-5 PD trait counts, and tested them in relation to the 30 specific facets of the five-factor model, as well as internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Overall, the DSM-IV PD scores and DSM-5 PD trait counts correlated significantly with one another (Mr = .63), demonstrated similar patterns of interrelations among the PDs, and manifested highly similar patterns of correlations with general personality traits and symptoms of psychopathology. These results indicate that the DSM-5 PD trait counts specified in the alternative DSM-5 PD diagnostic approach capture the same constructs as those measured using the more traditional DSM-IV diagnostic system. PMID:24512456

Miller, Joshua D; Few, Lauren R; Lynam, Donald R; MacKillop, James

2015-01-01

127

Level of Agreement between Self and Spouse in the Assessment of Personality Pathology  

PubMed Central

Informant reports can provide important information regarding the presence of pathological personality traits, and they can serve as useful supplements to self-report instruments. Ratings from a spouse may be a particularly valuable source of personality assessment because spouses are very well acquainted with the target person, have typically known the person for a long time, and witness behaviors across a variety of situations. In the current study, self- and spouse report measures based on the DSM-IV personality disorder criteria were collected from a non-clinical sample of 82 couples (N=164). Agreement between self- and spouse report for several pathological personality factors was significant and somewhat higher than has been found for self- and peer agreement. Nevertheless, the magnitude of self-spouse agreement was still moderate in size (Mean r=.36). Findings are discussed with regard to utilizing spouse-report in the assessment of personality pathology. PMID:21220382

South, Susan C.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Johnson, Jarrod; Turkheimer, Eric

2011-01-01

128

Level of Agreement between Self and Spouse in the Assessment of Personality Pathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Informant reports can provide important information regarding the presence of pathological personality traits, and they can serve as useful supplements to self-report instruments. Ratings from a spouse may be a particularly valuable source of personality assessment because spouses are very well acquainted with the target person, have typically…

South, Susan C.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Johnson, Jarrod; Turkheimer, Eric

2011-01-01

129

A pathological or a compulsive gambler?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of the behavior completion model of compulsive behaviors and the imaginal desensitization therapy based on it is outlined. A case history is reported of a 65 year old woman who considered she was gambling out of control on slot machines and suffered from resultant guilt and depression. Following a week's treatment with imaginal desensitization she regained control. After an

Nathaniel McConaghy

1991-01-01

130

THE IMPACT OF PERSONALITY PATHOLOGY ON TREATMENT RESPONSE TO THERAPEUTIC LIFESTYLE CHANGE (TLC) FOR DEPRESSION  

E-print Network

association between Axis II pathology and treatment adherence was observed. It is possible that certain features of TLC, such as its highly structured approach, may facilitate adherence among personality-disordered patients. Nevertheless, despite similar...

Hirani, Amyn

2007-08-07

131

Impaired Decision Making is Associated with Poor Inhibition Control in Nonpathological Lottery Gamblers.  

PubMed

Previous studies by questionnaires have demonstrated that lottery gamblers who have not meet the criteria of pathological gambler show greater gambling acceptability. However, few empirical evidence of whether such nonpathological lottery gamblers (NPLGs) display the same impairments of decision making with pathological gamblers has been found so far. In present study, NPLGs and matched controls (MCs) were asked to perform the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and inter-temporal choice task (ICT). We found that compared to MCs, NPLGs displayed much lower IGT scores, net gains and proportions of advantageous decks in the IGT task and much higher percentages of trials during which smaller-but-sooner rewards were chosen in the ICT. These findings indicate that NPLGs display much more risky and impulsive decision makings, just like pathological gamblers in the previous studies. Next, the Go/NoGo task was employed to explore the role of response inhibition in the impairment of decision making in NPLGs. We found that NPLGs did show much higher commission errors compared to MCs. Moreover, IGT scores, net gain and proportions of advantageous decks were significantly negatively correlated with commission errors, which indicates that poor response inhibition might be involved in the impairments of decision making in NPLGs. To our knowledge, we provided the first empirical evidence of impairment of decision making and its cognitive mechanisms in NPLGs. PMID:25348253

Hong, Xiaolong; Zheng, Lili; Li, Xianchun

2014-10-28

132

Interpersonal Perception and Pathological Personality Features: Consistency Across Peer Groups  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the consistency of interpersonal perceptions regarding people who exhibit features of personality disorders. The participants (N=82) were college students who were assessed for features of personality disorders, using both self-report and peer nominations at Time 1. Two years later, participants attended four meetings in groups of 7 to 12 people for a total of 2 hours. Group discussions were designed to encourage interaction and give participants an opportunity to behave in ways that might be expected from people with personality problems. After Meetings 1 and 4, group members ranked their impressions of each other with regard to several personality traits and behavioral attributes. We observed important consistencies between the peer nominations collected at Time 1 and personality rankings made by a different peer group at Time 2. There was considerable convergence between personality disorder features and negative evaluations by others, with participants high in detachment eliciting the most negative reactions from peers in the lab. PMID:15854010

South, Susan C.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Turkheimer, Eric

2015-01-01

133

Dimensions of personality pathology in adolescents: psychometric properties of the DAPP-BQ-A.  

PubMed

This study aimed to contribute to the dimensional approach to personality pathology by addressing the applicability of a personality pathology questionnaire, originally developed for adults, in adolescent samples. The psychometric properties of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire for Adolescents (DAPP-BQ-A) were studied in two samples including 170 adolescents referred for mental health services and 1,628 nonreferred adolescents, respectively. Factor analysis resulted in a strong replication of the original structure, retaining four factors (Emotional Dysregulation, Dissocial Behavior, Inhibitedness, and Compulsivity), which could be further organized into a two-dimensional structure with factors identifiable as Internalizing and Externalizing, suggesting a possible link between personality and psychopathology. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability proved to be satisfactory for all lower-order dimensions, with the exception of Intimacy Problems. Several of these dimensions showed considerable promise in differentiating nonreferred adolescents, referred adolescents without and referred adolescents with a personality disorder. The present findings underscore the need for a developmental perspective on personality pathology. Promising aspects of the dimensional approach to personality pathology in adolescence are discussed. PMID:19072681

Tromp, Noor B; Koot, Hans M

2008-12-01

134

An Interpersonal Analysis of Pathological Personality Traits in "DSM-5"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proposed changes to the personality disorder section of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (5th ed.) places an increased focus on interpersonal impairment as one of the defining features of personality psychopathology. In addition, a proposed trait model has been offered to provide a means of capturing phenotypic…

Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.

2012-01-01

135

Multiple Personality and the Pathological Dissociation of Self.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the condition of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), which is defined as a separation of alternating personalities by rigid boundaries and amnestic barriers. It is proposed that MPD represents the end of a continuum of a defensive dissociation of the self that can result when a child employs a dissociative splitting of self…

Price, Reese E.

136

Opioidergic and dopaminergic manipulation of gambling tendencies: a preliminary study in male recreational gamblers.  

PubMed

Gambling is characterized by cognitive distortions in the processing of chance and skill that are exacerbated in pathological gambling. Opioid and dopamine dysregulation is implicated in pathological gambling, but it is unclear whether these neurotransmitters modulate gambling distortions. The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol on gambling behavior. Male recreational gamblers (n = 62) were assigned to receive single oral doses of naltrexone 50 mg, haloperidol 2 mg or placebo, in a parallel-groups design. At 2.5 h post-dosing, participants completed a slot machine task to elicit monetary wins, "near-misses," and a manipulation of personal choice, and a roulette game to elicit two biases in sequential processing, the gambler's fallacy and the hot hand belief. Psychophysiological responses (electrodermal activity and heart rate) were taken during the slot machine task, and plasma prolactin increase was assessed. The tasks successfully induced the gambling effects of interest. Some of these effects differed across treatment groups, although the direction of effect was not in line with our predictions. Differences were driven by the naltrexone group, which displayed a greater physiological response to wins, and marginally higher confidence ratings on winning streaks. Prolactin levels increased in the naltrexone group, but did not differ between haloperidol and placebo, implying that naltrexone but not haloperidol may have been functionally active at these doses. Our results support opioid modulation of cognition during gambling-like tasks, but did not support the more specific hypothesis that naltrexone may act to ameliorate cognitive distortions. PMID:24109443

Porchet, Roseline I; Boekhoudt, Linde; Studer, Bettina; Gandamaneni, Praveen K; Rani, Nisha; Binnamangala, Somashekar; Müller, Ulrich; Clark, Luke

2013-01-01

137

Opioidergic and dopaminergic manipulation of gambling tendencies: a preliminary study in male recreational gamblers  

PubMed Central

Gambling is characterized by cognitive distortions in the processing of chance and skill that are exacerbated in pathological gambling. Opioid and dopamine dysregulation is implicated in pathological gambling, but it is unclear whether these neurotransmitters modulate gambling distortions. The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol on gambling behavior. Male recreational gamblers (n = 62) were assigned to receive single oral doses of naltrexone 50 mg, haloperidol 2 mg or placebo, in a parallel-groups design. At 2.5 h post-dosing, participants completed a slot machine task to elicit monetary wins, “near-misses,” and a manipulation of personal choice, and a roulette game to elicit two biases in sequential processing, the gambler's fallacy and the hot hand belief. Psychophysiological responses (electrodermal activity and heart rate) were taken during the slot machine task, and plasma prolactin increase was assessed. The tasks successfully induced the gambling effects of interest. Some of these effects differed across treatment groups, although the direction of effect was not in line with our predictions. Differences were driven by the naltrexone group, which displayed a greater physiological response to wins, and marginally higher confidence ratings on winning streaks. Prolactin levels increased in the naltrexone group, but did not differ between haloperidol and placebo, implying that naltrexone but not haloperidol may have been functionally active at these doses. Our results support opioid modulation of cognition during gambling-like tasks, but did not support the more specific hypothesis that naltrexone may act to ameliorate cognitive distortions. PMID:24109443

Porchet, Roseline I.; Boekhoudt, Linde; Studer, Bettina; Gandamaneni, Praveen K.; Rani, Nisha; Binnamangala, Somashekar; Müller, Ulrich; Clark, Luke

2013-01-01

138

The relationship between personality pathology and dysfunctional cognitions in previously depressed adults.  

PubMed

Multivariate and univariate regression models were used to examine the relationship between Axis II personality pathology and dysfunctional cognitions in a follow-up study of 40 formerly depressed inpatients. A dimensionalized measure of overall Axis II pathology was significantly and positively related to dysfunctional attitudes (Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale [DAS]) and maladaptive negative event attributions (Attributional Style Questionnaire-Negative Composite [ASQ-N]); the Axis II measure accounted for approximately 29% of the variance in DAS and 14% of the variance in ASQ-N, after controlling statistically for subsyndromal depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]). Axis II pathology was not significantly associated with positive event attributions, and no significant Axis II x BDI interaction effects were observed. A secondary canonical analysis of Axis II clusters was largely consistent with a hypothesized general personality pathology factor associated with dysfunctional cognitions, though a more specific association between Axis II Cluster C pathology and dysfunctional attitudes was also observed. PMID:10066992

Ilardi, S S; Craighead, W E

1999-02-01

139

A century of pathology at Yale: personal reflections.  

PubMed Central

This history is largely about the players on the stage of the Yale Pathology Department acting out their roles as observed by the author in over a half century as a member of the department and as associate dean of the medical school. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10527367

Yesner, R.

1998-01-01

140

Borderline personality pathology and insomnia symptoms in community-dwelling older adults  

PubMed Central

Prior research has associated BPD with sleep problems, but the relationship has been explored primarily in small clinical samples of younger adults. Findings from our lab have demonstrated that borderline symptoms remain present in later middle age and are associated with several negative life outcomes. A representative community sample of older adults (N = 633, Mage = 62.3) was obtained from the St Louis area, and interviewer-reports, self-reports, and informant-reports of personality pathology were completed along with an insomnia symptoms questionnaire. Cross-sectional analyses revealed that symptoms from all 10 DSM-IV personality disorders were significantly correlated with insomnia symptoms. However, after statistically controlling for major depression, body-mass index, race and gender, only borderline personality pathology remained significantly associated with insomnia symptoms. Our results demonstrate that in addition to other negative health outcomes, borderline personality pathology is uniquely associated with sleep problems in later middle-aged adults in the community. PMID:24574136

Oltmanns, Joshua R.; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2015-01-01

141

Integrating oddity traits in a dimensional model for personality pathology precursors.  

PubMed

Current dimensional measures of early personality pathology (e.g., the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool, DIPSI; De Clercq, De Fruyt, Van Leeuwen, & Mervielde, 2006) describe personality difficulties within a 4-dimensional framework. The present study corroborates recent evidence on the relevance of including a 5th Oddity-related domain for a more comprehensive description of personality pathology, and presents the construction of an empirically based taxonomy of early Oddity features. Psychometric and factor analytic procedures were conducted on self- and maternal ratings of adolescents (N = 434), resulting in 4 internally consistent facets that empirically collapse in 1 higher-order "Oddity" factor. From a structural perspective, this Oddity factor emerged as a clear 5th factor beyond the earlier proposed 4-dimensional structure of child and adolescent personality pathology. Significant associations of Oddity with both general and maladaptive trait equivalents support the construct validity of this 5th factor, and challenge current hypotheses on the applicability of the continuity hypothesis on general and maladaptive trait variance within the openness field. The results further suggest that Oddity traits are meaningfully associated with general psychopathology at a young age. These findings are discussed in terms of the importance of including a 5th Oddity-related factor in dimensional models of developmental personality pathology in order to acquire a more comprehensive description of the building blocks that underlie early personality difficulties. PMID:24933279

Verbeke, Lize; De Clercq, Barbara

2014-08-01

142

An Interpersonal Analysis of Pathological Personality Traits in DSM-5  

PubMed Central

The proposed changes to the personality disorder section of the DSM-5 places an increased focus on interpersonal impairment as one of the defining features of personality psychopathology. In addition, a proposed trait model has been offered to provide a means of capturing phenotypic variation on the expression of personality disorder. In this study, we subject the proposed DSM-5 traits to interpersonal analysis using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems – Circumplex scales via the structural summary method for circumplex data. DSM-5 traits were consistently associated with generalized interpersonal dysfunction suggesting that they are maladaptive in nature, the majority of traits demonstrated discriminant validity with prototypical and differentiated interpersonal problem profiles, and conformed well to a priori hypothesized associations. These results are discussed in the context of the DSM-5 proposal and contemporary interpersonal theory, with a particular focus on potential areas for expansion of the DSM-5 trait model. PMID:22589411

Wright, Aidan G.C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.

2012-01-01

143

Gamblers seeking treatment: Who does and who doesn’t?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background and aims: As only a minority of pathological gamblers (PGr) presents for treatment, further knowledge about help-seeking behavior is required in order to enhance treatment utilization. The present study investigated factors associated with treatment participation in gamblers in Germany. As subclinical pathological gamblers (SPGr, fulfilling one to four DSM-IV-criteria) are target of early intervention due to high risk of transition to pathological gambling, they were subject of special interest. Methods: The study analyzed data from a general population survey (n = 234, SPGr: n = 198, PGr: n = 36) and a treatment study (n = 329, SPGr: n = 22, PGr: n = 307). A two-step weighting procedure was applied to ensure comparability of samples. Investigated factors included socio-demographic variables, gambling behavior, symptoms of pathological gambling and substance use. Results: In PGr, regular employment and non-German nationality were positively associated with being in treatment while gambling on the Internet and gaming machines and fulfilling more DSM-IV-criteria lowered the odds. In SPGr, treatment attendance was negatively associated with married status and alcohol consumption and positively associated with older age, higher stakes, more fulfilled DSM-IV criteria and regular smoking. Conclusions: In accordance to expectations more severe gambling problems and higher problem awareness and/or external pressure might facilitate treatment entry. There are groups with lower chances of being in treatment: women, ethnic minorities, and SPGr. We propose target group specific offers, use of Internet-based methods as possible adaptions and/or extensions of treatment offers that could enhance treatment attendance. PMID:25317343

BRAUN, BARBARA; LUDWIG, MONIKA; SLECZKA, PAWEL; BÜHRINGER, GERHARD; KRAUS, LUDWIG

2014-01-01

144

Preoccupied Attachment and Emotional Dysregulation: Specific Aspects of Borderline Personality Disorder or General Dimensions of Personality Pathology?  

PubMed Central

Emotional dysregulation and impaired attachment are seen by many clinical researchers as central aspects of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Alternatively, these constructs may represent general impairments in personality that are nonspecific to BPD. Using multitrait-multimethod models, we examined the strength of associations among preoccupied attachment, difficulties with emotion regulation, BPD features, and features of two other personality disorders (i.e., antisocial and avoidant) in a combined psychiatric outpatient and community sample of adults. Results suggested that preoccupied attachment and difficulties with emotion regulation shared strong positive associations with each other and with each of the selected personality disorders. However, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation were more strongly related to BPD features than to features of other personality disorders. Our findings suggest that although impairments in relational and emotional domains may underlie personality pathology in general, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation also have specificity for understanding core difficulties in those with BPD. PMID:23586934

Scott, Lori N.; Kim, Yookyung; Nolf, Kimberly A.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

2013-01-01

145

The Joint Hierarchical Structure of Adolescent Personality Pathology: Converging Evidence from Two Approaches to Measurement  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the joint hierarchical structure of two measures of adolescent personality pathology within a community sample of Canadian adolescents. Method: Self-reported data on demographic information and pathological personality traits were obtained from 144 youth (Mage = 16.08 years, SD = 1.30). Personality pathology was measured using the youth-version of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP-Y; Linde, Stringer, Simms, & Clark, in press) and the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI; De Clercq, De Fruyt, Van Leeuwen, & Mervielde, 2006). Lower-order scales were subjected to structural hierarchical analyses. Results: Scales from the two measures were complementary in defining higher-order traits. Traits at the 4-factor level of the hierarchy (Need for Approval, Disagreeableness, Detachment, and Compulsivity) showed similarities and differences with previous results in adults. Conclusions: The current investigation integrated top-down and bottom-up measures for a comprehensive account of the higher-order hierarchy of adolescent personality pathology. Results are discussed in the context of convergence across approaches and in comparison with previous findings in adult samples. PMID:23970908

Kushner, Shauna C.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; De Clercq, Barbara

2013-01-01

146

Three-Pronged Assessment and Diagnosis of Personality Disorder and its Consequences: Personality Functioning, Pathological Traits, and Psychosocial Disability  

PubMed Central

The alternative dimensional model of personality disorder (PD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), Section III, has two main criteria: Impairment in personality functioning and one or more pathological personality traits. The former is defined as disturbances in self functioning (viz., identity, self-direction), and/or interpersonal functioning (viz., empathy, intimacy). Distinguishing personality functioning and traits is important conceptually, because simply having extreme traits is not necessarily pathological. However, adding personality functioning to PD diagnosis represents an empirical challenge, because the constructs overlap conceptually. Further, there is debate regarding whether diagnosis of mental disorder requires either distress or disability, concepts that also overlap with maladaptive-range personality traits and personality dysfunction. We investigated interrelations among these constructs using multiple self-report measures of each domain in a mixed community-patient sample (N = 402). We examined the structures of functioning (psychosocial disability and personality), and personality traits, first independently, then jointly. The disability/functioning measures yielded the three dimensions we have found previously (Ro & Clark, 2013). Trait measures had a hierarchical structure which, at the five-factor level, reflected neuroticism/negative affectivity (N/NA), (low) sociability, disinhibition, (dis)agreeableness, and rigid goal engagement. When all measures were co-factored, a hierarchical structure again emerged which, at the five-factor level, included (1) internalizing (N/NA and self-pathology vs. quality-of-life/satisfaction), (2) externalizing (social/interpersonal dysfunction, low sociability, and disagreeableness), (3) disinhibition, (4) poor basic functioning, and (5) rigid goal engagement. Results are discussed in terms of developing an integrated PD diagnostic model. PMID:24588062

Clark, Lee Anna; Ro, Eunyoe

2014-01-01

147

The Relationship Between Personality Pathology and Dysfunctional Cognitions in Previously Depressed Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate and univariate regression models were used to examine the relationship between Axis II personality pathology and dysfunctional cognitions in a follow-up study of 40 formerly depressed inpatients. A dimensionalized measure of overall Axis II pathology was significantly and positively related to dysfunctional attitudes (Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale [DAS]) and maladaptive negative event attributions (Attributional Style Questionnaire–Negative Composite [ASQ-N]); the Axis

Stephen S. Ilardi; W. Edward Craighead

1999-01-01

148

Impulsivity mediates the association between borderline personality pathology and body mass index  

PubMed Central

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with obesity, a major risk factor for a number of chronic illnesses (e.g., cardiovascular disease). We examined whether impulsivity and affective instability mediate the association between BPD pathology and body mass index (BMI). Participants were a community sample of adults ages 55–64 and their informants. The Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality measured BPD symptoms and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory measured self- and informant-report impulsivity and affective instability. Mediation analyses demonstrated that only higher self-report impulsivity significantly mediated the association between greater BPD pathology and higher BMI. A subsequent model revealed that higher scores on the impulsiveness (lack of inhibitory control) and deliberation (planning) facets of impulsivity mediated the BPD–BMI association, with impulsiveness exerting a stronger mediation effect than deliberation. Obesity interventions that improve inhibitory control may be most effective for individuals with BPD pathology. PMID:24505165

Iacovino, Juliette M.; Powers, Abigail D.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2013-01-01

149

Self- and parent report of adolescent personality pathology: informant agreement and relations to dysfunction.  

PubMed

Assessment of personality pathology relies heavily on self-report, although it has been argued that proxy report may contribute valuable information. The present study examined reports of adolescents and parents on dimensions of adolescent personality pathology, as assessed by the DAPP-BQ-A, and their relations to clinician-reported dysfunction in a sample of 110 youngsters referred to mental health services. Adolescent and parent reports showed moderate agreement (mean ICC = .45). However, regression analyses controlling for Axis I psychopathology indicated that both adolescent- and parent-reported dimensions uniquely contributed to variance in dysfunction. Analysis of the multi-trait-multi-informant correlation matrix supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the DAPP-BQ-A. Applying a multi-informant approach in the assessment of adolescent personality pathology using the DAPP-BQ-A may improve decision making on diagnostic and intervention issues. PMID:20420473

Tromp, Noor B; Koot, Hans M

2010-04-01

150

Insurance problems and pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of 241 members of Gamblers Anonymous was conducted in order to find out the impact of pathological gambling on the insurance industry and whether Gamblers Anonymous reverses that impact. Fifty-two percent of the respondents cashed in, surrendered, lapsed or had policies revoked for non-payment. Forty-six percent borrowed on or used the cash value of their life insurance policies

Henry R. Lesieur; Kenneth Puig

1987-01-01

151

The hierarchical structure of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP-BQ).  

PubMed

Hierarchical personality models have the potential to identify common and specific components of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs), and may offer a solution for the re-tooling of personality pathology in future versions of the DSM. In this paper, we examined the hierarchical structure of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ; Livesley & Jackson, 2009) and the capacity of various trait components at different levels to predict DSM-IV PD symptoms. Participants were 275 psychiatric outpatients and 365 undergraduate students. Goldberg's (2006) bass-ackwards method was used to investigate the hierarchical structure of the DAPP-BQ. The predictive capacity of hierarchy components was assessed. We found that Level 5 of the hierarchy enhanced the capacity of the DAPP-BQ for predicting DSM PD symptoms beyond a four-factor structure, particularly for borderline PD. PMID:21838565

Kushner, Shauna C; Quilty, Lena C; Tackett, Jennifer L; Bagby, R Michael

2011-08-01

152

A Twin Study of the Association Between Pathological Gambling and Antisocial Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many individuals with a history of pathological gambling (PG) also have a history of engaging in antisocial behaviors, and this has often been interpreted as a result of the former causing the latter. In a sample of 7,869 men in 4,497 twin pairs from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry, the authors examined (a) the association between PG and antisocial personality

Wendy S. Slutske; Seth Eisen; Hong Xian; William R. True; Michael J. Lyons; Jack Goldberg; Ming Tsuang

2001-01-01

153

Personality pathology and daily aspects of marital functioning.  

PubMed

Personality disorders (PDs) are associated with a host of interpersonal problems, including unstable and dysfunctional romantic relationships. In previous research, PD symptoms have been linked to one's own and spouse's self-reported level of marital satisfaction and marital conflict. The current study extends on this work by examining whether Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) PD criteria would predict aspects of daily marital functioning. A total of 99 newlywed couples (N = 198) recruited from the community were assessed for PD symptoms using a self-report measure and subsequently completed a 6-day diary protocol. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the association of PD symptoms with three major aspects of daily functioning: overall relationship sentiment, serious conflicts with one's spouse, and quality of interactions. Results indicated that PD symptoms significantly predicted aspects of all three measures of daily functioning. The individual PDs generally showed the greatest associations with aspects of conflict. Paranoid, schizoid, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive PD scores were significantly negatively related to overall relationship sentiment whereas Cluster A and Cluster C PD scores negatively predicted various daily interaction behaviors. Findings provide insight into the mechanisms that might explain the associations between PD symptoms and overall measures of relationship functioning. PMID:24364502

South, Susan C

2014-04-01

154

Personality Disorders, Impulsiveness, and Novelty Seeking in Persons with DSM-IV Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives.  

PubMed

This study investigates the presence of personality disorders, impulsiveness, and novelty seeking in probands with DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG), controls, and their respective first-degree relatives using a blind family study methodology. Ninety-three probands with DSM-IV PG, 91 controls, and their 395 first-degree relatives were evaluated for the presence of personality disorder with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality. Impulsiveness was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Novelty seeking was evaluated using questions from Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory. Results were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations to account for within family correlations. PG probands had a significantly higher prevalence of personality disorders than controls (41 vs. 7 %, OR = 9.0, P < 0.001), along with higher levels of impulsiveness and novelty seeking. PG probands with a personality disorder had more severe gambling symptoms; earlier age at PG onset; more suicide attempts; greater psychiatric comorbidity; and a greater family history of psychiatric illness than PG probands without a personality disorder. PG relatives had a significantly higher prevalence of personality disorder than relatives of controls (24 vs. 9 %, OR = 3.2, P < 0.001) and higher levels of impulsiveness. Risk for PG in relatives is associated with the presence of personality disorder and increases along with rising BIS Non-Planning and Total scale scores. Personality disorders, impulsiveness, and novelty seeking are common in people with PG and their first-degree relatives. The presence of a personality disorder appears to be a marker of PG severity and earlier age of onset. Risk for PG in relatives is associated with the presence of personality disorder and trait impulsiveness. These findings suggest that personality disorder and impulsiveness may contribute to a familial diathesis for PG. PMID:25424057

Black, Donald W; Coryell, William H; Crowe, Raymond R; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

2014-11-26

155

The relation between personal relative deprivation and the urge to gamble among gamblers is moderated by problem gambling severity: A meta-analysis.  

PubMed

One psychosocial factor that has been identified to motivate gambling is personal relative deprivation (PRD), which refers to resentment stemming from the belief that one is deprived of a desired and deserved outcome compared to some referent. Although several lines of evidence point to a positive association between PRD and the urge to gamble, the factors that might moderate this relation have yet to be investigated. Through a quantitative research synthesis, we sought to test (a) the overall relation between PRD and gambling urges among people reporting recent gambling experience, and (b) whether this relation is moderated by problem gambling severity. Meta-analysis revealed that, overall, higher self-reported PRD was associated with stronger urges to gamble (r=.26). A meta-regression revealed that, across studies, the strength of this relation depended on problem gambling severity, such that the relation between PRD and gambling urges was stronger among samples higher in average problem gambling severity. This pattern was corroborated by an analysis of the aggregated individual participant data (N=857), such that PRD predicted gambling urges only among participants higher in problem gambling severity. The potential practical implications and limitations of these results are discussed. PMID:25665918

Callan, Mitchell J; Will Shead, N; Olson, James M

2015-06-01

156

'You never told me I would turn into a gambler': a first person account of dopamine agonist--induced gambling addiction in a patient with restless legs syndrome.  

PubMed

Dopaminergic agents are commonly used and effective treatments for restless legs syndrome (RLS), a disabling sensorimotor disorder. Less known are some of the potentially disabling side effects of these treatments, particularly iatrogenic gambling addiction, as is described here. Here the authors present a 62-year-old man, with a 20-year history of RLS, who developed gambling addiction while on dopaminergic treatment. He was not forewarned of this side effect, nor was he ever screened for gambling behaviours prior to or during treatment. Eight months after discontinuation of dopaminergic treatment and after 10 sessions of cognitive-behavioural therapy for gambling addiction, his gambling behaviours have partially resolved. To our knowledge, this is the first ever first person account of this condition. To prevent the devastating consequences of gambling addiction or to minimise its impact by early intervention, the authors call for clinicians involved in treatment of RLS to follow these simple measures: screen patients for gambling behaviours prior to the onset and during dopaminergic treatment; forewarn patients of this potential side effect; and if patients screen positive, refer them to specialist gambling treatment services, in addition to making necessary changes to their medication regime. PMID:22678941

Jones, Henrietta Bowden; George, Sanju

2011-01-01

157

Can personality traits predict pathological responses to audiovisual stimulation?  

