Davtian, Margarit; Reid, Rory C; Fong, Timothy W
SUMMARY The present study explored facets of personality in a sample of pathological gamblers with ADHD (n = 52) and without ADHD (n = 43). Participants were assessed for psychopathology and gambling disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Facets of personality were assessed using the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised. Group differences emerged across several facets of personality when analyzed using multivariate statistics. Although both groups experienced difficulties in several areas compared with norming data (e.g., greater depression, higher impulsivity, lower self-esteem and lower self-discipline), these facets of personality were more pronounced in pathological gamblers with ADHD. Most notable among these differences are tendencies for gamblers with ADHD to experience greater levels of emotional instability, interpersonal sensitivity and stress proneness. Pathological gamblers with ADHD also appear to experience lower self-esteem, greater difficulty being assertive and lower levels of self-discipline. Surprisingly, both groups were comparable on facets of impulsivity. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers diagnosed with adult ADHD may experience additional challenges compared with pathological gamblers without ADHD. PMID:22815658
Davtian, Margarit; Reid, Rory C; Fong, Timothy W
The present study explored facets of personality in a sample of pathological gamblers with ADHD (n = 52) and without ADHD (n = 43). Participants were assessed for psychopathology and gambling disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Facets of personality were assessed using the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised. Group differences emerged across several facets of personality when analyzed using multivariate statistics. Although both groups experienced difficulties in several areas compared with norming data (e.g., greater depression, higher impulsivity, lower self-esteem and lower self-discipline), these facets of personality were more pronounced in pathological gamblers with ADHD. Most notable among these differences are tendencies for gamblers with ADHD to experience greater levels of emotional instability, interpersonal sensitivity and stress proneness. Pathological gamblers with ADHD also appear to experience lower self-esteem, greater difficulty being assertive and lower levels of self-discipline. Surprisingly, both groups were comparable on facets of impulsivity. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers diagnosed with adult ADHD may experience additional challenges compared with pathological gamblers without ADHD. PMID:22815658
Susana Jiménez-Murcia; Randy Stinchfield; Fernando Fernández-Aranda; Juan José Santamaría; Eva Penelo; Roser Granero; Mónica Gómez-Peńa; Neus Aymamí; Laura Moragas; Antonio Soto; José M. Menchón
The purpose of this study was to compare online pathological gamblers (OPG) to non-online pathological gamblers (non-OPG) in terms of gambling behaviour, socio-demographic features, psychopathology and personality characteristics. A large sample of 1015 pathological gambling (PG) patients consecutively admitted to our Pathological Gambling Unit participated in the study. There were very few differences between OPGs and non-OPGs, limited to OPGs
Joseph W. Ciarrocchi; Neil M. Kirschner; Fred Fallik
Previously published studies of MMPI characteristics of pathological gamblers have failed to control for the possible confounding influence of co-existing alcoholism or other substance abuse disorders. This limits the generalizability of such studies since gamblers' MMPI profiles closely resemble profiles of alcoholics. The current study compares MMPI scores for 96 alcoholics with 136 pathological gamblers of which 81 had co-existing
Maclaren, Vance V; Fugelsang, Johnathan A; Harrigan, Kevin A; Dixon, Michael J
This review summarizes studies of pathological gambling and personality. Meta-analyses were conducted on 44 studies that reported personality traits of pathological gamblers (N = 2134) and nonpathological gambling control groups (N = 5321). Effect size estimates were calculated for 128 comparisons and organized according to the factors associated with two integrative accounts of personality. Four of the meta-analyses examined traits that have previously been found to load on the Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance, and Sensation Seeking aspects of impulsivity (Whiteside & Lynam 2001). Substantial effects were found for traits associated with Negative Urgency (Cohen's d =.99) and Low Premeditation (d =.84), but not for Low Perseverance or Sensation Seeking. A second set of meta-analyses examined broad domains of personality that have previously been found to load on Negative Affect, Positive Affect, Disagreeable Disinhibition, and Unconscientious Disinhibition (Markon, Krueger, & Watson, 2005). Substantial effects were found for Unconscientious Disinhibition (d =.79), Negative Affect (d =.50), and Disagreeable Disinhibition (d =.50), but not Positive Affect. It was concluded that these individual personality characteristics may be important in the etiology of pathological gambling. The personality profile implicated in the etiology of pathological gambling is similar to that found in a recent meta-analysis of substance use disorders (Kotov, Gamez, Schmidt, & Watson, 2010). These results suggest that pathological gambling may be part of a broad cluster of externalizing psychopathology, and also call into question the current classification of pathological gambling as an Impulse Control Disorder in the DSM-IV. PMID:21802620
Ramos-Grille, Irene; Gomŕ-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Aragay, Nůria; Valero, Sergi; Vallčs, Vicenç
The aim of the present study was to determine which domains in NEO Personality Inventory-Revised would predict relapse and dropout in treatment-seeking slot-machine pathological gamblers after 1-year follow-up. The NEO PI-R was completed by 73 consecutive treatment-seeking outpatients before they began an open program of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy. Twelve months after starting treatment, patients were categorized in groups as abstinent versus relapsed or completers versus dropouts. At 1-year follow-up, 29% of patients were abstinent, and 48% had completed treatment. Those who had relapsed showed higher significant scores on Neuroticism and lower scores on Conscientiousness. The dropout group scored significantly higher on Neuroticism and lower on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness than the completer group. Low scores on Conscientiousness emerged as a significant predictor of relapse; while low scores on Conscientiousness and Agreeableness were significant predictors of dropout. It seems as if low Conscientiousness could be considered as a predictor of treatment failure measured by either relapses or dropouts, whereas, low Agreeableness seems to be a prognostic domain specifically for dropouts. Pathological gamblers with lower Conscientiousness and lower Agreeableness seem to be at risk of prematurely dropping out of treatment. Our findings support the importance of individual differences in personality on therapy outcomes. The NEO PI-R may constitute an important tool to identify treatment-seeking pathological gamblers who may be at risk of relapsing or dropping out of treatment. PMID:23544399
Several types of psychotherapy are currently used to treat pathological gamblers. These include Gambler's Anonymous, cognitive behavioral therapy, behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, and family therapy. Research into which types of psychotherapy are the most effective for pathological gambling is limited but is a growing area of study. Group therapy, namely Gambler's Anonymous, provides peer support and structure. Cognitive behavior therapy aims to identify and correct cognitive distortions about gambling. Psychodynamic psychotherapy can help recovering gamblers address core conflicts and hidden psychological meanings of gambling. Family therapy is helpful by providing support and education and eliminating enabling behaviors. To date, no single type of psychotherapy has emerged as the most effective form of treatment. As in other addictive disorders, treatment retention of pathological gamblers is highly variable. Understanding the types of psychotherapy that are available for pathological gamblers, as well their underlying principles, will assist clinicians in managing this complex behavioral disorder. PMID:21152147
Goudriaan, Anna E; Oosterlaan, Jaap; de Beurs, Edwin; van den Brink, Wim
Decision making deficits play an important role in the definition of pathological gambling (PG). However, only few empirical studies are available regarding decision making processes in PG. This study therefore compares decision making processes in PG and normal controls in detail using three decision making tasks examining general performance levels on these tasks as well as feedback processing using reaction time analyses. To investigate the specificity of decision making deficits in PG, a substance dependence group (alcohol dependence; AD) and an impulse control disordered group (Tourette syndrome; TS) were included. The PG group (n = 48), AD group (n = 46), TS group (n = 47), and a normal control (NC) group (n = 49) were administered (1) the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), an ecologically valid gambling task; (2) the Card Playing Task, a task measuring perseveration for reward; and (3) a Go/No-Go discrimination task, a task measuring reward and response cost sensitivity. The PG group showed a diminished performance on all tasks and deficient feedback processing as compared to the NC group on the IGT and the Card Playing Task. In general, performance measures were not associated with levels of comorbidity or with self-reported motivational measures. For the larger part, deficiencies in decision making processes in the PG group were also present in the AD group, but not in the TS group. Subgroup analyses revealed larger decision making deficits in pathological slot machine gamblers than in pathological casino gamblers. Deficits in decision making and feedback processing in PG should be addressed in treatment and incorporated more explicitly in theoretical models of PG. PMID:15795140
Petry, Nancy M.; Ammerman, Yola; Bohl, Jaime; Doersch, Anne; Gay, Heather; Kadden, Ronald; Molina, Cheryl; Steinberg, Karen
Few studies have evaluated efficacy of psychotherapies for pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (N = 231) were randomly assigned to (a) referral to Gamblers Anonymous (GA), (b) GA referral plus a cognitive-behavioral (CB) workbook, or (c) GA referral plus 8 sessions of individual CB therapy. Gambling and related problems were assessed…
Sodano, Ruthlyn; Wulfert, Edelgard
Twenty-one treatment-seeking pathological gamblers, 21 pathological gamblers in recovery, and 21 recreational gamblers watched two video-taped exciting gambling scenarios and an exciting roller-coaster control scenario while their arousal (heart rate and subjective excitement) and urge to gamble were being measured. The gamblers did not differ significantly in cue-elicited heart rate elevations or excitement. However, the active pathological gamblers reported significantly greater urges to gamble across all cues compared to the abstinent pathological gamblers and, with marginal significance (p = 0.06), also compared to the social gamblers. Further exploration of these findings revealed that active pathological gamblers experience urges to gamble in response to exciting situations, whether or not they are gambling related, whereas abstinent and social gamblers only report urges to an exciting gambling-related cue. This suggests that for pathological gamblers excitement itself, irrespective of its source, may become a conditioned stimulus capable of triggering gambling behavior. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:19662519
Ledgerwood, David M; Milosevic, Aleks
Problem and pathological gamblers (PPGs) are more likely than the general population to experience co-occurring psychiatric problems. However, the problem gambling literature has largely overlooked the importance of trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a prevalent co-occurring condition among PPGs. This study examined clinical differences between PPGs with and without a history of co-occurring PTSD. Lifetime PPGs (N = 150) recruited from community sources completed clinical assessments including measures of problem gambling severity, co-occurring psychiatric conditions, gambling motivations and personality traits. Over 19% of the participants met criteria for a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD. Those presenting with PTSD histories were more likely to be women, and were more likely to have lifetime substance use disorder (abuse and/or dependence) and substance dependence, lifetime major depressive disorder, current dysthymic disorder, and lifetime and current anxiety disorder. Those with lifetime PTSD also were more likely to use gambling as a way to cope with negative emotions and experienced greater negative emotionality. Few PPGs (16%) had ever sought treatment for their gambling problems. PTSD is a prevalent condition among individuals with lifetime PPG recruited from the community, and is associated with greater psychiatric co-morbidity among these populations. More research is needed to further understand the relationship between gambling and trauma, and better outreach is needed to encourage these individuals to seek treatment. PMID:24293017
Joseph Ciarrocchi; Ann A. Hohmann
The family environments of married pathological gamblers, alcoholics, and alcoholic gamblers were measured with the Family Environment Scale (FES), a measure of 10 characteristics of family life. The total sample consists of 193 hospitalized patients, which includes 73 male alcoholics, 53 female alcoholics, and 67 male pathological gamblers, of whom 34 were alcoholics and 33 were not. All four treatment
Avtonomov, D A
The author presents results of the psychopathological phenomena and subjective experience study of 38 patients with the verified diagnosis "Pathological addiction to gambling" (F63.0) without psychotic disorders. In 84,2% cases, the patients preferred slot machine gambling. The causes of such preferences were analyzed. The phenomenology of the psychic experience of the patients who are slot machine gamblers is presented. With the formation of the addiction, the gamblers began to think about slot machines as human beings (creatures), feel attachment to them, see the individuality in them, and experience slot machines as live and real partners in imaginative or even verbal dialogs. Two main "forms of contact" with slot machines were elicited and described: verbal and non-verbal. The gambler has been gradually depleted the image of himself and experiences the "loss of contact" with his own features, qualities, wishes, and intentions. The data obtained may be helpful in psychotherapeutic and rehabilitative work with such patients. PMID:22027663
Brevers, Damien; Cleeremans, Axel; Bechara, Antoine; Greisen, Max; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier
Lack of self-awareness of one's decisions remains an understudied and elusive topic in the addiction literature. The present study aimed at taking a first step towards addressing this difficult subject through the use of a combination of behavioral procedures. Here, we explored the association between a metacognitive process (the ability to reflect and evaluate the awareness of one's own decision) and poor performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in a group of pathological gamblers (PG; n = 30), and in a comparison group (n = 35). This metacognitive process was assessed during the IGT with the post-decision wagering procedure, while a number of potential confounds (i.e., reward/loss sensitivity, dual-tasking) were controlled for. Results showed that: (1) Initial performance enhancement of the control group on IGT occurred without explicit knowledge of the task, thus confirming its implicit character; (2) compared to controls, performance of PG on the IGT failed to increase during the task; (3) taking into account increased reward sensitivity and decreased loss sensitivity as well as poorer dual-tasking in pathological gamblers, PG tended to exhibit a bias in evaluating their own performance on the IGT by maximizing their wagers independently of selecting advantageous decks. Our findings suggest that biased metacognition may affect pathological gamblers, leading to disadvantageous post-decision wagering, which is in turn linked to impaired decision making under ambiguity. Perhaps this deficit reflects the impaired insight and self-awareness that many addicts suffer from, thus providing a novel approach for capturing and measuring this impairment, and for investigating its possible causes. PMID:22273773
Müller, K W; Beutel, M E; Egloff, B; Wölfling, K
Engaging in online games has become increasingly important as a part of leisure activity in adolescents and adults. While the majority of people use these games in a healthy way, epidemiological studies show that some develop excessive use and symptoms that are related to those of substance-related addictions. Despite increasing research concerning the epidemiology of internet gaming disorder (IGD), predisposing factors have been examined to a lesser extent. Knowing about specific risk factors would help clarify the nosological features of IGD and enhance prevention and intervention. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between personality traits and IGD. A total of 115 patients meeting the criteria for IGD were compared to 167 control subjects displaying either regular or intense use of online games. Additionally, 115 patients meeting diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling were included. IGD was associated with higher neuroticism, decreased conscientiousness and low extraversion. The comparisons to pathological gamblers indicate that low conscientiousness and low extraversion in particular are characteristic of IGD. An integration of personality variables into an etiopathological model describing presumable mechanisms fostering and maintaining addictive online gaming is proposed. This model could be helpful for the theoretical understanding of addictive gaming, public health campaigns and psychoeducation within therapeutic settings. PMID:24247280
Madden, Gregory J; Petry, Nancy M; Johnson, Patrick S
Nineteen treatment-seeking men meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (4th ed.) criteria for pathological gambling and 19 demographically matched controls participated. Participants provided demographic information, information about their recent drug use and gambling activities, and biological samples (to confirm drug abstinence). They also completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and 2 questionnaires designed to separately quantify probability and delay discounting. Pathological gamblers discounted probabilistic rewards significantly less steeply than matched controls. A significant correlation revealed that more shallow probability discounting was associated with higher SOGS scores. Across groups, there was no significant difference in delay discounting, although this difference approached significance when education and ethnicity were included as covariates. These findings, collected for the 1st time with pathological gamblers, are consistent with previous reports that problem-gambling college students discount probabilistic rewards less steeply than controls. The nature of the relation between probability discounting and severity of problem gambling is deserving of further study. PMID:19803627
Dixon, Mark R; Wilson, Alyssa; Habib, Reza
The present study examined the neurological correlates of slot machine gambling by pathological and nonpathological gamblers while undergoing an fMRI scanning procedure. Twenty-two total participants were exposed to a series of losses, small wins, and large wins on a computerized simulated slot machine. Results indicate that the two types of gamblers responded differently to the various game options, and that an apparent "dose effect" exists when small and big wins are compared for pathological gamblers. Specifically more neural activation occurred in the dopaminergic pathway under conditions of large wins. These data suggest that a non-drug substance such as gambling may mimic typical drug-dose effects shown in previous literature. Implications for the treatment of pathological gamblers are discussed. PMID:24607394
Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Rattin, Andrea; Guerreschi, Cesare; Sanfey, Alan G.; Bonini, Nicolao
Impulsivity is associated with several psychiatric disorders in which the loss of control of a specific behavior determines the syndrome itself. One particularly interesting population characterized by reported high impulsivity and problematic decision-making are those diagnosed with pathological gambling. However the association between impulsivity and decision making in pathological gambling has been only partially confirmed until now. We tested 23 normal controls and 23 diagnosed pathological gamblers in an intertemporal choice task, as well as other personality trait measurements. Results showed that gamblers scored higher on impulsivity questionnaires, and selected a higher percentage of impatient choices (higher percentage of smaller, sooner rewards), when compared to normal controls. Moreover, gamblers were faster in terms of reaction times at selecting the smaller, sooner options and discounted rewards more rapidly over time. Importantly, regression analyses clarified that self-reported measures of impulsivity played a significant role in biasing decisions towards small but more rapidly available rewards. In the present study we found evidence for impulsivity in personality traits and decisions in pathological gamblers relative to controls. We conclude by speculating on the need to incorporate impulsivity and decision biases in the conceptualization of pathological gambling for a better understanding and treatment of this pathology. PMID:25296184
Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Rattin, Andrea; Guerreschi, Cesare; Sanfey, Alan G; Bonini, Nicolao
Impulsivity is associated with several psychiatric disorders in which the loss of control of a specific behavior determines the syndrome itself. One particularly interesting population characterized by reported high impulsivity and problematic decision-making are those diagnosed with pathological gambling. However the association between impulsivity and decision making in pathological gambling has been only partially confirmed until now. We tested 23 normal controls and 23 diagnosed pathological gamblers in an intertemporal choice task, as well as other personality trait measurements. Results showed that gamblers scored higher on impulsivity questionnaires, and selected a higher percentage of impatient choices (higher percentage of smaller, sooner rewards), when compared to normal controls. Moreover, gamblers were faster in terms of reaction times at selecting the smaller, sooner options and discounted rewards more rapidly over time. Importantly, regression analyses clarified that self-reported measures of impulsivity played a significant role in biasing decisions towards small but more rapidly available rewards. In the present study we found evidence for impulsivity in personality traits and decisions in pathological gamblers relative to controls. We conclude by speculating on the need to incorporate impulsivity and decision biases in the conceptualization of pathological gambling for a better understanding and treatment of this pathology. PMID:25296184
Substance abuse patterns were reviewed for a group of patients admitted to the Gambling Treatment Program at the Brecksville Veterans Administration Medical Center. A retrospective chart review of 113 consecutively admitted patients between September 2000 and September 2001 found that 66.4% of pathological gamblers had a lifetime history of substance abuse or dependence at some point in their lives. A history of substance abuse or dependence was less common among gamblers aged 60 and above. In the year prior to admission, 58.1% of those with a history of substance abuse or dependence were actively using substances. Alcohol was the most commonly used substance, followed by marijuana and cocaine. In most gamblers with comorbid disorders, the onset of substance dependence preceded the onset of problem gambling. Pathological gamblers engaged in multiple impulsive and dysfunctional behaviors including suicide attempts, compulsive shopping and spending, and compulsive sexual behavior, and the presence of comorbid substance abuse disorders may influence the degree to which pathological gamblers engage in these additional problematic behaviors. These factors have important implications for treatment and prevention of relapse, as well as for theories of addictions. PMID:14693255
Dixon, Mark R.; Holton, Bethany
The present study explored the delay discounting of future and past monetary rewards by pathological gamblers. Using a multiple baseline design, following repeated exposure to choices between smaller immediate and larger delayed consequences, participants completed a relational responding task that attempted to alter the psychological functions of…
Petry, Nancy M.
The transtheoretical model has been applied to many addictive disorders. In this study, psychometrics properties of the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) scale were evaluated in 234 pathological gamblers initiating treatment. Four components were identified--reflective of precontemplation, contemplation, action, and maintenance…
Nordin, Conny; Sjodin, Ingemar
Neurocognitive disturbances suggesting a frontal lobe dysfunction have been observed in pathological gamblers and alcohol dependents. Given that a high homocysteine level has been suggested to be a mediating factor in alcohol-related cognitive decline, we have determined homocysteine and cobalamine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from 11…
De Wilde, Bieke; Goudriaan, Anneke; Sabbe, Bernard; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dom, Geert
Backgrounds and aims Pathological gambling, a common psychiatric disorder, has many similarities with substance use disorders. Relapse, an important element in addictive disorders, however, has seldom been studied in pathological gambling. Hence, in analogy with previous research studies examining the role of self-report and neurocognitive measures on relapse in substance dependent patients, the present pilot study was executed. Methods Twenty-two pathological gamblers and 31 healthy controls took part in this research. They filled in self-report questionnaires measuring impulsive personality (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaires) and performed neurocognitive tasks measuring impulsivity, decision-making and attentional bias (Iowa Gambling Task, Delay Discounting Task, Stroop Gambling Task). Twelve months later gambling activity was re-examined. Results Analyses showed that PGs who relapsed (n = 13) did not differ on self-report and neurocognitive measures of impulsivity with PGs who did not relapse (n = 9). However, both groups did differ in age at onset. Finally, healthy controls and PGs differed in some (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Stroop Gambling Task), but not all impulsivity measures (Delay Discounting Task, Iowa Gambling Task, Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaires). Conclusions One-year relapse in pathological gamblers is not predicted by self-report and or neurocognitive measures of impulsivity and decision-making. The similarities in performances between pathological gamblers and healthy controls illustrate the relative health of the examined pathological gamblers. This last finding supports the idea that subtypes of pathological gamblers exist so that different treatment strategies might be necessary. PMID:26165768
Orgaz, Cristina; Estévez, Ana; Matute, Helena
An illusion of control is said to occur when a person believes that he or she controls an outcome that is uncontrollable. Pathological gambling has often been related to an illusion of control, but the assessment of the illusion has generally used introspective methods in domain-specific (i.e., gambling) situations. The illusion of control of pathological gamblers, however, could be a more general problem, affecting other aspects of their daily life. Thus, we tested them using a standard associative learning task which is known to produce illusions of control in most people under certain conditions. The results showed that the illusion was significantly stronger in pathological gamblers than in a control undiagnosed sample. This suggests (1) that the experimental tasks used in basic associative learning research could be used to detect illusions of control in gamblers in a more indirect way, as compared to introspective and domain-specific questionnaires; and (2), that in addition to gambling-specific problems, pathological gamblers may have a higher-than-normal illusion of control in their daily life. PMID:23785340
Venuleo, Claudia; Salvatore, Sergio; Mossi, Piergiorgio
It is recognised that cultural factors play a role in the onset and continuation of several mental health problems. However, there is a significant lack of empirical studies investigating the relationships between cultural factors and gambling behavior. This study assessed whether the subjective cultures through which subjects interpret and enact their experience of the social environment play a major role in increasing (or decreasing) the probability of pathological gambling. Participants, recruited in three different contexts (public health services for the treatment of addiction, casino, undergraduate course) were subjected to the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) (Lesieur and Blume in Am J Psychiatry 144(9):1184-1188, 1987), in order to identify a group of pathological gamblers-and with the Questionnaire on the Interpretation of the Social Environment (QUISE) (Mossi and Salvatore in Eur J Educ Psychol 4(2):153-169, 2011)-in order to detect their subjective cultures. The study compares pathological group (scoring >5 on SOGS, n = 34) and a healthy control group (scoring <1 on SOGS, n = 35). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare groups on QUISE scores of subjective culture. Moreover, a logistic regression was applied in order to esteem the capability of the QUISE scores to differentiate between pathological gamblers and control. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that pathological group expresses different subjective cultures compared with no gambler subjects. The theoretical and clinical implications of the results are discussed. PMID:24970696
Bertrand, Karine; Dufour, Magali; Wright, John; Lasnier, Benoît
The study of the effectiveness of treatment for pathological gambling constitutes a field that is still largely unexplored. To date, the models assessed primarily target the individual and include little or no involvement of the family circle. Yet, the deleterious effects of gambling on loved ones and especially spouses are well recognized. Further, the addition of a couple modality to individual treatment has been shown to be effective on many levels in the treatment of substances use disorders. This article therefore proposes a critical review of (1) the literature providing a better understanding of the complex interactions between the couple relationship and pathological gambling, (2) studies on the effects of couple therapies on gamblers and their partners. We then present the therapeutic model developed by our team of clinician-researchers in collaboration with actors from Québec clinical settings: Adapted Couple Therapy (ACT) for pathological gamblers. In the Québec context, this model will serve as a complement to an individual cognitive-behavioral treatment model that has been proven effective and is employed throughout the Canadian province. The assessment of couple therapies could reveal avenues of solutions to better assist pathological gamblers who tend to drop-out of treatment and relapse. PMID:18560999
Rosenthal, R J; Lorenz, V C
Over the past three decades, gambling has been the nation's fastest growing industry. Although there is now some leveling off, states are still turning to legalized gambling to address financial problems without having to raise taxes. In addition, there is new technology that produces more rapidly addicting games. States are accepting some responsibility and, as of this writing, 12 of them have funded some programs in public education, research, training, and treatment. Although there are only a half dozen inpatient programs and very few qualified counselors and therapists, we can anticipate the development of clinics, residential programs, halfway houses, and alternative sentencing programs. The National Council on Problem Gambling has developed guidelines for the certification of gambling counselors. In addition to the training of mental health professionals, workshops are needed for attorneys, judges, probation and parole officers, and prison administrators. Initially, the task of assessing and diagnosing the pathological gambler was left to a small number of experts. Starting with DSM-IV, there will be clear and reliable criteria available to the professional community. These criteria, which are the product of thorough testing, should easily discriminate the pathological gambler from other types of gamblers. Most of what we have learned about pathological gambling has come in the last 5 years. A major impetus for research has been the Journal of Gambling Studies, which began publication in 1985. A review of the nature and course of the disorder, including the studies of criminal behavior, leads one to conclude that the majority of pathological gamblers (at least 70% to 80%) commit offenses late in the disorder and that these offenses are strictly gambling related. This is a population which is essentially nonviolent and which turns to property crimes out of desperation over gambling losses and their sequelae. The minority (in one study 14%) of gamblers with antisocial personality disorder--the group for whom treatment would be least likely to be effective--can be recognized easily both by the pattern of offenses and by diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality. Once this group is excluded, treatment for the others, in combination with restitution, community service, and some form of monitoring, would seem beneficial both for the individual and for society. Once they have stopped gambling, pathological gamblers are frequently hard-working people, whose mathematical skills and intelligence, high energy, and need to excel make them extremely valuable at their jobs. The alternative, imprisonment, may very well reinforce the disorder.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1409026
Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian; Bischof, Gallus; John, Ulrich; Wurst, Friedrich Martin; Thon, Natasha; Lucht, Michael; Grabe, Hans Joergen; Rumpf, Hans-Juergen
The risk for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among pathological gamblers is high compared to the general population. Little is known about the interplay of Axis I and Axis II disorders, severity of gambling disorder, and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The study aims to address this linkage. The sampling design of the study "Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology" (PAGE) included four recruitment channels: general population, gambling locations, project telephone hotline, and in-patient treatment for pathological gambling. A total of 442 study participants with lifetime pathological gambling received a clinical interview. The multivariate analysis showed mood disorders (Relative Risk Ratio, RRR=5.14, 95%-Confidence Interval, CI=2.91-9.07), substance use disorders (RRR=1.73, CI=1.02-2.94), and early onset of gambling disorder (RRR=0.96, CI=0.93-0.99) to be associated with suicidal ideation. Suicidal attempts were associated with female sex (RRR=3.58, CI=1.56-8.19), mood disorders (RRR=11.92, CI=4.70-30.26), and Cluster B personality disorders (RRR=2.40, CI=1.13-5.10). Among study participants with suicide attempts, more had a Cluster B personality disorder than among participants with ideation solely (RRR=3.08, CI=1.48-6.40). Among this large mixed sample of pathological gamblers, high proportions of individuals with suicidal events, multi-morbidity on Axis I, and a strong linkage to Cluster B personality disorders were found. PMID:25537488
Myrseth, Helga; Tverĺ, Renate; Hagatun, Susanne; Lindgren, Camilla
The aim of this study was to compare pathological gamblers and skydivers in relation to measures of impulsivity and sensation seeking. The Eysenck Impulsivity Scale - Narrow Impulsiveness Subscale and the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking were administered to pathological gamblers (n = 29), skydivers (n = 93), and a control group (n = 43). A two-way multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to explore differences in impulsivity and sensation seeking between the groups and possible group by gender and group by age interaction effects. The significant effects were further investigated using follow-up univariate analysis of variance. The results showed significant main effects of Group, Gender and Age, and a significant Group by Gender interaction effect. The results showed no statistically significant differences in impulsivity between pathological gamblers and skydivers; however, both groups scored higher than the controls. The skydivers scored higher compared to the pathological gamblers and controls on both sensation seeking subscales. Pathological gamblers scored higher than the controls on the subscale Need for Stimulus Intensity, although lower than the controls on the subscale Need for Novelty. We conclude that skydivers and pathological gamblers do not seem to differ in terms of impulsivity, but that the two groups differ in terms of sensation seeking. Skydivers are hence characterized by more sensation seeking compared to pathological gamblers. Skydiving, as opposed to pathological gambling, is not considered a psychiatric disorder, and skydiving may represent a more non-pathological way to fulfill the need for stimulus intensity. PMID:22783975
Abdollahnejad, Reza; Delfabbro, Paul; Denson, Linley
Pathological gambling is known to be associated with a higher than average prevalence of psychological co-morbidities including a range of psychiatric conditions. A problem with much of this literature, however, is that such problems are also frequently found in populations affected by alcohol use disorder, which is common in populations of pathological gamblers. Accordingly, the principal aim of this study was to profile the comorbidities present in a sample of pathological gamblers, comparing those who did, and did not, additionally meet criteria for alcohol use disorder. A sample of 140 community-recruited regular gamblers completed a number of measures including the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire, NORC DSM-IV Screen Self-Administered and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Comparisons showed that most psychiatric conditions (and in particular personality disorders) were significantly more prevalent in those with a dual diagnosis, followed by problem gamblers and then by those with neither disorder. This suggests that high rates of psychiatric illness in pathological gambling may be strongly influenced by co-occurring alcohol problems. PMID:24315782
Sharma, M G; Upadhyay, Awadhesh; Sharma, Vandana
The present study examines the mental health management of pathological gamblers by counseling and relaxation practices. Fifty-five treated and 55 non-treated pathological gamblers were evaluated at S. I. Mental and Physical Health Society, Varanasi, India. The two groups were matched by age, ranging 20 to 53 years with a mean age of 36.2 years and mean length of uncontrollable gambling of 7.3 years. The Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire and the Death Anxiety Scale were administered to ascertain mental health and death anxiety on seven selected dimensions, including: anxiety, obsession, phobia, somatization, depression, hysteria, and death anxiety. Mean scores obtained on different variables were analyzed using a t-test of significance. Results indicated that the characteristic associated with treated pathological gamblers was phobia whereas the characteristics associated with non-treated pathological gamblers were anxiety, obsession, somatization, depression, and death anxiety. PMID:24066639
Díez, Dominica; Aragay, Núria; Soms, Mercč; Prat, Gemma; Casas, Miquel
Although in the last years several studies comparing male and female pathological gamblers have been published, most of them have been carried out using only samples of males. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in a sample of subjects diagnosed with pathological gambling (PG) attending three specialized outpatient units. Retrospective study was carried out of 96 patients (49% female and 51% male), comparing the main socio-demographic, clinical, and behavioral data. Most subjects (94%) met the criteria for pathological gambling. No significant differences between sexes were found in the severity of gambling behavior or the socio-demographic variables studied. Whereas slot machines were the main type of game for most subjects, a higher percentage of women were addicted to bingo (?2 (1, 4) = 5.19, p = .029 Cohen's d = 0.48) and had more than one type of game as a secondary addiction ?2 (1, 4) = 7.63, p = .006; Cohen's d = 0.59) . Women started gambling at a later age than men (t (94) = 2.95, p = .004; Cohen's d = 0.60), but developed a pattern of addiction faster ( t (94) = 2.95, p = .004; Cohen's d = -0.61) . Women also had higher comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders (?2 (1) = 7.28, p = .007; Cohen's d = 0.57), specifically with affective (?2 (1) = 11.31, p = .001; Cohen's d = 0.73) and personality disorders (?2 (1) = 4.71, p = .030; Cohen's d = 0.45). Our results indicate the existence of differences between women and men in the pattern of gambling behavior and in psychiatric comorbidity. These aspects should be considered in the design of treatment programs for pathological gamblers. PMID:26055264
Lahti, Tuuli; Halme, Jukka; Pankakoski, Maiju; Sinclair, David; Alho, Hannu
This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behavior of 39 pathological gamblers who participated in our treatment study in 2009. The inclusion criteria of the study were: score of five or more on both the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and a pathological gambling screen based on the Diagnostic and Statistical…
Carlbring, Per; Smit, Filip
Although effective therapies for pathological gambling exist, their uptake is limited to 10% of the target population. To lower the barriers for help seeking, the authors tested an online alternative in a randomized trial (N = 66). The participants were pathological gamblers not presenting with severe comorbid depression. A wait-list control was…
Poirier-Arbour, Alisson; Trudel, Gilles; Boyer, Richard; Harvey, Pascale; Goldfarb, Maria Rocio
Problem and pathological gamblers (PPG) often suffer from depressive symptoms. Gambling problems have negative consequences on multiple aspects of gamblers' lives, including family and marital relationships. The objectives of the current study were to (1) replicate the results of studies that have suggested a stronger and more significant relationship between gambling and depression in PPG than in non-problem gamblers (NPG) and (2) explore specific correlates of depressive symptom severity in PPG in couple relationships. Variables demonstrated to be significantly correlated with depressive symptoms in the general population were selected. It was hypothesized that gender, age, gambler's mean annual income, perceived poverty, employment status, clinical status (i.e., problem or pathological gambler versus non-problem gambler), trait anxiety, alcoholism, problem-solving skills, and dyadic adjustment would be significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Sixty-seven PPG were recruited, primarily from an addiction treatment center; 40 NPG were recruited, primarily through the media. Results revealed that PPG reported significantly greater depressive symptoms than did NPG. Further, elevated trait anxiety and poor dyadic adjustment were demonstrated to be significant and specific correlates of depressive symptom severity in PPG. These findings contribute to the literature on depressive symptomatology in PPG in relationships, and highlight the importance of the influence of the couple relationship on PPG. PMID:23149512
Habib, Reza; Dixon, Mark R
The purpose of this translational study was twofold: (1) to contrast behavioral and brain activity between pathological and nonpathological gamblers, and (2) to examine differences as a function of the outcome of the spin of a slot machine, focusing predominately on the "Near-Miss"--when two reels stop on the same symbol, and that symbol is just above or below the payoff line on the third reel. Twenty-two participants (11 nonpathological; 11 pathological) completed the study by rating the closeness of various outcomes of slot machine displays (wins, losses, and near-misses) to a win. No behavioral differences were observed between groups of participants, however, differences in brain activity were found in the left midbrain, near the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area (SN / VTA). Near-miss outcomes uniquely activated brain regions associated with wins for the pathological gamblers and regions associated with losses for the nonpathological gamblers. Thus, near-miss outcomes on slot machines may contain both functional and neurological properties of wins for pathological gamblers. Such a translational approach to the study of gambling behavior may be considered an example that gives life to B. F. Skinner's conceptualization of the physiologist of the future. PMID:21119848
Hodgins, David C.; Currie, Shawn R.; Currie, Gillian; Fick, Gordon H.
The efficacy of brief treatments for media-recruited pathological gamblers was tested in a randomized clinical trial design (N = 314). Two self-directed motivational interventions were compared with a 6-week waiting list control and a workbook only control. Brief motivational treatment involved a telephone motivational interview and a mailed…
Marie Grall-Bronnec; Laura Wainstein; Jennyfer Augy; Gaëlle Bouju; Fanny Feuillet; Jean-Luc Vénisse; Véronique Sébille-Rivain
Background: The links between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders have been the subject of numerous papers. Few studies, however, have focused specifically on the relationship between ADHD and behavioural addictions. The aim of this study was to (i) examine the frequency of pathological and at-risk gamblers having a previous history of ADHD; (ii) give details of
Habib, Reza; Dixon, Mark R.
The purpose of this translational study was twofold: (1) to contrast behavioral and brain activity between pathological and nonpathological gamblers, and (2) to examine differences as a function of the outcome of the spin of a slot machine, focusing predominately on the "Near-Miss"--when two reels stop on the same symbol, and that symbol is just…
Rřmer Thomsen, Kristine; Callesen, Mette B; Linnet, Jakob; Kringelbach, Morten L; Mřller, Arne
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between gambling severity and depressive symptoms in pathological gamblers addicted to slot machines, with the hypothesis that comorbid depressive symptoms are associated with exacerbated gambling symptoms and behavior. Twenty controls and 20 pathological gamblers with different levels of depressive symptoms were studied during slot machine gambling. We found exacerbated gambling behavior in gamblers with high compared to low levels of depressive symptoms in terms of self-reported gambling urge (P < 0.01) and excitement from gambling (P < 0.05), number of games played (P < 0.01), and duration of gambling (P < 0.05). A correlation between depressive and gambling symptoms was found (r = 0.602, P < 0.01), thereby questioning which symptoms contribute to the exacerbated gambling behavior. Regression analyses showed that the symptoms influenced gambling behavior albeit in different ways. Although gambling symptoms predicted the rate of games played (P < 0.001), depressive symptoms predicted gambling urge (P < 0.01) and duration of gambling (P < 0.05). We discuss whether gambling symptoms only co-occur with other disorders; the need to look beyond the classification of pathological gambling as an impulse control disorder; and the potential role of anhedonia in depressed gamblers. PMID:19654506
Zack, Martin; Poulos, Constantine X
Previous research indicated shared neurochemical substrates for gambling and psychostimulant reward. This suggests that dopamine substrates may directly govern the reinforcement process in pathological gambling. To investigate this issue, the present study assessed the effects of the relatively selective dopamine D2 antagonist, haloperidol (3 mg, oral) on responses to actual gambling (15 min on a slot machine) in 20 non-comorbid pathological gamblers and 18 non-gambler controls in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, counterbalanced design. In gamblers, haloperidol significantly increased self-reported rewarding effects of gambling, post-game priming of desire to gamble, facilitation of reading speed to Gambling words, and gambling-induced elevation in blood pressure. In controls, haloperidol augmented gambling-induced elevation in blood pressure, but had no effect on other indices. The findings provide direct experimental evidence that the D2 substrate modulates gambling reinforcement in pathological gamblers. PMID:17203013
Guo, Song; Manning, Victoria; Thane, Kyaw Kyaw Wai; Ng, Andrew; Abdin, Edimansyah; Wong, Kim Eng
Research on predictors of treatment outcome among pathological gamblers (PGs) is inconclusive and dominated by studies from Western countries. Using a prospective longitudinal design, the current study examined demographic, clinical, behavioural and treatment programme predictors of gambling frequency at 3, 6 and 12-months, among PGs treated at an addiction clinic in Singapore. Measures included the Hospital anxiety and depression scale, gambling symptom assessment scale (GSAS), personal well-being index (PWI), treatment perception questionnaire and gambling readiness to change scale. Treatment response in relation to changes in symptom severity, personal wellbeing and abstinence were also assessed. Abstinence rates were 38.6, 46.0 and 44.4 % at 3, 6 and 12-months respectively. Significant reductions in gambling frequency, GSAS, and improvement in PWI were reported between baseline and subsequent outcome assessments, with the greatest change occurring in the initial three months. No demographic, clinical, behavioural or treatment programme variable consistently predicted outcome at all three assessments, though treatment satisfaction was the most frequent significant predictor. However, being unemployed, having larger than average debts, poor treatment satisfaction and attending fewer sessions at the later stages of treatment were associated with significantly poorer outcomes, up to 1-year after initiating treatment. These findings show promise for the effectiveness of a CBT-based treatment approach for the treatment of predominantly Chinese PGs. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Taken together, the findings suggest early treatment satisfaction is paramount in improving short-term outcomes, with baseline gambling behaviour and treatment intensity playing a more significant role in the longer term. PMID:22945784
Tang, Catherine So-kum; Wu, Anise M. S.
This study examined the role of impulsivity and its interplay with gambling correlates in influencing the severity of pathological gambling in Chinese societies. It also investigated the extent to which impulsivity would moderate and/or mediate the relationship between life stress and pathological gambling in 94 Chinese treatment-seeking gamblers.…
Rash, Carla J.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Petry, Nancy M.
Despite the high co-occurrence of alcohol consumption and gambling, few studies have investigated alcohol use changes during gambling treatment. Using latent growth modeling, we examined weekly alcohol use trajectories of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers across 36 weeks, allowing rates of change to differ across the 12-week pre-treatment, during treatment, and post-treatment periods. For these secondary data analyses, we retained drinking gamblers (N = 163) from a combined sample of two randomized clinical trials for the treatment of pathological gambling. Results indicated a decrease in alcohol use corresponding with treatment entry and maintenance of less drinking during treatment and post-treatment. Despite these decreases in alcohol use overall, 31% (50 of 163) of participants exhibited risky drinking during the treatment or post-treatment periods. Gender, age, at-risk drinking (at any point in the 36-week interval), baseline gambling severity, treatment condition, and gambling during treatment predicted latent alcohol use growth factors. Although entry into gambling treatment was temporally associated with reductions in alcohol use in this retrospective analysis, a substantial portion of the sample exhibited at-risk drinking after treatment entry, suggesting that interventions targeting reductions in alcohol use may be useful for this population. PMID:21928867
Linardatou, C; Parios, A; Varvogli, L; Chrousos, G; Darviri, C
Stress plays a major role at the onset and relapse of pathological gambling (PG), but at the same time it can also be the aftermath of gambling behavior, thus revealing a reciprocal relationship. Although the role of stress has been well-documented, there is a paucity of studies investigating the effect of an adjunctive stress management program on PG. In this 8-week parallel randomized waitlist controlled trial pathological gamblers, already in the gamblers anonymous (GA) group, were assigned randomly in two groups, with the intervention group (n = 22) receiving an additional stress management program (consisting of education on diet and exercise, stress coping methods, relaxation breathing -RB- and progressive muscle relaxation -PMR). Self-reported measures were used in order to evaluate stress, depression, anxiety, sleep quality/disturbances, life-satisfaction and daily routine. The statistical analyses for the between group differences concerning the main psychosocial study outcomes revealed a statistically significant amelioration of stress, depression, anxiety symptoms and an increase of life-satisfaction and a better daily routine in participants of the intervention group. We hope that these will encourage researchers and clinicians to adopt stress management in their future work. PMID:24912736
Lee, Tae Kyung; LaBrie, Richard A.; Grant, Jon E.; Kim, Suck Won; Shaffer, Howard J.
