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1

Exploring Facets of Personality and Escapism in Pathological Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored facets of personality between pathological gamblers (n = 69) and nonpathological gamblers (n = 55) in a convenience sample in Los Angeles, California. Pathological gamblers were more prone to mood disturbance, impulsivity, feelings of frustration, interpersonal sensitivity, vulnerability to distress, and distrust of others as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised. Pathological gamblers also reported diminished competence

Rory C. Reid; Desiree S. Li; Jean Lopez; Michael Collard; Iman Parhami; Reef Karim; Timothy Fong

2011-01-01

2

Investigating facets of personality in adult pathological gamblers with ADHD  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The present study explored facets of personality in a sample of pathological gamblers with ADHD (n = 52) and without ADHD (n = 43). Participants were assessed for psychopathology and gambling disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Facets of personality were assessed using the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised. Group differences emerged across several facets of personality when analyzed using multivariate statistics. Although both groups experienced difficulties in several areas compared with norming data (e.g., greater depression, higher impulsivity, lower self-esteem and lower self-discipline), these facets of personality were more pronounced in pathological gamblers with ADHD. Most notable among these differences are tendencies for gamblers with ADHD to experience greater levels of emotional instability, interpersonal sensitivity and stress proneness. Pathological gamblers with ADHD also appear to experience lower self-esteem, greater difficulty being assertive and lower levels of self-discipline. Surprisingly, both groups were comparable on facets of impulsivity. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers diagnosed with adult ADHD may experience additional challenges compared with pathological gamblers without ADHD.

Davtian, Margarit; Reid, Rory C; Fong, Timothy W

2012-01-01

3

Are online pathological gamblers different from non-online pathological gamblers on demographics, gambling problem severity, psychopathology and personality characteristics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare online pathological gamblers (OPG) to non-online pathological gamblers (non-OPG) in terms of gambling behaviour, socio-demographic features, psychopathology and personality characteristics. A large sample of 1015 pathological gambling (PG) patients consecutively admitted to our Pathological Gambling Unit participated in the study. There were very few differences between OPGs and non-OPGs, limited to OPGs

Susana Jiménez-Murcia; Randy Stinchfield; Fernando Fernández-Aranda; Juan José Santamaría; Eva Penelo; Roser Granero; Mónica Gómez-Peña; Neus Aymamí; Laura Moragas; Antonio Soto; José M. Menchón

2011-01-01

4

Professional and pathological gamblers: similarities and differences.  

PubMed

Although much recent research has focused on the gambling practices and psychosocial functioning of pathological gamblers, few investigations have examined the characteristics of professional gamblers. The current project sought to address this gap in the literature by conducting a quantitative comparison of professional and pathological gamblers. Pathological gamblers were recruited and balanced with professional gamblers on demographic variables and preferred gambling activity. A total of 22 professional gamblers and 13 pathological gamblers completed an extensive self-report battery including instruments assessing demographics, gambling behaviors and problems, other psychiatric disorders, current psychosocial functioning, recent stressful events, personality characteristics, and intelligence. Pathological and professional gamblers reported similar rates of gambling frequency and intensity and types of games played. Pathological gamblers endorsed poor psychosocial functioning, whereas professional gamblers reported a rate of psychiatric distress within a normative range. Pathological gamblers also reported lower gambling self-efficacy, greater impulsivity, and more past-year DSM-IV Axis I disorders than professional gamblers. The results of the present study shed light on the unique circumstances of professional gamblers, as well as underscore important differences between such individuals and pathological gamblers that could prove fruitful in future research and intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:22581197

Weinstock, Jeremiah; Massura, Carrie E; Petry, Nancy M

2013-06-01

5

Cognitive treatment of pathological gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the efficacy of a cognitive treatment for pathological gambling. Five pathological gamblers were treated in a multiple baseline across subjects design. Cognitive correction targeted the erroneous perceptions towards the notion of randomness. Four subjects reported a clinically significant decrease in the urge to gamble, an increase in their perception of control, and no longer met the DSM-IV

Robert Ladouceur; Caroline Sylvain; Hélène Letarte; Isabelle Giroux; Christian Jacques

1998-01-01

6

Delay discounting by pathological gamblers.  

PubMed Central

Discounting of delayed rewards by pathological gamblers was compared to discounting of delayed rewards by matched control nongambling participants. All participants completed a hypothetical choice task in which they made repeated choices between dollars 1,000 available after a delay and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The delay to the large amount of money was varied from 1 week to 10 years across conditions. Indifference points between immediate money and delayed money were identified at each delay condition by varying the amount of immediate money across choice trials. For the majority of participants, indifference points decreased monotonically across delays. Overall, gamblers discounted the delayed rewards more steeply than did control participants.

Dixon, Mark R; Marley, Janice; Jacobs, Eric A

2003-01-01

7

Types of Psychotherapy for Pathological Gamblers  

PubMed Central

Several types of psychotherapy are currently used to treat pathological gamblers. These include Gambler's Anonymous, cognitive behavioral therapy, behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, and family therapy. Research into which types of psychotherapy are the most effective for pathological gambling is limited but is a growing area of study. Group therapy, namely Gambler's Anonymous, provides peer support and structure. Cognitive behavior therapy aims to identify and correct cognitive distortions about gambling. Psychodynamic psychotherapy can help recovering gamblers address core conflicts and hidden psychological meanings of gambling. Family therapy is helpful by providing support and education and eliminating enabling behaviors. To date, no single type of psychotherapy has emerged as the most effective form of treatment. As in other addictive disorders, treatment retention of pathological gamblers is highly variable. Understanding the types of psychotherapy that are available for pathological gamblers, as well their underlying principles, will assist clinicians in managing this complex behavioral disorder.

2005-01-01

8

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pathological Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Few studies have evaluated efficacy of psychotherapies for pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (N = 231) were randomly assigned to (a) referral to Gamblers Anonymous (GA), (b) GA referral plus a cognitive-behavioral (CB) workbook, or (c) GA referral plus 8 sessions of individual CB therapy. Gambling and related problems were assessed…

Petry, Nancy M.; Ammerman, Yola; Bohl, Jaime; Doersch, Anne; Gay, Heather; Kadden, Ronald; Molina, Cheryl; Steinberg, Karen

2006-01-01

9

Cue reactivity in active pathological, abstinent pathological, and regular gamblers.  

PubMed

Twenty-one treatment-seeking pathological gamblers, 21 pathological gamblers in recovery, and 21 recreational gamblers watched two video-taped exciting gambling scenarios and an exciting roller-coaster control scenario while their arousal (heart rate and subjective excitement) and urge to gamble were being measured. The gamblers did not differ significantly in cue-elicited heart rate elevations or excitement. However, the active pathological gamblers reported significantly greater urges to gamble across all cues compared to the abstinent pathological gamblers and, with marginal significance (p = 0.06), also compared to the social gamblers. Further exploration of these findings revealed that active pathological gamblers experience urges to gamble in response to exciting situations, whether or not they are gambling related, whereas abstinent and social gamblers only report urges to an exciting gambling-related cue. This suggests that for pathological gamblers excitement itself, irrespective of its source, may become a conditioned stimulus capable of triggering gambling behavior. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:19662519

Sodano, Ruthlyn; Wulfert, Edelgard

2009-08-07

10

Future time perspective in pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

The hypothesis that pathological gambling is associated with shortened time horizons was investigated by administering the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) and the Future Time Perspective Inventory (FPTI) to a group of pathological gamblers and two comparison groups, psychiatric day patients and social gamblers. The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) was used to assess the severity of the participants' gambling. Sixty-six participants were recruited, of which 35 were women. The mean age of participants was 39 years. Results showed significantly shorter time horizons in pathological versus social gamblers but few differences between pathological gamblers and psychiatric patients. These results suggest that shortened time horizons are not a unique feature of addicted populations. The role of psychological distress as a possible explanatory variable is discussed. PMID:12436018

Hodgins, David C; Engel, Amy

2002-11-01

11

Ego strength and achievement motivation in pathological gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that there area priori reasons to extract measures of ego strength and achievement motivation from the psychometric data base routinely collected from inpatient pathological gambers in order to clarify the meaning of these constructs and to evaluate their roles in personality organization. A sample of 57 subjects engaged in an inpatient treatment program for pathological gamblers was

Julian I. Taber; Angel M. Russo; Bonnie J. Adkins; Richard A. McCormick

1986-01-01

12

Subtyping pathological gamblers based on impulsivity, depression and anxiety  

PubMed Central

This study examined putative subtypes of pathological gamblers (PGs) based on the Pathways Model, and it also evaluated whether the subtypes would benefit differentially from treatment. Treatment-seeking PGs (N = 229) were categorized into Pathways subtypes based on scores from questionnaires assessing anxiety, depression and impulsivity. The Addiction Severity Index Gambling assessed severity of gambling problems at baseline, post-treatment and 12-month follow-up. Compared with Behaviorally Conditioned (BC) gamblers, Emotionally Vulnerable (EV) gamblers had higher psychiatric and gambling severity, and were more likely to have a parent with a psychiatric history. Antisocial Impulsive (AI) gamblers also had elevated gambling and psychiatric severity relative to BC gamblers. They were more likely to have antisocial personality disorder and had the highest legal and family/social severity scores. They were also most likely to have a history of substance abuse treatment, history of inpatient psychiatric treatment, and a parent with a substance use or gambling problem. AI and EV gamblers experienced greater gambling severity throughout treatment than BC gamblers, but all three subtypes demonstrated similar patterns of treatment response. Thus, the three Pathways subtypes differ based on some baseline characteristics, but subtyping did not predict treatment outcomes beyond a simple association with problem gambling severity.

Ledgerwood, David M.; Petry, Nancy M.

2010-01-01

13

The Family Functioning of Female Pathological Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The available evidence suggests that pathological gambling significantly disrupts family relationships and has a substantial impact on family members. However, these conclusions are based almost exclusively on male pathological gamblers and their female spouses or partners. The current study, which was a secondary study derived from a treatment…

Dowling, Nicki; Smith, David; Thomas, Trang

2009-01-01

14

Decision making in pathological gambling: A comparison between pathological gamblers, alcohol dependents, persons with Tourette syndrome, and normal controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decision making deficits play an important role in the definition of pathological gambling (PG). However, only few empirical studies are available regarding decision making processes in PG. This study therefore compares decision making processes in PG and normal controls in detail using three decision making tasks examining general performance levels on these tasks as well as feedback processing using reaction

Anna E. Goudriaan; Jaap Oosterlaan; Edwin de Beurs; Wim van den Brink

2005-01-01

15

Contextual Control of Delay Discounting by Pathological Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study demonstrated the relative impact of gambling and nongambling contexts on the degree of delay discounting by pathological gamblers. We used a delay-discounting task with 20 pathological gamblers in and out of the natural context in which they regularly gambled. For 16 of the 20 participants, it appeared that the difference of…

Dixon, Mark R.; Jacobs, Eric A.; Sanders, Scott

2006-01-01

16

Retaining Pathological Gamblers in Cognitive Behavior Therapy through Motivational Enhancement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Treatment for pathological gambling is in its infancy. Several cognitive and behavioral interventions have shown promise, but high attrition and relapse rates suggest that gamblers requesting treatment are not uniformly committed to change. This article describes an exploratory study with 9 severe pathological gamblers--in their majority horse…

Wulfert, Edelgard; Blanchard, Edward B.; Freidenberg, Brian M.; Martell, Rebecca S.

2006-01-01

17

Antisocial personality disorder and pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of antisocial personality disorder and its relationship to criminal offenses in pathological gamblers was investigated. A semi-structured interview schedule containing DSM-III criteria for antisocial personality and the California Psychological Inventory Socialisation subscale was administered to a sample of 306 pathological gamblers. Of the total sample, 35% reported no offense. Forty eight percent admitted to the commission of a

Alex P. Blaszczynski; Neil McConaghy

1994-01-01

18

Group therapy for pathological gamblers: a cognitive approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the efficacy of a group cognitive treatment for pathological gambling. Gamblers, meeting DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling, were randomly assigned to treatment (N=34) or wait-list control (N=24) conditions. Cognitive correction techniques were used first to target gamblers’ erroneous perceptions about randomness, and then to address issues of relapse prevention. The dependent measures used were the DSM-IV criteria

R. Ladouceur; C. Sylvain; C. Boutin; S. Lachance; C. Doucet; J. Leblond

2003-01-01

19

Obsessive-Compulsive Features in Pathological Lottery and Scratch-Ticket Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of this study support the notion that pathological gamblers drawn from the community would score higher on all three scores from the YBOCS than light gamblers. Consistent with hypotheses, pathological gamblers (lottery and scratch ticket) reported more obsessions, compulsions, and avoidance behavior than the light gamblers, and also reported having more urges to engage in injurious behaviors to

Randy O. Frost; Beth M. Meagher; John H. Riskind

2001-01-01

20

Subtyping Pathological Gamblers Based on Impulsivity, Depression, and Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined putative subtypes of pathological gamblers (PGs) based on the Pathways model, and it also evaluated whether the subtypes would benefit differentially from treatment. Treatment-seeking PGs (N = 229) were categorized into Pathways subtypes based on scores from questionnaires assessing anxiety, depression, and impulsivity. The Addiction Severity Index—Gambling assessed severity of gambling problems at baseline, posttreatment, and 12-month

David M. Ledgerwood; Nancy M. Petry

2010-01-01

21

Increased CSF Homocysteine in Pathological Gamblers Compared with Healthy Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Neurocognitive disturbances suggesting a frontal lobe dysfunction have been observed in pathological gamblers and alcohol dependents. Given that a high homocysteine level has been suggested to be a mediating factor in alcohol-related cognitive decline, we have determined homocysteine and cobalamine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from 11…

Nordin, Conny; Sjodin, Ingemar

2009-01-01

22

Altering the Magnitude of Delay Discounting by Pathological Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study explored the delay discounting of future and past monetary rewards by pathological gamblers. Using a multiple baseline design, following repeated exposure to choices between smaller immediate and larger delayed consequences, participants completed a relational responding task that attempted to alter the psychological functions…

Dixon, Mark R.; Holton, Bethany

2009-01-01

23

Stages of Change in Treatment-Seeking Pathological Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The transtheoretical model has been applied to many addictive disorders. In this study, psychometrics properties of the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) scale were evaluated in 234 pathological gamblers initiating treatment. Four components were identified--reflective of precontemplation, contemplation, action, and maintenance…

Petry, Nancy M.

2005-01-01

24

Patterns of substance abuse among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance abuse patterns were reviewed for a group of patients admitted to the Gambling Treatment Program at the Brecksville Veterans Administration Medical Center.A retrospective chart review of 113 consecutively admitted patients between September 2000 and September 2001 found that 66.4% of pathological gamblers had a lifetime history of substance abuse or dependence at some point in their lives. A history

Otto Kausch

2003-01-01

25

Heart Rate Increase to Alcohol Administration and Video Lottery Terminal Play Among Probable Pathological Gamblers and Nonpathological Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined heart-rate responses to alcohol consumption and video lottery terminal (VLT) play. Regular VLT players (30 probable pathological gamblers [PPGs]; 30 nonpathological gamblers [NPGs]) were randomized to an alcohol (mean postdrinking blood alcohol concentration = 0.056%) or placebo condition. Heart rate was recorded at pre- and postdrinking baselines and during VLT play. Consistent with an earlier study (S.

Sherry H. Stewart; Jordan B. Peterson; Pamela Collins; Shondalee Eisnor; Michael Ellery

2006-01-01

26

Pathological gamblers are more vulnerable to the illusion of control in a standard associative learning task.  

PubMed

An illusion of control is said to occur when a person believes that he or she controls an outcome that is uncontrollable. Pathological gambling has often been related to an illusion of control, but the assessment of the illusion has generally used introspective methods in domain-specific (i.e., gambling) situations. The illusion of control of pathological gamblers, however, could be a more general problem, affecting other aspects of their daily life. Thus, we tested them using a standard associative learning task which is known to produce illusions of control in most people under certain conditions. The results showed that the illusion was significantly stronger in pathological gamblers than in a control undiagnosed sample. This suggests (1) that the experimental tasks used in basic associative learning research could be used to detect illusions of control in gamblers in a more indirect way, as compared to introspective and domain-specific questionnaires; and (2), that in addition to gambling-specific problems, pathological gamblers may have a higher-than-normal illusion of control in their daily life. PMID:23785340

Orgaz, Cristina; Estévez, Ana; Matute, Helena

2013-06-17

27

Executive Function in Pathological Gamblers and Healthy Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive function (EF) deficits may underlie some of the impulse control problems seen in pathological gambling. Pathological\\u000a gamblers (PGs, n = 45) and controls (n = 45) were compared on several measures of EF (including measures of response inhibition, working memory, cognitive flexibility\\u000a and perseveration, planning and decision-making), as well as memory and intelligence tests to examine whether PGs evidence\\u000a EF dysfunction. Compared with

David M. LedgerwoodEmily; Emily S. Orr; Kristen A. Kaploun; Aleks Milosevic; G. Ron Frisch; Nicholas Rupcich; Leslie H. Lundahl

28

Frequency of gambling problems among parents of pathological, versus nonpathological, casino gamblers using slot machines.  

PubMed

Familial and twin studies suggest the implication of a genetic factor in pathological gambling, but mainly assess probands through treatment settings or advertisements. The question raised here is: are parents of casino pathological gamblers using slot machines more affected with pathological gambling than nonpathological gamblers, all interviewed on site at the same casino? Three hundred and fifty-five casino gamblers on slot machines, which included 96 pathological gamblers, 116 problem gamblers, and 143 nonproblem gamblers, were recruited in situ at the largest casino in the Paris suburbs. We evaluated pathological gambling and two addictive disorders (alcohol dependence and tobacco consumption) in the gamblers and their 690 parents (through the proband). Familial aggregation of pathological gambling was confirmed, with a risk of 3.3 for being a pathological gambler when at least one of the parents has problematic gambling. No familial co-aggregation of pathological gambling with alcohol or tobacco dependence was observed. Pathological gambling is found in excess in the parents of pathological casino gamblers, in accordance with previous aggregation studies devoted to other types of gambling, and with studies recruiting gamblers in different settings.? PMID:22211351

Versini, Audrey; LeGauffre, Cindy; Romo, Lucia; Adès, Jean; Gorwood, Philip

2011-12-01

29

Treatment Utilization of Pathological Gamblers with and without PTSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper represents the first study of treatment utilization among pathological gamblers with and without PTSD. Comorbidity\\u000a of PG and PTSD is increasingly recognized as an important association, both in its rate and clinical severity. The sample\\u000a comprised 106 adults from the community (35 with current PG; 36 with current PTSD, and 35 with BOTH). Four areas were addressed:\\u000a current

Lisa M. Najavits

2010-01-01

30

Decision-making and neuroendocrine responses in pathological gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent neuropsychological research indicates that patients with pathological gambling (PG) exhibit deficits in laboratory tasks of decision-making which are suggested to be associated with neurochemical alterations within the prefrontal cortex. Some studies also revealed that hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity in gamblers is altered. To date, very little is known about the relationship between decision-making and neuroendocrine parameters. Therefore, we examined patients

Kirsten Labudda; Oliver T. Wolf; Hans J. Markowitsch; Matthias Brand

2007-01-01

31

The pathological gambler as criminal offender. Comments on evaluation and treatment.  

PubMed

Over the past three decades, gambling has been the nation's fastest growing industry. Although there is now some leveling off, states are still turning to legalized gambling to address financial problems without having to raise taxes. In addition, there is new technology that produces more rapidly addicting games. States are accepting some responsibility and, as of this writing, 12 of them have funded some programs in public education, research, training, and treatment. Although there are only a half dozen inpatient programs and very few qualified counselors and therapists, we can anticipate the development of clinics, residential programs, halfway houses, and alternative sentencing programs. The National Council on Problem Gambling has developed guidelines for the certification of gambling counselors. In addition to the training of mental health professionals, workshops are needed for attorneys, judges, probation and parole officers, and prison administrators. Initially, the task of assessing and diagnosing the pathological gambler was left to a small number of experts. Starting with DSM-IV, there will be clear and reliable criteria available to the professional community. These criteria, which are the product of thorough testing, should easily discriminate the pathological gambler from other types of gamblers. Most of what we have learned about pathological gambling has come in the last 5 years. A major impetus for research has been the Journal of Gambling Studies, which began publication in 1985. A review of the nature and course of the disorder, including the studies of criminal behavior, leads one to conclude that the majority of pathological gamblers (at least 70% to 80%) commit offenses late in the disorder and that these offenses are strictly gambling related. This is a population which is essentially nonviolent and which turns to property crimes out of desperation over gambling losses and their sequelae. The minority (in one study 14%) of gamblers with antisocial personality disorder--the group for whom treatment would be least likely to be effective--can be recognized easily both by the pattern of offenses and by diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality. Once this group is excluded, treatment for the others, in combination with restitution, community service, and some form of monitoring, would seem beneficial both for the individual and for society. Once they have stopped gambling, pathological gamblers are frequently hard-working people, whose mathematical skills and intelligence, high energy, and need to excel make them extremely valuable at their jobs. The alternative, imprisonment, may very well reinforce the disorder.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1409026

Rosenthal, R J; Lorenz, V C

1992-09-01

32

FDG-PET Study in Pathological Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Pathological gambling affects 1–3% of the adult population, and has high comorbidity. Although mood stabilizers and serotonin reuptake inhibitors have shown some efficacy in the treatment of this condition, there is little known about how these pharmacological interventions work. Methods: Twenty-one patients with pathological gambling, who met lifetime comorbid bipolar spectrum diagnoses, received baseline PET scans. Sixteen of these

Eric Hollander; Monte S. Buchsbaum; M. Mehmet Haznedar; Jessica Berenguer; Heather A. Berlin; William Chaplin; Chelain R. Goodman; Elizabeth M. LiCalzi; Randall Newmark; Stefano Pallanti

2008-01-01

33

Pathological gamblers in methadone treatment: A comparison between men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses data from interviews with 462 individuals enrolled in methadone treatment programs in New York City to compare the gambling and gambling-related drug use and criminal activities of those males (N=72) and females (N=27) found to be pathological gamblers. Both the male and female pathological gamblers were and continue to be actively involved in various forms of gambling.

Barry Spunt; Henry Lesieur; Hilary James Liberty; Dana Hunt

1996-01-01

34

A Comparison of Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adult Treatment-Seeking Pathological Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Pathological gambling is an increasing public health concern, but very little is known about this disorder in older adults. This study evaluated gambling and psychosocial problems across age groups in treatment-seeking gamblers. Design and Methods: At intake to gambling treatment programs, 343 pathological gamblers completed the…

Petry, Nancy M.

2002-01-01

35

Manipulations of the Features of Standard Video Lottery Terminal (VLT) Games: Effects in Pathological and Non-Pathological Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to identify game parameters that would reduce the risk of abuse of video lottery terminals (VLTs) by pathological gamblers, while exerting minimal effects on the behavior of non-pathological gamblers. Three manipulations of standard VLT game features were explored. Participants were exposed to: a counter which displayed a running total of money spent; a VLT spinning

Pamela Loba; Sherry H. Stewart; Raymond M. Klein; James R. Blackburn

2002-01-01

36

Manipulations of the Features of Standard Video Lottery Terminal (VLT) Games: Effects in Pathological and Non-Pathological Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to identify game parameters that would reduce the risk of abuse of video lottery terminals (VLTs) by pathological gamblers, while exerting minimal effects on the behavior of non-pathological gamblers. Three manipulations of standard VLT game features were explored. Participants were exposed to: a counter which displayed a running total of money spent; a VLT spinning

Pamela Loba; Sherry H. Stewart; Raymond M. Klein; James R. Blackburn

2001-01-01

37

Behavioral Restraint and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder in Alcoholics and Pathological Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult alcoholics as well as pathological gamblers reported that, as children, they had higher than control levels of attention deficit disorder-related behaviors. On the other hand, alcoholics and only a subset of gamblers showed deficits in a test of behavioral restraint.Copyright © 1992 S. Karger AG, Basel

Peter L. Carlton; Paul Manowitz

1992-01-01

38

THE LIE\\/BET QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SCREENING PATHOLOGICAL GAMBLERS: A FOLLOW-UP STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Szrmmary.-This study follows up one in which was derived a nvo-item screening questionnaire for pathological gambling. In the previous study, the nvo-item screening questionnaire had sensitivity of .99 and specificity of .91. In this study, testing 295 men (116 pathological gamblers and 179 controls) and 128 women (30 pathological gamblers and 98 controls). sensitivity was 1.00 and specificity .85. In

EDWARD E. JOHNSON; ROBERT M. HAMER; RENA M. NORA

1998-01-01

39

Obsessive-compulsive features in pathological lottery and scratch-ticket gamblers.  

PubMed

The results of this study support the notion that pathological gamblers drawn from the community would score higher on all three scores from the YBOCS than light gamblers. Consistent with hypotheses, pathological gamblers (lottery and scratch ticket) reported more obsessions, compulsions, and avoidance behavior than the light gamblers, and also reported having more urges to engage in injurious behaviors to themselves and others. These findings provide evidence that pathological gambling falls in a spectrum or family of disorders which have obsessive-compulsive disorder at its core. These findings support McElroy, Hudson, Philips, et al.'s (1993) suggestions of similarities between OCD and Impulse Control Disorders, and extend Blaszczynski (1999) findings of overlap between pathological gamblers and OCD in a treatment population. Heavy gamblers also reported significantly more hoarding symptoms and compulsive buying than light gamblers. More research in this area may show further evidence of a spectrum of disorders with obsessive compulsive disorder at its core, and show further links between impulse control disorders (such as pathological gambling) and OCD. PMID:11705017

Frost, R O; Meagher, B M; Riskind, J H

2001-01-01

40

Pilot study of a personalized feedback intervention for problem gamblers.  

PubMed

A pilot study was conducted of a personalized feedback intervention for problem gamblers. Respondents (N=61) were recruited from an ongoing gambling research study to take part in another study to help us "develop and evaluate self-help materials for gamblers." Respondents were randomly assigned to receive a personalized feedback summary or to a waiting list control. At 3-month follow-up (80.3% follow-up rate, N=49), after controlling for baseline demographic characteristics and gambling severity, respondents in the feedback condition displayed some evidence that they were spending less money on gambling than those in the control condition. Further, ratings of the usefulness of the feedback summary were positive and most recipients (96%) recommended that they be made available to other gamblers interested in evaluating or modifying their gambling. Given these promising pilot results, a full-scale evaluation of these personalized feedback materials would appear justified. An online version of the intervention is now also available at www.CheckYourGambling.net. PMID:19647523

Cunningham, John A; Hodgins, David C; Toneatto, Tony; Rai, Aanchal; Cordingley, Joanne

2008-11-06

41

Mental health management of pathological gamblers by counseling and relaxation practices.  

PubMed

The present study examines the mental health management of pathological gamblers by counseling and relaxation practices. Fifty-five treated and 55 non-treated pathological gamblers were evaluated at S. I. Mental and Physical Health Society, Varanasi, India. The two groups were matched by age, ranging 20 to 53 years with a mean age of 36.2 years and mean length of uncontrollable gambling of 7.3 years. The Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire and the Death Anxiety Scale were administered to ascertain mental health and death anxiety on seven selected dimensions, including: anxiety, obsession, phobia, somatization, depression, hysteria, and death anxiety. Mean scores obtained on different variables were analyzed using a t-test of significance. Results indicated that the characteristic associated with treated pathological gamblers was phobia whereas the characteristics associated with non-treated pathological gamblers were anxiety, obsession, somatization, depression, and death anxiety. PMID:24066639

Sharma, M G; Upadhyay, Awadhesh; Sharma, Vandana

2013-10-01

42

Gender differences in pathological gamblers seeking medication treatment.  