PubMed

The "Pockemon shock" is the most famous accident in the history of the broadcasting industry in Japan. Based on the experiences of this unfortunate accident from famous animation program "Pocket Monster", this study focused on the psychology and psychosomatics of the patients. A head-mounted display was used as the three-dimensional image presentation device and "Descent", a free software shooting game, was used as the software. Ten healthy adult male volunteers were used in this experiment after obtaining their informed consent. The oxygen metabolic change in the anterior lobe of the brain was measured by near infrared spectroscopy and recorded on an electrocardiogram. The mental scaling tendency of the object was analyzed using the type A behavior pattern and the hostility scaling. The Cook and Medley hostility (HO) scale from the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) was also used in this experiment. From this scaling methodology, the paranoid scale, cynicism scale, lie scale, social support quality and social support quantity were calculated. All measured time series data were kept in the normal range, and no fatal arrhythmia or epilepsy were observed during experiments. In some cases, the brain oxygen metabolism may completely differ for the objects of Type A and Type B behavior patterns. On the whole, correlation did not become significant in type A scaling and hostility scaling. In a comparison of the percent changes of the HF in HRV with lie scaling, significant negative correlation was observed. The social support quantity was calculated from Cook and Medley, and significant negative correlations were observed with percent changes of LF/HF in HRV. The lie scale and social support quantity are opposite scaling. The sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system have an opposite function also. Therefore, our results showed an interesting phenomenon, when considering the relationship between the autonomic function and the pathophysiological reaction to the audiovisual stimulations. As for the photo sensitive epilepsy, it was reported to be only 5-10% for all patients. Therefore, 90% or more of the cause could not be determined in patients who started a morbid response. The results in this study suggest that the autonomic function was connected to the mental tendency of the objects. By examining such directivity, it is expected that subjects, which show morbid reaction to an audiovisual stimulation, can be screened beforehand. PMID:14572681

Yambe, Tomoyuki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Fukudo, Shin; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Shizuka, Kazuhiko; Nanka, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Akira; Abe, Ken-ichi; Shouji, Tomonori; Hongo, Michio; Tabayashi, Kouichi; Nitta, Shin-ichi

2003-10-01

158

Schizotypy and pathological personality profile in siblings of patients with psychosis.  

PubMed

Schizotypy has been proposed to be the expression of the genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia. Schizotypal features have been associated with personality dimensions found in patients with psychosis. In this study, we compared the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology - Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ) scores of patients with psychosis, siblings scoring higher on schizotypy (SSHS), and siblings scoring lower (SSLS). The SSHSs displayed a DAPP-BQ profile characterized by high scores in the dimensions of affective lability, anxiousness, submissiveness, social avoidance, identity problems, oppositionality, narcissism, and restricted expression, distinguishing them from the SSLS. Due to these dimensions, SSHSs are more similar to the patients' DAPP-BQ profile. The results suggest that this pathological personality profile might contribute to increase the risk of developing psychosis in siblings who have more schizotypal features. PMID:21266146

Moreno Samaniego, Lorena; Valero Oyarzábal, Joaquín; Gaviria Gómez, Ana Milena; Hernández Fernández, Ana; Gutiérrez-Zotes, José Alfonso; Labad Alquézar, Antonio

2011-02-01

159

Adolescent Precursors of Adult Borderline Personality Pathology in a High-Risk Community Sample.  

PubMed

Longitudinal studies of the exact environmental conditions and personal attributes contributing to the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) are rare. Furthermore, existing research typically examines risk factors in isolation, limiting our knowledge of the relative effect sizes of different risk factors and how they act in concert to bring about borderline personality pathology. The present study investigated the prospective effects of diverse acute and chronic stressors, proband psychopathology, and maternal psychopathology on BPD features in a high-risk community sample (N = 700) of youth followed from mid-adolescence to young adulthood. Multivariate analyses revealed significant effects of maternal externalizing disorder history, offspring internalizing disorder history, family stressors, and school-related stressors on BPD risk. Contrary to expectations, no interactions between chronically stressful environmental conditions and personal characteristics in predicting borderline personality features were detected. Implications of these findings for etiological theories of BPD and early screening efforts are discussed. PMID:25248011

Conway, Christopher C; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A

2014-09-23

160

Counselling in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the gambling literature and the phases of the pathological gambler's career. Examines counseling approaches that have been used in the treatment of gambling, including psychotherapy, conjoint marital therapy, minimal interventions, behavioral counseling, and practical approaches to the treatment of adolescent problem gamblers. (Author/GCP)

Griffiths, Mark D.; MacDonald, Helen F.

1999-01-01

161

Factors determining the severity of pathological gambling in males  

Microsoft Academic Search

In extending the implications of our earlier research, we found that a measure of impulsivity developed by Barratt (1965) differentiated recovering, male pathological gamblers (N = 12; mean age = 48.9 years) from male control subjects (N = 15; mean age = 43.3 years). Among the gamblers themselves, however, this measure of impulsivity did not correlate with an index of

Peter L. Carlton; Paul Manowitz

1994-01-01

162

Pathology  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 29 chapters. Some of the titles are: Genetic and Systemic Diseases; Cell Injury; Inflammation; The Gastrointestinal o Tract; The Pancreas; Environmental and Nutritional Pathology; Infectious and Parasitic Diseases; and Blood Vessels.

Rubin, E.; Farber, J.L. (Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (US))

1988-01-01

163

Pathological Gambling Among Youthful Multiple Substance Abusers in a Therapeutic Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Patients in a therapeutic community were questioned about their gambling behavior in order to find out what percentage of them were pathological gamblers. The South Oaks Gambling Screen (the SOGS) was used to screen the clients for gambling-related problems. Out of 100 residents tested, 14 were diagnosed as pathological gamblers and an additional 14 showed signs of problematic gambling.

HENRY R. LESIEUR; MARY HEINEMAN

1988-01-01

164

Development of Personality and the Remission and Onset of Personality Pathology  

PubMed Central

The current study uses the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders dataset (Lenzenweger, 1999) to examine the development of personality traits in the context of the remission and onset of personality disorder (PD) symptoms. Despite high levels of stability, past research that has examined the development of basic personality traits has also found a mean trend towards increased maturity, and that individuals vary in their trajectories of trait development. Research on PD change has shown a similar pattern. We employ individual growth curve modeling to examine the relationship between personality trait development and PD symptom course. We found that the two are indeed related, and that remission in PD symptoms is associated with patterns of trait development associated with more rapid maturity. In contrast, deviating from the mean of trait development either through no change (i.e., stagnation) or change in the opposite direction (i.e., regression) was associated with developing PD symptoms over the course of the study. PMID:21967009

Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.

2011-01-01

165

Narcissism at the crossroads: Phenotypic description of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social\\/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review documents two themes of emphasis found in phenotypic descriptions of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social\\/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Clinical theories of narcissism spanning 35 years consistently describe variations in the expression of pathological narcissism that emphasize either grandiosity or vulnerable affects and self-states. Recent research in social\\/personality psychology examining the structure of narcissistic personality traits consistently finds

Nicole M. Cain; Aaron L. Pincus; Emily B. Ansell

2008-01-01

166

Structure of personality pathology in normal and clinical samples: Spanish validation of the DAPP-BQ.  

PubMed

Given that the DSM taxonomy of personality disorders is flawed by severe classificatory problems, the development of alternative classificatory systems, such as the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ), has now become a priority. This study examined the internal consistency, second-order factor structure, and criterion validity of a Spanish translation of the DAPP-BQ in two samples: subjects with personality disorder (n = 155) and subjects from the general population (n = 300). Alpha coefficients ranged satisfactorily from .75 to .93. Four second-order factors of Emotional Dysregulation, Dissocial Behavior, Inhibitedness, and Compulsivity were obtained, which were replicable between samples and identical to those reported in the literature. Finally, disordered subjects scored significantly higher than normal subjects on 17 of the 18 DAPP-BQ traits. Some pending issues in the construction of an alternative taxonomy of personality disorders are discussed. PMID:18684051

Gutiérrez-Zotes, Jose Alfonso; Gutiérrez, Fernando; Valero, Joaquín; Gallego, Emma; Baillés, Eva; Torres, Xavier; Labad, Antonio; Livesley, W John

2008-08-01

167

Pharmacological Treatments of Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medication treatment studies have demonstrated short-term efficacy of various SRIs, opioid antagonists, and mood stabilizers in sub-samples of adult treatment seeking pathological gamblers. Pathological gambling is frequently comorbid with bipolar spectrum disorders, substance abuse\\/dependence, and attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and comorbidity may influence treatment response in pathological gambling. This review focuses on recent research examining the treatment of pathological gambling and

Eric Hollander; Erica Sood; Stefano Pallanti; Nicolo Baldini-Rossi; Bryann Baker

2005-01-01

168

Pathological Gambling and Age: Differences in personality, psychopathology, and response to treatment variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to ascertain the possible differences in personality, psychopathology, and response to treatment in pathological gambling according to age. The sample, comprising 67 participants, was divided into three groups: 32.6% with ages ranging between 17 and 26 years, 31.3% between 27 and 43 years, and 35.8% over 44 years of age.The participants were administered the

A. González-Ibáńez; M. Mora; J. Gutiérrez-Maldonado; A. Ariza; M. R. Lourido-Ferreira

2005-01-01

169

Dimensional assessment of personality pathology in female and male juvenile delinquents.  

PubMed

A developmental perspective implies similar personality pathology dimensions for adolescents and adults. The present study examined the applicability of a dimensional approach in incarcerated delinquent female and male juveniles using the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). A sample of detained adolescents (n = 146) was compared to adolescent students (n = 98) and a healthy control group of adults (n = 82). Additionally, psychopathology was assessed in the incarcerated juveniles using the Youth Self Report (YSR). Analyses of variance revealed higher scores on personality disorder traits for juveniles compared to adult controls; the highest scores were observed in criminal juveniles. Hypothesized relationships could be confirmed within the criminal sample between the DAPP factor Emotional Dysregulation and the YSR Internalization syndrome scale, and between the DAPP factor Dissocial Behavior and the YSR Externalization syndrome scale. Moreover, gender differences in the criminal sample are discussed. Results indicate that the DAPP-BQ can assess personality disorder traits in delinquent and nondetained juveniles with sufficient group and criterion validity. PMID:18072868

Krischer, Maya K; Sevecke, Kathrin; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Pukrop, Ralf

2007-12-01

170

A Mutual Support Group for Young Problem Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Swedish mutual support group for young problem gamblers is described and discussed. During the study period, 116 weekly meetings occurred, usually involving six to ten participants; in total, 69 problem gamblers (66 male and three female), aged 17-25, and 23 partners and friends attended the meetings. Half the gamblers had problems with Internet…

Binde, Per

2012-01-01

171

Preparing Addiction Specialists to Include Case Management and Vocational Rehabilitation Services in the Treatment Model for Problem Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professionals in the field of addictions view problems associated with recovery management across multiple domains. This exploratory study utilized concept mapping and pattern matching methodology to conceptualize the resulting 7 domains of concern for treatment and aftercare of problem and pathological gamblers. The information can be used by…

Glenn, Margaret K.; Diaz, Sebastian R.; Hawley, Carolyn

2009-01-01

172

Preparing Addiction Specialists to Include Case Management and Vocational Rehabilitation Services in the Treatment Model for Problem Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Professionals in the field of addictions view problems associated with recovery management across multiple domains. This exploratory study utilized concept mapping and pattern matching methodology to conceptualize the resulting 7 domains of concern for treatment and aftercare of problem and pathological gamblers. The information can be used by educators as they enhance their curriculum to address recovery management issues for

Margaret K. Glenn; Sebastián R. Díaz; Carolyn Hawley

2009-01-01

173

The role of medication in the treatment of pathological gambling: Bridging the gap between research and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

After reviewing the literature on the pharmacotherapy of pathological gambling, the author discusses treatment strategies and areas for future research. The clearest indication for medicating the pathological gambler is for the treatment of comorbid disorders, primarily depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, there are difficulties in diagnosing the dually disordered gambler. Other current pharmacological approaches involve the

Scott Grills; Jeffrey L. Derevensky; Rina Gupta; Loreen Rugle; Richard J. Rosenthal; Rachel A. Volberg

2005-01-01

174

Evaluating the South Oaks Gambling Screen with DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria: results from a diverse community sample of gamblers.  

PubMed

Despite widespread use, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) has been criticized for excessive false positives as an indicator of pathological gambling (PG), and for items that misalign with PG criteria. We examine the relationship between SOGS scores and PG symptoms and convergent validity with regard to personality, mood, and addictive behaviors in a sample of 353 gamblers. SOGS scores correlated r = .66 with both DSM-IV and DSM-5 symptoms, and they manifested similar correlations with external criteria (intraclass correlation of .95). However, 195 false positives and 1 false negative were observed when using the recommended cut point, yielding an 81% false alarm rate. For uses with DSM-IV criteria, a cut point of 10 would retain high sensitivity with greater specificity and fewer false positives. For DSM-5 criteria, we advocate a cut point of 8 for use as a clinical screen and a cut point of 12 for prevalence and pseudo-experimental studies. PMID:23946283

Goodie, Adam S; MacKillop, James; Miller, Joshua D; Fortune, Erica E; Maples, Jessica; Lance, Charles E; Campbell, W Keith

2013-10-01

175

Associations between Antisocial Personality Disorder and Sex on Discounting Rates.  

PubMed

Numerous studies show that individuals with substance use and gambling problems discount delayed and probabilistic outcomes at different rates than controls. Few studies, however, investigated the association of discounting with antisocial personality disorders (ASPD), and none evaluated whether sex impacts these relationships. Because females with ASPD exhibit different patterns of antisocial behavior than their male counterparts, they may also differ in their decision-making tendencies. This study examined the effects of ASPD and sex on discounting in pathological gamblers. Results revealed effects of ASPD, and an interaction between ASPD and sex, on probability discounting rates. None of these variables, however, were related to delay discounting. Females with ASPD highly preferred probabilistic outcomes, suggesting that female gamblers with ASPD are particularly impulsive when it comes to probabilistic rewards. Greater understanding of sex differences in ASPD might help guide the selection of more effective sex-specific prevention and treatment programs. PMID:25364042

Andrade, Leonardo F; Riven, Levi; Petry, Nancy M

2014-12-01

176

A General Factor of Personality (GFP) in the personality disorders: three studies of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology - Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ).  

PubMed

We used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesis that a General Factor of Personality (GFP) occupies the apex of the hierarchy of personality disorders in three validation samples of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology - Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). In a general population sample (N = 942), we found a GFP explained 34% of the variance in four first-order factors and 33% of the variance in all 18 scales. In a twin sample (N = 1,346), a GFP explained 35% of the variance in four first-order factors and 34% of the variance in all 18 scales. In a clinical sample (N = 656), a GFP explained 34% of the variance in four first-order factors and 30% of the variance in all 18 scales. PMID:20707700

Rushton, J Philippe; Irwing, Paul; Booth, Tom

2010-08-01

177

Clinical validity of the "Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP)" for psychiatric patients with and without a personality disorder diagnosis.  

PubMed

There is a movement towards a dimensional classification of personality disorders (PD). However, data linking dimensional systems and the categorical system for classifying PD are lacking. In the present study, N = 165 normal subjects and N = 222 nonpsychotic in-patients (including N = 81 patients with a PD diagnosis) completed the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ) measuring 18 PD traits. DSM-IV PD symptoms were assessed by SCID-II interviews. Group differences were analyzed by ANCOVA, and the relation between the dimensional and categorical approach was investigated by regression, ROC, and MDS analyses. Patients with PD exhibited elevated scores on all DAPP traits compared with controls. Patients without PD scored in between. Each DSM-IV PD could be described by a distinct profile of DAPP traits. Results support the assumption that the DAPP trait system can represent mean differences between clinically defined subgroups. The categorical system can be mapped onto the dimensional DAPP system with sufficient clinical specificity. PMID:20001176

Pukrop, Ralf; Steinbring, Iris; Gentil, Iris; Schulte, Caspar; Larstone, Roseann; Livesley, John W

2009-12-01

178

Pathological gambling and associated patterns of crime: Comparisons with alcohol and other drug addictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern of convictions for various categories of crime in the population of the United Kingdom was compared with the corresponding pattern in a sample of addictive gamblers drawn from Gamblers Anonymous in the U.K. A distinctive pattern of income-generating crime was found to be statistically associated with pathological gambling. This pattern was compared with other distinctive patterns associated with

R. I. F. Brown

1987-01-01

179

The prevalence of pathological gambling in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper critically reviews prevalence estimates of problem and pathological gambling in Canada. Populations studied are adults, adolescents and primary school children. The proportions of pathological gamblers found in Canadian studies (ranging from 1.2% to 1.9% for adults) are similar to prevalence rates reported in the United States. Given the apparent link between gambling availability and increases in the prevalence

Robert Ladouceur

1996-01-01

180

Heterogeneity of interpersonal problems among depressed young adults: Associations with substance abuse and pathological personality traits  

PubMed Central

This study extended previous theory and research on interpersonal heterogeneity in depression by identifying groups of depressed young adults who differ in their type and degree of interpersonal problems, and by examining patterns of pathological personality traits and alcohol abuse among these groups. We examined the interpersonal problems, personality traits, and alcohol-related problems of 172 college students with at least moderate levels of self-reported depression on the Patient Health Questionnaire (Spitzer, Kroenke, & Williams, 1999). Scores from the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems – Short Circumplex (Soldz, Budman, Demby, & Merry, 1995) were subjected to latent profile analysis, which classified individuals into five distinct groups defined by the types of interpersonal problems they experience (dominant, warm, submissive, cold, and undifferentiated). As hypothesized, groups did not differ in depression severity, but did show predicted patterns of differences on normative and maladaptive personality traits, as well as alcohol-related problems. The presence of clinically meaningful interpersonal heterogeneity in depression may have important implications for designing more individualized treatments and prevention efforts for depression that target diverse associated interpersonal problems. PMID:23560433

Dawood, Sindes; Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

181

Are irrational beliefs and depressive mood more common among problem gamblers than non-gamblers? A survey study of Swedish problem gamblers and controls.  

PubMed

This study tests the hypothesis that problem gamblers are more prone to have irrational beliefs and depressed mood than non-gamblers. Irrational beliefs refer to fallacious opinions about probabilities. Gamblers like to believe that chance games (i.e., roulette and lottery) can be controlled and that the outcome of such games is dependent on the patterns of previous outcomes. The empirical material consists of responses to a survey that 302 individuals have answered. Half of the respondents were deemed to be problem gamblers. The results showed that compared to the controls, the problem gamblers were more inclined to show illusion of control due to their skill and reported more depressive mood. The results are discussed in terms of difficulties to know the "hen and the egg" regarding depressive mood, and in terms of intermittent reinforcement to continue gambling. PMID:18543088

Källmén, Hĺkan; Andersson, Patric; Andren, Anders

2008-12-01

182

Testing Two Alternative Pathological Personality Measures in the Assessment of Psychopathy: An Examination of the Snap and DAPP-BQ.  

PubMed

The current study examined the interrelations between two measures of pathological personality, the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP; Clark, 1993) and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ; Livesley, 1990), and their respective relations with psychopathy. Two hundred and twenty-nine undergraduate students completed the SNAP, DAPP-BQ, and two self-report psychopathy inventories, the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP; Levenson, Kiehl, & Fitzpatrick, 1995) and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005). Results revealed good convergence between conceptually related SNAP and DAPP-BQ subscales. Both the SNAP and DAPP-BQ accounted for a substantial amount of variance in psychopathy scores although the DAPP-BQ accounted for a larger percentage of the variance and demonstrated greater incremental validity. Results suggest that both measures can be successfully used to assess traits associated with psychopathy. PMID:19267664

Pryor, Lauren R; Miller, Joshua D; Gaughan, Eric T

2009-02-01

183

A focus group study of predictors of relapse in electronic gaming machine problem gambling, part 2: factors that 'pull' the gambler away from relapse.  

PubMed

This study aimed to develop an empirically based description of relapse in Electronic Gaming Machine (EGM) problem gambling (PG) by describing the processes and factors that 'pull' the problem gambler away from relapse contrasted with the 'push' towards relapse. These conceptualisations describe two opposing, interacting emotional processes occurring within the problem gambler during any relapse episode. Each relapse episode comprises a complex set of psychological and social behaviours where many factors interact sequentially and simultaneously within the problem gambler to produce a series of mental and behaviour events that end (1) with relapse where 'push' overcomes 'pull' or (2) continued abstinence where 'pull' overcomes 'push'. Four focus groups comprising thirty participants who were EGM problem gamblers, gamblers' significant others, therapists and counsellors described their experiences and understanding of relapse. The groups were recorded, recordings were then transcribed and analysed using thematic textual analysis. It was established that vigilance, motivation to commit to change, positive social support, cognitive strategies such as remembering past gambling harms or distraction techniques to avoid thinking about gambling to enable gamblers to manage the urge to gamble and urge extinction were key factors that protected against relapse. Three complementary theories emerged from the analysis. Firstly, a process of reappraisal of personal gambling behaviour pulls the gambler away from relapse. This results in a commitment to change that develops over time and affects but is independent of each episode of relapse. Secondly, relapse may be halted by interacting factors that 'pull' the problem gambler away from the sequence of mental and behavioural events, which follow the triggering of the urge and cognitions to gamble. Thirdly, urge extinction and apparent 'cure' is possible for EGM gambling. This study provides a qualitative, empirical model for understanding protective factors against gambling relapse. PMID:21989572

Oakes, J; Pols, R; Battersby, M; Lawn, S; Pulvirenti, M; Smith, D

2012-09-01

184

Personality pathology and alcohol dependence at midlife in a community sample.  

PubMed

The present study examined the association between personality pathology (PP) and alcohol dependence (AD; both lifetime and in the past 12 months) among middle-aged to older adults incorporating three sources of assessment, specifically, diagnostic interviews as well as self- and informant reports. We collected data from a representative sample of community participants (N = 1,630; ages 54-65 years) and their informants (N = 1,462). Measures employed were the substance use disorder sections of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview Schedule for Mental Disorders, the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR SIDP) and the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R., Revised NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) manual, 1992, Odessa, FL, Psychological Assessment Resources; self-report and informant versions). To complement the diagnostic interview for personality disorders (PDs), we utilized a PD-count technique derived from the five-factor model (FFM), which provided an index of PP liability. Factors representing lifetime and past-12 month AD were regressed on each of the 10 PP factors constructed from the SIDP interview, as well as self-report and informant FFM-count scores. Lifetime diagnosis of AD was positively associated with higher scores on several PP measures, including paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PP. There was an inverse relation between lifetime AD and the factor score for obsessive-compulsive PP. With regard to AD in the past 12 months, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PP factors were significantly associated with increased risk for AD, whereas the obsessive-compulsive and schizoid PP factors were associated with decreased risk for AD. The present data indicate that features of antisocial and borderline PP continue to exhibit a relatively strong association with risk for AD in later middle age. PMID:23230852

Agrawal, Arpana; Narayanan, Gitanjali; Oltmanns, Thomas F

2013-01-01

185

Validation of the FFM PD count technique for screening personality pathology in later middle-aged and older adults.  

PubMed

Research on the applicability of the five factor model (FFM) to capture personality pathology coincided with the development of a FFM personality disorder (PD) count technique, which has been validated in adolescent, young, and middle-aged samples. This study extends the literature by validating this technique in an older sample. Five alternative FFM PD counts based upon the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) are computed and evaluated in terms of both convergent and divergent validity with the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders Questionnaire (shortly ADP-IV; DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth edition). For the best working count for each PD normative data are presented, from which cut-off scores are derived. The validity of these cut-offs and their usefulness as a screening tool is tested against both a categorical (i.e., the DSM-IV - Text Revision), and a dimensional (i.e., the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology; DAPP) measure of personality pathology. All but the Antisocial and Obsessive-Compulsive counts exhibited adequate convergent and divergent validity, supporting the use of this method in older adults. Using the ADP-IV and the DAPP - Short Form as validation criteria, results corroborate the use of the FFM PD count technique to screen for PDs in older adults, in particular for the Paranoid, Borderline, Histrionic, Avoidant, and Dependent PDs. Given the age-neutrality of the NEO PI-R and the considerable lack of valid personality assessment tools, current findings appear to be promising for the assessment of pathology in older adults. PMID:22913535

Van den Broeck, Joke; Rossi, Gina; De Clercq, Barbara; Dierckx, Eva; Bastiaansen, Leen

2013-01-01

186

Pathological gambling: understanding relapses and dropouts.  

PubMed

There is little available information on the factors that influence relapses and dropouts during therapy for pathological gambling (PG). The aim of this study was to determine socio-demographic, clinical, personality, and psychopathological predictors of relapse and dropout in a sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. A total of 566 consecutive outpatients diagnosed with PG according to DSM-IV-TR criteria were included. All patients underwent an individualized cognitive-behavioral treatment program. We analyzed predictors of relapse during 6months of treatment and during the subsequent 6months of follow-up, and predictors of dropout over the entire therapeutic program. Eighty patients (14.1%) experienced at least one relapse during the entire follow-up of the study: 50 (8.8%) within the treatment period and 12 (2.1%) during the subsequent 6-month follow-up period. The main predictors of relapse were single marital status, spending less than 100euros/week on gambling, active gambling behavior at treatment inclusion, and high scores on the TCI-R Harm Avoidance personality dimension. One hundred fifty-seven patients (27.8%) missed 3 or more therapeutic sessions over the entire therapeutic program. The main predictors of dropout were single marital status, younger age, and high scores on the TCI-R Novelty Seeking personality dimension. The presence of these factors at inclusion should be taken into account by physicians dealing with PG patients. PMID:25434846

Aragay, Núria; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Ramos-Grille, Irene; Cardona, Sara; Garrido, Gemma; Anisul Islam, Mohammed; Menchón, José M; Vallčs, Vicenç

2015-02-01

187

Psychometric evaluation of the Gamblers' Beliefs Questionnaire with treatment-seeking disordered gamblers.  

PubMed

Growing evidence for the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for disordered gambling supports the need for a comprehensive set of gambling-related assessment measures that have been validated with treatment-seeking samples. The Gamblers' Beliefs Questionnaire (GBQ) is a self-report measure that was designed to identify gambling-related cognitive distortions (Steenbergh, Meyers, May, & Whelan, 2002). In this study, the GBQ demonstrated good internal consistency and adequate construct validity in a treatment-seeking sample of disordered gamblers. Additionally, scores on the measure significantly decreased across a brief cognitive-behavioral treatment, providing validity support for use of the GBQ with a clinical population. PMID:25596553

Winfree, Walter R; Ginley, Meredith K; Whelan, James P; Meyers, Andrew W

2015-04-01

188

Cognitive Inflexibility in Gamblers is Primarily Present in Reward-Related Decision Making  

PubMed Central

One hallmark of gambling disorder (GD) is the observation that gamblers have problems stopping their gambling behavior once it is initiated. On a neuropsychological level, it has been hypothesized that this is the result of a cognitive inflexibility. The present study investigated cognitive inflexibility in patients with GD using a task involving cognitive inflexibility with a reward element (i.e., reversal learning) and a task measuring general cognitive inflexibility without such a component (i.e., response perseveration). For this purpose, scores of a reward-based reversal learning task (probabilistic reversal learning task) and the Wisconsin card sorting task were compared between a group of treatment seeking patients with GD and a gender and age matched control group. The results show that pathological gamblers have impaired performance on the neurocognitive task measuring reward-based cognitive inflexibility. However, no difference between the groups is observed regarding non-reward-based cognitive inflexibility. This suggests that cognitive inflexibility in GD is the result of an aberrant reward-based learning, and not based on a more general problem with cognitive flexibility. The pattern of observed problems is suggestive of a dysfunction of the orbitofrontal cortex, the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and the ventral regions of the striatum in gamblers. Relevance for the neurocognition of problematic gambling is discussed. PMID:25165438

Boog, Michiel; Höppener, Paul; v. d. Wetering, Ben J. M.; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Boog, Matthijs C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

2014-01-01

189

Cue-induced craving increases impulsivity via changes in striatal value signals in problem gamblers.  

PubMed

Impulsive behavior such as steep temporal discounting is a hallmark of addiction and is associated with relapse. In pathological gamblers, discounting may be further increased by the presence of gambling-related cues in the environment, but the extent to which the gambling relatedness of task settings affects reward responses in gambling addiction is debated. In the present study, human problem gamblers made choices between immediate rewards and individually tailored larger-but-later rewards while visual gambling-related scenes were presented in the background. N = 17 participants were scanned using fMRI, whereas N = 5 additional participants completed a behavioral version of the task. Postscan craving ratings were acquired for each image, and behavioral and neuroimaging data were analyzed separately for high- and low-craving trials (median split analysis). Discounting was steeper for high versus low craving trials. Neuroimaging revealed a positive correlation with model-based subjective value in midbrain and striatum in low-craving trials that was reversed in high-craving trials. These findings reveal a modulation of striatal reward responses in gamblers by addiction-related cues, and highlight a potentially important mechanism that may contribute to relapse. Cue-induced changes in striatal delayed reward signals may lead to increased discounting of future rewards, which might in turn affect the likelihood of relapse. PMID:24672019

Miedl, Stephan F; Büchel, Christian; Peters, Jan

2014-03-26

190

DSM-IV and the South Oaks Gambling Screen: Diagnosing and Assessing Pathological Gambling in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria and the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) in identifying Turkish pathological gamblers. Fifty-nine subjects participated in the study. The subjects were diagnosed as either pathological gamblers or not (comparison group) through the use of the DSM-IV criteria and were given the Turkish version of

?brahim Duvarci; Azmi Varan; Hakan Co?kunol; Mehmet A. Ersoy

1997-01-01

191

Differences in Characteristics of Asian American and White Problem Gamblers Calling a Gambling Helpline  

PubMed Central

Objective The characteristics of Asian American and white problem gamblers using a gambling helpline were examined to identify race-related differences. Method Logistic regression analyses were conducted on data obtained from callers to a gambling helpline serving Southern New England in 2000–2003, inclusive. Results Of the 144 phone calls used in the analyses, 72 were from Asian American callers and 72 were from white callers who were matched on gender, education, income, marital/cohabitation status, and age. Race-related differences were observed in forms of gambling problems, psychiatric problems secondary to gambling, substance use problems, and family history. Asian American gamblers were more likely to report suicide attempts related to gambling and problems with non-strategic gambling. White gamblers were more likely to report both casino and non-casino gambling problems and personal and familial alcohol use problems. High proportions of both groups reported problems with strategic gambling, gambling-related anxiety, family and financial problems secondary to gambling, financial debt, daily tobacco use, and a family history of problem gambling. Conclusions Race-related differences should be considered in optimizing prevention and treatment strategies related to problem gambling. PMID:19238123

Barry, Declan T.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Wu, Ran; Potenza, Marc N.