This paper reports the underlying structure of the demographic and clinical characteristics of level 3 (i.e., pathological) Korean casino gamblers. The participants reported their gambling behavior and clinical characteristics known to be associated with gambling problems (e.g., alcohol use problems, eating disorders, depression, anxiety, and…
Giorgetta, Cinzia; Grecucci, Alessandro; Rattin, Andrea; Guerreschi, Cesare; Sanfey, Alan G; Bonini, Nicolao
Research has shown that healthy people would rather avoid losses than gamble for even higher gains. On the other hand, research on pathological gamblers (PGs) demonstrates that PGs are more impaired than non-pathological gamblers in choice under risk and uncertainty. Here, we investigate loss aversion by using a rigorous and well-established paradigm from the field of economics, in conjunction with personality traits, by using self-report measures for PGs under clinical treatment. Twenty pathological gamblers, at the earlier and later stages of clinical treatment, were matched to 20 non-gamblers (NG). They played a "flip coin task" by deciding across 256 trials whether to accept or reject a 50-50 bet with a variable amount of gains and losses. They completed questionnaires aimed at assessing impulsivity. Compared to NG, pathological gamblers, specifically those in the later stages of therapy, were more loss averse and accepted a lower number of gambles with a positive expected value, whereas their impulsivity traits were significantly higher. This study shows for the first time that changes in loss aversion, but not in personality traits, are associated with the time course of pathology. These findings can be usefully employed in the fields of both gambling addiction and decision-making. PMID:25024055
Smart, Kelly; Desmond, Renée C; Poulos, Constantine X; Zack, Martin
This study examined the effects of modafinil (200 mg) on slot machine betting profiles from a previous sample of low and high impulsivity (LI/HI) pathological gamblers (10/Group; Zack and Poulos, 2009). Hierarchical regression assessed the prospective relationship between Payoff and Bet Size on consecutive trials, along with moderating effects of Group, Cumulative Winnings (low/high) and Phase of game (early/late) under drug and placebo. Y intercepts for the simple regressions of Bet Size on Payoff indexed overall motivation to bet. Under placebo, both groups gauged their bets less closely to the preceding Payoff as trials continued when Winnings were low but not high. Under modafinil, both groups gauged their bets more closely to the preceding Payoff when Winnings were low but gauged their bets less closely to the previous Payoff when Winnings were high. The tendency to gauge bets closely to the previous Payoff coincided with a bias toward low overall Bet Size, and modafinil accentuated this relationship, in LI but not HI subjects. Results suggest that modafinil increases the salience of environmental rewards, leading to more tightly calibrated responses to individual rewards when resources are low, but progressively loosens reward-response calibration when resources are high. Increased relative impact of phasic vs. tonic dopamine signals may account for patterns seen at low vs. high Winnings, respectively, under the drug. Clinically, modafinil may deter pathological gamblers from chasing losses but also encourage them to continue betting rather than quit while they are ahead. Whether low-dose modafinil confers more uniform benefits deserves investigation. PMID:23711549
Billieux, Joël; Lagrange, Guillaume; Van der Linden, Martial; Lançon, Christophe; Adida, Marc; Jeanningros, Régine
Numerous studies have shown that problem gambling is characterised by lack of impulse control. However, they have often been conducted without considering the multifaceted nature of impulsivity and related psychological mechanisms. The current study aims to disentangle which impulsivity facets are altered in pathological gambling. Twenty treatment-seeking pathological gamblers (PGs) and 20 matched control participants completed a self-reported questionnaire measuring the various facets of impulsive behaviours (UPPS Impulsive Behaviour Scale), as well as two laboratory tasks assessing inhibitory control (the go-stop task) and tolerance for delayed rewards (single key impulsivity paradigm). Compared with matched controls, PGs exhibited higher urgency, lower premeditation, impairment in prepotent inhibition, and lower tolerance towards delayed rewards. Nevertheless, complementary profile analyses showed that impulsivity-related deficits found in PGs are highly heterogeneous, and that some PGs are neither impulsive in the impulsivity facets assessed nor impaired in the cognitive mechanisms measured. These findings underscore (1) the necessity to disentangle the construct of impulsivity into lower-order components and (2) that further studies should take into account, in addition to impulsivity-related mechanisms, other psychological factors potentially involved in pathological gambling. PMID:22421073
Carlos Blanco; Angela Ibáńez; Carmen-Rosa Blanco-Jerez; Enrique Baca-Garcia; Jerónimo Sáiz-Ruiz
The authors studied plasma testosterone levels and psychological characteristics of male pathological gamblers. Twenty-nine male pathological gamblers and a group of healthy volunteers matched for age and gender were compared on levels of plasma testosterone and scores on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and the Psychopathic Deviance scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Plasma testosterone levels were similar
Zack, Martin; Boileau, Isabelle; Payer, Doris; Chugani, Bindiya; Lobo, Daniela S; Houle, Sylvain; Wilson, Alan A; Warsh, Jerry J; Kish, Stephen J
Cardiovascular and hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) disturbances have been observed in individuals who are pathological gamblers (PGs). These may partly derive from chronic exposure to gambling. Response to amphetamine (AMPH) may reveal such disturbances while controlling for differential conditioned responses to gambling in PGs vs healthy controls (HCs). This study assessed heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and plasma cortisol following oral AMPH (0.4 mg/kg) in male PGs (n=12) and HCs (n=11) who underwent a positron emission tomography (PET) scan. The Stop Signal Task enabled assessment of the link between physiological and behavioral dysregulation. Trait moderating effects were explored. The responses of PGs to AMPH differed from those of HCs on every index. PGs displayed persistent elevation in DBP and concomitant reduction in HR (i.e. baroreflex) compared to HCs beyond 90 min post-dose. PGs displayed deficits in cortisol compared to HCs that were partially reversed by AMPH. Impairment on the Stop Signal Task correlated positively with HR in controls, but negatively with HR in PGs, suggesting that strong initial and compensatory cardiac responses to a stimulant may each predict disinhibition. Extraversion predicted greater disinhibition in PGs. Noradrenergic disturbances may contribute to sensitized responses to stimulant challenge and disinhibition in PGs. PMID:26152320
Bu, Eli Torild Hellandsjř; Skutle, Arvid
Changes in demographical and clinical features of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers, and their gambling preferences before and after the ban of slot machines in Norway from 1 July 2007. Is there an emergence of a new group of gamblers seeking treatment after the ban? The participants were 99 patients, 16 women and 83 men, with the mean age of 35 years. All were referred to the Bergen Clinics Foundation, Norway, for treatment of gambling addiction in the period October 2006 to October 2009. A comprehensive assessment package was applied, focusing on demographical characteristics, the severity of pathological gambling, mental health and substance use disorder. After the ban the mean age was significantly lower, and significantly more were highly educated, in regular employment, and married. Internet gambling and a sport betting game called Odds were the most common options, and gambling problems had become more severe with greater depth due to gambling, bad conscious, heavy alcohol consumption, and more suicidal thoughts and attempts. After the ban of slot machines, the characteristics of treatment-seeking gamblers have been changed, and with great implications for treatment strategies. PMID:22271405
Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Renard, Noëlle; Legauffre, Cindy; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Gorsane, Mohamed-Ali; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Grall-Bronnec, Marie
The objective of this study was to identify profiles of gamblers to explain the choice of preferred gambling activity among both problem and non-problem gamblers. 628 non-problem and problem gamblers were assessed with a structured interview including "healthy" (sociodemographic characteristics, gambling habits and personality profile assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory-125) and "pathological" [diagnosis of pathological gambling, gambling-related cognitions (GRCs) and psychiatric comorbidity] variables. We performed a two-step cluster analysis based solely on "healthy" variables to identify gamblers' profiles which typically reflect the choice of preferred gambling activity. The obtained classes were then described using both "healthy" and "pathological" variables, by comparing each class to the rest of the sample. Clusters were generated. Class 1 (Electronic Gaming Machines gamblers) showed high cooperativeness, a lower level of GRC about strategy and more depressive disorders. Class 2 (games with deferred results gamblers) were high novelty seekers and showed a higher level of GRC about strategy and more addictive disorders. Class 3 (roulette gamblers) were more often high rollers and showed a higher level of GRC about strategy and more manic or hypomanic episodes and more obsessive-compulsive disorders. Class 4 (instant lottery gamblers) showed a lower tendency to suicide attempts. Class 5 (scratch cards gamblers) were high harm avoiders and showed a lower overall level of GRC and more panic attacks and eating disorders. The preference for one particular gambling activity may concern different profiles of gamblers. This study highlights the importance of considering the pair gambler-game rather than one or the other separately, and may provide support for future research on gambling and preventive actions directed toward a particular game. PMID:25192752
Pille-Riin Kaare; René Mőttus; Kenn Konstabel
Due to changes in gambling accessibility during the last decade gambling has become more widespread in Estonia and the prevalence\\u000a of pathological gambling has sharply increased. The present study attempts to identify psychological characteristics of Estonian\\u000a pathological gamblers. It has been shown that a wide range of social, economic, and individual factors (e.g. personality traits\\u000a and emotional states) predict the
Auer, Michael M; Griffiths, Mark D
Over the last few years, online gambling has become a more common leisure time activity. However, for a small minority, the activity can become problematic. Consequently, the gambling industry has started to acknowledge their role in player protection and harm minimization and some gambling companies have introduced responsible gambling tools as a way of helping players stay in control. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of mentor (a responsible gambling tool that provides personalized feedback to players) among 1,015 online gamblers at a European online gambling site, and compared their behavior with matched controls (n = 15,216) on the basis of age, gender, playing duration, and theoretical loss (i.e., the amount of money wagered multiplied by the payout percentage of a specific game played). The results showed that online gamblers receiving personalized feedback spent significantly less time and money gambling compared to controls that did not receive personalized feedback. The results suggest that responsible gambling tools providing personalized feedback may help the clientele of gambling companies gamble more responsibly, and may be of help those who gamble excessively to stay within their personal time and money spending limits. PMID:26441779
Auer, Michael M.; Griffiths, Mark D.
Over the last few years, online gambling has become a more common leisure time activity. However, for a small minority, the activity can become problematic. Consequently, the gambling industry has started to acknowledge their role in player protection and harm minimization and some gambling companies have introduced responsible gambling tools as a way of helping players stay in control. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of mentor (a responsible gambling tool that provides personalized feedback to players) among 1,015 online gamblers at a European online gambling site, and compared their behavior with matched controls (n = 15,216) on the basis of age, gender, playing duration, and theoretical loss (i.e., the amount of money wagered multiplied by the payout percentage of a specific game played). The results showed that online gamblers receiving personalized feedback spent significantly less time and money gambling compared to controls that did not receive personalized feedback. The results suggest that responsible gambling tools providing personalized feedback may help the clientele of gambling companies gamble more responsibly, and may be of help those who gamble excessively to stay within their personal time and money spending limits.
Brevers, Damien; Bechara, Antoine; Hermoye, Laurent; Divano, Luisa; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier
This study examined neural anticipation of monetary reward in pathological gamblers (PG) by varying the type of uncertainty associated with the reward. Ten PG and ten controls were scanned while deciding whether to accept ("bet" option, featuring high-uncertain monetary rewards) or reject ("safe" option, featuring low-certain rewards) a bet, within situations of decision-making under risk (probability of the "bet" reward is known) or ambiguity (probability of the "bet" reward is unknown). During decision under risk (as compared to ambiguity), controls exhibited activation in brain areas involved in reward processing (putamen), interoception (insula) and cognitive control (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; middle frontal gyrus). By contrast, PG exhibited no differential brain activation as a function of the type of uncertainty associated with the "bet" option. Moreover, prior choosing of the "safe" option (as compared to "bet" choices), controls exhibited activation in the posterior insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and middle frontal gyrus. By contrast, PG exhibited higher neural activation during the elaboration of "bet" choices, and in motivational-arousal areas (caudate; putamen; posterior insula). Between-groups contrasts revealed that, as compared to controls, PG showed (i) decreased neural activity in the globus pallidus for decision-making under risk, as opposed to decision under ambiguity, and (ii) increased neural activity within the putamen prior to bet choices, as opposed to safe choices. These findings suggest that (i) unlike control participants, a variation in the level of uncertainty associated with monetary rewards seems to have no significant impact on PGs' decision to gamble and (ii) PG exhibit stronger brain activation while anticipating high-uncertain monetary rewards, as compared with lower-certain rewards. PMID:25277841
Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Echeburúa, Enrique
This article describes the most frequent personality disorders related to pathological gambling. Participants included 50 pathological gamblers assessed with the IPDE, and 50 normative subjects from the general population with the same demographic features (age, sex, and socioeconomic level). Thirty-two percent of the clinical sample (vs. the 8% of the normative sample) showed at least one personality disorder. The most prevalent disorders were Borderline (16%), followed by Antisocial, Paranoid, Narcissistic, and Non-specified (8% each). Gamblers with personality disorders presented an average of 1.5 disorders and they reported higher gambling severity and more severe symptoms of anxiety, depression and alcohol abuse. The implications of this study for clinical practice and research are discussed. PMID:15519959
Petry, Nancy M.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Ledgerwood, David M.; Morasco, Benjamin
Limited research exists regarding methods for reducing problem gambling. Problem gamblers (N = 180) were randomly assigned to assessment only control, 10 min of brief advice, 1 session of motivational enhancement therapy (MET), or 1 session of MET plus 3 sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Gambling was assessed at baseline, at 6 weeks, and…
Slot machines are the most "addictive" games because (a) the disorder (pathological gambling) appears more rapidly in these games than with any other; (b) most patients who seek professional help are mainly addicted to electronic gambling, and (c) even though it is not the more frequent game, most of all the money spent on legal games of chance (at least in Spain) goes to slot machines. Structural characteristics of slot machines induce to gamble because electronic games show the main parameters of operant conditioning, mainly the immediacy of the reinforcement. Ten pathological gamblers played slot machine in two conditions: immediate and delayed reinforcement. The results corroborate the importance of the immediacy of the reinforcement in gambling, because when the result appears immediately (after 2 s), more games are played than when the result is delayed only 10 s. Critical issues in problem gambling prevention and public health are discussed. PMID:19882307
Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Wainstein, Laura; Feuillet, Fanny; Bouju, Gaëlle; Rocher, Bruno; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Sébille-Rivain, Véronique
Level and type of impulsivity are essential variables to be taken into consideration during the initial evaluation of a pathological gambler. The aim of this study was to measure the score for 4 impulsivity-related traits (Urgency, (lack of) Premeditation, (lack of) Perseverance and Sensation seeking) in a sample group of at-risk and pathological gamblers, and to highlight any links with certain elements of clinical data. The UPPS Impulsive Behaviour Scale was administered to 84 problem gamblers seeking treatment. The severity of gambling disorders was evaluated using the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-IV. Psychiatric and addictive comorbidities were also explored. The results indicated that the score for the Urgency facet had a positive correlation with the severity of gambling disorders. It appeared that participants displayed different clinical profiles according to the level and type of impulsivity. Several of the UPPS scales were identified as risk factors for mood disorders, risk of suicide, alcohol use disorders, and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The results confirm both the complexity of the multi-dimensional concept of impulsivity and the reason why the UPPS is of interest for a more in-depth study of the subject. PMID:21698341
Volberg, Rachel A.; Munck, Ingrid M.; Petry, Nancy M.
Despite high rates of comorbidity among pathological gambling, substance use disorders, and other psychiatric conditions, health professionals rarely screen their clients for gambling problems. We report on the performance of the NODS-CLiP, an existing brief, three-item screen for problem and pathological gambling, and an alternative four-item screen that demonstrates improved sensitivity, good positive and negative predictive power and invariance across key demographic groups. Given high rates of comorbidity, routine and accurate identification of gambling-related problems among individuals seeking help for substance abuse and related disorders is important. The original and the alternative brief screens are likely to be useful in a range of clinical settings. PMID:21477050
Miller, Joshua D.; MacKillop, James; Fortune, Erica E.; Maples, Jessica; Lance, Charles E.; Campbell, W. Keith; Goodie, Adam S.
Personality traits have proven to be consistent and important factors in a variety of externalizing behaviors including addiction, aggression, and antisocial behavior. Given the comorbidity of these behaviors with pathological gambling (PG), it is important to test the degree to which PG shares these trait correlates. In a large community sample of regular gamblers (N=354; 111 with diagnoses of pathological gambling), the relations between measures of two major models of personality – Big Three and Big Five – were examined in relation to PG symptoms derived from a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Across measures, traits related to the experience of strong negative emotions were the most consistent correlates of PG, regardless of whether they were analyzed using bivariate or multivariate analyses. In several instances, however, the relations between personality and PG were moderated by demographic variable such as gender, race, and age. It will be important for future empirical work of this nature to pay closer attention to potentially important moderators of these relations. PMID:23078872
Tsurumi, Kosuke; Kawada, Ryosaku; Yokoyama, Naoto; Sugihara, Genichi; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko
Pathological gambling (PG) is a chronic mental disorder characterized by a difficulty restraining gambling behavior despite negative consequences. Although brain abnormalities in patients with substance use disorders are caused by repetitive drug use and recover partly with drug abstinence, the relationship between brain activity and duration of illness or abstinence of gambling behavior in PG patients remains unclear. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared the brain activity of 23 PG patients recruited from a treatment facility with 27 demographically-matched healthy control subjects during reward anticipation, and examined the correlations between brain activity and duration of illness or abstinence in PG patients. During reward anticipation, PG patients showed decreased activity compared to healthy controls in a broad range of the reward system regions, including the insula cortex. In PG patients, activation in the left insula showed a significant negative correlation with illness duration. Our findings suggest that insular activation during reward anticipation may serve as a marker of progression of pathological gambling. PMID:25250011
Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Desmond, Renée C; Poulos, Constantine X; Zack, Martin
Instrumental conditioning has been implicated in persistence at slot machine gambling, but its specific role remains unclear. Dopamine (DA) mediates aspects of instrumental responding, and D2 antagonists reliably alter this process. This study investigated the effects of the preferential D2 antagonist, haloperidol (3 mg) on reward-related betting behavior in 20 subjects with pathological gambling (PG) and 18 healthy controls. Hierarchical regression assessed the prospective relationship between Payoff and Bet Size on consecutive trials, along with potential moderating effects of Cumulative Winnings and Phase of game (early/late) under drug and placebo. Payoff predicted Bet Size on the next trial regardless of other factors, consistent with an instrumental view of slot machine gambling. Under placebo, this correlation varied as a function of Winnings and Phase in PG subjects but was strong and invariant in Controls. Under haloperidol, the Payoff-Bet Size correlation in PG subjects resembled the invariant pattern of Controls under placebo. In contrast, the Payoff-Bet Size correlation rose then fell sharply over trials under haloperidol in controls. The correlation of Payoff with Bet Size is remarkable given that there is no actual contingency between winning and betting, and suggests that reward expectancies largely drive slot machine gambling. By blocking inhibitory D2 receptors, haloperidol may have reversed 'tolerance' to monetary reward mediated by increased tonic DA in PG subjects. Disturbance of the Payoff-Bet Size correlation in controls may reflect indiscriminate reward signaling under haloperidol in subjects with normal DA function. Indirect enhancement of DA transmission may reduce undue reward-related responding in PG subjects. PMID:20331559
Zachary Steel; Alex Blaszczynski
Pathological gambling has been characterised by DSM-III-R and DSM-IV as a disorder of impulse control with a proportion of gamblers identified as meeting criteria for a co-morbid diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder. To date, empirical evidence in support of the notion that pathological gamblers as a group manifest elevated traits of impulsivity remains equivocal. Principal components analysis was used to
Wright, Aidan G C; Scott, Lori N; Stepp, Stephanie D; Hallquist, Michael N; Pilkonis, Paul A
Personality disorders (PDs) are often described as stable, which ignores the important dynamic processes and shifts that are observed clinically in individuals with PD. The current study examined patterns of variability in problematic interpersonal functioning, a core feature of personality pathology. Participants (N = 150) were assessed for personality pathology at baseline and also completed the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scales at baseline and every 3 months over the course of a year. Baseline PD was used to predict individual means and variability parameters in generalized interpersonal distress, agentic problems, and communal problems across repeated assessments. Disorders associated with disinhibition predicted variability in generalized distress and agentic problems, whereas only antagonism-related disorders predicted variability in communal problems. These associations reveal dynamic processes involved in multiple dimensions of personality pathology and suggest that future research on instability is needed that expands beyond the historical focus on borderline PD. PMID:25562539
Ladouceur, R; Boisvert, J M; Pépin, M; Loranger, M; Sylvain, C
Pathological gambling creates enormous problems for the afflicted individuals, their families, employers, and society, and has numerous disastrous financial consequences. The present study evaluates the financial burdens of pathological gambling by questioning pathological gamblers in treatment in Gamblers Anonymous (n=60; 56 males, 4 females; mean age = 40 years old) about personal debts, loss of productivity at work, illegal activities, medical costs and the presence of other dependencies. Results show that important debts, loss of productivity at work and legal problems are associated with pathological gambling. Discussion is formulated in terms of the social cost of adopting a liberal attitude toward the legalization of various gambling activities. PMID:24234973
Schweitzer, I.; Tuckwell, V.; Maguire, K.; Tiller, J.
Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as measured by the dexamethasone suppression test (DST), has been extensively investigated in major depressive disorder (MDD). Evaluating DST response in MDD patients while simultaneously considering clinically relevant personality disorders may further clarify the contribution of both personality pathology and HPA axis function to depressive symptoms. The present study measured personality pathology by administering the revised version of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II) in a sample of 25 patients diagnosed with MDD. Analyses revealed that suppressors (n = 19) scored significantly higher than non-suppressors (n = 6) on six of the 13 MCMI-II personality disorder scales: Avoidant, Schizoid, Self-Defeating, Passive-Aggressive, Schizotypal and Borderline. Increased personality pathology was associated with normal suppression of cortisol following the DST. This suggests that suppression of the DST may be associated with depressive states linked with personality pathology while the more biologically based depression is associated with abnormal HPA pathophysiology. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:12404565
Fagundo, Ana B; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; de la Torre, Rafael; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Gené, Manel; Barrot, Carme; Sánchez, Cristina; Alvarez-Moya, Eva; Ochoa, Cristian; Aymamí, Maria Neus; Gómez-Peńa, Mónica; Menchón, Jose M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana
Like drug addiction, pathological gambling (PG) has been associated with impairments in executive functions and alterations in dopaminergic functioning; however, the role of dopamine (DA) in the executive profile of PG remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify whether the DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A-rs1800497 and the DAT1-40 bp VNTR polymorphisms are associated with cognitive flexibility (measured by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Trail Making Test (TMT)) and inhibition response (measured by Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT)), in a clinical sample of 69 PG patients. Our results showed an association between DA functioning and cognitive flexibility performance. The Taq1A A1+ (A1A2/A1A1) genotype was associated with poorer TMT performance (p<0.05), while DAT1 9-repeat homozygotes displayed better WCST performance (p<0.05) than either 10-repeat homozygotes or heterozygotes. We did not find any association between the DRD2 or DAT1 polymorphisms and the inhibition response. These results suggested that pathological gamblers with genetic predispositions toward lower availability of DA and D2 receptor density are at a higher risk of cognitive flexibility difficulties. Future studies should aim to shed more light on the genetic mechanisms underlying the executive profile in PG. PMID:25237117
Mathias, Ana Carolina R.; Vargens, Renata W.; Kessler, Felix H.; Cruz, Marcelo S.
There is a strong association between pathological gambling and substance abuse. The objective of this study is to identify the differences between substance abusers with and without gambling problems. A cross sectional study was conducted interviewing with Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), alcohol and drug…
Lee, Choong-Ki; Bernhard, Bo Jason; Kim, Jungsun; Fong, Timothy; Lee, Tae Kyung
This study investigated three different types of gamblers (recreational, problem, and pathological gamblers) to determine differences in gambling motivations and recreational activity preferences among casino gamblers. We collected data from 600 gamblers recruited in an actual gambling environment inside a major casino in South Korea. Findings indicate that motivational factors of escape, sightseeing, and winning were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. When looking at motivations to visit the casino, pathological gamblers were more likely to be motivated by winning, whereas recreational gamblers were more likely to be motivated by scenery and culture in the surrounding casino area. Meanwhile, the problem gamblers fell between these two groups, indicating higher preferences for non-gambling activities than the pathological gamblers. As this study builds upon a foundational previous study by Lee et al. (Psychiatry Investig 6(3):141-149, 2009), the results of this new study were compared with those of the previous study to see if new developments within a resort-style casino contribute to changes in motivations and recreational activity preferences. PMID:25398482
Rosenthal, Richard J
That all pathological gamblers have an "unconscious wish to lose," an idea first expressed by Freud and Bergler, is neither true nor useful; wrong as well, however, are the reasons for neglecting masochism in relation to gambling. There is a small but clinically significant subgroup of pathological gamblers who are masochistic. I present clinical vignettes and a more extended treatment account to illustrate its importance. Masochism has been a confusing concept. As used here it refers to the deliberate seeking of pain, loss, suffering, or humiliation. There may be pleasure in pain, or an obligatory combining of pleasure and pain. A sense of power and control may be achieved through suffering. The case material illustrates clinically useful types (sexual masochism, masochistic personality disorder, moral masochism, relational masochism) as well as some common masochistic dynamics encountered in the treatment of pathological gamblers. These masochistic patterns are often identifiable during the initial evaluation. Distinguishing features may include a reversal of normal attitudes about winning and losing, the absence of an early winning phase, sometimes a memorable early loss. Gamblers may sabotage opportunities for success or create unnecessary obstacles for themselves. Losing may be more comfortable than winning or may be overtly sexualized. PMID:25734872
Weinstein, A; Klein, L Dinur; Dannon, P N
Gambling behavior is not a unique behavior. There are certain differences in behavior, gambling habits, gambling beliefs, and their reflection in psychosocial life. We have compared three groups of adult male gamblers-sports gamblers (n = 41), machine gamblers (n = 36), and poker gamblers (n = 35)-in regard to measures of personal status and legal-social characteristics. We found no difference between groups in terms of the length of gambling behavior, personal status, or age. We found no legal difference between groups in terms of the number of court cases for debt, stealing, or family court cases. In terms of economic circumstances, sports gamblers suffered more losses than the other groups (p < 0.0001). There were higher rates of bankruptcy among sports gamblers compared with machine gamblers (p < 0.01). Sports gamblers were more likely to borrow money from the black market compared with the other groups (p < 0.01). In terms of mental health, sports and machine gamblers had more suicidal thoughts and gestures than poker gamblers (p < 0.05), whereas the rate of suicide attempts was higher in machine gamblers compared with poker players (p < 0.05). Our results indicated higher vulnerability in sports gamblers in terms of economic problems compared with the other groups, whereas machine gamblers had vulnerability to suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts compared with poker gamblers. PMID:24838781
Zack, M; Poulos, C X
Pathological gambling (PG) is a serious psychiatric disorder afflicting 1-3% of the general population. Experimental evidence indicates shared neurochemical substrates for PG and psychostimulant addiction. Impulsivity characterizes one key subtype of PG. Therefore, medications that ameliorate psychostimulant addiction and impulsive syndromes might also benefit impulsive PG subjects. The atypical stimulant, modafinil reduces cocaine abuse and impulsivity in patients with ADHD. The present study sought to determine if modafinil (200 mg) would reduce the reinforcing effects of slot machine gambling in PG subjects, and if this effect was stronger in high (H-I) vs. low (L-I) impulsivity subjects (N = 20). A placebo-controlled, double-blind, counterbalanced, repeated measures design was employed. Apart from bet size, which declined uniformly in both groups under drug, modafinil had bi-directional effects in the two groups. In H-I subjects, the drug decreased desire to gamble, salience of Gambling words, disinhibition and risky decision-making. In L-I subjects, modafinil increased scores on these indices. Modafinil also differentially affected blood pressure response to the game in the two groups. These findings for modafinil appear to fit well with a growing literature demonstrating bi-directional effects of D2 agonists as a function of trait impulsivity. Impulsivity could critically moderate medication response in PG. PMID:18583430
Williams, Trevor F; Thomas, Katherine M; Donnellan, M Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J
Although interpersonal dysfunction is a defining feature of personality disorders (PDs), relatively little is known about how features of PD are perceived by others. In the current study, students (n = 225) reported on the traits and aversive interpersonal behaviors of individuals with pathological personality features. Aversive behaviors were measured using the Interpersonal Sensitivity Circumplex, and pathological personality features were assessed using the DSM-5 Section 3 traits. The structural summary method for circumplex data was used to evaluate how pathological traits related to both general and specific aversive behaviors. Most traits associated with PDs were related to general aversive behaviors. Specific associations suggested that young adults are most irritated when individuals with personality pathology try to form or sustain attachments, as opposed to control, withdraw, or submit to them. These results are consistent with the assumption that personality pathology is broadly characterized by aversive behaviors and imply that individuals are most bothered by maladaptive attempts by others to become or stay connected. PMID:24845225
Skelton, Rachel L.; Kornhauser, Jon M.; Tate, Barbara A.
The recent approval of a therapeutic for a circadian disorder has increased interest in developing additional medicines for disorders characterized by circadian disruption. However, previous experience demonstrates that drug development for central nervous system (CNS) disorders has a high failure rate. Personalized medicine, or the approach to identifying the right treatment for the right patient, has recently become the standard for drug development in the oncology field. In addition to utilizing Companion Diagnostics (CDx) that identify specific genetic biomarkers to prescribe certain targeted therapies, patient profiling is regularly used to enrich for a responsive patient population during clinical trials, resulting in fewer patients required for statistical significance and a higher rate of success for demonstrating efficacy and hence receiving approval for the drug. This personalized medicine approach may be one mechanism that could reduce the high clinical trial failure rate in the development of CNS drugs. This review will discuss current circadian trials, the history of personalized medicine in oncology, lessons learned from a recently approved circadian therapeutic, and how personalized medicine can be tailored for use in future clinical trials for circadian disorders to ultimately lead to the approval of more therapeutics for patients suffering from circadian abnormalities. PMID:26150790
Lee, Choong-Ki; Lee, BongKoo; Bernhard, Bo Jason
Objective The purpose of this paper is to investigate three different types of gamblers (which we label "non-problem", "some problem", and "probable pathological gamblers") to determine differences in involvement and motivation, as well as differences in demographic and behavioral variables. Methods The analysis takes advantage of a unique opportunity to sample on-site at a major casino in South Korea, and the resulting purposive sample yielded 180 completed questionnaires in each of the three groups, for a total number of 540. Factor analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan tests, and Chi-square tests are employed to analyze the data collected from the survey. Results Findings from ANOVA tests indicate that involvement factors of importance/self-expression, pleasure/interest, and centrality derived from the factor analysis were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. The "probable pathological" and "some problem" gamblers were found to have similar degrees of involvement, and higher degrees of involvement than the non-problem gamblers. The tests also reveal that motivational factors of escape, socialization, winning, and exploring scenery were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. When looking at motivations to visit the casino, "probable pathological" gamblers were more likely to seek winning, the "some problem" group appeared to be more likely to seek escape, and the "non-problem" gamblers indicate that their motivations to visit centered around explorations of scenery and culture in the surrounding casino area. Conclusion The tools for exploring motivations and involvements of gambling provide valuable and discerning information about the entire spectrum of gamblers. PMID:20046388
Bonnaire, Céline; Bungener, Catherine; Varescon, Isabelle
The purpose of this study was to investigate alexithymia (in relation with depression) in three groups of French gamblers (n = 186) recruited in their gambling location: at the racetracks (n = 80 males; mean age 28.1 years), in the slot machine rooms (n = 65; 29 males, 36 females; mean age 34.6 years), and in the traditional gaming rooms (n = 41 males; mean age 36 years). Gambling behavior was measured by the South Oaks Gambling Screen and DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling, Alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and depression with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13). For racetracks and slot machine gambling, pathological gamblers differed from non-pathological gamblers, regarding their alexithymia scores. These results remained stable after controlling for depression scores among the racetracks gamblers only. The relationship between alexithymia and depression depends on the type of pathological gambler. These findings are consistent with the idea of identifying clinically distinct subgroups of gamblers. PMID:22367561
Mulder, Roger T; Newton-Howes, Giles; Crawford, Michael J; Tyrer, Peter J
There is general agreement that the classification of personality disorders in DSM-IV is unsatisfactory. We systematically reviewed all studies that have analyzed patterns of personality disorder symptoms and signs in psychiatric patients; twenty-two papers were included in the final synthesis. There is reasonable consistency over the number and type of personality pathology traits reported despite differing samples, varying assessment methods, and different statistical manipulations. There are three or four high order traits; an externalizing factor incorporating borderline, narcissistic, histrionic, and antisocial traits (the latter is sometimes recorded as a separate trait); an internalizing factor incorporating avoidant and dependent traits; a schizoid factor; and often a compulsive factor. Using these domains of personality pathology would simplify classification, have higher clinical utility, and allow relatively easy translation of current research. PMID:21699397
Wright, Aidan G.C.; Simms, Leonard J.
Background Psychiatric comorbidity is extensive in both psychiatric settings and the general population. Such comorbidity challenges whether DSM-based mental disorders serve to effectively carve nature at its joints. In response, a substantial literature has emerged showing that a small number of broad dimensions—internalizing, externalizing, and psychoticism—can account for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders. However, the location of personality disorders within this emerging metastructure has only recently been studied, and no studies have yet examined where pathological personality traits fit within such a broad metastructural framework. Methods We conducted joint structural analyses of common mental disorders, personality disorders, and pathological personality traits in a sample of 628 current or recent psychiatric outpatients. Results Bridging across the psychopathology and personality trait literatures, the results provide evidence for a robust five-factor metastructure of psychopathology, including broad domains of symptoms and features related to internalizing, disinhibition, psychoticism, antagonism, and detachment. Conclusions These results reveal evidence for a psychopathology metastructure that (a) parsimoniously accounts for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders, personality disorders, and related personality traits, and (b) provides an empirical basis for the organization and classification of mental disorder. PMID:25903065
Carneiro, Elizabeth; Tavares, Hermano; Sanches, Marcos; Pinsky, Ilana; Caetano, Raul; Zaleski, Marcos; Laranjeira, Ronaldo
The goal of this study was to investigate gambling-related behavior, onset and progression in a sample of at-risk gamblers from the community. A national household survey was conducted in Brazil, covering individuals 14 years old or older. Subjects were screened for at-risk gambling, those testing positive answered a questionnaire about gambling progression, preferred games and DSM-IV pathological gambling criteria. Out of 3007 respondents, 118 were considered at-risk gamblers according to the Lie/Bet Questionnaire. According to the DSM-IV, 32.7% and 24.9% of those were considered problem and pathological gamblers, respectively. Early at-risk gamblers (onset prior to 20 years of age), were more likely to be male, to prefer non-commercially structured games, and to chase losses while gambling. Young pathological gamblers (under 35 years of age) progressed faster from regular to problem gambling (roughly 2 years) than mature pathological gamblers (12 years). Such findings had not been described before because previous reports focused mostly on clinical samples that lack young, male, early-onset gamblers. Gambling programs have not satisfactorily covered this segment of gamblers. Outreach strategies and early interventions should be provided to prevent these individuals from rapidly evolving into pathological gambling. PMID:24656520
Parolaa, Nathalie; Boyer, Laurent; Simon, Nicolas; Aghababian, Valérie; Lançon, Christophe
Addiction can involve substances (heroin, cannabis, cocaine) or be characterised by behaviour (pathological gambling, addiction to sport, etc.). The question is to establish whether or not there is a specific personality profile (character, temperament) and emotional functioning (anxiety, depression, alexithymia) in subjects presenting addictive behaviour with and without substance use. To find some answers, a team from Sainte-Marguerite General Hospital in Marseille carried out a study comparing a group of cannabis addicts and a group of pathological gamblers. PMID:24741830
Jansen, Willemijn J.; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Knol, Dirk L.; Tijms, Betty M.; Scheltens, Philip; Verhey, Frans R. J.; Visser, Pieter Jelle
IMPORTANCE Cerebral amyloid-? aggregation is an early pathological event in Alzheimer disease (AD), starting decades before dementia onset. Estimates of the prevalence of amyloid pathology in persons without dementia are needed to understand the development of AD and to design prevention studies. OBJECTIVE To use individual participant data meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of amyloid pathology as measured with biomarkers in participants with normal cognition, subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). DATA SOURCES Relevant biomarker studies identified by searching studies published before April 2015 using the MEDLINE and Web of Science databases and through personal communication with investigators. STUDY SELECTION Studies were included if they provided individual participant data for participants without dementia and used an a priori defined cutoff for amyloid positivity. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Individual records were provided for 2914 participants with normal cognition, 697 with SCI, and 3972 with MCI aged 18 to 100 years from 55 studies. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Prevalence of amyloid pathology on positron emission tomography or in cerebrospinal fluid according to AD risk factors (age, apolipoprotein E [APOE] genotype, sex, and education) estimated by generalized estimating equations. RESULTS The prevalence of amyloid pathology increased from age 50 to 90 years from 10% (95% CI, 8%-13%) to 44% (95% CI, 37%-51%) among participants with normal cognition; from 12% (95% CI, 8%-18%) to 43% (95% CI, 32%-55%) among patients with SCI; and from 27% (95% CI, 23%-32%) to 71% (95% CI, 66%-76%) among patients with MCI. APOE-?4 carriers had 2 to 3 times higher prevalence estimates than noncarriers. The age at which 15% of the participants with normal cognition were amyloid positive was approximately 40 years for APOE?4?4 carriers, 50 years for ?2?4 carriers, 55 years for ?3?4 carriers, 65 years for ?3?3 carriers, and 95 years for ?2?3 carriers. Amyloid positivity was more common in highly educated participants but not associated with sex or biomarker modality. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among persons without dementia, the prevalence of cerebral amyloid pathology as determined by positron emission tomography or cerebrospinal fluid findings was associated with age, APOEgenotype, and presence of cognitive impairment. These findings suggest a 20- to 30-year interval between first development of amyloid positivity and onset of dementia. PMID:25988462
Hodgins, David C.; el-Guebaly, Nady
A prospective design was used to explore the precipitants of relapse in a naturalistic sample of pathological gamblers (N = 101) who had recently quit gambling. Relapse rates were high; only 8% were entirely free of gambling during the 12-month follow-up. Relapses were highly variable but occurred most frequently in the evening, when the person…
James MacKillop; Emily J. Anderson; Bryan A. Castelda; Richard E. Mattson; Peter J. Donovick
The present study assessed the divergent validity of several self-report and objective behavioral measures for assessing pathological gambling using three samples divided by South Oaks Gambling Scale score [Lesieur, & Blume (1987). American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1184–1188]: pathological gamblers, potential pathological gamblers, and non-pathological gamblers. Self-report measures included the Gamblers’ Beliefs Questionnaire [GBQ; Steenbergh, Meyers, May, & Whelan (2002).
Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Ackerman, Robert A; Thomas, Katherine M; Morey, Leslie C; Skodol, Andrew E
Although controversy surrounds the definition and measurement of narcissism, the claim that pathological grandiosity is central to the construct generates little disagreement. Yet representations of pathological grandiosity vary across measures of narcissism, leading to conceptual confusion in the literature. The validity of a DSM-based measure of pathological narcissism, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale (PDQ-4 NPD), was evaluated in 1 clinical and 3 nonclinical samples (total N=2,391) for its ability to measure pathological grandiosity. Findings were generally supportive: average scores were higher in the clinical than nonclinical samples and the PDQ-4 NPD scale correlated most strongly with (a) other measures of NPD; (b) other DSM Cluster B personality disorders; (c) traits involving antagonism, hostility, and assertiveness; and (d) interpersonal distress and disaffiliative dominance. However, the low internal consistency of the PDQ-4 NPD scale and unexpected associations with Cluster A and obsessive-compulsive features point to potential psychometric weaknesses with this instrument. These findings are useful for evaluating the PDQ-4 NPD scale and for informing ongoing debates regarding how to define and assess pathological narcissism. PMID:23101760
Baldo, V; Cristofoletti, M; Majori, S; Cibin, M; Peron, C; Dal Zotto, A; Zampieri, N; Saia, M; Trivello, R
The aim of this survey was to evaluate the distribution of pathological gamblers treated in an alcohol or drug addiction treatment program run by the Italian National Health Service providing assistance to alcohol and drug abusers in Venice (North east Italy) from September 1 to December 31, 2001. Each drug- or alcohol-dependent patient retained for treatment for at least one month was administrated an anonymous precoded questionnaire to collect personal and socio-demographic features. The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) was used to measure pathological gambling and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) to measure psychological distress levels and psychiatric symptoms. Among the 113 enrolled subjects we found a greater prevalence of pathological gamblers among drug users than among alcoholics and drug abusers were younger than alcoholics; moreover, there was a prevalence of single status, low schooling, and a low-medium income despite full-time occupation. Only pathological gamblers revealed a significant positive correlation with a family history of gambling and reached positive scores (>1.5) for some likely psychiatric symptoms. Abuse disorders and pathological gambling are frequently associated with multidependence personality traits. Preventing substance abuse may reduce the pathological gambling rates and better results can be obtained with educational campaigns beginning earlier in life. PMID:16649512
Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen
Background: Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect…
Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Beeney, Joseph E.; Pilkonis, Paul A.
Features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) are associated with the presence and severity of interpersonal problems. At the same time, individuals with BPD are heterogeneous with regard to the types of interpersonal problems they display. BPD is also associated with temporal instability in various domains (e.g., affective lability), and this characteristic raises questions about whether BPD is associated with changes in the expression of interpersonal dysfunction over time, which may contribute to the observed heterogeneity. The focus of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between BPD features and the stability of interpersonal problems over the course of one year. Participants (N = 150) were assessed for borderline personality pathology at baseline and also completed the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scales at baseline and every three months over the course of a year. Baseline BPD was used to predict structured (i.e., latent growth trajectories) and unstructured (i.e., mean square of successive differences) change parameters in generalized interpersonal distress, agentic problems, and communal problems across assessment waves. Baseline BPD predicted individual means in generalized distress and unstructured change (i.e., instability) in agentic and communal problems across the year. Baseline BPD was not predictive, however, of structured change (i.e., linear change trajectories) for any aspect of interpersonal problems. These findings support the conclusion that interpersonal dysfunction in borderline pathology is stable in its severity but unstable in its manifestation. PMID:24364612
Wright, Aidan G C; Hallquist, Michael N; Beeney, Joseph E; Pilkonis, Paul A
Features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) are associated with the presence and severity of interpersonal problems. At the same time, individuals with BPD are heterogeneous with regard to the types of interpersonal problems they display. BPD is also associated with temporal instability in various domains (e.g., affective lability), and this characteristic raises questions about whether BPD is associated with changes in the expression of interpersonal dysfunction over time, which may contribute to the observed heterogeneity. The focus of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between BPD features and the stability of interpersonal problems over the course of 1 year. Participants (N = 150) were assessed for borderline personality pathology at baseline and also completed the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scales at baseline and every 3 months over the course of a year. Baseline BPD was used to predict structured (i.e., latent growth trajectories) and unstructured (i.e., mean square of successive differences) change parameters in generalized interpersonal distress, agentic problems, and communal problems across assessment waves. Baseline BPD predicted individual means in generalized distress and unstructured change (i.e., instability) in agentic and communal problems across the year. Baseline BPD was not predictive, however, of structured change (i.e., linear change trajectories) for any aspect of interpersonal problems. These findings support the conclusion that interpersonal dysfunction in borderline pathology is stable in its severity but unstable in the style of its manifestation. PMID:24364612
Nastally, Becky L.; Dixon, Mark R.; Jackson, James W.
Pathological and nonpathological gamblers completed a task that assessed preference among 2 concurrently available slot machines. Subsequent assessments of choice were conducted after various attempts to transfer contextual functions associated with irrelevant characteristics of the slot machines. Results indicated that the nonproblem gambling…
Lesieur, H R
The material presented in this report is not intended as an explanation of compulsive gambling. I do not pretend to be refuting the psychoanalytic or the personality theorists. Rather, I describe the changes that take place in the career of the person turned compulsive gambler. Some of what is described here adds to the already existing knowledge of the compulsion. PMID:760136
Grant, Jon Edgar; Chamberlain, Samuel Robin; Schreiber, Liana Renne Nelson; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Kim, Suck Won
Despite reasonable knowledge of pathological gambling (PG), little is known of its cognitive antecedents. We evaluated decision-making and impulsivity characteristics in people at risk of developing PG using neuropsychological tests. Non-treatment seeking volunteers (18-29 years) who gamble ?5 times/year were recruited from the general community, and split into two groups: those “at risk” of developing PG (n=74) and those social, non-problem gamblers (n=112). Participants undertook the Cambridge Gamble and Stop-signal tasks and were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Pathological Gambling. On the Cambridge Gamble task, the at- risk subjects gambled more points overall, were more likely to go bankrupt, and made more irrational decisions under situations of relative risk ambiguity. On the Stop-signal task, at- risk gamblers did not differ from the social, non-problem gamblers in terms of motor impulse control (stop-signal reaction times). Findings suggest that selective cognitive dysfunction may already be present in terms of decision-making in at-risk gamblers, even before psychopathology arises. These findings implicate selective decision-making deficits and dysfunction of orbitofronto-limbic circuitry in the chain of pathogenesis between social, non-problematic and pathological gambling. PMID:21715016
Grant, Jon Edgar; Chamberlain, Samuel Robin; Schreiber, Liana Renne Nelson; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Kim, Suck Won
Despite reasonable knowledge of pathological gambling (PG), little is known of its cognitive antecedents. We evaluated decision-making and impulsivity characteristics in people at risk of developing PG using neuropsychological tests. Non-treatment seeking volunteers (18-29 years) who gamble ? 5 times/year were recruited from the general community, and split into two groups: those "at risk" of developing PG (n=74) and those social, non-problem gamblers (n=112). Participants undertook the Cambridge Gamble and Stop-signal tasks and were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Pathological Gambling. On the Cambridge Gamble task, the at-risk subjects gambled more points overall, were more likely to go bankrupt, and made more irrational decisions under situations of relative risk ambiguity. On the Stop-signal task, at-risk gamblers did not differ from the social, non-problem gamblers in terms of motor impulse control (stop-signal reaction times). Findings suggest that selective cognitive dysfunction may already be present in terms of decision-making in at-risk gamblers, even before psychopathology arises. These findings implicate selective decision-making deficits and dysfunction of orbitofronto-limbic circuitry in the chain of pathogenesis between social, non-problematic and pathological gambling. PMID:21715016
Gibbons, Peter; Collins, Marjorie; Reid, Corinne
There has been considerable debate about profiling personality pathology when assessing and treating male perpetrators of domestic violence (DV). This study used the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) to explore the severity and diversity of male perpetrator personality pathology and response bias in a group of DV perpetrators being…
Marmurek, Harvey H. C.; Switzer, Jessica; D’Alvise, Joshua
Background and aims: The present study tested whether the associations among motivational, cognitive, and personality correlates of problem gambling severity differed across university student gamblers (n = 123) and gamblers in the general adult community (n = 113). Methods: The participants completed a survey that included standardized measures of gambling motivation, gambling related cognitions, and impulsivity. The survey also asked participants to report the forms of gambling in which they engaged to test whether gambling involvement (number of different forms of gambling) was related to problem gambling severity. After completing the survey, participants played roulette online to examine whether betting patterns adhered to the gambler’s fallacy. Results: Gambling involvement was significantly related to problem gambling severity for the community sample but not for the student sample. A logistic regression analysis that tested the involvement, motivation, impulsivity and cognitive correlates showed that money motivation and gambling related cognitions were the only significant independent predictors of gambling severity. Adherence to the gambler’s fallacy was stronger for students than for the community sample, and was associated with gambling related cognitions. Discussion: The motivational, impulsivity and cognitive, and correlates of problem gambling function similarly in university student gamblers and in gamblers from the general adult community. Interventions for both groups should focus on the financial and cognitive supports of problem gambling. PMID:25215214
Lee, Bonnie K.
Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…
Anderson, A. Duane; Bickley, Harmon C.
To accomodate the increased need for pathology in pharmaceutical education, the University of Wyoming School of Pharmacy has modified its instructional program, presented according to Keller's PSI method. Students take a course that integrates basic anatomic pathology with the fundamental concepts of clinical laboratory technique. (LBH)
Caillon, J; Grall-Bronnec, M; Bouju, G; Lagadec, M; Vénisse, J-L
Today's juveniles are the first generation to be raised in an environment where gambling is very accessible and socially acceptable. The recent legalization of Internet gambling has increased this accessibility. With 28,8 millions of gamblers in France in 2010, many believe that gambling is an innocent leisure activity. The first results of the national survey on the prevalence of gambling practices conducted in France show that in 2010, 1.3% of the population had a gambling problem. Also, despite the prohibition of gambling to minors, the mean age of onset of gambling behavior in the world is 11.5 years. Gambling (even non-problematic) in adolescence is associated with poor school performance, criminal behavior and family conflict. Recreational gambling shares with pathological gambling high rates of psychiatric comorbidities in adults, and risk behaviors among adolescents. Similarly, international studies show prevalence of problem gambling 2 to 4 times higher among adolescents than among adult, 3.5% to 8% of adolescents between 12 and 17 are pathological gamblers. The validity of the screening instruments and the frequency of spontaneous recovery in adulthood are discussed to explain the high prevalence in adolescence. This article proposes a focus on the practice of gambling in adolescence and its characteristics when the practice becomes pathological. We discuss the epidemiological, diagnostic, etiologic and therapeutic aspects of this problem. Three major types of risk factors implicated in gambling problems are identified: some of them are related to the subject (individual factors), others are related to the object of the addiction, here the gambling activity by itself (structural factors) like Internet with the recent legalization of gambling online, and the last are related to environment (contextual or situational factors). Thus, the development and maintenance of pathological gambling in youth seems to be conditioned by the interaction of a person and a gambling activity, in a particular context. This conceptual model is based on the well-known theory of Olivenstein on toxicomania, which was proposed in the seventies. In France, very few is known about problem gambling in this age and its implications in terms of treatment, prevention and research. There is little in the way of specific treatments for adolescent pathological gamblers so we briefly reviewed possibilities and limits. We discuss the importance to develop prevention, in particular to delay the initiation, and the necessity of research to develop screening instruments and news studies to have a better knowledge of this population. PMID:22239967
Nastally, Becky L; Dixon, Mark R; Jackson, James W
Pathological and nonpathological gamblers completed a task that assessed preference among 2 concurrently available slot machines. Subsequent assessments of choice were conducted after various attempts to transfer contextual functions associated with irrelevant characteristics of the slot machines. Results indicated that the nonproblem gambling group, but not the problem gambling group, increased their responding toward the slot initially trained as greater than following the initial training procedure, then decreased their responding toward that slot following the reversal phase. PMID:20808503
Gisela Buchner, Ursula; Wodarz, Norbert
According to epidemiological studies, there are 103?000-290?000 people in Germany afflicted by pathological gambling. In many cases the disorder remains hidden for a long time with only a few of the problematic or pathological gamblers seeking help in the professional helping network. Focussing on the relevant results for Germany, this review summarizes the recent research concerning "pathological gambling". The main topics are diagnosis, nosological status, epidemiology, gender-related differences and common screening instruments. Furthermore, the increasing probability for the development of pathological gambling upon existing other psychiatric disorders, e.?g. personality disorder, mood and anxiety disorders, substance-related disorders or ADHD, is discussed as well as the current approaches in treatment. PMID:20687011
Price, Reese E.
This paper considers the condition of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), which is defined as a separation of alternating personalities by rigid boundaries and amnestic barriers. It is proposed that MPD represents the end of a continuum of a defensive dissociation of the self that can result when a child employs a dissociative splitting of self…
Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.
The proposed changes to the personality disorder section of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (5th ed.) places an increased focus on interpersonal impairment as one of the defining features of personality psychopathology. In addition, a proposed trait model has been offered to provide a means of capturing phenotypic…
Echeburúa, Enrique; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier
In this paper the most relevant findings of our research team on pathological gambling in the last decade are presented. There is no conclusive empirical evidence of a specific profile of the pathological gamblers. The choice treatment appears to be stimulus control and in vivo exposure with response prevention, followed by a cognitive-behavioral intervention in relapse prevention. Predictive variables for the therapeutic failure were the dissatisfaction with the treatment, the alcohol abuse and the neuroticism as a personality variable. Unanswered questions for future research in this field are commented upon. PMID:15789186
Bergh, C; Kühlhorn, E
Social, psychological and physical consequences of pathological gambling reported by 42 pathological gamblers recruited mainly by advertising were compared with data on 63 pathological gamblers identified by case-finding within districts of probation, in- and out-patient psychiatric care and social welfare authorities. The two studies gave similar results. Financial breakdown, impaired relations with family and friends, and psychological problems occurred in about 50% of the pathological gamblers. Physical consequences were perceived to be of minor significance. Gambling became a solitary behavior as illegal behaviors to finance gambling increased. The pathological gamblers frequently abused alcohol. Despite these signs of social decay the pathological gamblers strove not to be a burden in society. PMID:24234924
Oltmanns, Joshua R.; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F.
Prior research has associated BPD with sleep problems, but the relationship has been explored primarily in small clinical samples of younger adults. Findings from our lab have demonstrated that borderline symptoms remain present in later middle age and are associated with several negative life outcomes. A representative community sample of older adults (N = 633, Mage = 62.3) was obtained from the St Louis area, and interviewer-reports, self-reports, and informant-reports of personality pathology were completed along with an insomnia symptoms questionnaire. Cross-sectional analyses revealed that symptoms from all 10 DSM-IV personality disorders were significantly correlated with insomnia symptoms. However, after statistically controlling for major depression, body-mass index, race and gender, only borderline personality pathology remained significantly associated with insomnia symptoms. Our results demonstrate that in addition to other negative health outcomes, borderline personality pathology is uniquely associated with sleep problems in later middle-aged adults in the community. PMID:24574136
Oltmanns, Joshua R; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F
Prior research has associated BPD with sleep problems, but the relationship has been explored primarily in small clinical samples of younger adults. Findings from our lab have demonstrated that borderline symptoms remain present in later middle age and are associated with several negative life outcomes. A representative community sample of older adults (N?=?633, Mage ?=?62.3) was obtained from the St Louis area, and interviewer-reports, self-reports, and informant-reports of personality pathology were completed along with an insomnia symptoms questionnaire. Cross-sectional analyses revealed that symptoms from all 10 DSM-IV personality disorders were significantly correlated with insomnia symptoms. However, after statistically controlling for major depression, body-mass index, race and gender, only borderline personality pathology remained significantly associated with insomnia symptoms. Our results demonstrate that in addition to other negative health outcomes, borderline personality pathology is uniquely associated with sleep problems in later middle-aged adults in the community. PMID:24574136
Haspel, Richard L; Arnaout, Ramy; Briere, Lauren; Kantarci, Sibel; Marchand, Karen; Tonellato, Peter; Connolly, James; Boguski, Mark S; Saffitz, Jeffrey E
Genomics and "medical sequencing" will revolutionize clinical laboratory diagnostics as the foundation for the new era of personalized medicine. However, the medical profession lags far behind the technology and business communities in recognizing and preparing for this change. Pathologists must take the lead in the application of genomics technologies, including whole-genome sequencing, to laboratory diagnostics and personalized medicine. As a critical first step in leading this change, we have established a first-in-the-nation resident curriculum in genomics and personalized medicine. Our goal is to catalyze the adoption of similar training modules in every pathology residency in North America. If we succeed in the widespread implementation of this type of training as a core competency in pathology, we will ensure that the discipline of pathology will lead rather than follow in the coming era of personalized medicine. PMID:20472839
Goodie, Adam S; Fortune, Erica E
There is broad agreement that cognitive distortions are an integral component of the development, maintenance, and treatment of pathological gambling. There is no authoritative catalog of the distortions that are observed more frequently in pathological gamblers than in others, but several instruments have been successfully developed that measure various distortions of interest, which are reviewed. All of the prominent instruments include measures of the illusion of control (perceiving more personal control over events than is warranted), and almost all include measures of gambler's fallacy (the belief that after a string of one event, such as a coin landing heads, an alternative event, such as the coin landing tails, becomes more likely). Beyond these two errors, there is scant consensus on relevant errors, and a wide variety has been studied. Meta-analyses were conducted on differences between PGs and non-PGs in scores on six published instruments that were developed to measure distortions in gamblers. All instruments reveal large effects using Hedge's g statistic, suggesting that the impact of distortions on PG is robust. Several subscales, assigned diverse names by scale authors, can be viewed as reflecting common distortions. Those judged to assess gambler's fallacy show evidence of more robust effects sizes than those that assess illusion of control. It is recommended that future research focus more specifically on the impact of particular distortions on gambling disorders. PMID:23438249
Wright, Aidan G C; Pincus, Aaron L; Hopwood, Christopher J; Thomas, Katherine M; Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F
The proposed changes to the personality disorder section of the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.) places an increased focus on interpersonal impairment as one of the defining features of personality psychopathology. In addition, a proposed trait model has been offered to provide a means of capturing phenotypic variation on the expression of personality disorder. In this study, the authors subject the proposed DSM-5 traits to interpersonal analysis using the inventory of interpersonal problems-circumplex scales via the structural summary method for circumplex data. DSM-5 traits were consistently associated with generalized interpersonal dysfunction suggesting that they are maladaptive in nature, the majority of traits demonstrated discriminant validity with prototypical and differentiated interpersonal problem profiles, and conformed well to a priori hypothesized associations. These results are discussed in the context of the DSM-5 proposal and contemporary interpersonal theory, with a particular focus on potential areas for expansion of the DSM-5 trait model. PMID:22589411
Porchet, Roseline I.; Boekhoudt, Linde; Studer, Bettina; Gandamaneni, Praveen K.; Rani, Nisha; Binnamangala, Somashekar; Müller, Ulrich; Clark, Luke
Gambling is characterized by cognitive distortions in the processing of chance and skill that are exacerbated in pathological gambling. Opioid and dopamine dysregulation is implicated in pathological gambling, but it is unclear whether these neurotransmitters modulate gambling distortions. The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol on gambling behavior. Male recreational gamblers (n = 62) were assigned to receive single oral doses of naltrexone 50 mg, haloperidol 2 mg or placebo, in a parallel-groups design. At 2.5 h post-dosing, participants completed a slot machine task to elicit monetary wins, “near-misses,” and a manipulation of personal choice, and a roulette game to elicit two biases in sequential processing, the gambler's fallacy and the hot hand belief. Psychophysiological responses (electrodermal activity and heart rate) were taken during the slot machine task, and plasma prolactin increase was assessed. The tasks successfully induced the gambling effects of interest. Some of these effects differed across treatment groups, although the direction of effect was not in line with our predictions. Differences were driven by the naltrexone group, which displayed a greater physiological response to wins, and marginally higher confidence ratings on winning streaks. Prolactin levels increased in the naltrexone group, but did not differ between haloperidol and placebo, implying that naltrexone but not haloperidol may have been functionally active at these doses. Our results support opioid modulation of cognition during gambling-like tasks, but did not support the more specific hypothesis that naltrexone may act to ameliorate cognitive distortions. PMID:24109443
Porchet, Roseline I; Boekhoudt, Linde; Studer, Bettina; Gandamaneni, Praveen K; Rani, Nisha; Binnamangala, Somashekar; Müller, Ulrich; Clark, Luke
Gambling is characterized by cognitive distortions in the processing of chance and skill that are exacerbated in pathological gambling. Opioid and dopamine dysregulation is implicated in pathological gambling, but it is unclear whether these neurotransmitters modulate gambling distortions. The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol on gambling behavior. Male recreational gamblers (n = 62) were assigned to receive single oral doses of naltrexone 50 mg, haloperidol 2 mg or placebo, in a parallel-groups design. At 2.5 h post-dosing, participants completed a slot machine task to elicit monetary wins, "near-misses," and a manipulation of personal choice, and a roulette game to elicit two biases in sequential processing, the gambler's fallacy and the hot hand belief. Psychophysiological responses (electrodermal activity and heart rate) were taken during the slot machine task, and plasma prolactin increase was assessed. The tasks successfully induced the gambling effects of interest. Some of these effects differed across treatment groups, although the direction of effect was not in line with our predictions. Differences were driven by the naltrexone group, which displayed a greater physiological response to wins, and marginally higher confidence ratings on winning streaks. Prolactin levels increased in the naltrexone group, but did not differ between haloperidol and placebo, implying that naltrexone but not haloperidol may have been functionally active at these doses. Our results support opioid modulation of cognition during gambling-like tasks, but did not support the more specific hypothesis that naltrexone may act to ameliorate cognitive distortions. PMID:24109443
George, J M; Wagner, E E
Pearson correlations between the Hand Test Pathology (PATH) score and Personality Assessment Inventory scales produced a cluster of relationships characteristic of an antisocial orientation. Likewise, PATH significantly differentiated between a "P" (Pathology) group flagged by a high Negative Impression score on the inventory, and an "N" (Normal) group of 100 pain patients. It was suggested that the interpretive simplicity of Hand Test scores renders the scores amenable to further correlational studies involving the inventory. PMID:7478899
Iacovino, Juliette M.; Powers, Abigail D.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with obesity, a major risk factor for a number of chronic illnesses (e.g., cardiovascular disease). We examined whether impulsivity and affective instability mediate the association between BPD pathology and body mass index (BMI). Participants were a community sample of adults ages 55–64 and their informants. The Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality measured BPD symptoms and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory measured self- and informant-report impulsivity and affective instability. Mediation analyses demonstrated that only higher self-report impulsivity significantly mediated the association between greater BPD pathology and higher BMI. A subsequent model revealed that higher scores on the impulsiveness (lack of inhibitory control) and deliberation (planning) facets of impulsivity mediated the BPD–BMI association, with impulsiveness exerting a stronger mediation effect than deliberation. Obesity interventions that improve inhibitory control may be most effective for individuals with BPD pathology. PMID:24505165
Clark, Lee Anna; Ro, Eunyoe
The alternative dimensional model of personality disorder (PD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), Section III, has two main criteria: Impairment in personality functioning and one or more pathological personality traits. The former is defined as disturbances in self functioning (viz., identity, self-direction), and/or interpersonal functioning (viz., empathy, intimacy). Distinguishing personality functioning and traits is important conceptually, because simply having extreme traits is not necessarily pathological. However, adding personality functioning to PD diagnosis represents an empirical challenge, because the constructs overlap conceptually. Further, there is debate regarding whether diagnosis of mental disorder requires either distress or disability, concepts that also overlap with maladaptive-range personality traits and personality dysfunction. We investigated interrelations among these constructs using multiple self-report measures of each domain in a mixed community-patient sample (N = 402). We examined the structures of functioning (psychosocial disability and personality), and personality traits, first independently, then jointly. The disability/functioning measures yielded the three dimensions we have found previously (Ro & Clark, 2013). Trait measures had a hierarchical structure which, at the five-factor level, reflected neuroticism/negative affectivity (N/NA), (low) sociability, disinhibition, (dis)agreeableness, and rigid goal engagement. When all measures were co-factored, a hierarchical structure again emerged which, at the five-factor level, included (1) internalizing (N/NA and self-pathology vs. quality-of-life/satisfaction), (2) externalizing (social/interpersonal dysfunction, low sociability, and disagreeableness), (3) disinhibition, (4) poor basic functioning, and (5) rigid goal engagement. Results are discussed in terms of developing an integrated PD diagnostic model. PMID:24588062
Gu, Jiang; Taylor, Clive R.; Phil, D
The traditional task of the pathologist is to assist physicians in making the correct diagnosis of diseases at the earliest possible stage to effectuate the optimal treatment strategy for each individual patient. In this respect surgical pathology (the traditional tissue diagnosis) is but a tool. It is not, of itself, the purpose of pathology practice; and change is in the air. This January 2014 issue of Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology (AIMM) embraces that change by the incorporation of the agenda and content of the journal Diagnostic Molecular Morphology (DMP). Over a decade ago AIMM introduced and promoted the concept of “molecular morphology,” and has sought to publish molecular studies that correlate with the morphologic features that continue to define cancer and many diseases. That intent is now reinforced and extended by the merger with DMP, as a logical and timely response to the growing impact of a wide range of genetic and molecular technologies that are beginning to reshape the way in which pathology is practiced. The use of molecular and genomic techniques already demonstrates clear value in the diagnosis of disease, with treatment tailored specifically to individual patients. Personalized medicine is the future, and personalized medicine demands personalized pathology. The need for integration of the flood of new molecular data, with surgical pathology, digital pathology, and the full range of pathology data in the electronic medical record has never been greater. This review describes the possible impact of these pressures upon the discipline of pathology, and examines possible outcomes. There is a sense of excitement and adventure. Active adaption and innovation are required. The new AIMM, incorporating DMP, seeks to position itself for a central role in this process. PMID:24326463
BRAUN, BARBARA; LUDWIG, MONIKA; SLECZKA, PAWEL; BÜHRINGER, GERHARD; KRAUS, LUDWIG
Abstract Background and aims: As only a minority of pathological gamblers (PGr) presents for treatment, further knowledge about help-seeking behavior is required in order to enhance treatment utilization. The present study investigated factors associated with treatment participation in gamblers in Germany. As subclinical pathological gamblers (SPGr, fulfilling one to four DSM-IV-criteria) are target of early intervention due to high risk of transition to pathological gambling, they were subject of special interest. Methods: The study analyzed data from a general population survey (n = 234, SPGr: n = 198, PGr: n = 36) and a treatment study (n = 329, SPGr: n = 22, PGr: n = 307). A two-step weighting procedure was applied to ensure comparability of samples. Investigated factors included socio-demographic variables, gambling behavior, symptoms of pathological gambling and substance use. Results: In PGr, regular employment and non-German nationality were positively associated with being in treatment while gambling on the Internet and gaming machines and fulfilling more DSM-IV-criteria lowered the odds. In SPGr, treatment attendance was negatively associated with married status and alcohol consumption and positively associated with older age, higher stakes, more fulfilled DSM-IV criteria and regular smoking. Conclusions: In accordance to expectations more severe gambling problems and higher problem awareness and/or external pressure might facilitate treatment entry. There are groups with lower chances of being in treatment: women, ethnic minorities, and SPGr. We propose target group specific offers, use of Internet-based methods as possible adaptions and/or extensions of treatment offers that could enhance treatment attendance. PMID:25317343
Due to the developments of pathology in the past decades (immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology) classification of cancers changed fundamentally, laying a ground for personalized management of cancer patients. Our picture of cancer is more complex today, identifying the genetic basis of the morphological variants. On the other hand, this picture has a much higher resolution enabling us to subclassify similar histological cancer types based on molecular markers. This redefined classification of cancers helps us to better predict the possible biological behavior of the disease and/or the therapeutic sensitivity, opening the way toward a more personalized treatment of this disease. The redefined molecular classification of cancer may affect the universal application of treatment protocols. To achieve this goal molecular diagnostics must be an integral and reimbursed part of the routine pathological diagnostics. On the other hand, it is time to extend the multidisciplinary team with molecular pathologist to improve the decision making process of the management of cancer patients. PMID:23573519
Greenspan, Stanley I.; Lourie, Reginald S.
This paper applies a developmental structuralist approach to the classification of adaptive and pathologic personality organizations and behavior in infancy and early childhood, and it discusses implications of this approach for preventive intervention. In general, as development proceeds, the structural capacity of the developing infant and child…
Huprich, Steven K; Nelson, Sharon M
The Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) is a dynamic and expansive model of personality proposed by Mischel and Shoda (1995) that incorporates dispositional and processing frameworks by considering the interaction of the individual and the situation, and the patterns of variation that result. These patterns of cognition, affect, and behavior are generally defined through the use of if … then statements, and provide a rich understanding of the individual across varying levels of assessment. In this article, we describe the CAPS model and articulate ways in which it can be applied to conceptualizing and assessing personality pathology. We suggest that the CAPS model is an ideal framework that integrates a number of current theories of personality pathology, and simultaneously overcomes a number of limits that have been empirically identified in the past. PMID:26214351
Abbott, Max W; Williams, Maynard M; Volberg, Rachel A
Little is known about the life course of gambling problems and there have been no prospective studies of problem gambling. This article describes a study of 77 problem gamblers and 66 nonproblem gamblers recruited from a national prevalence survey in New Zealand in 1991 and reassessed in 1998. While most 1991 problem gamblers were nonproblematic at follow-up, a significant minority had developed more serious problems. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified more severe gambling problems, hazardous drinking, and a preference for track betting as the strongest independent predictors of subsequent problem gambling. These findings contradict conventional notions that pathological gambling is invariably a chronic or chronically relapsing disorder. The findings have implications for the interpretation of previous research, conduct of future research, and problem gambling policy and treatment. PMID:15217196
Serrani Azcurra, Daniel
Differences in pathological personality traits and disturbances in brain metabolites between non consumers, abstinent and non abstinent consumers were assessed. Participants (n=113) aged between 18-45 years with personality disorder (PD) were diagnosed with clinical interview and scales for depression, anxiety, impulsivity and dimensions of personality pathology. Brain metabolites were analyzed with magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and multiple comparisons. Abstinent and non-abstinent differentiated from non-consumers in emotional deregulation, inhibition, and restricted expression; abstinent and non-abstinent differentiated from each other in self-aggression, dissocial behaviour, conduct disorder, stimulus seeking and intimacy problems. N-Acetyl Aspartate and creatine values were lower between non-abstinent in prefrontal, anterior cingulate cortex, cerebellar vermis and superior corona radiata. For abstinent, choline levels were greater in cerebellar vermis and n-acetyl aspartate were lower in dorso-lateral prefrontal and anterior cingulated cortex and insula. Regarding personality traits, insecure attachment, narcissism, lability, self-aggression and anxiety characterize consumers and abstinent, while suspiciousness, rejection and character hardness are found in consumers (non-abstinent and abstinent). Compulsive traits, unplanned body impulsiveness and lack of control in emotional regulation predominated in non-abstinent and participants with co-morbidities. Detachment and inhibition predominate in alcohol abuse disorder and narcissistic traits in substance abuse. PMID:23880833
Nicole M. Cain; Aaron L. Pincus; Emily B. Ansell
This review documents two themes of emphasis found in phenotypic descriptions of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social\\/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Clinical theories of narcissism spanning 35 years consistently describe variations in the expression of pathological narcissism that emphasize either grandiosity or vulnerable affects and self-states. Recent research in social\\/personality psychology examining the structure of narcissistic personality traits consistently finds
Jones, Henrietta Bowden; George, Sanju
Dopaminergic agents are commonly used and effective treatments for restless legs syndrome (RLS), a disabling sensorimotor disorder. Less known are some of the potentially disabling side effects of these treatments, particularly iatrogenic gambling addiction, as is described here. Here the authors present a 62-year-old man, with a 20–year history of RLS, who developed gambling addiction while on dopaminergic treatment. He was not forewarned of this side effect, nor was he ever screened for gambling behaviours prior to or during treatment. Eight months after discontinuation of dopaminergic treatment and after 10 sessions of cognitive–behavioural therapy for gambling addiction, his gambling behaviours have partially resolved. To our knowledge, this is the first ever first person account of this condition. To prevent the devastating consequences of gambling addiction or to minimise its impact by early intervention, the authors call for clinicians involved in treatment of RLS to follow these simple measures: screen patients for gambling behaviours prior to the onset and during dopaminergic treatment; forewarn patients of this potential side effect; and if patients screen positive, refer them to specialist gambling treatment services, in addition to making necessary changes to their medication regime. PMID:22678941
Jones, Henrietta Bowden; George, Sanju
Dopaminergic agents are commonly used and effective treatments for restless legs syndrome (RLS), a disabling sensorimotor disorder. Less known are some of the potentially disabling side effects of these treatments, particularly iatrogenic gambling addiction, as is described here. Here the authors present a 62-year-old man, with a 20-year history of RLS, who developed gambling addiction while on dopaminergic treatment. He was not forewarned of this side effect, nor was he ever screened for gambling behaviours prior to or during treatment. Eight months after discontinuation of dopaminergic treatment and after 10 sessions of cognitive-behavioural therapy for gambling addiction, his gambling behaviours have partially resolved. To our knowledge, this is the first ever first person account of this condition. To prevent the devastating consequences of gambling addiction or to minimise its impact by early intervention, the authors call for clinicians involved in treatment of RLS to follow these simple measures: screen patients for gambling behaviours prior to the onset and during dopaminergic treatment; forewarn patients of this potential side effect; and if patients screen positive, refer them to specialist gambling treatment services, in addition to making necessary changes to their medication regime. PMID:22678941
Callan, Mitchell J; Shead, N Will; Olson, James M
One psychosocial factor that has been identified to motivate gambling is personal relative deprivation (PRD), which refers to resentment stemming from the belief that one is deprived of a desired and deserved outcome compared to some referent. Although several lines of evidence point to a positive association between PRD and the urge to gamble, the factors that might moderate this relation have yet to be investigated. Through a quantitative research synthesis, we sought to test (a) the overall relation between PRD and gambling urges among people reporting recent gambling experience, and (b) whether this relation is moderated by problem gambling severity. Meta-analysis revealed that, overall, higher self-reported PRD was associated with stronger urges to gamble (r=.26). A meta-regression revealed that, across studies, the strength of this relation depended on problem gambling severity, such that the relation between PRD and gambling urges was stronger among samples higher in average problem gambling severity. This pattern was corroborated by an analysis of the aggregated individual participant data (N=857), such that PRD predicted gambling urges only among participants higher in problem gambling severity. The potential practical implications and limitations of these results are discussed. PMID:25665918
Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.
The current study uses the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders dataset (Lenzenweger, 1999) to examine the development of personality traits in the context of the remission and onset of personality disorder (PD) symptoms. Despite high levels of stability, past research that has examined the development of basic personality traits has also found a mean trend towards increased maturity, and that individuals vary in their trajectories of trait development. Research on PD change has shown a similar pattern. We employ individual growth curve modeling to examine the relationship between personality trait development and PD symptom course. We found that the two are indeed related, and that remission in PD symptoms is associated with patterns of trait development associated with more rapid maturity. In contrast, deviating from the mean of trait development either through no change (i.e., stagnation) or change in the opposite direction (i.e., regression) was associated with developing PD symptoms over the course of the study. PMID:21967009
van Es, R.
OBJECTIVE: To present a meta-analysis of current research on the prevalence, identification, and treatment of problem and compulsive gamblers. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Problem and compulsive gambling was not a socio-scientific concern until the last two decades. Hence research on this topic is limited. The summary and analysis for this paper relied on computer searches of journal and news abstracts in addition to direct contact with organizations addressing the identification and treatment of compulsive gamblers. MAIN MESSAGE: An estimated 5% of those who gamble run into problems. About 1% of those who gamble are predicted to experience serious problems. Successful treatment of problem and compulsive gambling continues to be a challenge. Although cognitive therapy has been the favoured approach, a combination of several therapeutic approaches is advocated. CONCLUSIONS: Problem and compulsive gambling can present a real health threat. As with other addictions, treatment strategies continue to be a baffling social problem. Aware and informed physicians can have a pivotal role in the difficult process of identifying, acknowledging, and remediating problem and compulsive gambling. PMID:10907572
Bornstein, Robert F
The DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Workgroup proposed that five DSM-IV personality disorders be eliminated as formal diagnostic categories (paranoid, schizoid, histrionic, narcissistic, and dependent), because these syndromes purportedly have low clinical utility and minimal evidence for validity. Scrutiny of studies cited in support of this proposal reveals difficulties in three areas: (1) Inadequate information regarding parameters of the literature search; (2) Mixed empirical support for proposed changes; and (3) Selective attention to certain disorders and not others. Review of validity and clinical utility data related to dependent personality disorder indicates that evidence regarding this syndrome does not differ from that of syndromes proposed for retention in DSM-5. Limitations in the research base cited by the workgroup illuminates gaps in the personality disorder literature, and may serve as a starting point for systematic research on personality pathology so that adequate empirical data are available to decide which syndromes to retain, revise, or remove in future versions of the diagnostic manual. PMID:21466252
HENRY R. LESIEUR; MARY HEINEMAN
Summary Patients in a therapeutic community were questioned about their gambling behavior in order to find out what percentage of them were pathological gamblers. The South Oaks Gambling Screen (the SOGS) was used to screen the clients for gambling-related problems. Out of 100 residents tested, 14 were diagnosed as pathological gamblers and an additional 14 showed signs of problematic gambling.
Wenze, Susan J.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Weinstock, Lauren M.; Miller, Ivan W.
We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a clinical trial to explore the relationship between degree of personality disorder (PD) pathology (i.e., number of subthreshold and threshold PD symptoms) and mood and functioning outcomes in Bipolar I Disorder (BD-I). Ninety-two participants completed baseline mood and functioning assessments and then underwent 4 months of treatment for an index manic, mixed, or depressed phase acute episode. Additional assessments occurred over a 28-month follow-up period. PD pathology did not predict psychosocial functioning or manic symptoms at 4 or 28 months. However, it did predict depressive symptoms at both timepoints, as well as percent time symptomatic. Clusters A and C pathology were most strongly associated with depression. Our findings fit with the literature highlighting the negative repercussions of PD pathology on a range of outcomes in mood disorders. This study builds upon previous research, which has largely focused on major depression and which has primarily taken a categorical approach to examining PD pathology in BD. PMID:24516762
Cohen, Lisa Janet; Tanis, Thachell; Bhattacharjee, Reetuparna; Nesci, Christina; Halmi, Winter; Galynker, Igor
While considerable data support the relationship between childhood trauma and adult personality pathology in general, there is little research investigating the specific relationships between different types of childhood maltreatment and adult personality disorders. The present study tested a model incorporating five a priori hypotheses regarding the association between distinct forms of childhood maltreatment and personality pathology in 231 psychiatric patients using multiple self-report measures (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4th Edition, Child Trauma Questionnaire, Conflict in Tactics Scale Parent-Child Child-Adult, and Multidimensional Neglectful Behavior Scale). Step-wise linear regressions supported three out of five hypotheses, suggesting independent relationships between: physical abuse and antisocial personality disorder traits; emotional abuse and Cluster C personality disorder traits; and maternal neglect and Cluster A personality disorder traits after controlling for co-occurring maltreatment types and personality disorder traits. Results did not support an independent relationship between sexual abuse and borderline personality traits nor between emotional abuse and narcissistic personality disorder traits. Additionally, there were three unexpected findings: physical abuse was independently and positively associated with narcissistic and paranoid traits and negatively associated with Cluster C traits. These findings can help refine our understanding of adult personality pathology and support the future development of clinical tools for survivors of childhood maltreatment. PMID:24268580
Glenn, Margaret K.; Diaz, Sebastian R.; Hawley, Carolyn
Professionals in the field of addictions view problems associated with recovery management across multiple domains. This exploratory study utilized concept mapping and pattern matching methodology to conceptualize the resulting 7 domains of concern for treatment and aftercare of problem and pathological gamblers. The information can be used by…
Ménard, Kim S; Pincus, Aaron L
Self-report college student surveys on childhood maltreatment, and borderline and narcissistic personality features are examined to determine their influence on stalking victimization vulnerability. Stalking victimization was measured using Spitzberg and Cupach's (2008) Obsessive Relational Intrusion scale. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models were run separately for men (N = 677) and women (N = 1,017). Results indicated childhood sexual maltreatment and borderline traits were associated with stalking victimization among both men and women. These were the only significant relationships for men (R2 = .10). For women, stalking victimization was also associated with narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability and with a child sexual abuse by borderline features interaction (R2 = .13), demonstrating women reporting prior sexual abuse and borderline personality pathology are especially vulnerable. Methodological and policy implications are discussed. PMID:24834749
A Swedish mutual support group for young problem gamblers is described and discussed. During the study period, 116 weekly meetings occurred, usually involving six to ten participants; in total, 69 problem gamblers (66 male and three female), aged 17-25, and 23 partners and friends attended the meetings. Half the gamblers had problems with Internet…
David C. Hodgins; Nady El-Guebaly
Abstract Aim: An exploratory study was conducted to understand the process of recovery form gambling problems. Design: Media recruitment was used to identify a resolved (n=43) and a comparison group of active pathological gamblers (n=63). Participants: Participants showed,evidence of significant problems related to gambling as well as high rates of comorbid mood,and substance use disorders. The median length of resolution
Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T
Emotional reactivity has been theorized to play a central role in borderline personality (BP) pathology. Although growing research provides evidence for subjective emotional reactivity in BP pathology, research on physiological or biological reactivity among people with BP pathology is less conclusive. With regard to biological reactivity in particular, research on cortisol reactivity (a neurobiological marker of emotional reactivity) in response to stressors among individuals with BP pathology has produced contradictory results and highlighted the potential moderating role of PTSD-related pathology. Thus, this study sought to examine the moderating role of PTSD symptoms in the relation between BP pathology and both subjective (self-report) and biological (cortisol) emotional reactivity to a laboratory stressor. Participants were 171 patients in a residential substance use disorder treatment center. Consistent with hypotheses, results revealed a significant main effect of BP pathology on subjective emotional reactivity to the laboratory stressor. Furthermore, results revealed a significant interaction between BP pathology and PTSD symptoms in the prediction of cortisol reactivity, such that BP pathology was associated with heightened cortisol reactivity only among participants with low levels of PTSD symptoms. Similar findings were obtained when examining the interaction between BP pathology and the reexperiencing and avoidance/numbing symptoms of PTSD specifically. Results highlight the moderating role of PTSD symptoms in the BP-reactivity relation. PMID:23375184
Filteau, M J; Baruch, P; Vincent, P
This paper summarizes the current literature on pathological gambling. Interest in gambling has been present in every society but treated as an object of sociopolitical or literary interest. It is only from the beginning of this century that psychiatry began to look at pathological gambling, first with Freud and his writing on Dostoďevsky then with other theories like the learning theory, studies on substance dependence, the links with affective syndromes and the psychobiological studies. These studies are presented and discussed. Finally, the authors offer some guidelines for an approach to a pathological gambler. PMID:1562964
Dawood, Sindes; Thomas, Katherine M; Wright, Aidan G C; Hopwood, Christopher J
This study extended previous theory and research on interpersonal heterogeneity in depression by identifying groups of depressed young adults who differ in their type and degree of interpersonal problems, and by examining patterns of pathological personality traits and alcohol abuse among these groups. We examined the interpersonal problems, personality traits, and alcohol-related problems of 172 college students with at least moderate levels of self-reported depression on the Patient Health Questionnaire (Spitzer, Kroenke, & Williams, 1999). Scores from the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Short Circumplex (Soldz, Budman, Demby, & Merry, 1995) were subjected to latent profile analysis, which classified individuals into 5 distinct groups defined by the types of interpersonal problems they experience (dominant, warm, submissive, cold, and undifferentiated). As hypothesized, groups did not differ in depression severity, but did show predicted patterns of differences on normative and maladaptive personality traits, as well as alcohol-related problems. The presence of clinically meaningful interpersonal heterogeneity in depression could have important implications for designing more individualized treatments and prevention efforts for depression that target diverse associated interpersonal problems. PMID:23560433
This paper critically reviews prevalence estimates of problem and pathological gambling in Canada. Populations studied are adults, adolescents and primary school children. The proportions of pathological gamblers found in Canadian studies (ranging from 1.2% to 1.9% for adults) are similar to prevalence rates reported in the United States. Given the apparent link between gambling availability and increases in the prevalence
Lia Nower; Alex Blaszczynski
The DSM-IV-TR classifies pathological gambling as a disorder of impulse control. Empirical studies have noted elevated levels of impulsivity in pathological gamblers and putative functional relationships between impulsivity, severity of gambling problems and treatment attrition. However the concept of impulsivity has been variably defined with a persistent failure to clearly articulate the specific nature of impulsivity as a state or
Victor K. Y. Chan
This article describes the use of neural networks (a type of artificial intelligence) and an empirical data sample of, inter\\u000a alia, the amounts of bets laid and the winnings\\/losses made in successive games by a number of cyber-gamblers to longitudinally\\u000a model gamblers’ behavior and decisions as to such bet amounts and the temporal trajectory of winnings\\/losses. The data was\\u000a collected
Shaw, Martha C; Forbush, Kelsie T; Schlinder, Jessica; Rosenman, Eugene; Black, Donald W
Pathological gambling (PG) is widely reported to have negative consequences on marriages, families, and children. Empirical evidence is only now accumulating but when put together with anecdotal information, the extent of these problems is clear. PG contributes to chaos and dysfunction within the family unit, disrupts marriages, leading to high rates of separation and divorce, and is associated with child abuse and neglect. Divorce rates are high, not surprising in light of reports that these marriages are often abusive. Research shows that the families of pathological gamblers are filled with members who gamble excessively, suffer from depressive or anxiety disorders, and misuse alcohol, drugs, or both. Families of persons with PG are also large, a variable independently related to family dysfunction. The authors review the evidence on the impact of PG on families, marriages, and offspring, and make recommendations for future research targeting these problems. PMID:17667890
Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian; Bischof, Gallus; Kastirke, Nadin; John, Ulrich; Rumpf, Hans-Juergen
The aim of the present study was to analyze comorbid Axis I-disorders in a sample of individuals with at-risk, problem, and pathological gambling. A number of 164 adult gamblers derived from a random sample of 15,023 individuals were compared with a general population sample. The lifetime prevalence of any psychiatric disorder was 93.6% among pathological (five-10 criteria), 83.5% among problem (three or four criteria), and 81.0% among at-risk gamblers (one or two criteria). Substance use disorders were the most common comorbid disorders in gamblers. Logistic regression analyses revealed elevated odds ratios for having a comorbid disorder in at-risk (Conditional Odds Ratio (COR) 3.5, Confidence Interval (CI) 2.6-4.6), problem (COR 4.9, CI 3.3-7.3), and pathological gamblers (COR 4.6, CI 3.0-6.9) compared to the general population. No significant differences were found between at-risk and problem gamblers or problem and pathological gamblers. Compared to at-risk gamblers, pathological gamblers showed elevated rates of comorbid substance use disorders. The data suggest a linear association between gambling disorder severity and comorbid Axis I-disorders. In conclusion, comorbid disorders are very prevalent in individuals with gambling problems. Even at-risk gamblers with one or two DSM-IV criteria show high rates of Axis I-disorders. Therefore, this group should be included in further studies on problematic gambling. PMID:23962739
Agrawal, Arpana; Narayanan, Gitanjali; Oltmanns, Thomas F
The present study examined the association between personality pathology (PP) and alcohol dependence (AD; both lifetime and in the past 12 months) among middle-aged to older adults incorporating three sources of assessment, specifically, diagnostic interviews as well as self- and informant reports. We collected data from a representative sample of community participants (N = 1,630; ages 54-65 years) and their informants (N = 1,462). Measures employed were the substance use disorder sections of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview Schedule for Mental Disorders, the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR SIDP) and the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R., Revised NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) manual, 1992, Odessa, FL, Psychological Assessment Resources; self-report and informant versions). To complement the diagnostic interview for personality disorders (PDs), we utilized a PD-count technique derived from the five-factor model (FFM), which provided an index of PP liability. Factors representing lifetime and past-12 month AD were regressed on each of the 10 PP factors constructed from the SIDP interview, as well as self-report and informant FFM-count scores. Lifetime diagnosis of AD was positively associated with higher scores on several PP measures, including paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PP. There was an inverse relation between lifetime AD and the factor score for obsessive-compulsive PP. With regard to AD in the past 12 months, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PP factors were significantly associated with increased risk for AD, whereas the obsessive-compulsive and schizoid PP factors were associated with decreased risk for AD. The present data indicate that features of antisocial and borderline PP continue to exhibit a relatively strong association with risk for AD in later middle age. PMID:23230852
Van den Broeck, Joke; Rossi, Gina; De Clercq, Barbara; Dierckx, Eva; Bastiaansen, Leen
Research on the applicability of the five factor model (FFM) to capture personality pathology coincided with the development of a FFM personality disorder (PD) count technique, which has been validated in adolescent, young, and middle-aged samples. This study extends the literature by validating this technique in an older sample. Five alternative FFM PD counts based upon the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) are computed and evaluated in terms of both convergent and divergent validity with the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders Questionnaire (shortly ADP-IV; DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth edition). For the best working count for each PD normative data are presented, from which cut-off scores are derived. The validity of these cut-offs and their usefulness as a screening tool is tested against both a categorical (i.e., the DSM-IV - Text Revision), and a dimensional (i.e., the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology; DAPP) measure of personality pathology. All but the Antisocial and Obsessive-Compulsive counts exhibited adequate convergent and divergent validity, supporting the use of this method in older adults. Using the ADP-IV and the DAPP - Short Form as validation criteria, results corroborate the use of the FFM PD count technique to screen for PDs in older adults, in particular for the Paranoid, Borderline, Histrionic, Avoidant, and Dependent PDs. Given the age-neutrality of the NEO PI-R and the considerable lack of valid personality assessment tools, current findings appear to be promising for the assessment of pathology in older adults. PMID:22913535
Aragay, Núria; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Ramos-Grille, Irene; Cardona, Sara; Garrido, Gemma; Anisul Islam, Mohammed; Menchón, José M; Vallčs, Vicenç
There is little available information on the factors that influence relapses and dropouts during therapy for pathological gambling (PG). The aim of this study was to determine socio-demographic, clinical, personality, and psychopathological predictors of relapse and dropout in a sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. A total of 566 consecutive outpatients diagnosed with PG according to DSM-IV-TR criteria were included. All patients underwent an individualized cognitive-behavioral treatment program. We analyzed predictors of relapse during 6months of treatment and during the subsequent 6months of follow-up, and predictors of dropout over the entire therapeutic program. Eighty patients (14.1%) experienced at least one relapse during the entire follow-up of the study: 50 (8.8%) within the treatment period and 12 (2.1%) during the subsequent 6-month follow-up period. The main predictors of relapse were single marital status, spending less than 100euros/week on gambling, active gambling behavior at treatment inclusion, and high scores on the TCI-R Harm Avoidance personality dimension. One hundred fifty-seven patients (27.8%) missed 3 or more therapeutic sessions over the entire therapeutic program. The main predictors of dropout were single marital status, younger age, and high scores on the TCI-R Novelty Seeking personality dimension. The presence of these factors at inclusion should be taken into account by physicians dealing with PG patients. PMID:25434846
Winfree, Walter R; Ginley, Meredith K; Whelan, James P; Meyers, Andrew W
Growing evidence for the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for disordered gambling supports the need for a comprehensive set of gambling-related assessment measures that have been validated with treatment-seeking samples. The Gamblers' Beliefs Questionnaire (GBQ) is a self-report measure that was designed to identify gambling-related cognitive distortions (Steenbergh, Meyers, May, & Whelan, 2002). In this study, the GBQ demonstrated good internal consistency and adequate construct validity in a treatment-seeking sample of disordered gamblers. Additionally, scores on the measure significantly decreased across a brief cognitive-behavioral treatment, providing validity support for use of the GBQ with a clinical population. PMID:25596553
Boog, Michiel; Höppener, Paul; V D Wetering, Ben J M; Goudriaan, Anna E; Boog, Matthijs C; Franken, Ingmar H A
One hallmark of gambling disorder (GD) is the observation that gamblers have problems stopping their gambling behavior once it is initiated. On a neuropsychological level, it has been hypothesized that this is the result of a cognitive inflexibility. The present study investigated cognitive inflexibility in patients with GD using a task involving cognitive inflexibility with a reward element (i.e., reversal learning) and a task measuring general cognitive inflexibility without such a component (i.e., response perseveration). For this purpose, scores of a reward-based reversal learning task (probabilistic reversal learning task) and the Wisconsin card sorting task were compared between a group of treatment seeking patients with GD and a gender and age matched control group. The results show that pathological gamblers have impaired performance on the neurocognitive task measuring reward-based cognitive inflexibility. However, no difference between the groups is observed regarding non-reward-based cognitive inflexibility. This suggests that cognitive inflexibility in GD is the result of an aberrant reward-based learning, and not based on a more general problem with cognitive flexibility. The pattern of observed problems is suggestive of a dysfunction of the orbitofrontal cortex, the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and the ventral regions of the striatum in gamblers. Relevance for the neurocognition of problematic gambling is discussed. PMID:25165438
Maccallum, Fiona; Blaszczynski, Alex
Pathological gambling represents a major public health issue. Risk factors for suicide such as major depression, substance abuse, marital breakdown, unemployment, financial crises, and legal difficulties are commonly found in populations of pathological gamblers. The objective of this study was to systematically investigate the nature of suicidal behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers and its relationship to gambling characteristics and depression. Indices of suicidality were assessed in a sample of 85 treatment-seeking diagnosed pathological gamblers. High rates of suicidal ideation, suicidal plans, and attempts were found; however, no clear relationship was observed between suicidality and indices of gambling behavior. Depression rather than gambling specific characteristics, marital difficulties, or the presence of illegal behaviors appear to be related to the risk of suicidality. PMID:12710544
Guercio, John M.; Johnson, Taylor; Dixon, Mark R.