PubMed

Gender differences in pathological gambling disorder (PGD) have received little investigation. This study was constructed to detail the demographic and phenomenological differences in men and women with PGD. We assessed gender differences in 131 subjects with PGD who were evaluated in terms of demographic characteristics, clinical features of PGD, and treatment history. Seventy-eight (60%) subjects were women, and 53 (40%) were men. Men had an earlier age of onset of gambling behavior, while women progressed to pathological gambling sooner after beginning to gamble. In terms of gambling behavior, men were more likely to engage in blackjack, cards, sporting events, and the track, whereas women played slot machines and bingo. Women reported that loneliness was the major trigger to gambling, while men were more likely to gamble secondary to sensory stimuli. Although men were as likely as women to have filed bankruptcy because of gambling, women were more likely to have written bad checks and men were more likely to have lost significant savings. Both groups were equally likely to seek treatment, but Gamblers Anonymous (GA) and outpatient therapy were reported equally ineffective in reducing gambling symptoms. There appear to be some gender differences in the clinical features of PGD, and these differences may have treatment implications. PMID:11788920

Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won

43

Personality traits in Pathological Gambling: Sensation Seeking, Deferment of Gratification and Competitiveness as Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, research into personality traits among gamblers has been largely inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to assess the predictive values of three personality traits on pathological gambling (sensation seek- ing, deferment of gratification and competitiveness) - two of which (deferment of gratification and competi- tiveness) have never been investigated before. A questionnaire was administered to 114 gamblers

Adrian Parke; Mark Griffiths; Paul Irwing

2004-01-01

44

Subtypes of French Pathological Gamblers: Comparison of Sensation Seeking, Alexithymia and Depression Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent data suggest the importance of identifying subtypes of pathological gamblers. This research studies sensation seeking,\\u000a alexithymia and depression among a general population of French gamblers who play different types of game. Those games include\\u000a games available in cafés (two cafés located in Paris suburb) like lottery, scratch-cards, etc., horse betting at the racetrack\\u000a (five racetracks closest to Paris), slot

Céline Bonnaire; Catherine Bungener; Isabelle Varescon

2009-01-01

45

Drinking Patterns of Pathological Gamblers Before, During, and After Gambling Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the high co-occurrence of alcohol consumption and gambling, few studies have investigated alcohol use changes during gambling treatment. Using latent growth modeling, we examined weekly alcohol use trajectories of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers across 36 weeks, allowing rates of change to differ across the 12-week pretreatment, during-treatment and posttreatment periods. For these secondary data analyses, we retained drinking gamblers (N

Carla J. Rash; Jeremiah Weinstock; Nancy M. Petry

2011-01-01

46

Crime, antisocial personality and pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the hypothesized causal relationship between pathological gambling and gambling-related illegal behaviors, 77 patients seeking behavioral treatment for excessive gambling and 32 members of Gamblers Anonymous were administered a structured interview schedule. Data on the incidence, nature and extent of both gambling and non-gambling related illegal behaviors was obtained and DSM-III (A.P.A., 1980) criteria for Antisocial personality were used

Alex Blaszczynski; Neil McConaghy; Anna Frankova

1989-01-01

47

Correlates of Depressive Symptom Severity in Problem and Pathological Gamblers in Couple Relationships.  

PubMed

Problem and pathological gamblers (PPG) often suffer from depressive symptoms. Gambling problems have negative consequences on multiple aspects of gamblers' lives, including family and marital relationships. The objectives of the current study were to (1) replicate the results of studies that have suggested a stronger and more significant relationship between gambling and depression in PPG than in non-problem gamblers (NPG) and (2) explore specific correlates of depressive symptom severity in PPG in couple relationships. Variables demonstrated to be significantly correlated with depressive symptoms in the general population were selected. It was hypothesized that gender, age, gambler's mean annual income, perceived poverty, employment status, clinical status (i.e., problem or pathological gambler versus non-problem gambler), trait anxiety, alcoholism, problem-solving skills, and dyadic adjustment would be significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Sixty-seven PPG were recruited, primarily from an addiction treatment center; 40 NPG were recruited, primarily through the media. Results revealed that PPG reported significantly greater depressive symptoms than did NPG. Further, elevated trait anxiety and poor dyadic adjustment were demonstrated to be significant and specific correlates of depressive symptom severity in PPG. These findings contribute to the literature on depressive symptomatology in PPG in relationships, and highlight the importance of the influence of the couple relationship on PPG. PMID:23149512

Poirier-Arbour, Alisson; Trudel, Gilles; Boyer, Richard; Harvey, Pascale; Goldfarb, Maria Rocio

2012-11-13

48

Characteristics of Treatment Seeking Finnish Pathological Gamblers: Baseline Data from a Treatment Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behavior of 39 pathological gamblers who participated in our treatment study in 2009. The inclusion criteria of the study were: score of five or more on both the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and a pathological gambling screen based on the Diagnostic and Statistical…

Lahti, Tuuli; Halme, Jukka; Pankakoski, Maiju; Sinclair, David; Alho, Hannu

2013-01-01

49

Randomized Trial of Internet-Delivered Self-Help with Telephone Support for Pathological Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although effective therapies for pathological gambling exist, their uptake is limited to 10% of the target population. To lower the barriers for help seeking, the authors tested an online alternative in a randomized trial (N = 66). The participants were pathological gamblers not presenting with severe comorbid depression. A wait-list control was…

Carlbring, Per; Smit, Filip

2008-01-01

50

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Pathological and At-Risk Gamblers Seeking Treatment: A Hidden Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The links between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders have been the subject of numerous papers. Few studies, however, have focused specifically on the relationship between ADHD and behavioural addictions. The aim of this study was to (i) examine the frequency of pathological and at-risk gamblers having a previous history of ADHD; (ii) give details of

Marie Grall-Bronnec; Laura Wainstein; Jennyfer Augy; Gaëlle Bouju; Fanny Feuillet; Jean-Luc Vénisse; Véronique Sébille-Rivain

2011-01-01

51

Neurobehavioral Evidence for the "Near-Miss" Effect in Pathological Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this translational study was twofold: (1) to contrast behavioral and brain activity between pathological and nonpathological gamblers, and (2) to examine differences as a function of the outcome of the spin of a slot machine, focusing predominately on the "Near-Miss"--when two reels stop on the same symbol, and that symbol is just…

Habib, Reza; Dixon, Mark R.

2010-01-01

52

Randomized Trial of Brief Motivational Treatments for Pathological Gamblers: More Is Not Necessarily Better  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The efficacy of brief treatments for media-recruited pathological gamblers was tested in a randomized clinical trial design (N = 314). Two self-directed motivational interventions were compared with a 6-week waiting list control and a workbook only control. Brief motivational treatment involved a telephone motivational interview and a mailed…

Hodgins, David C.; Currie, Shawn R.; Currie, Gillian; Fick, Gordon H.

2009-01-01

53

Video lottery gambling: Effects on pathological gamblers seeking treatment in South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-eight pathological gamblers receiving treatment for addictive illness in two South Dakota hospitals were assessed for types of gambling and grouped into three categories; 15 “video lottery only” (VLO), 36 “video lottery mixed” (VLM), and 7 “not video lottery” (NVL). There were 51 male and 7 female respondents, with a mean age of 38.2. We hypothesized that video lottery would

Timothy Morgan; Lial Kofoed; Jerry Buchkoski; Robert D. Carr

1996-01-01

54

Characteristics of Treatment Seeking Finnish Pathological Gamblers: Baseline Data from a Treatment Study.  

PubMed

This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behavior of 39 pathological gamblers who participated in our treatment study in 2009. The inclusion criteria of the study were: score of five or more on both the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and a pathological gambling screen based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). The first 39 patients meeting the inclusion criterion were recruited into the study. The average age of the subjects was 39 years, and 80 % were males. The lag-time between active gambling (at least three times per week) and the onset of a pathological gambling problem was short: within 2 years of active gambling, 62 % of the subjects reported having become pathological gamblers. Our results also indicated certain gender-specific differences in the age at initiation and in the severity of the gambling problem. PMID:23710159

Lahti, Tuuli; Halme, Jukka; Pankakoski, Maiju; Sinclair, David; Alho, Hannu

2013-06-01

55

Delay and Probability Discounting in Pathological Gamblers With and Without a History of Substance Use Problems  

PubMed Central

Rationale Pathological gambling and substance use disorders are highly comorbid, possibly because they both stem from a similar process—impulsivity. Although much data exist regarding the association between delay discounting and these psychiatric disorders, relatively little research has examined probability discounting and its relationship with either substance use or gambling. Objectives The goal of the current study was to compare rates of probability and delay discounting in a large population of pathological gamblers with and without a history of substance use problems. Methods Treatment-seeking pathological gamblers with (n=117) and without (n=119) a history of substance use problems completed questionnaires about discounting of hypothetical monetary outcomes and the Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire. The delay discounting questionnaire involved choices between a smaller amount of money delivered immediately versus a larger amount delivered later, and the probability questionnaire was comprised of choices between a smaller certain versus a larger probabilistic monetary outcome. Hyperbolic functions estimated delay and probability discounting rates based on the indifference points obtained through the questionnaires. Results Results revealed significant effects of substance use problem status on delay but not on probability discounting, with no significant correlation noted between the two discounting processes. Only delay discounting correlated with Eysenck impulsivity scores. Conclusions These data suggest that delay and probability discounting tap different dimensions, and delay discounting is more closely linked with substance use problem histories in pathological gamblers.

Andrade, Leonardo F.; Petry, Nancy M.

2013-01-01

56

Impulsivity and cognitive distortions in pathological gamblers attending the UK National Problem Gambling Clinic: a preliminary report  

PubMed Central

Background Pathological gambling (PG) is a form of behavioural addiction that has been associated with elevated impulsivity and also cognitive distortions in the processing of chance, probability and skill. We sought to assess the relationship between the level of cognitive distortions and state and trait measures of impulsivity in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Method Thirty pathological gamblers attending the National Problem Gambling Clinic, the first National Health Service clinic for gambling problems in the UK, were compared with 30 healthy controls in a case-control design. Cognitive distortions were assessed using the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS). Trait impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P, which includes scales of urgency, the tendency to be impulsive in positive or negative mood states. Delay discounting rates were taken as a state measure of impulsive choice. Results Pathological gamblers had elevated impulsivity on several UPPS-P subscales but effect sizes were largest (Cohen's d>1.4) for positive and negative urgency. The pathological gamblers also displayed higher levels of gambling distortions, and elevated preference for immediate rewards, compared to controls. Within the pathological gamblers, there was a strong relationship between the preference for immediate rewards and the level of cognitive distortions (R2=0.41). Conclusions Impulsive choice in the gamblers was correlated with the level of gambling distortions, and we hypothesize that an impulsive decision-making style may increase the acceptance of erroneous beliefs during gambling play.

Michalczuk, R.; Bowden-Jones, H.; Verdejo-Garcia, A.; Clark, L.

2011-01-01

57

Pathological gambling in Estonia: relationships with personality, self-esteem, emotional States and cognitive ability.  

PubMed

Due to changes in gambling accessibility during the last decade gambling has become more widespread in Estonia and the prevalence of pathological gambling has sharply increased. The present study attempts to identify psychological characteristics of Estonian pathological gamblers. It has been shown that a wide range of social, economic, and individual factors (e.g. personality traits and emotional states) predict the likelihood of becoming a pathological gambler. In the present study, pathological gamblers' (N = 33) personality traits, self-esteem, self-reported emotional states and cognitive ability were compared to the respective characteristics in a non-gambling control group (N = 42) matched for age, gender and educational level. It was found that compared to controls, pathological gamblers had higher scores on Neuroticism (especially on its immoderation facet) and lower scores on Conscientiousness (especially on its dutifulness and cautiousness facets) and on self-esteem scale. They reported more negative emotional states during the previous month (especially depression and anxiety). Finally, pathological gamblers had lower general cognitive ability. In a logistic regression model, the likelihood of being a pathological gambler was best predicted by high immoderation score and low cognitive ability. PMID:19234772

Kaare, Pille-Riin; Mõttus, René; Konstabel, Kenn

2009-02-21

58

On Being Attracted to the Possibility of a Win: Reward Sensitivity (via Gambling Motives) Undermines Treatment Seeking Among Pathological Gamblers.  

PubMed

Unfortunately, only a small percent of pathological gamblers seek the professional help they need. In the current study, we test the idea that individual differences in reward sensitivity should predict whether a pathological gambler has sought treatment-the odds of treatment seeking should decrease as reward sensitivity increases. This hypothesis rests on the proposition that reward sensitive pathological gamblers should find treatment seeking aversive because doing so would remove a route to reward. We also tested those motivations to gamble that are positively reinforcing (social affliction and self-enhancement) as a possible mechanism by which reward sensitivity undermines treatment seeking-we did not anticipate negatively reinforcing motivations (e.g., coping) to be a mechanistic variable. Ninety-two pathological gamblers completed a large-scale survey that contained the variables of interest. As predicted, pathological gamblers were less likely to have sought treatment as reward sensitivity increased. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by social affiliation motivations to gamble, but not self-enhancement or coping motives. Reward sensitive gamblers did not wish to seek treatment to the extent that they were motivated to gamble for the social interactions it provides-seeking treatment would cut this avenue of affiliation with others. In light of these results, we suggest health care professionals take reward sensitivity into account when trying to promote treatment seeking, to say nothing of the social affiliation motives that underlie the reward sensitivity-treatment seeking link. PMID:23740351

Sztainert, Travis; Wohl, Michael J A; McManus, Justin F; Stead, John D H

2013-06-01

59

Reasons for Starting and Continuing Gambling in a Mixed Ethnic Community Sample of Pathological and Non-problem Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very few studies have investigated motivational differences between pathological gamblers (PG) and non-problem gamblers (NPG), or between men and women. Motives for starting gambling have not been distinguished from motives for continuing gambling. From a community survey questionnaire listing reasons generated from the population studied, the motives of 103 current PG met the DSM-IV-TR criteria of five or more symptoms

DAVE CLARKE; SAMSON TSE; MAX W. ABBOTT; SONIA TOWNSEND; PEFI KINGI; WIREMU MANAIA

2007-01-01

60

Predictors of Treatment Outcome Among Asian Pathological Gamblers (PGs): Clinical, Behavioural, Demographic, and Treatment Process Factors.  

PubMed

Research on predictors of treatment outcome among pathological gamblers (PGs) is inconclusive and dominated by studies from Western countries. Using a prospective longitudinal design, the current study examined demographic, clinical, behavioural and treatment programme predictors of gambling frequency at 3, 6 and 12-months, among PGs treated at an addiction clinic in Singapore. Measures included the Hospital anxiety and depression scale, gambling symptom assessment scale (GSAS), personal well-being index (PWI), treatment perception questionnaire and gambling readiness to change scale. Treatment response in relation to changes in symptom severity, personal wellbeing and abstinence were also assessed. Abstinence rates were 38.6, 46.0 and 44.4 % at 3, 6 and 12-months respectively. Significant reductions in gambling frequency, GSAS, and improvement in PWI were reported between baseline and subsequent outcome assessments, with the greatest change occurring in the initial three months. No demographic, clinical, behavioural or treatment programme variable consistently predicted outcome at all three assessments, though treatment satisfaction was the most frequent significant predictor. However, being unemployed, having larger than average debts, poor treatment satisfaction and attending fewer sessions at the later stages of treatment were associated with significantly poorer outcomes, up to 1-year after initiating treatment. These findings show promise for the effectiveness of a CBT-based treatment approach for the treatment of predominantly Chinese PGs. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Taken together, the findings suggest early treatment satisfaction is paramount in improving short-term outcomes, with baseline gambling behaviour and treatment intensity playing a more significant role in the longer term. PMID:22945784

Guo, Song; Manning, Victoria; Thane, Kyaw Kyaw Wai; Ng, Andrew; Abdin, Edimansyah; Wong, Kim Eng

2012-09-01

61

Inpatient treatment of male pathological gamblers in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological gambling is viewed as a disease of unknown cause which requires treatment. Demographic and psychological traits of fifty-eight male patients are described. A control group of fifty-four patients with other addictions was used to determine the validity of a diagnostic test which aims to differentiate between harmless gambling behavior and addiction to gambling. This test is described along with

Jürgen Schwarz; Andreas Lindner

1992-01-01

62

Evaluation of a physical activity program for pathological gamblers in treatment.  

PubMed

It has been demonstrated that craving for gambling is associated with anxiety and depression in pathological gamblers. Exercise has been shown to reduce anxiety and depression, as well as positively influence abstinence rates in individuals with substance use disorders. In this study, we examined the impact of a physical activity program in 33 pathological gamblers. We also analyzed the association between craving and plasmatic levels of stress hormones (adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, and prolactin). The program involved eight 50-min sessions. Craving was assessed 24 h before, immediately before, and immediately after each session, as well as on a weekly basis. Before and after the program, we evaluated gambling behavior, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and plasma levels of stress hormones. We identified a significant reduction in craving following each session and at the end of the program. There was improvement in anxiety, depressive symptoms, and gambling behavior. The post-session reduction in craving was accompanied by post-program reductions in craving and anxiety but not by a post-program reduction in depressive symptoms. The craving reduction was associated with a variation in prolactin levels but not with variations in levels of cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone. PMID:22661334

Angelo, Daniela Lopes; Tavares, Hermano; Zilberman, Monica Levit

2013-09-01

63

Drinking Patterns of Pathological Gamblers Before, During, and After Gambling Treatment  

PubMed Central

Despite the high co-occurrence of alcohol consumption and gambling, few studies have investigated alcohol use changes during gambling treatment. Using latent growth modeling, we examined weekly alcohol use trajectories of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers across 36 weeks, allowing rates of change to differ across the 12-week pre-treatment, during treatment, and post-treatment periods. For these secondary data analyses, we retained drinking gamblers (N = 163) from a combined sample of two randomized clinical trials for the treatment of pathological gambling. Results indicated a decrease in alcohol use corresponding with treatment entry and maintenance of less drinking during treatment and post-treatment. Despite these decreases in alcohol use overall, 31% (50 of 163) of participants exhibited risky drinking during the treatment or post-treatment periods. Gender, age, at-risk drinking (at any point in the 36-week interval), baseline gambling severity, treatment condition, and gambling during treatment predicted latent alcohol use growth factors. Although entry into gambling treatment was temporally associated with reductions in alcohol use in this retrospective analysis, a substantial portion of the sample exhibited at-risk drinking after treatment entry, suggesting that interventions targeting reductions in alcohol use may be useful for this population.

Rash, Carla J.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Petry, Nancy M.

2011-01-01

64

Pathological Gambling: Psychosomatic, emotional and marital difficulties as reported by the Gambler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two parallel self-administered surveys were distributed at three conferences of Gamblers Anonymous. One survey was for members of Gamblers Anonymous and the other was for members of GamAnon. Approximately 500 respondents completed the surveys. This article is a report of some of the data from the gamblers' survey. This survey focused on two time periods of the compulsive gambler's life—during

Valerie C. Lorenz; Robert A. Yaffee

1986-01-01

65

The Structure of Pathological Gambling among Korean Gamblers: A Cluster and Factor Analysis of Clinical and Demographic Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports the underlying structure of the demographic and clinical characteristics of level 3 (i.e., pathological) Korean casino gamblers. The participants reported their gambling behavior and clinical characteristics known to be associated with gambling problems (e.g., alcohol use problems, eating disorders, depression, anxiety, and…

Lee, Tae Kyung; LaBrie, Richard A.; Grant, Jon E.; Kim, Suck Won; Shaffer, Howard J.

2008-01-01

66

Modafinil increases reward salience in a slot machine game in low and high impulsivity pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of modafinil (200 mg) on slot machine betting profiles from a previous sample of low and high impulsivity (LI/HI) pathological gamblers (10/Group; Zack and Poulos, 2009). Hierarchical regression assessed the prospective relationship between Payoff and Bet Size on consecutive trials, along with moderating effects of Group, Cumulative Winnings (low/high) and Phase of game (early/late) under drug and placebo. Y intercepts for the simple regressions of Bet Size on Payoff indexed overall motivation to bet. Under placebo, both groups gauged their bets less closely to the preceding Payoff as trials continued when Winnings were low but not high. Under modafinil, both groups gauged their bets more closely to the preceding Payoff when Winnings were low but gauged their bets less closely to the previous Payoff when Winnings were high. The tendency to gauge bets closely to the previous Payoff coincided with a bias toward low overall Bet Size, and modafinil accentuated this relationship, in LI but not HI subjects. Results suggest that modafinil increases the salience of environmental rewards, leading to more tightly calibrated responses to individual rewards when resources are low, but progressively loosens reward-response calibration when resources are high. Increased relative impact of phasic vs. tonic dopamine signals may account for patterns seen at low vs. high Winnings, respectively, under the drug. Clinically, modafinil may deter pathological gamblers from chasing losses but also encourage them to continue betting rather than quit while they are ahead. Whether low-dose modafinil confers more uniform benefits deserves investigation. PMID:23711549

Smart, Kelly; Desmond, Renée C; Poulos, Constantine X; Zack, Martin

2013-05-24

67

Strategic vs nonstrategic gambling: Characteristics of pathological gamblers based on gambling preference  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Although prior studies have examined various clinical characteristics of pathological gambling (PG), limited data exist regarding the clinical correlates of PG based on preferred forms of gambling. METHODS We grouped patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling into 3 categories of preferred forms of gambling: strategic (eg, cards, dice, sports betting, stock market), nonstrategic (eg, slots, video poker, pull tabs), or both. We then compared the groups’ clinical characteristics, gambling severity (using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Pathological Gambling, the Clinical Global Impression–Severity scale, and time and money spent gambling) and psychiatric comorbidity. RESULTS The 440 patients included in this sample (54.1% females; mean age 47.69 ± 11.36 years) comprised the following groups: strategic (n = 56; 12.7%), nonstrategic (n = 200; 45.5%), or both (n = 184; 41.8%). Nonstrategic gamblers were significantly more likely to be older and female. Money spent gambling, frequency of gambling, gambling severity, and comorbid disorders did not differ significantly among groups. CONCLUSIONS These preliminary results suggest that preferred form of gambling may be associated with certain age groups and sexes but is not associated with any specific clinical differences.

Odlaug, Brian L.; Marsh, Patrick J.; Kim, Suck Won; Grant, Jon E.

2011-01-01

68

Social cost of pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological gambling creates enormous problems for the afflicted individuals, their families, employers, and society, and has numerous disastrous financial consequences. The present study evaluates the financial burdens of pathological gambling by questioning pathological gamblers in treatment in Gamblers Anonymous (n=60; 56 males, 4 females; mean age = 40 years old) about personal debts, loss of productivity at work, illegal activities,

Robert Ladouceur; Jean-Marie Boisvert; Michel Pépin; Michel Loranger; Caroline Sylvain

1994-01-01

69

Person Perception and Personality Pathology  

PubMed Central

Studies of person perception (people's impressions and beliefs about others) have developed important concepts and methods that can be used to help improve the assessment of personality disorders. They may also inspire advances in our knowledge of the nature and origins of these conditions. Information collected from peers and other types of informants is reliable and provides a perspective that often differs substantially from that obtained using questionnaires and interviews. For some purposes, this information is quite useful. Much remains to be learned about the incremental validity (and potential biases) associated with data from various kinds of informants.

Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Turkheimer, Eric

2010-01-01

70

Yohimbine-Induced Amygdala Activation in Pathological Gamblers: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Rationale and Objectives There is evidence that drug addiction is associated with increased physiological and psychological responses to stress. In this pilot functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we assessed whether a prototype behavioral addiction, pathological gambling (PG), is likewise associated with an enhanced response to stress. Methods We induced stress by injecting yohimbine (0.2–0.3 mg/kg, IV), an alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist that elicits stress-like physiological and psychological effects in humans and in laboratory animals, to four subjects with PG and to five non-gamblers mentally healthy control subjects. Their fMRI brain responses were assessed along with subjective stress and gambling urges ratings. Results Voxelwise analyses of data sets from individual subjects, utilizing generalized linear model approach, revealed significant left amygdala activation in response to yohimbine across all PG subjects. This amygdala effect was not observed in the five control individuals. Yohimbine elicited subjective stress ratings in both groups with greater (albeit not statically significantly) average response in the PG subjects. On the other hand, yohimbine did not induce urges to gamble. Conclusions The present data support the hypothesis of brain sensitization to pharmacologically-induced stress in PG.

Elman, Igor; Becerra, Lino; Tschibelu, Evelyne; Yamamoto, Rinah; George, Edward; Borsook, David

2012-01-01

71

A Randomized Trial of Brief Interventions for Problem and Pathological Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Limited research exists regarding methods for reducing problem gambling. Problem gamblers (N = 180) were randomly assigned to assessment only control, 10 min of brief advice, 1 session of motivational enhancement therapy (MET), or 1 session of MET plus 3 sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Gambling was assessed at baseline, at 6 weeks, and…

Petry, Nancy M.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Ledgerwood, David M.; Morasco, Benjamin

2008-01-01

72

Criminal Behavior Associated with Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of addictive gambling behavior on criminal behavior was examined in this study. A sample of pathological gamblers from in- and outpatient treatment centers and self-help groups (n = 300) and a sample of high and low frequency gamblers from the general population and army (n = 274) completed a comprehensive questionnaire which assessed social attachment, personality, pathological gambling

Gerhard Meyer; Michael A. Stadler

1999-01-01

73

Experimental analysis of the game in pathological gamblers: effect of the immediacy of the reward in slot machines.  

PubMed

Slot machines are the most "addictive" games because (a) the disorder (pathological gambling) appears more rapidly in these games than with any other; (b) most patients who seek professional help are mainly addicted to electronic gambling, and (c) even though it is not the more frequent game, most of all the money spent on legal games of chance (at least in Spain) goes to slot machines. Structural characteristics of slot machines induce to gamble because electronic games show the main parameters of operant conditioning, mainly the immediacy of the reinforcement. Ten pathological gamblers played slot machine in two conditions: immediate and delayed reinforcement. The results corroborate the importance of the immediacy of the reinforcement in gambling, because when the result appears immediately (after 2 s), more games are played than when the result is delayed only 10 s. Critical issues in problem gambling prevention and public health are discussed. PMID:19882307

Chóliz, Mariano

2010-06-01

74

Subtyping Pathological Gamblers on the Basis of Affective Motivations for Gambling: Relations to Gambling Problems, Drinking Problems, and Affective Motivations for Drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological gamblers who drink when gambling (n = 158; 77% men; mean age = 36.0 years) completed the Inventory of Gambling Situations (IGS) and gambling and drinking criterion measures. Principal components analysis on the IGS subscales revealed negative (e.g., Unpleasant Emotions) and positive (e.g., Pleasant Emotions) gambling situation factors. Subjecting IGS factor scores to cluster analysis revealed three clusters: (a)

Sherry H. Stewart; Martin Zack; Pamela Collins; Raymond M. Klein; Fofo Fragopoulos

2008-01-01

75

An Integrative Conceptual Framework for Assessing Personality and Personality Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a contribution to the ongoing debate over the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5, we present a framework for jointly conceptualizing personality and personality pathology. The key element is an explicit distinction between personality description (which is the realm of basic personality psychology) and personality evaluation (which is the realm of clinical personality psychology). Previous diagnostic systems

Daniel Leising; Johannes Zimmermann

2011-01-01

76

Female Pathological Gamblers--A Critical Review of the Clinical Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent evidence indicates that more and more women gamble and develop gambling problems and pathological gambling (PG). Research has further indicated that female and male PGs differ in their clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to do a critical review of the literature concerning clinical characteristics of female pathological

Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Dahl, Alv A.