2009-01-01

192

A Gender-based Examination of Past-year Recreational Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Most adults gamble recreationally yet few studies have systematically investigated for gender-related differences in recreational gamblers.Methods  Logistic regression analyses were performed on data from a nationally representative sample of respondents from the 1998 Gambling Impact and Behavior Study. Results  Female gamblers versus non-gamblers were more likely to report use of alcohol and drugs. Male gamblers versus non-gamblers were more likely to report

Marc N. Potenza; Paul K. Maciejewski; Carolyn M. Mazure

2006-01-01

193

Desperate Housewives: An Analysis of the Characterisations of Female Gamblers Portrayed in Gambling Movies in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines portrayals of female gamblers in recent Hong Kong movies. The authors report that the depiction of female gamblers is very different from that of male gamblers in the movies made in the same period. Whereas the male gamblers are pitching a lonely and desperate battle against an evil opponent, the female gamblers portrayed in…

Ohtsuka, Keis; Chan, Chi Chuen

2009-01-01

194

Psychological Factors that Promote and Inhibit Pathological Gambling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes qualitative data regarding psychological factors that may affect gambling behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Participants (n = 84) diagnosed with pathological gambling were treated in a clinical trial examining the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Qualitative data were collected from…

Morasco, Benjamin J.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Ledgerwood, David M.; Petry, Nancy M.

2007-01-01

195

Behavioral Treatment for Pathological Gambling in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present investigation examined a behavior-analytic clinical treatment package designed to reduce the pathological gambling of 3 individuals with acquired brain injury. A prior history of pathological gambling of each patient was assessed via caregiver report, psychological testing, and direct observation of gambling behavior. Using an 8-week…

Guercio, John M.; Johnson, Taylor; Dixon, Mark R.

2012-01-01

196

Adult Separation Anxiety and TCI-R Personality Dimensions in Patients with Anxiety, Alcohol Use, and Gambling: A Preliminary Report  

PubMed Central

Background. Nowadays, adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) is an established diagnostic category but is little investigated in subjects with addictive behaviours. Objective. To assess the presence of ASAD among patients with addictive disorders in comparison with anxiety patients and measure the personality correlates in all these groups. Methods. 103 outpatients, meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for anxiety disorders (38 patients), alcohol dependence (30 patients), or pathological gambling (35 patients), were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms (SCI-SAS) and the Adult Separation Anxiety Checklist (ASA-27) for separation anxiety and by the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R) for personality characteristics. Results. ASAD is detected in 34.2% of anxiety patients, 13.3% of alcoholics, and 11.4% of gamblers. Separation anxiety scores correlate positively with harm avoidance and negatively with self-directedness in all groups; further correlations are seen among addictive patients only, that is, self-transcendence for gamblers and cooperativeness for both alcoholics and gamblers. Conclusions. The prevalence of ASAD is lower among addictive patients than in those with anxiety disorders; correlations are found between separation anxiety and specific TCI-R dimensions, with some matching across the three diagnostic groups. PMID:25105134

Di Nicola, Marco; Pini, Stefano; Janiri, Luigi

2014-01-01

197

The Gambler’s Fallacy Is Associated with Weak Affective Decision Making but Strong Cognitive Ability  

PubMed Central

Humans demonstrate an inherent bias towards making maladaptive decisions, as shown by a phenomenon known as the gambler’s fallacy (GF). The GF has been traditionally considered as a heuristic bias supported by the fast and automatic intuition system, which can be overcome by the reasoning system. The present study examined an intriguing hypothesis, based on emerging evidence from neuroscience research, that the GF might be attributed to a weak affective but strong cognitive decision making mechanism. With data from a large sample of college students, we found that individuals’ use of the GF strategy was positively correlated with their general intelligence and executive function, such as working memory and conflict resolution, but negatively correlated with their affective decision making capacities, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task. Our result provides a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying the GF, which highlights the significant role of affective mechanisms in adaptive decision-making. PMID:23071701

Xue, Gui; He, Qinghua; Lei, Xuemei; Chen, Chunhui; Liu, Yuyun; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Dong, Qi; Bechara, Antoine

2012-01-01

198

Neuroimaging of structural pathology and connectomics in traumatic brain injury: Toward personalized outcome prediction  

E-print Network

Neuroimaging of structural pathology and connectomics in traumatic brain injury: Toward of knowledge on traumatic brain injury (TBI) favor the view that multimodal neu- roimaging using structural Park, NY 12065, USA d Brain Injury Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, University

Prastawa, Marcel

199

Pathological Gambling: Influence of Quality of Life and Psychological Distress on Abstinence After Cognitive-Behavioral Inpatient Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to understand the influence of psychological distress and quality of life on the maintenance of therapy\\u000a success during a 1 year follow-up in pathological gamblers after inpatient cognitive-behavioral treatment. In a sample of\\u000a 281 pathological gamblers (247 men, 34 women) the following measures were taken: psychological distress (beginning and end\\u000a of treatment, and follow

Wiebke Sander; Anne Peters

2009-01-01

200

Integrating normal and pathological personality: relating the DSM-5 trait-dimensional model to general traits of personality.  

PubMed

The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) assesses traits relevant for diagnosing personality disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). We examined the PID-5 in relation to the Big-Three and Big-Five personality traits in outpatient and community adult samples. Domain-level analyses revealed that PID-5 Negative Affectivity correlated strongly with Neuroticism, and PID-5 Antagonism and Disinhibition correlated strongly negatively with Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, respectively; Antagonism and Disinhibition also were both linked strongly to Big-Three trait Disinhibition. PID-5 Detachment related strongly to personality, including Extraversion/Positive Temperament, but did not show its expected specificity to this factor. Finally, PID-5 Psychoticism correlated only modestly with Openness. Facet-level analyses indicated that some PID-5 scales demonstrated replicable deviations from their DSM-5 model placements. We discuss implications of these data for the DSM-5 model of personality disorder, and for integrating it with well-established structures of normal personality. PMID:23596272

Watson, David; Stasik, Sara M; Ro, Eunyoe; Clark, Lee Anna

2013-06-01

201

The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality for Youth (SNAP-Y): A New Measure for Assessing Adolescent Personality and Personality Pathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Youth Version (SNAP-Y) is a new, reliable self-report questionnaire that assesses 15 personality traits relevant to both normal-range personality and the alternative "DSM"-5 model for personality disorder. Community adolescents, 12 to 18 years old (N = 364), completed the SNAP-Y; 347…

Linde, Jennifer A.; Stringer, Deborah; Simms, Leonard J.; Clark, Lee Anna

2013-01-01

202

Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems\\u000a model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal–spiritual disconnections of pathological\\u000a gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT’s theoretical foundations, main constructs, and\\u000a treatment interventions are illustrated in a progression of six clinical phases. Promise of CCT’s systemic conceptualization\\u000a and interventions

Bonnie K. Lee

2009-01-01

203

Pathological gambling severity is associated with impulsivity in a delay discounting procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and clinical expertise indicates that impulsivity is an underlying feature of pathological gambling. This study examined the extent to which impulsive behavior, defined by the rate of discounting delayed monetary rewards, varies with pathological gambling severity, assessed by the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Sixty-two pathological gamblers completed a delay discounting task, the SOGS, the Eysenck impulsivity scale, the

S. M Alessi; N. M Petry

2003-01-01

204

[Inbred disgust propensity in the aspect of the development of pathological personality].  

PubMed

Correlations between inborn (constituional) disgust propensity, dynamics of personality disorders and development of contamination fear in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were studied in 54 patients with milder forms of mysophobia. Three types of contamination fear characterized by different combinations of disgust propensity and personality traits were singled out. Clinical features of OCD were shown to correspond to premorbid personality while denotative characteristics of OCD were correlated with constituional phenomenon of disgust propensity. The results suggest that disgust propensity is a stable personality dimension contributing to the development of contamination fear. PMID:23096030

Belova, N A

2012-01-01

205

Imbalance in the sensitivity to different types of rewards in pathological gambling.  

PubMed

Pathological gambling is an addictive disorder characterized by a persistent and compulsive desire to engage in gambling activities. This maladaptive behaviour has been suggested to result from a decreased sensitivity to experienced rewards, regardless of reward type. Alternatively, pathological gambling might reflect an imbalance in the sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives. To directly test these two hypotheses, we examined how the brain reward circuit of pathological gamblers responds to different types of rewards. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared the brain responses of 18 pathological gamblers and 20 healthy control subjects while they engaged in a simple incentive task manipulating both monetary and visual erotic rewards. During reward anticipation, the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers showed a differential response to monetary versus erotic cues, essentially driven by a blunted reactivity to cues predicting erotic stimuli. This differential response correlated with the severity of gambling symptoms and was paralleled by a reduced behavioural motivation for erotic rewards. During reward outcome, a posterior orbitofrontal cortex region, responding to erotic rewards in both groups, was further recruited by monetary gains in pathological gamblers but not in control subjects. Moreover, while ventral striatal activity correlated with subjective ratings assigned to monetary and erotic rewards in control subjects, it only correlated with erotic ratings in gamblers. Our results point to a differential sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary rewards in pathological gambling, both at the motivational and hedonic levels. Such an imbalance might create a bias towards monetary rewards, potentially promoting addictive gambling behaviour. PMID:23757765

Sescousse, Guillaume; Barbalat, Guillaume; Domenech, Philippe; Dreher, Jean-Claude

2013-08-01

206

Self-and Peer Perspectives on Pathological Personality Traits and Interpersonal Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares the relationship between personality disorders and interpersonal problems as obtained by self-report and peer-report measures. Participants (N=393) were administered self-and peer-report versions of the Peer Inventory for Personality Disorder and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-64. Canonical analyses demonstrated…

Clifton, Allan; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2005-01-01

207

Neural correlates of the impact of control on decision making in pathological gambling.  

PubMed

Perceived control over a gambling outcome leads individuals to accept more and larger bets, increased risk-taking. Pathological gamblers, however, do not diminish risk-taking when control is absent, suggesting an illusion of control. To evaluate neural correlates of perceived control in gamblers, this study compared magnetoencephalography responses of 36 pathological (PG) and 36 non-pathological gamblers (NPG) during the Georgia Gambling Task. PGs exhibited greater activity in bilateral primary sensory regions. An interaction between pathology and control over the gambling task was observed bilaterally throughout dorsal and ventral visual processing streams, and lateral PFC. NPGs showed decreased activity when control was absent. Groups did not differ in response to potential bet cost. These findings provide neurophysiological evidence that PGs suffer from the pattern of risk-taking associated with perceived control, even when no control exists. They suggest that gambling pathology contributes to differential processing of gambling stimuli other than potential costs or rewards. PMID:23201037

Hudgens-Haney, Matthew E; Hamm, Jordan P; Goodie, Adam S; Krusemark, Elizabeth A; McDowell, Jennifer E; Clementz, Brett A

2013-02-01

208

Statistical, Practical, Clinical, and Personal Significance: Definitions and Applications in Speech-Language Pathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To discuss constructs and methods related to assessing the magnitude and the meaning of clinical outcomes, with a focus on applications in speech-language pathology. Method: Professionals in medicine, allied health, psychology, education, and many other fields have long been concerned with issues referred to variously as practical…

Bothe, Anne K.; Richardson, Jessica D.

2011-01-01

209

Factor structure of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire and its relationship with the revised NEO personality inventory in a Japanese sample.  

PubMed

The Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology, Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ) was developed to assess 18 personality traits that provide a systematic representation of personality disorder. This study investigates the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the DAPP-BQ and the relationship between the DAPP-BQ and Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) in a heterogeneous general population sample (n = 1485). Internal consistency (coefficient alpha) and test-retest reliability over a 3-week period was satisfactory for all scales. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors labeled "emotional dysregulation," "dissocial behavior," "inhibition," and "compulsivity" that accounted for 76.0% of the total variance. Subsequently, we investigated the relationships between the 18 dimensions and the 5 dimensions of the NEO-PI-R in a second heterogeneous general population sample (n = 717). Combined factor analysis of the 2 scales again yielded 4 factors accounting for 70.4% of the total variance. Finally, we used multiple regression analyses to examine the extent to which the 5 NEO-PI-R scales could be used to predict individual DAPP-BQ scales. These indicated that the NEO-PI-R does not have content that covers some DAPP-BQ dimensions, especially conduct problems, narcissism, and stimulus seeking. PMID:17067879

Maruta, Toshimasa; Yamate, Taketo; Iimori, Makio; Kato, Masaaki; Livesley, W John

2006-01-01

210

The relationship between dissociative-like experiences and sensation seeking among social and problem gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the relationships between dissociative experiences, sensation seeking scores, and gambling behavior. On the basis of the frequency of their gambling behavior and responses to the Gamblers Anonymous Twenty Questions, subjects were designated as either problem gamblers (N=30) or social gamblers (N=30).

Nadia B. Kuley; Durand F. Jacobs

1988-01-01

211

Psychophysiological Assessment of Compulsive Gamblers' Arousal to Gambling Cues: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychophysiological assessments measuring heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and skin resistance level were conducted on 7 male compulsive gamblers and on 7 age and gender matched controls while both groups performed mental arithmetic and listened to individualized tapes of the gamblers' preferred form of gambling and an individualized fear tape. Heart rate responses of the gamblers to the

Edward B. Blanchard; Edelgard Wulfert; Brian M. Freidenberg; Loretta S. Malta

2000-01-01

212

A pilot study of impulsivity and compulsivity in pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationship between gambling severity, impulsivity and obsessionality\\/compulsivity in 38 pathological gamblers, representing the complete Minnesota sample of a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of paroxetine for the treatment of pathological gambling (PG), using Pearson correlations and linear regression models at baseline and treatment endpoint. At baseline, Pathological Gambling Modification of the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (PG-YBOCS) scores correlated significantly

Carlos Blanco; Marc N. Potenza; Suck Won Kim; Angela Ibáńez; Rocco Zaninelli; Jerónimo Saiz-Ruiz; Jon E. Grant

2009-01-01

213

Flow and Dissociation: Examination of Mean Levels, Cross-links, and Links to Emotional Well-Being across Sports and Recreational and Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine whether flow (Csikszentmihalyi (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. NY: Harper & Row) and dissociation (Jacobs (1986). Journal of Gambling Behavior, 2, 15–31) are experienced across sports and recreational and pathological gambling, we assessed a sample of 511 college students (256 females and 255 males, M age = 19.54) that was comprised of 14 pathological gamblers, 21 non-addicted gamblers,

Brigitte Wanner; Robert Ladouceur; Amélie V. Auclair; Frank Vitaro

2006-01-01

214

A short form of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ): the DAPP-SF.  

PubMed

A short form of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ), called the DAPP-SF, is presented, consisting of 136 of the original 290 items. It was established in a community sample that the factor structure of the DAPP-SF is highly congruent with the structure of the DAPP-BQ. The 18 DAPP-SF scales, which were found to be highly reliable, turned out to correlate substantially with the DAPP-BQ scales, even after applying a necessary correction, as the DAPP-SF was developed in the same sample used to investigate the Dutch DAPP-BQ. The higher-order convergent validity of the DAPP-SF was demonstrated by correlating the DAPP-SF scales and factors with Van Kampen's 5DPT. The same factor structure as found in the community sample of patients with personality disorder, also demonstrating that the agreement between the DAPP-SF and the DAPP-BQ is not dependent on the use of shared data. Finally, following Bagge and Trull [Bagge, C.L., Trull, T.J., 2003. DAPP-BQ: Factor structure and relations to personality disorder symptoms in a non-clinical sample. Journal of Personality Disorders 17, 19-32], specific predictions were tested concerning differences in means on the 18 scales between 10 diagnostic groups in the sample of patients with personality disorder. Results supported the validity of the DAPP-SF with respect to its lower-order structure. Finally, for practical purposes, preliminary norms are presented for females and males from the community in two different age groups. PMID:18514918

van Kampen, Dirk; de Beurs, Edwin; Andrea, Helene

2008-07-15

215

A fallacious "Gambler's Fallacy"? Commentary on.  

PubMed

In their recent article in Cognition, Xu and Harvey (2014) suggested that people who placed wagers on an online gambling site demonstrated very different wagering preferences depending on whether they were on winning or losing streaks. Specifically, they reported that people on winning streaks were more likely to win their subsequent wagers because they chose increasingly "safer," higher-probability bets as the win streak continued. People on losing streaks were more likely to lose their subsequent wagers because they chose "riskier," lower-probability wagers as the losing streak progressed. The authors suggested that individuals on winning and losing streaks both fell prey to the Gambler's Fallacy. Specifically, individuals on winning streaks combatted their expectancy to lose soon by choosing higher-probability wagers (with lower payoffs). Conversely, people on losing streaks expected to win soon and thus preferred lower-probability wagers with higher payoffs. Though their paper is fascinating and contains a remarkable data set, we note that the statistical methods employed by Xu and Harvey are prone to a serious selection bias, such that participants on winning or losing streaks may have already been choosing safer and riskier wagers, respectively, prior to the beginning of their streaks. We suggest easy, intuitive analyses to determine whether the effects reported in Xu and Harvey (2014) are real. PMID:25242313

Demaree, Heath A; Weaver, Joseph S; Juergensen, James

2015-06-01

216

Are psychology university student gamblers representative of non-university students and general gamblers? A comparative analysis.  

PubMed

Students recruited from psychology undergraduate university populations are commonly used in psychology research, including gambling studies. However, the extent to which the use of this subpopulation produces findings that can be extrapolated to other groups is questionable. The present study was designed to compare results from university-recruited psychology student gamblers to those obtained from a sample of gamblers recruited from the general population that also included students. An online survey measuring gambling behavior and Internet gambling, attitudes and knowledge about gambling and problem gambling severity was posted on websites accessed by gamblers. Participants were recruited from two sources, a psychology undergraduate university population (n = 461) and online websites (n = 4,801). Results showed university-recruited students differed significantly from both adults and students recruited from the general population in respect to demographic variables and gambling behavior. Psychology undergraduate students were younger, more likely to be female, and had lower incomes. When relevant demographic variables were controlled, psychology undergraduate students were found to gamble less frequently, at different times, and to be at lower-risk for gambling-related problems, but had more irrational beliefs and more negative attitudes towards gambling than gamblers recruited from the general population. Results suggest that caution should be used in extrapolating findings from research using university-recruited psychology student gamblers to wide community populations due to differences related to gambling thoughts, attitudes and behaviors. PMID:23065178

Gainsbury, Sally M; Russell, Alex; Blaszczynski, Alex

2014-03-01

217

The rich history of gynaecological pathology: brief notes on some of its personalities and their contributions.  

PubMed

The careers and contributions of some of those who have played a major role in the development of knowledge concerning gynaecological pathology are summarised. The emphasis is on workers of prior times beginning with those of the German-speaking school: Carl Ruge, Felix Marchand, Hermann Pfannenstiel, Oskar Frankl, Walter Schiller, and Robert Meyer. The two great Scandinavian investigators Lars Santesson and Gunnar Teilum are then considered, followed by those of the British school: John H. Teacher, Elizabeth Hurdon, Magnus Haines, Claud Taylor, Fred Langley, and Harold Fox. North American workers reviewed are: Thomas S. Cullen, Emil Novak, John Albertson Sampson, Arthur Hertig, and Robert E. Scully. The essay concludes with Australasian contributors, those considered in detail being: Hans Frederick Bettinger, Rupert A. Willis, Hazel (Mansell) Gore, Robert Barter, Harold Attwood, Andrew Ostör (the last two also noted historians), Denys Fortune, Alan Ng, and Peter Russell. PMID:17365820

Young, Robert H

2007-02-01

218

Pathological Gambling and Suicidality: An Analysis of Severity and Lethality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the nature of suicidal behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers and its relationship to gambling characteristics and depression. High rates of suicidal ideation, suicidal plans, and attempts were found; however, no clear relationship was observed between suicidality and indices of gambling behavior. (Contains 37…

Maccallum, Fiona; Blaszczynski, Alex

2003-01-01

219

The remaining road to classifying personality pathology in the DSM-5: what behavior genetics can add.  

PubMed

Replies to comments by C. Hopwood (see record 2013-27219-003), W. Iacono (see record 2013-27219-001) and A. Skodol and R. Krueger (see record 2013-27219-002) on the article by S. C. South and N. J. DeYoung (see record 2012-01744-001). This commentary examines how behavior genetic research can be used to inform the revision of personality disorders (PDs) during the transition from DSM-IV to DSM-5. South and DeYoung address three "meta-themes" that emerged across these responses. First, personality disorders are disorders, and should be defined and diagnosed as such. Second, the DSM is fundamentally a manual for assessment and diagnosis, and thus needs to be usable for those purposes. Third, what can behavior genetics do as we move toward the DSM-5? In summary, there is much work to be done over the coming months to finalize the practical details of the DMS-5 proposal. PMID:23914997

South, Susan C; DeYoung, Nathaniel J

2013-07-01

220

‘Bringing Torn Lives Together Again’: Effects of the First Congruence Couple Therapy Training Application to Clients in Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Counsellors (N = 21) receiving their first training in Congruence Couple Therapy (CCT) applied CCT to 1–2 pathological gamblers (N = 24) and their spouses conjointly at their Ontario treatment settings. Gamblers' and spouses' pre–post quantitative results indicated statistically significant reduction of gambling urges and behaviours and improvement in spousal relationship. However, contrary to hypothesis, spouses experienced a significant decrease in overall life satisfaction,

BONNIE K. LEE; MARTIN ROVERS

2008-01-01

221

A latent class analysis of DSM-IV pathological gambling criteria in a nationally representative British sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identified empirically derived subtypes of gamblers based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling disorder (PGD). Data from the gamblers (n=5644) who participated in the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey (BGPS) were analysed using latent class analysis. Common socio-demographic correlates of PGD were subsequently assessed across the classes. Three distinct

Orla McBride; Gary Adamson; Mark Shevlin

2010-01-01

222

Internet Gambling Behavior in a Sample of Online Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined Internet gambling behavior in a sample of online gamblers. Participants (N = 563; 382 male; ages 18-over 65) were recruited from a banner placed in an online newsletter. Questionnaires were completed online and assessed demographic information, game-play patterns (e.g., frequency, duration, wagering), preferred type of…

McBride, Jessica; Derevensky, Jeffrey

2009-01-01

223

Impulsivity, Gambling Cognitions, and the Gambler's Fallacy in University Students.  

PubMed

The present study explored the associations among impulsivity, gambling cognitions, and behavioral adherence to the gambler's fallacy in university students (N = 142). Both impulsivity and gambling cognitions were significant predictors of non-problem and problem gambler categories as defined the Problem Gambling Severity Index. A logistic regression analysis showed that the independent contribution of cognition was statistically significant but that the contribution of impulsivity was not. A behavioral measure of gambling was obtained by asking participants to play an online game of roulette for a maximum of 15 min. Only outside bets were permitted whereby participants were to bet on the color of the winning number. Adherence to the gambler's fallacy was indexed by the likelihood of betting on an alternation in the color of the winning number as the number of consecutive outcomes of the other color increased. Gambling cognitions and gender, but not impulsivity, were associated with adherence to the gambler's fallacy. Tracing the sources of specific influences on gambling behavior may benefit from a framework that distinguishes between "hot" (emotional) and "cold" (non-emotional) mechanisms that promote problem gambling. PMID:24293013

Marmurek, Harvey H C; Switzer, Jessica; D'Alvise, Joshua

2015-03-01

224

Altering the "Near-Miss" Effect in Slot Machine Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the potential for recreational gamblers to respond as if certain types of losing slot machine outcomes were actually closer to a win than others (termed the "near-miss effect"). Exposure to conditional discrimination training and testing disrupted this effect for 10 of the 16 participants. These 10 participants demonstrated…

Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Jackson, James E.; Habib, Reza

2009-01-01

225

A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members…

Binde, Per

2012-01-01

226

Temperament and Maltreatment in the Emergence of Borderline and Antisocial Personality Pathology during Early Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Objective: The present study utilized a prospective, longitudinal design to examine the role of temperament and maltreatment in predicting the emergence of borderline (BPD) and antisocial (ASPD) personality disorder symptoms during adolescence. Method: Two hundred and forty-five children aged between 11 and 13 years were recruited from primary schools in Melbourne, Australia. Participants completed temperament, maltreatment, BPD and ASPD symptom measures, and approximately two years later, 206 participants were again assessed for BPD and ASPD symptoms. Results: The findings indicate that childhood neglect is a significant predictor of an increase in BPD symptoms, while childhood abuse is a significant predictor of an increase in ASPD symptoms. Moreover, abuse and neglect acted as moderators of the relationship between temperament dimensions and increase in BPD and ASPD symptoms, respectively. Abuse was associated with an increase in BPD symptoms for children with low Affiliation, while neglect was associated with an increase in ASPD symptoms for children with low Effortful Control. Conclusions: The current study contributes much needed prospective, longitudinal information on the early development of symptoms of BPD and ASPD, and supports importance of both temperamental and environmental factors in predicting the emergence of these mental health problems early in life. PMID:23970911

Jovev, Martina; McKenzie, Trudi; Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Chanen, Andrew M.

2013-01-01

227

Pathological gambling: A review of the literature (prepared for the American Psychiatric Association task force on DSM-IV committee on disorders of impulse control not elsewhere classified)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a review of the literature on pathological gambling prepared for the work group on disorders of impulse control, not elsewhere classified of the American Psychiatric Association. It introduces the new DSM-IV criteria as well as outlines the phases of the career of the pathological gambler. Research discussed includes that on pathological gambling and psychiatric disorders, substance abuse, family

Henry R. Lesieur; Richard J. Rosenthal

1991-01-01

228

Subtypes of Disordered Gamblers: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)  

PubMed Central

Aims To derive empirical subtypes of problem gamblers based on etiological and clinical characteristics described in the Pathways Model, using data from a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults. Design & Measurement Data were collected from structured diagnostic face-to-face interviews using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-IV version IV (AUDADIS-IV). Setting The study utilized data from U.S. National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Participants All disordered gambling participants (N = 581) from a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of civilian non-institutionalized adults aged 18 years or older. Findings Latent class analyses indicated the best-fitting model was a three-class solution. Those in the largest class (Class 1: 51%, n=295) reported the lowest overall levels of psychopathology including gambling problem severity and mood disorders. In contrast, respondents in Class 2 (20%, n=117) had a high probability of endorsing past-year substance use disorders, moderate probabilities of having parents with alcohol/drug problems and of having a personality disorder, and the highest probability for past-year mood disorders. Respondents in Class 3 (29%, n=169) had the highest probabilities of personality and prior-to-past year mood disorders, substance use disorders, separation/divorce, drinking-related physical fights, and parents with alcohol/drug problems and/or a history of ASPD. Conclusions Three subtypes of disordered gamblers can be identified, roughly corresponding to the sub-types of the Pathways Model, ranging from a subgroup with low levels of gambling severity and psychopathology to one with high levels of gambling problem severity and comorbid psychiatric disorders. PMID:23072599

Nower, Lia; Martins, Silvia S.; Lin, Keng-Han; Blanco, Carlos

2014-01-01

229

Gender Differences in Characteristics of Chinese Treatment-Seeking Problem Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 952 (841 men and 111 women) Chinese treatment-seeking problem gamblers completed self-report assessment forms.\\u000a Female in contrast to male gamblers were more likely to be older, married, less educated, and without employment. Female gamblers\\u000a also started gambling at an older age, had a shorter gambling history, preferred casino and mahjong gambling, and reported\\u000a more somatic complaints and

Catherine So-kum Tang; Anise M. S. Wu; Joe Y. C. Tang

2007-01-01

230

Personal digital assistant-enabled report content knowledgebase results in more complete pathology reports and enhances resident learning.  

PubMed

We developed a personal digital assistant-based knowledgebase of surgical pathology report content recommendations and performed an experimental trial to test if the knowledgebase improved report completeness. The 15 experimental group and 13 control group residents were given microscope slides and corresponding reports with the final diagnosis section blanked-out, and were asked to complete the final diagnosis section during 3 study episodes (T0, T1, and T2). At T0 (baseline), experimental group and control group produced reports of comparable completeness. During T1, experimental group was allowed to use the knowledgebase while completing reports. During T1, experimental group produced more complete reports and were better judges of report completeness than control group. At T2, when neither group used the knowledgebase, experimental group's performance was still statistically better than control group's. Use of the knowledgebase did not ensure report completeness, but was associated with more complete reports and more accurate judgments of report completeness, and this performance advantage persisted in the absence of the knowledgebase. PMID:17949779

Skeate, Robert C; Wahi, Monika M; Jessurun, Jose; Connelly, Donald P

2007-12-01

231

A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling\\u000a problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of\\u000a these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members of a local society and participation

Per Binde

232

Internet Gambling Behavior in a Sample of Online Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined Internet gambling behavior in a sample of online gamblers. Participants (N?=?563; 382 male; ages 18–over 65) were recruited from a banner placed in an online newsletter. Questionnaires were completed\\u000a online and assessed demographic information, game-play patterns (e.g., frequency, duration, wagering), preferred type of play,\\u000a and problem gambling (using the DSM-IV). In addition, participation in gambling-type games

Jessica McBride; Jeffrey Derevensky

2009-01-01

233

Pathological gambling and treatment outcomes for adults age 50 or older in methadone maintenance treatment.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship of pathological gambling to negative treatment outcomes for methadone maintenance patients aged 50 or older. The study included 130 methadone maintenance patients. Pathological gambling was determined using the Lie-Bet, a screen for pathological gambling; the outcomes were remaining in treatment and negative urine screens for drug use. Twenty percent of the sample identified as pathological gamblers. Pathological gambling was unrelated to remaining in treatment or negative urine screens. Although pathological gambling had no adverse influence on these treatment outcomes, the prevalence of pathological gambling suggests that screening for it may provide insights about other concerns. PMID:25202832

Engel, Rafael J; Rosen, Daniel

2015-04-01

234

Factorial structure of the German version of the dimensional assessment of personality pathology-basic questionnaire in clinical and nonclinical samples.  