The present investigation examined a behavior-analytic clinical treatment package designed to reduce the pathological gambling of 3 individuals with acquired brain injury. A prior history of pathological gambling of each patient was assessed via caregiver report, psychological testing, and direct observation of gambling behavior. Using an 8-week…
Morasco, Benjamin J.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Ledgerwood, David M.; Petry, Nancy M.
This paper describes qualitative data regarding psychological factors that may affect gambling behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Participants (n = 84) diagnosed with pathological gambling were treated in a clinical trial examining the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Qualitative data were collected from…
Ohtsuka, Keis; Chan, Chi Chuen
This article examines portrayals of female gamblers in recent Hong Kong movies. The authors report that the depiction of female gamblers is very different from that of male gamblers in the movies made in the same period. Whereas the male gamblers are pitching a lonely and desperate battle against an evil opponent, the female gamblers portrayed in…
McBride, Orla; Adamson, Gary; Shevlin, Mark
This study identified empirically derived subtypes of gamblers based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling disorder (PGD). Data from the gamblers (n=5644) who participated in the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey (BGPS) were analysed using latent class analysis. Common socio-demographic correlates of PGD were subsequently assessed across the classes. Three distinct groups or classes of gamblers emerged. The majority of the sample (88.9%) was assigned to a 'non-problematic gambler' class. A second 'preoccupied chaser' class contained a significant percentage of gamblers (9.7%) who reported symptoms such as a preoccupation with gambling and engaging in chasing loses. Approximately 1.4% of gamblers were classified into an 'antisocial impulsivist gambler' class. Males, non-Whites and smokers were all more likely to be preoccupied chasers or antisocial impulsivist gamblers, rather than non-problematic gamblers. The current findings revealed that the gambling subtypes identified in the 2007 BGPS largely differed in relation to the severity, rather than the type, of symptoms experienced. These findings present a useful and clinically meaningful typology of individuals with PGD that may be examined further in both research and clinical settings. PMID:20488550
Spurrier, Michael; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Rhodes, Paul
Few studies have investigated how gamblers perceive risk or the role of risk perception in disordered gambling. The purpose of the current study therefore was to obtain data on lay gamblers' beliefs on these variables and their effects on decision-making, behaviour, and disordered gambling aetiology. Fifteen regular lay gamblers (non-problem/low risk, moderate risk and problem gamblers) completed a semi-structured interview following mental models and grounded theory methodologies. Gambler interview data was compared to an expert 'map' of risk-perception, to identify comparative gaps or differences associated with harmful or safe gambling. Systematic overlapping processes of data gathering and analysis were used to iteratively extend, saturate, test for exception, and verify concepts and themes emerging from the data. The preliminary findings suggested that gambler accounts supported the presence of expert conceptual constructs, and to some degree the role of risk perception in protecting against or increasing vulnerability to harm and disordered gambling. Gambler accounts of causality, meaning, motivation, and strategy were highly idiosyncratic, and often contained content inconsistent with measures of disordered gambling. Disordered gambling appears heavily influenced by relative underestimation of risk and overvaluation of gambling, based on explicit and implicit analysis, and deliberate, innate, contextual, and learned processing evaluations and biases. PMID:24402720
Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune A; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Stĺle
Although there is a general lack of empirical evidence that advertising influences gambling participation, the regulation of gambling advertising is hotly debated among academic researchers, treatment specialists, lobby groups, regulators, and policymakers. This study contributes to the ongoing debate by investigating perceived impacts of gambling advertising in a sample of gamblers drawn from the general population in Norway (n = 6,034). Three dimensions of advertising impacts were identified, representing perceived impacts on (a) gambling-related attitudes, interest, and behavior ("involvement"); (b) knowledge about gambling options and providers ("knowledge"); and (c) the degree to which people are aware of gambling advertising ("awareness"). Overall, impacts were strongest for the knowledge dimension, and, for all 3 dimensions, the impact increased with level of advertising exposure. Those identified as problem gamblers in the sample (n = 57) reported advertising impacts concerning involvement more than recreational gamblers, and this finding was not attributable to differences in advertising exposure. Additionally, younger gamblers reported stronger impacts on involvement and knowledge but were less likely to agree that they were aware of gambling advertising than older gamblers. Male gamblers were more likely than female gamblers to report stronger impacts on both involvement and knowledge. These findings are discussed with regard to existing research on gambling advertising as well as their implications for future research and policy-making. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25730628
Linde, Jennifer A.; Stringer, Deborah; Simms, Leonard J.; Clark, Lee Anna
The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Youth Version (SNAP-Y) is a new, reliable self-report questionnaire that assesses 15 personality traits relevant to both normal-range personality and the alternative "DSM"-5 model for personality disorder. Community adolescents, 12 to 18 years old (N = 364), completed the SNAP-Y; 347…
Walker, M B; Dickerson, M G
Prevalence of pathological gambling refers to the percentage of cases of pathological gambling occurring in the community at a given time. Prevalence studies conducted in different principalities throughout the world are reviewed, and it is found that none of them conforms to this definition of prevalence. The major error in all but the most recent surveys conducted is identified as the use of questions which ask whether gambling-related problems have ever occurred rather than whether they are currently occurring. This error will lead to an over-estimation of the prevalence of pathological gambling in society. The second major error identified in nearly all studies involves the accuracy of the screens being used to assess whether or not an individual is a pathological gambler. Concerns about the efficiency of the South Oaks Gambling Screen have not yet been satisfactorily resolved. None-the-less, the widespread use of the South Oaks Gambling Screen has made a valuable contribution to international comparisons of prevalence studies. Future work that explores the emerging relationship between levels of personal expenditure on gambling, types of gambling product and gambling-related problems are recommended. PMID:24233918
Bothe, Anne K.; Richardson, Jessica D.
Purpose: To discuss constructs and methods related to assessing the magnitude and the meaning of clinical outcomes, with a focus on applications in speech-language pathology. Method: Professionals in medicine, allied health, psychology, education, and many other fields have long been concerned with issues referred to variously as practical…
MacKay, James R.
Considers the Antisocial Personality Disorder within the context of a psychopathology model. Criticizes and reviews the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders approach and suggests revisions. Coins the term narcissistic-antisocial personality and reviews it within several contexts. (Author/ABB)
Sescousse, Guillaume; Barbalat, Guillaume; Domenech, Philippe; Dreher, Jean-Claude
Pathological gambling is an addictive disorder characterized by a persistent and compulsive desire to engage in gambling activities. This maladaptive behaviour has been suggested to result from a decreased sensitivity to experienced rewards, regardless of reward type. Alternatively, pathological gambling might reflect an imbalance in the sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives. To directly test these two hypotheses, we examined how the brain reward circuit of pathological gamblers responds to different types of rewards. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared the brain responses of 18 pathological gamblers and 20 healthy control subjects while they engaged in a simple incentive task manipulating both monetary and visual erotic rewards. During reward anticipation, the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers showed a differential response to monetary versus erotic cues, essentially driven by a blunted reactivity to cues predicting erotic stimuli. This differential response correlated with the severity of gambling symptoms and was paralleled by a reduced behavioural motivation for erotic rewards. During reward outcome, a posterior orbitofrontal cortex region, responding to erotic rewards in both groups, was further recruited by monetary gains in pathological gamblers but not in control subjects. Moreover, while ventral striatal activity correlated with subjective ratings assigned to monetary and erotic rewards in control subjects, it only correlated with erotic ratings in gamblers. Our results point to a differential sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary rewards in pathological gambling, both at the motivational and hedonic levels. Such an imbalance might create a bias towards monetary rewards, potentially promoting addictive gambling behaviour. PMID:23757765
Carlos Blanco; Marc N. Potenza; Suck Won Kim; Angela Ibáńez; Rocco Zaninelli; Jerónimo Saiz-Ruiz; Jon E. Grant
We examined the relationship between gambling severity, impulsivity and obsessionality\\/compulsivity in 38 pathological gamblers, representing the complete Minnesota sample of a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of paroxetine for the treatment of pathological gambling (PG), using Pearson correlations and linear regression models at baseline and treatment endpoint. At baseline, Pathological Gambling Modification of the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (PG-YBOCS) scores correlated significantly
Electronic gambling offers the opportunity to analyze huge and unbiased data sets of automatically recorded actual gambling behavior. This study refers to data on 2,127,887 poker playing identities from the Online Poker Database of the University of Hamburg (OPD-UHH) to analyze three subgroups of gamblers: regulars, newcomers, and dropouts. Their gambling habits over 6 months are analyzed in total, as well as over time. Regulars show a much higher involvement than non-regulars and increase their playing volume slightly over the observation period. Newcomers have a lower involvement than non-newcomers and most of them decrease their playing volume over time. Still, there is a small group of newcomers which increases their playing volume sharply and is, hence, very interesting for the industry as well as for the early prevention of pathological gambling. Dropouts have a higher gambling involvement than newcomers but play less than players who have not stopped stop gambling. Most dropouts also show a decreasing playing volume before dropping out. An analysis of the correlations between different variables of gambling habits shows that most of them reinforce each other, for example: gamblers with a higher total playing time tend to play at more tables simultaneously. Only playing frequency is a moderating variable of gambling involvement. PMID:22562549
Young, Robert H
The careers and contributions of some of those who have played a major role in the development of knowledge concerning gynaecological pathology are summarised. The emphasis is on workers of prior times beginning with those of the German-speaking school: Carl Ruge, Felix Marchand, Hermann Pfannenstiel, Oskar Frankl, Walter Schiller, and Robert Meyer. The two great Scandinavian investigators Lars Santesson and Gunnar Teilum are then considered, followed by those of the British school: John H. Teacher, Elizabeth Hurdon, Magnus Haines, Claud Taylor, Fred Langley, and Harold Fox. North American workers reviewed are: Thomas S. Cullen, Emil Novak, John Albertson Sampson, Arthur Hertig, and Robert E. Scully. The essay concludes with Australasian contributors, those considered in detail being: Hans Frederick Bettinger, Rupert A. Willis, Hazel (Mansell) Gore, Robert Barter, Harold Attwood, Andrew Ostör (the last two also noted historians), Denys Fortune, Alan Ng, and Peter Russell. PMID:17365820
· The Kid, the Clerk, and the Gambler · Critical Studies in Statistics and Cognitive Science Mathias Winther Madsen #12;#12;· The Kid, the Clerk, and the Gambler · Critical Studies in Statistics #12;· The Kid, the Clerk, and the Gambler · Critical Studies in Statistics and Cognitive Science
Maccallum, Fiona; Blaszczynski, Alex
Investigates the nature of suicidal behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers and its relationship to gambling characteristics and depression. High rates of suicidal ideation, suicidal plans, and attempts were found; however, no clear relationship was observed between suicidality and indices of gambling behavior. (Contains 37…
Potenza, Marc N; Steinberg, Marvin A; McLaughlin, Susan D; Wu, Ran; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; George, Tony P; O'Malley, Stephanie S
Few studies have examined the smoking behaviors of problem gamblers. A high proportion of problem gamblers calling a gambling helpline reported daily tobacco smoking (43.1%). Problem gamblers reporting daily tobacco smoking more frequently acknowledged depression and suicidality secondary to gambling, gambling-related arrests, alcohol and drug use problems, mental health treatment, and problems with casino slot machine gambling. The findings substantiate the relationship in problem gamblers between tobacco smoking and psychiatric symptomatology, particularly other substance use problems. The high proportion of callers reporting daily tobacco smoking highlights the need for enhanced smoking cessation efforts in problem gamblers. PMID:15764425
van den Bos, Ruud; Davies, William; Dellu-Hagedorn, Francoise; Goudriaan, Anna E; Granon, Sylvie; Homberg, Judith; Rivalan, Marion; Swendsen, Joel; Adriani, Walter
Decision-making plays a pivotal role in daily life as impairments in processes underlying decision-making often lead to an inability to make profitable long-term decisions. As a case in point, pathological gamblers continue gambling despite the fact that this disrupts their personal, professional or financial life. The prevalence of pathological gambling will likely increase in the coming years due to expanding possibilities of on-line gambling through the Internet and increasing liberal attitudes towards gambling. It therefore represents a growing concern for society. Both human and animal studies rapidly advance our knowledge on brain-behaviour processes relevant for understanding normal and pathological gambling behaviour. Here, we review in humans and animals three features of pathological gambling which hitherto have received relatively little attention: (1) sex differences in (the development of) pathological gambling, (2) adolescence as a (putative) sensitive period for (developing) pathological gambling and (3) avenues for improving ecological validity of research tools. Based on these issues we also discuss how research in humans and animals may be brought in line to maximize translational research opportunities. PMID:23867802
Ringman, John M.; Sachs, Michael C.; Zhou, Yan; Monsell, Sarah E.; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Vinters, Harry V.
Importance Though cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) has important clinical implications, our understanding of it and ability to diagnose it is limited. Objective We sought to determine pathological correlates and clinical factors identifiable during life that predict the presence of severe CAA in persons with pathologically-confirmed Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Design We compared demographic and clinical variables at the earliest visit during life at which subjects were found to have cognitive impairment, and pathological variables between persons ultimately found to have no or severe CAA at autopsy using logistic regression. Analyses were repeated separately for carriers and non-carriers of the APOE ?4 allele. Setting Data were obtained from the Uniform Data Set that comprises longitudinal clinical assessments performed in the Alzheimer’s Disease Centers funded by the National Institute on Aging. Participants 193 persons with severe CAA and 232 persons with no CAA. All subjects had cognitive impairment and met NIA-Reagan neuropathological criteria for AD. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of demographic characteristics and the APOE ?4 allele and odds ratios of clinical variables for the prediction of severe CAA. Results Persons with severe CAA were more likely to carry an APOE ?4 allele (64.9% vs. 42.8%), to be Hispanic (6.8% vs. 1.3%, p = 0.003), to have had a transient ischemic attack (TIA, 12.5% vs. 6.1%, OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1 – 4.4), and had lower degrees of diffuse amyloid plaque pathology (mean CERAD scores 1.2 vs. 1.4, p = 0.01) than persons with no CAA. Intracerebral hemorrhage (9.3% vs. 3.5%, p = 0.01), cortical microinfarcts (20.7% vs. 12.9%, p = 0.03), and subcortical leukoencephalopathy (20.5% vs. 12.1%, p = 0.02) were more common in persons with CAA. A higher prevalence of stroke (11.1% vs. 3.9%, OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.0 – 14.6) and hypercholesterolemia (50% vs. 33.3%, OR = 2.3, CI 1.1 – 4.7) were found in non-carriers of the ?4 allele with severe CAA. Conclusions and Relevance Being Hispanic and having had a TIA-like episode were predictors of CAA in persons with AD. Less diffuse parenchymal amyloid pathology in persons with severe CAA suggests a difference in A? trafficking. PMID:24797962
McBride, Jessica; Derevensky, Jeffrey
The present study examined Internet gambling behavior in a sample of online gamblers. Participants (N = 563; 382 male; ages 18-over 65) were recruited from a banner placed in an online newsletter. Questionnaires were completed online and assessed demographic information, game-play patterns (e.g., frequency, duration, wagering), preferred type of…
Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Jackson, James E.; Habib, Reza
This study investigated the potential for recreational gamblers to respond as if certain types of losing slot machine outcomes were actually closer to a win than others (termed the "near-miss effect"). Exposure to conditional discrimination training and testing disrupted this effect for 10 of the 16 participants. These 10 participants demonstrated…
Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members…
Marmurek, Harvey H C; Switzer, Jessica; D'Alvise, Joshua
The present study explored the associations among impulsivity, gambling cognitions, and behavioral adherence to the gambler's fallacy in university students (N = 142). Both impulsivity and gambling cognitions were significant predictors of non-problem and problem gambler categories as defined the Problem Gambling Severity Index. A logistic regression analysis showed that the independent contribution of cognition was statistically significant but that the contribution of impulsivity was not. A behavioral measure of gambling was obtained by asking participants to play an online game of roulette for a maximum of 15 min. Only outside bets were permitted whereby participants were to bet on the color of the winning number. Adherence to the gambler's fallacy was indexed by the likelihood of betting on an alternation in the color of the winning number as the number of consecutive outcomes of the other color increased. Gambling cognitions and gender, but not impulsivity, were associated with adherence to the gambler's fallacy. Tracing the sources of specific influences on gambling behavior may benefit from a framework that distinguishes between "hot" (emotional) and "cold" (non-emotional) mechanisms that promote problem gambling. PMID:24293013
Markham, Francis; Young, Martin; Doran, Bruce
The multivariate socio-demographic risk factors for problem gambling have been well documented. While this body of research is valuable in determining risk factors aggregated across various populations, the majority of studies tend not to specifically identify particular subgroups of problem gamblers based on the interaction between variables. The…
Griffiths, Mark; Cooper, Gerry
This paper briefly examines 'telehealth', online therapy (and the various types currently available), the relative advantages and disadvantages of online therapy, and the implications for the treatment of problem gamblers. The authors approach this discussion acknowledging that online therapy has to be incorporated within the overall framework of…
The aim of the present study is to offer a validated decision model for casino enterprises. The model enables those users to perform early detection of problem gamblers and fulfill their ethical duty of social cost minimization. To this end, the interpretation of casino customers' nonverbal communication is understood as a signal-processing problem. Indicators of problem gambling recommended by Delfabbro et al. (Identifying problem gamblers in gambling venues: final report, 2007) are combined with Viterbi algorithm into an interdisciplinary model that helps decoding signals emitted by casino customers. Model output consists of a historical path of mental states and cumulated social costs associated with a particular client. Groups of problem and non-problem gamblers were simulated to investigate the model's diagnostic capability and its cost minimization ability. Each group consisted of 26 subjects and was subsequently enlarged to 100 subjects. In approximately 95 % of the cases, mental states were correctly decoded for problem gamblers. Statistical analysis using planned contrasts revealed that the model is relatively robust to the suppression of signals performed by casino clientele facing gambling problems as well as to misjudgments made by staff regarding the clients' mental states. Only if the last mentioned source of error occurs in a very pronounced manner, i.e. judgment is extremely faulty, cumulated social costs might be distorted. PMID:24938732
Lim, K D
Pathological gambling (PG) represents the end spectrum of gambling behaviours. It is characterised by constantly recurring gambling behaviour which is maladaptive. This case illustrates how an Asian woman pathological gambler progresses through the different stages of development of the gambling habit, and how a multi-modal treatment approach has helped her regain psychosocial function. In addition, the maintenance factors, typical and atypical associated features, and difficulties in the management of such a case are highlighted. PMID:11513060
Henry R. Lesieur; Richard J. Rosenthal
This is a review of the literature on pathological gambling prepared for the work group on disorders of impulse control, not elsewhere classified of the American Psychiatric Association. It introduces the new DSM-IV criteria as well as outlines the phases of the career of the pathological gambler. Research discussed includes that on pathological gambling and psychiatric disorders, substance abuse, family
Gratz, Kim L; Kiel, Elizabeth J; Latzman, Robert D; Elkin, T David; Moore, Sarah Anne; Tull, Matthew T
Evidence suggests that maternal borderline personality (BP) pathology increases offspring risk. This study examined the relations between maternal BP pathology and related emotional dysfunction (including emotion regulation [ER] difficulties and emotional intensity/reactivity) and infant ER difficulties. Specifically, we examined both self-focused and caregiver-focused ER behaviors and the modulation of emotional expressions (one indicator of ER in young children) in response to fear- and anger-eliciting stimuli among 101 infants (12 to 23 months old) of mothers with and without clinically relevant BP pathology. The authors also examined the moderating role of mother-infant attachment. Findings of a series of multiple regression mediation analyses revealed an indirect effect of maternal BP pathology on infant ER difficulties through maternal emotional dysfunction, with maternal ER difficulties facilitating an indirect effect of maternal BP pathology on expressivity-related indicators of infant ER difficulties and maternal emotional intensity/reactivity linking maternal BP pathology to lower self-focused ER for infants in insecure-resistant attachment relationships. PMID:24344887
Engel, W King
Ageing of the neuromuscular system in elderhood ingravescently contributes to slowness, weakness, falling and death, often accompanied by numbness and pain. This article is to put in perspective examples from a half-century of personal and team neuromuscular histochemical-pathological and clinical-pathological research, including a number of lucky and instructive accomplishments identifying new treatments and new diseases. A major focus currently is on some important, still enigmatic, aspects of the ageing neuromuscular system. It is also includes some of the newest references of others on various closely-related aspects of this ageing system. The article may help guide others in their molecular-based endeavors to identify paths leading to discovering new treatments and new pathogenic aspects. These are certainly needed - our ageing and unsteady constituents are steadily increasing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuromuscular Diseases: Pathology and Molecular Pathogenesis. PMID:25460198
TACKETT, JENNIFER L.; BALSIS, STEVE; OLTMANNS, THOMAS F.; KRUEGER, ROBERT F.
Proposed changes in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) include replacing current personality disorder (PD) categories on Axis II with a taxonomy of dimensional maladaptive personality traits. Most of the work on dimensional models of personality pathology, and on personality disorders per se, has been conducted on young and middle-aged adult populations. Numerous questions remain regarding the applicability and limitations of applying various PD models to early and later life. In the present paper, we provide an overview of such dimensional models and review current proposals for conceptualizing PDs in DSM-V. Next, we extensively review existing evidence on the development, measurement, and manifestation of personality pathology in early and later life focusing on those issues deemed most relevant for informing DSM-V. Finally, we present overall conclusions regarding the need to incorporate developmental issues in conceptualizing PDs in DSM-V and highlight the advantages of a dimensional model in unifying PD perspectives across the life span. PMID:19583880
Algren, Maria H; Ekholm, Ola; Davidsen, Michael; Larsen, Christina V L; Juel, Knud
Problem gambling is a serious public health issue. The objective of this study was to investigate whether past year problem gamblers differed from non-problem gamblers with regard to health behaviour and body mass index (BMI) among Danes aged 16 years or older. Data were derived from the Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys in 2005 and 2010. Past year problem gambling was defined using the lie/bet questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between past year problem gambling and health behaviour and BMI. Problem gambling was associated with unhealthy behaviour and obesity. The odds of smoking was significantly higher among problem gamblers than among non-problem gamblers. Further, the odds of high-risk alcohol drinking and illicit drug use were significantly higher among problem gamblers. The prevalence of sedentary leisure activity, unhealthy diet pattern and obesity was higher among problem gamblers than among non-problem gamblers. The associations found in this study remained significant after adjustment for sex, age, educational and cohabiting status as well as other risk factors. Our findings highlight the presence of a potential, public health challenge and elucidate the need for health promotion initiatives targeted at problem gamblers. Furthermore, more research is needed in order to understand the underlying social mechanism of the association between problem gamblers and unhealthy behaviour. PMID:24390713
Fong, Lawrence Hoc Nang; Law, Rob; Lam, Desmond
Gambling is a leisure activity, which is enjoyed by many people around the world. Among these people, Chinese are known for their high propensity to gamble and are highly sought after by many casinos. In this exploratory study, the effect of two types of fallacy bias-positive recency and negative recency-on the betting behavior of Chinese gamblers is investigated. Although the influence of fallacy bias on a betting decision is well documented, little is known about the interaction of the factors that dictate fallacy bias. Drawing from an analysis of 2,645 betting decisions, the results show that Chinese gamblers primarily endorse positive recency, especially when the latest outcome is more frequent. This is contrary to most findings on Western subjects in which negative recency is more common. Current findings have meaningful implications to casino gaming entertainment businesses and public policymakers. PMID:23740349
Dixon, Mark R; Nastally, Becky L; Jackson, James E; Habib, Reza
This study investigated the potential for recreational gamblers to respond as if certain types of losing slot machine outcomes were actually closer to a win than others (termed the near-miss effect). Exposure to conditional discrimination training and testing disrupted this effect for 10 of the 16 participants. These 10 participants demonstrated high percentages of conditional discrimination testing performance, and the remaining 6 participants failed the discrimination tests. The implications for a verbally based behavioral explanation of gambling are presented. PMID:20514203
Jessica McBride; Jeffrey Derevensky
The present study examined Internet gambling behavior in a sample of online gamblers. Participants (N?=?563; 382 male; ages 18–over 65) were recruited from a banner placed in an online newsletter. Questionnaires were completed\\u000a online and assessed demographic information, game-play patterns (e.g., frequency, duration, wagering), preferred type of play,\\u000a and problem gambling (using the DSM-IV). In addition, participation in gambling-type games
Bergen, Anne E; Newby-Clark, Ian R; Brown, Andrea
In two studies it is demonstrated that, in the short-term, slot machine gambling increases self-control strength in problem gamblers. In Study 1 (N = 180), participants were randomly assigned to either play slot machines or engage in a control task (word anagrams) for 15 min. Subsequent self-control strength was measured via persistence on an impossible tracing task. Replicating Bergen et al. (J Gambl Stud, doi: 10.1007/s10899-011-9274-9 , 2011), control condition participants categorized as problem gamblers persisted for less time than did lower gambling risk participants. However, in the slot machine condition, there were no significant differences in persistence amongst participants as a function of their gambling classification. Moreover, problem gambling participants in the slot machine condition persisted at the impossible tracing task longer than did problem gambling participants in the control condition. Study 2 (N = 209) systematically replicated Study 1. All participants initially completed two tasks known to deplete self-control strength and a different control condition (math problems) was used. Study 2 results were highly similar to those of Study 1. The results of the studies have implications for the helping professions. Specifically, helping professionals should be aware that problem gamblers might seek out gambling as a means of increasing self-control strength. PMID:23179300
Griffiths, Mark D.
Slot machine gambling is a popular leisure activity worldwide yet there has been very little research into different types of slot machine gamblers. Earlier typologies of slot machine gamblers have only concentrated on adolescents in arcade environments. This study presents a new typology of slot machine players based on over 1000 h of participant…
Hing, Nerilee; Tiyce, Margaret; Holdsworth, Louise; Nuske, Elaine
Problem gambling can significantly affect the lives of concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers, especially family members, but little is known about their help-seeking activities and experiences. This paper explores help-seeking by CSOs of problem gamblers and their related motivators and barriers. A telephone interview was…
Hayer, Tobias; Meyer, Gerhard
Preliminary scientific evidence indicates that online gamblers are more likely to be problem gamblers and thus point to the need for effective protection measures. This study focuses on an online self-exclusion program and seeks to comprehensively examine the benefits of this measure. It was intended to collect detailed information on the…
Williams, Jeremy D.; Pulford, Justin; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max
Multiple means exist by which gamblers including problem gamblers may be recruited from the general population for research survey purposes. However, there appears to be limited discussion in the published literature about the relative merits of one or other approach. This paper addresses this gap, in part, by reporting the experiences of…
Grant, Jon E.; Schreiber, Liana; Odlaug, Brian L.; Kim, Suck Won
Background Although prior studies have examined rates of bankruptcy in pathological gambling (PG), there is only limited data regarding the clinical correlates of those with PG who declare bankruptcy due to gambling. Method 517 consecutive subjects with DSM-IV PG (54.7% females; mean age = 47.6) were grouped into two categories: those who had (n=93; 18.0%) and had not (n=424; 82.0%) declared bankruptcy secondary to gambling. Groups were compared on clinical characteristics, gambling severity (using the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for Pathological Gambling, Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale; Clinical Global Impression – Severity scale, and time and money spent gambling) and psychiatric comorbidity. Results Gamblers who had declared bankruptcy were more likely to be single (p=.004), have an earlier age of problem gambling onset (p=.032), and have more financial (p<.001), work-related (p=.006), marital (p<.001), and legal (p<.001) problems secondary to their gambling. They also reported higher rates of depressive disorders (p<.001), substance use disorders (p=.005) and were more likely to be daily users of nicotine (p=.022). Money spent gambling did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusion These preliminary results suggest that bankruptcy in PG may be associated with specific clinical differences. Treatment strategies may want to assess bankruptcy status to develop more effective treatments that take account of these clinical differences. PMID:20152290
Background Previous studies of problem Internet gamblers have failed to distinguish whether their problem gambling relates to Internet or land-based gambling modes. Therefore, characteristics and help-seeking behaviors of people whose gambling problems relate specifically to Internet gambling are unknown, but could inform the optimal alignment of treatment and support services with the needs and preferences of problem gamblers. Objective This study aimed to compare (1) characteristics of problem Internet gamblers and problem land-based gamblers and (2) uptake of different types and modes of help between problem Internet gamblers and problem land-based gamblers. Hypothesis 1 was that problem Internet gamblers are less likely to seek help. Hypothesis 2 was that problem Internet gamblers are more likely to use online modes of help. Methods A sample of 620 respondents meeting criteria for problem gambling was drawn from an online survey of 4594 Australian gamblers. Respondents were recruited through advertisements on gambling and gambling help websites, Facebook, and Google. Measures consisted of gambling participation; proportion of gambling on the Internet; most problematic mode of gambling; help seeking from 11 different sources of formal help, informal help, and self-help for gambling problems; psychological distress (Kessler 6); problem gambling severity (Problem Gambling Severity Index, PGSI); and demographics. Results Problem Internet gamblers were significantly more likely than problem land-based gamblers to be male (?2 1=28.3, P<.001, ?=0.21), younger (t 616.33=4.62, P<.001, d=0.37), have lower psychological distress (?2 1=5.4, P=.02, ?=0.09), and experience problems with sports and race wagering (?2 4=228.5, P<.001, ?=0.61). Uptake of help was significantly lower among problem Internet compared to problem land-based gamblers (?2 1=6.9, P<.001, ?=0.11), including from face-to-face services, gambling helplines, online groups, self-exclusion from land-based venues, family or friends, and self-help strategies. Both problem Internet and problem land-based gamblers had similarly low use of online help. However, problem land-based gamblers (37.6%, 126/335) were significantly more likely to have sought land-based formal help compared to problem Internet gamblers (23.5%, 67/285; ?2 1=14.3, P<.001, ?=0.15). Conclusions The findings suggest that more targeted and innovative efforts may be needed to increase use of gambling help by problem Internet gamblers. Alternatively, their lower PGSI and K6 scores suggest Internet problem gamblers may have less need for gambling-related help. This is the first known study to classify problem Internet gamblers as those whose problem gambling specifically relates to Internet gambling. Further research is needed to better understand why help-seeking rates are lower among Internet problem gamblers. PMID:25567672
Pathology Reports On This Page What is a pathology report? How is tissue obtained for examination by the pathologist? ... the tissue sample is taken will the pathology report be ready? What information does a pathology report ...
Yi, Sunghwan; Stewart, Melissa; Collins, Pamela; Stewart, Sherry H
Gambling outcome expectancies refer to the anticipated outcomes that gamblers expect will occur from gambling (i.e., learned memory associations between gambling cues, behavior, and outcomes). Unlike previous approaches to gambling outcome expectancies that have predominantly focused on the valence of outcome expectancies (positive vs. negative), the present study investigated two specific types of positive gambling outcome expectancies: reward and relief gambling outcome expectancies. Specifically, the primary purpose of the current research was to examine whether gambling prime exposure activates different types of positive gambling outcome expectancies in enhancement- versus coping-motivated gamblers. Fifty adult, community-recruited regular gamblers performed a reaction time (RT) task and completed a self-report expectancy scale, both designed to assess reward and relief gambling outcome expectancies. They also completed the Gambling Motives Questionnaire (Stewart and Zack in Addiction 103:1110-1117 2008) to assess their levels of coping and enhancement motives for gambling. As hypothesized, reward gambling outcome expectancies were more strongly activated by gambling prime exposure than relief outcome expectancies on the RT task for gamblers with high enhancement motives. On the self-report expectancy measure, high enhancement-motivated gamblers endorsed stronger reward gambling outcome expectancies than low enhancement-motivated gamblers, and high coping-motivated gamblers endorsed stronger relief gambling outcome expectancies than low coping-motivated gamblers. Results suggest that automatic activation of reward gambling outcome expectancies is particularly strong for high enhancement-motivated gamblers. Possible reasons for the failure to observe an association between coping gambling motives and automatic relief gambling outcome expectancies are discussed. PMID:24916965
The alleged incidence of addiction to fruit machine gambling among children in the U.K. has highlighted the need for a measure to define and count pathological gambling in children. The DSM-IV criteria, which are being refined to diagnose pathological gambling in adults, was adapted for use with pre-adult gamblers. The resulting DSM-IV-J criteria were tested using a questionnaire survey on
Vance V. MacLaren; Jonathan A. Fugelsang; Kevin A. Harrigan; Michael J. Dixon
Pathological Gambling (PG) is the inability to resist recurrent urges to gamble excessively despite harmful consequences to the gambler or others. A cognitive-behavioral Pathways Model of PG (Blaszczynski & Nower, 2002) suggests individual differences in rash impulsivity and reward sensitivity, together with a cognitive style that promotes poor decision making, as risk factors. These individual differences were examined in a
Hekeler, E; Zoller, W G; Wiedorn, K H; Bosse, A
Modern pathology has developed from "omega" to "alpha" and is vital for therapy and follow-up of tumor treatment today. Pathology has a key role as part of personalized medicine. It is possible to intervene therapeutically into the molecular genetic intricacy of tumors by establishing predictive biomarkers with corresponding tumor therapeutic agents.By identifying the KRAS mutational status at the metastasized colorectal carcinoma, a statement about the benefit of an anti-EGFR-therapy can be given, which is nowadays the basis of diagnostic and therapy of this cancer.For a long period of time a high concordance between primary and metastases inside the KRAS status was taken for granted. Meanwhile, there are many studies demonstrating a possibly underestimated high degree of discordance. The identification of discordances might gather a subcollective, which partially holds a KRAS wild type tissue and thereby might respond with a partial remission. Thus, the survival time of these patients and their quality of living could be successfully improved. PMID:23111797
Oliveira, Maria Paula Magalhăes Tavares de; Silveira, Dartiu Xavier da; Silva, Maria Teresa Araujo
The article aimed to characterize pathological gambling, showing the main consequences of this disorder. Bibliographic survey on this theme was conducted, covering both national and international literature. Publications whose main findings emphasized related prevalence, social and economic costs, gambling legalization and resulting impact on public health, were selected. High suicide rate, comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders, family and work problems, and illicit behavior were consequences reported. The prevalence of this disorder is higher in countries that have legalized gambling and in Brazil there is evidence of growth in the number of pathological gamblers. The development of national research is fundamental to define public policies that are adequate for the Brazilian context. PMID:18461253
Carlbring, Per; Degerman, Nicklas; Jonsson, Jakob; Andersson, Gerhard
Effective therapies for pathological gambling exist, but their use is limited to about 10% of the target population. In an attempt to lower the barriers for help, Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) has been shown to be effective when delivered to a non-depressed sample with pathological gambling. This study sought to extend this finding to a larger, more representative population, and also test a model to predict responder status. Following advertisement, a total of 284 participants started an 8-week ICBT programme with minimal therapist contact via e-mail and weekly telephone calls of less than 15 min. The average time spent on each participant, including telephone conversations, e-mail, and administration, was 4 h. In addition to a mixed effects model to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment, two logistic regression analyses were performed with the following eight pre-defined response predictor variables: work-life satisfaction, primary gambling activity, debts due to gambling, social support, personal yearly salary, alcohol consumption, stage of change, and dissociative gambling. ICBT resulted in statistically significant reductions in the scores of pathological gambling, anxiety, and depression as well as an increase in quality of life compared to pre-treatment levels. Follow-ups carried out in the treatment group at 6, 18, and 36 months indicated that treatment effects were sustained. Using the eight predictor variable model rendered an acceptable predictive ability to identify responders both at post-test (AUC = .72, p < .01) and at 36-month follow-up (AUC = .70, p < .01). We conclude that ICBT for pathological gamblers, even if depressed, can be effective and that outcome can partly be predicted by pre-treatment characteristics. PMID:22620990
Stewart, Sherry H; Kushner, Matt G
This article summarizes a symposium held at the 2002 Annual Meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism in San Francisco, CA, and was prepared on behalf of the symposium participants by the symposium co-organizers/co-chairs. Prior research with both clinical and nonclinical populations indicates a high comorbidity between alcohol-use disorders and pathological gambling. This symposium involved a set of papers in which exciting new research on this form of comorbidity was presented. The studies spanned populations of problem-gambling helpline callers, problem gamblers attempting to recover, and community-recruited gambler research volunteers. The studies used methodologies ranging from questionnaire and interview to laboratory-based paradigms (i.e., cognitive and alcohol challenge). Study designs ranged from cross-sectional to longitudinal and from correlation to experiment. The symposium highlighted novel approaches that researchers are using to enhance understanding of functional relations that may underlie this common comorbidity. PMID:12605078
Ziming Xuan; Howard Shaffer
Objective: To examine behavioral patterns of actual Internet gamblers who experienced gambling-related problems and voluntarily closed\\u000a their accounts. Design: A nested case–control design was used to compare gamblers who closed their accounts because of gambling problems to those\\u000a who maintained open accounts. Setting: Actual play patterns of in vivo Internet gamblers who subscribed to an Internet gambling site. Participants: 226
Wright, Aidan G.C.; Calabrese, William R.; Rudick, Monica M.; Yam, Wern How; Zelazny, Kerry; Williams, Trevor F.; Rotterman, Jane H.; Simms, Leonard J.
This study was conducted to establish (a) the stability of the DSM-5 Section III personality disorder (PD) traits, (b) whether these traits predict future psychosocial functioning, and (c) whether changes in traits track with changes in psychosocial functioning across time. Ninety-three outpatients (61% Female) diagnosed with at least one PD completed patient-report measures at two time-points (M time between assessments = 1.44 years), including the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 and several measures of psychosocial functioning. Effect sizes of rank-order and mean-level change were calculated. In addition, Time 1 traits were used to predict functioning measures at Time 2. Finally, latent change score models were estimated for DSM-5 Section III traits and functioning measures, and correlations among latent change scores were calculated to establish the relationship between change in traits and functional outcomes. Findings demonstrated that the DSM-5 Section III traits were highly stable in terms of normative (i.e., mean-level) change and rank-order stability over the course of the study. Furthermore, traits prospectively predicted psychosocial functioning. However, at the individual level traits and functioning were not entirely static over the study, and change in individuals’ functioning tracked with changes in trait levels. These findings demonstrate that the DSM-5 Section III traits are highly stable consistent with the definition of PD, prospectively predictive of psychosocial functioning, and dynamically associated with functioning over time. This study provides important evidence in support of the DSM-5 Section III PD model. PMID:25384070
Ohtsuka, K; Bruton, E; DeLuca, L; Borg, V
With recent introduction of poker machines in Australia, there have been claims of increases in the number of women with gambling-related problems. Research in the United States indicates, however, that men have a higher incidence of pathological gambling. The aims of this study were to ascertain among game machine users in a major city in Australia whether (a) more women than men exhibited symptoms of pathological gambling, (b) women reported higher guilt associated with their gambling, and (c) gamblers' self-assessment on several mood states was predictive of pathological gambling. A modified version of the South Oaks Gambling Screen was administered to 104 users of game machines (44 men, 60 women) sampled from patrons at gaming venues in Melbourne, Australia. Data indicated no significant sex difference in the proportion of pathological gamblers or in gambling-related guilt. Self-assessment of Happiness, Propensity for Boredom, and Loneliness, significantly predicted scores on the South Oaks Gambling Screen, with Unhappiness a significant independent predictor of pathological gambling. This may suggest that gambling acts to fill a need in the lives of unhappy people or that individuals who lack control over their gambling report higher unhappiness. Further research is needed to discover this relationship. PMID:9198406
Álvarez-Moya, Eva M.; Ochoa, Cristian; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Aymamí, Maria Neus; Gómez-Peńa, Mónica; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Santamaría, Juanjo; Moragas, Laura; Bove, Francesca; Menchón, José M.
Background Impairments in self-regulatory behaviour reflect a deficit in executive functioning and decision-making, as well as higher levels of self-reported impulsivity, and may be involved in the development and maintenance of addictive disorders. We sought to explore the association between self-reported impulsivity and neurocognitive measures, and their association with treatment outcome in pathologic gambling. Methods We assessed patients with pathologic gambling using executive functioning and decision-making tests and self-report measures of impulsivity. Patients underwent cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) for pathologic gambling. Results We included 88 patients (8% women) in our study. High self-reported extravagance was associated with poor performance in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT)-ABCD version. High impulsiveness, low disorderliness, high exploratory excitability (trend), poor backward block span and poor IGT-EFGH scores (trend) predicted dropout. We observed no self-reported or neurocognitive predictors of relapse or number of treatment sessions attended. Limitations Most participants were slot-machine gamblers seeking treatment. No follow-up data and no control group were included in the study. The missing sample (i.e., individuals who were recruited and assessed in the pretreatment stage but who chose not to begin treatment) had higher extravagance scores than the final sample. Conclusion Neurocognitive reward sensitivity was related to self-reported overspending behaviour. Self-regulatory impairments (especially rash impulsiveness and punishment sensitivity) and executive dysfunction predicted only dropout of CBT in participants with pathologic gambling. Different neurocognitive processes and personality traits might mediate treatment response to psychological therapy of pathologic gambling according to the specific target variable assessed. PMID:21138656
Dixon, Mark R.; Bihler, Holly L.; Nastally, Becky L.