2009-01-01

77

Female Pathological Gamblers--A Critical Review of the Clinical Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent evidence indicates that more and more women gamble and develop gambling problems and pathological gambling (PG). Research has further indicated that female and male PGs differ in their clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to do a critical review of the literature concerning clinical characteristics of female pathological

Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Dahl, Alv A.

2009-01-01

78

Profile of compulsive gamblers in treatment: Update and comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous empirical studies of pathological gamblers have reported on members of self-help groups or on inpatient populations of Veterans Administration Hospitals (VA). The current study profiles demographic, gambling, and psychosocial characteristics for 186 pathological gamblers (172 male, 14 female) admitted for inpatient treatment at Taylor Manor Hospital, a private psychiatric hospital. Inpatient gamblers in treatment are relatively young, mostly employed,

Joseph Ciarrocchi; Richard Richardson

1989-01-01

79

Yohimbine-Induced Amygdala Activation in Pathological Gamblers: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale and ObjectivesThere is evidence that drug addiction is associated with increased physiological and psychological responses to stress. In this pilot functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we assessed whether a prototype behavioral addiction, pathological gambling (PG), is likewise associated with an enhanced response to stress.MethodsWe induced stress by injecting yohimbine (0.2–0.3 mg\\/kg, IV), an alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist that elicits

Igor Elman; Lino Becerra; Evelyne Tschibelu; Rinah Yamamoto; Edward George; David Borsook

2012-01-01

80

Pathological Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the literature on pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and describe a significant criterion problem related to four inconsistencies in phenotypic descriptions and taxonomic models across clinical theory, research, and practice; psychiatric diagnosis; and social\\/personality psychology. This impedes scientific synthesis, weakens narcissism's nomological net, and contributes to a discrepancy between low prevalence rates of NPD and higher

Aaron L. Pincus; Mark R. Lukowitsky

2010-01-01

81

Emergent Issues in Assessing Personality Pathology: Illustrations from Two Studies of Adolescent Personality and Related Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As illustrated by two articles that each investigate personality pathology and its correlates in adolescents—Aelterman et\\u000a al. (2010) on obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) from a dimensional personality perspective, and Barry and Wallace (2010) on indicators of pathological and normative development of youth narcissism—this commentary discusses four important assessment\\u000a issues that have become more salient as the field considers a shift,

Lee Anna Clark

2010-01-01

82

The interpersonal core of personality pathology.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that personality pathology is, at its core, fundamentally interpersonal. The authors review the proposed DSM-5 Section 3 redefinition of personality pathology involving self and interpersonal dysfunction, which they regard as a substantial improvement over the DSM-IV (and Section 2) definition. They note similarities between the proposed scheme and contemporary interpersonal theory and interpret the Section 3 definition using the underlying assumptions and evidence base of the interpersonal paradigm in clinical psychology. The authors describe how grounding the proposed Section 3 definition in interpersonal theory, and in particular a focus on the "interpersonal situation," adds to its theoretical texture, empirical support, and clinical utility. They provide a clinical example that demonstrates the ability of contemporary interpersonal theory to augment the definition of personality pathology. The authors conclude with directions for further research that could clarify the core of personality pathology, and how interpersonal theory can inform research aimed at enhancing the Section 3 proposal and ultimately justify its migration to Section 2. PMID:23735037

Hopwood, Christopher J; Wright, Aidan G C; Ansell, Emily B; Pincus, Aaron L

2013-06-01

83

Episodic Cessation of Gambling: A Numerically Aided Phenomenological Assessment of Why Gamblers Stop Playing in a Given Session  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topic of permanent cessation of gambling behavior has received increased attention as the rates gaming (and pathology) increase with accessibility and legalization. Despite this increased attention there is a paucity of research on why people stop gambling in a given session, i.e. episodic cessation. We propose that the study of first-person experiential accounts of why gamblers stopped engaging in

Michael J. A. Wohl; Miriam Lyon; Cara L. Donnelly; Matthew M. Young; Kimberly Matheson; Hymie Anisman

2008-01-01

84

Impulsivity as a Moderator and Mediator between Life Stress and Pathological Gambling among Chinese Treatment-Seeking Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the role of impulsivity and its interplay with gambling correlates in influencing the severity of pathological gambling in Chinese societies. It also investigated the extent to which impulsivity would moderate and/or mediate the relationship between life stress and pathological gambling in 94 Chinese treatment-seeking…

Tang, Catherine So-kum; Wu, Anise M. S.

2012-01-01

85

Effects of the atypical stimulant modafinil on a brief gambling episode in pathological gamblers with high vs. low impulsivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractPathological gambling (PG) is a serious psychiatric disorder afflicting 1-3% of the general population. Experimental evidence indicates shared neurochemical substrates for PG and psychostimulant addiction. Impulsivity characterizes one key subtype of PG. Therefore, medications that ameliorate psychostimulant addiction and impulsive syndromes might also benefit impulsive PG subjects. The atypical stimulant, modafinil reduces cocaine abuse and impulsivity in patients with ADHD.

M Zack; CX Poulos

2009-01-01

86

Differences in Addiction Severity between Social and Probable Pathological Gamblers among Substance Abusers in Treatment in Rio de Janeiro  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is a strong association between pathological gambling and substance abuse. The objective of this study is to identify the differences between substance abusers with and without gambling problems. A cross sectional study was conducted interviewing with Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), alcohol and drug…

Mathias, Ana Carolina R.; Vargens, Renata W.; Kessler, Felix H.; Cruz, Marcelo S.

2009-01-01

87

Development and validation of the Gamblers' Beliefs Questionnaire.  

PubMed

The Gamblers' Beliefs Questionnaire (GBQ) is a self-report measure of gamblers' cognitive distortions. GBQ test items were constructed on the basis of theory, empirical evidence, and expert review. Four hundred three adults completed the initial set of items, and 21 items were selected to make up the final GBQ. The factor structure of the GBQ consisted of 2 closely related factors: Luck/Perseverance and Illusion of Control. The full scale showed good internal consistency (alpha = .92) and adequate test-retest reliability (r = .77). Problem and pathological gamblers scored higher than nonproblem gamblers on the GBQ and its factors. GBQ scores were moderately correlated with the duration of gambling sessions among problem and pathological gamblers, and there was no relationship between GBQ scores and social desirability. PMID:12079253

Steenbergh, Timothy A; Meyers, Andrew W; May, Ryan K; Whelan, James P

2002-06-01

88

Experimental Analysis of the Game in Pathological Gamblers: Effect of the Immediacy of the Reward in Slot Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slot machines are the most “addictive” games because (a) the disorder (pathological gambling) appears more rapidly in these\\u000a games than with any other; (b) most patients who seek professional help are mainly addicted to electronic gambling, and (c)\\u000a even though it is not the more frequent game, most of all the money spent on legal games of chance (at least

Mariano Chóliz

2010-01-01

89

Where Did All the Pathological Gamblers Go? Gambling Symptomatology and Stage of Change Predict Attrition in Longitudinal Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attrition can introduce a systematic bias that can negatively affect validity (Cook and Campbell, Quasi-experimentation: design\\u000a and analysis issues for field settings. Rand McNally, Chicago, 1979). Current longitudinal research in gambling, however, has generally overlooked the reasons for attrition. The current research\\u000a examined the relationship between pathological gambling symptomatology, stage of change and attrition. Three hundred and seventy-nine\\u000a participants were

Michael J. A. Wohl; Travis Sztainert

2011-01-01

90

Near Miss, Gambler’s Fallacy and Entrapment: Their Influence on Lottery Gamblers in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near miss, gambler’s fallacy and entrapment are hypothesized to influence gambling behavior but their individual impact on\\u000a gambling behavior and their relationships have not been investigated. This study examines the direct and mediated effects\\u000a of near miss, gambler’s fallacy and entrapment on lottery gambling among Thai lottery gamblers. Two groups of 200 lottery\\u000a gamblers participated in the study. One group

Vanchai Ariyabuddhiphongs; Varich Phengphol

2008-01-01

91

Personality Pathology as a Risk Factor for Negative Health Perception  

PubMed Central

Previous findings suggest that self-perception of health relates to many physical health outcomes, including mortality. Many factors appear to shape health perceptions, like personality. Little research, however, has focused on whether personality pathology may affect perceived health. This preliminary study examined the unique effects of personality pathology on health perceptions beyond those of objective health and normal personality factors. We studied an epidemiologically-based, representative sample (N=697) of Saint Louis residents (ages 55–64). The Diagnostic Interview Schedule and the Health Status Inventory were used to collect reports of health perceptions, chronic illnesses, and physical functioning. Personality traits were measured with the revised NEO Personality Inventory and personality disorders were assessed using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality. Number of physical illnesses, physical functioning, normal personality, and personality disorders all predicted self-perception of health separately. Personality disorders also predicted health perception above and beyond objective health and personality variables. These findings elucidate the importance of personality pathology in understanding perceived health and suggest that certain patterns of pathology may be particularly detrimental to subjective health.

Powers, Abigail D.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2011-01-01

92

Effects of the atypical stimulant modafinil on a brief gambling episode in pathological gamblers with high vs. low impulsivity.  

PubMed

Pathological gambling (PG) is a serious psychiatric disorder afflicting 1-3% of the general population. Experimental evidence indicates shared neurochemical substrates for PG and psychostimulant addiction. Impulsivity characterizes one key subtype of PG. Therefore, medications that ameliorate psychostimulant addiction and impulsive syndromes might also benefit impulsive PG subjects. The atypical stimulant, modafinil reduces cocaine abuse and impulsivity in patients with ADHD. The present study sought to determine if modafinil (200 mg) would reduce the reinforcing effects of slot machine gambling in PG subjects, and if this effect was stronger in high (H-I) vs. low (L-I) impulsivity subjects (N = 20). A placebo-controlled, double-blind, counterbalanced, repeated measures design was employed. Apart from bet size, which declined uniformly in both groups under drug, modafinil had bi-directional effects in the two groups. In H-I subjects, the drug decreased desire to gamble, salience of Gambling words, disinhibition and risky decision-making. In L-I subjects, modafinil increased scores on these indices. Modafinil also differentially affected blood pressure response to the game in the two groups. These findings for modafinil appear to fit well with a growing literature demonstrating bi-directional effects of D2 agonists as a function of trait impulsivity. Impulsivity could critically moderate medication response in PG. PMID:18583430

Zack, M; Poulos, C X

2008-06-26

93

Personality Pathology and Its Influence on Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Personality disorders appear to be present in a significant minority of individuals with eating disorders. For example, in contrast to reported rates in the general population of eight percent, obsessive compulsive personality is present in approximately 22 percent of individuals with anorexia, restricting type. Likewise, in contrast to rates in the general population of six percent, borderline personality is present in approximately 25 percent of individuals with anorexia nervosa, binge-eating purging type, and in 28 percent of individuals with bulimia nervosa. Could these high rates of comorbidity indicate a partially causal relationship? At the very least, these specific personality disorders may be shaping corresponding styles of eating pathology, with obsessive compulsive personality disorder partially accounting for restrictive eating pathology and borderline personality disorder partially accounting for impulsive eating pathology. These potential associations are explored.

Sansone, Lori A.

2011-01-01

94

Dysfunctional Cognitions in Personality Pathology: The Structure and Validity of the Personality Belief Questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Background This study examines the structure of the Personality Belief Questionnaire (PBQ), a self-report instrument designed to assess dysfunctional beliefs associated with personality pathology, as proposed by the cognitive theory of personality dysfunction. Methods The PBQ was examined using exploratory factor analysis with responses from 438 depressed outpatients, and confirmatory factor analysis with responses from 683 treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatients. All participants were assessed for personality disorder using a standard clinical interview. The validity of the resulting factor structure was assessed in the combined sample (N=1121) by examining PBQ scores for patients with and without personality disorder diagnoses. Results Exploratory and confirmatory analyses converged to indicate that the PBQ is best described by 7 empirically identified factors: 6 assess dysfunctional beliefs associated with forms of personality pathology recognized in DSM-IV. Validity analyses revealed that those diagnosed with a personality disorder evidenced a higher average score on all factors, relative to those without these disorders. Subsets of patients diagnosed with specific DSM-IV personality disorders scored higher, on average, on the factor associated with their respective diagnosis, relative to all other factors. Conclusions The pattern of results has implications for the conceptualization of personality pathology. To our knowledge, no formal diagnostic or assessment system has yet systematically incorporated the role of dysfunctional beliefs into its description of personality pathology. The identification of dysfunctional beliefs may not only aid in case conceptualization, but may provide unique targets for psychological treatment. Recommendations for future personality pathology assessment systems are provided.

Fournier, Jay C.; DeRubeis, Robert J.; Beck, Aaron T.

2013-01-01

95

Excitement-seeking Gambling in a Nationally Representative Sample of Recreational Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excitement-seeking and related constructs have been associated with heavier gambling and negative health measures in problem\\u000a and\\/or pathological gamblers. Most adults gamble recreationally and an understanding of the relationship between excitement-seeking\\u000a as a motivation for gambling amongst subsyndromal gamblers has significant public health implications. Logistic regression\\u000a analyses were used to examine a national sample of past-year recreational gamblers (N = 1,476) to

Michael V. Pantalon; Paul K. Maciejewski; Rani A. Desai; Marc N. Potenza

2008-01-01

96

Pathological gambling.  

PubMed

With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG. PMID:10986732

Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

2000-09-01

97

Conceptions of narcissism and the DSM-5 pathological personality traits.  

PubMed

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) features two conceptions of Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), one based on the retained DSM-IV's categorical diagnosis and the other based on a model that blends impairments in personality functioning with a specific trait profile intended to recapture DSM-IV NPD. Nevertheless, the broader literature contains a richer array of potential conceptualizations of narcissism, including distinguishable perspectives from psychiatric nosology, clinical observation and theory, and social/personality psychology. This raises questions about the most advantageous pattern of traits to use to reflect various conceptions of narcissistic pathology via the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5). In this study, we examine the associations of the Personality Disorder Questionnaire-Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale, Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16, and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory and the PID-5 dimensions and facets in a large sample (N = 1,653) of undergraduate student participants. Results point to strong associations with PID-5 Antagonism scales across narcissism measures, consistent with the DSM-5's proposed representation of NPD. However, additional notable associations emerged with PID-5 Negative Affectivity and Psychoticism scales when considering more clinically relevant narcissism measures. PMID:23610234

Wright, Aidan G C; Pincus, Aaron L; Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F

2013-04-21

98

Pathological gambling: A comparison of gambling at German-style slot machines and “Classical” gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

German-style slot machines and related legal issues are described. On the basis of a survey on 437 members of self-help groups (Gamblers Anonymous) in Germany, slot machine gamblers were compared with casino gamblers on such variables as sociodemographic data, gambling behaviour, financial expenditure, emotional experience while gambling, symptoms of pathological gambling, psychosocial consequences and gambling related delinquency. The casino gamblers'

Thomas Fabian

1995-01-01

99

Book review of quit compulsive gambling: The action plan for gamblers and their families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gordon Moody's 15 chapter book is a very personalized, and in places autobiographical, account of the impact of compulsive gambling on both the gambler and his\\/her family. It is not only a self-help book aimed at compulsive gamblers but is also aimed at their families and friends, and for members of the caring professions and agencies. Chapter 1 examines \\

Mark Griffiths

1991-01-01

100

Retrospective and Prospective Reports of Precipitants to Relapse in Pathological Gambling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A prospective design was used to explore the precipitants of relapse in a naturalistic sample of pathological gamblers (N = 101) who had recently quit gambling. Relapse rates were high; only 8% were entirely free of gambling during the 12-month follow-up. Relapses were highly variable but occurred most frequently in the evening, when the person

Hodgins, David C.; el-Guebaly, Nady

2004-01-01

101

Divergent Validity of Measures of Cognitive Distortions, Impulsivity, and Time Perspective in Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study assessed the divergent validity of several self-report and objective behavioral measures for assessing pathological gambling using three samples divided by South Oaks Gambling Scale score [Lesieur, & Blume (1987). American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1184–1188]: pathological gamblers, potential pathological gamblers, and non-pathological gamblers. Self-report measures included the Gamblers’ Beliefs Questionnaire [GBQ; Steenbergh, Meyers, May, & Whelan (2002).

James MacKillop; Emily J. Anderson; Bryan A. Castelda; Richard E. Mattson; Peter J. Donovick

2006-01-01

102

The Hierarchical Structure of DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits  

PubMed Central

A multidimensional trait system has been proposed for representing personality disorder (PD) features in DSM-5 to address problematic classification issues such as comorbidity. In this model, which may also assist in providing scaffolding for the underlying structure of major forms of psychopathology more generally, 25 primary traits are organized by 5 higher order dimensions: Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism. We examined a) the generalizability of the structure proposed for DSM-5 PD traits and b) the potential for an integrative hierarchy based upon DSM-5 PD traits to represent the dimensions scaffolding psychopathology more generally. A large sample of student participants (N=2,461) completed the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, which operationalizes the DSM-5 traits. Exploratory factor analysis replicated the initially reported five-factor structure as indicated by high factor congruencies. The two-, three-, and four- factor solutions estimated in the hierarchy of the DSM-5 traits bear close resemblance to existing models of common mental disorders, temperament, and personality pathology. Thus, beyond the description of individual differences in personality disorder, the trait dimensions might provide a framework for the metastructure of psychopathology in the DSM-5 and the integration of a number of ostensibly competing models of personality trait covariation.

Wright, Aidan G.C.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Markon, Kristian E.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Krueger, Robert F.

2012-01-01

103

The validity of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale for assessing pathological grandiosity.  

PubMed

Although controversy surrounds the definition and measurement of narcissism, the claim that pathological grandiosity is central to the construct generates little disagreement. Yet representations of pathological grandiosity vary across measures of narcissism, leading to conceptual confusion in the literature. The validity of a DSM-based measure of pathological narcissism, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale (PDQ-4 NPD), was evaluated in 1 clinical and 3 nonclinical samples (total N=2,391) for its ability to measure pathological grandiosity. Findings were generally supportive: average scores were higher in the clinical than nonclinical samples and the PDQ-4 NPD scale correlated most strongly with (a) other measures of NPD; (b) other DSM Cluster B personality disorders; (c) traits involving antagonism, hostility, and assertiveness; and (d) interpersonal distress and disaffiliative dominance. However, the low internal consistency of the PDQ-4 NPD scale and unexpected associations with Cluster A and obsessive-compulsive features point to potential psychometric weaknesses with this instrument. These findings are useful for evaluating the PDQ-4 NPD scale and for informing ongoing debates regarding how to define and assess pathological narcissism. PMID:23101760

Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Ackerman, Robert A; Thomas, Katherine M; Morey, Leslie C; Skodol, Andrew E

2012-10-26

104

Cortisol Rise Following Awakening Among Problem Gamblers: Dissociation from Comorbid Symptoms of Depression and Impulsivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gambling pathology has been associated with elevated levels of distress, depression and impulsivity. The present investigation\\u000a assessed whether these behavioral features would be evident among problem gamblers as they are among pathological gamblers.\\u000a As well, given that gambling has been associated with increased life stress, as an objective index of ongoing distress, elevations\\u000a of morning cortisol levels were assessed in

Michael Jeremy Adam Wohl; Kim Matheson; Matthew M. Young; Hymie Anisman

2008-01-01

105

The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome With Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect of personality pathology on time to remission of patients randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment strategies for depression and to determine whether personality pathology moderated the effect of treatment assignment on outcome. Method Individuals undergoing an episode of unipolar major depression (n = 275) received interpersonal psychotherapy (Klerman, Weissman, Rounsaville, & Chevron, 1984) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) pharmacotherapy for depression. Depressive symptoms were measured with the HRSD-17. Remission was a mean HRSD-17 score of 7 or below over a period of 3 weeks. Personality disorders were measured according to SCID-II diagnoses, and personality pathology was measured dimensionally by summing the positive probes on the SCID-II. Results The presence of at least 1 personality disorder was not a significant predictor of time to remission, but a higher level of dimensionally measured personality pathology and the presence of borderline personality disorder were associated with a longer time to remission. Personality pathology did not moderate the effect of treatment assignment on time to remission. Conclusions The findings suggest that depressed individuals with comorbid personality pathology generally fare worse in treatment for depression, although in this report, the effect of personality pathology did not differ by the type of treatment received.

Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

2012-01-01

106

Manipulating Slot Machine Preference in Problem Gamblers through Contextual Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Pathological and nonpathological gamblers completed a task that assessed preference among 2 concurrently available slot machines. Subsequent assessments of choice were conducted after various attempts to transfer contextual functions associated with irrelevant characteristics of the slot machines. Results indicated that the nonproblem gambling…

Nastally, Becky L.; Dixon, Mark R.; Jackson, James W.

2010-01-01

107

The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the…

Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

2012-01-01

108

The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect…

Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

2012-01-01

109

The relation between dimensions of personality and personality pathology and offence type and severity in juvenile delinquents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a representative sample of 142 incarcerated Dutch male juveniles, normal personality dimensions were assessed with the Big Five Inventory and pathological personality dimensions with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology - Basic Questionnaire for Adolescents. Participants' criminal charges were derived from TULP-Youth, an official Dutch judicial registration system. Charges were categorized (against morality\\/against life\\/violent\\/violent with property\\/property) and were assigned

Ellemieke Nederlof; Annemarie van der Ham; Peter Dingemans; Karel Oei

2010-01-01

110

Recreational gamblers with and without parental addiction  

PubMed Central

Research has found that children who have parents with an addiction may be more vulnerable to developing psychopathology compared to children without parental addiction. We compared young adult, recreational gamblers with and without parental addiction on measures of gambling behavior and impulsivity. A total of 286 recreational gamblers (defined as having gambled at least five times in the past 12 months) between the ages of 18 and 29 participated in an initial intake of a longitudinal study assessing susceptibility to pathological gambling. Trained staff interviewed subjects and subjects completed cognitive testing and self-report measures. Fifty-three subjects (18.53%) reported at least one parent with an addiction (including alcohol and substance dependence and pathological gambling). Subjects with at least one addicted parent were significantly more likely to report problems resulting from gambling, have significantly greater rates of psychiatric comorbidity, and report significantly more current marijuana and tobacco use. Subjects with an addicted parent were not significantly different on measures of impulsivity. These findings suggest that even at a stage of low-risk gambling, before what has been considered a psychopathology arises, those with a possible environmental and/or genetic risk of addiction exhibit a range of problematic behaviors.

Schreiber, Liana Renee Nelson; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon Edgar

2012-01-01

111

Recreational gamblers with and without parental addiction.  

PubMed

Research has found that children who have parents with an addiction may be more vulnerable to developing psychopathology compared to children without parental addiction. We compared young adult, recreational gamblers with and without parental addiction on measures of gambling behavior and impulsivity. A total of 286 recreational gamblers (defined as having gambled at least five times in the past 12 months) between the ages of 18 and 29 participated in an initial intake of a longitudinal study assessing susceptibility to pathological gambling. Trained staff members interviewed subjects, and subjects completed cognitive testing and self-report measures. Fifty-three subjects (18.53%) reported at least one parent with an addiction (including alcohol and substance dependence and pathological gambling). Subjects with at least one addicted parent were significantly more likely to report problems resulting from gambling, have significantly greater rates of psychiatric comorbidity, and report significantly more current marijuana and tobacco use. Subjects with an addicted parent were not significantly different on measures of impulsivity. These findings suggest that even at a stage of low-risk gambling, before what has been considered a psychopathology arises, those with a possible environmental and/or genetic risk of addiction exhibit a range of problematic behaviors. PMID:22401973

Schreiber, Liana Renée Nelson; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon Edgar

2012-03-07

112

Does Providing Extended Relapse Prevention Bibliotherapy to Problem Gamblers Improve Outcome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relapse rates among pathological gamblers are high with as many as 75% of gamblers returning to gambling shortly after a serious\\u000a attempt to quit. The present study focused on providing a low cost, easy to access relapse prevention program to such individuals.\\u000a Based on information collected in our ongoing study of the process of relapse, a series of relapse prevention

David C. Hodgins; Shawn R. Currie; Nady el-Guebaly; Katherine M. Diskin

2007-01-01

113

Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissism and the DSM–5 Pathological Personality Trait Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Personality Disorders (4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 2000) personality disorders (PDs) that will be included in the DSM–5 will be diagnosed in an entirely different manner; the explicit criterion sets will be replaced with impairments in self and interpersonal functioning and personality traits from a 25-trait dimensional model of personality pathology. From a trait

Joshua D. Miller; Brittany Gentile; Lauren Wilson; W. Keith Campbell

2012-01-01

114

How Useful Are Indices of Personality Pathology when Assessing Domestic Violence Perpetrators?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There has been considerable debate about profiling personality pathology when assessing and treating male perpetrators of domestic violence (DV). This study used the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) to explore the severity and diversity of male perpetrator personality pathology and response bias in a group of DV perpetrators being…

Gibbons, Peter; Collins, Marjorie; Reid, Corinne

2011-01-01

115

Level of Agreement between Self and Spouse in the Assessment of Personality Pathology  

PubMed Central

Informant reports can provide important information regarding the presence of pathological personality traits, and they can serve as useful supplements to self-report instruments. Ratings from a spouse may be a particularly valuable source of personality assessment because spouses are very well acquainted with the target person, have typically known the person for a long time, and witness behaviors across a variety of situations. In the current study, self- and spouse report measures based on the DSM-IV personality disorder criteria were collected from a non-clinical sample of 82 couples (N=164). Agreement between self- and spouse report for several pathological personality factors was significant and somewhat higher than has been found for self- and peer agreement. Nevertheless, the magnitude of self-spouse agreement was still moderate in size (Mean r=.36). Findings are discussed with regard to utilizing spouse-report in the assessment of personality pathology.