PubMed

The Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ) assesses 18 traits to provide a systematic representation of the overall domain of personality disorders. We tested the cross-cultural stability of the prediction that four higher-order factors (Emotional Dysregulation, Dissocial Behavior, Inhibitedness, and Compulsivity) underlie the 18 basic traits. A total of 81 patients who were primarily treated for an Axis II personality disorder and N = 166 healthy control patients completed the German version of the DAPP-BQ. Results clearly confirmed cross-cultural stability of the postulated four-factor structure in both samples, accounting for 74.7% (clinical sample), and 65.7% (nonclinical sample) of the total variance. All four higher-order factors showed specific correlational relationships with dimensional assessments of DSM-IV personality disorders. PMID:11723879

Pukrop, R; Gentil, I; Steinbring, I; Steinmeyer, E

2001-10-01

235

Pathological gambling induced by dopamine antagonists: a case report.  

PubMed

Pathological gambling is defined as inappropriate, persistent, and maladaptive gambling behaviour. It is a non-pharmacological addiction classified as an impulse control disorder. However, pathological gambling has been associated with dopamine agonist use. Here we report of a 28-year-old man with a first major depressive episode and a post-traumatic stress disorder who has been treated with a combination of the serotonine/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor duloxetine and the tricyclic antidepressant maprotiline. The administration of antipsychotic flupentixole (up to 7 mg) turned this slight online poker gambler into an excessive gambler. Only after the discontinuation of the antidopaminergic agents and the switch to bupropion did this gambling behaviour stop which suggests a causal relationship between dopamine antagonists and pathological gambling. PMID:24356928

Grötsch, Philipp; Lange, Claudia; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Lang, Undine

2015-03-01

236

A unifying perspective on personality pathology across the life span: developmental considerations for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.  

PubMed

Proposed changes in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) include replacing current personality disorder (PD) categories on Axis II with a taxonomy of dimensional maladaptive personality traits. Most of the work on dimensional models of personality pathology, and on personality disorders per se, has been conducted on young and middle-aged adult populations. Numerous questions remain regarding the applicability and limitations of applying various PD models to early and later life. In the present paper, we provide an overview of such dimensional models and review current proposals for conceptualizing PDs in DSM-V. Next, we extensively review existing evidence on the development, measurement, and manifestation of personality pathology in early and later life focusing on those issues deemed most relevant for informing DSM-V. Finally, we present overall conclusions regarding the need to incorporate developmental issues in conceptualizing PDs in DSM-V and highlight the advantages of a dimensional model in unifying PD perspectives across the life span. PMID:19583880

Tackett, Jennifer L; Balsis, Steve; Oltmanns, Thomas F; Krueger, Robert F

2009-01-01

237

A unifying perspective on personality pathology across the life span: Developmental considerations for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders  

PubMed Central

Proposed changes in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) include replacing current personality disorder (PD) categories on Axis II with a taxonomy of dimensional maladaptive personality traits. Most of the work on dimensional models of personality pathology, and on personality disorders per se, has been conducted on young and middle-aged adult populations. Numerous questions remain regarding the applicability and limitations of applying various PD models to early and later life. In the present paper, we provide an overview of such dimensional models and review current proposals for conceptualizing PDs in DSM-V. Next, we extensively review existing evidence on the development, measurement, and manifestation of personality pathology in early and later life focusing on those issues deemed most relevant for informing DSM-V. Finally, we present overall conclusions regarding the need to incorporate developmental issues in conceptualizing PDs in DSM-V and highlight the advantages of a dimensional model in unifying PD perspectives across the life span. PMID:19583880

TACKETT, JENNIFER L.; BALSIS, STEVE; OLTMANNS, THOMAS F.; KRUEGER, ROBERT F.

2010-01-01

238

Internet Self-Exclusion: Characteristics of Self-Excluded Gamblers and Preliminary Evidence for Its Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preliminary scientific evidence indicates that online gamblers are more likely to be problem gamblers and thus point to the need for effective protection measures. This study focuses on an online self-exclusion program and seeks to comprehensively examine the benefits of this measure. It was intended to collect detailed information on the…

Hayer, Tobias; Meyer, Gerhard

2011-01-01

239

All in the Family: Help-Seeking by Significant Others of Problem Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem gambling can significantly affect the lives of concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers, especially family members, but little is known about their help-seeking activities and experiences. This paper explores help-seeking by CSOs of problem gamblers and their related motivators and barriers. A telephone interview was…

Hing, Nerilee; Tiyce, Margaret; Holdsworth, Louise; Nuske, Elaine

2013-01-01

240

A Typology of UK Slot Machine Gamblers: A Longitudinal Observational and Interview Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Slot machine gambling is a popular leisure activity worldwide yet there has been very little research into different types of slot machine gamblers. Earlier typologies of slot machine gamblers have only concentrated on adolescents in arcade environments. This study presents a new typology of slot machine players based on over 1000 h of participant…

Griffiths, Mark D.

2011-01-01

241

Recruiting Gamblers from the General Population for Research Purposes: Outcomes from Two Contrasting Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple means exist by which gamblers including problem gamblers may be recruited from the general population for research survey purposes. However, there appears to be limited discussion in the published literature about the relative merits of one or other approach. This paper addresses this gap, in part, by reporting the experiences of…

Williams, Jeremy D.; Pulford, Justin; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max

2010-01-01

242

Characteristics and Help-Seeking Behaviors of Internet Gamblers Based on Most Problematic Mode of Gambling  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies of problem Internet gamblers have failed to distinguish whether their problem gambling relates to Internet or land-based gambling modes. Therefore, characteristics and help-seeking behaviors of people whose gambling problems relate specifically to Internet gambling are unknown, but could inform the optimal alignment of treatment and support services with the needs and preferences of problem gamblers. Objective This study aimed to compare (1) characteristics of problem Internet gamblers and problem land-based gamblers and (2) uptake of different types and modes of help between problem Internet gamblers and problem land-based gamblers. Hypothesis 1 was that problem Internet gamblers are less likely to seek help. Hypothesis 2 was that problem Internet gamblers are more likely to use online modes of help. Methods A sample of 620 respondents meeting criteria for problem gambling was drawn from an online survey of 4594 Australian gamblers. Respondents were recruited through advertisements on gambling and gambling help websites, Facebook, and Google. Measures consisted of gambling participation; proportion of gambling on the Internet; most problematic mode of gambling; help seeking from 11 different sources of formal help, informal help, and self-help for gambling problems; psychological distress (Kessler 6); problem gambling severity (Problem Gambling Severity Index, PGSI); and demographics. Results Problem Internet gamblers were significantly more likely than problem land-based gamblers to be male (?2 1=28.3, P<.001, ?=0.21), younger (t 616.33=4.62, P<.001, d=0.37), have lower psychological distress (?2 1=5.4, P=.02, ?=0.09), and experience problems with sports and race wagering (?2 4=228.5, P<.001, ?=0.61). Uptake of help was significantly lower among problem Internet compared to problem land-based gamblers (?2 1=6.9, P<.001, ?=0.11), including from face-to-face services, gambling helplines, online groups, self-exclusion from land-based venues, family or friends, and self-help strategies. Both problem Internet and problem land-based gamblers had similarly low use of online help. However, problem land-based gamblers (37.6%, 126/335) were significantly more likely to have sought land-based formal help compared to problem Internet gamblers (23.5%, 67/285; ?2 1=14.3, P<.001, ?=0.15). Conclusions The findings suggest that more targeted and innovative efforts may be needed to increase use of gambling help by problem Internet gamblers. Alternatively, their lower PGSI and K6 scores suggest Internet problem gamblers may have less need for gambling-related help. This is the first known study to classify problem Internet gamblers as those whose problem gambling specifically relates to Internet gambling. Further research is needed to better understand why help-seeking rates are lower among Internet problem gamblers. PMID:25567672

2015-01-01

243

A Comment on the Utility of Prevalence Estimates of Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case is presented that researchers interested in policy aimed at treating the pathological gambler need to shift focus to improving the utility of prevalence estimates. It is argued that researchers supplement prevalence estimates with practical and well-defined measures of severity and other predictors and correlates of help-seeking. The dimension of severity is emphasized as one means of providing estimates

Blasé Gambino

2006-01-01

244

Reliability and validity of the Dutch Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Short Form (DAPP-SF), a shortened version of the DAPP-Basic Questionnaire.  

PubMed

The Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ) appears to be a good choice for the assessment of personality pathology. However, due to its length, administration of the instrument is rather time-consuming, hindering standard inclusion of the DABB-BQ in a battery of assessment instruments at intake. We developed the 136-item DAPP-SF (Short Form), and investigated its psychometric characteristics in various samples, i.e., a community-based sample (n = 487), patients with mood-, anxiety-, and somatoform disorders (n = 1,329), and patients with personality disorders (n = 1,393). Results revealed high internal consistency for almost all dimensions. The factor structure appeared almost identical as compared to the factor structure of the original DAPP-BQ, and was shown to be invariant across the various patient and community samples. Indices for convergent, discriminant and criterion related validity were satisfactory. It is concluded that the good psychometric characteristics of the original DAPP-BQ were preserved in the shortened version of the instrument. PMID:19538084

de Beurs, Edwin; Rinne, Thomas; van Kampen, Dirk; Verheul, Roel; Andrea, Helen

2009-06-01

245

Measuring pathological gambling in children: The case of fruit machines in the U.K  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alleged incidence of addiction to fruit machine gambling among children in the U.K. has highlighted the need for a measure to define and count pathological gambling in children. The DSM-IV criteria, which are being refined to diagnose pathological gambling in adults, was adapted for use with pre-adult gamblers. The resulting DSM-IV-J criteria were tested using a questionnaire survey on

Sue Fisher

1992-01-01

246

Treatment of Pathological Gambling Using a Guided Self-Change Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological gamblers are prone to leave treatment early and often display low levels of motivation within treatment. Use of brief treatments that emphasize reducing client ambivalence through motivational techniques may help increase the likelihood of treatment compliance. This case study describes a 5-session treatment of pathological gambling using a brief and motivationally focused cognitive—behavioral guided self-change (GSC) approach. The 36-year-old

Damon Lipinski; James P. Whelan; Andrew W. Meyers

2007-01-01

247

The pathology of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid: Review of the literature and personal experience on 62 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present review is to analyze the numerous pathological patterns of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT)\\u000a and discuss the problems of differential diagnosis with other thyroid and nonthyroid tumors. In addition, morphological parameters\\u000a and phenotypic features were related to the clinical outcome. The recent literature was reviewed and compared with the features\\u000a of 62 MCTs observed

Mauro Papotti; Daniela Sambataro; Carla Pecchioni; Gianni Bussolati

1996-01-01

248

An examination of the correlates of fearless dominance and self-centered impulsivity among high-frequency gamblers.  

PubMed

The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) is a commonly used assessment of psychopathy. Questions have been raised, however, regarding the validity of its Fearless Dominance (FD) factor. In the current study, the correlations manifested by FD and Self-centered Impulsivity (ScI) in relation to external criteria were examined in a sample of gamblers. Two key hypotheses were also tested: (a) does FD perform differently when paired with high scores on ScI, and (b) does FD serve as an index of narcissism. As expected, FD and ScI manifested a divergent pattern of correlations such that only ScI was associated with psychopathology or impairment. FD's relations with the external criteria were not generally moderated by scores on ScI. FD was significantly correlated with narcissism, but the two differed such that only narcissism was associated with any degree of maladaptivity. It remains unclear whether FD should be considered a core component of psychopathy. PMID:24344842

Maples, Jessica L; Miller, Joshua D; Fortune, Erica; MacKillop, James; Campbell, W Keith; Lynam, Donald R; Lance, Chuck E; Goodie, Adam S

2014-06-01

249

BRIEF REPORTS Trusting Problem Gamblers: Reliability and Validity of Self-Reported Gambling Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retest reliability and validity of self-reported gambling behavior were assessed in 2 samples of problem gamblers. Days gambled and money spent gambling over a 6-month timeframe were reliable over a 2- to 3-week retest period using the timeline follow-back interview procedure (N 35; intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranged from .61 to .98). Gamblers did, however, report significantly more gambling

David C. Hodgins; Karyn Makarchuk

250

Characteristics of Problem Gamblers 56 Years of Age or Older: A Statewide Study of Casino Self-Excluders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gambling among older adults appears to be increasing, though little is known about the characteristics of older adult problem gamblers. The purpose of this study was to compare older adults to younger and middle-aged adults in a cohort of problem gamblers participating in a state-administered casino self-exclusion program. Self-reported problem gamblers (N = 1,601) who voluntary banned themselves from Missouri

Lia Nower; Alex Blaszczynski

2008-01-01

251

Effects of impulsivity, reinforcement sensitivity, and cognitive style on Pathological Gambling symptoms among frequent slot machine players  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological Gambling (PG) is the inability to resist recurrent urges to gamble excessively despite harmful consequences to the gambler or others. A cognitive-behavioral Pathways Model of PG (Blaszczynski & Nower, 2002) suggests individual differences in rash impulsivity and reward sensitivity, together with a cognitive style that promotes poor decision making, as risk factors. These individual differences were examined in a

Vance V. MacLaren; Jonathan A. Fugelsang; Kevin A. Harrigan; Michael J. Dixon

252

The Association Between Comorbidity and Outcome in Pathological Gambling: A Prospective Follow-up of Recent Quitters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A naturalistic sample of pathological gamblers (N = 101) who recently quit gambling was followed prospectively for a year (follow-up rate 80%). Lifetime mood disorders were identified in 61% of participants and 73% and 48% had lifetime alcohol use and drug use disorders, respectively. Current prevalence rates, however, were much lower. Current mood disorders were found for 20% and 7% had a

David C. Hodgins; Nicole Peden; Erin Cassidy

2005-01-01

253

Internet-Based Treatment of Pathological Gambling with a Three-Year Follow-Up  

PubMed Central

Effective therapies for pathological gambling exist, but their use is limited to about 10% of the target population. In an attempt to lower the barriers for help, Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) has been shown to be effective when delivered to anon-depressed sample with pathological gambling. This study sought to extend this finding to a larger, more representative population, and also test a model to predict responder status. Following advertisement, a total of 284 participants started an 8-week ICBT programme with minimal therapist contact via e-mail and weekly telephone calls of less than 15 min. The average time spent on each participant, including telephone conversations, e-mail, and administration, was 4 h. In addition to a mixed effects model to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment, two logistic regression analyses were performed with the following eight pre-defined response predictor variables: work-life satisfaction, primary gambling activity, debts due to gambling, social support, personal yearly salary, alcohol consumption, stage of change, and dissociative gambling. ICBT resulted in statistically significant reductions in the scores of pathological gambling, anxiety, and depression as well as an increase in quality of life compared to pre-treatment levels. Follow-ups carried out in the treatment group at 6, l8, and 36 months indicated that treatment effects were sustained. Using the eight predictor variable model rendered an acceptable predictive ability to identify responders both at post-test (AUC = .72, p < .01) and at 36-month follow-up (AUC = .70, p < .01). We conclude that ICBT for pathological gamblers, even if depressed, can be effective and that outcome can partly be predicted by pre-treatment characteristics. PMID:22620990

Carlbring, Per; Degerman, Nicklas; Jonsson, Jakob; Andersson, Gerhard

2012-01-01

254

Problem gamblers exhibit reward hypersensitivity in medial frontal cortex during gambling.  

PubMed

Problem gambling (PG) is increasingly conceptualized as an addiction akin to substance abuse, rather than an impulse control disorder, however the mechanism of addiction remains unclear. Neuroimaging investigations have supported a "reward deficiency" hypothesis for PG by suggesting a blunted response to gambling, particularly in the striatum. Here we describe electrophysiological evidence of a hypersensitive response to gambling feedback in problem gamblers. Previous research in healthy participants has shown that feedback during gambling tasks triggers stereotypical neural responses including the Feedback-Related Mediofrontal Negativity (FRN), the feedback-related P300, and an increase in induced theta-band (4-8 Hz) power. We tested the theory that abnormal feedback processing characterizes brain activity in problem gamblers while gambling. EEG was recorded from non-gamblers and self-identified gamblers as they engaged in a computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task. Feedback about valence (win vs. loss) triggered a FRN in both groups, but in gamblers this was preceded by an early-latency hypersensitive fronto-central difference to feedback. This early FRN was correlated with gambling severity and was localized to medial frontal cortex using distributed source imaging (CLARA). Gamblers also differed in responses to risk, showing a blunted P300 component and less EEG power in the theta band. Here we suggest that a more nuanced interpretation of reward deficiency is called for with respect to PG. For certain aspects of brain function, gamblers may exhibit hypersensitivity to reward feedback more akin to drug sensitization than reward deficiency. Our results also suggest that the neurologically normal brain employs dissociable systems in the processing of feedback from tasks involving risky decision making. PMID:21982697

Oberg, Scott A K; Christie, Gregory J; Tata, Matthew S

2011-11-01

255

Personalization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how a typical high school in Huntington Beach, California, curbed disruptive student behavior by personalizing the school experience for "problem" students. Through mostly volunteer efforts, an adopt-a-kid program was initiated that matched kids' learning styles to adults' personality styles and resulted in fewer suspensions and numerous…

Shore, Rebecca Martin

1996-01-01

256

Response Inhibition during Cue Reactivity in Problem Gamblers: An fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Disinhibition over drug use, enhanced salience of drug use and decreased salience of natural reinforcers are thought to play an important role substance dependence. Whether this is also true for pathological gambling is unclear. To understand the effects of affective stimuli on response inhibition in problem gamblers (PRGs), we designed an affective Go/Nogo to examine the interaction between response inhibition and salience attribution in 16 PRGs and 15 healthy controls (HCs). Four affective blocks were presented with Go trials containing neutral, gamble, positive or negative affective pictures. The No-Go trials in these blocks contained neutral pictures. Outcomes of interest included percentage of impulsive errors and mean reaction times in the different blocks. Brain activity related to No-Go trials was assessed to measure response inhibition in the various affective conditions and brain activity related to Go trials was assessed to measure salience attribution. PRGs made fewer errors during gamble and positive trials than HCs, but were slower during all trials types. Compared to HCs, PRGs activated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate and ventral striatum to a greater extent while viewing gamble pictures. The dorsal lateral and inferior frontal cortex were more activated in PRGs than in HCs while viewing positive and negative pictures. During neutral inhibition, PRGs were slower but similar in accuracy to HCs, and showed more dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex activity. In contrast, during gamble and positive pictures PRGs performed better than HCs, and showed lower activation of the dorsolateral and anterior cingulate cortex. This study shows that gambling-related stimuli are more salient for PRGs than for HCs. PRGs seem to rely on compensatory brain activity to achieve similar performance during neutral response inhibition. A gambling-related or positive context appears to facilitate response inhibition as indicated by lower brain activity and fewer behavioural errors in PRGs. PMID:22479305

van Holst, Ruth J.; van Holstein, Mieke; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Goudriaan, Anna E.

2012-01-01

257

Stability of the DSM-5 Section III pathological personality traits and their longitudinal associations with psychosocial functioning in personality disordered individuals.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to establish (a) the stability of the DSM-5 Section III personality disorder (PD) traits, (b) whether these traits predict future psychosocial functioning, and (c) whether changes in traits track with changes in psychosocial functioning across time. Ninety-three outpatients (61% female) diagnosed with at least 1 PD completed patient-report measures at 2 time-points (M time between assessments = 1.44 years), including the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 and several measures of psychosocial functioning. Effect sizes of rank-order and mean-level change were calculated. In addition, Time 1 traits were used to predict functioning measures at Time 2. Finally, latent change score models were estimated for DSM-5 Section III traits and functioning measures, and correlations among latent change scores were calculated to establish the relationship between change in traits and functional outcomes. Findings demonstrated that the DSM-5 Section III traits were highly stable in terms of normative (i.e., mean-level) change and rank-order stability over the course of the study. Furthermore, traits prospectively predicted psychosocial functioning. However, at the individual level traits and functioning were not entirely static over the study, and change in individuals' functioning tracked with changes in trait levels. These findings demonstrate that the DSM-5 Section III traits are highly stable consistent with the definition of PD, prospectively predictive of psychosocial functioning, and are dynamically associated with functioning over time. This study provides important evidence in support of the DSM-5 Section III PD model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25384070

Wright, Aidan G C; Calabrese, William R; Rudick, Monica M; Yam, Wern How; Zelazny, Kerry; Williams, Trevor F; Rotterman, Jane H; Simms, Leonard J

2015-02-01

258

Stability of the DSM-5 Section III Pathological Personality Traits and their Longitudinal Associations with Psychosocial Functioning in Personality Disordered Individuals  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to establish (a) the stability of the DSM-5 Section III personality disorder (PD) traits, (b) whether these traits predict future psychosocial functioning, and (c) whether changes in traits track with changes in psychosocial functioning across time. Ninety-three outpatients (61% Female) diagnosed with at least one PD completed patient-report measures at two time-points (M time between assessments = 1.44 years), including the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 and several measures of psychosocial functioning. Effect sizes of rank-order and mean-level change were calculated. In addition, Time 1 traits were used to predict functioning measures at Time 2. Finally, latent change score models were estimated for DSM-5 Section III traits and functioning measures, and correlations among latent change scores were calculated to establish the relationship between change in traits and functional outcomes. Findings demonstrated that the DSM-5 Section III traits were highly stable in terms of normative (i.e., mean-level) change and rank-order stability over the course of the study. Furthermore, traits prospectively predicted psychosocial functioning. However, at the individual level traits and functioning were not entirely static over the study, and change in individuals’ functioning tracked with changes in trait levels. These findings demonstrate that the DSM-5 Section III traits are highly stable consistent with the definition of PD, prospectively predictive of psychosocial functioning, and dynamically associated with functioning over time. This study provides important evidence in support of the DSM-5 Section III PD model. PMID:25384070

Wright, Aidan G.C.; Calabrese, William R.; Rudick, Monica M.; Yam, Wern How; Zelazny, Kerry; Williams, Trevor F.; Rotterman, Jane H.; Simms, Leonard J.

2014-01-01

259

Pause for thought: response perseveration and personality in gambling.  

PubMed

In a sample of normal volunteers, response perseveration (RP) on a computerised gambling task, the card perseveration task, was examined under two conditions: No pause (Standard task) and a 5-s pause (Pause task) following feedback from previous bet. Behavioural outcomes comprised number of cards played (and cash won/lost) and latency of response. Individual differences in these outcomes were conceptualised in terms of the reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality. Results showed that, on the Standard task only, sub-scales of the Carver and White (J Pers Social Psychol 67:319-333, 1994) Behavioural Approach System scale positively correlated with number of cards played and amount of money lost (indicative of impaired RP), but these associations were abolished with the imposition of a 5-s pause between feedback and the opportunity to make the next bet-this pause also had an overall main effect of improving RP and reducing losses. As related research shows that such a pause normalises the RP deficit seen in pathological gamblers, these findings hold potentially valuable implications for informing practice in the prevention and treatment of pathological gambling, and point to the role played by individual differences in approach motivation. PMID:23832753

Corr, Philip J; Thompson, Stephen J

2014-12-01

260

Examining the Gambling Behaviors of Chinese Online Lottery Gamblers: Are They Rational?  

PubMed

In this research, we explore a unique Chinese peer to peer (P2P) online lottery gambling data (n = 388,123) and examine the rationality of Chinese online lottery gamblers. We show that Chinese online lottery gamblers are irrational in the sense that they are significantly affected by the lottery winning history of others even though this winning history is shown to be merely an exogenous random shock. Specifically, in this Chinese P2P online lottery gambling game, some of the lottery gamblers (named the proposers) propose lottery packages first, and then, other lottery gamblers (named the followers) will follow by choosing among the different packages and deciding on how much to purchase. The past lottery winning return rate of each proposer is provided as public information and calculated as the ratio between her past winning money and wager. It is shown that this past return rate is merely a random shock because winning in the past cannot predict anything about the performance in the future. However, we find that Chinese online P2P lottery gamblers are significantly more likely to join a lottery package if it is proposed by proposers with higher return rates. PMID:24420960

Yuan, Jia

2014-01-14

261

Expertise and gambling: Using Type 2 signal detection theory to investigate differences between regular gamblers and nongamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental investigation into how individuals make decisions under uncertainty when faced with different payout structures in the context of gambling. Type 2 signal detection theory was utilized to compare sensitivity to bias manipulations between regular nonproblem gamblers and nongamblers in a novel probability-based gambling task. The results indicated that both regular gamblers and nongamblers responded to

Sara E. Lueddeke; Philip A. Higham

2011-01-01

262

Evidence for a single latent class of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders borderline personality pathology.  

PubMed

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been described as clinically heterogeneous, with numerous subtypes of the disorder posited. The present study investigated this potential heterogeneity by conducting both confirmatory factor analysis and latent class analysis of consensus ratings of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) Revised Third Edition BPD criteria in a mixed clinical and nonclinical sample (n = 411). Confirmatory factor analysis results suggested that a single factor fit the data most parsimoniously. Latent class analysis results supported 2 latent classes: those with a high likelihood of BPD symptoms (n = 171) and those with a low likelihood (n = 240). The borderline latent class was more inclusive than diagnoses made based on DSM-III-R thresholds and improved prediction of symptom severity and interpersonal dysfunction, suggesting the clinical importance of 3 or more BPD criteria. Future research on subtypes of BPD may benefit by focusing on variables that supplement the DSM criteria. PMID:17145285

Clifton, Allan; Pilkonis, Paul A

2007-01-01

263

Report on the cost-benefit\\/effectiveness of treatment at the Johns Hopkins Center for Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is mandatory that programs, particularly social programs, generate evidence of efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of the treatment of illness. Thus a study was conducted to determine the cost-effectiveness of treatment of pathological gamblers at the Johns Hopkins Center for Pathological Gambling. This Center provides two types of treatment programs: an intensive residential program, and an out-patient program. Although abstinence

Robert M. Politzer; James S. Morrow; Sandra B. Leavey

1985-01-01

264

Slot Machine Preferences of Pathological and Recreational Gamblers Are Verbally Constructed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study attempted to alter preferences for concurrently available slot machines of equal payout through the development of equivalence classes and subsequent transfers of functions. Participants rated stimuli consisting of words thought to be associated with having a gambling problem (e.g., "desperation" and "debt"), words associated…

Dixon, Mark R.; Bihler, Holly L.; Nastally, Becky L.

2011-01-01

265

Application of Gambler's Ruin Model to Sediment Transport Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study develops a Gambler's ruin model of sediment particle interaction between bed material and water column inflows. Given several transitions between the bed material and the water column, this study calculates the probabilities starting from a given number of sediment particles to the maximum allowable number of sediment particles in the water column and the mean time that the particles remain in the water column. The model is used to simulate the effective risk of the water treatment plant reaching limits in the water quality standard. The model is also used to quantify variability in the effective risk of exceeding the maximum carrying capacity of the Shihmen reservoir basin. The modeling results, including the expected value and variance in sediment concentrations as well as the confidence interval of effective risk, are presented. Parameter of laboratory experiments of Samaga et al. (1986) Probability of sediment particles reaching the total load number of particles in the water column versus particle diameter. (M1-7, M1-8 and M1-9 run; dm= 0.57 mm; ?g = 3.41).

Tsai, C.; Wu, N.

2013-12-01

266

The Enduring Impact of Borderline Personality Pathology: Risk for Threatening Life Events in Later Middle-Age  

PubMed Central

Both neuroticism and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are associated with increased frequency of stressful life events in young adults. It is not clear, however, whether this effect extends to later life because BPD is apparently diminished in frequency and severity when people reach middle adulthood. This issue was examined in a representative, community sample of men and women between the ages of 55 and 64 (N=1,234). Ten DSM-IV PDs and neuroticism were assessed at baseline using a semi-structured interview (SIDP-IV) and questionnaire (NEO-PI-R). Life events were measured 6 months later with a self-report questionnaire (LTE-Q) followed by a telephone interview. BPD features and neuroticism predicted increased frequency of life events, based on both self and interviewer-adjusted reports of negative life events. Avoidant and paranoid PD features predicted decreased frequency of negative life events. Approximately 42% of events reported on the LTE-Q were discounted following the telephone interview; higher scores on BPD symptoms were associated with more adjustments to self-report of threatening experiences. These findings indicate that symptoms of BPD and neuroticism continue to have a harmful impact on the lives of older adults. PMID:22022953

Gleason, Marci E.J.; Powers, Abigail D.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2011-01-01

267

Using cross-game behavioral markers for early identification of high-risk internet gamblers.  