The current study attempted to alter preferences for concurrently available slot machines of equal payout through the development of equivalence classes and subsequent transfers of functions. Participants rated stimuli consisting of words thought to be associated with having a gambling problem (e.g., "desperation" and "debt"), words associated…
Peters, Jan; Miedl, Stephan Franz; Büchel, Christian
Temporal or delay discounting refers to the phenomenon that the value of a reward is discounted as a function of time to delivery. A range of models have been proposed that approximate the shape of the discount curve describing the relationship between subjective value and time. Recent evidence suggests that more than one free parameter may be required to accurately model human temporal discounting data. Nonetheless, many temporal discounting studies in psychiatry, psychology and neuroeconomics still apply single-parameter models, despite their oftentimes poor fit to single-subject data. Previous comparisons of temporal discounting models have either not taken model complexity into account, or have overlooked particular models. Here we apply model comparison techniques in a large sample of temporal discounting datasets using several discounting models employed in the past. Among the models examined, an exponential-power model from behavioural economics (CS model, Ebert & Prelec 2007) provided the best fit to human laboratory discounting data. Inter-parameter correlations for the winning model were moderate, whereas they were substantial for other dual-parameter models examined. Analyses of previous group and context effects on temporal discounting with the winning model provided additional theoretical insights. The CS model may be a useful tool in future psychiatry, psychology and neuroscience work on inter-temporal choice. PMID:23226198
van Holst, Ruth J; van Holstein, Mieke; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Goudriaan, Anna E
Disinhibition over drug use, enhanced salience of drug use and decreased salience of natural reinforcers are thought to play an important role substance dependence. Whether this is also true for pathological gambling is unclear. To understand the effects of affective stimuli on response inhibition in problem gamblers (PRGs), we designed an affective Go/Nogo to examine the interaction between response inhibition and salience attribution in 16 PRGs and 15 healthy controls (HCs).Four affective blocks were presented with Go trials containing neutral, gamble, positive or negative affective pictures. The No-Go trials in these blocks contained neutral pictures. Outcomes of interest included percentage of impulsive errors and mean reaction times in the different blocks. Brain activity related to No-Go trials was assessed to measure response inhibition in the various affective conditions and brain activity related to Go trials was assessed to measure salience attribution.PRGs made fewer errors during gamble and positive trials than HCs, but were slower during all trials types. Compared to HCs, PRGs activated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate and ventral striatum to a greater extent while viewing gamble pictures. The dorsal lateral and inferior frontal cortex were more activated in PRGs than in HCs while viewing positive and negative pictures. During neutral inhibition, PRGs were slower but similar in accuracy to HCs, and showed more dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex activity. In contrast, during gamble and positive pictures PRGs performed better than HCs, and showed lower activation of the dorsolateral and anterior cingulate cortex.This study shows that gambling-related stimuli are more salient for PRGs than for HCs. PRGs seem to rely on compensatory brain activity to achieve similar performance during neutral response inhibition. A gambling-related or positive context appears to facilitate response inhibition as indicated by lower brain activity and fewer behavioural errors in PRGs. PMID:22479305
Oberg, Scott A K; Christie, Gregory J; Tata, Matthew S
Problem gambling (PG) is increasingly conceptualized as an addiction akin to substance abuse, rather than an impulse control disorder, however the mechanism of addiction remains unclear. Neuroimaging investigations have supported a "reward deficiency" hypothesis for PG by suggesting a blunted response to gambling, particularly in the striatum. Here we describe electrophysiological evidence of a hypersensitive response to gambling feedback in problem gamblers. Previous research in healthy participants has shown that feedback during gambling tasks triggers stereotypical neural responses including the Feedback-Related Mediofrontal Negativity (FRN), the feedback-related P300, and an increase in induced theta-band (4-8 Hz) power. We tested the theory that abnormal feedback processing characterizes brain activity in problem gamblers while gambling. EEG was recorded from non-gamblers and self-identified gamblers as they engaged in a computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task. Feedback about valence (win vs. loss) triggered a FRN in both groups, but in gamblers this was preceded by an early-latency hypersensitive fronto-central difference to feedback. This early FRN was correlated with gambling severity and was localized to medial frontal cortex using distributed source imaging (CLARA). Gamblers also differed in responses to risk, showing a blunted P300 component and less EEG power in the theta band. Here we suggest that a more nuanced interpretation of reward deficiency is called for with respect to PG. For certain aspects of brain function, gamblers may exhibit hypersensitivity to reward feedback more akin to drug sensitization than reward deficiency. Our results also suggest that the neurologically normal brain employs dissociable systems in the processing of feedback from tasks involving risky decision making. PMID:21982697
Pallanti, Stefano; Bernardi, Silvia; Allen, Andrea; Hollander, Eric
Pathological gambling is a disruptive behaviour and an important public health concern that is classified as an impulse control disorder, and is also conceptualized as a prototype of 'behavioural addiction'. Its phenomenology cannot be reduced to a single neurobiological dysfunction; instead, it has been conceived as a complex chain of events in which the serotonergic system (5-HT) has often been suggested as one of the most prominent involved. Acute administration of Sumatriptan, a selective 5-HT(1B/1D) agonist, has been used to investigate the functional responsivity of 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors in alcoholics, resulting in a blunted growth hormone response. These findings have been interpreted as being due to the down-regulation of these receptors. However, previous studies could not rule out the possibility that the changes in receptor function were induced by chronic substance exposure. Twenty-two pathological gamblers and 19 healthy control subjects were evaluated in response to double-blind administration of both a single dose of oral Sumatriptan (100 mg) and of placebo in a crossover design. All participants were screened to ensure that they were negative for lifetime alcohol and drug addiction, and had been free of substance abuse for at least 6 months. Outcome measures included growth hormone, prolactin, gambling severity, mood, craving and 'high' change scales. A blunted growth hormone response was observed in pathological gamblers compared with healthy controls after Sumatriptan administration. No statistically significant differences were found for prolactin or behavioural measures, except for an increase in anxiety over time in pathological gamblers. These results, together with those obtained in our previous serotoninergic challenge study, document the presence of a serotonergic dysfunction in pathological gamblers similar to that reported in alcoholics. PMID:19825906
Corr, Philip J; Thompson, Stephen J
In a sample of normal volunteers, response perseveration (RP) on a computerised gambling task, the card perseveration task, was examined under two conditions: No pause (Standard task) and a 5-s pause (Pause task) following feedback from previous bet. Behavioural outcomes comprised number of cards played (and cash won/lost) and latency of response. Individual differences in these outcomes were conceptualised in terms of the reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality. Results showed that, on the Standard task only, sub-scales of the Carver and White (J Pers Social Psychol 67:319-333, 1994) Behavioural Approach System scale positively correlated with number of cards played and amount of money lost (indicative of impaired RP), but these associations were abolished with the imposition of a 5-s pause between feedback and the opportunity to make the next bet-this pause also had an overall main effect of improving RP and reducing losses. As related research shows that such a pause normalises the RP deficit seen in pathological gamblers, these findings hold potentially valuable implications for informing practice in the prevention and treatment of pathological gambling, and point to the role played by individual differences in approach motivation. PMID:23832753
Harmful alcohol use and frequent use of marijuana among lifetime problem gamblers and the prevalence of cross-addictive behaviour among Greenland Inuit: evidence from the cross-sectional Inuit health in transition Greenland survey 2006–2010
Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Curtis, Tine; Bjerregaard, Peter
Background and objectives Public health research has pointed to alcohol and substance abuse as the most significant public health challenges in Greenland with the negative impact on families and communities that entail, but few studies have investigated the role of problem gambling as addictive behaviour among Inuit. The objectives of the present study were to investigate (a) the association between lifetime problem gambling and harmful alcohol use as well as frequent use of marijuana and (b) the prevalence of cross-addictive behaviour among Greenland Inuit. Design A representative cross-sectional study among Greenland Inuit (n=2,189). Data was collected among adults (18+) in 8 towns and 13 villages in Greenland from 2006–2010. Lifetime problem gambling, harmful alcohol use and frequent use of marijuana were measured through a self-administered questionnaire. Results The odds ratio for harmful alcohol use and frequent use of marijuana was significantly higher among lifetime problem gamblers compared to non-problem gamblers/non-gamblers. One or more addictive behaviours were present among more than half of the men (53%) and one third of the women (37%), and the co-occurrence of lifetime problem gambling with either harmful alcohol use, frequent use of marijuana or both was found among 12.2% of men and 3.7% of women. The prevalence of one or more addictive behaviours was 44% in households with children. Conclusions For lifetime problem gamblers, the gambling problems were more often than not combined with harmful alcohol use, frequent use of marijuana or both – especially among men. The high prevalence of addictive behaviours in households with children indicates that many families are presently affected negatively by alcohol, gambling and marijuana. This suggests that pathological gambling should be included systematically in future public health strategies, treatment programs and interventions in Greenland. PMID:23515920
In this research, we explore a unique Chinese peer to peer (P2P) online lottery gambling data (n = 388,123) and examine the rationality of Chinese online lottery gamblers. We show that Chinese online lottery gamblers are irrational in the sense that they are significantly affected by the lottery winning history of others even though this winning history is shown to be merely an exogenous random shock. Specifically, in this Chinese P2P online lottery gambling game, some of the lottery gamblers (named the proposers) propose lottery packages first, and then, other lottery gamblers (named the followers) will follow by choosing among the different packages and deciding on how much to purchase. The past lottery winning return rate of each proposer is provided as public information and calculated as the ratio between her past winning money and wager. It is shown that this past return rate is merely a random shock because winning in the past cannot predict anything about the performance in the future. However, we find that Chinese online P2P lottery gamblers are significantly more likely to join a lottery package if it is proposed by proposers with higher return rates. PMID:24420960
Lloyd, Joanne; Doll, Helen; Hawton, Keith; Dutton, William H; Geddes, John R; Goodwin, Guy M; Rogers, Robert D
In order to learn about the behaviours and health experiences of people who gamble on the Internet, we conducted an international online survey with respondents recruited via gambling and gambling-related websites. The mean (SD) age of the 4,125 respondents completing the survey was 35.5 (11.8) years, with 79.1% being male and 68.8% UK residents. Respondents provided demographic details and completed validated psychometric screening instruments for problem gambling, mood disturbances, as well as alcohol and substance misuse, and history of deliberate self harm. We applied latent class analysis to respondents' patterns of regular online gambling activities, and identified subgroups of individuals who used the Internet to gamble in different ways (L (2) = 44.27, bootstrap P = 0.07). We termed the characteristic profiles as 'non-to-minimal gamblers'; 'sports bettors'; 'casino & sports gamblers'; 'lottery players'; and 'multi-activity gamblers'. Furthermore, these subgroups of respondents differed on other demographic and psychological dimensions, with significant inter-cluster differences in proportion of individuals scoring above threshold for problem gambling, mood disorders and substance misuse, and history of deliberate self harm (all Chi (2)s > 23.4, all P-values <0.001). The 'casino & sports' and 'multi-activity-gamblers' clusters had the highest prevalence of mental disorder. Internet gamblers appear to be heterogeneous but composed of several subgroups, differing markedly on both demographic and clinical characteristics. PMID:20422442
Demaree, Heath A; Weaver, Joseph S; Juergensen, James
In their recent article in Cognition, Xu and Harvey (2014) suggested that people who placed wagers on an online gambling site demonstrated very different wagering preferences depending on whether they were on winning or losing streaks. Specifically, they reported that people on winning streaks were more likely to win their subsequent wagers because they chose increasingly "safer," higher-probability bets as the win streak continued. People on losing streaks were more likely to lose their subsequent wagers because they chose "riskier," lower-probability wagers as the losing streak progressed. The authors suggested that individuals on winning and losing streaks both fell prey to the Gambler's Fallacy. Specifically, individuals on winning streaks combatted their expectancy to lose soon by choosing higher-probability wagers (with lower payoffs). Conversely, people on losing streaks expected to win soon and thus preferred lower-probability wagers with higher payoffs. Though their paper is fascinating and contains a remarkable data set, we note that the statistical methods employed by Xu and Harvey are prone to a serious selection bias, such that participants on winning or losing streaks may have already been choosing safer and riskier wagers, respectively, prior to the beginning of their streaks. We suggest easy, intuitive analyses to determine whether the effects reported in Xu and Harvey (2014) are real. PMID:25242313
Peat, Frances J; Kawcak, Christopher E
The current understanding of pathology as it relates to common diseases of the equine musculoskeletal system is reviewed. Conditions are organized under the fundamental categories of developmental, exercise-induced, infectious, and miscellaneous pathology. The overview of developmental pathology incorporates the new classification system of juvenile osteochondral conditions. Discussion of exercise-induced pathology emphasizes increased understanding of the contribution of cumulative microdamage caused by repetitive cyclic loading. Miscellaneous musculoskeletal pathology focuses on laminitis, which current knowledge indicates should be regarded as a clinical syndrome with a variety of possible distinct mechanisms of structural failure that are outlined in this overview. PMID:26037607
Dowling, Nicki; Smith, David; Thomas, Trang
The current study aimed to determine the differential efficacy of a cognitive-behavioural treatment program for female pathological gamblers delivered in individual and group format. Fifty-six female pathological gamblers with electronic gaming machine gambling problems were randomly assigned to the control (waiting list) group or one of the treatment groups (individual or group treatment). Treatment comprised a 12-session program including financial limit setting, alternative activity planning, cognitive correction, problem solving, communication training, relapse prevention, and imaginal desensitisation. Treatment outcome was evaluated with conceptually related measures within the areas of gambling behaviour and psychological functioning. While individual and group treatment formats generally produced comparable outcomes in terms of gambling behaviour and psychological functioning, group treatment failed to produce superior outcomes to the control group in relation to several measures of psychological functioning. Moreover, by the completion of the six-month follow-up, 92% of the gamblers allocated to individual treatment compared with 60% allocated to group treatment no longer satisfied the diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling. These findings suggest that some caution should be employed when delivering cognitive-behavioural treatment in a group format until further research is conducted to establish its efficacy. PMID:17196159
Gray, Joshua C; MacKillop, James
Introduction Delay discounting is a behavioral economic index of impulsivity that reflects preferences for small immediate rewards relative to larger delayed rewards. It has been consistently linked to pathological gambling and other forms of addictive behavior, and has been proposed to be a behavioral characteristic that may link genetic variation and risk of developing addictive disorders (i.e., an endophenotype). Studies to date have revealed significant associations with polymorphisms associated with dopamine neurotransmission. The current study examined associations between delay discounting and both previously linked variants and a novel panel of dopamine-related variants in a sample of frequent gamblers. Methods Participants were 175 weekly gamblers of European ancestry who completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire to assess delay discounting preferences and provided a DNA via saliva. Results In a priori tests, two loci previously associated with delayed reward discounting (rs1800497 and rs4680) were not replicated, however, the long form of DRD4 VNTR was significantly associated with lower discounting of delayed rewards. Exploratory analysis of the dopamine-related panel revealed 11 additional significant associations in genes associated with dopamine synthesis, breakdown, reuptake, and receptor function (DRD3, SLC6A3, DDC, DBH, and SLC18A2). An aggregate genetic risk score from the nominally significant loci accounted for 17% of the variance in discounting. Mediational analyses largely supported the presence of indirect effects between the associated loci, delay discounting, and pathological gambling severity. Conclusions These findings do not replicate previously reported associations but identify several novel candidates and provide preliminary support for a systems biology approach to understand the genetic basis of delay discounting. PMID:25365808
Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael
Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…
A MODIFIED GAMBLER'S RUIN MODEL OF POLYETHYLENE CHAINS IN THE AMORPHOUS REGION ZhongHui Duan and Louis N. Howard Department of Mathematics The Florida State University ABSTRACT. Polyethylene chainsM 3 +O(M 2 ). INTRODUCTION Semicrystalline polyethylene formed from melt generally consists
Mentzoni, Rune A; Laberg, Jon Christian; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Molde, Helge; Pallesen, Stĺle
Background and aims Electronic gaming machines (EGM) may be a particularly addictive form of gambling, and gambling speed is believed to contribute to the addictive potential of such machines. The aim of the current study was to generate more knowledge concerning speed as a structural characteristic in gambling, by comparing the effects of three different bet-to-outcome intervals (BOI) on gamblers bet-sizes, game evaluations and illusion of control during gambling on a computer simulated slot machine. Furthermore, we investigated whether problem gambling moderates effects of BOI on gambling behavior and cognitions. Methods 62 participants played a computerized slot machine with either fast (400 ms), medium (1700 ms) or slow (3000 ms) BOI. SOGS-R was used to measure pre-existing gambling problems. Mean bet size, game evaluations and illusion of control comprised the dependent variables. Results Gambling speed had no overall effect on either mean bet size, game evaluations or illusion of control, but in the 400 ms condition, at-risk gamblers (SOGS-R score > 0) employed higher bet sizes compared to no-risk (SOGS-R score = 0) gamblers. Conclusions The findings corroborate and elaborate on previous studies and indicate that restrictions on gambling speed may serve as a harm reducing effort for at-risk gamblers. PMID:26165463
Oakes, Jane; Gardiner, Paula; McLaughlin, Kristin; Battersby, Malcolm
An innovative pilot treatment program was developed for problem gamblers living in rural areas of Australia using cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) modified from an established specialist therapy service. The standard 12 weekly group program was delivered on site by adapting it to two 1 week blocks with daily group sessions and 1 week of patient…
Blackman, Sheldon; And Others
The Gamblers Treatment Clinic (GTC) opened in 1982 as a New York State Office of Mental Health Demonstration Program. The basic premise of the GTC is that excessive gambling is a disorder of impulse control. Treatment, conducted in the community in a time-limited fashion, attempts to uncover the underlying dynamics that precipitate disorders of…
Molecular informatics (MI) is an evolving discipline that will support the dynamic landscape of molecular pathology and personalized medicine. MI provides a fertile ground for development of clinical solutions to bridge the gap between clinical informatics and bioinformatics. Rapid adoption of next generation sequencing (NGS) in the clinical arena has triggered major endeavors in MI that are expected to bring a paradigm shift in the practice of pathology. This brief review presents a broad overview of various aspects of MI, particularly in the context of NGS based testing. PMID:26065793
Paglieri, Fabio; Addessi, Elsa; De Petrillo, Francesca; Laviola, Giovanni; Mirolli, Marco; Parisi, Domenico; Petrosino, Giancarlo; Ventricelli, Marialba; Zoratto, Francesca; Adriani, Walter
The search for neuronal and psychological underpinnings of pathological gambling in humans would benefit from investigating related phenomena also outside of our species. In this paper, we present a survey of studies in three widely different populations of agents, namely rodents, non-human primates, and robots. Each of these populations offers valuable and complementary insights on the topic, as the literature demonstrates. In addition, we highlight the deep and complex connections between relevant results across these different areas of research (i.e., cognitive and computational neuroscience, neuroethology, cognitive primatology, neuropsychiatry, evolutionary robotics), to make the case for a greater degree of methodological integration in future studies on pathological gambling. PMID:24574984
In this article, findings of a panel study among former EGM gamblers are discussed. The data were collected in two waves during 2007, and 1293 people, 18 years or older, participated. The background for the study was the Norwegian ban on EGMs from 1 July 2007, and the aim was to investigate how this ban affected gambling involvement and problem levels in the sample. The analysis shows that gambling participation, gambling frequencies and gambling problems were reduced after EGMs disappeared from the market. There was no indication of the development of an illegal EGM market, or of substitution of EGMs with other types of gambling. A reduction in other types of gambling is interpreted as an indication of synergetic effects between games. Reduced gambling participation among the most active EGM gamblers, and among risk gamblers, shows that the reductions in gambling availability had an effect even on highly involved gamblers. PMID:19322645
Lueddeke, Sara E; Higham, Philip A
This paper presents an experimental investigation into how individuals make decisions under uncertainty when faced with different payout structures in the context of gambling. Type 2 signal detection theory was utilized to compare sensitivity to bias manipulations between regular nonproblem gamblers and nongamblers in a novel probability-based gambling task. The results indicated that both regular gamblers and nongamblers responded to the changes of rewards for correct responses (Experiment 1) and penalties for errors (Experiment 2) in setting their gambling criteria, but that regular gamblers were more sensitive to these manipulations of bias. Regular gamblers also set gambling criteria that were more optimal. The results are discussed in terms of an expertise-transference hypothesis. PMID:21846266
Svensson, Jessika; Romild, Ulla
This study aimed to investigate, from a gender perspective, how different features of problem gambling present in men and women who gamble regularly in Sweden were distributed in four domains based on gambling type (chance or strategy) and setting (public or domestic). Problem gambling features were based on the nine items in the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). It was hypothesized that men and women gamble in different domains. Further, it was hypothesized that male gamblers overall experienced more problems with gambling than female gamblers, although in the same domains they would report the same level of problems. A further hypothesis predicted that regular female gamblers would experience more health and social problems and men would experience more financial difficulties. Interviews with a subsample of gamblers (n?=?3191) from a Swedish nationally representative sample (n?=?8179) was used to examine how features of problem gambling correspond with gender and the domains. Only the first hypothesis was fully supported. Men were more likely to participate in forms of gambling requiring strategy in a public setting, and women were more likely to participate in chance-based gambling in a domestic setting. Male and female gamblers had similar levels of problem gambling in the bi-variate analysis, but if controlling for age and gambling in multiple domains, women were more at risk than men. Additionally, men and women presented similar health and economic situations. The differences between male and female gamblers in Sweden have implications for research and prevention. PMID:24634562
Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology 20 Pathology and Diagnostic Pathology and adenocarcinoma ·Application of molecular pathology to pathological diagnosis · Discovery of cancer therapy target and acceleration of pathological diagnostic processes Investigation of the development of EB virus
Pathology has long been associated with medical development and patient treatment and care. Throughout history pathologists have been trained to observe and recognize abnormalities to diagnose and treat the condition.
Niemiec, Brook A
Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth. PMID:18482706
Nelson, Peter T.; Abner, Erin L.; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Smith, Charles D.; Davis, Daron G.; Poduska, John W.; Patel, Ela; Mendiondo, Marta S.; Markesbery, William R.
We evaluated the association between mini-mental status examination (MMSE) scores proximal to death and the values of 43 different clinical and pathological parameters. Studies were performed using data from 334 elderly, longitudinally evaluated research subjects who had undergone autopsy and satisfied inclusion criteria from an initial study group of 501. Interindividual variance in MMSE scores was used as a surrogate for the severity of cognitive impairment linked to aging (CILA). A statistical linear regression-based model provided a framework for assessing the parameters with significant, direct impact on CILA severity. Strong association between CILA and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology, especially isocortical neurofibrillary tangles, was evident. The pattern of association between AD lesion densities with cognitive impairment severity was biologically informative, with neuritic plaques having more impact in relatively high-functioning individuals. Abundant isocortical Lewy bodies tended to be an additive pathology correlating with final MMSE scores approximately 10 points lower. In a subset of cases we found evidence for association between TDP-43-related pathology and CILA severity, independent of AD or hippocampal sclerosis. There was no support for independent association between CILA severity and most evaluated indices including diffuse plaques, argyrophilic grains, heart disease, education level, apolipoprotein E alleles or diabetes. PMID:19021630
Nower, Lia; Blaszczynski, Alex
Studies attempting to identify the specific 'addictive' features of electronic gaming machines (EGMs) have yielded largely inconclusive results, suggesting that it is the interaction between a gambler's cognitions and the machine, rather than the machine itself, which fuels excessive play. Research has reported that machine players with gambling problems adopt a number of erroneous cognitive perceptions regarding the probability of winning and the nature of randomness. What is unknown, however, is whether motivations for gambling and attitudes toward pre-session monetary limit-setting vary across levels of gambling severity, and whether proposed precommitment strategies would be useful in minimizing excessive gambling expenditures. The current study explored these concepts in a sample of 127 adults, ages 18 to 81, attending one of four gambling venues in Queensland, Australia. The study found that problem gamblers were more likely than other gamblers to play machines to earn income or escape their problems rather than for fun and enjoyment. Similarly, they were less likely to endorse any type of monetary limit-setting prior to play. They were also reticent to adopt the use of a 'smart card' or other strategy to limit access to money during a session, though they indicated they lost track of money while gambling and were rarely aware of whether they were winning or losing during play. Implications for precommitment policies and further research are discussed. PMID:20084433
Geisner, Irene Markman; Bowen, Sarah; Lostutter, Ty W; Cronce, Jessica M; Granato, Hollie; Larimer, Mary E
Disordered gambling has been linked to increased negative affect, and some promising treatments have been shown to be effective at reducing gambling behaviors and related problems (Larimer et al. in Addiction 107:1148-1158, 2012). The current study seeks to expand upon the findings of Larimer et al. (Addiction 107:1148-1158, 2012) by examining the relationship between gambling-related problems and mental health symptoms in college students. Specifically, the three-group design tested the effects of two brief interventions for gambling-an individual, in-person personalized feedback intervention (PFI) delivered using motivational interviewing and group-based cognitive behavioral therapy, versus assessment only on mood outcomes. The mediating effect of gambling-related problems on mood was also explored. Participants (N = 141; 65 % men; 60 % Caucasian, 28 % Asian) were at-risk college student gamblers [South Oaks Gambling Screen (Lesieur and Blume in Am J Psychiatry 144:1184-1188, 1987) ?3], assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Gambling problems were assessed using the Gambling Problems Index (Neighbors et al. in J Gamb Stud 18:339-360, 2002). Mental health symptoms were assessed using the depression, anxiety, and hostility subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis in Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI): administration, scoring, and procedures manual, National Computer Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, 1993). Results revealed that the PFI condition differentially reduced negative mood, and that reductions in gambling-related problems partially mediated this effect. Implications for intervention for comorbid mood and gambling disorders are discussed. PMID:24706331
Hounslow, Vanessa; Smith, David; Battersby, Malcolm; Morefield, Kate
Problem gambling has become a widespread problem following the rapid expansion of electronic gaming machines into hotels and clubs over the last 10 years. Recent literature indicates that certain factors can influence problem gambling severity, such as psychiatric co-morbidity and personality traits, gambling related cognitions, substance use and…
Zonios, G; Cothren, R; Crawford, J M; Fitzmaurice, M; Manoharan, R; Van Dam, J; Feld, M S
We are investigating the use of optical spectroscopy (fluorescence, reflectance, Raman scattering) for detecting precancerous lesions in the mucosal linings of hollow organs. We present a morphological model for extracting quantitative pathological information from fluorescence spectra, using colonic dysplasia as an example. The potential of this technique in providing histological information in real time without the need for tissue removal is discussed. PMID:9511799
Echeburúa, Enrique; Gómez, Montserrat; Freixa, Montserrat
The current study aimed to test the clinical effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural program (CBT) specifically adapted for pathological gamblers with chronic schizophrenia, carried out in a naturalistic setting of community Mental Health Centres. Forty-four pathological gamblers with chronic schizophrenia were assigned either to a standard drug therapy for schizophrenia (control group) or to cognitive-behavioural therapy for pathological gambling plus a standard drug therapy for schizophrenia (experimental group). Psychological treatment comprised a 20-session program including psychoeducation, stimulus control, gradual exposure and relapse prevention. Therapeutic success was defined as abstinence or the occurrence of only 1 or 2 episodes of gambling during the follow-up period. While the patients treated in the experimental group showed a rate of success of 73.9%, only 19% of the participants belonging to the control group gave up gambling at the 3-month follow-up. The CBT group also did better than the control group in the number of gambling episodes and in the amount of money spent on gambling. However, the improvement of the experimental group was weaker at the 6- and 12-month follow-up. These findings support the beneficial effects of CBT as adjunctive therapy for patients with dual diagnoses (schizophrenia and pathological gambling). PMID:21920501
Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Chung, Catherine Lai Ping; Wu, Janet; Tang, Joe; Lau, Patrick
Chinese people may have a higher rate of gambling problems than other cultural groups. However, there are very few clinical outcome studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of clinical interventions for helping Chinese gamblers. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective for helping problem gamblers to significantly reduce their gambling problems in western countries. Very few CBT clinical trials have been conducted with the Chinese populations, and the results were masked by methodological limitations. This preliminary study attempted to test the effectiveness of an integrated and culturally attuned CBT group treatment for Chinese problem gamblers in Hong Kong. This study adopted a randomized control design and 38 participants were allocated randomly to the experimental condition (n = 18) and control condition (n = 20). The experimental group received 10 weekly CBT group sessions and individual counseling services while control group only received the individual counseling services. Significant decreases in gambling severity and frequencies of gambling were found in the experimental group. The findings also showed that a change in gambling cognitions predicted the changes in gambling severity and gambling urge while a change in gambling severity was also linked to a change in depression. Preliminary evidence highlights the potential benefits of an integrated and culturally attuned CBT group treatment for Chinese problem gamblers in Hong Kong. However, a more vigorous research design with a larger sample is needed to provide solid evidence of the effectiveness of the model for Chinese problem gamblers. PMID:24699943
Gainsbury, Sally M; Suhonen, Niko; Saastamoinen, Jani
Disordered Internet gambling is a psychological disorder that represents an important public health issue due to the increase in highly available and conveniently accessible Internet gambling sites. Chasing losses is one of the few observable markers of at-risk and problem gambling that may be used to detect early signs of disordered Internet gambling. This study examined loss chasing behaviour in a sample of Internet casino and poker players and the socio-demographic variables, irrational beliefs, and gambling behaviours associated with chasing losses. An online survey was completed by 10,838 Internet gamblers (58% male) from 96 countries. The results showed that Internet casino players had a greater tendency to report chasing losses than poker players and gamblers who reported chasing losses were more likely to hold irrational beliefs about gambling and spend more time and money gambling than those who reported that they were unaffected by previous losses. Gamblers who played for excitement and to win money were more likely to report chasing losses. This study is one of the largest ever studies of Internet gamblers and the results are highly significant as they provide insight into the characteristics and behaviours of gamblers using this mode of access. PMID:24746392
HT 2011 Probability: Sheet 1 1. Two gamblers A and B play a series of games in which the loser, fixed). The series ends when one gambler has no money remaining. Suppose that A has probability p(> 1/2) of winning each game. Let pb represent the probability that B wins starting with Łb. Calculate pb. Show
Wood, Richard T. A.; Griffiths, Mark D.
The paper reports one of the first ever studies to evaluate the effectiveness of an online help and guidance service for problem gamblers. The evaluation utilised a mixed methods design in order to examine both primary and secondary data relating to the client experience. In addition, the researchers posed as problem gamblers in order to obtain…
O'Toole, Alice J.
Bachelor of Science in Speech- Language Pathology and Audiology Speech-language pathologists to persons with hearing loss and problems with balance. The speech-language pathology and audiology program-Language Pathology and Audiology Speech-language pathology and audiology are professions consistently rated among
Lesieur, H R; Blume, S B
Seventy-two pathological gambling patients were followed-up after treatment in a combined alcohol, substance abuse and compulsive gambling treatment program. The Addiction Severity Index (modified for use with pathological gamblers) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. Patients reduced their intake of alcohol, other drugs and their gambling as well as improved in legal, family/social, and psychological functioning. There was a trend for improvement in medical condition and no net change in employment functioning. The study supports the idea that combined treatment is an effective way of dealing with patients whose gambling problems are discovered when they enter treatment for another addiction, as well as for patients whose initial complaints include pathological gambling, with or without additional problems. PMID:1912747
Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.
Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…
Brown, Meredith; Allen, J Sabura; Dowling, Nicki A
Problem gambling is a significant mental health problem that creates a multitude of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and social difficulties. Recent empirical evidence suggests that personality disorders, and in particular borderline personality disorder (BPD), are commonly co-morbid with problem gambling. Despite this finding there has been very little research examining overlapping factors between these two disorders. The aim of this review is to summarise the literature exploring the relationship between problem gambling and personality disorders. The co-morbidity of personality disorders, particularly BPD, is reviewed and the characteristics of problem gamblers with co-morbid personality disorders are explored. An etiological model from the more advanced BPD literature-the biosocial developmental model of BPD-is used to review the similarities between problem gambling and BPD across four domains: early parent-child interactions, emotion regulation, co-morbid psychopathology and negative outcomes. It was concluded that personality disorders, in particular BPD are commonly co-morbid among problem gamblers and the presence of a personality disorder complicates the clinical picture. Furthermore BPD and problem gambling share similarities across the biosocial developmental model of BPD. Therefore clinicians working with problem gamblers should incorporate routine screening for personality disorders and pay careful attention to the therapeutic alliance, client motivations and therapeutic boundaries. Furthermore adjustments to therapy structure, goals and outcomes may be required. Directions for future research include further research into the applicability of the biosocial developmental model of BPD to problem gambling. PMID:25373399
Auer, Michael; Griffiths, Mark D
Social responsibility in gambling has become a major issue for the gaming industry. The possibility for online gamblers to set voluntary time and money limits are a social responsibility practice that is now widespread among online gaming operators. The main issue concerns whether the voluntary setting of such limits has any positive impact on subsequent gambling behaviour and whether such measures are of help to problem gamblers. In this paper, this issue is examined through data collected from a representative random sample of 100,000 players who gambled on the win2day gambling website. When opening an account at the win2day site, there is a mandatory requirement for all players to set time and cash-in limits (that cannot exceed 800
Carlos F. Lardizabal
We consider a model of open quantum random walk and together with a quantum trajectory approach we are able to examine a notion of hitting time. We see that many constructions, such as minimal solutions to hitting time problems, are variations of well-known classical probability results, but the density matrix degree of freedom on each site gives rise to systems which are seen to be nonclassical. As a more specific application we study the collection of walks induced by normal commuting contractions, for which the corresponding probability expressions are obtained. We examine quantum versions of the gambler's ruin, birth-and-death chain and a basic theorem on potential theory.
Ponomarev, A B; Fedorov, D N
The paper gives experience with personal computers used at the Academician A.L. Strukov Department of Pathological Anatomy for more than 20 years. It shows the objective necessity of introducing computer technologies at all stages of acquiring skills in anatomical pathology, including lectures, students' free work, test check, etc. PMID:26027397
Kuentzel, Jeffrey G; Henderson, Melinda J; Melville, Cam L
The impacts of two types of social desirability bias, self-deceptive enhancement (SDE) and impression management (IM), were examined on self-reports of gambling problems, measured by the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and recent gambling behavior, as measured by the Timeline Followback (TLFB) method, in a sample of college students (N = 191), and a sample of treatment-seeking problem gamblers (N = 49). Consistent with our expectations, IM was negatively associated with SOGS scores in both samples. IM was most highly correlated with SOGS scores among treatment-seeking participants (r = -.44, p < .01). Substantial numbers of participants in both samples had high enough IM scores as to call into question the validity of their self-report gambling data, according to published interpretive guidelines. With respect to SDE, we had predicted that it would be positively related to gambling behaviors and gambling-related problems, but found that SDE was inversely related to SOGS scores in both samples. Very little evidence was found for social desirability effects on TLFB scores. Thus, preliminary evidence was obtained that self-report data on gambling problems, but not on gambling behavior (frequency of gambling and amount of time and money spent), may be susceptible to the effects of impression management in both college students and treatment-seeking gamblers. PMID:18369710
Jazaeri, Seyed Amir; Habil, Mohammad Hussain Bin
Gambling, including pathological gambling and problem gambling, has received increased attention from clinicians and researchers over the past three decades since gambling opportunities have expanded around the world. Gambling disorders affect 0.2-5.3% of adults worldwide, although measurement and prevalence varies according to the screening instruments and methods used, and availability and accessibility of gambling opportunities. Several distinct treatment approaches have been favorably evaluated, such as cognitive behavioral and brief treatment models and pharmacological interventions. Although promising, family therapy and support from Gamblers Anonymous are less well empirically supported. Gambling disorders are highly comorbid with other mental health and substance use disorders, and a further understanding is needed of both the causes and treatment implications of this disorder. This article reviews definition, causes and associated features with substance abuse, screening and diagnosis, and treatment approaches. PMID:22661800
Jazaeri, Seyed Amir; Habil, Mohammad Hussain Bin
Gambling, including pathological gambling and problem gambling, has received increased attention from clinicians and researchers over the past three decades since gambling opportunities have expanded around the world. Gambling disorders affect 0.2–5.3% of adults worldwide, although measurement and prevalence varies according to the screening instruments and methods used, and availability and accessibility of gambling opportunities. Several distinct treatment approaches have been favorably evaluated, such as cognitive behavioral and brief treatment models and pharmacological interventions. Although promising, family therapy and support from Gamblers Anonymous are less well empirically supported. Gambling disorders are highly comorbid with other mental health and substance use disorders, and a further understanding is needed of both the causes and treatment implications of this disorder. This article reviews definition, causes and associated features with substance abuse, screening and diagnosis, and treatment approaches. PMID:22661800
Chan, Chi Chuen; Ohtsuka, Keis
This study aims to investigate the characterization of male gamblers in popular Hong Kong movies in the past 50 years. A total of nine Hong Kong films with gambling themes were selected for analysis. The criteria for selection of the films were as follows: the movies in which the protagonists are portrayed by well known Hong Kong actors that…
Shead, N. Will; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Fong, Timothy W.; Gupta, Rina
There is a current lack of descriptive information on college students who gamble on the Internet. With the increasing popularity of Internet gambling, this study aimed to better understand the profile of Internet gamblers among a sample of college students. Of 909 students at the University of California-Los Angeles who completed an online…
SINCLAIR, HEIDI; PRETORIUS, ADELE; STEIN, DAN J.
Abstract Objective: Various countries and states have established telephone counselling lines for people with pathological or problem gambling. Data from such services may contribute to describing systematically the nature of gambling problems in a particular area. To date, however, few data have been published on such a telephone counselling line in a low or middle income country. Method: Data on calls to the telephone counselling line of the National Responsible Gambling Foundation of South Africa were captured over a 6-month period. Such data include socio-demographic variables, the primary reason for calling, the source of the referral, preferred method of gambling, impairment as a consequence of gambling, and history of treatment for psychiatric disorders, comorbid alcohol abuse and illicit drug use. Results: Calls were received from a broad range of people; the mean age of callers was 37 years, the majority were male (62%) and many were married (45%). Primary reasons for calling included the feeling of being unable to stop gambling without the help of a professional (41%), financial concerns (32%), legal problems (13%), pressure from family (10%), and suicidal thoughts (2%). The majority of callers contacted the counselling line after having heard about it by word of mouth (70%). The most common forms of gambling were slot machines (51%) and casino games (21%). Fourteen percent of callers reported having received help for other psychiatric disorders, 11% reported alcohol use disorders and 6% illicit drug use. Conclusion: These data from South Africa are consistent with prior research indicating that pathological and problem gambling are seen in a range of socio-demographic groups, and that such behaviour is associated with significant morbidity and comorbidity. More work is needed locally to inform younger gamblers, gamblers using the informal gambling sector, and unemployed gamblers of the existing telephone counselling lines. PMID:25317344
... Your Diagnosis » Your Pathology Report Learn Your Pathology Report Updated August 31, 2015 Reviewed By: Lauren Ende Schwartz, MD The pathology report is one of the most important documents you ...
Jessup, Ryan K; O'Doherty, John P
Reinforcement learning theory has generated substantial interest in neurobiology, particularly because of the resemblance between phasic dopamine and reward prediction errors. Actor-critic theories have been adapted to account for the functions of the striatum, with parts of the dorsal striatum equated to the actor. Here, we specifically test whether the human dorsal striatum--as predicted by an actor-critic instantiation--is used on a trial-to-trial basis at the time of choice to choose in accordance with reinforcement learning theory, as opposed to a competing strategy: the gambler's fallacy. Using a partial-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning protocol focused on the striatum and other ventral brain areas, we found that the dorsal striatum is more active when choosing consistent with reinforcement learning compared with the competing strategy. Moreover, an overlapping area of dorsal striatum along with the ventral striatum was found to be correlated with reward prediction errors at the time of outcome, as predicted by the actor-critic framework. These findings suggest that the same region of dorsal striatum involved in learning stimulus-response associations may contribute to the control of behavior during choice, thereby using those learned associations. Intriguingly, neither reinforcement learning nor the gambler's fallacy conformed to the optimal choice strategy on the specific decision-making task we used. Thus, the dorsal striatum may contribute to the control of behavior according to reinforcement learning even when the prescriptions of such an algorithm are suboptimal in terms of maximizing future rewards. PMID:21525269
Estevez, Ana; Herrero-Fernández, David; Sarabia, Izaskun; Jauregui, Paula
Pathological gambling has severe consequences for adolescents and their families and friends. Despite its high prevalence, pathological gambling in adolescents has been insufficiently studied. Sensation seeking and impulsivity are two variables that are related to the appearance and maintenance of pathological gambling. However, few studies have determined the role these variables play in the development of the dysfunctional symptomatology of gambling behavior in adolescents and young adults. The aims of this study were to analyze the consequences of gambling in young adults and adolescents, and to evaluate the roles of sensation seeking and impulsivity in the appearance of dysfunctional symptomatology. The sample consisted of 1,241 young adults and adolescents recruited from scholar centers and free-time groups, as well as 71 subjects from associations that assist pathological gamblers. Pathological gambling, impulsive behavior, dysfunctional symptomatology and sensation seeking were assessed. The results confirmed that young adults and adolescents who gamble pathologically have more dysfunctional symptomatology related to anxiety, depression, hostility, obsessive-compulsive behavior and somatization, as well as sensation seeking, impulsivity and addictive behavior. Moreover, the results showed that sensation seeking did not mediate the appearance of dysfunctional symptomatology and that impulsivity partially mediated the appearance of anxiety, phobic anxiety, depression and psychosis and perfectly mediated somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoid ideation and hostility. These results have consequences for the development of treatment and prevention programs for adolescent pathological gambling. PMID:24297606
Pincus, Aaron L.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pimentel, Claudia A.; Cain, Nicole M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levy, Kenneth N.
The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal…
Equine Veterinary Pathology Specialists Veterinary Diagnostic Services #12;© University of Glasgow and interest of veterinary pathologists in equine disease is one of our priorities through our pathology
Christensen, Darren R; Jackson, Alun C; Dowling, Nicki A; Volberg, Rachel A; Thomas, Shane A
Toce-Gerstein et al. (Addiction 98:1661-1672, 2003) investigated the distribution of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) pathological gambling criteria endorsement in a U.S. community sample for those people endorsing a least one of the DSM-IV criteria (n = 399). They proposed a hierarchy of gambling disorders where endorsement of 1-2 criteria were deemed 'At-Risk', 3-4 'Problem gamblers', 5-7 'Low Pathological', and 8-10 'High Pathological' gamblers. This article examines these claims in a larger Australian treatment seeking population. Data from 4,349 clients attending specialist problem gambling services were assessed for meeting the ten DSM-IV pathological gambling criteria. Results found higher overall criteria endorsement frequencies, three components, a direct relationship between criteria endorsement and gambling severity, clustering of criteria similar to the Toce-Gerstein et al. taxonomy, high accuracy scores for numerical and criteria specific taxonomies, and also high accuracy scores for dichotomous pathological gambling diagnoses. These results suggest significant complexities in the frequencies of criteria reports and relationships between criteria. PMID:24627139
In this paper we study reputation mechanisms, and show how the notion of reputation can help us in building truthful online auction mechanisms. From the mechanism design prospective, we derive the conditions on and design a truthful online auction mechanism. Moreover, in the case when some agents may lay or cannot have the real knowledge about the other agents reputations, we derive the resolution of the auction, such that the mechanism is truthful. Consequently, we move forward to the optimal one-gambler/one-seller problem, and explain how that problem is refinement of the previously discussed online auction design in the presence of reputation mechanism. In the setting of the optimal one-gambler problem, we naturally rise and solve the specific question: What is an agent's optimal strategy, in order to maximize his revenue? We would like to stress that our analysis goes beyond the scope, which game theory usually discusses under the notion of reputation. We model one-player games, by introducing a new parameter (reputation), which helps us in predicting the agent's behavior, in real-world situations, such as, behavior of a gambler, real-estate dealer, etc.
Sharpe, Louise; Walker, Michael; Coughlan, Maree-Jo; Enersen, Kirsten; Blaszczynski, Alex
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of three proposed modifications to the structural characteristics of electronic gaming machines as harm minimisation strategies for non-problem and probable problem gamblers. Structural changes included reducing the maximum bet size, reducing reel spin and removing large note acceptors. Behavioural patterns of play were observed in 779 participants attending clubs and hotels. Observations were conducted in the gaming venue during regular gaming sessions. Eight experimental machines were designed to represent every combination of the modifications. 210 participants played at least one modified and one unmodified machine. Following play, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) was administered. More problem than non-problem gamblers used high denomination bill acceptors and bet over one-dollar per wager. Machines modified to accept the one-dollar maximum bet were played for less time and were associated with smaller losses, fewer individual wagers and lower levels of alcohol consumption and smoking. It was concluded that the reduction of maximum bet levels was the only modification likely to be effective as a harm minimization strategy for problem gamblers. PMID:16311879
Rossini-Dib, Danielle; Fuentes, Daniel; Tavares, Hermano
Gambling recovery has typically been assessed through the lens of gambling behavior and its consequences. Little attention has been given to less obvious features of gambling disorder, such as negative affectivity, gambling cognitive distortions, impulsivity, cognitive flexibility, planning, inhibitory control, and decision-making. The current study investigates how gambling treatment affected these variables and if any are related to gambling recovery. One hundred and thirteen patients were assigned to psycho-education and psychiatric treatment. A subset of 48 patients was additionally assigned to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Seventy-two patients were reassessed 6 months after treatment onset. Recovered and non-recovered gamblers did not differ in pre-treatment demographic, gambling, and psychiatric profiles. Three outcome variables were strongly related with gambling recovery: negative affectivity, cognitive distortions and decision-making. Logistic regression identified reduction of gambling cognitive distortions and better performance on decision-making as the best predictors of gambling recovery, regardless of the type of treatment received. Beyond the standard outcome measures for gambling treatment, increased sensitivity to loss and decreased positive expectancies towards gambling are key targets to promote recovery in gambling treatment. PMID:25819171
Fortune, Erica E.