South, Susan C.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Johnson, Jarrod; Turkheimer, Eric

2011-01-01

116

Social, psychological and physical consequences of pathological gambling in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social, psychological and physical consequences of pathological gambling reported by 42 pathological gamblers recruited mainly by advertising were compared with data on 63 pathological gamblers identified by case-finding within districts of probation, in- and out-patient psychiatric care and social welfare authorities. The two studies gave similar results. Financial breakdown, impaired relations with family and friends, and psychological problems occurred in

Cecilia Bergh; Eckart Kfihlhorn

1994-01-01

117

Altering the DSM-III criteria for pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a critique and revision of the diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling in DSM-III, a field trial of the revised criteria was conducted. Four groups of individuals (762 in all) were surveyed: Gamblers Anonymous members, college students, hospital employees, and outpatients in treatment for pathological gambling. The revised criteria were found to discriminate effectively between pathological gamblers and others. In

Henry R. Lesieur

1988-01-01

118

Neurocognitive Dysfunction in Strategic and Non-Strategic Gamblers  

PubMed Central

Objective It has been theorized that there may be subtypes of pathological gambling, particularly in relation to the main type of gambling activities undertaken. Whether or not putative pathological gambling subtypes differ in terms of their clinical and cognitive profiles has received little attention. Method Subjects meeting DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling were grouped into two categories of preferred forms of gambling – strategic (e.g., cards, dice, sports betting, stock market) and non-strategic (e.g., slots, video poker, pull tabs). Groups were compared on clinical characteristics (gambling severity, and time and money spent gambling), psychiatric comorbidity, and neurocognitive tests assessing motor impulsivity and cognitive flexibility. Results Seventy-seven subjects were included in this sample (45.5% females; mean age: 42.7±14.9) which consisted of the following groups: strategic (n=22; 28.6%) and non-strategic (n=55; 71.4%). Non-strategic gamblers were significantly more likely to be older, female, and divorced. Money spent gambling did not differ significantly between groups although one measure of gambling severity reflected more severe problems for strategic gamblers. Strategic and non-strategic gamblers did not differ in terms of cognitive function; both groups showed impairments in cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control relative to matched healthy volunteers. Conclusion These preliminary results suggest that preferred form of gambling may be associated with specific clinical characteristics but are not associated dissociable in terms of cognitive inflexibility and motor impulsivity.

Grant, Jon E.; Odlaug, Brian L.; Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Schreiber, Liana R.N.

2012-01-01

119

Male gamblers have significantly greater salivary cortisol before and after betting on a horse race, than do female gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence rates of gambling are influenced by gender. Among normative populations, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress is affected by gender. However, pathological, compared to recreational, gamblers demonstrate perturbations in HPA activation in response to gambling stimuli. We examined whether there were gender differences in HPA response to gambling in a naturalistic setting among horse-race bettors and scratch-off lottery bettors.

C. Franco; J. J. Paris; E. Wulfert; C. A. Frye

2010-01-01

120

Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

Lee, Bonnie K.

2009-01-01

121

An Interpersonal Analysis of Pathological Personality Traits in "DSM-5"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The proposed changes to the personality disorder section of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (5th ed.) places an increased focus on interpersonal impairment as one of the defining features of personality psychopathology. In addition, a proposed trait model has been offered to provide a means of capturing phenotypic…

Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.

2012-01-01

122

Multiple Personality and the Pathological Dissociation of Self.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the condition of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), which is defined as a separation of alternating personalities by rigid boundaries and amnestic barriers. It is proposed that MPD represents the end of a continuum of a defensive dissociation of the self that can result when a child employs a dissociative splitting of self…

Price, Reese E.

123

Parental Bonding and Personality Pathology Assessed by Clinician Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focused on the link between parental bonding and per- sonality pathology. We developed a clinician-report version of the Paren- tal Bonding Instrument (PBI; Parker, Tupling, and Brown, 1979), which 203 clinicians applied to a randomly selected patient in their care. The goal of the study was to examine the reliability and validity of a clini- cian-report PBI,

Eric Russ; Amy Heim; Drew Westen

2003-01-01

124

Further evidence for the fifth higher trait of personality pathology: a correlation study using normal and disordered personality measures.  

PubMed

Studies between disordered personality and the Big-Five or the Alternative Five-Factor model of normal personality have consistently shown four higher traits. The fifth higher trait, relating to Openness to Experience or Impulsive Sensation Seeking was less supported. The culture-free Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire (NPQ) might help us to characterise the fifth higher trait. We therefore tried the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP), the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) and the NPQ in 253 healthy participants. Our results yielded five factors, four of which resembled the previous ones. The fifth one, namely Peculiarity Seeking, was defined by NPQ and NEO-PI-R Openness to Experience, ZKPQ Impulsive Sensation Seeking and DAPP Stimulus Seeking. Whether the fifth factor is linked to the schizotypal personality disorder as proposed remains unanswered. PMID:22884213

Chai, Hao; Xu, Shaofang; Zhu, Junpeng; Chen, Wanzhen; Xu, You; He, Wei; Wang, Wei

2012-08-09

125

Refining the Measurement of Axis II: A Q-Sort Procedure for Assessing Personality Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of personality disorders (PDs) has proven to be a difficult enterprise. This article describes two initial studies of the validity and reliability of the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP), a Q-sort procedure that quantifies clinical judgment, which may be useful both for assessing personality pathology and for empirically refining Axis II categories and diagnostic criteria. In the first study,

Jonathan Shedler; Drew Westen

1998-01-01

126

A FREUDIAN CONSTRUCT LOST AND RECLAIMED: The Psychodynamics of Personality Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many early 20th-century descriptions of personality pathology were unabashedly psychoanalytic, recent editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) have attempted to frame personality disorders (PDs) in atheoretical terms. This article discusses the continuing relevance of psychoanalytic theory for PD diagnosis, research, and treatment. After reviewing the evolution of the PD concept since Freud's time, 3

Robert F. Bornstein

2006-01-01

127

Measuring cognitive distortions in pathological gambling: Review and meta-analyses.  

PubMed

There is broad agreement that cognitive distortions are an integral component of the development, maintenance, and treatment of pathological gambling. There is no authoritative catalog of the distortions that are observed more frequently in pathological gamblers than in others, but several instruments have been successfully developed that measure various distortions of interest, which are reviewed. All of the prominent instruments include measures of the illusion of control (perceiving more personal control over events than is warranted), and almost all include measures of gambler's fallacy (the belief that after a string of one event, such as a coin landing heads, an alternative event, such as the coin landing tails, becomes more likely). Beyond these two errors, there is scant consensus on relevant errors, and a wide variety has been studied. Meta-analyses were conducted on differences between PGs and non-PGs in scores on six published instruments that were developed to measure distortions in gamblers. All instruments reveal large effects using Hedge's g statistic, suggesting that the impact of distortions on PG is robust. Several subscales, assigned diverse names by scale authors, can be viewed as reflecting common distortions. Those judged to assess gambler's fallacy show evidence of more robust effects sizes than those that assess illusion of control. It is recommended that future research focus more specifically on the impact of particular distortions on gambling disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23438249

Goodie, Adam S; Fortune, Erica E

2013-02-25

128

An Interpersonal Analysis of Pathological Personality Traits in DSM-5  

PubMed Central

The proposed changes to the personality disorder section of the DSM-5 places an increased focus on interpersonal impairment as one of the defining features of personality psychopathology. In addition, a proposed trait model has been offered to provide a means of capturing phenotypic variation on the expression of personality disorder. In this study, we subject the proposed DSM-5 traits to interpersonal analysis using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems – Circumplex scales via the structural summary method for circumplex data. DSM-5 traits were consistently associated with generalized interpersonal dysfunction suggesting that they are maladaptive in nature, the majority of traits demonstrated discriminant validity with prototypical and differentiated interpersonal problem profiles, and conformed well to a priori hypothesized associations. These results are discussed in the context of the DSM-5 proposal and contemporary interpersonal theory, with a particular focus on potential areas for expansion of the DSM-5 trait model.

Wright, Aidan G.C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.

2012-01-01

129

Opioidergic and dopaminergic manipulation of gambling tendencies: a preliminary study in male recreational gamblers.  

PubMed

Gambling is characterized by cognitive distortions in the processing of chance and skill that are exacerbated in pathological gambling. Opioid and dopamine dysregulation is implicated in pathological gambling, but it is unclear whether these neurotransmitters modulate gambling distortions. The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol on gambling behavior. Male recreational gamblers (n = 62) were assigned to receive single oral doses of naltrexone 50 mg, haloperidol 2 mg or placebo, in a parallel-groups design. At 2.5 h post-dosing, participants completed a slot machine task to elicit monetary wins, "near-misses," and a manipulation of personal choice, and a roulette game to elicit two biases in sequential processing, the gambler's fallacy and the hot hand belief. Psychophysiological responses (electrodermal activity and heart rate) were taken during the slot machine task, and plasma prolactin increase was assessed. The tasks successfully induced the gambling effects of interest. Some of these effects differed across treatment groups, although the direction of effect was not in line with our predictions. Differences were driven by the naltrexone group, which displayed a greater physiological response to wins, and marginally higher confidence ratings on winning streaks. Prolactin levels increased in the naltrexone group, but did not differ between haloperidol and placebo, implying that naltrexone but not haloperidol may have been functionally active at these doses. Our results support opioid modulation of cognition during gambling-like tasks, but did not support the more specific hypothesis that naltrexone may act to ameliorate cognitive distortions. PMID:24109443

Porchet, Roseline I; Boekhoudt, Linde; Studer, Bettina; Gandamaneni, Praveen K; Rani, Nisha; Binnamangala, Somashekar; Müller, Ulrich; Clark, Luke

2013-10-07

130

Opioidergic and dopaminergic manipulation of gambling tendencies: a preliminary study in male recreational gamblers  

PubMed Central

Gambling is characterized by cognitive distortions in the processing of chance and skill that are exacerbated in pathological gambling. Opioid and dopamine dysregulation is implicated in pathological gambling, but it is unclear whether these neurotransmitters modulate gambling distortions. The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol on gambling behavior. Male recreational gamblers (n = 62) were assigned to receive single oral doses of naltrexone 50 mg, haloperidol 2 mg or placebo, in a parallel-groups design. At 2.5 h post-dosing, participants completed a slot machine task to elicit monetary wins, “near-misses,” and a manipulation of personal choice, and a roulette game to elicit two biases in sequential processing, the gambler's fallacy and the hot hand belief. Psychophysiological responses (electrodermal activity and heart rate) were taken during the slot machine task, and plasma prolactin increase was assessed. The tasks successfully induced the gambling effects of interest. Some of these effects differed across treatment groups, although the direction of effect was not in line with our predictions. Differences were driven by the naltrexone group, which displayed a greater physiological response to wins, and marginally higher confidence ratings on winning streaks. Prolactin levels increased in the naltrexone group, but did not differ between haloperidol and placebo, implying that naltrexone but not haloperidol may have been functionally active at these doses. Our results support opioid modulation of cognition during gambling-like tasks, but did not support the more specific hypothesis that naltrexone may act to ameliorate cognitive distortions.

Porchet, Roseline I.; Boekhoudt, Linde; Studer, Bettina; Gandamaneni, Praveen K.; Rani, Nisha; Binnamangala, Somashekar; Muller, Ulrich; Clark, Luke

2013-01-01

131

How do different types of childhood maltreatment relate to adult personality pathology?  

PubMed

There are insufficient data investigating the relative associations between different kinds of childhood maltreatment and the severity of adult personality pathology. Personality pathology and childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and neglect) were assessed in 156 nonpsychotic psychiatric patients. Measures included the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for DSM-IV (PDQ-4+), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Multidimensional Neglectful Behavior Scale (MNBS), and the Conflict Tactics Scales Parent-Child version (CTSPC-CA). Bivariate logistic regression analyses revealed each maltreatment type to significantly correlate with adult personality pathology. However, in multivariate logistic analyses controlling for education, neglect and emotional abuse were the only significant predictors of adult personality pathology (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for MNBS neglect, 3.60; AOR for CTQ emotional abuse, 3.81). Analysis of the CTSPC-CA yielded a strong effect on maternal (AOR, 3.71) but not paternal neglect. These data suggest that clinicians should routinely evaluate for histories of neglect and emotional abuse, particularly in patients with marked personality pathology. PMID:23417013

Cohen, Lisa J; Foster, Michelle; Nesci, Cristina; Tanis, Thachell; Halmi, Winter; Galynker, Igor

2013-03-01

132

A call to action: training pathology residents in genomics and personalized medicine.  

PubMed

Genomics and "medical sequencing" will revolutionize clinical laboratory diagnostics as the foundation for the new era of personalized medicine. However, the medical profession lags far behind the technology and business communities in recognizing and preparing for this change. Pathologists must take the lead in the application of genomics technologies, including whole-genome sequencing, to laboratory diagnostics and personalized medicine. As a critical first step in leading this change, we have established a first-in-the-nation resident curriculum in genomics and personalized medicine. Our goal is to catalyze the adoption of similar training modules in every pathology residency in North America. If we succeed in the widespread implementation of this type of training as a core competency in pathology, we will ensure that the discipline of pathology will lead rather than follow in the coming era of personalized medicine. PMID:20472839

Haspel, Richard L; Arnaout, Ramy; Briere, Lauren; Kantarci, Sibel; Marchand, Karen; Tonellato, Peter; Connolly, James; Boguski, Mark S; Saffitz, Jeffrey E

2010-06-01

133

Executive dysfunction, self, and ego pathology in schizophrenia: an exploratory study of neuropsychology and personality.  

PubMed

Schizophrenic patients show a variety of symptoms, including positive and negative symptoms and ego pathology. Their exact underlying neuropsychological mechanisms as well as related changes in personality, however, remain unclear. We therefore conducted an exploratory study to investigate the relationship among neuropsychological functions, various dimensions in personality, and the different kinds of psychopathological symptoms. We investigated 22 paranoid schizophrenic patients and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls using a battery of neuropsychological, personality, and psychopathological tests and scales. Neuropsychological tests included executive function, working memory, and episodic memory, whereas personality assessment relied on the Temperament and Character Inventory by Cloninger (Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1987;44:573-88). Psychopathological rating included the scales for the assessment of positive and negative symptoms and the Ego Pathology Inventory by Scharfetter (Psychol Med. 1981;11(2):273-80). Schizophrenic patients showed significant deficits in executive function, working memory, and episodic memory. In contrast to healthy subjects, no significant correlation between working memory and executive function was observed in schizophrenic patients. Instead, both working memory and executive dysfunction were rather related to deficits in retrieval of episodic memory. Positive and negative symptoms correlated with episodic memory deficits but not with any dimension of the personality, whereas ego pathology, in contrast, correlated with executive dysfunction and working memory deficits. Moreover, schizophrenic patients showed specific changes in the self-dimensions of their personality, which correlated significantly with both executive dysfunction and ego pathology. Schizophrenic patients show deficits in working memory and executive function as well as functional dissociation between both. In contrast to positive and negative symptoms, ego pathology in these patients is specifically related to executive dysfunction and alterations in the self-dimension of their personality. It can therefore be concluded that ego pathology must be distinguished from positive and negative symptoms in both underlying neuropsychological dysfunction and predisposing changes in personality. PMID:16324897

Boeker, Heinz; Kleiser, Matthias; Lehman, Doerte; Jaenke, Lutz; Bogerts, Bernhard; Northoff, Georg

134

The Gambler's Fallacy: A Bayesian Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the problem of prediction in sequences of binary random variables. The models are then considered vis-à-vis the Gambler's Fallacy. Another model in which the Gambler's Fallacy need not be a fallacy is presented. The results may contribute for the judgment of how reasonable the assumption of infinite exchangeability is relative to typical human perception.

Bonassi, Fernando V.; Stern, Rafael B.; Wechsler, Sergio

2008-11-01

135

Personalized medicine for lung cancer: new challenges for pathology.  

PubMed

Recent advances in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapy mean the relatively simple discrimination between small-cell and 'non-small-cell' carcinoma is insufficient to determine the best treatment for individual patients. Safety, efficacy and prescribing requirements mandate more specific subtyping of NSCLC for several new drugs: practice made difficult by the tumour heterogeneity combined with the paucity of tissue in most diagnostic samples. Immunohistochemical approaches have emerged as accurate predictors of probable tumour histotype. P63 and/or cytokeratins 5 and 6 and thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1) are among the best predictors, respectively, of squamous and adenocarcinoma histology. Molecular characteristics may predict response to both newer molecular targeted agents and traditional cytotoxic agents. Specific mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene as predictors of response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (erlotinib, gefitinib) is the first example of markers which predict response to targeted agents. Actual drug targets [e.g. thymidilate synthase (TS) - pemetrexed] or markers of the tumour's ability to repair cytotoxic drug-induced damage [e.g. excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) - cisplatin] may well also complement NSCLC diagnosis. This extended diagnostic requirement from increasingly limited material provided by minimally invasive biopsy techniques poses major challenges for pathology. PMID:21916947

Kerr, Keith M

2011-09-14

136

Normal and pathological personality characteristics in subtypes of drug addicts undergoing treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the differences in normal and pathological personality that appear in a sample of drug addicts empirically classified into two types of consumers, called Type A (functional) and Type B (chronic). An assessment protocol that comprised the European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI), the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory, reduced (NEO-FFI), and the International Personality Disorder Examination was administered to 533 drug

José Luis Graña; Juan Jesús Muñoz; Encarnacion Navas

2009-01-01

137

'You never told me I would turn into a gambler': a first person account of dopamine agonist - induced gambling addiction in a patient with restless legs syndrome  

PubMed Central

Dopaminergic agents are commonly used and effective treatments for restless legs syndrome (RLS), a disabling sensorimotor disorder. Less known are some of the potentially disabling side effects of these treatments, particularly iatrogenic gambling addiction, as is described here. Here the authors present a 62-year-old man, with a 20–year history of RLS, who developed gambling addiction while on dopaminergic treatment. He was not forewarned of this side effect, nor was he ever screened for gambling behaviours prior to or during treatment. Eight months after discontinuation of dopaminergic treatment and after 10 sessions of cognitive–behavioural therapy for gambling addiction, his gambling behaviours have partially resolved. To our knowledge, this is the first ever first person account of this condition. To prevent the devastating consequences of gambling addiction or to minimise its impact by early intervention, the authors call for clinicians involved in treatment of RLS to follow these simple measures: screen patients for gambling behaviours prior to the onset and during dopaminergic treatment; forewarn patients of this potential side effect; and if patients screen positive, refer them to specialist gambling treatment services, in addition to making necessary changes to their medication regime.

Jones, Henrietta Bowden; George, Sanju

2011-01-01

138

Can personality traits predict pathological responses to audiovisual stimulation?  

PubMed

The "Pockemon shock" is the most famous accident in the history of the broadcasting industry in Japan. Based on the experiences of this unfortunate accident from famous animation program "Pocket Monster", this study focused on the psychology and psychosomatics of the patients. A head-mounted display was used as the three-dimensional image presentation device and "Descent", a free software shooting game, was used as the software. Ten healthy adult male volunteers were used in this experiment after obtaining their informed consent. The oxygen metabolic change in the anterior lobe of the brain was measured by near infrared spectroscopy and recorded on an electrocardiogram. The mental scaling tendency of the object was analyzed using the type A behavior pattern and the hostility scaling. The Cook and Medley hostility (HO) scale from the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) was also used in this experiment. From this scaling methodology, the paranoid scale, cynicism scale, lie scale, social support quality and social support quantity were calculated. All measured time series data were kept in the normal range, and no fatal arrhythmia or epilepsy were observed during experiments. In some cases, the brain oxygen metabolism may completely differ for the objects of Type A and Type B behavior patterns. On the whole, correlation did not become significant in type A scaling and hostility scaling. In a comparison of the percent changes of the HF in HRV with lie scaling, significant negative correlation was observed. The social support quantity was calculated from Cook and Medley, and significant negative correlations were observed with percent changes of LF/HF in HRV. The lie scale and social support quantity are opposite scaling. The sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system have an opposite function also. Therefore, our results showed an interesting phenomenon, when considering the relationship between the autonomic function and the pathophysiological reaction to the audiovisual stimulations. As for the photo sensitive epilepsy, it was reported to be only 5-10% for all patients. Therefore, 90% or more of the cause could not be determined in patients who started a morbid response. The results in this study suggest that the autonomic function was connected to the mental tendency of the objects. By examining such directivity, it is expected that subjects, which show morbid reaction to an audiovisual stimulation, can be screened beforehand. PMID:14572681

Yambe, Tomoyuki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Fukudo, Shin; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Shizuka, Kazuhiko; Nanka, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Akira; Abe, Ken-ichi; Shouji, Tomonori; Hongo, Michio; Tabayashi, Kouichi; Nitta, Shin-ichi

2003-10-01

139

Internet-based CBT intervention for gamblers in Finland: experiences from the field.  

PubMed

From September 2007 to May 2011 a total of 471 participants (325 males and 146 females) signed up for an 8-week Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy offered for gamblers in Finland. Sixty-four percent of the participants were pathological gamblers (PGs) (NODS 5> points), 14% were problem gamblers (NODS 3-4 points) and 10% were at risk of gambling problems (NODS 1-2 points). Two hundred and twenty four participants completed the treatment and after the treatment period significant changes were found in the following variables: gambling related problems (NODS), gambling urge, impaired control of gambling, alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C), social consequences, gambling-related cognitive erroneous thoughts and depression (MARD-S). In this sample co-morbid alcohol consumption was stronger among males. The main finding of this study was that the onset age of gambling was associated with a greater amount of gambling-related cognitive erroneous thoughts. PMID:23398086

Castrén, Sari; Pankakoski, Maiju; Tamminen, Manu; Lipsanen, Jari; Ladouceur, Robert; Lahti, Tuuli

2013-02-08

140

Insurance problems and pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of 241 members of Gamblers Anonymous was conducted in order to find out the impact of pathological gambling on the insurance industry and whether Gamblers Anonymous reverses that impact. Fifty-two percent of the respondents cashed in, surrendered, lapsed or had policies revoked for non-payment. Forty-six percent borrowed on or used the cash value of their life insurance policies

Henry R. Lesieur; Kenneth Puig

1987-01-01

141

A Twin Study of the Association Between Pathological Gambling and Antisocial Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many individuals with a history of pathological gambling (PG) also have a history of engaging in antisocial behaviors, and this has often been interpreted as a result of the former causing the latter. In a sample of 7,869 men in 4,497 twin pairs from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry, the authors examined (a) the association between PG and antisocial personality

Wendy S. Slutske; Seth Eisen; Hong Xian; William R. True; Michael J. Lyons; Jack Goldberg; Ming Tsuang

2001-01-01

142

Developmental Structuralist Approach to the Classification of Adaptive and Pathologic Personality Organizations: Infancy and Early Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper applies a developmental structuralist approach to the classification of adaptive and pathologic personality organizations and behavior in infancy and early childhood, and it discusses implications of this approach for preventive intervention. In general, as development proceeds, the structural capacity of the developing infant and…

Greenspan, Stanley I.; Lourie, Reginald S.

143

[Personality pathological traits and brain metabolites as predictors of non-abstinence in addicts with personality disorders].  

PubMed

Differences in pathological personality traits and disturbances in brain metabolites between non consumers, abstinent and non abstinent consumers were assessed. Participants (n=113) aged between 18-45 years with personality disorder (PD) were diagnosed with clinical interview and scales for depression, anxiety, impulsivity and dimensions of personality pathology. Brain metabolites were analyzed with magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and multiple comparisons. Abstinent and non-abstinent differentiated from non-consumers in emotional deregulation, inhibition, and restricted expression; abstinent and non-abstinent differentiated from each other in self-aggression, dissocial behaviour, conduct disorder, stimulus seeking and intimacy problems. N-Acetyl Aspartate and creatine values were lower between non-abstinent in prefrontal, anterior cingulate cortex, cerebellar vermis and superior corona radiata. For abstinent, choline levels were greater in cerebellar vermis and n-acetyl aspartate were lower in dorso-lateral prefrontal and anterior cingulated cortex and insula. Regarding personality traits, insecure attachment, narcissism, lability, self-aggression and anxiety characterize consumers and abstinent, while suspiciousness, rejection and character hardness are found in consumers (non-abstinent and abstinent). Compulsive traits, unplanned body impulsiveness and lack of control in emotional regulation predominated in non-abstinent and participants with co-morbidities. Detachment and inhibition predominate in alcohol abuse disorder and narcissistic traits in substance abuse. PMID:23880833

Serrani Azcurra, Daniel

2013-01-01

144

Multiple Co-occurring Behaviours among Gamblers in Treatment: Implications and Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial portion of gamblers in treatment may have co-occurring mental health disorders including substance use disorders, especially alcohol dependency, personality disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorders and impulse control disorders. Co-occurring mental health disorders affect treatment seeking, the treatment process and its outcome, quality of life and functioning in many mental health disorders. Participants in this study were 78 adults

James R. Westphal; Lera Joyce Johnson

2007-01-01

145

The Narcissistic Personality Inventory: a useful tool for assessing pathological narcissism? Evidence from patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder.  

PubMed

The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) has dominated research on narcissism in the field of social and personality psychology. Surprisingly, it is unclear whether the NPI is useful for identifying pathological narcissism in patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD). The goal of this study was to close this research gap. We used an extreme-group approach by including NPD patients and healthy controls and comparing their narcissism scores. We further investigated whether explicit self-esteem (assessed with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) suppressed the relationship between group membership and NPI narcissism. According to our results, NPD patients do not score higher on the NPI in comparison to healthy controls. Analysis of indirect effects revealed that differences in NPI scores are suppressed by NPD patients' low self-esteem. Our results indicate that the NPI is not a valid indicator of NPD, unless one controls for self-esteem. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:23101721

Vater, Aline; Schröder-Abé, Michela; Ritter, Kathrin; Renneberg, Babette; Schulze, Lars; Bosson, Jennifer K; Roepke, Stefan

2012-10-26

146

Counselling in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the gambling literature and the phases of the pathological gambler's career. Examines counseling approaches that have been used in the treatment of gambling, including psychotherapy, conjoint marital therapy, minimal interventions, behavioral counseling, and practical approaches to the treatment of adolescent problem gamblers.…

Griffiths, Mark D.; MacDonald, Helen F.

1999-01-01

147

Narcissism at the crossroads: Phenotypic description of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social\\/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review documents two themes of emphasis found in phenotypic descriptions of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social\\/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Clinical theories of narcissism spanning 35 years consistently describe variations in the expression of pathological narcissism that emphasize either grandiosity or vulnerable affects and self-states. Recent research in social\\/personality psychology examining the structure of narcissistic personality traits consistently finds

Nicole M. Cain; Aaron L. Pincus; Emily B. Ansell

2008-01-01

148

Differentiating Impulsive and Premeditated Aggression: Self and Informant Perspectives Among Adolescents with Personality Pathology  

PubMed Central

Previous research has articulated the conceptual differentiation of impulsive and premeditated aggression. Little, if any, of this research has examined personological differences among adolescents with aggression-oriented pathology, and little, if any, has examined both self and informant perspectives. The current study examined such differentiation within a Conduct Disorder population in which normal and pathological personality characteristics were examined via self- and informant-report. Results indicated the two forms of aggression were independent: high impulsive aggression was associated with high Neuroticism, but high premeditated aggression was associated with low Agreeableness and high Extraversion. Overall, adolescents high in impulsive aggression had a pattern of personality characteristics that are seen as socially-detached and emotionally volatile. In contrast, adolescents high in premeditated aggression had a pattern of characteristics seen as egocentric and socially-engaged but without concern for others. The results have implications for the social and motivational mechanisms producing the two forms of aggression.

Gauthier, Kris J.; Furr, R. Michael; Mathias, Charles W.; Marsh-Richard, Dawn M.; Dougherty, Donald M.