PubMed

Using actual gambling behavior provides the opportunity to develop behavioral markers that operators can use to predict the development of gambling-related problems among their subscribers. Participants were 4,056 Internet gamblers who subscribed to the Internet betting service provider bwin.party. Half of this sample included multiple platform gamblers who were identified by bwin.party's Responsible Gambling (RG) program; the other half were controls randomly selected from those who had the same first deposit date. Using the daily aggregated Internet betting transactions for gamblers' first 31 calendar days of online betting activities at bwin.party, we employed a 2-step analytic strategy: (a) applying an exploratory chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) decision tree method to identify characteristics that distinguished a subgroup of high-risk Internet gamblers from the rest of the sample, and (b) conducting a confirmatory analysis of those characteristics among an independent validation sample. This analysis identified two high-risk groups (i.e., groups in which 90% of the members were identified by bwin.party's RG program): Group 1 engaged in three or more gambling activities and evidenced high wager variability on casino-type games; Group 2 engaged in two different gambling activities and evidenced high variability for live action wagers. This analysis advances an ongoing research program to identify potentially problematic Internet gamblers during the earliest stages of their Internet gambling. Gambling providers and public policymakers can use these results to inform early intervention programs that target high-risk Internet gamblers. PMID:24059836

Braverman, Julia; LaPlante, Debi A; Nelson, Sarah E; Shaffer, Howard J

2013-09-01

268

Proposed Changes in Personality and Personality Disorder Assessment and Diagnosis for DSM5 Part I: Description and Rationale  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major reconceptualization of personality psychopathology has been proposed for DSM-5 that identifies core impairments in personality functioning, pathological personality traits, and prominent pathological personality types. A comprehensive personality assessment consists of four components: levels of personality functioning, personality disorder types, pathological personality trait domains and facets, and general criteria for personality disorder. This four-part assessment focuses attention on identifying

Andrew E. Skodol; Lee Anna Clark; Donna S. Bender; Robert F. Krueger; Leslie C. Morey; Roel Verheul; Renato D. Alarcon; Carl C. Bell; Larry J. Siever; John M. Oldham

2011-01-01

269

Genetic basis of delay discounting in frequent gamblers: examination of a priori candidates and exploration of a panel of dopamine-related loci  

PubMed Central

Introduction Delay discounting is a behavioral economic index of impulsivity that reflects preferences for small immediate rewards relative to larger delayed rewards. It has been consistently linked to pathological gambling and other forms of addictive behavior, and has been proposed to be a behavioral characteristic that may link genetic variation and risk of developing addictive disorders (i.e., an endophenotype). Studies to date have revealed significant associations with polymorphisms associated with dopamine neurotransmission. The current study examined associations between delay discounting and both previously linked variants and a novel panel of dopamine-related variants in a sample of frequent gamblers. Methods Participants were 175 weekly gamblers of European ancestry who completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire to assess delay discounting preferences and provided a DNA via saliva. Results In a priori tests, two loci previously associated with delayed reward discounting (rs1800497 and rs4680) were not replicated, however, the long form of DRD4 VNTR was significantly associated with lower discounting of delayed rewards. Exploratory analysis of the dopamine-related panel revealed 11 additional significant associations in genes associated with dopamine synthesis, breakdown, reuptake, and receptor function (DRD3, SLC6A3, DDC, DBH, and SLC18A2). An aggregate genetic risk score from the nominally significant loci accounted for 17% of the variance in discounting. Mediational analyses largely supported the presence of indirect effects between the associated loci, delay discounting, and pathological gambling severity. Conclusions These findings do not replicate previously reported associations but identify several novel candidates and provide preliminary support for a systems biology approach to understand the genetic basis of delay discounting. PMID:25365808

Gray, Joshua C; MacKillop, James

2014-01-01

270

Problem Gambling Fact Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological gambling is a psychiatric disorder associated with substantial personal, family, and societal consequences. Pathological gamblers suffer from significant psychological distress with suicidal ideation or attempts exceeding 50%. Financial consequences can be staggering with rates of bankruptcies near 30% in pathological gamblers. Pathological gambling also negatively impacts the family with high rates of divorce and domestic violence in affected families.

Nancy Petry; Douglas E. Allen; Barbara A. Lucenko; Felix I. Rodriguez; Linda Graves

2007-01-01

271

Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects  

PubMed Central

Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22943008

Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

2012-01-01

272

A comparison of individual and group cognitive-behavioural treatment for female pathological gambling.  

PubMed

The current study aimed to determine the differential efficacy of a cognitive-behavioural treatment program for female pathological gamblers delivered in individual and group format. Fifty-six female pathological gamblers with electronic gaming machine gambling problems were randomly assigned to the control (waiting list) group or one of the treatment groups (individual or group treatment). Treatment comprised a 12-session program including financial limit setting, alternative activity planning, cognitive correction, problem solving, communication training, relapse prevention, and imaginal desensitisation. Treatment outcome was evaluated with conceptually related measures within the areas of gambling behaviour and psychological functioning. While individual and group treatment formats generally produced comparable outcomes in terms of gambling behaviour and psychological functioning, group treatment failed to produce superior outcomes to the control group in relation to several measures of psychological functioning. Moreover, by the completion of the six-month follow-up, 92% of the gamblers allocated to individual treatment compared with 60% allocated to group treatment no longer satisfied the diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling. These findings suggest that some caution should be employed when delivering cognitive-behavioural treatment in a group format until further research is conducted to establish its efficacy. PMID:17196159

Dowling, Nicki; Smith, David; Thomas, Trang

2007-09-01

273

How do gamblers start gambling: identifying behavioural markers for high-risk internet gambling  

PubMed Central

Background: The goal of this study is to identify betting patterns displayed during the first month of actual Internet gambling on a betting site that can serve as behavioural markers to predict the development of gambling-related problems. Methods: Using longitudinal data, k-means clustering analysis identified a small subgroup of high-risk gamblers. Results: Seventy-three percent of the members of this subgroup eventually closed their account due to gambling-related problems. The characteristics of this high-risk subgroup were as follows: (i) frequent and (ii) intensive betting combined with (iii) high variability across wager amount and (iv) an increasing wager size during the first month of betting. Conclusion: This analysis provides important information that can help to identify potentially problematic gamblers during the early stages of gambling-related problems. Public health workers can use these results to develop early interventions that target high-risk Internet gamblers for prevention efforts. However, one study limitation is that the results distinguish only a small proportion of the total sample; therefore, additional research will be necessary to identify markers that can classify larger segments of high-risk gamblers. PMID:20110273

Shaffer, Howard J.

2012-01-01

274

Belief revision in quantum decision theory: gambler's and hot hand fallacies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present article we introduce a quantum mechanism which is able to describe the creation of correlations in the evaluation of random independent events: such correlations, known as positive and negative recency, correspond respectively to the hot hand's and to the gambler's fallacies. Thus we propose a description of these effects in terms of qubits, which may become entangled,

Riccardo Franco

2008-01-01

275

A MODIFIED GAMBLER'S RUIN MODEL POLYETHYLENE CHAINS IN THE AMORPHOUS REGION  

E-print Network

A MODIFIED GAMBLER'S RUIN MODEL OF POLYETHYLENE CHAINS IN THE AMORPHOUS REGION Zhong­Hui Duan and Louis N. Howard Department of Mathematics The Florida State University ABSTRACT. Polyethylene chainsM 3 +O(M 2 ). INTRODUCTION Semicrystalline polyethylene formed from melt generally consists

Aluffi, Paolo

276

A Preliminary Outcome Study of an Outpatient Treatment Program for Gamblers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gamblers Treatment Clinic (GTC) opened in 1982 as a New York State Office of Mental Health Demonstration Program. The basic premise of the GTC is that excessive gambling is a disorder of impulse control. Treatment, conducted in the community in a time-limited fashion, attempts to uncover the underlying dynamics that precipitate disorders of…

Blackman, Sheldon; And Others

277

A Pilot Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program for Problem Gamblers in a Rural Australian Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An innovative pilot treatment program was developed for problem gamblers living in rural areas of Australia using cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) modified from an established specialist therapy service. The standard 12 weekly group program was delivered on site by adapting it to two 1 week blocks with daily group sessions and 1 week of patient…

Oakes, Jane; Gardiner, Paula; McLaughlin, Kristin; Battersby, Malcolm

2012-01-01

278

A Model for Treating Compulsive Gamblers Through Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical features of compulsive gambling and a cognitive-behavioral addiction model for conceptualizing, diagnosing, and treating the compulsive gambling disorder are presented. The traditional psychoanalytic and behavioral treatment approaches are briefly reviewed. An approach to establishing a therapeutic relationship with the gambler is discussed. Assessment instruments and stages of therapy are presented. Emphasis is placed on means to avoid relapse with

Jane L. Harris

1988-01-01

279

On being the expert witness for the compulsive gambler facing legal charges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compulsive gambling is a psychiatric disorder — an addiction to gambling in which the substance abused is money. When legal access to money is no longer available, compulsive gamblers will often resort to illegal activities in order to obtain funds with which to support their addiction.

Valerie C. Lorenz

1988-01-01

280

2011-2012BROWNBAGCOLLOQUIUMSERIES A Gambler's Penance in Seventeenth Century Spain  

E-print Network

2011-2012BROWNBAGCOLLOQUIUMSERIES A Gambler's Penance in Seventeenth Century Spain WEDNESDAY, and Collaboration in Early Modern Spain," has been published in 2011. He has also published various chapters in books about Cervantes or about Masculinity in Spain and Italy. Additionally, he is a member

Berdichevsky, Victor

281

Changes in Physiological Arousal to Gambling Cues Among Participants in Motivationally Enhanced Cognitive–Behavior Therapy for Pathological Gambling: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite somewhat high attrition and relapse rates, cognitive–behavioral interventions for pathological gambling seem promising.\\u000a As a possible remedy to these problems, we conducted a preliminary study of gambling-specific cognitive–behavior therapy (CBT)\\u000a with the addition of motivational enhancement techniques (MET) for the treatment of pathological gamblers. Data on psychophysiological\\u000a arousal upon exposure to imagined gambling vignettes were collected at both pre-

Brian M. Freidenberg; Edward B. Blanchard; Edelgard Wulfert; Loretta S. Malta

2002-01-01

282

Reward-Sensitivity, Inhibition of Reward-Seeking, and Dorsolateral Prefrontal Working Memory Function in Problem Gamblers not in Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the central role of perseverative chasing in problem gambling, the present study sought to find evidence for three hypothesized\\u000a components of perseveration in problem gamblers: reward-sensitivity dominance, deficient inhibition of reward-seeking behavior,\\u000a and working memory deficits. This was the first attempt to examine working memory deficits in problem gamblers using a conditional\\u000a association task, which is associated with posterior-dorsolateral

Victor Leiserson; Robert O. Pihl

2007-01-01

283

Pathological Gambling Subtypes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

2009-01-01

284

Nonhuman gamblers: lessons from rodents, primates, and robots  

PubMed Central

The search for neuronal and psychological underpinnings of pathological gambling in humans would benefit from investigating related phenomena also outside of our species. In this paper, we present a survey of studies in three widely different populations of agents, namely rodents, non-human primates, and robots. Each of these populations offers valuable and complementary insights on the topic, as the literature demonstrates. In addition, we highlight the deep and complex connections between relevant results across these different areas of research (i.e., cognitive and computational neuroscience, neuroethology, cognitive primatology, neuropsychiatry, evolutionary robotics), to make the case for a greater degree of methodological integration in future studies on pathological gambling. PMID:24574984

Paglieri, Fabio; Addessi, Elsa; De Petrillo, Francesca; Laviola, Giovanni; Mirolli, Marco; Parisi, Domenico; Petrosino, Giancarlo; Ventricelli, Marialba; Zoratto, Francesca; Adriani, Walter

2014-01-01

285

Pathological gambling and couple: towards an integrative systemic model.  

PubMed

This article is a critical literature review of pathological gambling focused in the family factors, particularly in the couple dynamics. Its main goal is to develop an explicative integrative systemic model of pathological gambling, based in these couple dynamics. To achieve that aim, a bibliography search was made, using on-line data bases (e.g., EBSCO Host) and recognized books in pathological gambling subject, as well as in the systemic approach in general. This process privileged the recent works (about 70 % of the reviewed literature was published in the last decade), however, also considered some classic works (the oldest one dates back to 1970). The guiding focus of this literature search evolves according to the following steps: (1) search of general comprehension of pathological gambling (19 references), (2) search specification to the subject "pathological gambling and family" (24 references), (3) search specification to the subject "pathological gambling and couple"(11 references), (4) search of systemic information which integrates the evidence resulted in the previous steps (4 references). The developed model is constituted by different levels of systemic complexity (social context, family of origin, couple and individual) and explains the problem as a signal of perturbation in the marital subsystem vital functions (e.g., power and control) though the regularities of marital dynamics of pathological gamblers. Furthermore, it gives theoretical evidence of the systemic familiar intervention in the pathological gambling. PMID:23423730

Cunha, Diana; Relvas, Ana Paula

2014-06-01

286

Gender differences in mental health characteristics and gambling among African-American adolescent gamblers  

PubMed Central

This study explores gender differences in lifetime and recent substance use/internalizing behavior, childhood externalizing behavior and gambling preferences among African-American youth gamblers. Data are from a prospective study of a community sample of 452 urban African-American youth that began at entry into first grade and was followed for ten years. Gambling was associated with high teacher ratings of childhood externalizing behaviors among males, and with high parent ratings of childhood impulsivity and hyperactivity among both genders. Internalizing behavior was associated with female gambling. No male-female differences in substance use/lifetime conduct disorder among gamblers were noted. Gambling preferences/frequency differed across genders. PMID:18393056

Martins, Silvia S.; Storr, Carla L.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Chilcoat, Howard D.

2008-01-01

287

Gender-Related Differences in the Characteristics of Problem Gamblers Using a Gambling Helpline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The characteristics of male and female gamblers utilizing a gambling helpline were examined to identify gen- der-related differences. Method: The authors performed logistic regression analyses on data obtained in 1998-1999 from callers to a gambling helpline serving southern New England. Results: Of the 562 phone calls used in the analyses, 349 (62.1%) were from male callers and 213 (37.9%)

Marc N. Potenza; Marvin A. Steinberg; Susan D. McLaughlin; Bruce J. Rounsaville; Stephanie S. O'Malley

2001-01-01

288

A Pilot Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program for Problem Gamblers in a Rural Australian Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative pilot treatment program was developed for problem gamblers living in rural areas of Australia using cognitive\\u000a behaviour therapy (CBT) modified from an established specialist therapy service. The standard 12 weekly group program was\\u000a delivered on site by adapting it to two 1 week blocks with daily group sessions and 1 week of patient practice between the\\u000a face to face group

Jane Oakes; Paula Gardiner; Kristin McLaughlin; Malcolm Battersby

289

Minimal Treatment Approaches for Concerned Significant Others of Problem Gamblers: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to examine the efficacy of minimal treatment interventions for concerned significant others (CSOs)\\u000a of problem gamblers. One hundred and eighty-six participants (82% females, 56% spouses) were randomly assigned to one of three\\u000a groups: the first minimal intervention group received a self-help workbook [based on behavioral principles, modified from\\u000a the Community Reinforcement and Family Therapy

David C. Hodgins; Tony Toneatto; Karyn Makarchuk; Wayne Skinner; Susan Vincent

2007-01-01

290

Non-Participant or Gambler: Investment Decisions of Low-Wealth Households  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical analyses show that low-wealth households tend to be non-participants concerning risky assets and tend to hold a large portfolio share of risky asset if they participate at all (gamblers). So far, few theoretical models have been able to satisfactorily provide a joint understanding of these two observations. This paper solves a novel life-cycle model in which social links to

Fangyi Jin

2008-01-01

291

Gambling-Related Problems as a Mediator Between Treatment and Mental Health with At-Risk College Student Gamblers.  

PubMed

Disordered gambling has been linked to increased negative affect, and some promising treatments have been shown to be effective at reducing gambling behaviors and related problems (Larimer et al. in Addiction 107:1148-1158, 2012). The current study seeks to expand upon the findings of Larimer et al. (Addiction 107:1148-1158, 2012) by examining the relationship between gambling-related problems and mental health symptoms in college students. Specifically, the three-group design tested the effects of two brief interventions for gambling-an individual, in-person personalized feedback intervention (PFI) delivered using motivational interviewing and group-based cognitive behavioral therapy, versus assessment only on mood outcomes. The mediating effect of gambling-related problems on mood was also explored. Participants (N = 141; 65 % men; 60 % Caucasian, 28 % Asian) were at-risk college student gamblers [South Oaks Gambling Screen (Lesieur and Blume in Am J Psychiatry 144:1184-1188, 1987) ?3], assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Gambling problems were assessed using the Gambling Problems Index (Neighbors et al. in J Gamb Stud 18:339-360, 2002). Mental health symptoms were assessed using the depression, anxiety, and hostility subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis in Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI): administration, scoring, and procedures manual, National Computer Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, 1993). Results revealed that the PFI condition differentially reduced negative mood, and that reductions in gambling-related problems partially mediated this effect. Implications for intervention for comorbid mood and gambling disorders are discussed. PMID:24706331

Geisner, Irene Markman; Bowen, Sarah; Lostutter, Ty W; Cronce, Jessica M; Granato, Hollie; Larimer, Mary E

2014-04-01

292

Transplant Pathology Case  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pathology is a complex field, and persons who might be new to the field might appreciate a bit of assistance. Medical educators might also need a hand as they begin to teach others in the field, and this particular case study offered by the University of Pittsburgh's Department of Pathology will be most useful in that regard. In this case, users will be exposed to slides, explanations, and relevant illustrations of a patient who was diagnosed with hepatitis C. Additionally, visitors can read descriptions of each microscope slide and look over the final diagnosis report.

293

Predictors of Problem Gambling Severity in Treatment Seeking Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem gambling has become a widespread problem following the rapid expansion of electronic gaming machines into hotels and clubs over the last 10 years. Recent literature indicates that certain factors can influence problem gambling severity, such as psychiatric co-morbidity and personality traits, gambling related cognitions, substance use and…

Hounslow, Vanessa; Smith, David; Battersby, Malcolm; Morefield, Kate

2011-01-01

294

A Preliminary Study of an Integrated and Culturally Attuned Cognitive Behavioral Group Treatment for Chinese Problem Gamblers in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Chinese people may have a higher rate of gambling problems than other cultural groups. However, there are very few clinical outcome studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of clinical interventions for helping Chinese gamblers. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective for helping problem gamblers to significantly reduce their gambling problems in western countries. Very few CBT clinical trials have been conducted with the Chinese populations, and the results were masked by methodological limitations. This preliminary study attempted to test the effectiveness of an integrated and culturally attuned CBT group treatment for Chinese problem gamblers in Hong Kong. This study adopted a randomized control design and 38 participants were allocated randomly to the experimental condition (n = 18) and control condition (n = 20). The experimental group received 10 weekly CBT group sessions and individual counseling services while control group only received the individual counseling services. Significant decreases in gambling severity and frequencies of gambling were found in the experimental group. The findings also showed that a change in gambling cognitions predicted the changes in gambling severity and gambling urge while a change in gambling severity was also linked to a change in depression. Preliminary evidence highlights the potential benefits of an integrated and culturally attuned CBT group treatment for Chinese problem gamblers in Hong Kong. However, a more vigorous research design with a larger sample is needed to provide solid evidence of the effectiveness of the model for Chinese problem gamblers. PMID:24699943

Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Chung, Catherine Lai Ping; Wu, Janet; Tang, Joe; Lau, Patrick

2014-04-01

295

Chasing losses in online poker and casino games: characteristics and game play of Internet gamblers at risk of disordered gambling.  

PubMed

Disordered Internet gambling is a psychological disorder that represents an important public health issue due to the increase in highly available and conveniently accessible Internet gambling sites. Chasing losses is one of the few observable markers of at-risk and problem gambling that may be used to detect early signs of disordered Internet gambling. This study examined loss chasing behaviour in a sample of Internet casino and poker players and the socio-demographic variables, irrational beliefs, and gambling behaviours associated with chasing losses. An online survey was completed by 10,838 Internet gamblers (58% male) from 96 countries. The results showed that Internet casino players had a greater tendency to report chasing losses than poker players and gamblers who reported chasing losses were more likely to hold irrational beliefs about gambling and spend more time and money gambling than those who reported that they were unaffected by previous losses. Gamblers who played for excitement and to win money were more likely to report chasing losses. This study is one of the largest ever studies of Internet gamblers and the results are highly significant as they provide insight into the characteristics and behaviours of gamblers using this mode of access. PMID:24746392

Gainsbury, Sally M; Suhonen, Niko; Saastamoinen, Jani

2014-07-30

296

HT 2011 Probability: Sheet 1 1. Two gamblers A and B play a series of games in which the loser gives 1 to the winner.  

E-print Network

likely to win each game. Find pb and check that pc = 1/2. 2. A gambler playing roulette in a casinoHT 2011 Probability: Sheet 1 1. Two gamblers A and B play a series of games in which the loser/2) of winning each game. Let pb represent the probability that B wins starting with ÂŁb. Calculate pb. Show

Marchini, Jonathan

297

Online Guidance, Advice, and Support for Problem Gamblers and Concerned Relatives and Friends: An Evaluation of the "GamAid" Pilot Service  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reports one of the first ever studies to evaluate the effectiveness of an online help and guidance service for problem gamblers. The evaluation utilised a mixed methods design in order to examine both primary and secondary data relating to the client experience. In addition, the researchers posed as problem gamblers in order to obtain…

Wood, Richard T. A.; Griffiths, Mark D.

2007-01-01

298

Neurological Soft Signs in Individuals with Pathological Gambling  

PubMed Central

Increased neurological soft signs (NSSs) have been found in a number of neuropsychiatric syndromes, including chemical addiction. The present study examined NSSs related to perceptual-motor and visuospatial processing in a behavioral addiction viz., pathological gambling (PG). As compared to mentally healthy individuals, pathological gamblers displayed significantly poorer ability to copy two- and three-dimensional figures, to recognize objects against a background noise, and to orient in space on a road-map test. Results indicated that PG is associated with subtle cerebral cortical abnormalities. Further prospective clinical research is needed to address the NSSs' origin and chronology (e.g., predate or follow the development of PG) as well as their response to therapeutic interventions and/or their ability to predict such a response. PMID:23593341

Elman, Igor; Gurvits, Tamara V.; Tschibelu, Evelyne; Spring, Justin D.; Lasko, Natasha B.; Pitman, Roger K.

2013-01-01

299

Diagnosis, Pathology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pathology has long been associated with medical development and patient treatment and care. Throughout history pathologists have been trained to observe and recognize abnormalities to diagnose and treat the condition.

2009-12-26

300

Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

?? The diagnosis of pathological gambling first appeared in the third edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 1980, and appears again in DSM-IV (APA, 1994). Although the DSM-IV categorizes pathological gambling as an impulse-control disorder not elsewhere categorized, the criteria specified for diagnosing this disorder are somewhat similar to those for alcohol and substance dependence

Lorne M. Korman; Tony Toneatto; Wayne Skinner

301

Cocaine Dependent Individuals and Gamblers Present Different Associative Learning Anomalies in Feedback-Driven Decision Making: A Behavioral and ERP Study  

PubMed Central

Several recent studies have demonstrated that addicts behave less flexibly than healthy controls in the probabilistic reversal learning task (PRLT), in which participants must gradually learn to choose between a probably rewarded option and an improbably rewarded one, on the basis of corrective feedback, and in which preferences must adjust to abrupt reward contingency changes (reversals). In the present study, pathological gamblers (PG) and cocaine dependent individuals (CDI) showed different learning curves in the PRLT. PG also showed a reduced electroencephalographic response to feedback (Feedback-Related Negativity, FRN) when compared to controls. CDI’s FRN was not significantly different either from PG or from healthy controls. Additionally, according to Standardized Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography analysis, cortical activity in regions of interest (previously selected by virtue of their involvement in FRN generation in controls) strongly differed between CDI and PG. However, the nature of such anomalies varied within-groups across individuals. Cocaine use severity had a strong deleterious impact on the learning asymptote, whereas gambling intensity significantly increased reversal cost. These two effects have remained confounded in most previous studies, which can be hiding important associative learning differences between different populations of addicts. PMID:23516173

Torres, Ana; Catena, Andrés; Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Megías, Alberto; Perales, José C.

2013-01-01

302

All for the Winner: An Analysis of the Characterization of Male Gamblers in Hong Kong Movies with Gambling Theme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to investigate the characterization of male gamblers in popular Hong Kong movies in the past 50 years. A total of nine Hong Kong films with gambling themes were selected for analysis. The criteria for selection of the films were as follows: the movies in which the protagonists are portrayed by well known Hong Kong actors that…

Chan, Chi Chuen; Ohtsuka, Keis

2011-01-01

303

Problem gamblers are hyposensitive to wins: an analysis of skin conductance responses during actual gambling on electronic gaming machines.  

PubMed

Physiological arousal is purportedly a key determinant in the development and maintenance of gambling behaviors, with problem gambling conceptualized in terms of abnormal autonomic responses. Theoretical conceptualizations of problem gambling are discordant regarding the nature of deficit in this disorder; some accounts posit that problem gamblers are hypersensitive to reward, and others that they are hyposensitive to reward and/or punishment. Previous research examining phasic electrodermal responses in gamblers has been limited to laboratory settings, and reactions to real gaming situations need to be examined. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) to losses, wins, and losses disguised as wins (LDWs) were recorded from 15 problem gamblers (PGs) and 15 nonproblem gamblers (NPGs) while they wagered their own money during electronic gaming machine play. PGs demonstrated significantly reduced SCRs to reward. SCRs to losses and LDWs did not differ for either PGs or NPGs. This hyposensitivity to wins may reflect abnormalities in incentive processing, and may represent a potential biological marker for problem gambling. PMID:24588340

Lole, Lisa; Gonsalvez, Craig J; Barry, Robert J; Blaszczynski, Alex

2014-06-01

304

Characteristics of Internet Gamblers among a Sample of Students at a Large, Public University in Southwestern United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a current lack of descriptive information on college students who gamble on the Internet. With the increasing popularity of Internet gambling, this study aimed to better understand the profile of Internet gamblers among a sample of college students. Of 909 students at the University of California-Los Angeles who completed an online…

Shead, N. Will; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Fong, Timothy W.; Gupta, Rina

2012-01-01

305

[Vulvar pathology].  

PubMed

We evaluated the main causes of vulvar dermatoses; in 785 patients with a vulvar diseases who visited Ibn Rochd Hospital Centre, Casablanca between January 1991 and December 2002. The average age was 31 years (range 2 months to 81 years); 362 patients (41.52%) had vulvar pruritus, 273 patients (34.77%) had warts and 157 (20%) had one or more vulva ulcers. The most common infectious pathology was papillomavirus infection, found in 273 cases (34.77%), followed by vulvovaginal candidiases in 102 cases (12.99 %), syphilitic chancre in 18 cases (2.29%) and herpes genitalis in 17 cases (2.16%). The most common non-infectious pathology was vulvar dermatosis: 259 cases (32.99%); idiopathic pruritus vulvae: 61 cases (7.7%); and tumour-related conditions: 45 cases (5.6%). The frequency of infectious conditions was over 50% and these were generally sexually transmitted infections. PMID:15568459

Zouhair, K; El Ouazzani, T; El Omari, K; El Fajri, S; Lakhdar, H

2002-11-01

306

A counselling line for problem and pathological gambling in South Africa: Preliminary data analysis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective: Various countries and states have established telephone counselling lines for people with pathological or problem gambling. Data from such services may contribute to describing systematically the nature of gambling problems in a particular area. To date, however, few data have been published on such a telephone counselling line in a low or middle income country. Method: Data on calls to the telephone counselling line of the National Responsible Gambling Foundation of South Africa were captured over a 6-month period. Such data include socio-demographic variables, the primary reason for calling, the source of the referral, preferred method of gambling, impairment as a consequence of gambling, and history of treatment for psychiatric disorders, comorbid alcohol abuse and illicit drug use. Results: Calls were received from a broad range of people; the mean age of callers was 37 years, the majority were male (62%) and many were married (45%). Primary reasons for calling included the feeling of being unable to stop gambling without the help of a professional (41%), financial concerns (32%), legal problems (13%), pressure from family (10%), and suicidal thoughts (2%). The majority of callers contacted the counselling line after having heard about it by word of mouth (70%). The most common forms of gambling were slot machines (51%) and casino games (21%). Fourteen percent of callers reported having received help for other psychiatric disorders, 11% reported alcohol use disorders and 6% illicit drug use. Conclusion: These data from South Africa are consistent with prior research indicating that pathological and problem gambling are seen in a range of socio-demographic groups, and that such behaviour is associated with significant morbidity and comorbidity. More work is needed locally to inform younger gamblers, gamblers using the informal gambling sector, and unemployed gamblers of the existing telephone counselling lines. PMID:25317344

SINCLAIR, HEIDI; PRETORIUS, ADELE; STEIN, DAN J.

2014-01-01

307

Identifying X-consumers using causal recipes: "whales" and "jumbo shrimps" casino gamblers.  

PubMed

X-consumers are the extremely frequent (top 2-3%) users who typically consume 25% of a product category. This article shows how to use fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to provide "causal recipes" sufficient for profiling X-consumers accurately. The study extends Dik Twedt's "heavy-half" product users for building theory and strategies to nurture or control X-behavior. The study here applies QCA to offer configurations that are sufficient in identifying "whales" and "jumbo shrimps" among X-casino gamblers. The findings support the principle that not all X-consumers are alike. The theory and method are applicable for identifying the degree of consistency and coverage of alternative X-consumers among users of all product-service category and brands. PMID:21365441

Woodside, Arch G; Zhang, Mann

2012-03-01

308

Contingent Gambling-Drinking Patterns and Problem Drinking Severity Moderate Implicit Gambling-Alcohol Associations in Problem Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although problem gambling and problem drinking often co-occur, the processes underlying this association are not well understood. This study investigated the effects of contingent gambling-drinking patterns and problem drinking severity on implicit gambling-alcohol associations. Participants were 144 (34 female) problem gamblers. The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) measured severity of problem gambling. The Brief Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (BMAST) measured

Martin Zack; Sherry H. Stewart; Raymond M. Klein; Pamela Loba; Fofo Fragopoulos

2005-01-01

309

DSM-5 Personality Traits and DSM-IV Personality Disorders  

PubMed Central

Two issues pertinent to the DSM-5 proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5 traits as assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 explained a substantial proportion of variance in DSM-IV PDs as assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+, and trait indicators of the six proposed DSM-5 PDs were mostly specific to those disorders with some exceptions. Regression analyses support the DSM-5 hybrid model in that pathological traits and an indicator of general personality pathology severity provided incremental information about PDs. Findings are discussed in the context of broader issues around the proposed DSM-5 model of personality disorders. PMID:22250660

Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Krueger, Robert F.