Research investigating the relationship between gambling and sensation seeking has yet to establish conclusively whether pathological gamblers (PGs) are more or less sensation seeking than nonpathological gamblers (NPGs). Sensation seeking is usually measured with the Zuckerman et al. (J Consult Clin Psychol 46:139–149, 1978) SS Scale form V (SSS-V). Whereas previous studies relied on the SSS-V total score, the current study uses two samples to demonstrate the importance of the SSS-V subscales, which include Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TA), Experience Seeking (ES), Disinhibition (DS), and Boredom Susceptibility (BS). In two samples, strong intrascale correlations between DS and BS, and between TA and ES, suggest that certain subscales reflect similar underlying characteristics. In both samples PGs displayed higher scores than NPGs on the DS and BS subscales, with mean differences in Sample 2 reaching significant levels for both DS and BS. Results support the notion that the SSS-V can be divided into concepts reflecting actual behavior, based on the DS and BS subscales, and hypothetical behavior, based on the TA and ES subscales. Furthermore, PGs appear to have a preference for the more behavioral subscales while NPGs show a preference for the more hypothetical subscales. Reasons for the subscale divisions and preferences are discussed. PMID:19943092
Savage, Jeanne E; Slutske, Wendy S; Martin, Nicholas G
Individual differences in personality are likely to play an important role in explaining the propensity to gamble. One of the potential roadblocks to elucidating the relation between personality and gambling may be inadequately accounting for the diversity of gambling activities. The goal of the present study was to provide a comprehensive and nuanced portrait of the relation between personality and gambling by taking a multivariate approach to the co-use of multiple gambling activities and employing a broad inventory of potentially relevant personality dimensions. Participants were 4,669 individuals from a national Australian twin registry. Structured interviews including an extensive assessment of gambling behaviors were conducted, and personality questionnaires that included the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire, the Sensation Seeking Scale, and the Magical Ideation Scale were completed. A latent class analysis of past-year involvement in 10 different gambling activities was performed to classify the participants into 5 groups. Unique personality configurations characterized the 3 more gambling-involved latent classes: (a) low behavioral control in the context of high negative emotionality and magical thinking typified extensive, versatile gamblers at high risk of gambling problems; (b) average behavioral control in the context of high negative emotionality and magical thinking typified those who primarily gambled on non-strategic games of chance; (c) low behavioral control in the context of high positive emotionality and low magical ideation typified those who primarily gambled on strategic games of skill. This study illustrates the value of using a multivariate person-centered approach for characterizing the personality correlates of the multifaceted phenomenon that is gambling. PMID:25134059
Stones, M. J.
It was hypothesized that a pathological liar might be characterized by a construct system atypically loose over a wide range of conventional, socially relevant constructs. Evidence consistent with this hypothesis was obtained from the Thought Disorder Grid (TDG) and by a marked response bias on the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI). (Author)
Leistikow, Bruce N.
Molecular Pathology (Gregg) Clinical Organizational Structure Department Chair (Howell) Vice Chair, Strategic Technology (Levenson) Vice Chair, Research (Wan) Senior Director, Anatomic Pathology (Bishop) Vice (Jin) Surgical Pathology (Bishop) Directors of: Senior Director, Clinical Pathology (Gregg) Progenitor
Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron
Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027
Stewart, Melissa J; Yi, Sunghwan; Stewart, Sherry H
The current research examined whether the presentation of gambling-related cues facilitates the activation of gambling outcome expectancies using both reaction time (RT) and self-report modes of assessment. Gambling outcome expectancies were assessed by having regular casino or online gamblers (N = 58) complete an outcome expectancy RT task, as well as a self-report measure of gambling outcome expectancies, both before and after exposure to one of two randomly assigned cue conditions (i.e., casino or control video). Consistent with hypotheses, participants exposed to gambling-related cues (i.e., casino cue video condition) responded faster to positive outcome expectancy words preceded by gambling prime relative to non-gambling prime pictures on the post-cue RT task. Similarly, participants in the casino cue video condition self-reported significantly stronger positive gambling outcome expectancies than those in the control cue video condition following cue exposure. Activation of negative gambling outcome expectancies was not observed on either the RT task or self-report measure. The results indicate that exposure to gambling cues activates both implicit and explicit positive gambling outcome expectancies among regular gamblers. PMID:23588797
Nowak, Donald E; Aloe, Ariel M
The problem of gambling addiction can be especially noteworthy among college and university students, many of whom have the resources, proximity, free time, and desire to become involved in the myriad options of gambling now available. Although limited attention has been paid specifically to college student gambling in the body of literature, there have been two published meta-analyses estimating the prevalence of probable pathological gambling among college students. This present study aims to be the third, presenting an up-to-date proportion of those students exhibiting gambling pathology, and is the first to include international studies from outside the United States and Canada. The purpose of this study was to use the most up-to-date meta-analytical procedures to synthesize the rates of probable pathological gambling for college and university students worldwide. A thorough literature review and coding procedure resulted in 19 independent data estimates retrieved from 18 studies conducted between 2005 and 2013. To synthesize the studies, a random effects model for meta-analysis was applied. The estimated proportion of probable pathological gamblers among the over 13,000 college students surveyed was computed at 10.23%, considerably higher than either of the two previously published meta-analyses, and more than double the rate reported in the first meta-analysis of this type published in 1999. Implications and recommendations for future practice in dealing with college students and gambling addiction are outlined and described for both administrators and mental health professionals. PMID:23842962
Mace, J.D.; Kowalczyk, N.
This book explains the fundamentals of disease mechanisms and relates this to the practice of radiologic science. Each chapter begins with a discussion of normal anatomy and physiology, then covers pathology and demonstrates how the pathology appears on film. Imaging modalities such as computed tomography, MRI, and ultrasound are also discussed. Clinical case studies are included.
Fechner, R.E.; Rosen, P.P.
This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Applications of in situ DNA hybridization technology to diagnostic surgical pathology; Neoplasms associated with immune deficiencies; Chronic gastritis: The pathologists's role; Necrosis in lymph nodes; Pathologic changes of osteochondrodysplasia in infancy: A review; and Immunoglobulin light chain nephropathies.
South, Susan C.; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.
Pathological personality is strongly linked with interpersonal impairment, yet no study to date has examined the relationship between concurrent personality pathology and dysfunction in marriage--a relationship that most people find central to their lives. In a cross-sectional study of a community sample of married couples (N = 82), the authors…
Nine, Jeff S.
The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. In this case, a 79 year old male with headaches and sinus problems is evaluated. The patient previously had "an inverted papilloma resected." Using the gross description, microscopic description, and images provided, students are encouraged to test their knowledge of pathology and diagnose the patient's medical problem. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.
This is a pulmonary pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55 year old female has spontaneously occurring hemoptysis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, radiology, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.
Author's personal copy Pathology of Hematodinium infections in snow crabs (Chionoecetes opilio histo- pathological alteration in most tissues. Hematodinium infections in the snow crab are firstname.lastname@example.org (J.D. Shields). www.elsevier.com/locate/yjipa Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 95 (2007) 93
. If an anti-pathology vaccine were created, the rate of infection and reinfection of schistosomiasis would be significantly reduced. Humans with asymptomatic intestinal schistosomiasis and mice with moderate splenomegaly syndrome (MSS) share certain cross...
Tsung, Jeffrey S H
Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center is the only cancer center in Taiwan. The hospital maintains a policy, and the division of oncology makes a concerted effort to obtain and review pertinent pathologic specimens in all patients who had pathologic diagnosis performed at other institution before rendering therapy. A 1-year retrospective study was undertaken to assess the frequency of discordant diagnosis of our second-opinion pathology slide review and determine its impact on patient care. Discrepancies were classified into four basic categories: A) no diagnostic disagreement; B) no diagnostic disagreement but pertinent information not included, such as tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, histologic grading, margin status, extracapsular spread in metastatic lymph nodes; and C) major diagnostic disagreement, which was defined as follows; 1) change from benign to malignant, 2) change from malignant to benign, 3) a different type of neoplasm, and 4) change in N and M classification in TMN staging framework. Of 715 cases, a total of 673 (94%) showed no discrepancy. However, 35 of 673 (5.2%) cases failed to offer pertinent information (category B). Major disagreement was found in 42 16%) cases (category C). This study illustrated the fact that second pathology slide review prior to therapy can identify a small group of cases that result in a major change in their therapeutic plan. Admittedly, the review of pathology slides involves additional time and effort for both consulting and referring institutions. It can ensure quality medical care and limit medicolegal liability. As the Association of Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology recommended, second pathology review should be standard practice. It is necessary that our major Pathology Association and Societies adopt a strong position on this matter to influence government or insurance company to pay for this service rendered by pathologists. PMID:15104305
Ong, Beng Beng; Milne, Nathan
One of the requirements for proper running of a pathology laboratory is implementation of a quality assurance programme. Forensic pathology is not exempted, especially so when cases are increasing in complexity. It is not difficult to introduce a quality assurance programme even in a small forensic centre. Among the steps that can be implemented including introduction of a set of minimal standards in performance of the autopsy, timeliness and report writing, a vigorous peer review process either internally or externally and participation in external quality programmes. Proper documentation of the post-mortem process (photography, slides and blocks and various imaging modalities) is to be encouraged. There should be limits set on workload of pathologists as overburden is known to lower standards. A pleasant work environment is also essential. Personal continuous medical education should be made mandatory. Introduction of a quality assurance programme will not only improve standards but minimise possible negligence. The post-mortem reports will be seen to carry more weight in court. PMID:19694309
Kalkhoven, Carla; Sennef, Cor; Peeters, Ard; van den Bos, Ruud
Huntington’s disease (HD) is a genetic, neurodegenerative disorder, which specifically affects striatal neurons of the indirect pathway, resulting in a progressive decline in muscle coordination and loss of emotional and cognitive control. Interestingly, predisposition to pathological gambling and other addictions involves disturbances in the same cortico-striatal circuits that are affected in HD, and display similar disinhibition-related symptoms, including changed sensitivity to punishments and rewards, impulsivity, and inability to consider long-term advantages over short-term rewards. Both HD patients and pathological gamblers also show similar performance deficits on risky decision-making tasks, such as the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). These similarities suggest that HD patients are a likely risk group for gambling problems. However, such problems have only incidentally been observed in HD patients. In this review, we aim to characterize the risk of pathological gambling in HD, as well as the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Especially with the current rise of easily accessible Internet gambling opportunities, it is important to understand these risks and provide appropriate patient support accordingly. Based on neuropathological and behavioral findings, we propose that HD patients may not have an increased tendency to seek risks and start gambling, but that they do have an increased chance of developing an addiction once they engage in gambling activities. Therefore, current and future developments of Internet gambling possibilities and related addictions should be regarded with care, especially for vulnerable groups like HD patients. PMID:24765067
Sansone, Lori A.
Obesity is a significant health problem in the United States. Therefore, it is extremely important to understand potential clinical associations with obesity, including personality pathology. From studies of personality disorders in other types of eating pathology, it appears that restrictive personality disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder) are associated with restrictive eating pathology (e.g., anorexia nervosa, restricting type) whereas impulsive personality disorders (e.g., borderline personality disorder) are associated with impulsive eating pathology (e.g., anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder). Because binge eating disorder is oftentimes associated with an obese status, it seems likely that borderline personality disorder may also be associated with obesity. At the present time, there appear to be nine accessible studies in this area, comprising 639 obese individuals. While rates of borderline personality disorder in these studies vary from 2.2 to 94.1 percent, 10 of 19 measures detected this disorder at rates of 25 percent or higher, and the average of all percentages is 26.9 percent. Findings appear to support the association between impulsive personality pathology and impulsive eating pathology, and underscore that a significant minority of obese individuals may suffer from borderline personality disorder. PMID:23696958
Dickman, Paul S.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 24-day-old baby is failing to thrive and experiencing seizures. Visitors are given the microscopic description, with images, the results of the postmortem examination, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.
Carr, Katelyn A; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Lin, Henry; Epstein, Leonard H
Obesity is, in part, a result of positive energy balance or energy intake exceeding physiological needs. Excess energy intake is determined by a series of food choices over time. These choices involve both motivational and executive function processes. Problems arise when there is excessive motivation to eat and low impulse control, a situation we have termed reinforcement pathology. Motivational and executive function processes have also been implicated in the development of drug dependence and addiction. In this review we discuss the application of reinforcement pathology to obesity, and implications of this approach for obesity treatment. PMID:21999693
From the American Phytopathological Society (APS), this Careers & Placement website is open to both members and non-members. The site allows job seekers and employers to view available job openings and candidates; post a resume or vita for free; and post a job opening (fee required). Job seekers can also sign up for free, bi-monthly email notifications regarding recent job openings. In addition, the APS Careers website connects to a list of hyperlinked plant pathology programs at universities across the country, and to a downloadable brochure about careers in plant pathology.
Nine, Jeff S.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 70-year-old man has peritonitis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gastrointestinal pathology.
Anhalt, John P.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 26-year-old woman has had a 13-year history of poorly controlled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Visitors are given both the patient history and laboratory results, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 6-hour-old baby was found to have petechiae. Visitors are given the case description and the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.
Soberay, Adam; Faragher, J Michael; Barbash, Melissa; Brookover, Amanda; Grimsley, Paul
It is the intent of this study to examine the relationship between the number of co-occurring disorders in a sample of pathological gamblers and variables associated with clinical presentation and treatment outcomes. Participants were given screening tools for four common psychological disorders: the hands depression screen, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire, the Carroll-Davidson generalized anxiety disorder screen, and the Sprint-4 PTSD Screen. The number of co-occurring disorders, as indicated by the results of these screening instruments, was compared to severity of gambling problems at outset of treatment, as measured by the NORC diagnostic screen for gambling problems-self administered. The number of co-occurring disorders was also compared to psychosocial functioning at the outset of treatment, as well as level of improvement in psychosocial functioning through treatment. Psychosocial functioning was measured using the Outcome Questionnaire 45 (OQ-45). The number of co-occurring disorders was compared to participant satisfaction with the therapeutic relationship as measured by the working alliance inventory-short form. Results suggest that co-occurring disorders are commonplace among treatment seeking pathological gamblers. Over 86 % of the sample screened positively for at least one of the four targeted psychological disorders. Furthermore, the number of co-occurring disorders was found to be positively related to severity of gambling problems at outset of treatment and negatively related to level of psychosocial functioning at outset of treatment. However, the number of co-occurring disorders was not found to be significantly related to level of improvement in psychosocial functioning through treatment. Overall, those that attended at least six sessions reported significantly improved psychosocial functioning by the end of their sixth session. Finally, the number of co-occurring disorders was not found to be significantly related to participants' reported level of satisfaction with the therapeutic relationship. PMID:23297170
De Mattos, C. B. R.; Binitie, O.; Dormans, J. P.
Pathological fractures in children can occur as a result of a variety of conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases and infection to tumours. Fractures through benign and malignant bone tumours should be recognised and managed appropriately by the treating orthopaedic surgeon. The most common benign bone tumours that cause pathological fractures in children are unicameral bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, non-ossifying fibromas and fibrous dysplasia. Although pathological fractures through a primary bone malignancy are rare, these should be recognised quickly in order to achieve better outcomes. A thorough history, physical examination and review of plain radiographs are crucial to determine the cause and guide treatment. In most benign cases the fracture will heal and the lesion can be addressed at the time of the fracture, or after the fracture is healed. A step-wise and multidisciplinary approach is necessary in caring for paediatric patients with malignancies. Pathological fractures do not have to be treated by amputation; these fractures can heal and limb salvage can be performed when indicated. PMID:23610658
Westphal, James R.
Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…
Mandelker, Diana; Lee, Roy E.; Platt, Mia Y.; Riedlinger, Gregory; Quinn, Andrew; Rao, Luigi K. F.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Mahowald, Michael; Lane, William J.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Baron, Jason M.; McClintock, David S.; Kuo, Frank C.; Lebo, Matthew S.; Gilbertson, John R.
Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program's core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists. PMID:24843823
Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anna E
Pathological gambling (PG), as defined until recently in the DSM-IV, shares many clinical characteristics with substance use disorders (SUDs), such as craving and loss of control. Moreover, an increasing body of literature also revealed neurobiological similarities between PG and substance-related addictions. Further, specific treatments for SUD are also effective in pathological gamblers. These observations resulted in a recent change in the diagnostic classification of PG in DSM-5: maladaptive gambling behavior is now subsumed as 'gambling disorder' (GD) under the category 'substance-related and addictive disorders'. On the basis of similarities in clinical characteristics between GD and SUDs, this article proposes 3 main clusters of diagnostic criteria: 'loss of control', 'craving/withdrawal' and 'neglect of other areas in life'. These symptom clusters can then be related to the experimental paradigms commonly used in the neuroscience of addiction, including neuropsychological, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies. In this paper, we present the neurobiological evidence for PG by focusing on key functional magnetic resonance imaging studies related to these 3 symptom clusters. It is concluded that these symptom clusters provide a useful framework for systematic comparisons of new evidence in GD and SUDs in the future. PMID:25359489
Abdollahnejad, Mohammad Reza; Delfabbro, Paul; Denson, Linley
The aims of this study were to examine the associations between psychiatric disorders and pathological gambling (PG) and the clustering of psychiatric disorders in high risk gambler populations. The sample comprised 140 regular gamblers who were recruited from the general public. A variety of self- report and semi structured questionnaires was administered, including the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, The Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4th Edition, NORC DSM-IV Screen for Gambling Problems Self- administered and Problem Gambling Severity Index. Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders and personality disturbances were found to be more prevalent amongst pathological gamblers than other gamblers with the strongest differences observed for mood and anxiety-related disorders. Almost two-thirds of pathological gamblers reported both an anxiety or mood disorder in conjunction with another type of disorder. These differences between the gambling groups existed even after controlling for gender. The results highlight the high rates of co-morbidity in pathological gamblers in the community and the extent to which anxiety and mood disorders co-existing with other forms of pathology. These results highlight the significant challenges facing treatment services in the treatment of PG and the extent to which this should be treated as the primary disorder. PMID:23774993
Gutierrez, J A; Truemper, E J; Burton, E M; Mercado-Deane, M G
Citrullinemia, a rare inborn error of metabolism, is characterized by a deficiency of argininosuccinic acid synthetase that results in large increases in plasma ammonia, citrulline, and glutamine, with normal acid-base balance. The neurologic symptoms vary from poor feeding, vomiting, and irritability to hypotonia, apnea, and death. The most common pathologic findings at autopsy are cerebral edema and focal neuronal necrosis. We describe a case of fulminant citrullinemia in an infant in whom the major pathologic findings included diffuse cerebral edema and a lack of overt metabolic derangement characteristic of neonates with a urea cycle defect. Our case differs from the classic presentation of citrullinemia in that subarachnoid hemorrhage was identified early in the clinical course. We report the first observation of subarachnoid hemorrhage in an infant with a urea cycle defect. PMID:8869547
St Leger, Judy
This is a snapshot of avian neonatal pathology—not an exhaustive review. Through knowledge and recognition of the significant pathogenic challenges of avian neonates and the associated lesions, avian practitioners can improve their diagnostic and therapeutic success. An area of need for avian research is determining the specific pathogenesis of many conditions affecting avian neonates. By narrowing the specific etiologies, we can improve management and reduce neonatal concerns. PMID:22640539
The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. In this particular study an otherwise healthy 9 month old infant is presented with hydrocephalus. The case study provides test results and images along with microscopic photos and description. Clicking on the final diagnosis provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment.
Grinenko, A Ia; Glukhovets, N G
Leningrad Regional Children's Bureau of Pathology was established in May 1992. The program of this bureau consisted of: revealing causes of early and late abortions; assessment of ultrasound diagnosis of congenital deficiencies of fetus development and clinical assessment of chronic placental insufficiency; pathogenetic explanation of intrauterine fetuses death; prognosis of neonatal pathology; systemic analysis of dynamics of perinatal, natal and infant mortality; organisation of independant expertise of medical causes of reproductive losses. The following principles in the work of the bureau were established: 1) mass investigation of placentas of newborns; 2) use of urgent pathomorphological diagnosis which allows to present information about placentas not later than 24 hrs after the delivery; 3) complex investigation of placentas with the use of various methods; 4) systemic informational analysis of placental pathology; 5) constant updating of physicians knowledge in the field of practical placentology. Results of mass placentas investigation show a principal pathogenetic role of ascending infection in perinatal mortality in opportunistic pathogenic microflora with the development of inflammatory responses in the system mother-placenta-fetus. PMID:15822796
Harris, Nicholas; Newby, Jennifer; Klein, Rupert G
Understanding the factors that contribute to problem gambling (PG) is imperative. Individual differences in sensation seeking (SS), as measured by the Sensation Seeking Scale Form (SSS-V), have been found to be predictive of PG among university student samples. However, what is less clear, is if the four SSS-V subscales capture unique facets of SS that are particularly predictive of PG. Much less studied than SS, competitiveness has also been found to be predictive of PG. The Competitiveness Orientation Measure (COM) is a newly developed measure of competitiveness, comprising of four facets. The main purpose of the current study was to examine if these four facets of competitiveness predicted variance in PG over and above the variance predicted by the four SSS-V subscales. Participants included 158 university student gamblers. Sequential regression analysis showed that after accounting for gender, age, and the four SSS-V subscales the only facet of the COM found to be a significant predictor of PG severity was Dominant Competitiveness. Dominant Competitiveness predicted an additional 11% of PG severity. These results provide support for the Dominant Competitiveness subscale of the COM as having utility in predicting PG over and above the predictive utility of the SSS-V subscales. Practical implications for the current findings are discussed. PMID:24337941
Personal Genomics, Personalized Medicine, & YOU Carrie Iwema, PhD, MLS 21st May 2012 AAAS/Science Translational Medicine panel discussion; MLA 2012 #12;Timeline: Human Genome Sequence HSLS, U.Pitt 1995 2014 2000 2003 2007 2007 2010 Human Genome Draft Sequence Complete Human Reference Genome Individual Human
PEDIATRIC PATHOLOGY FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM at the UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA #12 ...................................................................................................................................................... 7 Pediatric Anatomical Pathology Rotation ................................................................................................................. 27 #12;Program Description: The Fellowship Program in Pediatric Pathology at the University
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 7-year-old girl is experiencing episodic seizures. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including neuroimaging results, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology. [ASC
The past century has seen tremendous changes in the scope and practice of pathology laboratories in tandem with the development of the medical services in Malaysia. Major progress was made in the areas of training and specialization of pathologists and laboratory technical staff. Today the pathology laboratory services have entered the International arena, and are propelled along the wave of globalization. Many new challenges have emerged as have new players in the field. Landmark developments over the past decade include the establishment of national quality assurance programmes, the mushrooming of private pathology laboratories, the establishment of a National Accreditation Standard for medical testing laboratories based on ISO 15189, and the passing of the Pathology Laboratory Act in Parliament in mid-2007. The Pathology Laboratory Act 2007 seeks to ensure that the pathology laboratory is accountable to the public, meets required standards of practice, participates in Quality Assurance programmes, is run by qualified staff, complies with safety requirements and is subject to continuous audit. The Act is applicable to all private laboratories (stand alone or hospital) and laboratories in statutory bodies (Universities, foundations). It is not applicable to public laboratories (established and operated by the government) and side-room laboratories established in clinics of registered medical or dental practitioners for their own patients (tests as in the First and Second Schedules respectively). Tests of the Third Schedule (home test blood glucose, urine glucose, urine pregnancy test) are also exempted. The Act has 13 Parts and provides for control of the pathology laboratory through approval (to establish and maintain) and licensing (to operate or provide). The approval or license may only be issued to a sole proprietor, partnership or body corporate, and then only if the entity includes a registered medical practitioner. Details of personnel qualifications and laboratory practices are left to be specified by the Director-General of Health, providing for a formal recognition process and room for revision as pathology practices evolve. Encompassed in the responsibilities of the licensee is the requirement that samples are received and results issued through, and management vested in, a registered medical or dental practitioner. This effectively prohibits "walk-ins" to the laboratory and indiscriminate public screening. The requirement for a person-in-charge in accordance with class and speciality of laboratory ensures that the laboratory is under the charge of the pathology profession. Examined carefully, the requirements of the Act are similar to laboratory accreditation, but are backed by legislation. Many of these details will be spelt out in the Regulations, and these in turn are likely to fall back on National professional guidelines, as accreditation does. Although not at first obvious, enforcement of the Act is based on self-regulation by pathology laboratory professionals. Sincere professional input is thus required to embrace its philosophy, ensure rational and transparent enforcement of legislation, and develop National guidelines for good pathology practices upon which enforcement may be based. PMID:19108405
Galle, Omer R.; And Others
Evidence of high population density's serious inhibiting effects on the reproductive, aggressive, withdrawal and sexual behavior of various animals, motivated a study of human pathology in overcrowded areas. Ecological relationships in Chicago and their impact on human behavior were assessed. The number of persons per acre, Standardized Mortality…
Whittington, Robert A.; Bretteville, Alexis; Dickler, Maya F.; Planel, Emmanuel
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and remains a growing worldwide health problem. As life expectancy continues to increase, the number of AD patients presenting for surgery and anesthesia will steadily rise. The etiology of sporadic AD is thought to be multifactorial, with environmental, biological and genetic factors interacting together to influence AD pathogenesis. Recent reports suggest that general anesthetics may be such a factor and may contribute to the development and exacerbation of this neurodegenerative disorder. Intra-neuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), composed of hyperphosphorylated and aggregated tau protein are one of the main neuropathological hallmarks of AD. Tau pathology is important in AD as it correlates very well with cognitive dysfunction. Lately, several studies have begun to elucidate the mechanisms by which anesthetic exposure might affect the phosphorylation, aggregation and function of this microtubule-associated protein. Here, we specifically review the literature detailing the impact of anesthetic administration on aberrant tau hyperphosphorylation as well as the subsequent development of neurofibrillary pathology and degeneration. PMID:23535147
Background The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) were investigated in a clinical sample presenting for treatment of perfectionism. Method This study explored the utility of perfectionism in predicting pathological worry in a sample of individuals with elevated perfectionism and GAD (n?=?36). Following this, the study examined whether perfectionism could predict a principal GAD diagnosis in the full sample (n?=?42). Results Scores on the perfectionism dimensions Concern over Mistakes, Personal Standards, and Clinical Perfectionism significantly predicted pathological worry among participants with GAD after controlling for gender and depression. The perfectionism dimension Doubts about Actions significantly predicted whether individuals from the full sample received a principal diagnosis of GAD. Conclusions These findings support certain dimensions of perfectionism having significant associations with pathological worry and GAD. PMID:24693946
Smith, David; Harvey, Peter; Humeniuk, Rachel; Battersby, Malcolm; Pols, Rene
This study evaluated the influence of 12-month affective and anxiety disorders on treatment outcomes for adult problem gamblers in routine cognitive-behavioural therapy. A cohort study at a state-wide gambling therapy service in South Australia. Primary outcome measure was rated by participants using victorian gambling screen (VGS) 'harm to self' sub-scale with validated cut score 21+ (score range 0-60) indicative of problem gambling behaviour. Secondary outcome measure was Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). Independent variable was severity of affective and anxiety disorders based on Kessler 10 scale. We used propensity score adjusted random-effects models to estimate treatment outcomes for sub-populations of individuals from baseline to 12 month follow-up. Between July, 2010 and December, 2012, 380 participants were eligible for inclusion in the final analysis. Mean age was 44.1 (SD = 13.6) years and 211 (56 %) were males. At baseline, 353 (92.9 %) were diagnosed with a gambling disorder using VGS. For exposure, 175 (46 %) had a very high probability of a 12-month affective or anxiety disorder, 103 (27 %) in the high range and 102 (27 %) in the low to moderate range. For the main analysis, individuals experienced similar clinically significant reductions (improvement) in gambling related outcomes across time (p < 0.001). Individuals with co-varying patterns of problem gambling and 12 month affective and anxiety disorders who present to a gambling help service for treatment in metropolitan South Australia gain similar significant reductions in gambling behaviours from routine cognitive-behavioural therapy in the mid-term. PMID:24788305
Monaghan, Sally; Blaszczynski, Alex
Harm-minimization strategies aim to reduce gambling-related risks; however, minimal evidence supports the effectiveness of current strategies involving the placement of warning signs in gambling venues and on electronic gaming machines (EGMs). This qualitative replication study evaluated the differential effect of pop-up messages compared to static signs and the content of messages on EGMs on recall, thoughts, and behaviors assessed during the session and at 2-week follow-up. In Study 1, 127 regular EGM gamblers (male = 97, mean age = 20.3) recruited from a university student population attended a laboratory where they were randomly assigned to play a computer-based simulated EGM analogue displaying signs that differed by (a) mode of presentation (pop-up and static) and (b) message content (informative, self-appraisal, and control/blank). In Study 2, an identical methodology was used but included the use of a simulated EGM within an in vivo gaming setting with 124 regular EGM players (male = 81, mean age = 44.1). Results from both studies showed that pop-up messages were recalled more effectively than static messages immediately and at 2-week follow-up. Pop-up messages reportedly had a significantly greater impact on within-session thoughts and behaviors. Messages encouraging self-appraisal resulted in significantly greater effect on self-reported thoughts and behaviors during both the experimental session and in subsequent EGM play. These findings support the effectiveness of pop-up messages containing self-appraisal messages as an appropriate harm-minimization initiative. PMID:19730998
P. A. Boyle; R. S. Wilson; J. A. Schneider; J. L. Bienias; D. A. Bennett
The cognitive abilities of older persons vary greatly, even among those with similar amounts of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology, suggesting differences in neural reserve. Although its neuro- biologic basis is not well understood, reserve may reflect differences in the ability to compensate for the deleterious effects of pathology by recruiting alternative or additional brain networks to perform a specific task.
Jordan, Holly L; Register, Thomas C; Tripathi, Niraj K; Bolliger, Anne Provencher; Everds, Nancy; Zelmanovic, David; Poitout, Florence; Bounous, Denise I; Wescott, Debra; Ramaiah, Shashi K
Most published reviews of preclinical toxicological clinical pathology focus on the fundamental aspects of hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, and urinalysis in routine toxicology animal species, for example, rats, mice, dogs, and nonhuman primates. The objective of this continuing education course was to present and discuss contemporary examples of nonroutine applications of clinical pathology endpoints used in the drug development setting. Area experts discussed bone turnover markers of laboratory animal species, clinical pathology of pregnant and growing laboratory animals, clinical pathology of nonroutine laboratory animal species, and unique applications of the Siemens Advia(®) hematology analyzer. This article is a summary based on a presentation given at the 31st Annual Symposium of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology, during the Continuing Education Course titled "Nontraditional Applications of Clinical Pathology in Drug Discovery and Preclinical Toxicology." PMID:24705882
Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Stinchfield, Randy; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Fröberg, Frida; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peńa, Mónica; Pérez-Serrano, Miriam; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana
The age of a patient is a strong moderator of both the course and the evolution of disorders/diseases. However, the effects of current age in pathological gambling (PG) have rarely been examined. The aim of this study is to explore the moderating effects of the patients' current age in relation to personality traits and clinical outcomes of PG. A total sample of 2,309 treatment-seeking patients for PG, diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, participated in this study and were assessed with the Diagnostic Questionnaire for Pathological Gambling according to DSM-IV criteria, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Symptom Checklist, the Temperament and Character Inventory-R, and other clinical and psychopathological measures. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts showed linear trends in the relationship between age and PG: the older the patient, the more comorbid health problems were visible. The presence of additional quadratic trends also suggests that age plays a significant role in moderating the possibility of existing PG problems and general psychopathology. No interaction term was found between age and sex, but it was present for age and some personality traits: self-transcendence and reward dependence (these two traits were only relevant to the level of impairment due to PG at specific ages). This study suggests that the patients' age influences psychopathological and clinical aspects associated to PG. Intervention in the earliest manifestations of this complex problem is essential in order to better address the need of successful treatment planning. PMID:23494243
Bamber, D.; Cockerill, I.; Carroll, D.
Objectives—This study was concerned with the concept of exercise dependence. Levels of psychological morbidity, personality profiles, and exercise beliefs were compared among subjects screened for exercise dependence and eating disorders. Method—Adult female exercisers were allocated on the basis of questionnaire screening to one of the following groups: primary exercise dependence (n = 43); secondary exercise dependence, where there was the coincidence of exercise dependence and an eating disorder (n = 27); eating disorder (n =14); control, where there was no evidence of either exercise dependence or eating disorder (n = 110). Questionnaire assessment was undertaken of psychological morbidity, self esteem, weight and body shape dissatisfaction, personality, and exercise beliefs. Results—Aside from a higher incidence of reported menstrual abnormalities, the primary exercise dependence group was largely indistinguishable from the controls. In stark contrast, the secondary exercise dependence group reported higher levels of psychological morbidity, neuroticism, dispositional addictiveness, and impulsiveness, lower self esteem, greater concern with body shape and weight, as well as with the social, psychological, and aesthetic costs of not exercising than the controls, but differed little from the eating disorder group. Conclusions—In the absence of an eating disorder, women identified as being exercise dependent do not exhibit the sorts of personality characteristics and levels of psychological distress that warrant the construction of primary exercise dependence as a widespread pathology. Key Words: exercise dependence; eating disorders; personality; self esteem; neuroticism; psychological morbidity PMID:10786869
Essential facts Individuals with a personality disorder can differ significantly from the average person in how they think, feel and behave. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are two distinct conditions that have different care pathways. The Royal College of Psychiatrists says that around one in 20 people have some kind of personality disorder. PMID:26153944
King, Daniel L; Ejova, Anastasia; Delfabbro, Paul H
There is a paucity of empirical research examining the possible association between gambling and video game play. In two studies, we examined the association between video game playing, erroneous gambling cognitions, and risky gambling behaviour. One hundred and fifteen participants, including 65 electronic gambling machine (EGM) players and 50 regular video game players, were administered a questionnaire that examined video game play, gambling involvement, problem gambling, and beliefs about gambling. We then assessed each groups' performance on a computerised gambling task that involved real money. A post-game survey examined perceptions of the skill and chance involved in the gambling task. The results showed that video game playing itself was not significantly associated with gambling involvement or problem gambling status. However, among those persons who both gambled and played video games, video game playing was uniquely and significantly positively associated with the perception of direct control over chance-based gambling events. Further research is needed to better understand the nature of this association, as it may assist in understanding the impact of emerging digital gambling technologies. PMID:21927806
The first part of this article is an analysis of the historical and philosophical evolution of the concept of human person, from antiquity to present times, including an outline of its major developments. The second part deals critically with reductionist and empiricist positions -particularly Engelhardt's and of utilitarianism- exposing some of its practical implications in the realm of Bioethics. Finally the author concludes with an enunciation of what would constitute a conceptual basis for the ontological foundation of Personal Bioethics derived from the initial framework of intuitive ideas first outlined by Sgreccia in the eighties. PMID:23745824
Disney, Krystle L; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F
Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55-64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression analyses showed Paranoid and Histrionic personality disorder symptoms to be consistently and positively associated with number of divorces across all three sources of personality assessment. Conversely, Avoidant personality disorder symptoms were negatively associated with number of divorces. The present paper provides new information about the relationship between divorce and personality pathology at a developmental stage that is understudied in both domains. PMID:23244459
Baliasny?, M M
Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness. PMID:1654715
Mattsson, Niklas; Insel, Philip S.; Nosheny, Rachel; Tosun, Duygu; Trojanowski, John Q.; Shaw, Leslie M.; Jack, Clifford R.; Donohue, Michael C.; Weiner, Michael W.
Importance The effect of ?-amyloid (A?) accumulation on regional structural brain changes in early stages of Alzheimer disease (AD) is not well understood. Objective To test the hypothesis that the development of A? pathology is related to increased regional atrophy in the brains of cognitively normal (CN) persons. Design, Setting, and Participants Longitudinal clinicobiomarker cohort study involving 47 CN control subjects and 15 patients with AD dementia. All participants underwent repeated cerebrospinal fluid A?42 and structural magnetic resonance imaging measurements for up to 4 years. Cognitively normal controls were classified using the longitudinal cerebrospinal fluid A?42 data and included 13 stable A? negative (normal baseline A?42 levels, with less than the median reduction over time), 13 declining A? negative (normal baseline A?42 levels, with greater than the median reduction over time), and 21 A? positive (pathologic baseline A?42 levels). All 15 patients with AD dementia were A? positive. Main Outcomes and Measures Group effects on regional gray matter volumes at baseline and over time, tested by linear mixed-effects models. Results Baseline gray matter volumes were similar among the CN A? groups, but atrophy rates were increased in frontoparietal regions in the declining A?-negative and A?-positive groups and in amygdala and temporal regions in the A?-positive group. A?-positive patients with AD dementia had further increased atrophy rates in hippocampus and temporal and cingulate regions. Conclusions and Relevance Emerging A? pathology is coupled to increased frontoparietal (but not temporal) atrophy rates. Atrophy rates peak early in frontoparietal regions but accelerate in hippocampus, temporal, and cingulate regions as the disease progresses to dementia. Early-stage A? pathology may have mild effects on local frontoparietal cortical integrity while effects in temporal regions appear later and accelerate, leading to the atrophy pattern typically seen in AD. PMID:24781145
Fischer, Ilan; Savranevski, Lior
In this study, we examined perceptions of binary sequences under uncertainty in an attempt to depict a holistic and unifying framework. The first experiment applied a projection method that motivated participants to observe binary series and provide descriptions of their possible underlying mechanisms or processes. This procedure revealed four distinct perceptual categories: two previously studied categories of chance mechanisms and human performance, associated with the gambler's and hot-hand fallacies, and two newly identified categories-periods and processes and traits and preferences. The next three experiments tested the associations between the four categories and the alternation rates of the observed sequences under three categorical decisions structures: screening, discrimination, and classification. The results reveal the relativity of binary sequence perception. They show that the categories of chance mechanisms and periods and processes reflected rather stable perception across all tested conditions, whereas the other two categories were more susceptible to the context in which they were embedded. The findings support previous research on the gambler's fallacy and show that the hot-hand fallacy is confined to comparisons of human performance and chance mechanisms. A proposed developmental hierarchy suggests that all four categories embody basic cognitive structures that assist in detecting, decoding, and interpreting both inanimate and social aspects of the environment. PMID:26044942
Personality disorders are a group of mental conditions in which a person has a long-term pattern of ... Causes of personality disorders are unknown. Genetic and ... a role. Mental health professionals categorize these disorders ...
John F. Clarkin
There is an emerging consensus that the essence of personality pathology consists of difficulties with self-identity and chronic interpersonal dysfunction. The nature of normal and abnormal attachment to others, attention control, affect regulation, and the autobiographical self are related developmentally to the early caregiving context. Psychotherapeutic intervention for adults with personality disorders across many schools of psychotherapy is focused on
Blanco, C; Moreyra, P; Nunes, E V; Sáiz-Ruiz, J; Ibáńez, A
There is considerable debate about the appropriate conceptualization of pathological gambling and its place in psychiatric nosology. The authors examined the existing research on different areas of pathological gambling to find evidence for a particular model of this disorder. There are 2 dominant models of pathological gambling: as a nonpharmacologic addiction and as an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder. The data available from different areas seem to converge in suggesting that pathological gambling has characteristics that are similar to those of substance abuse, and less close to those of obsessive-compulsive disorder, although those conceptualizations are not mutually exclusive. An alternative model of pathological gambling is that it constitutes a heterogeneous disorder with some subtypes resembling obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other subtypes being closer to substance abuse disorders. Improved understanding of the conceptualization of this disorder may help improve the quality of the treatments available. PMID:11447568
Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.
Fabbri, A; Caprio, M; Aversa, A
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the inability to achieve and maintain a penile erection which is adequate for satisfactory sexual intercourse. It is a significant male health problem affecting approximately 150 million men worldwide. This value is expected to more than double by the year 2025. The incidence of ED increases sharply with age since it is a common cross-cultural denominator, affecting 19 to 64% of men aged 40 to 80 years, both in developing and industrialized countries. Epidemiological studies may underestimate the true dimensions of the problem because of the embarrassment or stigma that is associated with ED. Men with ED may experience diminished self-image and self-esteem, anxiety and fears of rejection, and even depression as psychogenic factors. Pathologic conditions which are commonly encountered in the ageing male (diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, etc) as well as chronic diseases (arthritis, renal and hepatic failure, pulmonary disease) represent a frequent cause of organic ED and are often treated with medications that can interfere with sexual function at central and/or peripheral level. In addition, incorrect lifestyle--i.e. obesity, cigarette smoking, alcohol or drug abuse--may all contribute to the onset of ED. Finally, trauma or surgery affecting either the nervous system or interfering with the blood supply to the penis are associated with increased incidence of ED. PMID:12834029
Rust, Daniel W.
Chimerism in an individual refers to the coexistence of cells arising from two distinct organisms. It can arise iatrogenically via transplant or blood transfusion, and physiologically via twin to twin transfer, or from trafficking between mother and fetus during pregnancy. Many of the diseases associated with microchimerism affect the endocrine system (e.g., autoimmune thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus type 1). Microchimerism is relevant to endocrine pathology because (a) it is associated with pregnancy, a condition of complex endocrine physiology; (b) maternofetal and feto-maternal cellular migration must involve the placenta, itself an endocrine organ; and (c) in some species, chimerism results in states of intersexuality, a condition intimately involved with endocrine physiology. Studies of feto-maternal microchimerism in the thyroid have documented the presence of fetal cells in association with Hashimoto thyroiditis, Graves’ disease, thyroid adenoma, and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Studies of materno-fetal microchimerism have documented the presence of maternal cells in juvenile diabetes and other pediatric conditions. Microchimerism plays a potential role in the repair of diseased thyroid and pancreatic tissues. PMID:19214801
Kernberg, Otto F
This paper provides an overview of narcissistic personality disorders as they present clinically along a spectrum of severity ranging from the best functioning forms of pathological narcissism to the most threatening to the patient's psychosocial and physical survival. It proposes a general interpretive psychoanalytic stance with all these clinical syndromes that range from standard psychoanalysis to a specific psychoanalytical psychotherapy for the most repressive and life threatening conditions that may not respond to standard psychoanalysis proper. This general psychoanalytic approach is placed into the context of related developments in contemporary psychoanalytic understanding of pathological narcissism and its treatment. PMID:24902768
Achab, Sophia; Chatton, Anne; Khan, Riaz; Thorens, Gabriel; Penzenstadler, Louise; Zullino, Daniele; Khazaal, Yasser
Pathological gambling (PG) is an addictive disorder with harm related to the high psychiatric comorbidity and increased suicidal risk. Prevalence rates in general population range from 0.2% to 2.1%. Problem gamblers are hard to attract to treatment programs for several proper reasons and for obstacles (e.g., accessibility). To address these obstacles, primary care (where the problem gambling (PrG) prevalence seems to be 6.2%) has a crucial role to play (i.e., identifying and referring patients to specialized treatment programs and treating at first line when needed and possible) in the era of online gambling offer expansion. The present work aimed to collect data on resources in the field from GPs themselves, using a 24-item online questionnaire. Swiss French-speaking participants were asked about their screening practice and knowledge. The results state that the vast majority of them are aware of the existence and the potential impact of PrG on their patients. However, PrG screening is not systematic and their knowledge of adequate treatments or referral methods is scarce. GPs being central to health screening in general, targeted advice and training on short screening tools and better knowledge of referral pathways should be promoted and continued to empower the GP's management skills in a public health approach. PMID:25243136
Achab, Sophia; Chatton, Anne; Khan, Riaz; Thorens, Gabriel; Penzenstadler, Louise; Zullino, Daniele; Khazaal, Yasser
Pathological gambling (PG) is an addictive disorder with harm related to the high psychiatric comorbidity and increased suicidal risk. Prevalence rates in general population range from 0.2% to 2.1%. Problem gamblers are hard to attract to treatment programs for several proper reasons and for obstacles (e.g., accessibility). To address these obstacles, primary care (where the problem gambling (PrG) prevalence seems to be 6.2%) has a crucial role to play (i.e., identifying and referring patients to specialized treatment programs and treating at first line when needed and possible) in the era of online gambling offer expansion. The present work aimed to collect data on resources in the field from GPs themselves, using a 24-item online questionnaire. Swiss French-speaking participants were asked about their screening practice and knowledge. The results state that the vast majority of them are aware of the existence and the potential impact of PrG on their patients. However, PrG screening is not systematic and their knowledge of adequate treatments or referral methods is scarce. GPs being central to health screening in general, targeted advice and training on short screening tools and better knowledge of referral pathways should be promoted and continued to empower the GP's management skills in a public health approach. PMID:25243136
Najavits, Lisa M; Smylie, Diane; Johnson, Kay; Lung, John; Gallop, Robert J; Classen, Catherine C
This pilot study evaluated Seeking Safety (SS) therapy for seven outpatients with current comorbid pathological gambling (PG) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This represents the first treatment outcome study of this population, and included both genders and 29% minorities. We found significant improvements in: PTSD/trauma (the PTSD Checklist criterion B symptoms; the Trauma Symptom Inventory overall mean and subscales anxiety, dissociation, sexual abuse trauma index, sex problems; and the World Assumptions Scale benevolence subscale); gambling (the Gamblers Beliefs Questionnaire overall mean and subscales illusion of control); functioning (the Basis-32 overall mean and depression/anxiety subscale); psychopathology (the Brief Symptom Inventory overall mean and subscales anxiety and depression; and the Addiction Severity Index, ASI, psychiatric composite score); self-compassion (the Self-Compassion Scale overall mean and subscales isolation, overidentified, and self-judgment); and helping alliance (the Helping Alliance Questionnaire overall mean). One variable indicated worsening (employment composite subscale on the ASI), possibly reflecting measurement issues. SS attendance was excellent. PTSD onset occurred prior to PG onset for most of the sample, and most believed the two disorders were related. Overall, we found that SS can be effectively conducted for comorbid PTSD and PG, with improvements in numerous domains and high acceptability. Limitations are discussed. PMID:23662327
Eating disorders and borderline personality disorder involve several overlapping features, such as impulsivity, negative affectivity, and dissociation. However, few studies have specifically assessed how eating pathology and borderline...