2010-01-01

149

Memory complaints are related to Alzheimer disease pathology in older persons  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the relationship between Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology and memory complaints proximate to death. Methods A group of 90 older persons underwent detailed clinical evaluations and brain autopsy at death. The evaluations included administration of questions on subjective memory complaints and clinical classification of dementia and AD. On postmortem examination, neuritic plaques, diffuse plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles in tissue samples from five cortical regions were counted, and a summary measure of overall AD pathology was derived. In addition, amyloid load and tau tangles were quantified in eight regions. Results In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, and education, memory complaints were associated with AD pathology, including both amyloid and tau tangles. Subsequent analyses demonstrated that the relationship between memory complaints and AD pathology was present in those with and without dementia, and could not be explained by the potentially confounding effects of depressive symptoms or coexisting common chronic health problems. Conclusion Memory complaints in older persons may indicate self awareness of a degenerative process.

Barnes, L.L.; Schneider, J.A.; Boyle, P.A.; Bienias, J.L.; Bennett, D.A.

2009-01-01

150

How bad was it? Differences in the time course of sensitivity to the magnitude of loss in problem gamblers and controls.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that pathological gamblers show various cognitive distortions, especially in interpreting near losses. Using a modified blackjack task, we investigated the electrophysiological responses to near and full losses in problem gamblers and controls. We assessed the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) of 20 problem gamblers and 21 controls at two time points following negative game outcomes. We also studied the behavioral changes after near and full loss experiences. Between 270 and 320 ms following a loss, controls but not gamblers showed a differential ERP response to near and full losses suggesting that a near loss is evaluated more negatively than a full loss. However, between 430 and 480 ms after a loss, the ERPs of both, gamblers and controls, showed a differential response as a function of the type of loss. Both groups became more cautious in their subsequent gambling behavior following near loss. The present study revealed differences in the time course of processing negative feedback in problem gamblers and normal controls, which might be due to gamblers preoccupation with gains rather than with losses. PMID:23538067

Kreussel, Luisa; Hewig, Johannes; Kretschmer, Nora; Hecht, Holger; Coles, Michael G H; Miltner, Wolfgang H R

2013-03-26

151

A Mutual Support Group for Young Problem Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A Swedish mutual support group for young problem gamblers is described and discussed. During the study period, 116 weekly meetings occurred, usually involving six to ten participants; in total, 69 problem gamblers (66 male and three female), aged 17-25, and 23 partners and friends attended the meetings. Half the gamblers had problems with…

Binde, Per

2012-01-01

152

A Mutual Support Group for Young Problem Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Swedish mutual support group for young problem gamblers is described and discussed. During the study period, 116 weekly meetings occurred, usually involving six to ten participants; in total, 69 problem gamblers (66 male and three female), aged 17-25, and 23 partners and friends attended the meetings. Half the gamblers had problems with Internet…

Binde, Per

2012-01-01

153

Grandiose and vulnerable narcissism and the DSM-5 pathological personality trait model.  

PubMed

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Personality Disorders (4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 2000) personality disorders (PDs) that will be included in the DSM-5 will be diagnosed in an entirely different manner; the explicit criterion sets will be replaced with impairments in self and interpersonal functioning and personality traits from a 25-trait dimensional model of personality pathology. From a trait perspective, narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), the focus of this study, is assessed using 2 specific traits: grandiosity and attention seeking. Using a sample collected online from Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk; N=306), we examined the relations among traits from a new measure of DSM-5's trait model--the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, in press)--and grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. The 25 traits from PID5 captured a significant portion of the variance in grandiose and vulnerable factors, although the 2 specific facets designated for the assessment of NPD fared substantially better in the assessment of grandiose rather than vulnerable narcissism. These results are discussed in the context of improving the DSM-5's ability to capture both narcissism dimensions. PMID:22594764

Miller, Joshua D; Gentile, Brittany; Wilson, Lauren; Campbell, W Keith

2012-05-17

154

The Relationship Between Pathological Dissociation, Self-Injury and Childhood Trauma in Patients with Personality Disorders Using Taxometric Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Dissociative phenomena exist on a spectrum ranging from psychological absorption to highly symptomatic disruptions of identity and memory. A statistical methodology called taxometric analysis has established a set of indicators that identify patients who have pathological dissociation, a qualitatively different form of dissociative phenomena. Using taxometric methodology, this study examines the relationship of pathological dissociation to personality diagnosis and

Marianne Goodman; Daniel S. Weiss; Vivian Mitropoulou; Antonia New; Harold Koenigsberg; Jeremy M. Silverman; Larry Siever

2003-01-01

155

Evaluating the South Oaks Gambling Screen With DSM-IV and DSM-5 Criteria: Results From a Diverse Community Sample of Gamblers.  

PubMed

Despite widespread use, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) has been criticized for excessive false positives as an indicator of pathological gambling (PG), and for items that misalign with PG criteria. We examine the relationship between SOGS scores and PG symptoms and convergent validity with regard to personality, mood, and addictive behaviors in a sample of 353 gamblers. SOGS scores correlated r = .66 with both DSM-IV and DSM-5 symptoms, and they manifested similar correlations with external criteria (intraclass correlation of .95). However, 195 false positives and 1 false negative were observed when using the recommended cut point, yielding an 81% false alarm rate. For uses with DSM-IV criteria, a cut point of 10 would retain high sensitivity with greater specificity and fewer false positives. For DSM-5 criteria, we advocate a cut point of 8 for use as a clinical screen and a cut point of 12 for prevalence and pseudo-experimental studies. PMID:23946283

Goodie, Adam S; Mackillop, James; Miller, Joshua D; Fortune, Erica E; Maples, Jessica; Lance, Charles E; Campbell, W Keith

2013-08-14

156

The Gambler's Fallacy: A Basic Inhibitory Process?  

PubMed

Two studies were conducted to examine the relation between the gambler's fallacy (GF) and attentional processes associated with inhibition of return (IOR). In Study 1, participants completed rapid aiming movements to equally probable targets presented to the left and right. They also completed a gambling protocol in which they bet on the illumination of either target. Consistent with the IOR phenomenon, participants were slower to initiate their movements on trial N?+?1 when the target was the same as trial N. Participants with more pronounced IOR were more likely to switch betting behavior after a win than participants with a smaller index. This betting behavior was also related to a GF index measured by a questionnaire. In Study 2, participants performed both the aiming task and the betting task with a partner. Each participant performed two trials before ceding to the partner. Thus we were able to examine IOR and betting behavior as a function of the participant's own previous trial and their partner's previous trial. The IOR effect was robust both within and between-participants. Participants were more likely to maintain their bet following an unsuccessful outcome regardless of whether it was their own outcome or their partner's outcome. This type of betting behavior is consistent with the GF. Individual IOR scores were a reliable predictor of betting behavior and the questionnaire was also successful in predicting behavior. In addition, the within-person IOR indices covaried with the GF index derived from the questionnaire. In summary, there appears to be a relation between IOR and the GF. We suggest that early humans developed specialized attentional systems to deal with non-random environmental contingencies, and that the automatic processes associated with these systems are sometimes maladaptive in artificial environments in which the same contingencies do not hold. PMID:23429429

Lyons, James; Weeks, Daniel J; Elliott, Digby

2013-02-20

157

When It's No Longer a Game: Pathological Gambling in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One focus of concern is 'pathological' gambling the inability to resist the impulse to gamble. Identified as a psychiatric disorder, pathological gambling can have a number of harmful consequences for the compulsive gambler and his or her family. The just...

C. Wellford

2001-01-01

158

Are Irrational Beliefs and Depressive Mood More Common Among Problem Gamblers than Non-Gamblers? A Survey Study of Swedish Problem Gamblers and Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests the hypothesis that problem gamblers are more prone to have irrational beliefs and depressed mood than non-gamblers.\\u000a Irrational beliefs refer to fallacious opinions about probabilities. Gamblers like to believe that chance games (i.e., roulette\\u000a and lottery) can be controlled and that the outcome of such games is dependent on the patterns of previous outcomes. The empirical\\u000a material

Håkan Källmén; Patric Andersson; Anders Andren

2008-01-01

159

The hot hand fallacy and the gambler’s fallacy: Two faces of subjective randomness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The representativeness heuristic has been invoked to explain two opposing expectations—that random sequences will exhibit\\u000a positive recency (the hot hand fallacy) and that they will exhibit negative recency (the gambler’s fallacy). We propose alternative\\u000a accounts for these two expectations: (1) The hot hand fallacy arises from the experience of characteristic positive recency\\u000a in serial fluctuations in human performance. (2) The

Peter Ayton; Ilan Fischer

2004-01-01

160

Using Neural Networks to Model the Behavior and Decisions of Gamblers, in Particular, Cyber-Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the use of neural networks (a type of artificial intelligence) and an empirical data sample of, inter\\u000a alia, the amounts of bets laid and the winnings\\/losses made in successive games by a number of cyber-gamblers to longitudinally\\u000a model gamblers’ behavior and decisions as to such bet amounts and the temporal trajectory of winnings\\/losses. The data was\\u000a collected

Victor K. Y. Chan

2010-01-01

161

Mental Health of Non-gamblers Versus “Normal” Gamblers Among American Indian Veterans: A Community Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal This analysis was undertaken to assess the demographic and mental health characteristics of “normal” or non-problem gamblers\\u000a versus non-gamblers in a representative community sample. Sample Study participants consisted of 557 North Central American Indian veterans. Data collection included a demographic and trauma questionnaire, a computer-based Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-III-R, and a treatment\\u000a history algorithm. Findings Univariate analyses revealed

Joseph Westermeyer; Jose Canive; Paul Thuras; James Thompson; Suk W. Kim; Ross D. Crosby; Judith Garrard

2008-01-01

162

Borderline Personality Pathology and Chronic Health Problems in Later Adulthood: The Mediating Role of Obesity  

PubMed Central

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with many negative physical health outcomes, including increased risk for serious chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and arthritis. BPD is also linked with obesity, a condition that is strongly related to many of the same physical health problems. Although research has shown that BPD is related to these physical conditions, there is limited evidence of whether body mass mediates the relation between BPD and serious physical health problems. The present study examined the associations among BPD features, body mass index (BMI), and six major physical health problems in an epidemiologically-based sample (N=1051) of Saint Louis residents, ages 55–64. Using interviewer-, self-, and informant-report of personality pathology, we found that BPD features were significantly related to reported presence of heart disease, arthritis, and obesity. BMI was also significantly related to heart disease and arthritis. Sobel mediation models showed that BMI fully mediated the relation between BPD features and arthritis. These results suggest that borderline pathology is an important risk factor for serious health problems in later adulthood. Obesity appears to be one pathway that leads to more health problems among individuals with BPD symptoms and may be a useful starting point when thinking about future intervention strategies.

Powers, Abigail D.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2012-01-01

163

Personality Pathology and Alcohol Dependence at Midlife in a Community Sample  

PubMed Central

The present study examined the association between personality pathology (PP) and alcohol dependence (AD; both lifetime and in the past 12 months) among middle-aged to older adults incorporating three sources of assessment, specifically, diagnostic interviews as well as self- and informant reports. We collected data from a representative sample of community participants (N = 1,630; ages 54 – 65 years) and their informants (N = 1,462). Measures employed were the substance use disorder sections of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview Schedule for Mental Disorders, the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text rev.; DSM–IV–TR SIDP) and the NEO-Personality Inventory–Revised (Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R., Revised NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) manual, 1992, Odessa, FL, Psychological Assessment Resources; self-report and informant versions). To complement the diagnostic interview for personality disorders (PDs), we utilized a PD-count technique derived from the five-factor model (FFM), which provided an index of PP liability. Factors representing lifetime and past-12 month AD were regressed on each of the 10 PP factors constructed from the SIDP interview, as well as self-report and informant FFM-count scores. Lifetime diagnosis of AD was positively associated with higher scores on several PP measures, including paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PP. There was an inverse relation between lifetime AD and the factor score for obsessive– compulsive PP. With regard to AD in the past 12 months, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PP factors were significantly associated with increased risk for AD, whereas the obsessive– compulsive and schizoid PP factors were associated with decreased risk for AD. The present data indicate that features of antisocial and borderline PP continue to exhibit a relatively strong association with risk for AD in later middle age.

Agrawal, Arpana; Narayanan, Gitanjali; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2013-01-01

164

Heterogeneity of interpersonal problems among depressed young adults: associations with substance abuse and pathological personality traits.  

PubMed

This study extended previous theory and research on interpersonal heterogeneity in depression by identifying groups of depressed young adults who differ in their type and degree of interpersonal problems, and by examining patterns of pathological personality traits and alcohol abuse among these groups. We examined the interpersonal problems, personality traits, and alcohol-related problems of 172 college students with at least moderate levels of self-reported depression on the Patient Health Questionnaire (Spitzer, Kroenke, & Williams, 1999). Scores from the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Short Circumplex (Soldz, Budman, Demby, & Merry, 1995) were subjected to latent profile analysis, which classified individuals into 5 distinct groups defined by the types of interpersonal problems they experience (dominant, warm, submissive, cold, and undifferentiated). As hypothesized, groups did not differ in depression severity, but did show predicted patterns of differences on normative and maladaptive personality traits, as well as alcohol-related problems. The presence of clinically meaningful interpersonal heterogeneity in depression could have important implications for designing more individualized treatments and prevention efforts for depression that target diverse associated interpersonal problems. PMID:23560433

Dawood, Sindes; Thomas, Katherine M; Wright, Aidan G C; Hopwood, Christopher J

2013-04-05

165

Individual outpatient treatment of pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery from pathological gambling is viewed as a process whereby the pathological gambler chooses to lose an addiction to gambling and maintains that choice while mourning the loss of the gambling. The self-induced and self-escalating addictive crisis leading up to that choice is explored, as is the crisis caused by the loss of the gambling itself. It is proposed that

Walter Miller

1986-01-01

166

Personality pathology and alcohol dependence at midlife in a community sample.  

PubMed

The present study examined the association between personality pathology (PP) and alcohol dependence (AD; both lifetime and in the past 12 months) among middle-aged to older adults incorporating three sources of assessment, specifically, diagnostic interviews as well as self- and informant reports. We collected data from a representative sample of community participants (N = 1,630; ages 54-65 years) and their informants (N = 1,462). Measures employed were the substance use disorder sections of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview Schedule for Mental Disorders, the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR SIDP) and the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R., Revised NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) manual, 1992, Odessa, FL, Psychological Assessment Resources; self-report and informant versions). To complement the diagnostic interview for personality disorders (PDs), we utilized a PD-count technique derived from the five-factor model (FFM), which provided an index of PP liability. Factors representing lifetime and past-12 month AD were regressed on each of the 10 PP factors constructed from the SIDP interview, as well as self-report and informant FFM-count scores. Lifetime diagnosis of AD was positively associated with higher scores on several PP measures, including paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PP. There was an inverse relation between lifetime AD and the factor score for obsessive-compulsive PP. With regard to AD in the past 12 months, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PP factors were significantly associated with increased risk for AD, whereas the obsessive-compulsive and schizoid PP factors were associated with decreased risk for AD. The present data indicate that features of antisocial and borderline PP continue to exhibit a relatively strong association with risk for AD in later middle age. PMID:23230852

Agrawal, Arpana; Narayanan, Gitanjali; Oltmanns, Thomas F

2012-12-10

167

Cognitive-behavioural treatment of pathological gambling in individuals with chronic schizophrenia: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study aimed to test the clinical effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural program (CBT) specifically adapted for pathological gamblers with chronic schizophrenia, carried out in a naturalistic setting of community Mental Health Centres. Forty-four pathological gamblers with chronic schizophrenia were assigned either to a standard drug therapy for schizophrenia (control group) or to cognitive-behavioural therapy for pathological gambling plus a

Enrique Echeburúa; Montserrat Gómez; Montserrat Freixa

2011-01-01

168

A neurocognitive comparison of cognitive flexibility and response inhibition in gamblers with varying degrees of clinical severity  

PubMed Central

Background As a behavioral addiction with clinical and phenomenological similarities to substance addiction, recreational and pathological gambling represent models for studying the neurobiology of addiction, without the confounding deleterious brain effects which may occur from chronic substance abuse. Method A community sample of individuals aged 18–65 years who gamble was solicited through newspaper advertising. Subjects were grouped a priori into three groups (no-risk, at-risk, and pathological gamblers) based on a diagnostic interview. All subjects underwent a psychiatric clinical interview and neurocognitive tests assessing motor impulsivity and cognitive flexibility. Subjects with a current axis I disorder, history of brain injury/trauma, or implementation or dose changes of psychoactive medication within 6 weeks of study enrollment were excluded. Results A total of 135 no-risk, 69 at-risk and 46 pathological gambling subjects were assessed. Pathological gamblers were significantly older, and exhibited significant deficiencies in motor impulse control (stop-signal reaction times), response speed (median ‘go’ trial response latency) and cognitive flexibility [total intra-dimensional/extra-dimensional (IDED) errors] versus controls. The finding of impaired impulse control and cognitive flexibility was robust in an age-matched subgroup analysis of pathological gamblers. The no-risk and at-risk gambling groups did not significantly differ from each other on task performance. Conclusions Impaired response inhibition and cognitive flexibility exist in people with pathological gambling compared with no-risk and at-risk gamblers. The early identification of such illness in adolescence or young adulthood may aid in the prevention of addiction onset of such disabling disorders.

Odlaug, B. L.; Chamberlain, S. R.; Kim, S. W.; Schreiber, L. R. N.; Grant, J. E.

2012-01-01

169

Frequently Asked Questions -- Problem Gamblers  

MedlinePLUS

... part to a person's genetic tendency to develop addiction, their ability to cope with normal life stress ... It is generally accepted that people with one addiction are more at risk to develop another. Some ...

170

Validation of the FFM PD count technique for screening personality pathology in later middle-aged and older adults.  

PubMed

Research on the applicability of the five factor model (FFM) to capture personality pathology coincided with the development of a FFM personality disorder (PD) count technique, which has been validated in adolescent, young, and middle-aged samples. This study extends the literature by validating this technique in an older sample. Five alternative FFM PD counts based upon the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) are computed and evaluated in terms of both convergent and divergent validity with the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders Questionnaire (shortly ADP-IV; DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth edition). For the best working count for each PD normative data are presented, from which cut-off scores are derived. The validity of these cut-offs and their usefulness as a screening tool is tested against both a categorical (i.e., the DSM-IV - Text Revision), and a dimensional (i.e., the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology; DAPP) measure of personality pathology. All but the Antisocial and Obsessive-Compulsive counts exhibited adequate convergent and divergent validity, supporting the use of this method in older adults. Using the ADP-IV and the DAPP - Short Form as validation criteria, results corroborate the use of the FFM PD count technique to screen for PDs in older adults, in particular for the Paranoid, Borderline, Histrionic, Avoidant, and Dependent PDs. Given the age-neutrality of the NEO PI-R and the considerable lack of valid personality assessment tools, current findings appear to be promising for the assessment of pathology in older adults. PMID:22913535

Van den Broeck, Joke; Rossi, Gina; De Clercq, Barbara; Dierckx, Eva; Bastiaansen, Leen

2012-08-22

171

The two faces of Narcissus? An empirical comparison of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Areas of convergence and divergence between the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988) and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009) were evaluated in a sample of 586 college students. Summary scores for the NPI and PNI were not strongly correlated (r=.22) but correlations between certain subscales of these two inventories were larger (e.g., r=.71 for

Kendal Maxwell; M. Brent Donnellan; Christopher J. Hopwood; Robert A. Ackerman

2011-01-01

172

The Psychology of the "Gamblers's Fallacy" in Probabilistic Reasoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzes the Gambler's Fallacy, the perception of interdependence among events which are in fact unrelated. Describes how reasoning errors occur when the perceived interdependence influences predictions about subsequent events. Elaborates the distinction between Gambler's Fallacy and similar but sound reasoning strategies. (BH)|

Yackulic, R. A.; Kelly, I. W.

1984-01-01

173

A unifying perspective on personality pathology across the life span: Developmental considerations for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposed changes in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V )i nclude replacing current personality disorder (PD) categories on Axis II with a taxonomy of dimensional maladaptive personality traits. Most of the work on dimensional models of personality pathology, and on personality disorders per se, has been conducted on young and middle-aged adult populations.

Jennifer L. Tackett; Steve Balsis; Thomas F. Oltmanns; ROBERT F. KRUEGERc

2009-01-01

174

Dynamic of Change in Pathological Personality Trait Dimensions: A Latent Change Analysis Among at-Risk Women.  

PubMed

This study explores longitudinally a four-factor structure of pathological personality trait dimensions (PPTDs) to examine both its structural stability and intra-individual changes among PPTDs over time. Personality Disorder (PD) scales of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III were administered to 361 low-income women with various psychiatric conditions (drug dependence, depression), who were followed in a two-wave study over 5-years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal factor analyses outlined a robust factorial structure of PPTDs, extrinsically invariant over time, representing Negative Emotionality, Introversion, Antagonism and Impulsivity. Despite moderate rank-order stability in the PPTDs, results also indicated substantial intra-individual variability in the degree and direction of change, consistent with trajectories of change in participants' clinical diagnoses. Results are discussed in light of current debates on the structure and dynamic of pathological personality. PMID:23710108

Barbot, Baptiste; Hunter, Scott R; Grigorenko, Elena L; Luthar, Suniya S

2013-06-01

175

A Gender-based Examination of Past-year Recreational Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Most adults gamble recreationally yet few studies have systematically investigated for gender-related differences in recreational gamblers.Methods  Logistic regression analyses were performed on data from a nationally representative sample of respondents from the 1998 Gambling Impact and Behavior Study. Results  Female gamblers versus non-gamblers were more likely to report use of alcohol and drugs. Male gamblers versus non-gamblers were more likely to report

Marc N. Potenza; Paul K. Maciejewski; Carolyn M. Mazure

2006-01-01

176

Narcissistic pathology as core personality dysfunction: comparing the DSM-IV and the DSM-5 proposal for narcissistic personality disorder.  

PubMed

Narcissistic personality disorder and related concepts have a complex history and have been subject to extensive theoretical discourse but relatively little empirical research. An initial proposal for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5) that suggested eliminating this disorder as a discrete personality disorder type met with considerable controversy that ultimately led to its reinstatement in subsequent proposals. Nonetheless, the DSM-5 proposal for personality disorders as a whole would involve a significantly different formulation of narcissistic personality from that described in DSM-IV-one that places a greater emphasis on shared deficits among all personality disorders that tap elements thought to fall on the narcissistic spectrum, such as deficits in empathic capacity. This article describes this revised formulation, and presents a case study that illustrates the similarities and differences in the DSM-IV and proposed DSM-5 portrayal of narcissistic issues and related clinical problems over the course of a particular treatment. PMID:22730037

Morey, Leslie C; Stagner, Brian H

2012-06-21

177

Treating problem gamblers: a residential therapy approach.  

PubMed

The Gordon House Association (GHA) is the UK's only specialist and dedicated residential facility for problem gamblers. This paper describes the GHA therapeutic programme which is centred round a nine-month period of residency. Progression through the programme is described by overviewing each of the phases. These are initial assessment and five distinct phases comprising 'coping with today' (Phase One), 'coping with yesterday' (Phase Two), coping with change (Phase Three), coping with tomorrow (Phase Four), and 'coping on my own' (Phase Five). These phases are themselves underpinned within the GHA core therapeutic approach which is also described. PMID:11705210

Griffiths, M; Bellringer, P; Farrell-Roberts, K; Freestone, F

2001-01-01

178

Imaginal desensitisation plus motivational interviewing for pathological gambling: randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed

Sixty-eight individuals were randomised to either six sessions of imaginal desensitisation plus motivational interviewing (IDMI) or Gamblers Anonymous. Individuals assigned to IDMI had significantly greater reductions in Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Pathological Gambling total scores, gambling urges and gambling behaviour. People who failed to respond to Gamblers Anonymous reported significantly greater reduction in pathological gambling symptoms following later assignment to IDMI. Abstinence was achieved by 63.6% during the acute IDMI treatment period. PMID:19721120

Grant, Jon E; Donahue, Christopher B; Odlaug, Brian L; Kim, Suck Won; Miller, Michael J; Petry, Nancy M

2009-09-01

179

DSM-IV and the South Oaks Gambling Screen: Diagnosing and Assessing Pathological Gambling in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria and the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) in identifying Turkish pathological gamblers. Fifty-nine subjects participated in the study. The subjects were diagnosed as either pathological gamblers or not (comparison group) through the use of the DSM-IV criteria and were given the Turkish version of

?brahim Duvarci; Azmi Varan; Hakan Co?kunol; Mehmet A. Ersoy

1997-01-01

180

[Severe abnormal development of the personality that can be regarded as pathological--initial results of a catamnestic study].  

PubMed

Proceding from the definition of "severely abnormal development of the personality that can be regarded as pathological" (SAPEK) as defined by Lange in collaboration with the 5th Penal Senate of the supreme court and with reference to the different forms of maldevelopment as categorized by Szewczyk, the author uses his own catamnestic studie to discuss the bounds and frequencies of such abnormal personality developments and criteria for the "severity of the illness" in the sense of Section 16, paragraph 1 (2nd option) of the Code of Criminal Law. In view of their importance, dissocial and psychosexual maldevelopment is dealt with in greater detail. PMID:6635032

Friemert, K

1983-07-01

181

Behavioral Treatment for Pathological Gambling in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present investigation examined a behavior-analytic clinical treatment package designed to reduce the pathological gambling of 3 individuals with acquired brain injury. A prior history of pathological gambling of each patient was assessed via caregiver report, psychological testing, and direct observation of gambling behavior. Using an 8-week…

Guercio, John M.; Johnson, Taylor; Dixon, Mark R.

2012-01-01

182

The relationship between personality traits and eating pathology in adolescent girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This research investigated the relationship between personality and the tendency towards developing eating disorders in adolescent\\u000a females Personality traits were assessed using the High School Personality Questionnaire (HSPQ) and dysfunctional eating attitudes\\u000a and behaviours were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI). The sample\\u000a consisted of 244 students from a high school in Johannesburg,

A. S. F. Silva

2007-01-01

183

Internet Gambling: An Online Empirical Study Among Student Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been noted that the introduction of the Internet to gambling activities may change some of the fundamental situational\\u000a and structural characteristics and make them potentially more addictive and\\/or problematic. This study examined some of the\\u000a differences between Internet gamblers and non-Internet gamblers. Based on past literature it was hypothesised that (1) males\\u000a would be significantly more likely to

Mark Griffiths; Andrew Barnes

2008-01-01

184

Psychiatric, Behavioral, and Attitudinal Correlates of Avoidant and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Pathology in Patients with Binge-Eating Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined correlates of avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality pathology—with respect to psychiatric comorbidity, eating disorder psychopathology, and associated psychological factors—in patients with binge-eating disorder (BED). Method Three hundred forty-seven treatment-seeking patients who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) research criteria for BED were reliably assessed with semistructured interviews to evaluate DSM-IV axis I disorders, personality disorders, and behavioral and attitudinal features of eating disorder psychopathology. Results Fifteen percent of subjects had avoidant personality disorder features, 12% had obsessive-compulsive personality disorder features, 8% had features of both disorders, and 66% had features of neither. These groups differed significantly in the frequencies of depressive and anxiety disorders, as well as on measures of psychological functioning (negative/depressive affect and self-esteem) and eating disorder attitudes (shape and weight concerns). There were no group differences on measures of eating behaviors. The avoidant and obsessive-compulsive groups had more psychiatric comorbidity than the group without these personality features, but less than the combined group. The group without these features scored significantly lower than all other groups on negative/depressive affect, and significantly higher than the avoidant and combined groups on self-esteem. The combined group had the greatest severity on shape and weight concerns. Conclusions Avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality features are common in patients with BED. Among BED patients, these forms of personality psychopathology—separately and in combination—are associated with clinically meaningful diagnostic, psychological, and attitudinal differences. These findings have implications for the psychopathological relationship between BED and personality psychopathology, and may also have implications for assessment and treatment.