2014-01-01

310

Personality Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality disorders (PDs) represent some of the most insidious and challenging psychiatric conditions that clinicians encounter,\\u000a and often create unwarranted and unwanted conflicts in clinical settings. The reasons for these conflicts lie at the core\\u000a of the PD pathology, namely, a fundamental impairment in interpersonal relationships that leads to a variety of maladaptive,\\u000a inappropriate, or outrageous behaviors that the affected

Marc E. Agronin

311

The impulsivity and sensation-seeking mediators of the psychological consequences of pathological gambling in adolescence.  

PubMed

Pathological gambling has severe consequences for adolescents and their families and friends. Despite its high prevalence, pathological gambling in adolescents has been insufficiently studied. Sensation seeking and impulsivity are two variables that are related to the appearance and maintenance of pathological gambling. However, few studies have determined the role these variables play in the development of the dysfunctional symptomatology of gambling behavior in adolescents and young adults. The aims of this study were to analyze the consequences of gambling in young adults and adolescents, and to evaluate the roles of sensation seeking and impulsivity in the appearance of dysfunctional symptomatology. The sample consisted of 1,241 young adults and adolescents recruited from scholar centers and free-time groups, as well as 71 subjects from associations that assist pathological gamblers. Pathological gambling, impulsive behavior, dysfunctional symptomatology and sensation seeking were assessed. The results confirmed that young adults and adolescents who gamble pathologically have more dysfunctional symptomatology related to anxiety, depression, hostility, obsessive-compulsive behavior and somatization, as well as sensation seeking, impulsivity and addictive behavior. Moreover, the results showed that sensation seeking did not mediate the appearance of dysfunctional symptomatology and that impulsivity partially mediated the appearance of anxiety, phobic anxiety, depression and psychosis and perfectly mediated somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoid ideation and hostility. These results have consequences for the development of treatment and prevention programs for adolescent pathological gambling. PMID:24297606

Estevez, Ana; Herrero-Fernández, David; Sarabia, Izaskun; Jauregui, Paula

2015-03-01

312

Risk-taking and pathological gambling behavior in Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic, neurodegenerative disorder, which specifically affects striatal neurons of the indirect pathway, resulting in a progressive decline in muscle coordination and loss of emotional and cognitive control. Interestingly, predisposition to pathological gambling and other addictions involves disturbances in the same cortico-striatal circuits that are affected in HD, and display similar disinhibition-related symptoms, including changed sensitivity to punishments and rewards, impulsivity, and inability to consider long-term advantages over short-term rewards. Both HD patients and pathological gamblers also show similar performance deficits on risky decision-making tasks, such as the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). These similarities suggest that HD patients are a likely risk group for gambling problems. However, such problems have only incidentally been observed in HD patients. In this review, we aim to characterize the risk of pathological gambling in HD, as well as the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Especially with the current rise of easily accessible Internet gambling opportunities, it is important to understand these risks and provide appropriate patient support accordingly. Based on neuropathological and behavioral findings, we propose that HD patients may not have an increased tendency to seek risks and start gambling, but that they do have an increased chance of developing an addiction once they engage in gambling activities. Therefore, current and future developments of Internet gambling possibilities and related addictions should be regarded with care, especially for vulnerable groups like HD patients. PMID:24765067

Kalkhoven, Carla; Sennef, Cor; Peeters, Ard; van den Bos, Ruud

2014-01-01

313

Effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for pathological gambling: a chart review.  

PubMed

Although pathological gambling is a relatively common disorder, there exists only limited information regarding the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for this illness. This study examines which medications may be effective, dose and duration of medication trials needed to achieve response, and possible predictors of response. Using a chart review, 50 adult outpatients with DSM-IV pathological gambling treated in clinical practice were assessed regarding response to a variety of medications, including augmentation strategies, and response to concomitant psychotherapy. All subjects received pharmacotherapy for gambling symptoms. Thirty-nine (78%) achieved response to medication treatment. Mean duration of treatment needed for response was 104.9 +/- 85.0 days. Of those treated with an adequate trial of naltrexone as monotherapy, 90.9% were responders, whereas only 45.5% of those treated with an adequate trial of an SSRI achieved response. Patients with poorer social and occupational functioning due to urges and thoughts about gambling were less likely to respond to medication. These findings from a clinical setting suggest that a majority of pathological gamblers improve with medication treatment. Naltrexone, or augmentation of naltrexone with an SSRI, appears to be most effective in relieving gambling symptoms. PMID:12585565

Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won

2002-09-01

314

Initial Construction and Validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal…

Pincus, Aaron L.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pimentel, Claudia A.; Cain, Nicole M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levy, Kenneth N.

2009-01-01

315

The Relationship Between Pathological Gambling and Sensation Seeking: The Role of Subscale Scores  

PubMed Central

Research investigating the relationship between gambling and sensation seeking has yet to establish conclusively whether pathological gamblers (PGs) are more or less sensation seeking than nonpathological gamblers (NPGs). Sensation seeking is usually measured with the Zuckerman et al. (J Consult Clin Psychol 46:139–149, 1978) SS Scale form V (SSS-V). Whereas previous studies relied on the SSS-V total score, the current study uses two samples to demonstrate the importance of the SSS-V subscales, which include Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TA), Experience Seeking (ES), Disinhibition (DS), and Boredom Susceptibility (BS). In two samples, strong intrascale correlations between DS and BS, and between TA and ES, suggest that certain subscales reflect similar underlying characteristics. In both samples PGs displayed higher scores than NPGs on the DS and BS subscales, with mean differences in Sample 2 reaching significant levels for both DS and BS. Results support the notion that the SSS-V can be divided into concepts reflecting actual behavior, based on the DS and BS subscales, and hypothetical behavior, based on the TA and ES subscales. Furthermore, PGs appear to have a preference for the more behavioral subscales while NPGs show a preference for the more hypothetical subscales. Reasons for the subscale divisions and preferences are discussed. PMID:19943092

Fortune, Erica E.

2010-01-01

316

Diagnosis and treatment of pathologic gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathologic gambling (PG) is an impulse control disorder characterized by recurrent and maladaptive gambling behaviors that\\u000a significantly disrupt the patient’s functioning in the personal, familial, or vocational spheres. Pathologic gambling is estimated\\u000a to currently affect 1% to 3.4% of the adult US population and is frequently comorbid with substance abuse or dependence, attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity\\u000a disorder (ADHD), and affective disorders. Studies show

Erica D. Sood; Stefano Pallanti; Eric Hollander

2003-01-01

317

Effects of gambling-related cues on the activation of implicit and explicit gambling outcome expectancies in regular gamblers.  

PubMed

The current research examined whether the presentation of gambling-related cues facilitates the activation of gambling outcome expectancies using both reaction time (RT) and self-report modes of assessment. Gambling outcome expectancies were assessed by having regular casino or online gamblers (N = 58) complete an outcome expectancy RT task, as well as a self-report measure of gambling outcome expectancies, both before and after exposure to one of two randomly assigned cue conditions (i.e., casino or control video). Consistent with hypotheses, participants exposed to gambling-related cues (i.e., casino cue video condition) responded faster to positive outcome expectancy words preceded by gambling prime relative to non-gambling prime pictures on the post-cue RT task. Similarly, participants in the casino cue video condition self-reported significantly stronger positive gambling outcome expectancies than those in the control cue video condition following cue exposure. Activation of negative gambling outcome expectancies was not observed on either the RT task or self-report measure. The results indicate that exposure to gambling cues activates both implicit and explicit positive gambling outcome expectancies among regular gamblers. PMID:23588797

Stewart, Melissa J; Yi, Sunghwan; Stewart, Sherry H

2014-09-01

318

The interaction between gambling activities and modes of access: a comparison of Internet-only, land-based only, and mixed-mode gamblers.  

PubMed

Research suggests that Internet-based gambling includes risk factors that may increase gambling problems. The current study aimed to investigate subgroups of gamblers to identify the potential harms associated with various forms and modes of gambling. An online survey was completed by 4,594 respondents identified as Internet-only (IG), land-based only (LBGs), or mixed-mode (MMG) gamblers based on self-reported gambling behaviour in the last 12months. Results showed significant socio-demographic differences between groups, with the LBGs being the oldest and MMGs the youngest. MMGs engaged in the greatest variety of gambling forms, had the highest average problem gambling severity scores, and were more likely to attribute problems to sports betting than the other groups. IGs were involved in the lowest number of divergent gambling activities, most likely to gamble frequently on sports and races, and attribute problems to these forms. Compared to the other groups, LBs had a higher proportion of problem gamblers than IGs and were most likely to play electronic gaming machines weekly, with this form of gambling contributing to problems at a substantially greater rate. This study confirms the importance of considering gambling involvement across subgroups of Internet or land-based gamblers. There is a need to consider the interaction between forms and modes of gambling to advance our understanding of the potential risk of mode of gambling to contribute to problems. PMID:25305656

Gainsbury, Sally M; Russell, Alex; Blaszczynski, Alex; Hing, Nerilee

2015-02-01

319

Understanding Your Pathology Report  

MedlinePLUS

... pathology report is a document that contains the breast cancer diagnosis determined by looking at cells and tissues under ... report. Pathology reports play an important role in breast cancer diagnosis and staging (describing the extent of cancer within ...

320

Pathological gambling: update on decision making and neuro-functional studies in clinical samples.  

PubMed

Given the importance and the burden of pathological gambling (PG) and its effect on gamblers and their relatives, better comprehension of the phenomena involved in its development and persistence is needed. The present paper describes the previous 5 years of studies on decision making and magnetic resonance imaging in people with PG. Twenty-six studies (456 participants with PG) were included. Perseveration in monetary tasks was associated with PG despite intact executive planning abilities. PG was linked with impairment in decision making under uncertainty. Hyperactivation of the reward pathway was repeatedly found. PG was also linked with neural hyperactivation of the reward pathway during high-risk conditions and hypoactivation in low-risk conditions. Furthermore, in PG, near misses activated the brain regions related to wins. Numerous similarities were found between PG and substance use disorders, highlighting the scientific basis of the recent reclassification of PG in the spectrum of addictive disorders. PMID:24001289

Achab, Sophia; Karila, Laurent; Khazaal, Yasser

2014-01-01

321

Filtering Voluntary Motion for Pathological Tremor Compensation  

E-print Network

, it may decrease considerably the person's quality of life, since the ability to perform simple daily tasks is reduced. It is the most common movement disorder found in human pathology. An absolutely the filter ro- bustness to multiple motions and different sensors. To accomplish that, models are assumed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

322

Conscientiousness and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dimensional perspective on personality disorder hypothesizes that the current diagnostic categories represent maladaptive variants of general personality traits. However, a fundamental foundation of this viewpoint is that dimensional models can adequately account for the pathology currently described by these categories. While most of the personality disorders have well established links to dimensional models that buttress this hypothesis, obsessive–compulsive personality

Douglas B. Samuel; Thomas A. Widiger

2011-01-01

323

The prevalence of pathological gambling among college students: a meta-analytic synthesis, 2005-2013.  

PubMed

The problem of gambling addiction can be especially noteworthy among college and university students, many of whom have the resources, proximity, free time, and desire to become involved in the myriad options of gambling now available. Although limited attention has been paid specifically to college student gambling in the body of literature, there have been two published meta-analyses estimating the prevalence of probable pathological gambling among college students. This present study aims to be the third, presenting an up-to-date proportion of those students exhibiting gambling pathology, and is the first to include international studies from outside the United States and Canada. The purpose of this study was to use the most up-to-date meta-analytical procedures to synthesize the rates of probable pathological gambling for college and university students worldwide. A thorough literature review and coding procedure resulted in 19 independent data estimates retrieved from 18 studies conducted between 2005 and 2013. To synthesize the studies, a random effects model for meta-analysis was applied. The estimated proportion of probable pathological gamblers among the over 13,000 college students surveyed was computed at 10.23%, considerably higher than either of the two previously published meta-analyses, and more than double the rate reported in the first meta-analysis of this type published in 1999. Implications and recommendations for future practice in dealing with college students and gambling addiction are outlined and described for both administrators and mental health professionals. PMID:23842962

Nowak, Donald E; Aloe, Ariel M

2014-12-01

324

Pathological Grief: Causes, Recognition, and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Although the incidence of pathological grief does not appear to be high, the morbidity and mortality of sufferers is significant. Because of attitudes about grieving and the reluctance to experience grief, patients may avoid sharing grief with the family physician, who may then fail to recognize pathological grief. This article discusses clinical manifestations and situations which can lead to pathological grief. The types of pathological grief—chronic, inhibited, delayed, and atypical—are also discussed, along with personality variables which predispose some people to difficult grieving. Failure to grieve may also lead to a higher incidence of physical disease and various forms of mental illness. In order to manage grief, the physician must encourage the patient to express all his feelings of sadness, anger, and guilt; reassure him that his anger and guilt are a normal reaction to loss; and later, give him permission to stop grieving. PMID:21279045

Gort, George

1984-01-01

325

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry  

E-print Network

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry APPLICATION Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry 1. Personal Information I Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry Present Position

MacMillan, Andrew

326

Personality Disorder Symptoms and Marital Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pathological personality is strongly linked with interpersonal impairment, yet no study to date has examined the relationship between concurrent personality pathology and dysfunction in marriage--a relationship that most people find central to their lives. In a cross-sectional study of a community sample of married couples (N = 82), the authors…

South, Susan C.; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2008-01-01

327

Handheld computing in pathology  

PubMed Central

Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

2012-01-01

328

[Mediastinal pathology: pathological treatment of frozen section].  

PubMed

Tumoral pathology of the mediastinum is extremely varied, with different prognoses and treatments. The pathological examination is essential, both etiologically and prognostically. Mediastinoscopy is generally used to check for lymph node metastases, bronchopulmonary carcinoma, but also, to a lesser degree, for the exploration of isolated mediastinal adenopathy. Finally, this technique enables a diagnostic approach to mediastinal tumours. The frozen section has its place, at the first indication, making it possible to prescribe neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and in the other situations to make sure that the quantity of material removed is sufficient or even to carry out complementary techniques. PMID:21087726

Saint-Blancard, P; Jancovici, R

2010-10-01

329

In vivo evidence for greater amphetamine-induced dopamine release in pathological gambling: a positron emission tomography study with [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO.  

PubMed

Drug addiction has been associated with deficits in mesostriatal dopamine (DA) function, but whether this state extends to behavioral addictions such as pathological gambling (PG) is unclear. Here we used positron emission tomography and the D3 receptor-preferring radioligand [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO during a dual-scan protocol to investigate DA release in response to oral amphetamine in pathological gamblers (n=12) and healthy controls (n=11). In contrast with human neuroimaging findings in drug addiction, we report the first evidence that PG is associated with greater DA release in dorsal striatum (54-63% greater [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO displacement) than controls. Importantly, dopaminergic response to amphetamine in gamblers was positively predicted by D3 receptor levels (measured in substantia nigra), and related to gambling severity, allowing for construction of a mechanistic model that could help explain DA contributions to PG. Our results are consistent with a hyperdopaminergic state in PG, and support the hypothesis that dopaminergic sensitization involving D3-related mechanisms might contribute to the pathophysiology of behavioral addictions. PMID:24322203

Boileau, I; Payer, D; Chugani, B; Lobo, D S S; Houle, S; Wilson, A A; Warsh, J; Kish, S J; Zack, M

2014-12-01

330

Opportunities in Speech Pathology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of speech is discussed and speech pathology is described. Types of communication disorders considered are articulation disorders, aphasia, facial deformity, hearing loss, stuttering, delayed speech, voice disorders, and cerebral palsy; examples of five disorders are given. Speech pathology is investigated from these aspects: the…

Newman, Parley W.

331

Pathology annual. Part 2  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Applications of in situ DNA hybridization technology to diagnostic surgical pathology; Neoplasms associated with immune deficiencies; Chronic gastritis: The pathologists's role; Necrosis in lymph nodes; Pathologic changes of osteochondrodysplasia in infancy: A review; and Immunoglobulin light chain nephropathies.

Fechner, R.E.; Rosen, P.P.

1987-01-01

332

Risk-taking and pathological gambling behavior in Huntington’s disease  

PubMed Central

Huntington’s disease (HD) is a genetic, neurodegenerative disorder, which specifically affects striatal neurons of the indirect pathway, resulting in a progressive decline in muscle coordination and loss of emotional and cognitive control. Interestingly, predisposition to pathological gambling and other addictions involves disturbances in the same cortico-striatal circuits that are affected in HD, and display similar disinhibition-related symptoms, including changed sensitivity to punishments and rewards, impulsivity, and inability to consider long-term advantages over short-term rewards. Both HD patients and pathological gamblers also show similar performance deficits on risky decision-making tasks, such as the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). These similarities suggest that HD patients are a likely risk group for gambling problems. However, such problems have only incidentally been observed in HD patients. In this review, we aim to characterize the risk of pathological gambling in HD, as well as the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Especially with the current rise of easily accessible Internet gambling opportunities, it is important to understand these risks and provide appropriate patient support accordingly. Based on neuropathological and behavioral findings, we propose that HD patients may not have an increased tendency to seek risks and start gambling, but that they do have an increased chance of developing an addiction once they engage in gambling activities. Therefore, current and future developments of Internet gambling possibilities and related addictions should be regarded with care, especially for vulnerable groups like HD patients. PMID:24765067

Kalkhoven, Carla; Sennef, Cor; Peeters, Ard; van den Bos, Ruud

2014-01-01

333

The influence of acutely administered nicotine on cue-induced craving for gambling in at-risk video lottery terminal gamblers who smoke.  

PubMed

Evidence indicates that tobacco use and gambling often co-occur. Despite this association, little is known about how tobacco use affects the propensity to gamble. Nicotine, the putative addictive component of tobacco, has been reported to potentiate the hedonic value of other nonsmoking stimuli. Environmental cues have been identified as an important contributor to relapse in addictive behavior; however, the extent to which nicotine can affect the strength of gambling cues remains unknown. This study examined whether nicotine influences subjective ratings for gambling following gambling cues. In a mixed within/between-subjects design, 30 (20 men) video lottery terminal (VLT) gamblers ('moderate-risk' or 'problem' gamblers) who smoke daily were assigned to nicotine (4 mg deliverable) or placebo lozenge conditions. Subjective and behavioral responses were assessed at baseline, following lozenge, following neutral cues, and following presentation of gambling cues. Nicotine lozenge was found to significantly reduce tobacco-related cravings (P<0.05) but did not affect gambling-related cravings, the choice to play a VLT, or other subjective responses. These results suggest that a low dose of acutely administered nicotine does not increase cue-induced craving for gambling in at-risk VLT gamblers who smoke. PMID:23412113

McGrath, Daniel S; Dorbeck, Anders; Barrett, Sean P

2013-04-01

334

Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire data on alcoholic violent offenders: specific connections to severe impulsive cluster B personality disorders and violent criminality  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The validity of traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses is currently re-evaluated from a continuous perspective, and the evolving DSM-V classification may describe personality disorders dimensionally. The utility of dimensional personality assessment, however, is unclear in violent offenders with severe personality pathology. METHODS: The temperament structure of 114 alcoholic violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was compared to 84

Roope Tikkanen; Matti Holi; Nina Lindberg; Matti Virkkunen

2007-01-01

335

Pathology Case Study: Hemoptysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a pulmonary pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55 year old female has spontaneously occurring hemoptysis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, radiology, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Holst, Valerie

336

Careers in Plant Pathology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brochure reads easily and features pictures of plant pathologists in action, curious-looking disease symptoms and microscopic views of pathogens. This tool is intended to inspire more young scientists to consider plant pathology as a career choice.

Margaret Daughtrey (American Phytopathological Society; )

2004-01-01

337

Cardiovascular Risk in Subjects with Carotid Pathologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although atherosclerotic disease often becomes clinically evident only in one particular vascular distribution during a person’s\\u000a lifespan, it is an ubiquitous process, that can be detected in all arteries, depending on the diagnostic test adopted and\\u000a the threshold chosen. Disease of the carotid arteries is frequent and the present chapter will focus on the correlation of\\u000a this pathology with coronary

Fulvio Orzan; Matteo Anselmino; Margherita Cannillo

338

The clustering of psychiatric disorders in high-risk gambling populations.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to examine the associations between psychiatric disorders and pathological gambling (PG) and the clustering of psychiatric disorders in high risk gambler populations. The sample comprised 140 regular gamblers who were recruited from the general public. A variety of self- report and semi structured questionnaires was administered, including the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, The Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4th Edition, NORC DSM-IV Screen for Gambling Problems Self- administered and Problem Gambling Severity Index. Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders and personality disturbances were found to be more prevalent amongst pathological gamblers than other gamblers with the strongest differences observed for mood and anxiety-related disorders. Almost two-thirds of pathological gamblers reported both an anxiety or mood disorder in conjunction with another type of disorder. These differences between the gambling groups existed even after controlling for gender. The results highlight the high rates of co-morbidity in pathological gamblers in the community and the extent to which anxiety and mood disorders co-existing with other forms of pathology. These results highlight the significant challenges facing treatment services in the treatment of PG and the extent to which this should be treated as the primary disorder. PMID:23774993

Abdollahnejad, Mohammad Reza; Delfabbro, Paul; Denson, Linley

2014-12-01

339

Pathological gambling, co-occurring disorders, clinical presentation, and treatment outcomes at a university-based counseling clinic.  

PubMed

It is the intent of this study to examine the relationship between the number of co-occurring disorders in a sample of pathological gamblers and variables associated with clinical presentation and treatment outcomes. Participants were given screening tools for four common psychological disorders: the hands depression screen, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire, the Carroll-Davidson generalized anxiety disorder screen, and the Sprint-4 PTSD Screen. The number of co-occurring disorders, as indicated by the results of these screening instruments, was compared to severity of gambling problems at outset of treatment, as measured by the NORC diagnostic screen for gambling problems-self administered. The number of co-occurring disorders was also compared to psychosocial functioning at the outset of treatment, as well as level of improvement in psychosocial functioning through treatment. Psychosocial functioning was measured using the Outcome Questionnaire 45 (OQ-45). The number of co-occurring disorders was compared to participant satisfaction with the therapeutic relationship as measured by the working alliance inventory-short form. Results suggest that co-occurring disorders are commonplace among treatment seeking pathological gamblers. Over 86 % of the sample screened positively for at least one of the four targeted psychological disorders. Furthermore, the number of co-occurring disorders was found to be positively related to severity of gambling problems at outset of treatment and negatively related to level of psychosocial functioning at outset of treatment. However, the number of co-occurring disorders was not found to be significantly related to level of improvement in psychosocial functioning through treatment. Overall, those that attended at least six sessions reported significantly improved psychosocial functioning by the end of their sixth session. Finally, the number of co-occurring disorders was not found to be significantly related to participants' reported level of satisfaction with the therapeutic relationship. PMID:23297170

Soberay, Adam; Faragher, J Michael; Barbash, Melissa; Brookover, Amanda; Grimsley, Paul

2014-03-01

340

Personality Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... family, friends, and co-workers. What is a Personality Disorder? Those who struggle with a personality disorder have ... difficult to participate in social activities. Recognizing a Personality Disorder A personality disorder must fulfill several criteria. A ...

341

Person Reliability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Person changes can be of three kinds: developmental trends, swells, and tremors. Person unreliability in the tremor sense (momentary fluctuations) can be estimated from person characteristic curves. Average person reliability for groups can be compared from item characteristic curves. (Author)

Lumsden, James

1977-01-01

342

Plant Pathology Career Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the American Phytopathological Society (APS), this Careers & Placement website is open to both members and non-members. The site allows job seekers and employers to view available job openings and candidates; post a resume or vita for free; and post a job opening (fee required). Job seekers can also sign up for free, bi-monthly email notifications regarding recent job openings. In addition, the APS Careers website connects to a list of hyperlinked plant pathology programs at universities across the country, and to a downloadable brochure about careers in plant pathology.

343

Pathology Case Study: Peritonitis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 70-year-old man has peritonitis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gastrointestinal pathology.

Nine, Jeff S.

344

Pathology of aging psittacines.  

PubMed

Aging processes leading to specific organ problems are not obvious in aging psittacines. In general, birds live long and age slowly despite their high metabolic rates and very high total lifetime energy expenditures. Most pathologic processes seen in older parrots are generally not specific for aging because they are seen in young birds as well. Pathologic processes that have a tendency to occur more in older psittacines are atherosclerosis and repeated injury processes, such as chronic pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, pneumoconiosis, liver fibrosis, and lens cataracts. Also, some neoplasms are more often seen at an older age. PMID:20159547

Reavill, Drury R; Dorrestein, Gerry M

2010-01-01

345

Pathology Case Study: Petechiae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 6-hour-old baby was found to have petechiae. Visitors are given the case description and the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.

Lopez-Plaza, Iliana

346

Pathology Case Study: Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 24-day-old baby is failing to thrive and experiencing seizures. Visitors are given the microscopic description, with images, the results of the postmortem examination, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

Dickman, Paul S.

347

Pathology Case Study: Peritonitis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 26-year-old woman has had a 13-year history of poorly controlled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Visitors are given both the patient history and laboratory results, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

Anhalt, John P.

348

From symptoms to neurobiology: pathological gambling in the light of the new classification in DSM-5.  

PubMed

Pathological gambling (PG), as defined until recently in the DSM-IV, shares many clinical characteristics with substance use disorders (SUDs), such as craving and loss of control. Moreover, an increasing body of literature also revealed neurobiological similarities between PG and substance-related addictions. Further, specific treatments for SUD are also effective in pathological gamblers. These observations resulted in a recent change in the diagnostic classification of PG in DSM-5: maladaptive gambling behavior is now subsumed as 'gambling disorder' (GD) under the category 'substance-related and addictive disorders'. On the basis of similarities in clinical characteristics between GD and SUDs, this article proposes 3 main clusters of diagnostic criteria: 'loss of control', 'craving/withdrawal' and 'neglect of other areas in life'. These symptom clusters can then be related to the experimental paradigms commonly used in the neuroscience of addiction, including neuropsychological, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies. In this paper, we present the neurobiological evidence for PG by focusing on key functional magnetic resonance imaging studies related to these 3 symptom clusters. It is concluded that these symptom clusters provide a useful framework for systematic comparisons of new evidence in GD and SUDs in the future. PMID:25359489

Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anna E

2014-01-01

349

Antisocial Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter discusses the medical understanding of antisocial personality disorder (APSD), including research concerning\\u000a its etiology, prevalence, pathology, differential diagnosis, and treatment. ASPD, and the closely related diagnosis of psychopathy,\\u000a seem to be products of a strong genetic disposition interacting with a variety of environmental contributions. Epidemiological\\u000a studies indicate that ASPD and psychopathy are much more prevalent in men than

Karen J. Derefinko; Thomas A. Widiger

350

Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

Westphal, James R.

2008-01-01

351

Pathological gambling: Psychosomatic, emotional and marital difficulties as reported by the spouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two parallel self-administered surveys were distributed at three conferences of Gamblers Anonymous. One survey was for members of Gamblers Anonymous and the other was for members of GamAnon. Approximately 500 respondents completed the surveys, with 215 having completed the questionnaire for the spouse. This article is a report of some of the data from the spouse's survey. This survey focused

Valerie C. Lorenz; Robert A. Yaffee

1988-01-01

352

Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology  

PubMed Central

Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program's core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists. PMID:24843823

Mandelker, Diana; Lee, Roy E.; Platt, Mia Y.; Riedlinger, Gregory; Quinn, Andrew; Rao, Luigi K. F.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Mahowald, Michael; Lane, William J.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Baron, Jason M.; McClintock, David S.; Kuo, Frank C.; Lebo, Matthew S.; Gilbertson, John R.

2014-01-01

353

Personality disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Personality disorders are a group of mental health conditions in which a person has a long-term pattern ... Causes of personality disorders are unknown. Genetic and ... a role. Mental health professionals categorize these disorders ...

354

Personal Genomics, Personalized Medicine,  

E-print Network

/Science Translational Medicine panel discussion; MLA 2012 #12;Timeline: Human Genome Sequence HSLS, U.Pitt 1995 2014 2000 2003 2007 2007 2010 Human Genome Draft Sequence Complete Human Reference Genome Individual Human of a free living organism: Haemophilus Influenzae #12;Personal Genome Project HSLS, U.Pitt #12;Why get

Napp, Nils

355

Pathology Case Study: Sepsis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology where a 74 year old man with a history of diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, inferior wall myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. He was admitted for a left femoral-popliteal bypass graft. The case study provides both gross and microscopic descriptions along with pertinent laboratory studies in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

Callahan, Debra L.

356

Nondomestic avian pediatric pathology.  

PubMed

This is a snapshot of avian neonatal pathology—not an exhaustive review. Through knowledge and recognition of the significant pathogenic challenges of avian neonates and the associated lesions, avian practitioners can improve their diagnostic and therapeutic success. An area of need for avian research is determining the specific pathogenesis of many conditions affecting avian neonates. By narrowing the specific etiologies, we can improve management and reduce neonatal concerns. PMID:22640539

St Leger, Judy

2012-05-01

357

Pathology Case Study: Hydrocephalus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. In this particular study an otherwise healthy 9 month old infant is presented with hydrocephalus. The case study provides test results and images along with microscopic photos and description. Clicking on the final diagnosis provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment.

358

Pathology of the breast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular pathology, comprising cytopathology and histopathology, is an essential component of the management of breast disease. The range of benign and malignant conditions encountered by the breast pathologist is diverse. Benign changes are common and may present as localized masses (e.g. fibroadenoma), diffuse textural alterations (e.g. fibrocystic change), nipple discharge (e.g. intraduct papilloma) or as microcalcifications on mammographic examination (e.g.

Adrian C Bateman

2004-01-01

359

Update on pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological gambling (PG) is a signi.cant public health concern associated with high rates of psychiatric comorbidity and\\u000a mortality. Although research into the biology of PG is still in an early stage, recent advances in our understanding of motivation,\\u000a reward, and addiction have provided substantial insight into the possible pathophysiology of this disorder. In addition, over\\u000a the past 5 years, extraordinary

Jon E. Grant; Kyle A. Williams; Suck Won Kim

2006-01-01

360

[Congenital hydrocephalus: clinico-pathological picture].  