The American Phytopathological Society (APS) is a professional society dedicated to "high-quality, innovative plant pathology research." Founded in 1908, the APS continues to provide educational resources for those seeking to learn more about the science of plant pathology. One way they work to accomplish this goal is through this particular section of their website. The materials on this site include "Plant Disease Management Simulations", "Laboratory Exercises", and "Topics in Plant Pathology". The "Topics in Plant Pathology" area includes topical articles that deal with various aspects of plant pathology, including the use of reverse genetic tools for investigating gene function and the population genetics of plant pathogens. Moving on, the "Laboratory Exercises" area contains two activities that can be used by college students studying plant pathology. The "Plant Disease Management" area contains a handful of simulations that will help students learn about the spread and management of some common plant diseases. Finally, the site is rounded out by an illustrated glossary of plant pathology.
This is a pediatric pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 19-month-old boy has a renal mass. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.
...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...
...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...
NOAAINMFS Developments National Registry of Marine Pathology Opens, Seeks Fish Disease Information Registry of Marine Pathology makes available to marine and estuarine biologists and patholo- gists- ment facility consists of slidecollections illustrating pathology, parasitism, or anomalies in species
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...
...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...
...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...
Pathological tremors : Deterministic chaos or nonlinear stochastic oscillators? Jens Timmer \\Lambda Hospital of Freiburg, Breisacher Str. 64, 79110 Freiburg, Germany Abstract. Pathological tremors exhibit of the different methods suggest that the considered types of pathological tremors represent nonlinear stochastic
White, J J E; Titchener, A G; Fakis, A; Tambe, A A; Hubbard, R B; Clark, D I
Little is known about the incidence of rotator cuff pathology or its demographic associations in the general population. We undertook a large epidemiological study of rotator cuff pathology in the United Kingdom using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. The incidence of rotator cuff pathology was 87 per 100,000 person-years. It was more common in women than in men (90 cases per 100,000 person-years in women and 83 per 100,000 person-years in men; p < 0.001). The highest incidence of 198 per 100,000 person-years was found in those aged between 55 and 59 years. The regional distribution of incidence demonstrated an even spread across 13 UK health authorities except Wales, where the incidence was significantly higher (122 per 100,000 person-years; p < 0.001). The lowest socioeconomic group had the highest incidence (98 per 100,000 person-years). The incidence has risen fourfold since 1987 and as of 2006 shows no signs of plateauing. This study represents the largest general population study of rotator cuff pathology reported to date. The results obtained provide an enhanced appreciation of the epidemiology of rotator cuff pathology and may help to direct future upper limb orthopaedic services. PMID:24589790
Bickel, Warren K; Johnson, Matthew W; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G
The field of behavioral economics has made important inroads into the understanding of substance use disorders through the concept of reinforcer pathology. Reinforcer pathology refers to the joint effects of (a) the persistently high valuation of a reinforcer, broadly defined to include tangible commodities and experiences, and/or (b) the excessive preference for the immediate acquisition or consumption of a commodity despite long-term negative outcomes. From this perspective, reinforcer pathology results from the recursive interactions of endogenous person-level variables and exogenous environment-level factors. The current review describes the basic principles of behavioral economics that are central to reinforcer pathology, the processes that engender reinforcer pathology, and the approaches and procedures that can repair reinforcement pathologies. The overall goal of this review is to present a new understanding of substance use disorders as viewed by recent advances in behavioral economics. PMID:24679180
Bickel, Warren K.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G.
The field of behavioral economics has made important inroads into the understanding of substance use disorders through the concept of reinforcer pathology. Reinforcer pathology refers to the joint effects of (a) the persistently high valuation of a reinforcer, broadly defined to include tangible commodities and experiences, and/or (b) the excessive preference for the immediate acquisition or consumption of a commodity despite long-term negative outcomes. From this perspective, reinforcer pathology results from the recursive interactions of endogenous person-level variables and exogenous environment-level factors. The current review describes the basic principles of behavioral economics that are central to reinforcer pathology, the processes that engender reinforcer pathology, and the approaches and procedures that can repair reinforcement pathologies. The overall goal of this review is to present a new understanding of substance use disorders as viewed by recent advances in behavioral economics. PMID:24679180
Keepers, G A
Controversy continues concerning the harmfulness of video game use by children. The author encountered clearly pathological preoccupation with video games in a preadolescent. The child had stolen, forged checks, and skipped school to continue using video games. He and his mother were physically abused by his father. Placement of the child in a residential treatment center with martial and family therapy resulted in resolution of the patient's pathological use of video games. PMID:2295578
Jubb, Adrian M; Koeppen, Hartmut; Reis-Filho, Jorge S
The rapid pace of drug discovery and drug development in oncology, immunology and ophthalmology brings new challenges; the efficient and effective development of new targeted drugs will require more detailed molecular classifications of histologically homogeneous diseases that show heterogeneous clinical outcomes. To this end, single companion diagnostics for specific drugs will be replaced by multiplex diagnostics for entire therapeutic areas, preserving tissue and enabling rapid molecular taxonomy. The field will move away from the development of new molecular entities as single agents, to which resistance is common. Instead, a detailed understanding of the pathological mechanisms of resistance, in patients and in preclinical models, will be key to the validation of scientifically rational and clinically effective drug combinations. To remain at the heart of disease diagnosis and appropriate management, pathologists must evolve into translational biologists and biomarker scientists. Herein, we provide examples of where this metamorphosis has already taken place, in lung cancer and melanoma, where the transformation has yet to begin, in the use of immunotherapies for ophthalmology and oncology, and where there is fertile soil for a revolution in treatment, in efforts to classify glioblastoma and personalize treatment. The challenges of disease heterogeneity, the regulatory environment and adequate tissue are ever present, but these too are being overcome in dedicated academic centres. In summary, the tools necessary to overcome the 'whens' and 'ifs' of the molecular revolution are in the hands of pathologists today; it is a matter of standardization, training and leadership to bring these into routine practice and translate science into patient benefit. This Annual Review Issue of the Journal of Pathology highlights the central role for pathology in modern drug discovery and development. PMID:24122335
Tschernegg, Melanie; Crone, Julia S.; Eigenberger, Tina; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Lemčnager, Tagrid; Mann, Karl; Thon, Natasha; Wurst, Friedrich M.; Kronbichler, Martin
Functional neuroimaging studies of pathological gambling (PG) demonstrate alterations in frontal and subcortical regions of the mesolimbic reward system. However, most investigations were performed using tasks involving reward processing or executive functions. Little is known about brain network abnormalities during task-free resting state in PG. In the present study, graph-theoretical methods were used to investigate network properties of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in PG. We compared 19 patients with PG to 19 healthy controls (HCs) using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT). None of the examined global metrics differed between groups. At the nodal level, pathological gambler showed a reduced clustering coefficient in the left paracingulate cortex and the left juxtapositional lobe (supplementary motor area, SMA), reduced local efficiency in the left SMA, as well as an increased node betweenness for the left and right paracingulate cortex and the left SMA. At an uncorrected threshold level, the node betweenness in the left inferior frontal gyrus was decreased and increased in the caudate. Additionally, increased functional connectivity between fronto-striatal regions and within frontal regions has also been found for the gambling patients. These findings suggest that regions associated with the reward system demonstrate reduced segregation but enhanced integration while regions associated with executive functions demonstrate reduced integration. The present study makes evident that PG is also associated with abnormalities in the topological network structure of the brain during rest. Since alterations in PG cannot be explained by direct effects of abused substances on the brain, these findings will be of relevance for understanding functional connectivity in other addictive disorders. PMID:24098282
Rau, Don C.
Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Vinyl Chloride AMENDED PATHOLOGY QUALITY ASSESSMENT REVIEW AND PWG COORDINATOR'S REPORT FOR LIFETIME CARCINOGENICITY STUDY OF VINYL, Inc. Vinyl Chloride Table of Contents INTRODUCTION
during their fellowship. The Department receives a mix of adult and pediatric biopsies and complex. Each year, the pathology laboratory at the University of Alberta Hospital and Royal Alexandra Hospital
Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that are ... problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. ...
Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. ...
Grizzle, William E.; Srivastava, Sudhir; Manne, Upender
With the increasing use of individualized medical care (personalized medicine) in treating and managing patients with cancer, the utilization of biomarkers in selecting and tailoring such medical approaches also is increasing and becoming more important. Specifically, many therapies are effective against only a subgroup of a specific type of tumors and exposing patients with different non-responsive subgroups of the same tumor to ineffective therapies, not only exposes these patients needlessly to acute and chronic side effects of the therapy, but also adds to the costs of medical care. For example, the Oncotype Dx test for estrogen receptor positive tumors that are node negative has been used to identify low risk tumors for which surgery alone is an adequate therapy. Biomarkers may be used to aid in multiple aspects of medical care related to cancer, including early detection, diagnosis, risk assessment, as well as in predicting the aggressiveness of cancers (i.e., prognosis) and predicting the therapeutic efficacy of treatments (i.e., prediction). Biomarkers may be also used as surrogate endpoints to aid in evaluating therapies and preventive approaches. Types of biomarkers vary greatly and include histopathologic appearance, stage of the lesion, quantitative morphologic features, size of the lesion, metastatic pattern and extent of metastasis, as well as imaging and molecular features. The types of measurements of biomarkers also vary; for example, molecular features can be measured at the DNA, mRNA or protein levels as well as at regulatory levels (e.g., microRNA). The usefulness of each biomarker is limited by its sensitivity and specificity in fulfilling its role (e.g., in early detection) and the requirements of sensitivity and specificity to accomplish specific tasks are affected by multiple variables. For example, both very high specificity and sensitivity of a test are required to screen a population with a low prevalence of a specific tumor. The goal of this manuscript is to introduce the reader to how biomarkers may be used and the limitations on the uses of biomarkers in translational research. PMID:22112467
Ashley, Larry L; Boehlke, Karmen K
Throughout the course of history, gambling has been a popular activity across most cultures. In the United States, gambling has transitioned from early acceptance to prohibition to widespread proliferation. For most, gambling is a relaxing and recreational activity; however, for some individuals gambling becomes more than harmless fun. The most severe form of gambling, pathological gambling, is recognized as a mental health disorder. Pathological gambling is currently classified as an impulse control disorder in the DSM-IV-TR, but it shares many important features with substance use disorders, especially in terms of diagnostic criteria, clinical course, and treatment. Consequently, the DSM-V Task Force has suggested that pathological gambling be reclassified and included in a new category entitled "Addiction and Related Disorders." The category would include both substance-related and non-substance/behavioral addictions. This article provides a general overview of some of the available literature regarding pathological gambling and includes the presentation of a number of relevant topics including etiology, risk factors, comorbidity, prevention, and treatment. However, as with most complex, multifaceted, and multidimensional phenomena, more research is needed in order to improve both prevention and treatment efforts for pathological gambling. PMID:22641963
McClintock, David S.; Levy, Bruce P.; Lane, William J.; Lee, Roy E.; Baron, Jason M.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Onozato, Maristela L.; Kim, JiYeon; Dighe, Anand S.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Kuo, Frank; Black-Schaffer, Stephen; Gilbertson, John R.
Background: In 2007, our healthcare system established a clinical fellowship program in Pathology Informatics. In 2010 a core didactic course was implemented to supplement the fellowship research and operational rotations. In 2011, the course was enhanced by a formal, structured core curriculum and reading list. We present and discuss our rationale and development process for the Core Curriculum and the role it plays in our Pathology Informatics Fellowship Training Program. Materials and Methods: The Core Curriculum for Pathology Informatics was developed, and is maintained, through the combined efforts of our Pathology Informatics Fellows and Faculty. The curriculum was created with a three-tiered structure, consisting of divisions, topics, and subtopics. Primary (required) and suggested readings were selected for each subtopic in the curriculum and incorporated into a curated reading list, which is reviewed and maintained on a regular basis. Results: Our Core Curriculum is composed of four major divisions, 22 topics, and 92 subtopics that cover the wide breadth of Pathology Informatics. The four major divisions include: (1) Information Fundamentals, (2) Information Systems, (3) Workflow and Process, and (4) Governance and Management. A detailed, comprehensive reading list for the curriculum is presented in the Appendix to the manuscript and contains 570 total readings (current as of March 2012). Discussion: The adoption of a formal, core curriculum in a Pathology Informatics fellowship has significant impacts on both fellowship training and the general field of Pathology Informatics itself. For a fellowship, a core curriculum defines a basic, common scope of knowledge that the fellowship expects all of its graduates will know, while at the same time enhancing and broadening the traditional fellowship experience of research and operational rotations. For the field of Pathology Informatics itself, a core curriculum defines to the outside world, including departments, companies, and health systems considering hiring a pathology informatician, the core knowledge set expected of a person trained in the field and, more fundamentally, it helps to define the scope of the field within Pathology and healthcare in general. PMID:23024890
CLINICAL FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM IN MOLECULAR GENETIC PATHOLOGY The Department of Pathology Guidelines and Objectives January, 2015 Supervisor for Molecular Genetic Pathology: Dr Iyare Izevbaye MD, PhD Assistant Professor WMC 4B4.32 Molecular Pathology Laboratory University of Alberta Hospital Edmonton
ANNUAL SPEECH PATHOLOGY HONOURS RESEARCH MINICONFERENCE 2012 Every year the Speech Pathology CRICOSProviderCode00301J(WA),02637B(NSW) All interested are welcome. This invitation extends to Speech Pathology.Yuen@curtin.edu.au Telephone +61 8 9266 7984 or visit psych.curtin.edu.au School of Psychology & Speech Pathology Monday 15th
of Brain Reserve Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine in Early Alzheimer's Disease Patients & Disease Co-Director, Stanford Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Professor of Pathology Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences Massachusetts Institute of Technology 14 Srimathi Srinivasan, Ph
Pop, Monica; Gheorghe, Alina
Vitreous role in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases has increased importantly over the recent years. This was possible using Optical Coherence Tomography which reviewed the way the vitreoretinal interface should be looked at and defined and classified new pathologies such as Vitreoretinal Traction Syndrome. Vitreous is not an empty space but an important anatomical structure with role in ocular physiology. With age biochemical changes occur so that vitreous starts to liquefy. Once the vitreous is liquefied (sinchisis) it collapses and passes in the retrohialoid space (sineresis). In complete PVD besides sinchisis there is a weakness of the adherence between the posterior cortex and ILM with total detachment of posterior cortex. Abnormal adhesions are associated with incomplete PVD. The definition and understanting of vitreoretinal pathology is an active and continuous process, PVD being the trigger of a lot of retinal pathologies: epiretinal membrane, macular hole, tractional macular oedema, VMTS, myopic traction maculopathy, exacerbations of exudative ARMD. PMID:25300121
Zeiler, W B
Predictions of the future of pathology must encompass not only anticipation of scientific advances, but the important relationships with other physicians, scientists, health care agencies, hospitals, the public, and the government. The last fifty years have seen advances dwarfing all medical science throughout previous time, with sweeping changes in laboratory medicine in more recent years. For example, advent of molecular pathology will generate opportunities for the pathologist to lead not only in diagnosis, but to accurately predict and prevent disease, and to participate in treatment. Genetic engineering, which promises revolutionary improvement in medicine with already exciting advances in heritable disease. Immune status abnormalities, organ transplantation, and even mental disease, offers great opportunities for clinical pathologists. Currently there is much variation in definition and practice of anatomic and clinical pathology throughout the world. Scientific advances will merge the roles of these two branches more closely. The American Board of Pathology already foresees changing the current separate certifications in anatomic and clinical pathology into one certification in pathology. Multiple subcertifications will be offered to meet the certain increase in applicable clinical science in many related disciplines. The pathologist expert in a new field will assume a more activist role in clinical medicine and will be positioned to become the "information specialist" who will be required, with the aid of computerization, to assemble, correlate, and apply this burgeoning medical knowledge, which in many cases will transcend the abilities of any one medical specialist or allied scientist. The public become insatiable for knowledge and then access to this new medical science.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2072563
Nine, Jeff S.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 72-year-old man has abdominal pain, anorexia, and weight loss but no significant past medical history. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with chronic renal insufficiency, congestive heart failure, and diarrhea. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.
Alcohol-attributable burden on global health is increasing, and the relationship between population alcohol consumption and liver-related deaths is strong. Longstanding scientific and clinical work has led to a relatively thorough, if not complete, understanding of the effects of alcohol consumption on the liver. Pathologic features of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are recognized by pathologists and used to assist clinicians in diagnosing and determining severity of disease in patients suspected of ALD. In this review, we discuss the pathologic manifestations of ALD and provide salient points on their pathophysiology. In addition, the benefits and indications of liver biopsy and important differential diagnoses, including features distinguishing these entities, are reviewed.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 65-year-old woman with systemic rheumatoid arthritis has developed renal insufficiency. Visitors are given the gross and microscopic descriptions, electron microscopy exam results, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 74-year-old man has been referred to the hospital for renal insufficiency complicating scleroderma. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.
Becich, Michael J.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man reported a history of chronic sinusitis that was not responding to nasal and antibiotic treatments. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of head and neck pathology.
Fowler, Jason C.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man complained of diaphoresis nausea and substernal chest pain through his left arm. Subsequent tests revealed a mediastinal mass with both fatty and solid components. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.
This gynecologic pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 57-year-old female with postmenopausal bleeding. The patientâ??s history, and results from a pelvic ultrasound are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman who presented with two months of back pain. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.
Richert, Charles A.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 43-year-old male with Hepatitis C has had a laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.
Rao, Uma N. M.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman presented with a low-grade sarcoma with features of plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor in the subcutaneous soft tissue of left posterior thigh. Visitors can view both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.
Hardy, Hunter T.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older woman developed a renal mass without evidence of angiomyolipoma. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in endocrine pathology.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 69-year-old man has a pigmented lesion on his right ear. Visitors are given the patient history and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.
of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA 2 Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA 3 Medical Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA 5 Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY
Carroll, Juliet E.
This monograph contains 10 plant pathology experiments that were written to correspond to portions of a biology curriculum. Each experiment is suitable to a biology topic and designed to encourage exploration of those biological concepts being taught. Experiments include: (1) The Symptoms and Signs of Disease; (2) Koch's Postulates; (3)…
Arellano, E R
Intracapsular dysfunction of the TMJ is analyzed, based on the concepts of dysfunctional and functional pathology, including a diagnostic clasification this is analyzed under a etiopathogenic point of view, clinical characteristics, different types of cases named disco-condilar disorders. PMID:2244072
H. A. McCartney; B. D. L. Fitt; D. Schmechel
Bioaerosols of interest in plant pathology are comprised principally of the air-borne or splash-borne fungal spores or bacterial cells which disperse many plant diseases. Plant pathogen inoculum is mostly sampled out of doors, imposing environmental constraints on sampling methods arising for the need to sample in fluctuating winds and to protect samples from rain. The choice or method of sampling
Mease, Kenneth D.
Pathology waste includes: · Transgenic animals. · Potentially transgenic animals including, "no-takes" in the production of transgenic animals, and off-spring of transgenic animals. · Recognizable human anatomical parts specimens. · Human tissues that have been fixed in formaldehyde or other fixatives*. · Animal carcasses
Nicholson, Bruce J.
Web Page: http://pathology.uthscsa.edu/strl/cytometry/ Dept. of Pathology, Room 311D MSC 7750 7703 ______________________________________________________________________________________ Street City State Zip Pertinent Clinical History and Laboratory Date: Tests Requested ( please see http://pathology
Brosowski, Tim; Hayer, Tobias; Meyer, Gerhard; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; John, Ulrich; Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian
Consumption measures in gambling research may help to establish thresholds of low-risk gambling as 1 part of evidence-based responsible gambling strategies. The aim of this study is to replicate existing Canadian thresholds of probable low-risk gambling (Currie et al., 2006) in a representative dataset of German gambling behavior (Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology [PAGE]; N = 15,023). Receiver-operating characteristic curves applied in a training dataset (60%) extracted robust thresholds of low-risk gambling across 4 nonexclusive definitions of gambling problems (1 + to 4 + Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition [DSM-5] Composite International Diagnostic Interview [CIDI] symptoms), different indicators of gambling involvement (across all game types; form-specific) and different timeframes (lifetime; last year). Logistic regressions applied in a test dataset (40%) to cross-validate the heuristics of probable low-risk gambling incorporated confounding covariates (age, gender, education, migration, and unemployment) and confirmed the strong concurrent validity of the thresholds. Moreover, it was possible to establish robust form-specific thresholds of low-risk gambling (only for gaming machines and poker). Possible implications for early detection of problem gamblers in offline or online environments are discussed. Results substantiate international knowledge about problem gambling prevention and contribute to a German discussion about empirically based guidelines of low-risk gambling. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26415065
Wagner, June G.
This newsletter presents four articles designed to help business educators educate learners in grades K-12 about personal finance. "Now More Than Ever: The Need for Financial Literacy" examines the following topics: evidence that the United States is becoming a nation of debtors; the plummeting personal savings rate; the increasing complexity of…
This article features a mathematical game called "Mystery Person." The author describes how the Mystery Person game was tried with first-graders [age 6]. The Mystery games involve the generation of key questions, the coordination of information--often very complex information--and the formulation of consequences based on this coordination.…
Skodol, Andrew E; Bender, Donna S; Morey, Leslie C
The criteria for personality disorders in Section II of DSM-5 have not changed from those in DSM-IV. Therefore, the diagnosis of Section II narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) will perpetuate all of the well-enumerated shortcomings associated with the diagnosis since DSM-III. In this article, we will briefly review problems associated with Section II NPD and then discuss the evolution of a new model of personality disorder and the place in the model of pathological narcissism and NPD. The new model was intended to be the official approach to the diagnosis of personality pathology in DSM-5, but was ultimately placed as an alternative in Section III for further study. The new model is a categorical-dimensional hybrid based on the assessment of core elements of personality functioning and of pathological personality traits. The specific criteria for NPD were intended to rectify some of the shortcomings of the DSM-IV representation by acknowledging both grandiose and vulnerable aspects, overt and covert presentations, and the dimensionality of narcissism. In addition, criteria were assigned and diagnostic thresholds set based on empirical data. The Section III representation of narcissistic phenomena using dimensions of self and interpersonal functioning and relevant traits offers a significant improvement over Section II NPD. PMID:23834518
Virgo, Paul F; Gibbs, Graham J
Flow cytometry has had an impact upon all areas of clinical pathology and now, in the 21st century, it is truly coming of age. This study reviews the application of flow cytometry within clinical pathology with an emphasis upon haematology and immunology. The basic principles of flow cytometry are discussed, including the principles and considerations of the flow-cell and hydrodynamic focusing, detector layout and function, use of fluorochromes and multicolour flow cytometry (spectral overlap and colour compensation), alongside the strategies available for sample preparation, data acquisition and analysis, reporting of results, internal quality control, external quality assessment and flow sorting. The practice of flow cytometry is discussed, including the principles and pitfalls associated with leukocyte immunophenotyping for leukaemia and lymphoma diagnosis, immune deficiency, predicting and monitoring response to monoclonal antibody therapy, rare event detection and screening for genetic disease. Each section is illustrated with a case study. Future directions are also discussed. PMID:22028426
This cardiovascular pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. A 72-year-old female experiencing respiratory distress is the focus of this case. The patientâ??s history, gross description, and microscopic description of test results are provided to aid readers in understanding the patientâ??s diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.
Noshpitz, J D
This paper describes a form of superego pathology which arises from very traumatic childhood experience. The youngster takes into him or herself the negative qualities of the cruel, neglectful, and unloving caretakers. This internal abuser becomes the conscience and gives rise to an inner image of the self as evil and meriting only punishment and reproof. This joins the ego ideal as one of the regulating elements in the superego. Milder cases result in a success neurosis; more severe pathology expresses itself as "a criminal from a sense of guilt." Such youngsters tend to find ways of blaming themselves for the misfortunes of their friends and kin, they find patterns of adaptation which allow for chronic self abasement, and they are very likely to drift into substance abuse. There are many varieties of this form of disturbance, but characteristically, in the face of therapeutic efforts, they respond with a negative therapeutic reaction. Some suggestions are offered for therapeutic approaches. PMID:8340217
Klatt, Edward C., 1951-
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a 29 year old Hispanic woman who delivered a stillborn fetus with a estimated gestation of 29 weeks. Visitors are provided with patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in perinatal pathology.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes "a 46-year-old gentleman with a persistent right lower lobe pulmonary mass after a successfully treated cavitary pneumonia 5 months ago." Visitors are given patient history along with radiology findings and images. They are also given gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.
Rao, Uma N. M.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 60-year-old woman who presented with a history of marked abdominal distention lasted for several months with associated progressive fatigue, progressive weight loss and fever. Visitors are given patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.
The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case involves a 41 year-old woman experiencing the following symptoms for a period of 18 months: fatigue, weakness, lethargy, and decreased concentration. The patientâ??s history, description of CT scans, and images from histological examinations, which contributed to the conclusive diagnosis, are all provided here for your review. The contributing doctors provide a detailed discussion of the patientâ??s condition in the â??Final Diagnosisâ?ť section. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.
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Bilbao, Juan M., 1938-
This is a neuropathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 49 year old woman has visual disturbances. Visitors are given the microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.
Moskalenko, R; Tatsenko, N; Romanyuk, A; Perelomova, O; Moskalenko, Yu
The paper is devoted to the peculiarities of medical discourse in pathological anatomy as coherent speech and as a linguistic correlate of medical practice taking into account the analysis of its strategies and tactics. The purpose of the paper is to provide a multifaceted analysis of the speech strategies and tactics of pathological anatomy discourse and ways of their implementation. The main strategies of medical discourse in pathological anatomy are an anticipating strategy, a diagnosing strategy and an explaining one. The supporting strategies are pragmatic, conversational and a rhetorical one. The pragmatic strategy is implemented through contact establishing tactics, the conversational one - with the help of control tactics, the rhetorical one - with the help of attention correction tactics. The above mentioned tactics and strategies are used in the distinguishing of major, closely interrelated strategies: "the contact strategy" (to establish contact with a patient's relatives - phatic replicas of greeting and addressing) and "the strategy of explanation" (used in the practice of a pathologist for a detailed explanation of the reasons of a patient's death). The ethic aspect of speech conduct of a doctor-pathologist is analyzed. PMID:22870841
Personal competencies--cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, and social/emotional--are applied by students in learning (mastery of knowledge and skills). These competencies are both acquired through learning and applied in the learning process. Personalized learning--a promising approach to education made practical by advances in…
Baldwin, Clara P.; Baldwin, Alfred L.
Discussed are the personality and social development of children with physical handicaps, intellectual difficulties, or social and emotional disturbances, and recommended is the actual observation of the interactions of handicapped children with others in naturalistic situations. Stressed is the importance of pathological social interactions to…
Tischler, Arthur S; deKrijger, Ronald R
Pathologists using their routine diagnostic tools can contribute both to the care of patients with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma and to understanding the pathobiology of the tumors. They can document details of tissue organization and cytology that are accessible only by microscopy and can characterize admixtures of cell types that are morphologically distinct or show differential expression of immunohistochemical markers. Current roles and challenges for pathologists include differential diagnosis, identifying clues to the presence of hereditary disease, and effective communication of pathology information for clinical and research purposes. Future roles will increasingly involve risk stratification, identification of actionable targets for personalized therapies, and aiding the interpretation of molecular tests by helping characterize genetic variants of unknown significance. It remains to be determined to what extent the need for pathology input will be overshadowed by the availability of genetic testing and other molecular analyses at ever-decreasing cost, together with very effective clinical paradigms for risk stratification and patient care. PMID:26136457
Kadish, Yael Adira
A set of characteristic symptoms allow for the relatively straightforward diagnosis of eating disorders. Simultaneously and paradoxically, underlying the eating disorders are a wide variety of personality organizations/disorders, stretching from the neurotic to the borderline and narcissistic, and even to conditions approaching psychosis. This paper will argue that the inherent commonalities can be ascribed to pathological organizations of a similar nature and quality, operational across the spectrum of eating disorders and functioning in a particular, sadomasochistic way. The typical forms that eating disorders take are based on the specific ways that food and the body are used, that is, symptom manifestation. These distinctive symptom manifestations appear to be related to Steiner's (1982, 1993) notion of a psychic retreat. Pathological organizations and psychic retreats are latent until called upon either sporadically or continuously. When activated, these defensive structures operate like a complex psychic skeleton around which the unique psychodynamics of each patient become rearranged and thereby transformed. PMID:22489814
1 Graduate Student Handbook SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY PROGRAM STEPHEN F. AUSTIN STATE UNIVERSITY P;2 Dear Prospective student: Welcome to the Program website for Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology in Stephen F Austin State University. The field of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology is concerned
Undergraduate Student Handbook SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY PROGRAM STEPHEN F. AUSTIN STATE UNIVERSITY and Disorders Program #12;2 Contents SECTION PAGE 1.0 Speech-Language Pathology Program 4 1.1 History 4 1-Language-Hearing Association 27 #12;4 1.0 SFASU SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY AND AUDIOLOGY PROGRAM 1.1 History The Speech
Bachelor of Speech and Language Pathology Bachelor of Speech and Language Pathology Career on YouTube to hear firsthand about our Bachelor of Speech Language Pathology(Hons) degree. www are eligible to apply for registration as a Speech-Language Therapists with NZSTA. Graduates are highly
Maxwell, Bruce D.
DEPARTMENT OF PLANT SCIENCES AND PLANT PATHOLOGY Montana State University Bozeman, MT Graduate and Plant Pathology Graduate Student Policies & Procedures Page 2 April 4, 2013 precedence over Pathology Graduate Student Policies & Procedures Page 3 April 4, 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION
Plant Pathology 290 Graduate Seminar Series Winter 2015, CRN 87368 Seminars: Mondays, 9:00am-10:00am 115 Hutchison Date Speaker Title January 5 Steve Whitham, Professor Department of Plant Pathology-type innate immunity in Arabidopsis February 9 Douglas Cook, Professor Department of Plant Pathology UC Davis
Plant Pathology 290 Graduate Seminar Series Fall 2014 CRN: 57411 Mondays 9:00-10:00am 115 Hutchison Storer Seminar Speaker Professor, Plant Pathology University of Wisconsin-Madison Multi-gene copy number Detection of plant diseases by smell. October 27 Jeremy Warren, PhD Candidate, Plant Pathology Exit Seminar
Leistikow, Bruce N.
DEPARTMENT OF PATHOLOGY & LABORATORY MEDICINE RESEARCH PROJECTS 1) PROJECT TITLE: Chronic Anemia Deficiency PRIMARY INVESTIGATOR: Mingyi, Chen, M.D., Ph.D./Assistant Professor of Pathology and Laboratory of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine University of California, Davis, Medical Center PATH Bldg. 4400 V Street
Departments of Plant Pathology, Entomology and Nematology Hutchison Hall, Robbins Hall, and Armstrong Field Station Reviewed and Revised: November 2013 #12;UC DAVIS Plant Pathology and Nematology by the University of California, Plant Pathology and Nematology departments in accordance with University Policy
1 Pathology in heuristic search Mitja Lustrek Jozef Stefan Institute Department of Intelligent, showed the opposite. This paradox was termed minimax pathology. Our real- valued minimax model demonstrates that appropriate modeling of the heuristic error is enough to eliminate the pathology. We examine
Plant Pathology 290 Graduate Seminar Series Spring 2015 Seminars: 9:00am - Mondays 115 Hutchison of grapevine diseases. May 18 Margaret Lloyd, Ph.D. Candidate Department of Plant Pathology, Gordon Lab UC of Plant Pathology, Leveau Lab UC Davis Exit Seminar To schedule an appointment, please contact: Doug Cook
Maxwell, Bruce D.
Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology Unique, hands-on study programs for students, biochemistry, plant physiology and agronomy. Plant Pathology Option Most research projects in this option are problem-oriented and pertain to major plant pathological problems in the state. Current research projects
1 ELASTIC IMAGE REGISTRATION AND PATHOLOGY DETECTION Paul Thompson and Arthur W. Toga Laboratory AND PATHOLOGY DETECTION Paul Thompson and Arthur W. Toga Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, Dept. of Neurology Imaging Pathology Detection Analyzing Brain Data Digital Brain Atlases Measuring Anatomical Differences
Pathological Behavior of Renormalization-Group Maps at High Fields and Above the Transition-Gibbsian measures. This shows that pathological behavior of renormalization-group transformations is even more. Of related interest are the transformations presented in [13, 15, 14] which are "anti-pathological
Lee, Jaeseok; Chen, Chih-Chien; Song, Hak-Jun; Lee, Choong-Ki
This study revised the theory of planned behavior (TPB) by incorporating the new concepts of gambling passion and responsible gambling strategy (RGS) to predict gamblers' intention to gamble in online sports betting. The data were collected at the end of March in 2012 through an online gambling website. The findings indicated that the inclusion of two types of gambling passion and two types of RGS explains online gambling intention well. Specifically, out of the original antecedent predictors of TPB, attitude toward online gambling was positively related to harmonious passion. Subjective norm had a positive relationship with both harmonious and obsessive passion. The results also showed that perceived behavioral control does not have a significant effect on the two gambling passions but has a direct and significant influence on behavioral intention. Additionally, the compulsory RGS had a negative effect on obsessive passion, whereas supplementary RGS had concurrent positive impacts on harmonious and obsessive passion. Lastly, the two gambling passions were notable predictors of behavioral intention toward online sports betting. PMID:23334577
Bortolotti, Gary R.
Toxicologic Pathology, 33:441448, 2005 Copyright C by the Society of Toxicologic Pathology ISSN: 0192-6233 print / 1533-1601 online DOI: 10.1080/01926230590953097 Skeletal Pathology in White Storks of Veterinary Pathology, 2 Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada 3
Anatomic and Clinical Pathology PATH 422a. Faculty: Pathology Faculty with LSUHSC-NO Faculty: 1.) To become familiar with surgical pathology grossing technique and tissue sign-out procedures. 2 related to anatomic pathology including fine needle aspiration, autopsy, surgical specimen grossing
Apostoli, Adam G.; Weiland, Kelley S.; Plesniak, Michael W.
Polyps and nodules are two different pathologies, which are geometric abnormalities that form on the medial surface of the vocal folds, and have been shown to significantly disrupt a person's ability to communicate. Although the mechanism by which the vocal folds self-oscillate and the three-dimensional nature of the glottal jet has been studied, the effect of irregularities caused by pathologies is not fully understood. Examining the formation and evolution of vortical structures created by a geometric protuberance is important, not only for understanding the aerodynamic forces exerted by these structures on the vocal folds, but also in the treatment of the above-mentioned pathological conditions. Using a wall-mounted prolate hemispheroid with a 2:1 aspect ratio in cross flow, the present investigation considers three-dimensional flow separation induced by a model vocal fold polyp. Building on previous work using skin friction line visualization, both the velocity flow field and wall pressure measurements around the model polyp are presented and compared. Polyps and nodules are two different pathologies, which are geometric abnormalities that form on the medial surface of the vocal folds, and have been shown to significantly disrupt a person's ability to communicate. Although the mechanism by which the vocal folds self-oscillate and the three-dimensional nature of the glottal jet has been studied, the effect of irregularities caused by pathologies is not fully understood. Examining the formation and evolution of vortical structures created by a geometric protuberance is important, not only for understanding the aerodynamic forces exerted by these structures on the vocal folds, but also in the treatment of the above-mentioned pathological conditions. Using a wall-mounted prolate hemispheroid with a 2:1 aspect ratio in cross flow, the present investigation considers three-dimensional flow separation induced by a model vocal fold polyp. Building on previous work using skin friction line visualization, both the velocity flow field and wall pressure measurements around the model polyp are presented and compared. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant No. CBET-1236351 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).
Porter, LF; Black, GCM
Porter L.F., Black G.C.M. Personalized ophthalmology. Clin Genet 2014: 86: 1–11. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2014 Ophthalmology has been an early adopter of personalized medicine. Drawing on genomic advances to improve molecular diagnosis, such as next-generation sequencing, and basic and translational research to develop novel therapies, application of genetic technologies in ophthalmology now heralds development of gene replacement therapies for some inherited monogenic eye diseases. It also promises to alter prediction, diagnosis and management of the complex disease age-related macular degeneration. Personalized ophthalmology is underpinned by an understanding of the molecular basis of eye disease. Two important areas of focus are required for adoption of personalized approaches: disease stratification and individualization. Disease stratification relies on phenotypic and genetic assessment leading to molecular diagnosis; individualization encompasses all aspects of patient management from optimized genetic counseling and conventional therapies to trials of novel DNA-based therapies. This review discusses the clinical implications of these twin strategies. Advantages and implications of genetic testing for patients with inherited eye diseases, choice of molecular diagnostic modality, drivers for adoption of personalized ophthalmology, service planning implications, ethical considerations and future challenges are considered. Indeed, whilst many difficulties remain, personalized ophthalmology truly has the potential to revolutionize the specialty. PMID:24665880
Gratz, Kim L.; Latzman, Robert D.; Tull, Matthew T.; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Lejuez, C. W.
Most of the extant literature on borderline personality disorder has focused on the course, consequences, and correlates of this disorder among adults. However, little is known about childhood borderline personality (BP) features, or the factors associated with the emergence of BP pathology in childhood. A greater understanding of childhood BP…
Neumann, Manuela; Rademakers, Rosa; Roeber, Sigrun; Baker, Matt; Kretzschmar, Hans A.
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a clinical syndrome with a heterogeneous molecular basis. The neuropathology associated with most FTD is characterized by abnormal cellular aggregates of either transactive response DNA-binding protein with Mr 43 kDa (TDP-43) or tau protein. However, we recently described a subgroup of FTD patients, representing around 10%, with an unusual clinical phenotype and pathology characterized by frontotemporal lobar degeneration with neuronal inclusions composed of an unidentified ubiquitinated protein (atypical FTLD-U; aFTLD-U). All cases were sporadic and had early-onset FTD with severe progressive behavioural and personality changes in the absence of aphasia or significant motor features. Mutations in the fused in sarcoma (FUS) gene have recently been identified as a cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, with these cases reported to have abnormal cellular accumulations of FUS protein. Because of the recognized clinical, genetic and pathological overlap between FTD and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, we investigated whether FUS might also be the pathological protein in aFTLD-U. In all our aFTLD-U cases (n = 15), FUS immunohistochemistry labelled all the neuronal inclusions and also demonstrated previously unrecognized glial pathology. Immunoblot analysis of protein extracted from post-mortem aFTLD-U brain tissue demonstrated increased levels of insoluble FUS. No mutations in the FUS gene were identified in any of our patients. These findings suggest that FUS is the pathological protein in a significant subgroup of sporadic FTD and reinforce the concept that FTD and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are closely related conditions. PMID:19674978
Xue, Qing-Shan; Streit, Wolfgang J
Subjects with Down syndrome (DS) inevitably develop histopathological features pathognomonic of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and DS can therefore be considered a human model of AD. Similar to AD, microglial activation has been reported in DS and the idea that detrimental neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration is firmly embedded. However, recent work from this laboratory has offered evidence for an alternative view regarding the role of microglial cells in AD pathogenesis by showing presence of dystrophic (senescent) rather than activated microglia in both the AD and DS brain. In this report, we build on previously published observations in human brain and offer a detailed analysis of microglial senescent pathology in the temporal cortices of 6 DS cases in their 40s, a critical age bracket where virtually all DS subjects acquire neurofibrillary degeneration characteristic of AD. Our findings using both Iba1 and anti-ferritin immunostaining of microglial cells show that coincident with the appearance of tau pathology in DS subjects there is consistent presence of dystrophic microglial cells and conspicuous absence of activated microglia using both markers. The extent of microglial pathology varied among the individual DS cases, but they all revealed decreased numbers of normal microglia ranging from 19 to 85% of the controls. Nearly all of the ferritin-positive microglia, which constitute a subset of the total Iba1-reactive microglial population, exhibited dystrophic morphology. In its most severe form dystrophy was evident as total fragmentation of the cells' cytoplasm (cytorrhexis), which likely reflects terminal degeneration of microglia. Severely dystrophic, ferritin-positive cells were often found to be colocalized with tau-positive senile plaques. Our findings help to consolidate the idea that microglial degeneration and neurofibrillary degeneration are closely linked events in a human model of AD. They suggest that microglial degeneration follows a gradually progressive course that increases in its severity in parallel with the progression of AD neurodegenerative changes. PMID:21847625
Bennett, Jennifer A; Oliva, Esther
An "adnexal mass" is a common specimen encountered in the daily pathology practice. Although most are benign, the incidence of malignancy increases with age, and approximately 30% are malignant in postmenopausal females. Herein we describe the salient macroscopic and microscopic features of the most prevalent adnexal masses. The entities are separated based on patients' age into premenopausal and postmenopausal, with further subdivision into non-neoplastic lesions, benign and malignant neoplasms, and those of uncertain behavior. For each entity, a brief differential diagnosis is discussed and for the malignant neoplasms, tables highlighting the key immunohistochemical differences that may be helpful are provided. PMID:25608250
Blevins, F T
The rotator cuff is the primary dynamic stabiliser of the glenohumeral joint and is placed under significant stress during overhead and contact sports. Mechanisms of injury include repetitive microtrauma, usually seen in the athlete involved in overhand sports, and macrotrauma associated with contact sports. Rotator cuff injury and dysfunction in the overhand athlete may be classified based on aetiology as primary impingement, primary tensile overload, and secondary impingement and tensile overload resulting from glenohumeral instability. A thorough history and physical examination are paramount in the evaluation, classification and treatment planning of the athlete with rotator cuff pathology. Imaging studies are a helpful adjunct to the history and physical. Athletes with primary impingement are usually middle aged or older and often have chronic shoulder pain and sometimes weakness associated with overhand sporting activities. Night pain is typical of full thickness rotator cuff tears. Impingement signs are positive and strength of elevation and external rotation are often limited. They usually respond to a nonoperative rehabilitation programme centred on decreasing inflammation, restoring range of motion and strengthening the rotator cuff and scapular stabilisers. Depending on the degree of cuff pathology, acromioplasty, debridement of partial cuff tears, and repair of full thickness tears are usually successful in those who fail a rehabilitation programme. Overhand athletes with cuff pathology secondary to subtle anterior instability are usually young and complain of pain and decreased throwing velocity. Instability may be so subtle that it is only detectable through a positive relocation test on examination. The majority of these athletes do not have a Bankart lesion on magnetic resonance imaging or arthroscopic examination. Arthroscopic examination usually demonstrates anterior capsular laxity (positive 'drive-through' sign), as well as superior-posterior labral and cuff injury typical of internal impingement. If rehabilitation alone is not successful, a capsulolabral repair followed by rehabilitation may allow the athlete to return to their previous level of competition. The athlete with an acute episode of macrotrauma to the shoulder resulting in cuff pathology usually presents with pain, limited active elevation and a positive 'shrug sign'. Arthroscopy and debridement of thickened, inflamed or scarred subacromial bursa with cuff repair or debridement as indicated is usually successful in those who do not respond to a rehabilitation programme. PMID:9327536
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 65-year-old man is complaining of abdominal pain. Visitors are given the radiology, gross and microscopic descriptions, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostics, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older man suffering from chronic bronchitis and macrocytic anemia also developed persistent flu symptoms. Visitors view the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.
This is a clinical chemistry case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 57-year-old female has longstanding hypertension and peripheral vascular disease. Visitors are given catheterization procedure data and retroperitoneal ultrasound findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.