Becker, Daniel F.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

2009-01-01

185

Psychological Factors that Promote and Inhibit Pathological Gambling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes qualitative data regarding psychological factors that may affect gambling behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Participants (n = 84) diagnosed with pathological gambling were treated in a clinical trial examining the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Qualitative data were collected from…

Morasco, Benjamin J.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Ledgerwood, David M.; Petry, Nancy M.

2007-01-01

186

Psychopathy and Pathological Narcissism: A Descriptive and Psychodynamic Formulation on the Antisocial Personality Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Considers the Antisocial Personality Disorder within the context of a psychopathology model. Criticizes and reviews the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders approach and suggests revisions. Coins the term narcissistic-antisocial personality and reviews it within several contexts. (Author/ABB)|

MacKay, James R.

1986-01-01

187

Self-and Peer Perspectives on Pathological Personality Traits and Interpersonal Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compares the relationship between personality disorders and interpersonal problems as obtained by self-report and peer-report measures. Participants (N=393) were administered self-and peer-report versions of the Peer Inventory for Personality Disorder and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-64. Canonical analyses demonstrated…

Clifton, Allan; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2005-01-01

188

Self-and Peer Perspectives on Pathological Personality Traits and Interpersonal Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares the relationship between personality disorders and interpersonal problems as obtained by self-report and peer-report measures. Participants (N=393) were administered self-and peer-report versions of the Peer Inventory for Personality Disorder and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-64. Canonical analyses demonstrated…

Clifton, Allan; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2005-01-01

189

BEHAVIORAL TREATMENT FOR PATHOLOGICAL GAMBLING IN PERSONS WITH ACQUIRED BRAIN INJURY  

PubMed Central

The present investigation examined a behavior-analytic clinical treatment package designed to reduce the pathological gambling of 3 individuals with acquired brain injury. A prior history of pathological gambling of each patient was assessed via caregiver report, psychological testing, and direct observation of gambling behavior. Using an 8-week one-on-one client–patient format, a treatment program was developed in which the patient learned about the antecedents, consequences, and motivating operations that controlled the emission of gambling behavior. Data were collected on both self-report of gambling urges and behavior following therapy and during in situ gambling opportunities. The therapy program reduced urges to gamble and actual gambling for all patients. The potential of behavior-analytic therapy for reducing the pathological gambling of patients with and without brain injury is discussed.

Guercio, John M; Johnson, Taylor; Dixon, Mark R

2012-01-01

190

Assessing Aviators for Personality Pathology with the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Psychiatrists independently evaluated 82 aviators referred to an aeromedical consultation service who had been administered the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI). The MCMI personality scales of those aviators psychiatrically deemed to be free f...

R. E. King

1994-01-01

191

The relationship between dissociative-like experiences and sensation seeking among social and problem gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the relationships between dissociative experiences, sensation seeking scores, and gambling behavior. On the basis of the frequency of their gambling behavior and responses to the Gamblers Anonymous Twenty Questions, subjects were designated as either problem gamblers (N=30) or social gamblers (N=30).

Nadia B. Kuley; Durand F. Jacobs

1988-01-01

192

Psychophysiological Assessment of Compulsive Gamblers' Arousal to Gambling Cues: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychophysiological assessments measuring heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and skin resistance level were conducted on 7 male compulsive gamblers and on 7 age and gender matched controls while both groups performed mental arithmetic and listened to individualized tapes of the gamblers' preferred form of gambling and an individualized fear tape. Heart rate responses of the gamblers to the

Edward B. Blanchard; Edelgard Wulfert; Brian M. Freidenberg; Loretta S. Malta

2000-01-01

193

Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems\\u000a model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal–spiritual disconnections of pathological\\u000a gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT’s theoretical foundations, main constructs, and\\u000a treatment interventions are illustrated in a progression of six clinical phases. Promise of CCT’s systemic conceptualization\\u000a and interventions

Bonnie K. Lee

2009-01-01

194

Pathological gambling severity is associated with impulsivity in a delay discounting procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and clinical expertise indicates that impulsivity is an underlying feature of pathological gambling. This study examined the extent to which impulsive behavior, defined by the rate of discounting delayed monetary rewards, varies with pathological gambling severity, assessed by the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Sixty-two pathological gamblers completed a delay discounting task, the SOGS, the Eysenck impulsivity scale, the

S. M Alessi; N. M Petry

2003-01-01

195

Peer Assessment of Personality Traits and Pathology in Female College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Characteristic features that define narcissistic, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders were studied using information collected for 265 targeted female college students and evaluations of self and others by 162 peers. Areas of agreement and disagreement between self-reports and reports of others are discussed. (SLD)|

Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Turkheimer, Eric; Strauss, Milton E.

1998-01-01

196

Refining the Measurement of Axis II: A Q-sort Procedure for Assessing Personality Pathology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Results from a study involving 153 clinicians who used the new Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (a Q-sort approach) and eight patient interviews suggest the usefulness of the SWAP to measure personality disorders and refine categories and criteria according to Axis II of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American…

Shedler, Jonathan; Westen, Drew

1998-01-01

197

Gamblers' habits: empirical evidence on the behavior of regulars, newcomers and dropouts.  

PubMed

Electronic gambling offers the opportunity to analyze huge and unbiased data sets of automatically recorded actual gambling behavior. This study refers to data on 2,127,887 poker playing identities from the Online Poker Database of the University of Hamburg (OPD-UHH) to analyze three subgroups of gamblers: regulars, newcomers, and dropouts. Their gambling habits over 6 months are analyzed in total, as well as over time. Regulars show a much higher involvement than non-regulars and increase their playing volume slightly over the observation period. Newcomers have a lower involvement than non-newcomers and most of them decrease their playing volume over time. Still, there is a small group of newcomers which increases their playing volume sharply and is, hence, very interesting for the industry as well as for the early prevention of pathological gambling. Dropouts have a higher gambling involvement than newcomers but play less than players who have not stopped stop gambling. Most dropouts also show a decreasing playing volume before dropping out. An analysis of the correlations between different variables of gambling habits shows that most of them reinforce each other, for example: gamblers with a higher total playing time tend to play at more tables simultaneously. Only playing frequency is a moderating variable of gambling involvement. PMID:22562549

Fiedler, Ingo

2013-06-01

198

Neural correlates of the impact of control on decision making in pathological gambling.  

PubMed

Perceived control over a gambling outcome leads individuals to accept more and larger bets, increased risk-taking. Pathological gamblers, however, do not diminish risk-taking when control is absent, suggesting an illusion of control. To evaluate neural correlates of perceived control in gamblers, this study compared magnetoencephalography responses of 36 pathological (PG) and 36 non-pathological gamblers (NPG) during the Georgia Gambling Task. PGs exhibited greater activity in bilateral primary sensory regions. An interaction between pathology and control over the gambling task was observed bilaterally throughout dorsal and ventral visual processing streams, and lateral PFC. NPGs showed decreased activity when control was absent. Groups did not differ in response to potential bet cost. These findings provide neurophysiological evidence that PGs suffer from the pattern of risk-taking associated with perceived control, even when no control exists. They suggest that gambling pathology contributes to differential processing of gambling stimuli other than potential costs or rewards. PMID:23201037

Hudgens-Haney, Matthew E; Hamm, Jordan P; Goodie, Adam S; Krusemark, Elizabeth A; McDowell, Jennifer E; Clementz, Brett A

2012-11-29

199

Are Psychology University Student Gamblers Representative of Non-university Students and General Gamblers? A Comparative Analysis.  

PubMed

Students recruited from psychology undergraduate university populations are commonly used in psychology research, including gambling studies. However, the extent to which the use of this subpopulation produces findings that can be extrapolated to other groups is questionable. The present study was designed to compare results from university-recruited psychology student gamblers to those obtained from a sample of gamblers recruited from the general population that also included students. An online survey measuring gambling behavior and Internet gambling, attitudes and knowledge about gambling and problem gambling severity was posted on websites accessed by gamblers. Participants were recruited from two sources, a psychology undergraduate university population (n = 461) and online websites (n = 4,801). Results showed university-recruited students differed significantly from both adults and students recruited from the general population in respect to demographic variables and gambling behavior. Psychology undergraduate students were younger, more likely to be female, and had lower incomes. When relevant demographic variables were controlled, psychology undergraduate students were found to gamble less frequently, at different times, and to be at lower-risk for gambling-related problems, but had more irrational beliefs and more negative attitudes towards gambling than gamblers recruited from the general population. Results suggest that caution should be used in extrapolating findings from research using university-recruited psychology student gamblers to wide community populations due to differences related to gambling thoughts, attitudes and behaviors. PMID:23065178

Gainsbury, Sally M; Russell, Alex; Blaszczynski, Alex

2012-10-11

200

The rich history of gynaecological pathology: brief notes on some of its personalities and their contributions.  

PubMed

The careers and contributions of some of those who have played a major role in the development of knowledge concerning gynaecological pathology are summarised. The emphasis is on workers of prior times beginning with those of the German-speaking school: Carl Ruge, Felix Marchand, Hermann Pfannenstiel, Oskar Frankl, Walter Schiller, and Robert Meyer. The two great Scandinavian investigators Lars Santesson and Gunnar Teilum are then considered, followed by those of the British school: John H. Teacher, Elizabeth Hurdon, Magnus Haines, Claud Taylor, Fred Langley, and Harold Fox. North American workers reviewed are: Thomas S. Cullen, Emil Novak, John Albertson Sampson, Arthur Hertig, and Robert E. Scully. The essay concludes with Australasian contributors, those considered in detail being: Hans Frederick Bettinger, Rupert A. Willis, Hazel (Mansell) Gore, Robert Barter, Harold Attwood, Andrew Ostör (the last two also noted historians), Denys Fortune, Alan Ng, and Peter Russell. PMID:17365820

Young, Robert H

2007-02-01

201

Flow and Dissociation: Examination of Mean Levels, Cross-links, and Links to Emotional Well-Being across Sports and Recreational and Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine whether flow (Csikszentmihalyi (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. NY: Harper & Row) and dissociation (Jacobs (1986). Journal of Gambling Behavior, 2, 15–31) are experienced across sports and recreational and pathological gambling, we assessed a sample of 511 college students (256 females and 255 males, M age = 19.54) that was comprised of 14 pathological gamblers, 21 non-addicted gamblers,

Brigitte Wanner; Robert Ladouceur; Amélie V. Auclair; Frank Vitaro

2006-01-01

202

Introduction of virtual microscopy in routine surgical pathology - a hypothesis and personal view from Europe  

PubMed Central

The technology of whole image acquisition from histological glass slides (Virtual slides, (VS)) and its associated software such as image storage, viewers, and virtual microscopy (VM), has matured in the recent years. There is an ongoing discussion whether to introduce VM into routine diagnostic surgical pathology (tissue-based diagnosis) or not, and if these are to be introduced how best to do this. The discussion also centres around how to substantially define the mandatory standards and working conditions related to introducing VM. This article briefly describes some hypotheses alongside our perspective and that of several of our European colleagues who have experienced VS and VM either in research or routine praxis. After consideration of the different opinions and published data the following statements can be derived: 1. Experiences from static and remote telepathology as well as from daily routine diagnoses, confirm that VM is a diagnostic tool that can be handled with the same diagnostic accuracy as conventional microscopy; at least no statistically significant differences (p?>?0.05) exist. 2. VM possesses several practical advantages in comparison to conventional microscopy; such as digital image storage and retrieval and contemporary display of multiple images (acquired from different stains, and/or different cases). 3. VM enables fast and efficient feedback between the pathologist and the laboratory in terms of ordered additional stains, automated access to the latest research for references, and fast consultation with outstanding telepathology experts. 4. Industry has already invested “big money” into this technology which certainly will be of influence in its future development. The main constraints against VM include the questionable reimbursement of the initial investment, the missing direct and short term financial benefit, and the loss of potential biological identity between the patient and the examined tissue. This article tries to analyze and evaluate the factors that influence the implementation of VM into routine tissue-based diagnosis, for example in combination with predictive diagnosis. It focuses on describing the advantages of modern and innovative electronically based communication technology. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1245603103708547

2012-01-01

203

Gamblers Anonymous: A critical review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study surveys existing literature on Gamblers Anonymous (GA) and issues that help to contextualise our understanding of this mutual aid association. While GA has been the subject of investigation by social scientists, it is still understudied, with a notable shortage of research on issues facing women and ethnic minorities. A need exists for large-scale assessments of GA's effectiveness, more

Peter Ferentzy; Wayne Skinner

2003-01-01

204

A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members…

Binde, Per

2012-01-01

205

Detection of Problem Gambler Subgroups Using Recursive Partitioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The multivariate socio-demographic risk factors for problem gambling have been well documented. While this body of research is valuable in determining risk factors aggregated across various populations, the majority of studies tend not to specifically identify particular subgroups of problem gamblers based on the interaction between variables.…

Markham, Francis; Young, Martin; Doran, Bruce

2013-01-01

206

The Gambler's and Hot-Hand Fallacies: Theory and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a model of the gambler's fallacy -- the mistaken belief that random sequences should exhibit systematic reversals. We show that an individual who holds this belief and observes a sequence of signals can exaggerate the magnitude of changes in an underlying state but underestimate their duration. When the state is constant, and so signals are \\\\textit{i.i.d.}, the individual

Matthew Rabin; Dimitri Vayanos

2007-01-01

207

Internet Gambling Behavior in a Sample of Online Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined Internet gambling behavior in a sample of online gamblers. Participants (N = 563; 382 male; ages 18-over 65) were recruited from a banner placed in an online newsletter. Questionnaires were completed online and assessed demographic information, game-play patterns (e.g., frequency, duration, wagering), preferred type of…

McBride, Jessica; Derevensky, Jeffrey

2009-01-01

208

Adapting to failure: The case of horse race gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exemplifying Goffman's concern with adaptation to failure (cooling the mark), the researcher delineates the strategies used by horse race gamblers to deal with the consequences of monetary losses. Although racing attracts a large number of regular participants, little is known of their adaptations to the stark reality that ninety-five percent of horse players lose money from gambling. Analysis of participant

John Rosecrance

1986-01-01

209

The impact of video lottery game speed on gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video lotteries seem to be one of the most profitable games for the gambling industry and are reported as the game of choice for many problem gamblers. Their popularity or, in some cases, their addictiveness, might be related to their structural characteristics: reinforcement schedule, lights, appearance, sound, and speed. We investigated the effects of video lottery game speed on concentration,

Robert Ladouceur; Serge Sévigny

2006-01-01

210

Altering the "Near-Miss" Effect in Slot Machine Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the potential for recreational gamblers to respond as if certain types of losing slot machine outcomes were actually closer to a win than others (termed the "near-miss effect"). Exposure to conditional discrimination training and testing disrupted this effect for 10 of the 16 participants. These 10 participants…

Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Jackson, James E.; Habib, Reza

2009-01-01

211

Demonstrating the Gambler's Fallacy in an Introductory Statistics Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a classroom demonstration called the Gambler's Fallacy where students in an introductory psychology statistics class participate in simulated gambling using weekly results from professional football game outcomes over a 10 week period. Explains that the demonstration illustrates that random processes do not self-correct and statistical…

Riniolo, Todd C.; Schmidt, Louis A.

1999-01-01

212

Internet Gambling Behavior in a Sample of Online Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study examined Internet gambling behavior in a sample of online gamblers. Participants (N = 563; 382 male; ages 18-over 65) were recruited from a banner placed in an online newsletter. Questionnaires were completed online and assessed demographic information, game-play patterns (e.g., frequency, duration, wagering), preferred type of…

McBride, Jessica; Derevensky, Jeffrey

2009-01-01

213

‘Bringing Torn Lives Together Again’: Effects of the First Congruence Couple Therapy Training Application to Clients in Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Counsellors (N = 21) receiving their first training in Congruence Couple Therapy (CCT) applied CCT to 1–2 pathological gamblers (N = 24) and their spouses conjointly at their Ontario treatment settings. Gamblers' and spouses' pre–post quantitative results indicated statistically significant reduction of gambling urges and behaviours and improvement in spousal relationship. However, contrary to hypothesis, spouses experienced a significant decrease in overall life satisfaction,

BONNIE K. LEE; MARTIN ROVERS

2008-01-01

214

Pathological Gambling and Suicidality: An Analysis of Severity and Lethality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates the nature of suicidal behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers and its relationship to gambling characteristics and depression. High rates of suicidal ideation, suicidal plans, and attempts were found; however, no clear relationship was observed between suicidality and indices of gambling behavior. (Contains 37…

Maccallum, Fiona; Blaszczynski, Alex

2003-01-01

215

Maintenance of attention and pathological gambling.  

PubMed

In the study of addiction, attentional bias refers to the observation that substance-related cues tend to capture the attention of experienced substance users. Attentional bias is a cognitive intermediate in the conditioned association between drug-related cues, craving, and relapse. Numerous studies have documented the existence of attentional bias for cues associated with substances. By contrast, few studies have investigated attentional bias in individuals with pathological gambling (PG) or problematic gambling. In this study, we sought to assess attentional bias at the level of maintenance of attention in a sample of pathological gamblers. Twenty-three pathological gamblers and 21 healthy volunteers performed the Visual Probe Task to compare attentional bias with gambling-related cues between individuals with PG and healthy volunteers. The measured of attentional bias was based on their reaction times (RTs) to probes replacing neutral and gambling-related cues (images). Second, we examined the correlation between PG severity and degree of attentional bias among individuals with PG. Results show that pathological gamblers, but not healthy volunteers, had attentional bias for gambling-related cues with exposure times that assess maintenance of attention. There was no correlation between PG severity and degree of attentional bias. Theoretical and clinical implications of these results are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23713570

Vizcaino, Ernesto Jose Verdura; Fernandez-Navarro, Pablo; Blanco, Carlos; Ponce, Guillermo; Navio, Mercedes; Moratti, Stephan; Rubio, Gabriel

2013-05-27

216

Internet Self-Exclusion: Characteristics of Self-Excluded Gamblers and Preliminary Evidence for Its Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary scientific evidence indicates that online gamblers are more likely to be problem gamblers and thus point to the\\u000a need for effective protection measures. This study focuses on an online self-exclusion program and seeks to comprehensively\\u000a examine the benefits of this measure. It was intended to collect detailed information on the characteristics of self-excluded\\u000a internet gamblers and to examine the

Tobias Hayer; Gerhard Meyer

2011-01-01

217

The Gambler's and Hot?Hand Fallacies: Theory and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a model of the gambler's fallacy—the mistaken belief that random sequences should exhibit systematic reversals. We show that an individual who holds this belief and observes a sequence of signals can exaggerate the magnitude of changes in an underlying state but underestimate their duration. When the state is constant, and so signals are i.i.d., the individual can predict

MATTHEW RABIN; DIMITRI VAYANOS

2010-01-01

218

Internet Gambling Behavior in a Sample of Online Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined Internet gambling behavior in a sample of online gamblers. Participants (N?=?563; 382 male; ages 18–over 65) were recruited from a banner placed in an online newsletter. Questionnaires were completed\\u000a online and assessed demographic information, game-play patterns (e.g., frequency, duration, wagering), preferred type of play,\\u000a and problem gambling (using the DSM-IV). In addition, participation in gambling-type games

Jessica McBride; Jeffrey Derevensky

2009-01-01

219

A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling\\u000a problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of\\u000a these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members of a local society and participation

Per Binde

220

Pathological gambling: A review of the literature (prepared for the American Psychiatric Association task force on DSM-IV committee on disorders of impulse control not elsewhere classified)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a review of the literature on pathological gambling prepared for the work group on disorders of impulse control, not elsewhere classified of the American Psychiatric Association. It introduces the new DSM-IV criteria as well as outlines the phases of the career of the pathological gambler. Research discussed includes that on pathological gambling and psychiatric disorders, substance abuse, family

Henry R. Lesieur; Richard J. Rosenthal

1991-01-01

221

All in the Family: Help-Seeking by Significant Others of Problem Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Problem gambling can significantly affect the lives of concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers, especially family members, but little is known about their help-seeking activities and experiences. This paper explores help-seeking by CSOs of problem gamblers and their related motivators and barriers. A telephone interview was…

Hing, Nerilee; Tiyce, Margaret; Holdsworth, Louise; Nuske, Elaine

2013-01-01

222

Recruiting Gamblers from the General Population for Research Purposes: Outcomes from Two Contrasting Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple means exist by which gamblers including problem gamblers may be recruited from the general population for research survey purposes. However, there appears to be limited discussion in the published literature about the relative merits of one or other approach. This paper addresses this gap, in part, by reporting the experiences of…

Williams, Jeremy D.; Pulford, Justin; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max

2010-01-01

223

The Gambler's and Hot-Hand Fallacies In a Dynamic-Inference Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a model of belief in the gambler's fallacy, and explore the link with the seemingly opposite hot-hand fallacy. We show that individuals who observe a sequence of signals and are subject to the gambler's fallacy can overstate the time-variation of an underlying state. This can generate belief in the hot hand when the state's persistence is known or

Matthew Rabin; Dimitri Vayanosy

2005-01-01

224

Internet Self-Exclusion: Characteristics of Self-Excluded Gamblers and Preliminary Evidence for Its Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preliminary scientific evidence indicates that online gamblers are more likely to be problem gamblers and thus point to the need for effective protection measures. This study focuses on an online self-exclusion program and seeks to comprehensively examine the benefits of this measure. It was intended to collect detailed information on the…

Hayer, Tobias; Meyer, Gerhard

2011-01-01

225

A Typology of UK Slot Machine Gamblers: A Longitudinal Observational and Interview Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Slot machine gambling is a popular leisure activity worldwide yet there has been very little research into different types of slot machine gamblers. Earlier typologies of slot machine gamblers have only concentrated on adolescents in arcade environments. This study presents a new typology of slot machine players based on over 1000 h of…

Griffiths, Mark D.

2011-01-01

226

Internet Self-Exclusion: Characteristics of Self-Excluded Gamblers and Preliminary Evidence for Its Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Preliminary scientific evidence indicates that online gamblers are more likely to be problem gamblers and thus point to the need for effective protection measures. This study focuses on an online self-exclusion program and seeks to comprehensively examine the benefits of this measure. It was intended to collect detailed information on the…

Hayer, Tobias; Meyer, Gerhard

2011-01-01

227

Recruiting Gamblers from the General Population for Research Purposes: Outcomes from Two Contrasting Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Multiple means exist by which gamblers including problem gamblers may be recruited from the general population for research survey purposes. However, there appears to be limited discussion in the published literature about the relative merits of one or other approach. This paper addresses this gap, in part, by reporting the experiences of…

Williams, Jeremy D.; Pulford, Justin; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max

2010-01-01

228

Toward a Model for Assessing Level of Personality Functioning in DSM–5, Part II: Empirical Articulation of a Core Dimension of Personality Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extensive comorbidity among Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM–IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) personality disorders might be compelling evidence of essential commonalities among these disorders reflective of a general level of personality functioning that in itself is highly relevant to clinical decision making. This study sought to identify key markers of such a level, thought

Leslie C. Morey; Han Berghuis; Donna S. Bender; Roel Verheul; Robert F. Krueger; Andrew E. Skodol

2011-01-01

229

Personalization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how a typical high school in Huntington Beach, California, curbed disruptive student behavior by personalizing the school experience for "problem" students. Through mostly volunteer efforts, an adopt-a-kid program was initiated that matched kids' learning styles to adults' personality styles and resulted in fewer suspensions and…

Shore, Rebecca Martin

1996-01-01

230

Cognitive distortions, anxiety, and depression among regular and pathological gambling online poker players.  

PubMed

The aims were to assess cognitive distortions and psychological distress (anxiety and depression) among online poker players of different levels of gambling intensity (non-pathological gamblers [NPG], problem gamblers [PbG], and pathological gamblers [PG]), and to examine the relationship between these variables and gambling pathology. Overall, 245 regular online poker players recruited on an Internet forum completed online self-report scales assessing pathological gambling (South Oaks Gambling Screen [SOGS]), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]) and cognitive distortions (Gambling-Related Cognition Scale). Based on their SOGS scores, poker players were ranked into three groups: NPG (n=146), PbG (n=55), and PG (n=44). All poker players appeared to be more anxious than depressive. PG exhibited higher levels of depression and anxiety than did PbG and NPG. Cognitive distortions also significantly discriminated PG from PbG and NPG. A regression model showed that the perceived inability to stop gambling, the illusion of control, depression (HADS D), and anxiety were good predictors for pathological gambling among poker players. Our results suggest that cognitive distortions play an important role in the development and maintenance of gambling pathology. This study also underlines the role of anxiety and depression in pathological gambling among poker players. It seems relevant to take these elements into account in the research, prevention, and treatment of pathological gambling poker players. PMID:23363229

Barrault, Servane; Varescon, Isabelle

2013-01-30

231

Multidimensional comparison of personality characteristics of the Big Five model, impulsiveness, and affect in pathological gambling and obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The phenomenological resemblance between pathological gambling (PG) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has led to suggestions that PG be categorized as an obsessive-compulsive-spectrum disorder (OCSD). This study aimed to explore whether PG resembles OCD in terms of personality and temperament. Fifteen patients with PG, 18 patients with OCD, and 33 healthy control subjects were included in the study. The study subjects were all male and drug naïve. We analyzed data obtained from three self-report questionnaires assessing personality, impulsiveness, and affect: the short version of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Participants with PG and OCD demonstrated less conscientiousness (F = 7.089, P = .002) and less openness to experience (F = 6.268, P = .003) and less positive affect (F = 15.816, P < .001) than did healthy controls. The two diagnostic groups did not differ from each other with respect total BIS-11 scores, but those with OCD showed more neuroticism than did those with PG and healthy controls ( F = 9.556, P < .001), and those with PG obtained higher scores on the non-planning impulsiveness factor of BIS-11 than did those with OCD or healthy controls ( F = 9,835, P < .001). PG and OCD share similar profiles in terms of personality and temperament. This study provides phenomenological evidence supporting the conceptualization of PG as an OCSD. PMID:21938524

Hwang, Jae Yeon; Shin, Young-Chul; Lim, Se-Won; Park, Hye Youn; Shin, Na Young; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Hye-Yoon; Kwon, Jun Soo

2012-09-01

232

Grouping and gambling: a Gestalt approach to understanding the gambler's fallacy.  