PubMed

The authors review the main pathologic causes of congenital hydrocephalus from ischemic-vascular injuries, embryofoetal infections and dysraphisms to genetic ones. Abundant illustrations of each condition are furnished and particular attention is paid to each situation, discussing the available pathogenetic mechanisms and hypothesis. Genetic "sine causa" hydrocephalus and X-linked hydrocephalus are mainly stressed, presenting some personal data. The clinic aspects of the varying forms of hydrocephalus are continuously kept in mind and a terminal paragraph details the clinical and neuroradiological means determinant in differential diagnosis versus similar conditions such as hydranencephaly, porencephaly, aracnoid cysts, holoprosencephaly and agenesis of corpus callosum. PMID:6100512

Della Giustina, E; Pace, P; Lugli, N; Botticelli, A R

1982-01-01

361

Decision-making impairments in patients with pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological gambling (PG) is most likely associated with functional brain changes as well as neuropsychological and personality alterations. Recent research with the Iowa Gambling Task suggests decision-making impairments in PG. These deficits are usually attributed to disturbances in feedback processing and associated functional alterations of the orbitofrontal cortex. However, previous studies with other clinical populations found relations between executive (dorsolateral

Matthias Brand; Elke Kalbe; Kirsten Labudda; Esther Fujiwara; Josef Kessler; Hans J. Markowitsch

2005-01-01

362

Population Density and Pathology: What Are the Relationships for Man?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence of high population density's serious inhibiting effects on the reproductive, aggressive, withdrawal and sexual behavior of various animals, motivated a study of human pathology in overcrowded areas. Ecological relationships in Chicago and their impact on human behavior were assessed. The number of persons per acre, Standardized Mortality…

Galle, Omer R.; And Others

363

Pathological Narcissism and Interpersonal Behavior in Daily Life  

PubMed Central

The Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) has been proposed as a useful meta-framework for integrating contextual differences in situations with individual differences in personality pathology. In this article, we evaluated the potential of combining the CAPS meta-framework and contemporary interpersonal theory to investigate how individual differences in pathological narcissism influenced interpersonal functioning in daily life. University students (N = 184) completed event-contingent reports about interpersonal interactions across a 7-day diary study. Using multilevel regression models, we found that combinations of narcissistic expression (grandiosity, vulnerability) were associated with different interpersonal behavior patterns reflective of interpersonal dysfunction. These results are among the first to empirically demonstrate the usefulness of the CAPS model to conceptualize personality pathology through the patterning of if-then interpersonal processes. PMID:23205698

Roche, Michael J.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Conroy, David E.; Hyde, Amanda L.; Ram, Nilam

2014-01-01

364

Pathology Case Study: Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology of a 51 year-old man with epilepsy. Images and results from a neurological examination are provided in this case. The patientâ??s diagnosis is found in the â??Final Diagnosisâ?ť section, which also includes a detailed description of the condition from the contributing doctors. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of neuropathology.

365

Pathology Case Study: Fevers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors in the health sciences field. In this case, a 68-year-old male patient experiencing fevers, chills, an associated non-productive cough, and weight loss was admitted to the hospital for examination. The â??Gross Description,â?ť â??Microscopic Description,â?ť and â?? Microbiologyâ?ť sections provide key information and images that contributed to the patientâ??s diagnosis. Clicking on the â??Final Diagnosisâ?ť provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment from the contributing doctors.

Kulich, Scott

366

Pathology Case Study: Dysphagia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. The patient in this particular case is a 64-year-old male with difficulty swallowing anything other than liquids. Patient history and both the gross and microscopic descriptions, which include images, are included in this case study. The contributing doctors provide a detailed discussion of the patientâ??s condition in the â??Final Diagnosisâ?ť section. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Barnes, Leon, 1941-

367

"Pathological" Cantor manifolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The n-dimensional compact topological space is called to be a Cantor Manifold (CM), if it is not a sum of two proper closed subsets with (n-2)-dimensional intersection. It is by definition a Strongly Cantor Manifold (SCM), if it is not a countable sum of proper closed subsets with no more than (n-2)-dimensional pairwise intersection. We shall call our space a Pathological Cantor Manifold (PCM) if it is CM, but not SCM. In this note we give some examples to investigate "how bad" can be the structure of PCM's.

Todorov, Vladimir

2012-11-01

368

The Pathology Laboratory Act 2007 explained.  

PubMed

The past century has seen tremendous changes in the scope and practice of pathology laboratories in tandem with the development of the medical services in Malaysia. Major progress was made in the areas of training and specialization of pathologists and laboratory technical staff. Today the pathology laboratory services have entered the International arena, and are propelled along the wave of globalization. Many new challenges have emerged as have new players in the field. Landmark developments over the past decade include the establishment of national quality assurance programmes, the mushrooming of private pathology laboratories, the establishment of a National Accreditation Standard for medical testing laboratories based on ISO 15189, and the passing of the Pathology Laboratory Act in Parliament in mid-2007. The Pathology Laboratory Act 2007 seeks to ensure that the pathology laboratory is accountable to the public, meets required standards of practice, participates in Quality Assurance programmes, is run by qualified staff, complies with safety requirements and is subject to continuous audit. The Act is applicable to all private laboratories (stand alone or hospital) and laboratories in statutory bodies (Universities, foundations). It is not applicable to public laboratories (established and operated by the government) and side-room laboratories established in clinics of registered medical or dental practitioners for their own patients (tests as in the First and Second Schedules respectively). Tests of the Third Schedule (home test blood glucose, urine glucose, urine pregnancy test) are also exempted. The Act has 13 Parts and provides for control of the pathology laboratory through approval (to establish and maintain) and licensing (to operate or provide). The approval or license may only be issued to a sole proprietor, partnership or body corporate, and then only if the entity includes a registered medical practitioner. Details of personnel qualifications and laboratory practices are left to be specified by the Director-General of Health, providing for a formal recognition process and room for revision as pathology practices evolve. Encompassed in the responsibilities of the licensee is the requirement that samples are received and results issued through, and management vested in, a registered medical or dental practitioner. This effectively prohibits "walk-ins" to the laboratory and indiscriminate public screening. The requirement for a person-in-charge in accordance with class and speciality of laboratory ensures that the laboratory is under the charge of the pathology profession. Examined carefully, the requirements of the Act are similar to laboratory accreditation, but are backed by legislation. Many of these details will be spelt out in the Regulations, and these in turn are likely to fall back on National professional guidelines, as accreditation does. Although not at first obvious, enforcement of the Act is based on self-regulation by pathology laboratory professionals. Sincere professional input is thus required to embrace its philosophy, ensure rational and transparent enforcement of legislation, and develop National guidelines for good pathology practices upon which enforcement may be based. PMID:19108405

Looi, Lai-Meng

2008-06-01

369

The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder  

PubMed Central

Background The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) were investigated in a clinical sample presenting for treatment of perfectionism. Method This study explored the utility of perfectionism in predicting pathological worry in a sample of individuals with elevated perfectionism and GAD (n?=?36). Following this, the study examined whether perfectionism could predict a principal GAD diagnosis in the full sample (n?=?42). Results Scores on the perfectionism dimensions Concern over Mistakes, Personal Standards, and Clinical Perfectionism significantly predicted pathological worry among participants with GAD after controlling for gender and depression. The perfectionism dimension Doubts about Actions significantly predicted whether individuals from the full sample received a principal diagnosis of GAD. Conclusions These findings support certain dimensions of perfectionism having significant associations with pathological worry and GAD. PMID:24693946

2014-01-01

370

Narcissistic personality disorder in childhood.  

PubMed

Narcissistic personality disorders can be identified in childhood and adolescence using the same diagnostic criteria as for adults. There are, however, additional descriptive characteristics specific to children: in particular, quality of friendships, quality of performance in school, gaze aversion, pathologic play, and separation anxiety. Various developmental pathways may present a special risk for the formation of narcissistic personality disorder: having narcissistic parents, being adopted, being abused, being overindulged, having divorced parents, or losing a parent through death. The diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder has important implications for treatment. The goals of treatment (in intensive psychoanalytic psychotherapy) are to work on the grandiose self, the pathologic defense mechanisms that interfere with development, and interactions with parents and peers. Concomitant parent counseling or family therapy is strongly recommended to work on the maladaptive narcissistic defenses operating at the family level, which help to maintain the disorder. PMID:2798202

Kernberg, P F

1989-09-01

371

Pathology of multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Pathological examination of the affected human tissue is key to understanding the possible mechanisms operating in the disease. In multiple sclerosis (MS), studies of central nervous system (CNS) tissues reveal the inflammatory nature of the disease associated with demyelination and axonal damage. Based on the concept of a pathogenic adaptive immune response, immunosuppressive therapies have been developed in an attempt to block or inhibit the potentially pathogenic T and B cells. More recently, re-examination of the neuropathology has led to a resurgence of interest in the neurodegenerative aspects of the disease, the involvement of cortical damage as well as the role of innate immunity in MS. These ideas have led to paradigm shifts from MS being the result of autoimmunity to myelin due to initial adaptive immune responses, to that of a neurodegenerative disease in which, besides T and B cells, innate immunity may play a major role in the disease process. The neuropathological studies have undoubtedly influenced pharmaceutical interest in development of neuroprotective approaches. Here we review the latest findings from pathological studies of MS tissues and discuss the relevance of these findings for future therapeutic approaches. PMID:22583433

Kipp, Markus; van der Valk, Paul; Amor, Sandra

2012-08-01

372

Anesthesia and Tau Pathology  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and remains a growing worldwide health problem. As life expectancy continues to increase, the number of AD patients presenting for surgery and anesthesia will steadily rise. The etiology of sporadic AD is thought to be multifactorial, with environmental, biological and genetic factors interacting together to influence AD pathogenesis. Recent reports suggest that general anesthetics may be such a factor and may contribute to the development and exacerbation of this neurodegenerative disorder. Intra-neuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), composed of hyperphosphorylated and aggregated tau protein are one of the main neuropathological hallmarks of AD. Tau pathology is important in AD as it correlates very well with cognitive dysfunction. Lately, several studies have begun to elucidate the mechanisms by which anesthetic exposure might affect the phosphorylation, aggregation and function of this microtubule-associated protein. Here, we specifically review the literature detailing the impact of anesthetic administration on aberrant tau hyperphosphorylation as well as the subsequent development of neurofibrillary pathology and degeneration. PMID:23535147

Whittington, Robert A.; Bretteville, Alexis; Dickler, Maya F.; Planel, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

373

Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Methyl Alcohol  

E-print Network

................................................................................................................4 Audit of Pathology Specimens........................................................................................... A-1 ­ A-58 APPENDIX B Audit of Pathology Specimens Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Methyl Alcohol C00117E/00117-68 AMENDED PATHOLOGY

Baker, Chris I.

374

Is pathological gambling moderated by age?  

PubMed

The age of a patient is a strong moderator of both the course and the evolution of disorders/diseases. However, the effects of current age in pathological gambling (PG) have rarely been examined. The aim of this study is to explore the moderating effects of the patients' current age in relation to personality traits and clinical outcomes of PG. A total sample of 2,309 treatment-seeking patients for PG, diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, participated in this study and were assessed with the Diagnostic Questionnaire for Pathological Gambling according to DSM-IV criteria, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Symptom Checklist, the Temperament and Character Inventory-R, and other clinical and psychopathological measures. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts showed linear trends in the relationship between age and PG: the older the patient, the more comorbid health problems were visible. The presence of additional quadratic trends also suggests that age plays a significant role in moderating the possibility of existing PG problems and general psychopathology. No interaction term was found between age and sex, but it was present for age and some personality traits: self-transcendence and reward dependence (these two traits were only relevant to the level of impairment due to PG at specific ages). This study suggests that the patients' age influences psychopathological and clinical aspects associated to PG. Intervention in the earliest manifestations of this complex problem is essential in order to better address the need of successful treatment planning. PMID:23494243

Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Stinchfield, Randy; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Fröberg, Frida; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peńa, Mónica; Pérez-Serrano, Miriam; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

2014-06-01

375

Early detection of pathological gambling: betting on GPs' beliefs and attitudes.  

PubMed

Pathological gambling (PG) is an addictive disorder with harm related to the high psychiatric comorbidity and increased suicidal risk. Prevalence rates in general population range from 0.2% to 2.1%. Problem gamblers are hard to attract to treatment programs for several proper reasons and for obstacles (e.g., accessibility). To address these obstacles, primary care (where the problem gambling (PrG) prevalence seems to be 6.2%) has a crucial role to play (i.e., identifying and referring patients to specialized treatment programs and treating at first line when needed and possible) in the era of online gambling offer expansion. The present work aimed to collect data on resources in the field from GPs themselves, using a 24-item online questionnaire. Swiss French-speaking participants were asked about their screening practice and knowledge. The results state that the vast majority of them are aware of the existence and the potential impact of PrG on their patients. However, PrG screening is not systematic and their knowledge of adequate treatments or referral methods is scarce. GPs being central to health screening in general, targeted advice and training on short screening tools and better knowledge of referral pathways should be promoted and continued to empower the GP's management skills in a public health approach. PMID:25243136

Achab, Sophia; Chatton, Anne; Khan, Riaz; Thorens, Gabriel; Penzenstadler, Louise; Zullino, Daniele; Khazaal, Yasser

2014-01-01

376

Early Detection of Pathological Gambling: Betting on GPs' Beliefs and Attitudes  

PubMed Central

Pathological gambling (PG) is an addictive disorder with harm related to the high psychiatric comorbidity and increased suicidal risk. Prevalence rates in general population range from 0.2% to 2.1%. Problem gamblers are hard to attract to treatment programs for several proper reasons and for obstacles (e.g., accessibility). To address these obstacles, primary care (where the problem gambling (PrG) prevalence seems to be 6.2%) has a crucial role to play (i.e., identifying and referring patients to specialized treatment programs and treating at first line when needed and possible) in the era of online gambling offer expansion. The present work aimed to collect data on resources in the field from GPs themselves, using a 24-item online questionnaire. Swiss French-speaking participants were asked about their screening practice and knowledge. The results state that the vast majority of them are aware of the existence and the potential impact of PrG on their patients. However, PrG screening is not systematic and their knowledge of adequate treatments or referral methods is scarce. GPs being central to health screening in general, targeted advice and training on short screening tools and better knowledge of referral pathways should be promoted and continued to empower the GP's management skills in a public health approach. PMID:25243136

Achab, Sophia; Chatton, Anne; Khan, Riaz; Thorens, Gabriel; Penzenstadler, Louise; Zullino, Daniele; Khazaal, Yasser

2014-01-01

377

Pathology Case Study: Epilepsy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This neuropathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent learning tool for students and instructors in the health science fields. In this case, a 27-year-old female presents with a history of seizures. A detailed patient history along with gross and microscopic images of the patientâ??s brain are included in this case study. The official diagnosis found in the â??Final Diagnosisâ?ť section is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

French, Jacqueline A.

378

Pathology Case Study: Lymphocytosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes "a 72-year-old white male who presented to an outside facility with chest pain of 24 hours duration." Visitors are given patient history, admission data, peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, including images. They are also given flow cytometry and cytogenic data as well as molecular genetics, with images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

Contis, Lydia C.

379

Mood, food, traits, and restraint: an experimental investigation of negative affect, borderline personality, and disordered eating  

E-print Network

Eating disorders and borderline personality disorder involve several overlapping features, such as impulsivity, negative affectivity, and dissociation. However, few studies have specifically assessed how eating pathology and borderline...

Ambwani, Suman

2009-05-15

380

Personality Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. ...

381

Pathological and non-pathological irregularities of nystagmus.  

PubMed

Irregularities of nystagmus can be found almost in every electronystagmographic record, but only a few are pathological. In this investigation, the authors try to define the border line between pathological and nonpathological irregularities of nystagmus and according to this measure the diagnostic use of findings of irregularities of nystagmus. PMID:25420381

Star?evi?, Radan; Velepi?, Marko; Bonifa?i?, David

2014-09-01

382

[Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].  

PubMed

Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness. PMID:1654715

Baliasny?, M M

1991-01-01

383

Molecular pathology of lung cancer: key to personalized medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of lung adenocarcinoma patients with epidermal growth factor receptor- (EGFR) mutated or EML4–ALK rearrangement-positive tumors are sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Both primary and acquired resistance in a significant number of those patients to these therapies remains a major clinical problem. The specific molecular mechanisms associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance are not fully understood. Clinicopathological observations suggest

Liang Cheng; Riley E Alexander; Gregory T MacLennan; Oscar W Cummings; Rodolfo Montironi; Antonio Lopez-Beltran; Harvey M Cramer; Darrell D Davidson; Shaobo Zhang

2012-01-01

384

Pathological gambling and mood disorders: Clinical associations and treatment implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe rapidly expanding gambling business has resulted in an increasing number of gamblers, and the problem is likely to get worse in the future. Traditionally, mood and gambling symptoms have been known to overlap. In the present review we attempt to examine the diagnostic associations and implications for treatment.

Suck Won Kim; Jon E. Grant; Elke D. Eckert; Patricia L. Faris; Boyd K. Hartman

2006-01-01

385

An overview of the treatment of severe narcissistic pathology.  

PubMed

This paper provides an overview of narcissistic personality disorders as they present clinically along a spectrum of severity ranging from the best functioning forms of pathological narcissism to the most threatening to the patient's psychosocial and physical survival. It proposes a general interpretive psychoanalytic stance with all these clinical syndromes that range from standard psychoanalysis to a specific psychoanalytical psychotherapy for the most repressive and life threatening conditions that may not respond to standard psychoanalysis proper. This general psychoanalytic approach is placed into the context of related developments in contemporary psychoanalytic understanding of pathological narcissism and its treatment. PMID:24902768

Kernberg, Otto F

2014-10-01

386

College of Medicine PAT Pathology  

E-print Network

College of Medicine PAT Pathology KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped: Admission to first year, College of Medicine. PAT 823 MECHANISMS OF DISEASE AND TREATMENT/PATHOLOGY. (9 approved electives offered by the various departments in the College of Medicine. The intent is to provide

MacAdam, Keith

387

Typical findings in pathological grief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Patients exhibiting pathological grief reactions are those in the middle portion of a spectrum between those on one end with “normal” grief and those on the other end who suffer from full-blown neurosis, psychosomatic symptoms, etc., which are directly related to aknown loss. After examining 23 cases, the author suggests that patients who suffer from pathological grief share a

Vamik Volkan

1970-01-01

388

Pathology waste includes: Transgenic animals.  

E-print Network

Storage: · All pathology waste bags must be securely tied. · Secondary containers must be rigid, leakPathology waste includes: · Transgenic animals. · Potentially transgenic animals including, "no specimens. · Human tissues that have been fixed in formaldehyde or other fixatives*. · Animal carcasses

George, Steven C.

389

Dissociative Symptoms in Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dissociation is increasingly being recognized as both a normal process and as a psychophysiological aspect of a number of mental disorders. The purpose of this investigation was to shed light on a possible link between dissociation and pathological gambling, a relatively common disorder whose phenomenology remains understudied. Sampling and Methods: Thirty adult outpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for pathological

Jon E. Grant; Suck Won Kim

2003-01-01

390

Forest pathology in Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

Gardner, D.E.

2003-01-01

391

[Psychopathology and achievement motivation in adolescents with pathological internet use].  

PubMed

In Germany, the internet is used by 69.4% of the population or 49 million people, and 100% of adolescents (between 14 to 19 years of age) spend time in the internet at least occasionally. An excessive use of the internet may lead to negative psychosocial consequences and changes in behaviour. This phenomenon is named "pathological internet use". Until now, there are only few studies published that investigate mental well being in German adolescents with pathological internet use. 16 participants of an outpatient treatment program for pathological internet use and 16 healthy adolescents were compared on self-reported levels of psychopathology (SPS-J), achievement motivation (FLM 7-13) and personal experience of attention deficit (FEDA). There were no differences in age, gender, intelligence or education between the two groups. Pathological internet users exhibited significantly elevated scores on self-esteem problems and the summary score of the SPS-J and significantly lower scores on FLM 7-13-dimensions "achievement ambition" and "perseverance/diligence" compared to controls. The results revealed that adolescents with pathological internet use report a higher level of psychopathology and lower levels of achievement motivation and drive. These findings should be taken into account when conceptualizing treatments for pathological internet users. PMID:22242254

Wartberg, Lutz; Sack, Peter-Michael; Petersen, Kay-Uwe; Thomasius, Rainer

2011-01-01

392

Children of problem gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anonymous 37-item Health Survey was administered to 844 randomly selected ninth- to twelfth-grade students in four Southern California public high schools. Systematic information was gathered about their general health, quality of life, school and work adjustment, involvement with a range of potentially addictive substances and activities, and indications of psychosocial maladjustment, including difficulties with the law and suicide attempts.

Durand F. Jacobs; Albert R. Marston; Robert D. Singer; Keith Widaman; Todd Little; Jeannette Veizades

1989-01-01

393

Contingency Learning in Alcohol Dependence and Pathological Gambling: Learning and Unlearning Reward Contingencies  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) and pathological gambling (PG) are characterized by dysfunctional reward processing and their ability to adapt to alterations of reward contingencies is impaired. However, most neurocognitive tasks investigating reward processing involve a complex mix of elements, such as working memory, immediate and delayed rewards, and risk-taking. As a consequence, it is not clear whether contingency learning is altered in AD or PG. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine performance in a deterministic contingency learning task, investigating discrimination, reversal, and extinction learning. Methods Thirty-three alcohol-dependent patients (ADs), 28 pathological gamblers (PGs), and 18 healthy controls (HCs) performed a contingency learning task in which they learned stimulus–reward associations that were first reversed and later extinguished while receiving deterministic feedback throughout. Accumulated points, number of perseverative errors and trials required to reach a criterion in each learning phase were compared between groups using nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis rank-sum tests. Regression analyses were performed to compare learning curves. Results PGs and ADs did not differ from HCs in discrimination learning, reversal learning, or extinction learning, on the nonparametric tests. Regression analyses, however, showed differences in the initial speed of learning: PGs were significantly faster in discrimination learning compared to ADs, and both PGs and ADs learned slower than HCs in the reversal learning and extinction phases of the task. Conclusions Learning rates for reversal and extinction were slower for the alcohol-dependent group and PG group compared to HCs, suggesting that reversing and extinguishing learned contingencies require more effort in ADs and PGs. This implicates a diminished flexibility to overcome previously learned contingencies. PMID:24821534

Vanes, Lucy D; van Holst, Ruth J; Jansen, Jochem M; van den Brink, Wim; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Goudriaan, Anna E

2014-01-01

394

Pathology Case Study: Renal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a pediatric pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 19-month-old boy has a renal mass. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

Christakos, Peter

395

The behavioral economics of substance use disorders: reinforcement pathologies and their repair.  

PubMed

The field of behavioral economics has made important inroads into the understanding of substance use disorders through the concept of reinforcer pathology. Reinforcer pathology refers to the joint effects of (a) the persistently high valuation of a reinforcer, broadly defined to include tangible commodities and experiences, and/or (b) the excessive preference for the immediate acquisition or consumption of a commodity despite long-term negative outcomes. From this perspective, reinforcer pathology results from the recursive interactions of endogenous person-level variables and exogenous environment-level factors. The current review describes the basic principles of behavioral economics that are central to reinforcer pathology, the processes that engender reinforcer pathology, and the approaches and procedures that can repair reinforcement pathologies. The overall goal of this review is to present a new understanding of substance use disorders as viewed by recent advances in behavioral economics. PMID:24679180

Bickel, Warren K; Johnson, Matthew W; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G

2014-01-01

396

42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

2010-10-01

397

42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

2011-10-01

398

A Direct, Controlled, Blind Family Study of DSM-IV Pathological Gambling  

PubMed Central

Objective Pathological gambling is a major public health problem. We sought to examine the familiality of pathological gambling and determine patterns of familial aggregation of disorders. Method We assessed probands with DSM-IV pathological gambling, controls, and their first-degree relatives. Detailed family history information was collected on relatives who were deceased or unavailable. Results Ninety-five pathological gambling probands, 91 controls, and their 1,075 first-degree relatives over age 18 (537 relatives of pathological gambling probands, 538 relatives of controls) were evaluated between February 2005 and June 2010. Relatives were assessed blind to proband status. Best estimate diagnoses were assigned. Rates of lifetime pathological gambling (definite/probable) was significantly greater among the first-degree relatives of probands with pathological gambling than among comparison relatives (11% vs 1%, OR = 8.19, P < .001). The prevalence of pathological gambling and subclinical pathological gambling combined was 16% and 3% in case and control relatives, respectively (OR = 6.57, P < .001). Pathological gambling relatives had higher rates of major depression (OR = 1.49, P < .05), bipolar disorder (OR = 3.82, P < .05), any mood disorder (OR = 1.59, P < .05), social anxiety disorder (OR = 4.76, P < .01), any substance use disorder (OR = 1.47, P < .05), posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 2.59, P < .05), and antisocial personality disorder (OR = 3.72, P < .001). Antisocial personality disorder (OR = 3.12, P < .01), social anxiety disorder (OR = 4.15, P < .01), and posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 2.85, P < .05) were more frequent in case relatives independent of the presence of pathological gambling. Age at onset of pathological gambling in case probands (< 40 years/? 40 years) was not related to familiality in their first-degree relatives (OR = 1.03, P = .927). Conclusions Pathological gambling is familial. Mood and substance use disorders may emerge as a consequence of the pathological gambling or as a more complex syndrome. In contrast, antisocial personality disorder, social anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder may share a common familial etiology with pathological gambling. The phenotype may extend beyond pathological gambling to include subclinical forms of the disorder. PMID:24500179

Black, Donald W.; Coryell, William H.; Crowe, Raymond R.; McCormick, Brett; Shaw, Martha C.; Allen, Jeff

2014-01-01

399

The relevance of an integrated approach to the treatment of personality disordered offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that the treatment of high-risk offenders with severe personality disorder, requires an active focus on the management and treatment of personality pathology. An eclectic and integrated approach is proposed tailored to the patient's needs, learning style, and personality. Interventions are selected where possible on evidence of what works. However, because empirical evidence on treatment efficacy for personality

W. John Livesley

2007-01-01

400

Mystery Person  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features a mathematical game called "Mystery Person." The author describes how the Mystery Person game was tried with first-graders [age 6]. The Mystery games involve the generation of key questions, the coordination of information--often very complex information--and the formulation of consequences based on this coordination.…

O'Brien, Tom

2011-01-01

401

Personal Finance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter presents four articles designed to help business educators educate learners in grades K-12 about personal finance. "Now More Than Ever: The Need for Financial Literacy" examines the following topics: evidence that the United States is becoming a nation of debtors; the plummeting personal savings rate; the increasing complexity of…

Wagner, June G.

2003-01-01

402

Evidence for the criterion validity and clinical utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory  

PubMed Central

In this study we evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (Ns = 299, 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability with established indices of normal personality traits, psychopathology and clinical concerns, and pathological personality traits. Overall, the pattern of correlations supported the convergent and discriminate validity of grandiose and vulnerable conceptualizations of pathological narcissism as measured by the PNI. Clinical utility was assessed by evaluating the extent to which clinicians without specific training in pathological narcissism as well as clinicians with expertise in pathological narcissism could accurately predict the correlates of PNI grandiosity and vulnerability with normal and pathological personality traits and psychopathology. The rcontrast-cv coefficient (Westen & Rosenthal, 2003) provided a global index of accuracy in clinicians’ predictions that was more fully elaborated by examining systematic discrepancies across groups. Overall, novice and expert clinicians were generally able to predict criterion correlations, with some exceptions (e.g., counter to predictions, pathological narcissism was negatively associated with treatment resistance). These results provide further evidence regarding the validity and utility of the narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability constructs as measured by the PNI. PMID:22315481

Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

403

Personality Subtypes in Disruptive Adolescent Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether personality differences might ac- count for meaningful heterogeneity within and across DSM-IV diagnostic categories for disruptive adolescent boys. In a broader study of personality pathology in adolescence, a national sample of 293 clinicians completed the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure 200-A on randomly selected outpa- tients aged 14 to 18 in their care. Of 138 boys in the

John J. DiLallo; Meredith Jones; Drew Westen

2009-01-01

404

Digital pathology and image analysis in tissue biomarker research.  

PubMed

Digital pathology and the adoption of image analysis have grown rapidly in the last few years. This is largely due to the implementation of whole slide scanning, advances in software and computer processing capacity and the increasing importance of tissue-based research for biomarker discovery and stratified medicine. This review sets out the key application areas for digital pathology and image analysis, with a particular focus on research and biomarker discovery. A variety of image analysis applications are reviewed including nuclear morphometry and tissue architecture analysis, but with emphasis on immunohistochemistry and fluorescence analysis of tissue biomarkers. Digital pathology and image analysis have important roles across the drug/companion diagnostic development pipeline including biobanking, molecular pathology, tissue microarray analysis, molecular profiling of tissue and these important developments are reviewed. Underpinning all of these important developments is the need for high quality tissue samples and the impact of pre-analytical variables on tissue research is discussed. This requirement is combined with practical advice on setting up and running a digital pathology laboratory. Finally, we discuss the need to integrate digital image analysis data with epidemiological, clinical and genomic data in order to fully understand the relationship between genotype and phenotype and to drive discovery and the delivery of personalized medicine. PMID:25034370

Hamilton, Peter W; Bankhead, Peter; Wang, Yinhai; Hutchinson, Ryan; Kieran, Declan; McArt, Darragh G; James, Jacqueline; Salto-Tellez, Manuel

2014-11-01

405

Narcissistic personality disorder in DSM-5.  