Clarke, Stephanie B.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Resick, Patricia A.
Many studies report that comorbid borderline personality pathology is associated with poorer outcomes in the treatment of Axis I disorders. Given the high rates of comorbidity between borderline personality pathology and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it is essential to determine whether borderline symptomatology affects PTSD treatment…
City Univ. of New York, Flushing. Queens Coll. Dept. of Communication Arts and Sciences.
Seven papers report on speech language pathology and audiology studies performed by graduate students. The first paper reports on intelligibility of two popular synthetic speech systems used in communication aids for the speech impaired, the Votrax Personal Speech System and the Echo II synthesizer. The second paper reports facilitation of tense…
T. Yamada; P. L. McGeer; E. G. McGeer
Twenty-six brains from persons with 6 neurodegenerative diseases were studied immunohistochemically to determine the relationship between complement-activated oligodendroglia (CAO), reactive microglia or macrophages, reactive astrocytes and abnormal neurites. The appearance of reactive microglia was well correlated with the appearance of reactive astrocytes. They were seen together in regions with severe pathology. Abnormal neurites were seen in almost every region examined
ADVERTISEMENT: ASSISTANT, ASSOCIATE OR FULL PROFESSOR OF PATHOLOGY OF CLINICAL HEMATOLOGY LABORATORY The Department of Pathology at Stanford University. Candidates must be board certified in clinical pathology, anatomic pathology or both
Sundberg, John P.; Ward, Jerrold M.; HogenEsch, Harm; Nikitin, Alexander Yu; Treuting, Piper M.; Macauley, John B.; Schofield, Paul N.
Expertise in the pathology of mice has expanded from traditional regulatory and drug safety screening (toxicologic pathology), primarily performed by veterinary pathologists to the highly specialized area of mouse research pathobiology performed by veterinary and medical pathologists encompassing phenotyping of mutant mice and analysis of research experiments exploiting inbred mouse strains and genetically engineered lines. With increasing use of genetically modified mice in research, mouse pathobiology and, by extension, expert mouse research-oriented pathologists have become integral to the success of basic and translational biomedical research. Training for today’s research-oriented mouse pathologist must go beyond knowledge of anatomic features of mice and strain-specific background diseases to the specialized genetic nomenclature, husbandry, and genetics, including the methodology of genetic engineering and complex trait analysis. While training can be accomplished through “apprenticeships” in formal programs, these are often heavily service-related and do not provide the necessary comprehensive training. Specialty courses and short term mentoring with expert specialists are opportunities that, when combined with active practice and publication, will lead to acquisition of the skills required for cutting-edge mouse-based experimental science. PMID:20817889
Neurons and synapses in the central nervous systems are very dynamic and plastic, and can undergo changes throughout life. Studies of molecular and cellular mechanisms of such changes not only provide important insight into how we learn and store new knowledge in our brains, but also reveal the mechanisms of pathological changes occurring following an injury. Here, we propose that while neuronal mechanisms underlying physiological functions such as learning and memory may share some common signalling molecules with abnormal or injury-related changes in the brain, distinct synaptic mechanisms are involved in pathological pain as compared with that of cognitive learning and memory. Using genetically altered mice and classic physiological approaches, we showed that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent, calcium-calmodulin-activated adenylyl cyclases (AC1 and AC8) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) play important roles in the induction and expression of persistent inflammatory and neuropathic pain. In contrast, acute pain was not significantly affected. Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV, which is widely expressed in central areas related to pain and memory, primarily contributes to injury-related fearful memory and emotional responses. Our studies suggest distinct signalling pathways are responsible for physiological responses to the injury, including behavioural, emotional and memory. PMID:15469048
Sundberg, J P; Ward, J M; HogenEsch, H; Nikitin, A Yu; Treuting, P M; Macauley, J B; Schofield, P N
Expertise in the pathology of mice has expanded from traditional regulatory and drug safety screening (toxicologic pathology) primarily performed by veterinary pathologists to the highly specialized area of mouse research pathobiology performed by veterinary and medical pathologists encompassing phenotyping of mutant mice and analysis of research experiments exploiting inbred mouse strains and genetically engineered lines. With increasing use of genetically modified mice in research, mouse pathobiology and, by extension, expert mouse research-oriented pathologists have become integral to the success of basic and translational biomedical research. Training for today's research-oriented mouse pathologist must go beyond knowledge of anatomic features of mice and strain-specific background diseases to the specialized genetic nomenclature, husbandry, and genetics, including the methodology of genetic engineering and complex trait analysis. While training can be accomplished through apprenticeships in formal programs, these are often heavily service related and do not provide the necessary comprehensive training. Specialty courses and short-term mentoring with expert specialists are opportunities that, when combined with active practice and publication, will lead to acquisition of the skills required for cutting-edge mouse-based experimental science. PMID:20817889
Wöller, W; Kruse, J
Pervasive personality disorders have been shown to be long-term sequelae of cumulative childhood physical and sexual traumatization. This finding is not reflected in DSM-IV and ICD-10 classifications where post-traumatic stress disorder is confined to intrusions, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal. However, there is growing evidence that trauma etiology should be taken into account in planning treatment for personality disorders. It is not yet clear whether childhood traumatization is more strongly associated with borderline personality disorder than with other personality disorders. The finding of a substantial overlap between borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder gives rise to discussions concerning the relationship of these two pathologies. PMID:14598033
Ramírez Pérez, A; Martínez López-Coterilla, M; Fajardo López, A; Lardelli Claret, A
The ordinary EEG, on only showing qualitative malfunction of abnormal graphoelements in the tracings, proves itself insufficient to go into the analysis of psychological and psycho-pathological problems. Since computerised studies of EEG permit quantitative comparisons, we tried to apply them in correlation with the characteristics of the personality classified also with quantitative criteria, such as those offered in the personality inventory 16 PF; from which have been chosen the so-called factors of the second order, and the subjectivity-objectivity factors. The test was carried out on 100 voluntary subjects from Almeria (Spain), all with High School grades, between 18 and 40 years of age, of both sexes, all right-handed, without neuro-psychiatric history, and with normal ordinary EEGs. From the statistical analysis of the results one could deduce that there are significant specific relationships from the computerised EEG, with those secondary polar values of 16 PF: high and low anxiety, extroversion-introversion. Subjects with low anxiety presented a significant increase of the alpha band opposed to the subjects with high anxiety. There is a significant differences in power of the frontal areas between extrovert and introvert subjects. The extroverted subjects have a greater power of the right side and the introverted subjects a greater power of the left. PMID:2698596
Aymamí, N.; Jiménez-Murcia, S.; Granero, R.; Ramos-Quiroga, J. A.; Fernández-Aranda, F.; Claes, L.; Sauvaget, A.; Grall-Bronnec, M.; Gómez-Peńa, M.; Savvidou, L. G.; Fagundo, A. B.; del Pino-Gutierrez, A.; Moragas, L.; Casas, M.; Penelo, E.; Menchón, J. M.
Objectives. (1) To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2) to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4) to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits. PMID:26229967
Aymamí, N; Jiménez-Murcia, S; Granero, R; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Fernández-Aranda, F; Claes, L; Sauvaget, A; Grall-Bronnec, M; Gómez-Peńa, M; Savvidou, L G; Fagundo, A B; Del Pino-Gutierrez, A; Moragas, L; Casas, M; Penelo, E; Menchón, J M
Objectives. (1) To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2) to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4) to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18-35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits. PMID:26229967
Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.
Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on personal finance is designed to provide all Marines with the ability to manage their financial affairs successfully. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students, a course introduction, and a study guide (guidelines to…
Dragicevic, Simo; Percy, Christian; Kudic, Aleksandar; Parke, Jonathan
As the popularity of internet gambling increases, the increased opportunities to participate serve to heighten concerns about the potential for gambling related harm. This paper focuses on self-exclusion as one of the main responsible gaming interventions, and is split into three sections. Firstly, we set out a three-tier model for assessing at-risk gambling behaviors which examines player exhibited, declared and inferred behavior. Secondly, we present a literature review relating to who self-excludes and whether self-exclusion is effective. Finally, we report the results of an analysis of the exhibited behavior of internet self-excluders as sampled from a research cohort of over 240,000 internet gaming accounts. Our analysis of self-excluders (N = 347) versus a control group (N = 871) of gamblers indicates self-excluders are younger than the control group, more likely to suffer losses and more likely to adopt riskier gambling positions. Unlike some previous studies, there was little difference in terms of mean gambling hours per month or minutes per session. Some self-excluders (N = 306) can be tracked from the date their account was created through their self-exclusion history, indicating a large number of very quick self-exclusions (e.g., 25 % within a day) and a small set of serial self-excluders. Younger and older males are likely to self-exclude faster than middle-aged males (N = 242), but there is no such age pattern across female self-excluders (N = 63). PMID:24276575
Miller, M C
Some general recommendations can be made, collected from these subjective descriptions of personality types. Because determining an accurate psychiatric diagnosis is not the internist's aim, it is better for him or her to have a stance that generalizes to all patients, which can be refined as personality characteristics emerge. Tolerate the patient's affect (such as anger or anxiety), being firm and kind, rather than punitive or overinvested. Accept dependency and vulnerability. Accept and respect the underlying coping style. Understand that the patient's personality style is the best (and usually only) way he or she knows to have a relationship, including a relationship with the physician. Understand that personality traits additionally may have a function (e.g., to guard against anxiety or depression). Recognize that personality traits do not come in pure form. One personality trait is likely to blend into or overlap with other traits. Identify and treat any underlying symptom disorder, such as anxiety, depression, irritability, or thought disorder. Educate the patient clearly (and without patronizing) about medical illness. Document what was explained to the patient and how the patient responded, including dispassionate observations about behavior and emotional expression. Appreciate the patient's possible attachment to medical symptoms. Avoid arguments with patients who make unreasonable demands. Make timely judgments about whether or not to accede to a demand. When in doubt about a patient's honesty, give the patient the benefit of the doubt. Do not worry about being used because all patients use their physicians to some extent. Go to the limits of your tolerance for a patient's personality, but know your limits and refer to a colleague when you cannot work with the patient. Terminate an interaction and get help if there is a risk (or fear) of violence. Given the time it takes to manage the relationship and the psychiatric elements of treatment, a referral to a psychiatrist or other mental health professional often is wise if the patient will accept it. Include the mental health professional as part of the medical team. Although these various recommendations have been emphasized in connection with certain personality types, one can be flexible about their application in a variety of patients. It is important also to reiterate the limits of subjective descriptions. It is rare to find any of the aforementioned subjective descriptions in unmodified form; characteristics of more than one personality type usually appear in the same person. The descriptions are composites that provide a starting point for the physician. The physician should edit the composites based on experience with real patients. This article has described human characteristics and rough guidelines for helpful human responses and possible pharmacologic interventions. So equipped, the primary care physician may find it less troubling and more interesting to face the wide variation in human character. PMID:11349486
Donoso, L A; Folberg, R; Magargal, L E; Dixon, P
In a study of over 700 cases of uveal melanoma on file in the Department of Pathology of Wills Eye Hospital, a low-cost microcomputer using commercially available software (without modification) was used to: word process and edit this manuscript, create a patient file storage and retrieval system including the ability to create subfiles, merge files, and interchange file types, plot data points in several different graphic formats, transcribe and store information from microscopic tissue sections containing intraocular melanomas, and solve complex equations including statistical analysis. The results showed that over 150 different ophthalmologists contributed specimens to this data base. The mean age of the patients studied was 57 years and the tumors were evenly distributed according to sex and laterality of the eye. This study illustrates the feasibility of using a low-cost microcomputer and commercially available software in the study of a large patient data base. PMID:4006449
Ellison, David W.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology where a boy aged 2 years presented with a swelling beneath the skin of the lower back, incontinence, bilateral leg weakness and a history of bilateral hip dislocation at birth. The case study provides imaging studies and histopathology in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old male with a past medical history significant for lymphoma (in remission). The patient is a health care worker who presented to the emergency room because of a dog bite. Visitors are given a patient history and culture findings, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.
Ma, Qi; Shen, Jun-Hui; Shen, Sheng-Rong; Das, Undurti N
Diabetic retinopathy is a common condition that occurs in patients with diabetes with long-standing hyperglycemia that is characterized by inappropriate angiogenesis. This pathological angiogenesis could be a sort of physiological proliferative response to injury by the endothelium. Recent studies suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a significant role in this angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic growth factor that plays a significant role in diabetic retinopathy. The interaction between VEGF and ROS, and theirs in turn with pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory bioactive lipid molecules such as lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins is particularly relevant to understand the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy and develop future therapeutic interventions. PMID:24188230
Braak, H; Braak, E; Yilmazer, D; de Vos, R A; Jansen, E N; Bohl, J; Jellinger, K
The amygdala undergoes severe pathological changes during the course of Parkinson's disease (PD). Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites are distributed in a specific manner throughout the nuclear complex. The lesional pattern displays only minor interindividual variation. The most prominent changes occur in the accessory cortical and central nuclei. The cortical, accessory basal and granular nuclei show less severe alterations, while the basal and lateral nuclei, as well as the intercalated cell masses, generally remain uninvolved. The amygdala receives a broad range of afferents, allowing integration of exteroceptive information with interoceptive data. It generates major projections to the isocortex (the prefrontal cortex in particular), limbic system (hippocampus and entorhinal region) and centers regulating endocrine and autonomic functions. The specific lesional pattern seen in PD destroys part of the nuclear gray matter and its connections and, thus, may likely contribute to the development of behavioral changes and autonomic dysfunctions. PMID:7879596
Wiggins, Roger C.; Alpers, Charles E.; Holzman, Lawrence B.; He, John C.; Salant, David J.; Chugh, Sumant S.; Natarajan, Rama; Trachtman, Howard; Brasile, Lauren; Star, Robert A.; Rys-Sikora, Krystyna E.; Moxey-Mims, Marva M.
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases–supported Kidney Research National Dialogue asked the scientific community to formulate and prioritize research objectives aimed at improved understanding of kidney function and disease progression. Over the past 2 years, 1600 participants posted almost 300 ideas covering all areas of kidney disease. An overriding theme that evolved through these discussions is the need to move beyond pathology to take advantage of basic science and clinical research opportunities to improve diagnostic classification and therapeutic options for people with primary glomerular disease. High-priority research areas included focus on therapeutic targets in glomerular endothelium and podocytes, regenerating podocytes through developmental pathways, use of longitudinal phenotypically defined disease cohorts to improve classification schemes, identifying biomarkers, disease-specific therapeutics, autoantibody triggers, and changing the clinical research culture to promote participation in clinical trials. Together, these objectives provide a path forward for improving clinical outcomes of glomerular disease. PMID:24700796
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a 43 year old man with a "seizure" of dizziness associated with difficulty in walking and performing simple movements. Visitors are provided with patient history along with neuroimaging and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.
A survey of U.K. secondary school children (aged 11–16 years) was undertaken to enquire into the prevalence of adolescent gambling and pathological gambling on fruit machines, and related behaviours. Sixty-two percent of the children gambled on fruit machines, 17.3% at least weekly and 5.7% pathologically. Pathological fruit machine gambling was correlated with gambling for money on other games, cigarette and
Nancy M Petry
This study evaluated behavioral and self-report indices of impulsiveness in pathological gambling substance abusers (n=27), non-pathological gambling substance abusers (n=63), and non-pathological gambling\\/non-substance abusing controls (n=21). The Bechara card task measured preferences for decks of cards that ranged in magnitude and probability of delayed and immediate rewards and punishers. The Stanford Time Perception Inventory (STPI) assessed orientation to the future,
K. A. Jellinger; Ludwig Boltzmann
Summary. Recent epidemiological and clinico-pathologic data suggest overlaps between Alzheimer disease (AD) and cerebrovascular lesions\\u000a that may magnify the effect of mild AD pathology and promote progression of cognitive decline or even may precede neuronal\\u000a damage and dementia.Vascular pathology in the aging brain and in AD includes: 1. cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) with an\\u000a incidence of 82–98% often associated with
The tumors of the central nervous system are classified according to the last international classification published by World Health Organization. The Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System was done on 2007, based on morphological features, growth pattern and molecular profile of neoplastic cells, defining malignancy grade. The neuropathological diagnosis and the grading of each histotype are based on identification of histopathological criteria and immunohistochemical data. The histopathology, also consisting of findings with prognostic or predictive relevance, plays a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors. The recent progresses on radiological, pathological, immunohistochemical, molecular and genetic diagnosis improved the characterization of brain tumors. Molecular and genetic profiles may identify different tumor subtypes varying in biological and clinical behavior. To investigate new therapeutic approaches is important to study the molecular pathways that lead the processes of proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, anaplastic transformation. Different molecular biomarkers were identified by genetic studies and some of these are used in neuro-oncology for the evaluation of glioma patients, in particular combined deletions of the chromosome arms 1p and 19q in oligodendroglial tumors, methylation status of the O-6 methylguanine- DNA methyltransferase gene promoter and alterations in the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway in adult malignant gliomas, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 gene mutations in diffuse gliomas, as well as BRAF status in pilocytic astrocytomas. The prognostic evaluation and the therapeutic strategies for patients depend on synthesis of clinical, pathological and biological data: histological diagnosis, malignancy grade, gene-molecular profile, radiological pictures, surgical resection and clinical findings (age, tumor location, "performance status"). PMID:22617234
Prosser, James M; Eisenberg, Daniel; Davey, Emily E; Steinfeld, Matthew; Cohen, Lisa J; London, Edythe D; Galynker, Igor I
Background Cognitive deficits and personality pathology are prevalent in opiate dependence, even during periods of remission, and likely contribute to relapse. Understanding the relationship between the two in vulnerable, opiate-addicted patients may contribute to the design of better treatment and relapse prevention strategies. Methods The Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory (MCMI) and a series of neuropsychological tests were administered to three subject groups: 29 subjects receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MM), 27 subjects in protracted abstinence from methadone maintenance treatment (PA), and 29 healthy non-dependent comparison subjects. Relationships between MCMI scores, neuropsychological test results, and measures of substance use and treatment were examined using bivariate correlation and regression analysis. Results MCMI scores were greater in subjects with a history of opiate dependence than in comparison subjects. A significant negative correlation between MCMI scores and neuropsychological test performance was identified in all subjects. MCMI scores were stronger predictors of neuropsychological test performance than measures of drug use. Conclusion Formerly methadone-treated opiate dependent individuals in protracted opiate abstinence demonstrate a strong relationship between personality pathology and cognitive deficits. The cause of these deficits is unclear and most likely multi-factorial. This finding may be important in understanding and interpreting neuropsychological testing deficiencies in opiate-dependent subjects. PMID:19019247
Warth, A; Endris, V; Penzel, R; Weichert, W
Lung cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer-related death in Germany in men and women alike. While in the last decades a classification of epithelial lung tumors into non-small cell and small cell lung cancer was clearly sufficient from the therapeutic viewpoint, the dawn of the era of personalized medicine together with tremendous developments in the field of high throughput technologies have led to a molecular individualization of these tumors and, even more important, to a molecularly defined individualization of tumor therapy. This development resulted in the definition of a wide array of molecularly divergent tumor families. In this article we will give an overview on relevant molecular alterations in non-small cell lung cancers, comprising adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas and large cell carcinomas and also small cell carcinomas and carcinoids. Besides some similarities data gathered in the last few years specifically highlighted the immense diversity of molecular alterations that might underlie tumorigenesis of lung neoplasms. The knowledge on how to detect these alterations is of utmost importance in pathology, as treatment decisions are increasingly based on their presence or absence, putting molecular pathology in the central focus of the novel era of personalized medicine in oncology. PMID:25106123
Vathana, Chhut Serey; Stauch, Gerhard
Cambodia is one of underserved countries in Southeast Asia and is still suffering from its terrible history in the last 30 years when no pathologist survived from the genocide of Khmer Rouge regime. Today only 8 pathologists, mostly under qualified, are on service for more than 14 million inhabitants. There are 8 laboratories diagnosing 25,000 to 27,000 histological specimens and non-gynecological cytology, and 24,000 to 25,000 Pap smear screening per year. All laboratories are commonly providing routine histology with most on HE, Giemsa, PAP, and PAS staining. Two laboratories have a capability to provide some immunohistochemistry staining, mostly for only some markers to differentiate lymphomas and carcinomas. At present, no frozen section and no autopsy can be done in Cambodia. All these 8 laboratories are concentrated in the capital city and there is no pathology laboratory in provinces. Four laboratories have established a telepathology or personally have connection to outside world via E-mail. We have two intentions to send the cases to experts: one is to confirm our own diagnosis, second is to discuss the difficult and complex cases with senior experts to get a hint of reliable diagnosis. One lab has built up a clinico-pathological teleconference (CPC) in order to get a good connection and discussion for difficult cases. However, we still have challenging to the limits of teleconsultation due to the available experts time even the optimal clinical information, macro-images, X-rays, CT-scans, MRI are together submitted with microscopic images. There is a gap between newly established therapeutic facility, (e.g., hormone therapy in breast cancer, chemotherapy in soft tissue tumor) and the poor histological and immunohistochemistry methods in the country. Another problem is a personal isolation of Cambodian pathologists with low economic situation who cannot frequently attend international meeting outside of the country. Therefore the training level of Cambodian pathologists cannot be adapted to the standard which is demanded worldwide for sufficient tumor therapy. PMID:25188194
As the volume of electronically available information grows, relevant items become harder to find. This work presents an approach to personalizing search results in scientific publication databases. This work focuses on re-ranking search results from existing search engines like Solr or ElasticSearch. This work also includes the development of Obelix, a new recommendation system used to re-rank search results. The project was proposed and performed at CERN, using the scientific publications available on the CERN Document Server (CDS). This work experiments with re-ranking using offline and online evaluation of users and documents in CDS. The experiments conclude that the personalized search result outperform both latest first and word similarity in terms of click position in the search result for global search in CDS.
The MicroPLB (personal locator beacon) is a search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) transmitter. When activated it emits a distress signal to a constellation of internationally operated satellites. The endangered person's identity and location anywhere on Earth is automatically forwarded to central monitoring stations around the world. It is accurate to within just a few meters. The user uses the device to download navigation data from a global positioning satellite receiver. After the download is complete, the MicroPLB functions as a self-locating beacon. Also, it is the only PLB to use a safe battery. In the past, other PLB devices have used batteries that have enough volatility to explode with extreme force. It was developed by Microwave Monolithic, Inc. through SBIR funding from Glenn Research Center and Goddard Space Flight Center.
Frank Tainte (American Phytopathological Society; )
Plant Pathology: Past to Present is an illustrated storybook describing the origin, relevance, and science of plant pathology. The story unfolds as if told by Anton deBary, father of plant pathology, and is suitable for elementary and secondary students to adults.
Gopal, Satish; Krysiak, Robert; Liomba, George
Until recently, the Malawian capital of Lilongwe was without diagnostic pathology services, which left many patients with cancer facing serious diagnostic delays. Through collaboration with the University of North Carolina and other partners, a pathology laboratory was successfully established at Kamuzu Central Hospital in July, 2011, providing an essential foundation for cancer diagnosis and research in the country's largest city. PMID:23561742
Kelly, T G; Faulkes, S V; Pierre, S K; Moe, D C; Chun, R H; Kelly, M S; Taylor, N R; Howlett, D C
A wide range of pathologies may arise from the submandibular space (SMS) or submandibular gland (SMG) in children. We review herein the normal anatomy of the SMS and describe the role of imaging in the evaluation of SMS lesions. A schematic approach for the categorisation of SMS pathology based on imaging characteristics is provided. PMID:25933720
Max Little; P. McSharry; I. Moroz; S. Roberts
This paper reports a simple nonlinear approach to online acoustic speech pathology detection for automatic screening purposes. Straightforward linear preprocessing followed by two nonlinear measures, based parsimoniously upon the biophysics of speech production, combined with subsequent linear classification, achieves an overall normal\\/pathological detection performance of 91.4%, and over 99% with rejection of 15% ambiguous cases. This compares favourably with more
L. S. Steinbach; J. O. Johnston; E. F. Tepper; G. D. Honda; W. Martel
Objective. Tumoral calcinosis is a frequently misdiagnosed disorder. This study details the radiologic and pathologic characteristics of tumoral calcinosis that distinguish it from most other entities. Design. Radiologic and pathologic findings, and medical records of 12 patients with tumoral calcinosis were re- viewed and compared with equivalent information about 5 patients with other calcified lesions. Patients. The 12 patients ranged
Rau, Don C.
Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Methyl Alcohol C00117E/00117-68 AMENDED PATHOLOGY ALCOHOL IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS CONDUCTED AT THE CANCER RESEARCH CENTER, EUROPEAN RAMAZZINI FOUNDATION Submitted to: National Toxicology Program Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 Submitted by: Experimental
Maria A. Mayorga
Primary blast injury occurs in civilian and military detonations and from the firing of weapon systems. The pathology of primary blast injury has been reported for the last 70 years and has primarily been limited to descriptions of gross pathology and histology. Commonly accepted tenets have not been confirmed as blast overpressure experiments in enclosures and with multiple detonations have
O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca
"Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand…
Gahr, M; Connemann, B J; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, C J
Problems with impulse control and pathological gambling are known as possible side effects of dopaminergic therapy in patients with Parkinson's disease. We report 2 cases of pathological gambling induced by dopamine agonists in patients without Parkinson's disease. The first patient, a 46-year-old man, was treated with ropinirole for restless legs syndrome and had lost huge amounts of money in the context of internet-based poker game. Another 46-year-old male patient developed pathological gambling under treatment with cabergoline administered for prolactinoma. The two cases implicate pathological gambling as a possible consequence of dopaminergic treatment and support the increasing evidence regarding pathological gambling as an adverse drug reaction of dopaminergic treatment, also in patients who do not suffer from Parkinson's disease. PMID:21809260
Alexander, Barbara T; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira
Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption, or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes, and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology, and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress, and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25880521
Brosens, Lodewijk A. A.; Hackeng, Wenzel M.; Offerhaus, G. Johan; Hruban, Ralph H.
Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease. At time of diagnosis the disease is usually advanced and only a minority of patients are eligible for surgical resection. The overall 5-year survival is 6%. However, survival of patients with early stage pancreatic cancer is significantly better. To improve the prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer, it is essential to diagnose and treat pancreatic cancer in the earliest stage. Prevention of pancreatic cancer by treating noninvasive precursor lesions just before they invade tissues can potentially lead to even better outcomes. Pancreatic carcinogenesis results from a stepwise progression in which accumulating genetic alterations drive neoplastic progression in well-defined precursor lesions, ultimately giving rise to an invasive adenocarcinoma. A thorough understanding of the genetic changes that drive pancreatic carcinogenesis can lead to identification of biomarkers for early detection and targets for therapy. Recent next-generation sequencing (NGS) studies have shed new light on our understanding of the natural history of pancreatic cancer and the precursor lesions that give rise to these cancers. Importantly, there is a significant window of opportunity for early detection and treatment between the first genetic alteration in a cell in the pancreas and development of full-blown pancreatic cancer. The current views on the pathology and genetics of pancreatic carcinogenesis that evolved from studies of pancreatic cancer and its precursor lesions are discussed in this review.
De Block, Andreas; Adriaens, Pieter R
This article provides a historical perspective on how both American and European psychiatrists have conceptualized and categorized sexual deviance throughout the past 150 years. During this time, quite a number of sexual preferences, desires, and behaviors have been pathologized and depathologized at will, thus revealing psychiatry's constant struggle to distinguish mental disorder--in other words, the "perversions," "sexual deviations," or "paraphilias"--from immoral, unethical, or illegal behavior. This struggle is apparent in the works of 19th- and early-20th-century psychiatrists and sexologists, but it is also present in the more recent psychiatric textbooks and diagnostic manuals, such as the consecutive editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). While much of the historical literature revolves around the controversy over homosexuality, this article also reviews the recent medicohistorical and sociohistorical work on other forms of sexual deviance, including the diagnostic categories listed in the latest edition, the DSM-IV-TR: exhibitionism, voyeurism, fetishism, frotteurism, pedophilia, sexual masochism, sexual sadism, and transvestic fetishism. PMID:23480073
Jaffe, Ronald; Trager, Jonathan D. K.; Zeevi, Adriana; Sonmez-Alpan, Eni; Duquesnoy, Rene; Todo, Satoru; Rowe, Marc; Starzl, Thomas E.
We report the diagnostic surgical pathology of two children who underwent multivisceral abdominal transplantation and survived for 1 month and 6 months. There is little relevant literature, and diagnostic criteria for the various clinical possibilities are not established; this is made more complicated by the simultaneous occurrence of more than one process. We based our interpretations on conventional histology, augmented with immunohistology, including HLA staining that distinguished graft from host cells in situ. In some instances functional analysis of T cells propagated from the same biopsies was available and was Used to corroborate morphological interpretations. A wide spectrum of changes was encountered. Graft-versus-host disease, a prime concern before surgery, was not seen. Rejection was severe in 1 patient, not present in the other, and both had evidence of lymphoproliferative disease, which was related to Epstein-Barr virus. Bacterial translocation through the gut wall was also feature in both children. This paper documents and illustrates the various diagonstic possibilities. PMID:2557597
Vandhuick, O; Pistorius, M A; Jousse, S; Ferreira-Maldent, N; Guilmot, J-L; Guias, B; Bressollette, L
Drug addiction which entails cardiovascular risks unknown or misknown to physicians, currently involves an increasing number of miscellaneous drugs, existing in manifold forms. There appears to be no bounds on the way of intake. All territories of the body may be affected with more or less severity. In young people, the cardiac, coronary, cerebral and peripheral vascular systems are generally involved. Two illicit drugs, cannabis and cocaine, showing a permanent increase in misuse, prevail. This drug addiction comes along with intercurrent pathologies which have their own vascular toxicity, especially HIV infection. Moreover, the advent of new illicit substances emphasizes the complexity of the clinical presentations. These complex situations have a real social and medical impact. We are currently in a phase of permanently increasing risk of cardiovascular complications. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved are intertwined and complicated by the frequent association of polytoxicomania or by the effects excipients added to these drugs: direct vascular toxicity, angeitis, arterial and venous thrombosis. Arsenic, a common component of these drugs, is also found in cigarettes; arsenic toxicity mainly affects the lower limbs. Treatment of these complications is non-specific; the ideal solution being weaning which, unfortunately in this peculiar population of patients, may entail serious complications due to the misuse of substitution products. PMID:15738835
Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M
Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington. PMID:22953032
Bullock, Scott A; Potenza, Marc N
Pathological gambling (PG) affects about 0.2-2% of adults and the impact extends to family members, employers and society as a whole. Recent research has identified similarities in the pathophysiologies of PG and substance use disorders (SUDs). As such, findings regarding SUDs provide a framework for investigating PG. The aims of the manuscript are two-fold. First, we will briefly revivew neural systems implicated in PG. Cortico-limbic circuitry involving the ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are discussed as are the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioids, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This background will provide a framework for reviewing the psychopharmacological treatments that have been tested for efficacy and safety in treating PG. Of medications, the strongest data suggest the efficacy and tolerability of opioid antagonists in the treatment of PG, and other agents have varying degree of empirical support. As behavioral therapies have also shown efficacy, they will be briefly considered as well. Future research is needed to understand how treatments work in PG and for whom specific treatments might work best. PMID:24349964
Neurological diseases include those caused by a single defective gene,e.g., Huntington's disease, other polyglutamine diseases, and muscular dystrophies, and those that are mostly sporadic but rarely show Mendelian inheritance in some families, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and epilepsy. The latter diseases are considered polygenic disorders. Both sporadic and Mendelian cases of these diseases are believed to share some common pathological mechanisms. Since the detection of causal genes for the Mendelian cases, studies have been initiated on disease pathology. SNPs and rare gene variants play important roles in common neurological diseases. From a technological perspective, next-generation sequencers have become widely available and have contributed to the advancement of research based on individual genome sequences (personal genome). This paper presents an overview, as well as a historical context, of the contribution of personal genome research to neurological disease studies. PMID:23475514
Namrata, Raylu; Oei, Tian P. S.
Factors (demographics, gambling behaviors and comorbid problems) that may be related to the severity of gambling problems were investigated among 440 problem gamblers seeking treatment in an Australian outpatient treatment agency. The participants were divided into sub-threshold pathological gamblers (SPGs; N = 104) and pathological gamblers (PGs;…
Student Fellowship Program in Pathology Pathology 40% Non Pathology 60% Unique work in Anatomic and/or Clinical Pathology in which the student fellow takes on clinical responsibilities student fellows: Caroline Sloan, Anders Meyer, Crystal Magno #12;Student Fellowship Program in Pathology
Structural Geology and Personal Computers #12;Struetura1 Geology and Personal Computers Edited of Congress. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Structural geology and personal computers. Furthermore, a 167 #12;Structural Geology and Personal Computers classification ofmantle textures and related
Melzack, R; Coderre, T J; Katz, J; Vaccarino, A L
The traditional specificity theory of pain perception holds that pain involves a direct transmission system from somatic receptors to the brain. The amount of pain perceived, moreover, is assumed to be directly proportional to the extent of injury. Recent research, however, indicates far more complex mechanisms. Clinical and experimental evidence shows that noxious stimuli may sensitize central neural structures involved in pain perception. Salient clinical examples of these effects include amputees with pains in a phantom limb that are similar or identical to those felt in the limb before it was amputated, and patients after surgery who have benefited from preemptive analgesia which blocks the surgery-induced afferent barrage and/or its central consequences. Experimental evidence of these changes is illustrated by the development of sensitization, wind-up, or expansion of receptive fields of CNS neurons, as well as by the enhancement of flexion reflexes and the persistence of pain or hyperalgesia after inputs from injured tissues are blocked. It is clear from the material presented that the perception of pain does not simply involve a moment-to-moment analysis of afferent noxious input, but rather involves a dynamic process that is influenced by the effects of past experiences. Sensory stimuli act on neural systems that have been modified by past inputs, and the behavioral output is significantly influenced by the "memory" of these prior events. An increased understanding of the central changes induced by peripheral injury or noxious stimulation should lead to new and improved clinical treatment for the relief and prevention of pathological pain. PMID:12000018
Sven Barnow; Elisabeth A. Arens; Simkje Sieswerda; Ramona Dinu-Biringer; Carsten Spitzer; Simone Lang
Early views of borderline personality disorder (BPD) were based on the idea that patients with this pathology were “on the\\u000a border” of psychosis. However, more recent studies have not supported this view, although they have found evidence of a malevolent\\u000a interpersonal evaluation and a significant proportion of BPD patients showing psychotic symptoms. For example, in one study,\\u000a 24% of BPD
For this homework assignment, students have to draw two scaled timelines. The first is a personal timeline. They need to come up with the events themselves, an easy task that will build confidence for student who are intimidated by science and math. Following guidelines, they decide on a scale, and draw a linear timeline on which they plot their chosen events. Most students will primarily include recent events. They are asked to identify and explain any patterns in their timeline. Students should note the clustering at the present, and describe the emphasis on the present as resulting from memory, relevance to future hopes and worries, etc. The second timeline is more traditional. The students are given 16 Earth history events with dates and asked to draw another timeline, using the procedure from the personal timeline, but the line is already drawn for them. They will probably recognize most of the events on the list, and will be keeping them in order and spacing them out on the timeline. They are once again asked to identify and explain patterns and should recognize the emphasis on the present. This time, availability of fossils/rocks and relevance to current conditions and problems are good answers.
Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie
Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment. Results In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time. Conclusions We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management. PMID:24146789
Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S
Pathological narcissism is a form of maladaptive self-regulation that impedes the capacity to love. Although narcissism is often construed as excessive self-love, individuals with pathological narcissism are impaired in being able to love themselves as well as others. With the subject of impaired love in mind, we review selected conceptualizations from an enormous and diverse psychodynamic literature on narcissism. Major theoretical approaches illustrate a number of psychodynamics associated with narcissistic self-regulatory problems. This paper provides a concise overview of major conceptual themes regarding pathological narcissism and impaired capacity to love. PMID:24555464
Binnetoglu, Emine; Komurcu, Erkam; Sen, Hacer; Kizildag, Betul
Fractures of the femoral neck are rare and usually result from serious and high-energy trauma in the skeleton in young adults. Gaucher's disease (GD) is a lysosomal storage disorder that has progressive course and is rarely seen. Research has shown that a pathological femoral neck fracture with GD mostly emerges in childhood. But in adults, there are no reports of pathological femoral neck fractures with GD. We present a unique case of GD with a pathological femoral neck fracture in a 54-year-old woman who did not undergo surgery because of haematological problems including thrombocytopaenia. PMID:23997081
Hanna, Matthew G; Pantanowitz, Liron
Bar coding and specimen tracking are intricately linked to pathology workflow and efficiency. In the pathology laboratory, bar coding facilitates many laboratory practices, including specimen tracking, automation, and quality management. Data obtained from bar coding can be used to identify, locate, standardize, and audit specimens to achieve maximal laboratory efficiency and patient safety. Variables that need to be considered when implementing and maintaining a bar coding and tracking system include assets to be labeled, bar code symbologies, hardware, software, workflow, and laboratory and information technology infrastructure as well as interoperability with the laboratory information system. This article addresses these issues, primarily focusing on surgical pathology. PMID:26065787
This article presents a review of the book: Telepractice in Speech-Language Pathology, authored by K. Todd Houston, PhD, CCC-SLP, LSLS Cert. AVT and 20 contributing authors. This is the first book entirely devoted to the delivery of speech-language pathology services at a distance. It provides practical information including technical requirements, policy and regulatory issues, current applications in speech-language pathology, international perspectives on practice, and tele-supervision. Reviewer Dr. Jean Blosser highly recommends the work as a comprehensive resource on the topic of telepractice.
This is a head & neck pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old male has an increasing neck mass with a choking feeling. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in head and neck pathology.
This is a transfusion pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 3-week-old female has hemangioma and severe thrombocytopenia. Visitors are given laboratory values and images, and are granted the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transfusion pathology medicine.
Rao, Uma N. M.
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with a painless mass in his right medial thigh, without an incidence of trauma. Visitors can view pathological findings, including images, to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.
Giuliani, Michael J.
This is a skeletal muscle pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 48 year old women has chronic myalgias. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in skeletal muscle pathology medicine.
This is a genitourinary pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 84-year-old man has a bladder outlet obstruction. Visitors are given microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.
Ashish, Naveen; Dahm, Lisa; Boicey, Charles
We describe Pathology Extraction Pipeline (PEP)--a new Open Health Natural Language Processing pipeline that we have developed for information extraction from pathology reports, with the goal of populating the extracted data into a research data warehouse. Specifically, we have built upon Medical Knowledge Analysis Tool pipeline (MedKATp), which is an extraction framework focused on pathology reports. Our particular contributions include additional customization and development on MedKATp to extract data elements and relationships from cancer pathology reports in richer detail than at present, an abstraction layer that provides significantly easier configuration of MedKATp for extraction tasks, and a machine-learning-based approach that makes the extraction more resilient to deviations from the common reporting format in a pathology reports corpus. We present experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of our pipeline for information extraction in a real-world task, demonstrating performance improvement due to our approach for increasing extractor resilience to format deviation, and finally demonstrating the scalability of the pipeline across pathology reports for different cancer types. PMID:25155030
...2013-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...
...2012-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...
...2010-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...
...2014-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...
...2011-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...
James MacKillop; Emily J. Anderson; Bryan A. Castelda; Richard E. Mattson; Peter J. Donovick
The present study investigated the convergent validity of the Gamblers' Beliefs Questionnaire (GBQ; T. A. Steenbergh, A. W. Meyers, R. K. May, & J. P. Whelan, 2002), Gambling Passion Scale (GPS; F. Rousseau, R. J. Vallerand, C. F. Ratelle, G. Mageau, & P. J. Provencher, 2002), Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire (EIQ; S. B. G. Eysenck & H. J. Eysenck, 1978), and
Daley, Monica A.
PATHOLOGY & DIAGNOSTIC LABORATORIES THE ROYAL VETERINARY COLLEGE Hawkshead Lane North Mymms Herts but for individual cremation additional fees will apply. VETERINARY PRACTICE: NAME & ADDRESS VET SURGEON: TEL: FAX: E FOR DIAGNOSTIC PURPOSES Signature of veterinary surgeon responsible for this case
Campbell, Kevin P.
CLINICAL AND MOLECULAR PATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF SEVERE CHILDHOOD AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE MUSCULAR Campbell Severe childhood autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy (SCARMD) has recently been identified (1982 to 1993) at a large referral centre in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It also examines the status
Journal of Dental Education, 1987
Guidelines for structuring a pathology curriculum for dental hygienists include: definition of the field and its subfields; relationships with other fields; primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives; and suggestions for sequencing, faculty, facilities, and occupational safety. (MSE)
Puls, Florian; Niblett, Angela J; Mangham, D Chas
Alongside histomorphology and immunohistochemistry, molecular pathology is now established as one of the cornerstones in the tissue diagnosis of bone tumours. We describe the principal molecular pathological techniques employed, and each of the bone tumour entities where their identified characteristic molecular pathological changes can be detected to support and confirm the suspected histological diagnosis. Tumours discussed include fibrous dysplasia, classical and subtype osteosarcomas, central and surface cartilaginous tumours, Ewing's sarcoma, vascular tumours, aneurysmal bone cyst, chordoma, myoepithelioma, and angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma. This is a rapidly evolving field with discoveries occurring every few months, and some of the newer entities (the Ewing's-like sarcomas), which are principally identified by their molecular pathology characteristics, are discussed. PMID:24428620
Disease Pathology: Wasting Energy Fighting Infection Drosophila melanogaster infected symptom of advanced tuberculosis is profound wasting, a loss of body mass and energy stores so severe slowly, express energy metabolism genes at closer-to-normal levels, and waste s
Ottinger, T; Rasmusson, B; Segerstad, C H A; Merck, M; Goot, F V D; Olsén, L; Gavier-Widén, D
To investigate the current status of forensic veterinary pathology, a survey was composed directed at pathology laboratories and institutes, mostly in Europe. The questions included number of and type of cases, resources available, level of special training of the investigating pathologists and the general view on the current status and future of the discipline. The surveys were sent to 134 laboratories and were returned by 72 respondents of which 93 per cent work on forensic pathology cases. The results indicate scarcity of training opportunities and special education, and insufficient veterinary-specific reference data and information on forensic analyses. More cooperation with human forensic pathology was desired by many respondents, as was more interaction across country borders. PMID:25013083
Park, Seung Lyung; Pantanowitz, Liron; Sharma, Gaurav; Parwani, Anil Vasdev
The modern anatomic pathology laboratory depends on a reliable information infrastructure to register specimens, record gross and microscopic findings, regulate laboratory workflow, formulate and sign out report(s), disseminate them to the intended recipients across the whole health system, and support quality assurance measures. This infrastructure is provided by the Anatomical Pathology Laboratory Information Systems (APLIS), which have evolved over decades and now are beginning to support evolving technologies like asset tracking and digital imaging. As digital pathology transitions from "the way of the future" to "the way of the present," the APLIS continues to be one of the key effective enablers of the scope and practice of pathology. In this review, we discuss the evolution, necessary components, architecture and functionality of the APLIS that are crucial to today's practicing pathologist and address the demands of emerging trends on the future APLIS. PMID:22313836
;Dear Applicants, Graduate Students, Faculty Members and Supervisors: The Department of Laboratory Medicine & Pathology (LMP) graduate studies program is proud to offer its students a multidisciplinary research environment where collaborations between clinical and basic research faculty promotes creativity
Nadeau, Dominic; Giroux, Isabelle; Dufour, Julie; Simard, Martine
Pathological gambling implies an inadequate, persistent and chronic practice of gambling which has major impact on affected individuals, their families and the society (APA, 2003). Many risk factors of social, psychological and biological nature contribute to the development of pathological gambling. New populations have been found to be at risk to develop pathological gambling : patients who suffer of Parkinson Disease's. Development of pathological gambling in those patients would mainly be related to the medication used to treat Parkinson Disease's, dopaminergic agonist. Numerous neurological studies have been conducted on the subject since recent years, but few psychologists know this problem and almost no studies have been made to understand the psychological aspect of this problem. PMID:23254833
Palmer, Kate Salley
The American Phytopathological Society (APS) has recently launched an illustrated, narrated version of "Plant Pathology: Past to Present" -- a storybook written by plant pathologists to "help people and young students, in particular, to understand the importance of plant diseases." Visitors follow Heinrich Anton deBary, the "Father of Plant Pathology," on a virtual tour of plant diseases and their impact on human history. English and Spanish versions of the story cover everything from wheat rust fungus to tulip break and beyond.