PubMed

The gambler's fallacy was examined in terms of grouping processes. The gambler's fallacy is the tendency to erroneously believe that for independent events, recent or repeated instances of an outcome (e.g., a series of "heads" when flipping a coin) will make that outcome less likely on an upcoming trial. Grouping was manipulated such that a critical trial following a run of heads or tails was grouped together with previous trials (i.e., the last trial of "Block 1") or was the first trial of another group (the first trial of "Block 2"). As predicted, the gambler's fallacy was evident when the critical trial was grouped with the previous trials, but not when it was arbitrarily grouped with the next block of trials. Discussion centres on the processes underlying the gambler's fallacy and practical implications of these findings. PMID:12822837

Roney, Christopher J R; Trick, Lana M

2003-06-01

233

Factors Associated with Gamblers: A Population-based Cross-sectional Study of South Australian Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To determine, using a random telephone survey, the prevalence of various gambling activities among South Australian adults, the prevalence of adult problem gamblers using the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) instrument, and to examine the problem gamblers by demographic and health-related risk factors.Method  A random representative sample of South Australian adults selected from the Electronic White Pages. Overall, 6045 interviews were

Tiffany Gill; Eleonora Dal Grande; Anne W. Taylor

2006-01-01

234

Social responsibility tools in online gambling: a survey of attitudes and behavior among Internet gamblers.  

PubMed

To date, little empirical research has focused on social responsibility in gambling. This study examined players' attitudes and behavior toward using the social responsibility tool PlayScan designed by the Swedish gaming company Svenska Spel. Via PlayScan, players have the option to utilize various social responsibility control tools (e.g., personal gaming budgets, self-diagnostic tests of gambling habits, self-exclusion options). A total of 2,348 participants took part in an online questionnaire study. Participants were clientele of the Svenska Spel online gambling Web site. Results showed that just over a quarter of players (26%) had used PlayScan. The vast majority of those who had activated PlayScan (almost 9 in 10 users) said that PlayScan was easy to use. Over half of PlayScan users (52%) said it was useful; 19% said it was not. Many features were seen as useful by online gamblers, including limit setting (70%), viewing their gambling profile (49%), self-exclusion facilities (42%), self-diagnostic problem gambling tests (46%), information and support for gambling issues (40%), and gambling profile predictions (36%). In terms of actual (as opposed to theoretical) use, over half of PlayScan users (56%) had set spending limits, 40% had taken a self-diagnostic problem gambling test, and 17% had used a self-exclusion feature. PMID:19594379

Griffiths, Mark D; Wood, Richard T A; Parke, Jonathan

2009-08-01

235

How Do Gamblers End Gambling: Longitudinal Analysis of Internet Gambling Behaviors Prior to Account Closure Due to Gambling Related Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine behavioral patterns of actual Internet gamblers who experienced gambling-related problems and voluntarily closed\\u000a their accounts. Design: A nested case–control design was used to compare gamblers who closed their accounts because of gambling problems to those\\u000a who maintained open accounts. Setting: Actual play patterns of in vivo Internet gamblers who subscribed to an Internet gambling site. Participants: 226

Ziming Xuan; Howard Shaffer

2009-01-01

236

Characteristics of Problem Gamblers 56 Years of Age or Older: A Statewide Study of Casino Self-Excluders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gambling among older adults appears to be increasing, though little is known about the characteristics of older adult problem gamblers. The purpose of this study was to compare older adults to younger and middle-aged adults in a cohort of problem gamblers participating in a state-administered casino self-exclusion program. Self-reported problem gamblers (N = 1,601) who voluntary banned themselves from Missouri

Lia Nower; Alex Blaszczynski

2008-01-01

237

Application of Gambler's Ruin Problem to Sediment Transport Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study develops a Gambler's ruin model of sediment particle interaction between bed material and water column inflows. Given several transitions between the bed material and the water column, this study calculates the probabilities starting from a given number of sediment particles to the maximum allowable number of sediment particles in the water column and the mean time that the particles remained in the water column. The model is also used to simulate the effective risk of the water treatment plant reaching limits in the water quality standard. The model is also used to quantify variability in the effective risk of exceeding the maximum carry capacity of the Shihmen reservoir basin. The modeling results, including the expected value and variance in sediment concentrations as well as the confidence interval of effective risk, are presented.

Tsai, Christina; Lai, Kung-Chung

2013-04-01

238

Randomness and inductions from streaks: "gambler's fallacy" versus "hot hand".  

PubMed

Sometimes people believe that a run of similar independent events will be broken (belief in the gambler's fallacy) but, other times, that such a run will continue (belief in the hot hand). Both of these opposite inductions have been explained as being due to belief in a law of small numbers. We argue that one factor that distinguishes these phenomena is people's beliefs about the randomness of the underlying process generating the events. We gave participants information about a streak of events but varied the scenarios in such a way that the mechanism generating the events should vary in how random the participants would judge it to be. A manipulation check confirmed our assumptions about the scenarios. We found that with less random scenarios, the participants were more likely to continue a streak. PMID:15117006

Burns, Bruce D; Corpus, Bryan

2004-02-01

239

Measuring pathological gambling in children: The case of fruit machines in the U.K  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alleged incidence of addiction to fruit machine gambling among children in the U.K. has highlighted the need for a measure to define and count pathological gambling in children. The DSM-IV criteria, which are being refined to diagnose pathological gambling in adults, was adapted for use with pre-adult gamblers. The resulting DSM-IV-J criteria were tested using a questionnaire survey on

Sue Fisher

1992-01-01

240

Personality and eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives of review. This chapter reviews research findings from 2005 and 2006 regarding dimensional personality traits, categorical personality disorders and dimensional personality pathology, and categorical person- ality subtypes in eating disorders. Summary of recent findings. Approaches linking specific personality traits to eating pathology have demonstrated the predictive validity of perfec- tionism and impulsiveness. Impulsive behaviors are associated with com- pulsivity

Kristin M von Ranson

241

Differences in preferred level of arousal in two sub-groups of problem gamblers: A preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve problem poker machine players and thirteen horse race gamblers (20 males and 5 females; age range 28–69) completed a series of questionnaires which assessed levels of anxiety, their preferred state of arousal and their motivations to gamble. As predicted, problem poker machine gamblers were found to be more anxious and reported avoiding arousal more frequently than the horse race

Nick Cocco; Louise Sharpe; Alex P. Blaszczynski

1995-01-01

242

Response Inhibition during Cue Reactivity in Problem Gamblers: An fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Disinhibition over drug use, enhanced salience of drug use and decreased salience of natural reinforcers are thought to play an important role substance dependence. Whether this is also true for pathological gambling is unclear. To understand the effects of affective stimuli on response inhibition in problem gamblers (PRGs), we designed an affective Go/Nogo to examine the interaction between response inhibition and salience attribution in 16 PRGs and 15 healthy controls (HCs). Four affective blocks were presented with Go trials containing neutral, gamble, positive or negative affective pictures. The No-Go trials in these blocks contained neutral pictures. Outcomes of interest included percentage of impulsive errors and mean reaction times in the different blocks. Brain activity related to No-Go trials was assessed to measure response inhibition in the various affective conditions and brain activity related to Go trials was assessed to measure salience attribution. PRGs made fewer errors during gamble and positive trials than HCs, but were slower during all trials types. Compared to HCs, PRGs activated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate and ventral striatum to a greater extent while viewing gamble pictures. The dorsal lateral and inferior frontal cortex were more activated in PRGs than in HCs while viewing positive and negative pictures. During neutral inhibition, PRGs were slower but similar in accuracy to HCs, and showed more dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex activity. In contrast, during gamble and positive pictures PRGs performed better than HCs, and showed lower activation of the dorsolateral and anterior cingulate cortex. This study shows that gambling-related stimuli are more salient for PRGs than for HCs. PRGs seem to rely on compensatory brain activity to achieve similar performance during neutral response inhibition. A gambling-related or positive context appears to facilitate response inhibition as indicated by lower brain activity and fewer behavioural errors in PRGs.

van Holst, Ruth J.; van Holstein, Mieke; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Goudriaan, Anna E.

2012-01-01

243

An effect of inter-trial duration on the gambler's fallacy choice bias.  

PubMed

The gambler's fallacy is defined as the avoidance of a winning outcome in a stochastic environment with a constant probability. We tested the possibility that the gambler's fallacy in humans is responsive to the amount of time between choice allocations. Two groups of subjects were placed in a six-choice betting game in which the choices were clustered into two "patches." Groups were defined by the length of time - 2s or 6s - between trials. On any given trial subjects allocated six points among the alternatives, and retained any points that were bet on the winning alternative. Both groups showed evidence of the gambler's fallacy bias. However, the bias was stronger in the 6-s ITI group than in the 2-s ITI group. This difference was found primarily to be due to differences in the number of subjects showing an opposing bias to the gambler's fallacy, namely a preference for the most recent winning alternative. This choice bias is termed the hot hand fallacy. Our findings contradict predictions derived from a foraging heuristic and from traditional accounts of the gambler's fallacy. PMID:20176090

Militana, Erika; Wolfson, Elissa; Cleaveland, J Mark

2010-02-20

244

The Enduring Impact of Borderline Personality Pathology: Risk for Threatening Life Events in Later Middle-Age  

PubMed Central

Both neuroticism and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are associated with increased frequency of stressful life events in young adults. It is not clear, however, whether this effect extends to later life because BPD is apparently diminished in frequency and severity when people reach middle adulthood. This issue was examined in a representative, community sample of men and women between the ages of 55 and 64 (N=1,234). Ten DSM-IV PDs and neuroticism were assessed at baseline using a semi-structured interview (SIDP-IV) and questionnaire (NEO-PI-R). Life events were measured 6 months later with a self-report questionnaire (LTE-Q) followed by a telephone interview. BPD features and neuroticism predicted increased frequency of life events, based on both self and interviewer-adjusted reports of negative life events. Avoidant and paranoid PD features predicted decreased frequency of negative life events. Approximately 42% of events reported on the LTE-Q were discounted following the telephone interview; higher scores on BPD symptoms were associated with more adjustments to self-report of threatening experiences. These findings indicate that symptoms of BPD and neuroticism continue to have a harmful impact on the lives of older adults.

Gleason, Marci E.J.; Powers, Abigail D.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2011-01-01

245

The enduring impact of borderline personality pathology: risk for threatening life events in later middle-age.  

PubMed

Both neuroticism and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are associated with increased frequency of stressful life events in young adults. It is not clear, however, whether this effect extends to later life because BPD is apparently diminished in frequency and severity when people reach middle adulthood. This issue was examined in a representative, community sample of men and women between the ages of 55 and 64 (N = 1,234). Ten DSM-IV PDs and neuroticism were assessed at baseline using a semistructured interview (SIDP-IV) and questionnaire (NEO-PI-R). Life events were measured 6 months later with a self-report questionnaire (LTE-Q) followed by a telephone interview. BPD features and neuroticism predicted increased frequency of life events, based on both self and interviewer-adjusted reports of negative life events. Avoidant and paranoid PD features predicted decreased frequency of negative life events. Approximately 42% of events reported on the LTE-Q were discounted following the telephone interview; higher scores on BPD symptoms were associated with more adjustments to self-report of threatening experiences. These findings indicate that symptoms of BPD and neuroticism continue to have a harmful impact on the lives of older adults. PMID:22022953

Gleason, Marci E J; Powers, Abigail D; Oltmanns, Thomas F

2011-10-24

246

Internet-based treatment of pathological gambling with a three-year follow-up.  

PubMed

Effective therapies for pathological gambling exist, but their use is limited to about 10% of the target population. In an attempt to lower the barriers for help, Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) has been shown to be effective when delivered to a non-depressed sample with pathological gambling. This study sought to extend this finding to a larger, more representative population, and also test a model to predict responder status. Following advertisement, a total of 284 participants started an 8-week ICBT programme with minimal therapist contact via e-mail and weekly telephone calls of less than 15 min. The average time spent on each participant, including telephone conversations, e-mail, and administration, was 4 h. In addition to a mixed effects model to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment, two logistic regression analyses were performed with the following eight pre-defined response predictor variables: work-life satisfaction, primary gambling activity, debts due to gambling, social support, personal yearly salary, alcohol consumption, stage of change, and dissociative gambling. ICBT resulted in statistically significant reductions in the scores of pathological gambling, anxiety, and depression as well as an increase in quality of life compared to pre-treatment levels. Follow-ups carried out in the treatment group at 6, 18, and 36 months indicated that treatment effects were sustained. Using the eight predictor variable model rendered an acceptable predictive ability to identify responders both at post-test (AUC = .72, p < .01) and at 36-month follow-up (AUC = .70, p < .01). We conclude that ICBT for pathological gamblers, even if depressed, can be effective and that outcome can partly be predicted by pre-treatment characteristics. PMID:22620990

Carlbring, Per; Degerman, Nicklas; Jonsson, Jakob; Andersson, Gerhard

2012-05-24

247

Using cross-game behavioral markers for early identification of high-risk internet gamblers.  

PubMed

Using actual gambling behavior provides the opportunity to develop behavioral markers that operators can use to predict the development of gambling-related problems among their subscribers. Participants were 4,056 Internet gamblers who subscribed to the Internet betting service provider bwin.party. Half of this sample included multiple platform gamblers who were identified by bwin.party's Responsible Gambling (RG) program; the other half were controls randomly selected from those who had the same first deposit date. Using the daily aggregated Internet betting transactions for gamblers' first 31 calendar days of online betting activities at bwin.party, we employed a 2-step analytic strategy: (a) applying an exploratory chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) decision tree method to identify characteristics that distinguished a subgroup of high-risk Internet gamblers from the rest of the sample, and (b) conducting a confirmatory analysis of those characteristics among an independent validation sample. This analysis identified two high-risk groups (i.e., groups in which 90% of the members were identified by bwin.party's RG program): Group 1 engaged in three or more gambling activities and evidenced high wager variability on casino-type games; Group 2 engaged in two different gambling activities and evidenced high variability for live action wagers. This analysis advances an ongoing research program to identify potentially problematic Internet gamblers during the earliest stages of their Internet gambling. Gambling providers and public policymakers can use these results to inform early intervention programs that target high-risk Internet gamblers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24059836

Braverman, Julia; Laplante, Debi A; Nelson, Sarah E; Shaffer, Howard J

2013-09-01

248

Slot Machine Preferences of Pathological and Recreational Gamblers Are Verbally Constructed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study attempted to alter preferences for concurrently available slot machines of equal payout through the development of equivalence classes and subsequent transfers of functions. Participants rated stimuli consisting of words thought to be associated with having a gambling problem (e.g., "desperation" and "debt"), words associated…

Dixon, Mark R.; Bihler, Holly L.; Nastally, Becky L.

2011-01-01

249

Formal Comparison of Dual-Parameter Temporal Discounting Models in Controls and Pathological Gamblers  

PubMed Central

Temporal or delay discounting refers to the phenomenon that the value of a reward is discounted as a function of time to delivery. A range of models have been proposed that approximate the shape of the discount curve describing the relationship between subjective value and time. Recent evidence suggests that more than one free parameter may be required to accurately model human temporal discounting data. Nonetheless, many temporal discounting studies in psychiatry, psychology and neuroeconomics still apply single-parameter models, despite their oftentimes poor fit to single-subject data. Previous comparisons of temporal discounting models have either not taken model complexity into account, or have overlooked particular models. Here we apply model comparison techniques in a large sample of temporal discounting datasets using several discounting models employed in the past. Among the models examined, an exponential-power model from behavioural economics (CS model, Ebert & Prelec 2007) provided the best fit to human laboratory discounting data. Inter-parameter correlations for the winning model were moderate, whereas they were substantial for other dual-parameter models examined. Analyses of previous group and context effects on temporal discounting with the winning model provided additional theoretical insights. The CS model may be a useful tool in future psychiatry, psychology and neuroscience work on inter-temporal choice.

Peters, Jan; Miedl, Stephan Franz; Buchel, Christian

2012-01-01

250

Gender differences in mental health characteristics and gambling among African-American adolescent gamblers  

PubMed Central

This study explores gender differences in lifetime and recent substance use/internalizing behavior, childhood externalizing behavior and gambling preferences among African-American youth gamblers. Data are from a prospective study of a community sample of 452 urban African-American youth that began at entry into first grade and was followed for ten years. Gambling was associated with high teacher ratings of childhood externalizing behaviors among males, and with high parent ratings of childhood impulsivity and hyperactivity among both genders. Internalizing behavior was associated with female gambling. No male-female differences in substance use/lifetime conduct disorder among gamblers were noted. Gambling preferences/frequency differed across genders.

Martins, Silvia S.; Storr, Carla L.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Chilcoat, Howard D.

2008-01-01

251

To gamble or not to gamble: At risk for craving and relapse – learned motivated attention in pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent research similarities between pathological gambling and drug addiction have been identified, suggesting excessive gambling to constitute an addiction. So far, we have insufficient knowledge concerning the psychophysiological mechanisms underlying this kind of non-substance-related addiction. The objective of the study was to investigate emotional processing of gambling-relevant and -irrelevant stimuli in pathological gamblers and non-gambling controls using an EEG

Klaus Wölfling; Chantal P. Mörsen; Eva Duven; Ulrike Albrecht; Sabine M. Grüsser; Herta Flor

2011-01-01

252

Report on the cost-benefit\\/effectiveness of treatment at the Johns Hopkins Center for Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is mandatory that programs, particularly social programs, generate evidence of efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of the treatment of illness. Thus a study was conducted to determine the cost-effectiveness of treatment of pathological gamblers at the Johns Hopkins Center for Pathological Gambling. This Center provides two types of treatment programs: an intensive residential program, and an out-patient program. Although abstinence

Robert M. Politzer; James S. Morrow; Sandra B. Leavey

1985-01-01

253

Effect of executive functioning, decision-making and self-reported impulsivity on the treatment outcome of pathologic gambling  

PubMed Central

Background Impairments in self-regulatory behaviour reflect a deficit in executive functioning and decision-making, as well as higher levels of self-reported impulsivity, and may be involved in the development and maintenance of addictive disorders. We sought to explore the association between self-reported impulsivity and neurocognitive measures, and their association with treatment outcome in pathologic gambling. Methods We assessed patients with pathologic gambling using executive functioning and decision-making tests and self-report measures of impulsivity. Patients underwent cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) for pathologic gambling. Results We included 88 patients (8% women) in our study. High self-reported extravagance was associated with poor performance in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT)-ABCD version. High impulsiveness, low disorderliness, high exploratory excitability (trend), poor backward block span and poor IGT-EFGH scores (trend) predicted dropout. We observed no self-reported or neurocognitive predictors of relapse or number of treatment sessions attended. Limitations Most participants were slot-machine gamblers seeking treatment. No follow-up data and no control group were included in the study. The missing sample (i.e., individuals who were recruited and assessed in the pretreatment stage but who chose not to begin treatment) had higher extravagance scores than the final sample. Conclusion Neurocognitive reward sensitivity was related to self-reported overspending behaviour. Self-regulatory impairments (especially rash impulsiveness and punishment sensitivity) and executive dysfunction predicted only dropout of CBT in participants with pathologic gambling. Different neurocognitive processes and personality traits might mediate treatment response to psychological therapy of pathologic gambling according to the specific target variable assessed.

Alvarez-Moya, Eva M.; Ochoa, Cristian; Jimenez-Murcia, Susana; Aymami, Maria Neus; Gomez-Pena, Monica; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Santamaria, Juanjo; Moragas, Laura; Bove, Francesca; Menchon, Jose M.

2011-01-01

254

On being the expert witness for the compulsive gambler facing legal charges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compulsive gambling is a psychiatric disorder — an addiction to gambling in which the substance abused is money. When legal access to money is no longer available, compulsive gamblers will often resort to illegal activities in order to obtain funds with which to support their addiction.

Valerie C. Lorenz

1988-01-01

255

Amphetamine Primes Motivation to Gamble and Gambling-Related Semantic Networks in Problem Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that gambling can induce effects that closely resemble a psychostimulant drug effect. Modest doses of addictive drugs can prime motivation for drugs with similar properties. Together, these findings imply that a dose of a psychostimulant drug could prime motivation to gamble in problem gamblers. This study assessed priming effects of oral D-amphetamine (AMPH) (30 mg) in a

Martin Zack; Constantine X Poulos

2004-01-01

256

The Stubborn Logic of Regular Gamblers: Obstacles and Dilemmas in Cognitive Gambling Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive studies into gambling behaviour have shown that many gamblers misinterpret the odds of gambling activities, hold false beliefs about skill and luck, and over-estimate their subjective chances of success. Accordingly, providing accurate information about gambling in venues, or on slot-machines, would appear to be a sensible way to enhance the ‘safety’ of gambling products. Unfortunately, such ideas for educating

Paul Delfabbro

2004-01-01

257

The effects of anticipated regret on risk preferences of social and problem gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anticipated regret is an important determinant in risky decision making, however only a few studies have explored its role in problem gambling. This study tested for differences in the anticipation of regret among social and problem gamblers and examined how these differences affect risk preferences in a gambling task. The extent of problem gambling was assessed using the South Oaks

Karin Tochkov

2009-01-01

258

Biases in casino betting: The hot hand and the gambler's fallacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine two departures of individual perceptions of randomness from probability theory: the hot hand and the gambler's fallacy, and their respective opposites. This paper's first contribution is to use data from the field (individuals playing roulette in a casino) to demonstrate the existence and impact of these biases that have been previously documented in the lab. Decisions in the

James Sundali; Rachel Croson

2006-01-01

259

A Preliminary Outcome Study of an Outpatient Treatment Program for Gamblers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Gamblers Treatment Clinic (GTC) opened in 1982 as a New York State Office of Mental Health Demonstration Program. The basic premise of the GTC is that excessive gambling is a disorder of impulse control. Treatment, conducted in the community in a time-limited fashion, attempts to uncover the underlying dynamics that precipitate disorders of…

Blackman, Sheldon; And Others

260

Exploring and Understanding Online Assistance for Problem Gamblers: The Pathways Disclosure Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem gambling rates are increasing, but few of those requiring help receive it; stigma is often cited as a reason why treatment is not forthcoming. Such is the context for this study, possibly the first to examine Internet-based help for gambling problems. The study ex- plored problem gamblers' use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) as a facet of their recovery. Fifty

G. Cooper

2004-01-01

261

The Gambler's Ruin Problem, Genetic Algorithms, and the Sizing of Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model to predict the convergence quality of genetic algorithms based on the size of the population. The model is based on an analogy between selection in GAs and one-dimensional random walks. Using the solution to a classic random walk problemthe gambler's ruinthe model naturally incorporates previous knowledge about the initial supply of building blocks (BBs) and

Georges R. Harik; Erick Cantú-paz; David E. Goldberg; Brad L. Miller

1999-01-01

262

A Pilot Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program for Problem Gamblers in a Rural Australian Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An innovative pilot treatment program was developed for problem gamblers living in rural areas of Australia using cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) modified from an established specialist therapy service. The standard 12 weekly group program was delivered on site by adapting it to two 1 week blocks with daily group sessions and 1 week of patient…

Oakes, Jane; Gardiner, Paula; McLaughlin, Kristin; Battersby, Malcolm

2012-01-01

263

How do gamblers start gambling: identifying behavioural markers for high-risk internet gambling  

PubMed Central

Background: The goal of this study is to identify betting patterns displayed during the first month of actual Internet gambling on a betting site that can serve as behavioural markers to predict the development of gambling-related problems. Methods: Using longitudinal data, k-means clustering analysis identified a small subgroup of high-risk gamblers. Results: Seventy-three percent of the members of this subgroup eventually closed their account due to gambling-related problems. The characteristics of this high-risk subgroup were as follows: (i) frequent and (ii) intensive betting combined with (iii) high variability across wager amount and (iv) an increasing wager size during the first month of betting. Conclusion: This analysis provides important information that can help to identify potentially problematic gamblers during the early stages of gambling-related problems. Public health workers can use these results to develop early interventions that target high-risk Internet gamblers for prevention efforts. However, one study limitation is that the results distinguish only a small proportion of the total sample; therefore, additional research will be necessary to identify markers that can classify larger segments of high-risk gamblers.

Shaffer, Howard J.

2012-01-01

264

Gambling participation and pathology in the United States—A sociodemographic analysis using classification trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes an analysis of gambling and gambling pathology from a telephone survey of 2631 U.S. residents, using Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID). Catholics were more likely to have gambled (92%) than Protestants (78%), and elderly Protestants were the least likely (55%) group to have gambled. Among past-year gamblers, men gambled more often (74 times) than women (46 times).

John W Welte; Grace M Barnes; William F Wieczorek; Marie-Cecile Tidwell

2004-01-01

265

Gambling behaviour and the prevalence of gambling problems in adult EGM gamblers when EGMs are banned. A natural experiment.  

PubMed

In this article, findings of a panel study among former EGM gamblers are discussed. The data were collected in two waves during 2007, and 1293 people, 18 years or older, participated. The background for the study was the Norwegian ban on EGMs from 1 July 2007, and the aim was to investigate how this ban affected gambling involvement and problem levels in the sample. The analysis shows that gambling participation, gambling frequencies and gambling problems were reduced after EGMs disappeared from the market. There was no indication of the development of an illegal EGM market, or of substitution of EGMs with other types of gambling. A reduction in other types of gambling is interpreted as an indication of synergetic effects between games. Reduced gambling participation among the most active EGM gamblers, and among risk gamblers, shows that the reductions in gambling availability had an effect even on highly involved gamblers. PMID:19322645

Lund, Ingeborg

2009-03-26

266

Reward-Sensitivity, Inhibition of Reward-Seeking, and Dorsolateral Prefrontal Working Memory Function in Problem Gamblers not in Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the central role of perseverative chasing in problem gambling, the present study sought to find evidence for three hypothesized\\u000a components of perseveration in problem gamblers: reward-sensitivity dominance, deficient inhibition of reward-seeking behavior,\\u000a and working memory deficits. This was the first attempt to examine working memory deficits in problem gamblers using a conditional\\u000a association task, which is associated with posterior-dorsolateral

Victor Leiserson; Robert O. Pihl

2007-01-01

267

The hot hand fallacy and the gambler's fallacy: two faces of subjective randomness?  

PubMed

The representativeness heuristic has been invoked to explain two opposing expectations--that random sequences will exhibit positive recency (the hot hand fallacy) and that they will exhibit negative recency (the gambler's fallacy). We propose alternative accounts for these two expectations: (1) The hot hand fallacy arises from the experience of characteristic positive recency in serial fluctuations in human performance. (2) The gambler's fallacy results from the experience of characteristic negative recency in sequences of natural events, akin to sampling without replacement. Experiment 1 demonstrates negative recency in subjects' expectations for random binary outcomes from a roulette game, simultaneously with positive recency in expectations for another statistically identical sequence-the successes and failures of their predictions for the random outcomes. These findings fit our proposal but are problematic for the representativeness account. Experiment 2 demonstrates that sequence recency influences attributions that human performance or chance generated the sequence. PMID:15900930

Ayton, Peter; Fischer, Ilan

2004-12-01

268

Gender-Related Differences in the Characteristics of Problem Gamblers Using a Gambling Helpline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The characteristics of male and female gamblers utilizing a gambling helpline were examined to identify gen- der-related differences. Method: The authors performed logistic regression analyses on data obtained in 1998-1999 from callers to a gambling helpline serving southern New England. Results: Of the 562 phone calls used in the analyses, 349 (62.1%) were from male callers and 213 (37.9%)

Marc N. Potenza; Marvin A. Steinberg; Susan D. McLaughlin; Bruce J. Rounsaville; Stephanie S. O'Malley

2001-01-01

269

Psychosocial Factors Related to Gambling Abstinence and Relapse in Members of Gamblers Anonymous  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem gamblers account for almost one-third of the industry’s total revenue with the adverse effects of problem gambling\\u000a including significant financial loss, legal and occupational difficulties, family problems, psychological distress and suicide.\\u000a As such, it is important to understand the influential factors in gambling abstinence and relapse, which will assist in the\\u000a development of relapse prevention methods in therapeutic treatment

Tian P. S. Oei; Leon M. Gordon

2008-01-01

270

Characteristics and Gender Differences Among Self-Excluded Casino Problem Gamblers: Missouri Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explores gender-related differences in the demographic and gambling-related characteristics of 2670 problem gamblers participating in a state-administered (Missouri) casino self-exclusion program between 2001 and 2003. Female (n=1298, 48.4%) and male (n=1372, 51.1%) participants ranged in age from 21 to 84 years. Gender-related differences were noted among demographic variables, patterns of gambling behavior, reasons for self-exclusion, and involvement in

Lia Nower; Alex Blaszczynski

2006-01-01

271

Gambling motivations, money-limiting strategies, and precommitment preferences of problem versus non-problem gamblers.  