PubMed

The criteria for personality disorders in Section II of DSM-5 have not changed from those in DSM-IV. Therefore, the diagnosis of Section II narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) will perpetuate all of the well-enumerated shortcomings associated with the diagnosis since DSM-III. In this article, we will briefly review problems associated with Section II NPD and then discuss the evolution of a new model of personality disorder and the place in the model of pathological narcissism and NPD. The new model was intended to be the official approach to the diagnosis of personality pathology in DSM-5, but was ultimately placed as an alternative in Section III for further study. The new model is a categorical-dimensional hybrid based on the assessment of core elements of personality functioning and of pathological personality traits. The specific criteria for NPD were intended to rectify some of the shortcomings of the DSM-IV representation by acknowledging both grandiose and vulnerable aspects, overt and covert presentations, and the dimensionality of narcissism. In addition, criteria were assigned and diagnostic thresholds set based on empirical data. The Section III representation of narcissistic phenomena using dimensions of self and interpersonal functioning and relevant traits offers a significant improvement over Section II NPD. PMID:23834518

Skodol, Andrew E; Bender, Donna S; Morey, Leslie C

2014-10-01

406

A core curriculum for clinical fellowship training in pathology informatics  

PubMed Central

Background: In 2007, our healthcare system established a clinical fellowship program in Pathology Informatics. In 2010 a core didactic course was implemented to supplement the fellowship research and operational rotations. In 2011, the course was enhanced by a formal, structured core curriculum and reading list. We present and discuss our rationale and development process for the Core Curriculum and the role it plays in our Pathology Informatics Fellowship Training Program. Materials and Methods: The Core Curriculum for Pathology Informatics was developed, and is maintained, through the combined efforts of our Pathology Informatics Fellows and Faculty. The curriculum was created with a three-tiered structure, consisting of divisions, topics, and subtopics. Primary (required) and suggested readings were selected for each subtopic in the curriculum and incorporated into a curated reading list, which is reviewed and maintained on a regular basis. Results: Our Core Curriculum is composed of four major divisions, 22 topics, and 92 subtopics that cover the wide breadth of Pathology Informatics. The four major divisions include: (1) Information Fundamentals, (2) Information Systems, (3) Workflow and Process, and (4) Governance and Management. A detailed, comprehensive reading list for the curriculum is presented in the Appendix to the manuscript and contains 570 total readings (current as of March 2012). Discussion: The adoption of a formal, core curriculum in a Pathology Informatics fellowship has significant impacts on both fellowship training and the general field of Pathology Informatics itself. For a fellowship, a core curriculum defines a basic, common scope of knowledge that the fellowship expects all of its graduates will know, while at the same time enhancing and broadening the traditional fellowship experience of research and operational rotations. For the field of Pathology Informatics itself, a core curriculum defines to the outside world, including departments, companies, and health systems considering hiring a pathology informatician, the core knowledge set expected of a person trained in the field and, more fundamentally, it helps to define the scope of the field within Pathology and healthcare in general. PMID:23024890

McClintock, David S.; Levy, Bruce P.; Lane, William J.; Lee, Roy E.; Baron, Jason M.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Onozato, Maristela L.; Kim, JiYeon; Dighe, Anand S.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Kuo, Frank; Black-Schaffer, Stephen; Gilbertson, John R.

2012-01-01

407

Personal Computers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the hardware, software, applications, and current proliferation of personal computers (microcomputers). Includes discussions of microprocessors, memory, output (including printers), application programs, the microcomputer industry, and major microcomputer manufacturers (Apple, Radio Shack, Commodore, and IBM). (JN)

Toong, Hoo-min D.; Gupta, Amar

1982-01-01

408

The role of responsible gambling strategy and gambling passion in the online gamblers' decision-making process: revising the theory of planned behavior.  

PubMed

This study revised the theory of planned behavior (TPB) by incorporating the new concepts of gambling passion and responsible gambling strategy (RGS) to predict gamblers' intention to gamble in online sports betting. The data were collected at the end of March in 2012 through an online gambling website. The findings indicated that the inclusion of two types of gambling passion and two types of RGS explains online gambling intention well. Specifically, out of the original antecedent predictors of TPB, attitude toward online gambling was positively related to harmonious passion. Subjective norm had a positive relationship with both harmonious and obsessive passion. The results also showed that perceived behavioral control does not have a significant effect on the two gambling passions but has a direct and significant influence on behavioral intention. Additionally, the compulsory RGS had a negative effect on obsessive passion, whereas supplementary RGS had concurrent positive impacts on harmonious and obsessive passion. Lastly, the two gambling passions were notable predictors of behavioral intention toward online sports betting. PMID:23334577

Lee, Jaeseok; Chen, Chih-Chien; Song, Hak-Jun; Lee, Choong-Ki

2014-06-01

409

Pathology Case Study: Pigmented Lesion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 69-year-old man has a pigmented lesion on his right ear. Visitors are given the patient history and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Ejadi, Samuel

410

Pathology Case Study: Chronic Sinusitis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man reported a history of chronic sinusitis that was not responding to nasal and antibiotic treatments. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of head and neck pathology.

Becich, Michael J.

411

Pathology Case Study: Liver Transplant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 34-year-old is experiencing complications following a liver transplant. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

Richert, Charles A.

412

Pathology Case Study: Renal Insufficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with chronic renal insufficiency, congestive heart failure, and diarrhea. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.

Bastacky, Sheldon

413

Pathology Case Study: Maculopapular Rash  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 38-year-old woman with a history of morbid obesity and gastric bypass surgery complains of fatigue, sore throat, and rash. Visitors are given the physical examination results and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Flynn, Kevin J.

414

Pathology Case Study: Dilated Cardiomyopathy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with a large range of symptoms from chills and fever to underdeveloped calf muscles. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

DeFrances, Marie C.

415

Pathology Case Study: Back Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman who presented with two months of back pain. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Lu, Zhengbin

416

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 72-year-old man has abdominal pain, anorexia, and weight loss but no significant past medical history. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

Nine, Jeff S.

417

Pathology Case Study: Pancreatic Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Utah Department of Pathology in which a woman developed jaundice while on vacation. Subsequent testing revealed a pancreatic mass. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of autopsy pathology.

Klatt, Edward C., 1951-

418

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older woman developed a renal mass without evidence of angiomyolipoma. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in endocrine pathology.

Hardy, Hunter T.

419

Pathology Case Study: Renal Insufficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 65-year-old woman with systemic rheumatoid arthritis has developed renal insufficiency. Visitors are given the gross and microscopic descriptions, electron microscopy exam results, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.

Bastacky, Sheldon

420

Pathology Case Study: Transfusion Reaction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man with a history of renal failure complained of hemorrhoidal bleeding. Visitors are given charts, test results, transfusion information and patient history, to provide the opportunity for viewers to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transfusion pathology.

Kohler, Lisa J.

421

Pathology Case Study: Renal Insufficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 74-year-old man has been referred to the hospital for renal insufficiency complicating scleroderma. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.

Bastacky, Sheldon

422

Pathology Case Study: Postmenopausal Bleeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This gynecologic pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 57-year-old female with postmenopausal bleeding. The patientâ??s history, and results from a pelvic ultrasound are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

Chen, Lei

423

Pathology Case Study: Metastasizing Tumor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman presented with a low-grade sarcoma with features of plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor in the subcutaneous soft tissue of left posterior thigh. Visitors can view both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

Rao, Uma N. M.

424

Pathology Case Study: Mediastinal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man complained of diaphoresis nausea and substernal chest pain through his left arm. Subsequent tests revealed a mediastinal mass with both fatty and solid components. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

Fowler, Jason C.

425

Pathology Case Study: Testicular Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 18-year-old male with "painless enlargement of the right testes over a period of several months, initially attributed to a sports injury." Visitors are given admission data along with gross and microscopic description, including images and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

Fowler, Jason C.

426

Pathology Case Study: Coccygeal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 60-year-old man has a recently enlarging coccygeal mass. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in skeletal and soft tissue pathology.

Horn, Kevin D.

427

The relationship between interpersonal problems and outcome in psychodynamic hospitalization-based treatment for personality disorders: A 12-month follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbances in interpersonal relationships are a core feature of personality disorders. Psychodynamic formulations in particular consider interpersonal problems as a central characteristic of personality pathology. Yet, despite the centrality of interpersonal issues in both theoretical conceptualizations and psychodynamic treatment approaches, relatively few studies have investigated the role and nature of interpersonal problems in psychodynamic treatments for personality pathology. This study

Patrick Luyten; Benedicte Lowyck; Rudi Vermote

2010-01-01

428

PERSONS WITH MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, Internal Self 1lelpers (ISM) of persons with multiple personality rlisorrler OWPI)) have been deseriberl by rr )7mill Humber of therapists. ii is .studV Iwo\\/ens the base ala I inaton relating to ISHs. Forty respondents who collectively had been therapists fur-rr totrtl of 690 i11P1) patients participated in the snarly. 77re findings of this study suti g ges

M. Ann Adams; Ann Adams; M. N. Sc

1989-01-01

429

Exploring the Association between Emotional Abuse and Childhood Borderline Personality Features: The Moderating Role of Personality Traits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most of the extant literature on borderline personality disorder has focused on the course, consequences, and correlates of this disorder among adults. However, little is known about childhood borderline personality (BP) features, or the factors associated with the emergence of BP pathology in childhood. A greater understanding of childhood BP…

Gratz, Kim L.; Latzman, Robert D.; Tull, Matthew T.; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Lejuez, C. W.

2011-01-01

430

Towards DSM-V: considering other withdrawal-like symptoms of pathological gambling disorder.  

PubMed

Despite clinical reports of other withdrawal-like symptoms, the DSM-IV considers only restlessness/irritability as a withdrawal-like criterion comprising pathological gambling disorder (PGD). We explored whether this criterion should be broadened to include other gambling withdrawal-like symptoms.Community-recruited adult gamblers (n = 312) participated in telephone interviews about gambling and related behaviors as a part of a larger psychometric study. Frequency and chi-square analyses described the association of gambling withdrawal-like symptoms by gambling disorder status. Multinomial forward selection logistic regression obtained a multivariate model describing the simultaneous relationship between these symptoms and gambling disorder status.One-quarter of the sample experienced the DSM-IV PGD criterion of restlessness/irritability. However, 41% experienced additional gambling withdrawal-like symptoms when attempting to quit or control gambling. A model including restlessness/irritability and three additional non-DSM-IV withdrawal-like symptoms (i.e. feelings of anger, guilt, and disappointment) is a stronger model of gambling disorder (chi(2) = 217.488; df = 8, p < 0.0001; R(2) = 0.5428; p < 0.0001) than restlessness/irritability alone (chi(2) = 151.278; df = 2, p < 0.0001; R(2) = 0.4133). The overlap of gambling withdrawal-like symptoms with substance use withdrawal (11%) and depressive symptoms (34%) failed to fully account for these associations with gambling disorder status.Future PGD conceptualization and potential criteria revisions for DSM-V may warrant a broader inclusion of gambling withdrawal-like symptoms. PMID:19197945

Cunningham-Williams, Renee M; Gattis, Maurice N; Dore, Peter M; Shi, Peichang; Spitznagel, Edward L

2009-01-01

431

Original research in pathology: judgment, or evidence-based medicine?  

PubMed

Pathology is both a medical specialty and an investigative scientific discipline, concerned with understanding the essential nature of human disease. Ultimately, pathology is accountable as well, as measured by the accuracy of our diagnoses and the resultant patient care outcomes. As such, we must consider the evidence base underlying our practices. Within the realm of Laboratory Medicine, extensive attention has been given to testing accuracy and precision. Critical examination of the evidence base supporting the clinical use of specific laboratory tests or technologies is a separate endeavor, to which specific attention must be given. In the case of anatomic pathology and more specifically surgical pathology, the expertise required to render a diagnosis is derived foremost from experience, both personal and literature-based. In the first instance, knowledge of the linkage between one's own diagnoses and individual patient outcomes is required, to validate the role of one's own interpretations in the clinical course of patients. Experience comes from seeing this linkage first hand, from which hopefully comes wisdom and, ultimately, good clinical judgment. In the second instance, reading the literature and learning from experts is required. Only a minority of the relevant literature is published in pathology journals to which one may subscribe. A substantial portion of major papers relevant to the practice of anatomic pathology are published in collateral clinical specialty journals devoted to specific disease areas or organs. Active effort is therefore required to seek out the literature beyond the domain of pathology journals. In examining the published literature, the essential question then becomes: Does the practice of anatomic pathology fulfill the tenets of 'evidence-based medicine' (EBM)? If the pinnacle of EBM is 'systematic review of randomized clinical trials, with or without meta-analysis', then anatomic pathology falls far short. Our published literature is largely observational in nature, with reports of case series (with or without statistical analysis) constituting the majority of our 'evidence base'. Moreover, anatomic pathology is subject to 'interobserver variation', and potentially to 'error'. Taken further, individual interpretation of tissue samples is not an objective endeavor, and it is not easy to fulfill the role of a 'gold standard'. Both for rendering of an overall interpretation, and for providing the semi-quantitative and quantitative numerical 'scores' which support evidence-based clinical treatment algorithms, the Pathologist has to exercise a high level of interpretive judgment. Nevertheless, the contribution of anatomic pathology to 'EBM' is remarkably strong. To the extent that our judgmental interpretations become data, our tissue interpretations become the arbiters of patient care management decisions. In a more global sense, we support highly successful cancer screening programs, and play critical roles in the multidisciplinary management of complex patients. The true error is for the clinical practitioners of 'EBM' to forget the contribution to the supporting evidence base of the physicians that are Anatomic Pathologists. Finally, the academic productivity of pathology faculty who operate in the clinical realm must be considered. A survey of six North American academic pathology departments reveals that 26% of all papers published in 2005 came from 'unfunded' clinical faculty. While it is likely that their academic productivity is lower than that of 'funded' research faculty, the contribution of clinical faculty to the knowledge base for the practice of modern medicine, and to the academic reputation of the department, must not be overlooked. The ability of clinical faculty in academic departments of pathology to pursue original scholarship must be supported if our specialty is to retain its preeminence as an investigative scientific discipline in the age of EBM. PMID:17318193

Crawford, James M

2007-02-01

432

Pathologies of brain attentional networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, it has been possible to trace the areas of the human brain involved in a variety of cognitive and emotional processes by use of imaging technology. Brain networks that subserve attention have been described. It is now possible to use these networks as model systems for the exploration of symptoms arising from various forms of pathology.

A Berger; M. I Posner

2000-01-01

433

Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Imaging to Pathology  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review is to describe the multimodal imaging (ultrasound, magnetic resonance, computed tomography, and nuclear medicine) of primary hyperparathyroidism and its correlation to the pathological findings. In the last decades, imaging science has progressed a great deal. Accurate preoperative localization of the involved glands is essential for surgical success. PMID:23230541

Piciucchi, Sara; Barone, Domenico; Gavelli, Giampaolo; Dubini, Alessandra; Oboldi, Devil; Matteuci, Federica

2012-01-01

434

Pathological Gambling: A General Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the course of history, gambling has been a popular activity across most cultures. In the United States, gambling has transitioned from early acceptance to prohibition to widespread proliferation. For most, gambling is a relaxing and recreational activity; however, for some individuals gambling becomes more than harmless fun. The most severe form of gambling, pathological gambling, is recognized as a

Larry L. Ashley; Karmen K. Boehlke

2012-01-01

435

THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

CROME, L.; STERN, J.

436

Bioactive lipids in pathological retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic retinopathy is common that occurs in diabetics with long-standing hyperglycemia that is characterized by inappropriate angiogenesis. This pathological angiogenesis could be a sort of physiological proliferative response to injury by the endothelium. Recent studies suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a significant role in this angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic growth factor that

Qi Ma; Jun-hui SHEN; Sheng-rong SHEN; Undurti N Das

2012-01-01

437

Learning Biology with Plant Pathology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph contains 10 plant pathology experiments that were written to correspond to portions of a biology curriculum. Each experiment is suitable to a biology topic and designed to encourage exploration of those biological concepts being taught. Experiments include: (1) The Symptoms and Signs of Disease; (2) Koch's Postulates; (3)…

Carroll, Juliet E.

438

ORIGINAL PAPER Journal of Pathology  

E-print Network

of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA 2 Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA 3 Medical Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA 5 Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY

Kenny, Paraic

439

Personal Revelation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Activity: You are going to develop a scripture chain that teaches us how we can receive Personal Revelation. Remember, when we talk to Heavenly Father we call it prayer. When Heavenly Father responds to us by the Holy Ghost we call it Personal Revelation. Teaching Emphasis (Core) I cannot use any language that describes to you what a revelation is. Somebody said, How can I tell if I have a revelation? I have had a feeling that such and such is true. How can I be sure? ...Revelation is something you experience, and the way that ...

Brother Vasas

2008-10-15

440

Any Personality Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... About Us Home > Health & Education > Statistics > Prevalence Any Personality Disorder Statistics Home Prevalence Serious Mental Illness (SMI) Among ... Major Depression with Severe Impairment among Adolescents Any Personality ... Personality Disorder Avoidant Personality Disorder Borderline Personality ...

441

Systems pathology: a paradigm shift in the practice of diagnostic and predictive pathology.  

PubMed

Diagnostic tumor pathology in the context of personalized medicine has progressed from an interpretive, subjective science to a more objective, evidence-based practice. This has resulted in the development of several tissue-based, molecular-driven tests that provide information regarding prognosis and response to therapy. The challenge, however, for both the pathologist and the treating physician is how best to effectively integrate this data into a comprehensive treatment plan that includes a patient-specific risk assessment. To address this need, the authors developed a systems pathology approach to the practice of clinical molecular medicine through technical advances in object-oriented image analysis, and phenotyping at the microanatomical level using deparaffinized tissue section and quantitative biomarker multiplexing. With support vector regression for censored data, they have been able to integrate complex information and provide a patient-specific risk profile based on the clinical endpoint under investigation. Cancer 2009;115(13 suppl):3078-84. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society. PMID:19544549

Donovan, Michael J; Costa, Jose; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos

2009-07-01

442

[Personality disorders and psychopathology following trauma. Reflection on diagnostic classification].  

PubMed

Pervasive personality disorders have been shown to be long-term sequelae of cumulative childhood physical and sexual traumatization. This finding is not reflected in DSM-IV and ICD-10 classifications where post-traumatic stress disorder is confined to intrusions, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal. However, there is growing evidence that trauma etiology should be taken into account in planning treatment for personality disorders. It is not yet clear whether childhood traumatization is more strongly associated with borderline personality disorder than with other personality disorders. The finding of a substantial overlap between borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder gives rise to discussions concerning the relationship of these two pathologies. PMID:14598033

Wöller, W; Kruse, J

2003-11-01

443

Ethnicity and four personality disorders.  

PubMed

The current study examined the relationship between ethnicity and DSM-IV personality disorders. The distribution of four personality disorders--borderline (BPD), schizotypal (STPD), avoidant (AVPD), and obsessive-compulsive (OCPD)--along with their criteria sets, were compared across three ethnic groups (Caucasians, African Americans, and Hispanics) using both a clinician-administered diagnostic interview and a self-report instrument. Participants were 554 patients drawn from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS) who comprised these three ethnic groups and met personality disorder criteria based on reliably administered semistructured interviews. Chi-square analyses revealed disproportionately higher rates of BPD in Hispanic than in Caucasian and African American participants and higher rates of STPD among African Americans when compared to Caucasians. Self-report data reflected similar patterns. The findings suggest that in treatment-seeking samples, Caucasians, Hispanics, and African Americans may present with different patterns of personality pathology. The factors contributing to these differences warrant further investigation. PMID:14610727

Chavira, Denise A; Grilo, Carlos M; Shea, M Tracie; Yen, Shirley; Gunderson, John G; Morey, Leslie C; Skodol, Andrew E; Stout, Robert L; Zanarini, Mary C; McGlashan, Thomas H

2003-01-01

444

Borderline Personality Characteristics and Treatment Outcome in Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for PTSD in Female Rape Victims  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies report that comorbid borderline personality pathology is associated with poorer outcomes in the treatment of Axis I disorders. Given the high rates of comorbidity between borderline personality pathology and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it is essential to determine whether borderline symptomatology affects PTSD treatment…

Clarke, Stephanie B.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Resick, Patricia A.

2008-01-01

445

Pathological organizations and psychic retreats in eating disorders.  

PubMed

A set of characteristic symptoms allow for the relatively straightforward diagnosis of eating disorders. Simultaneously and paradoxically, underlying the eating disorders are a wide variety of personality organizations/disorders, stretching from the neurotic to the borderline and narcissistic, and even to conditions approaching psychosis. This paper will argue that the inherent commonalities can be ascribed to pathological organizations of a similar nature and quality, operational across the spectrum of eating disorders and functioning in a particular, sadomasochistic way. The typical forms that eating disorders take are based on the specific ways that food and the body are used, that is, symptom manifestation. These distinctive symptom manifestations appear to be related to Steiner's (1982, 1993) notion of a psychic retreat. Pathological organizations and psychic retreats are latent until called upon either sporadically or continuously. When activated, these defensive structures operate like a complex psychic skeleton around which the unique psychodynamics of each patient become rearranged and thereby transformed. PMID:22489814

Kadish, Yael Adira

2012-04-01

446

Pathology Case Study: Cushing's Syndrome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case involves a 41 year-old woman experiencing the following symptoms for a period of 18 months: fatigue, weakness, lethargy, and decreased concentration. The patientâ??s history, description of CT scans, and images from histological examinations, which contributed to the conclusive diagnosis, are all provided here for your review. The contributing doctors provide a detailed discussion of the patientâ??s condition in the â??Final Diagnosisâ?ť section. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Dacic, Sanja

447

Pathology Case Study: Retroperitoneal Masses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains two case studies presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology: one in which a man was experiencing increased pain in his left flank over the course of three weeks, and the second one in which a women experiencing persistent right lower quadrant pain shows a retroperitoneal lesion on CT scan. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patients. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.

Dorvault, Christine

448

Pathology Case Study: Stillborn Fetus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a 29 year old Hispanic woman who delivered a stillborn fetus with a estimated gestation of 29 weeks. Visitors are provided with patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in perinatal pathology.

Klatt, Edward C., 1951-

449

Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Nodules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pediatric pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. The learning objectives located at the top of the page are a great way for students to evaluate their learning progress. This case involves a 12-year-old girl presenting with recurrent lung nodules. Images from chest x-rays and a lung biopsy provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâ??s diagnosis. A description of these images is also provided. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

Arnold, Sonya

450

Pathology Case Study: Respiratory Distress  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This cardiovascular pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. A 72-year-old female experiencing respiratory distress is the focus of this case. The patientâ??s history, gross description, and microscopic description of test results are provided to aid readers in understanding the patientâ??s diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

Ariyanayagam-Baksh, Shashi

451

Pathology Case Study: Cervicomedullary Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in learning. This neuropathology case is centered on a 22-month-old female patient with a history of posterior neck discomfort, episodic crying, scratching, and hard coughing. MRI images of the patient along with the patient's history and microscopic descriptions allow readers to test their diagnostic skills and develop an understanding of the patient's condition. The "Final Diagnosis" section contains the official conclusions of the patient's condition. Students entering health sciences fields will find this resource very helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

Hamilton, Ronald

452

Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes "a 46-year-old gentleman with a persistent right lower lobe pulmonary mass after a successfully treated cavitary pneumonia 5 months ago." Visitors are given patient history along with radiology findings and images. They are also given gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Gregorio, Remigio

453

Pathology Case Study: Cerebellar Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 16-year-old female who presented with a seven-month history of headaches and difficulty with gait. Visitors are given examination findings, imaging studies, and pathological findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Diagnosis and Discussion" section provides the findings, discussion of the disease, along with references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Cummings, Thomas J.

454

Other pathological processes in malaria*  

PubMed Central

Research since the World War II has confirmed that, apart from the production of haemozoin from haemoglobin, most of the pathological processes in the evolution of malaria are nonspecific. A few of these nonspecific host reactions are discussed, including the production of inflammatory stasis in certain areas (including the brain) where the vascular endothelium is normally highly impermeable to heavy molecules. This production of stasis is regarded as the basic phenomenon in local obstruction to blood flow. So-called “plugging” of small vessels with “sticky” infected erythrocytes is discussed in relation to stasis and to deep intravascular schizogony. Nonspecific vasomotor effects including shock and renal and hepatic failure are also discussed. Intravascular coagulation is not regarded as a potentially important host response despite demonstrable consumption coagulopathy. The disease malaria is regarded as an example of a chain reaction of physiological—pathological responses in the host, which in the early stages are reversible. PMID:4216409

Maegraith, Brian

1974-01-01

455

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Distention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 60-year-old woman who presented with a history of marked abdominal distention lasted for several months with associated progressive fatigue, progressive weight loss and fever. Visitors are given patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.

Rao, Uma N. M.

456

Pathology of traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently encountered in veterinary practice in companion animals, livestock and horses, inflicted head injury is a common method of euthanasia in domestic livestock, and malicious head trauma can lead to forensic investigation, the pathology of TBI has generally received little attention in the veterinary literature. This review highlights the pathology and pathogenesis of cerebral lesions produced by blunt, non-missile and penetrating, missile head injuries as an aid to the more accurate diagnosis of neurotrauma cases. If more cases of TBI in animals that result in fatality or euthanasia are subjected to rigorous neuropathological examination, this will lead to a better understanding of the nature and development of brain lesions in these species, rather than extrapolating data from human studies. PMID:25178417

Finnie, John W

2014-12-01

457

A Descriptive Analysis of Demographic and Behavioral Data from Internet Gamblers and Those Who Self-exclude from Online Gambling Platforms.  

PubMed

As the popularity of internet gambling increases, the increased opportunities to participate serve to heighten concerns about the potential for gambling related harm. This paper focuses on self-exclusion as one of the main responsible gaming interventions, and is split into three sections. Firstly, we set out a three-tier model for assessing at-risk gambling behaviors which examines player exhibited, declared and inferred behavior. Secondly, we present a literature review relating to who self-excludes and whether self-exclusion is effective. Finally, we report the results of an analysis of the exhibited behavior of internet self-excluders as sampled from a research cohort of over 240,000 internet gaming accounts. Our analysis of self-excluders (N = 347) versus a control group (N = 871) of gamblers indicates self-excluders are younger than the control group, more likely to suffer losses and more likely to adopt riskier gambling positions. Unlike some previous studies, there was little difference in terms of mean gambling hours per month or minutes per session. Some self-excluders (N = 306) can be tracked from the date their account was created through their self-exclusion history, indicating a large number of very quick self-exclusions (e.g., 25 % within a day) and a small set of serial self-excluders. Younger and older males are likely to self-exclude faster than middle-aged males (N = 242), but there is no such age pattern across female self-excluders (N = 63). PMID:24276575

Dragicevic, Simo; Percy, Christian; Kudic, Aleksandar; Parke, Jonathan

2015-03-01

458

Pathology Case Study: Visual Disturbances  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a neuropathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 49 year old woman has visual disturbances. Visitors are given the microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Bilbao, Juan M., 1938-

459

Risk factors for pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand pathological gambling, potential risk factors were assessed within three domains—gambling behaviors, substance abuse and other problem behaviors, and sociodemographic factors. A random-digit-dial telephone survey was conducted in 1999–2000 with a representative sample of the U.S. population aged 18 or older. The current analyses uses data from the 2168 respondents who gambled in the year before the interview.

John W. Welte; Grace M. Barnes; William F. Wieczorek; Marie-Cecile O. Tidwell; John C. Parker

2004-01-01

460

Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology  

PubMed Central

The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include senile plaques of ?-amyloid (A?) peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF). NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD. Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99%) is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease. Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM) might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since Tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia. PMID:24574966

El Khoury, Noura B.; Gratuze, Maud; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Bretteville, Alexis; Planel, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

461

Update on pathological skin picking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological skin picking (PSP) is a disabling disorder characterized by repetitive picking of the skin that causes tissue\\u000a damage. Estimated to affect 2% to 5.4% of the population, PSP is currently listed as an impulse control disorder not otherwise\\u000a specified. However, the repetitive and compulsive behaviors seen in PSP are phenomenologically and clinically similar to the\\u000a behaviors seen in obsessive-compulsive

Jon E. Grant; Brian L. Odlaug

2009-01-01

462

Pathological defects in congenital myopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital myopathies are a molecularly, pathologically and clinically heterogenous group of disorders defined by hypotonia\\u000a and muscle weakness, that usually present at birth or early childhood, in association with a characteristic morphological\\u000a defect. The most common morphological defects are nemaline rods, cores of varying size, central nuclei, and type I fibre hypotrophy,\\u000a with or without an additional abnormality. The defective

Caroline A. Sewry

2008-01-01

463

Pathological features of glutaminase toxicity.  

PubMed Central

In an investigation of the toxicity of the anti-tumour enzyme glutaminase Rhesus monkeys, marmosets, rabbits and mice were given various doses of chemically modified glutaminase parenterally. The enzyme induced diarrhoea and dysentery and at all but the lowest doses caused illness which was fatal within 10 days. Pathological lesions produced were hepatic lipidosis and glycogen accumulation, and, in the primates, acute necrotizing colitis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6775661

Baskerville, A.; Hambleton, P.; Benbough, J. E.

1980-01-01

464

Pathological tremors : Deterministic chaos or nonlinear  

E-print Network

Pathological tremors : Deterministic chaos or nonlinear stochastic oscillators? Jens Timmer \\Lambda Hospital of Freiburg, Breisacher Str. 64, 79110 Freiburg, Germany Abstract. Pathological tremors exhibit apply methods from linear and nonlinear time series analysis to tremor time series. The results

Timmer, Jens

465

Personal Beacon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MicroPLB (personal locator beacon) is a search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) transmitter. When activated it emits a distress signal to a constellation of internationally operated satellites. The endangered person's identity and location anywhere on Earth is automatically forwarded to central monitoring stations around the world. It is accurate to within just a few meters. The user uses the device to download navigation data from a global positioning satellite receiver. After the download is complete, the MicroP