PubMed

Studies attempting to identify the specific 'addictive' features of electronic gaming machines (EGMs) have yielded largely inconclusive results, suggesting that it is the interaction between a gambler's cognitions and the machine, rather than the machine itself, which fuels excessive play. Research has reported that machine players with gambling problems adopt a number of erroneous cognitive perceptions regarding the probability of winning and the nature of randomness. What is unknown, however, is whether motivations for gambling and attitudes toward pre-session monetary limit-setting vary across levels of gambling severity, and whether proposed precommitment strategies would be useful in minimizing excessive gambling expenditures. The current study explored these concepts in a sample of 127 adults, ages 18 to 81, attending one of four gambling venues in Queensland, Australia. The study found that problem gamblers were more likely than other gamblers to play machines to earn income or escape their problems rather than for fun and enjoyment. Similarly, they were less likely to endorse any type of monetary limit-setting prior to play. They were also reticent to adopt the use of a 'smart card' or other strategy to limit access to money during a session, though they indicated they lost track of money while gambling and were rarely aware of whether they were winning or losing during play. Implications for precommitment policies and further research are discussed. PMID:20084433

Nower, Lia; Blaszczynski, Alex

2010-09-01

272

Self-efficacy in pathological gambling treatment outcome: development of a gambling abstinence self-efficacy scale (GASS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 21-item measure of gambling abstinence self-efficacy (GASS) was developed. A principal component analysis of 101 pathological gamblers supported the use of a total score that showed good internal (?=.93) and retest reliability (ICC (n=35)=.86) as well as four subscales: 1) winning\\/external situations (6 items, ?=.91); 2) negative emotions (9 items, ?=.87); 3) positive mood\\/testing\\/urges (3 items, ?=.70); 4) social

David C. Hodgins; Nicole Peden; Karyn Makarchuk

2004-01-01

273

Concordance Between the SOGS-RA and the DSM-IV Criteria for Pathological Gambling Among Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the possible differences in the classification of adolescent gamblers when using the South Oaks Gambling Screen—Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA; K. C. Winters, R. D. Stinchfield, & J. Fulkerson, 1993) versus a clinical interview that was based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for pathological gambling. A total of 631

Robert Ladouceur; Francine Ferland; Christiane Poulin; Frank Vitaro; Jamie Wiebe

2005-01-01

274

Online Guidance, Advice, and Support for Problem Gamblers and Concerned Relatives and Friends: An Evaluation of the "GamAid" Pilot Service  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper reports one of the first ever studies to evaluate the effectiveness of an online help and guidance service for problem gamblers. The evaluation utilised a mixed methods design in order to examine both primary and secondary data relating to the client experience. In addition, the researchers posed as problem gamblers in order to obtain…

Wood, Richard T. A.; Griffiths, Mark D.

2007-01-01

275

Pathological Gambling Subtypes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

2009-01-01

276

Modeling the Association between 43 Different Clinical and Pathological Variables and the Severity of Cognitive Impairment in a Large Autopsy Cohort of Elderly Persons  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the association between mini-mental status examination (MMSE) scores proximal to death and the values of 43 different clinical and pathological parameters. Studies were performed using data from 334 elderly, longitudinally evaluated research subjects who had undergone autopsy and satisfied inclusion criteria from an initial study group of 501. Interindividual variance in MMSE scores was used as a surrogate for the severity of cognitive impairment linked to aging (CILA). A statistical linear regression-based model provided a framework for assessing the parameters with significant, direct impact on CILA severity. Strong association between CILA and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology, especially isocortical neurofibrillary tangles, was evident. The pattern of association between AD lesion densities with cognitive impairment severity was biologically informative, with neuritic plaques having more impact in relatively high-functioning individuals. Abundant isocortical Lewy bodies tended to be an additive pathology correlating with final MMSE scores approximately 10 points lower. In a subset of cases we found evidence for association between TDP-43-related pathology and CILA severity, independent of AD or hippocampal sclerosis. There was no support for independent association between CILA severity and most evaluated indices including diffuse plaques, argyrophilic grains, heart disease, education level, apolipoprotein E alleles or diabetes.

Nelson, Peter T.; Abner, Erin L.; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Smith, Charles D.; Davis, Daron G.; Poduska, John W.; Patel, Ela; Mendiondo, Marta S.; Markesbery, William R.

2009-01-01

277

Predictors of Problem Gambling Severity in Treatment Seeking Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Problem gambling has become a widespread problem following the rapid expansion of electronic gaming machines into hotels and clubs over the last 10 years. Recent literature indicates that certain factors can influence problem gambling severity, such as psychiatric co-morbidity and personality traits, gambling related cognitions, substance use and…

Hounslow, Vanessa; Smith, David; Battersby, Malcolm; Morefield, Kate

2011-01-01

278

Voluntary Limit Setting and Player Choice in Most Intense Online Gamblers: An Empirical Study of Gambling Behaviour.  

PubMed

Social responsibility in gambling has become a major issue for the gaming industry. The possibility for online gamblers to set voluntary time and money limits are a social responsibility practice that is now widespread among online gaming operators. The main issue concerns whether the voluntary setting of such limits has any positive impact on subsequent gambling behaviour and whether such measures are of help to problem gamblers. In this paper, this issue is examined through data collected from a representative random sample of 100,000 players who gambled on the win2day gambling website. When opening an account at the win2day site, there is a mandatory requirement for all players to set time and cash-in limits (that cannot exceed 800 per week). During a 3-month period, all voluntary time and/or money limit setting behaviour by a subsample of online gamblers (n = 5,000) within this mandatory framework was tracked and recorded for subsequent data analysis. From the 5,000 gamblers, the 10 % most intense players (as measured by theoretical loss) were further investigated. Voluntary spending limits had the highest significant effect on subsequent monetary spending among casino and lottery gamblers. Monetary spending among poker players significantly decreased after setting a voluntary time limit. The highest significant decrease in playing duration was among poker players after setting a voluntary playing duration limit. The results of the study demonstrated that voluntary limit setting had a specific and significant effect on the studied gamblers. Therefore, voluntary limits appear to show an appropriate effect in the desired target group (i.e., the most gaming intense players). PMID:22948847

Auer, Michael; Griffiths, Mark D

2012-09-01

279

Female Sexual-Offenders: Personality Pathology as a Mediator of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Sexual Abuse Perpetration against Others  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…

Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.

2007-01-01

280

Female sexual-offenders: Personality pathology as a mediator of the relationship between childhood sexual abuse history and sexual abuse perpetration against others  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of abuse.

Kelly Christopher; Catherine J. Lutz-Zois; Amanda R. Reinhardt

2007-01-01

281

Personality Disorders  

PubMed Central

To date, five major studies have examined the prevalence and type of personality disorders in community samples in the United States. According to the majority of studies, the overall prevalence of Axis II disorders in the general population is consistently around 10 percent. According to the most recent study, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is the most frequent Axis II disorder in community samples in the United States, followed by narcissistic and borderline personality disorders. In contrast to studies in the United States, community prevalence rates of personality disorders in other countries show moderately wide variation, from 6.1 to 13.4 percent; yet, the averaging of these two low/high percentages results in 9.7 percent. The most common type of personality pathology in a given country varies, and this variance may be accounted for in a number of relevant ways.

Sansone, Lori A.

2011-01-01

282

Cognitive-behavioural treatment of pathological gambling in individuals with chronic schizophrenia: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The current study aimed to test the clinical effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural program (CBT) specifically adapted for pathological gamblers with chronic schizophrenia, carried out in a naturalistic setting of community Mental Health Centres. Forty-four pathological gamblers with chronic schizophrenia were assigned either to a standard drug therapy for schizophrenia (control group) or to cognitive-behavioural therapy for pathological gambling plus a standard drug therapy for schizophrenia (experimental group). Psychological treatment comprised a 20-session program including psychoeducation, stimulus control, gradual exposure and relapse prevention. Therapeutic success was defined as abstinence or the occurrence of only 1 or 2 episodes of gambling during the follow-up period. While the patients treated in the experimental group showed a rate of success of 73.9%, only 19% of the participants belonging to the control group gave up gambling at the 3-month follow-up. The CBT group also did better than the control group in the number of gambling episodes and in the amount of money spent on gambling. However, the improvement of the experimental group was weaker at the 6- and 12-month follow-up. These findings support the beneficial effects of CBT as adjunctive therapy for patients with dual diagnoses (schizophrenia and pathological gambling). PMID:21920501

Echeburúa, Enrique; Gómez, Montserrat; Freixa, Montserrat

2011-09-07

283

An fMRI study of risk-taking following wins and losses: Implications for the gambler's fallacy  

PubMed Central

Human decision-making involving independent events is often biased and affected by prior outcomes. Using a controlled task that allows us to manipulate prior outcomes, the present study examined the effect of prior outcomes on subsequent decisions in a group of young adults. We found that participants were more risk-seeking after losing a gamble (Riskloss) than after winning a gamble (Riskwin), a pattern resembling the gambler’s fallacy. Functional MRI data revealed that decisions after Riskloss were associated with increased activation in the frontoparietal network, but decreased activation in the caudate and ventral striatum. The increased risk-seeking behavior after a loss showed a trend of positive correlation with activation in the frontoparietal network and the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex but a trend of negative correlation with activation in the amgydala and caudate. In addition, there was a trend of positive correlation between feedback-related activation in the left lateral frontal cortex and subsequent increased risk-seeking behavior. These results suggest that a strong cognitive control mechanism but a weak affective decision-making and reinforcement learning mechanism that usually contribute to flexible, goal-directed decisions can lead to decision biases involving random events. This has significant implications for our understanding of the gambler’s fallacy and human decision making under risk.

Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhonglin; Levin, Irwin P.; Bechara, Antoine

2012-01-01

284

Are Late Life Gamblers a Lucrative Market in Gambling Tourism? a Case Study of Iowa, United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the lucrative potential of late life gamblers in terms of spending, switching, travel, and economic impact. It further offered comparisons with the non—late life cohort. A rigorous process of statistical testing indicated both similarities and dissimilarities between the older and the younger cohorts. Switching emerged as a significant predictor of spending. The economic impact model using IMPLAN

Deepak Chhabra

2009-01-01

285

Characteristics of Internet Gamblers among a Sample of Students at a Large, Public University in Southwestern United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is a current lack of descriptive information on college students who gamble on the Internet. With the increasing popularity of Internet gambling, this study aimed to better understand the profile of Internet gamblers among a sample of college students. Of 909 students at the University of California-Los Angeles who completed an online…

Shead, N. Will; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Fong, Timothy W.; Gupta, Rina

2012-01-01

286

All for the Winner: An Analysis of the Characterization of Male Gamblers in Hong Kong Movies with Gambling Theme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aims to investigate the characterization of male gamblers in popular Hong Kong movies in the past 50 years. A total of nine Hong Kong films with gambling themes were selected for analysis. The criteria for selection of the films were as follows: the movies in which the protagonists are portrayed by well known Hong Kong actors that…

Chan, Chi Chuen; Ohtsuka, Keis

2011-01-01

287

Instant ticket purchasing by Ontario baby boomers: increasing risk for problem gamblers.  

PubMed

Instant ticket purchase gambling (ITPG) is pervasive in Ontario and has features that mimic slot machine play. Previous researchers have reported that ITPG is one preferred activity for at-risk/problem gamblers. In the general Canadian population, rate of participation in ITPG is second only to lottery ticket gambling. Both are particularly favored by youth and seniors. The next cohort of seniors will be Canada's baby boomers, one-third of whom live in Ontario. Secondary analysis of Statistics Canada data revealed that adults in this cohort who buy instant gambling tickets (N = 1781) are significantly different from the complete group of their age peers (N = 4266) in number of activities pursued and frequency of involvement. At-risk/problem gambling prevalence was 10.2% amongst Ontario baby boomers who participate in instant ticket gambling, significantly higher than the 6.7% found amongst the total group of baby boom gamblers. For those who reported experiencing one or more of the Canadian Problem Gambling Index indicators for problem gambling (N = 237), 73% were buying instant tickets. Future research should consider cohort effects and explore combinations of preferred gambling activities that may increase risk for problem gambling. Social policy recommendations include the use of all ITPG venues as key locations for promoting awareness of problem gambling treatment services. PMID:19247820

Papoff, Katharine M; Norris, Joan E

2009-02-27

288

The impact of social desirability biases on self-report among college student and problem gamblers.  

PubMed

The impacts of two types of social desirability bias, self-deceptive enhancement (SDE) and impression management (IM), were examined on self-reports of gambling problems, measured by the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and recent gambling behavior, as measured by the Timeline Followback (TLFB) method, in a sample of college students (N = 191), and a sample of treatment-seeking problem gamblers (N = 49). Consistent with our expectations, IM was negatively associated with SOGS scores in both samples. IM was most highly correlated with SOGS scores among treatment-seeking participants (r = -.44, p < .01). Substantial numbers of participants in both samples had high enough IM scores as to call into question the validity of their self-report gambling data, according to published interpretive guidelines. With respect to SDE, we had predicted that it would be positively related to gambling behaviors and gambling-related problems, but found that SDE was inversely related to SOGS scores in both samples. Very little evidence was found for social desirability effects on TLFB scores. Thus, preliminary evidence was obtained that self-report data on gambling problems, but not on gambling behavior (frequency of gambling and amount of time and money spent), may be susceptible to the effects of impression management in both college students and treatment-seeking gamblers. PMID:18369710

Kuentzel, Jeffrey G; Henderson, Melinda J; Melville, Cam L

2008-03-28

289

Diagnosis, Pathology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pathology has long been associated with medical development and patient treatment and care. Throughout history pathologists have been trained to observe and recognize abnormalities to diagnose and treat the condition.

2009-12-26

290

Cocaine Dependent Individuals and Gamblers Present Different Associative Learning Anomalies in Feedback-Driven Decision Making: A Behavioral and ERP Study.  

PubMed

Several recent studies have demonstrated that addicts behave less flexibly than healthy controls in the probabilistic reversal learning task (PRLT), in which participants must gradually learn to choose between a probably rewarded option and an improbably rewarded one, on the basis of corrective feedback, and in which preferences must adjust to abrupt reward contingency changes (reversals). In the present study, pathological gamblers (PG) and cocaine dependent individuals (CDI) showed different learning curves in the PRLT. PG also showed a reduced electroencephalographic response to feedback (Feedback-Related Negativity, FRN) when compared to controls. CDI's FRN was not significantly different either from PG or from healthy controls. Additionally, according to Standardized Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography analysis, cortical activity in regions of interest (previously selected by virtue of their involvement in FRN generation in controls) strongly differed between CDI and PG. However, the nature of such anomalies varied within-groups across individuals. Cocaine use severity had a strong deleterious impact on the learning asymptote, whereas gambling intensity significantly increased reversal cost. These two effects have remained confounded in most previous studies, which can be hiding important associative learning differences between different populations of addicts. PMID:23516173

Torres, Ana; Catena, Andrés; Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Megías, Alberto; Perales, José C

2013-03-18

291

Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

?? The diagnosis of pathological gambling first appeared in the third edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 1980, and appears again in DSM-IV (APA, 1994). Although the DSM-IV categorizes pathological gambling as an impulse-control disorder not elsewhere categorized, the criteria specified for diagnosing this disorder are somewhat similar to those for alcohol and substance dependence

Lorne M. Korman; Tony Toneatto; Wayne Skinner

292

Eating disorders, substance use disorders, and impulsiveness among disordered gamblers in a community sample.  

PubMed

Disordered gambling and many eating disorders (EDs) involve recurrent loss of impulse control. We examined rates of specific EDs, ED psychopathology, substance use disorders, and their interrelationships with impulsiveness among community members with disordered gambling. Community-recruited adults with pathological (n?=?95) or problem (n?=?9) gambling (N?=?104; 51% female) completed structured interviews and questionnaires. We observed high rates of substance dependence, lifetime EDs, and current ED psychopathology; 20.8% of women (vs 1.9% of men) had a DSM-IV ED, and 37.8% (vs 3.9%) had an ED according to proposed DSM-5 criteria. Although disordered gambling severity was not associated with ED diagnosis or severity of ED psychopathology, greater disordered gambling severity and an ED diagnosis were both associated with increased impulsiveness. These findings suggest that impulsiveness might constitute a common personality characteristic that underlies disordered gambling and EDs. PMID:23080054

von Ranson, Kristin M; Wallace, Laurel M; Holub, Alice; Hodgins, David C

2012-10-19

293

Human dorsal striatal activity during choice discriminates reinforcement learning behavior from the gambler's fallacy.  

PubMed

Reinforcement learning theory has generated substantial interest in neurobiology, particularly because of the resemblance between phasic dopamine and reward prediction errors. Actor-critic theories have been adapted to account for the functions of the striatum, with parts of the dorsal striatum equated to the actor. Here, we specifically test whether the human dorsal striatum--as predicted by an actor-critic instantiation--is used on a trial-to-trial basis at the time of choice to choose in accordance with reinforcement learning theory, as opposed to a competing strategy: the gambler's fallacy. Using a partial-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning protocol focused on the striatum and other ventral brain areas, we found that the dorsal striatum is more active when choosing consistent with reinforcement learning compared with the competing strategy. Moreover, an overlapping area of dorsal striatum along with the ventral striatum was found to be correlated with reward prediction errors at the time of outcome, as predicted by the actor-critic framework. These findings suggest that the same region of dorsal striatum involved in learning stimulus-response associations may contribute to the control of behavior during choice, thereby using those learned associations. Intriguingly, neither reinforcement learning nor the gambler's fallacy conformed to the optimal choice strategy on the specific decision-making task we used. Thus, the dorsal striatum may contribute to the control of behavior according to reinforcement learning even when the prescriptions of such an algorithm are suboptimal in terms of maximizing future rewards. PMID:21525269

Jessup, Ryan K; O'Doherty, John P

2011-04-27

294

Drug-induced deactivation of inhibitory networks predicts pathological gambling in PD (e–Pub ahead of print)  

PubMed Central

Objective: Some patients with Parkinson disease (PD) develop pathological gambling when treated with dopamine agonists (DAs). However, little is known about DA-induced changes in neuronal networks that may underpin this drug-induced change in behavior in vulnerable individuals. In this case-control study, we aimed to investigate DA-induced changes in brain activity that may differentiate patients with PD with DA-induced pathological gambling (gamblers) from patients with PD without such a history (controls). Methods: Following overnight withdrawal of antiparkinsonian medication, patients were studied with H2 15O PET before and after administration of DA (3 mg apomorphine) to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow as an index of regional brain activity during a card selection game with probabilistic feedback. Results: We observed that the direction of DA-related activity change in brain areas that are implicated in impulse control and response inhibition (lateral orbitofrontal cortex, rostral cingulate zone, amygdala, external pallidum) distinguished gamblers from controls. DA significantly increased activity in these areas in controls, while gamblers showed a significant DA-induced reduction of activity. Conclusions: We propose that in vulnerable patients with PD, DAs produce an abnormal neuronal pattern that resembles those found in nonparkinsonian pathological gambling and drug addiction. DA-induced disruption of inhibitory key functions—outcome monitoring (rostral cingulate zone), acquisition and retention of negative action-outcome associations (amygdala and lateral orbitofrontal cortex)—together with restricted access of those areas to executive control (external pallidum)—may well explain loss of impulse control and response inhibition in vulnerable patients with PD, thereby fostering the development of pathological gambling. GLOSSARY ANOVA = analysis of variance; DA = dopamine agonist; G-SAS = Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale; GPe = external pallidum; MNI = Montréal Neurological Institute; OFC = orbitofrontal cortex; PD = Parkinson disease; rCBF = regional cerebral blood flow; RCZ = rostral cingulated zone; UPDRS = Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale.

van Eimeren, T.; Pellecchia, G.; Cilia, R.; Ballanger, B.; Steeves, T.D.L.; Houle, S.; Miyasaki, J.M.; Zurowski, M.; Lang, A.E.; Strafella, A.P.

2010-01-01

295

Structural Changes to Electronic Gaming Machines as Effective Harm Minimization Strategies for Non-Problem and Problem Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of three proposed modifications to the structural characteristics of electronic\\u000a gaming machines as harm minimisation strategies for non-problem and probable problem gamblers. Structural changes included\\u000a reducing the maximum bet size, reducing reel spin and removing large note acceptors. Behavioural patterns of play were observed\\u000a in 779 participants attending clubs and hotels. Observations were

Louise Sharpe; Michael Walker; Maree-Jo Coughlan; Kirsten Enersen; Alex Blaszczynski

2005-01-01

296

A Communication Perspective on Video Lottery Terminals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video Lottery Terminals (VLT) are associated with pathological gambling and with most of the requests for help in combating gambling addiction. Embeddedness of a person in his or her social network is among the communicational factors that may help explain this phenomenon. To verify this, we compared ego networks of VLT gamblers, of gamblers of games with low request for

Johanne Saint-Charles; Pierre Mongeau; Jean-François Biron

2008-01-01

297

DSM5 Personality Traits and DSM–IV Personality Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two issues pertinent to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM–IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model, which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5

Christopher J. Hopwood; Katherine M. Thomas; Kristian E. Markon; Aidan G. C. Wright; Robert F. Krueger

2012-01-01

298

Initial Construction and Validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal…

Pincus, Aaron L.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pimentel, Claudia A.; Cain, Nicole M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levy, Kenneth N.

2009-01-01

299

Initial Construction and Validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal…

Pincus, Aaron L.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pimentel, Claudia A.; Cain, Nicole M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levy, Kenneth N.

2009-01-01

300

The Relationship Between Pathological Gambling and Sensation Seeking: The Role of Subscale Scores  

PubMed Central

Research investigating the relationship between gambling and sensation seeking has yet to establish conclusively whether pathological gamblers (PGs) are more or less sensation seeking than nonpathological gamblers (NPGs). Sensation seeking is usually measured with the Zuckerman et al. (J Consult Clin Psychol 46:139–149, 1978) SS Scale form V (SSS-V). Whereas previous studies relied on the SSS-V total score, the current study uses two samples to demonstrate the importance of the SSS-V subscales, which include Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TA), Experience Seeking (ES), Disinhibition (DS), and Boredom Susceptibility (BS). In two samples, strong intrascale correlations between DS and BS, and between TA and ES, suggest that certain subscales reflect similar underlying characteristics. In both samples PGs displayed higher scores than NPGs on the DS and BS subscales, with mean differences in Sample 2 reaching significant levels for both DS and BS. Results support the notion that the SSS-V can be divided into concepts reflecting actual behavior, based on the DS and BS subscales, and hypothetical behavior, based on the TA and ES subscales. Furthermore, PGs appear to have a preference for the more behavioral subscales while NPGs show a preference for the more hypothetical subscales. Reasons for the subscale divisions and preferences are discussed.

Fortune, Erica E.

2010-01-01

301

Introduction to the Special Issue on Personality Assessment in the DSM–5  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DSM–5 is poised to dramatically reshape the way clinicians and researchers assess personality by reconfiguring the conceptualization of DSM–IV personality disorders. This special issue brings together leading scholars in personality pathology, including members of the DSM–5 Personality and Personality Pathology Work Group, as well as personality assessors operating from a variety of theoretical perspectives, to describe various facets of

Christopher J. Hopwood; Steven K. Huprich

2011-01-01

302

Personality Disorder Symptoms and Marital Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological personality is strongly linked with interpersonal impairment, yet no study to date has examined the relationship between concurrent personality pathology and dysfunction in marriage—a relationship that most people find central to their lives. In a cross-sectional study of a community sample of married couples (N = 82), the authors used multilevel modeling to estimate the association of self- and

Susan C. South; Eric Turkheimer; Thomas F. Oltmanns

2008-01-01

303

The Pathways Model as Harm Minimization for Youth Gamblers in Educational Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence studies have indicated that a significant percentage of school-age youth exhibit problem or pathological gambling behaviors. However, to date there are few guidelines to assist educators in identifying those at risk and incorporating harm-reduction strategies into school curricula. This paper proposes using the Pathways Model of pathological gambling (Blaszczynski, 1998; Blaszczynski & Nower, 2002) as a harm-minimization strategy to

Lia Nower; Alex Blaszczynski

2004-01-01

304

Personal(ized) Health Monitoring, Personalization, and Personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of technology in individual health monitoring is predicted to be widespread in near future healthcare systems and in smart home environments. The term Personalized Health Monitoring (PHM) is proposed for these applications. A framework describing aspects of personalization and personality that are relevant to personalized health monitoring is presented. The framework addresses personal data, adaptability, feedback, and personality. Influence

Dieter Rhode

2011-01-01

305

Personality Traits in the DSM–5  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in personality research coupled with a broad acknowledgment of the limitations of the representation of personality pathology in the third and fourth editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–III and DSM–IV) have positioned personality science to influence the shape of personality assessment in the fifth edition (DSM–5). Representing normative personality with well-validated traits that

Christopher J. Hopwood

2011-01-01

306

Recent advances in bone marrow biopsy pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2010 has seen steady advances in bone marrow biopsy (BMB) pathology. The following publications are a personal selection\\u000a of publications that advance the understanding of the pathobiology of the bone marrow and the interpretation of the BMB.

Jon van der Walt

2010-01-01

307

The influence of acutely administered nicotine on cue-induced craving for gambling in at-risk video lottery terminal gamblers who smoke.  

PubMed

Evidence indicates that tobacco use and gambling often co-occur. Despite this association, little is known about how tobacco use affects the propensity to gamble. Nicotine, the putative addictive component of tobacco, has been reported to potentiate the hedonic value of other nonsmoking stimuli. Environmental cues have been identified as an important contributor to relapse in addictive behavior; however, the extent to which nicotine can affect the strength of gambling cues remains unknown. This study examined whether nicotine influences subjective ratings for gambling following gambling cues. In a mixed within/between-subjects design, 30 (20 men) video lottery terminal (VLT) gamblers ('moderate-risk' or 'problem' gamblers) who smoke daily were assigned to nicotine (4 mg deliverable) or placebo lozenge conditions. Subjective and behavioral responses were assessed at baseline, following lozenge, following neutral cues, and following presentation of gambling cues. Nicotine lozenge was found to significantly reduce tobacco-related cravings (P<0.05) but did not affect gambling-related cravings, the choice to play a VLT, or other subjective responses. These results suggest that a low dose of acutely administered nicotine does not increase cue-induced craving for gambling in at-risk VLT gamblers who smoke. PMID:23412113

McGrath, Daniel S; Dorbeck, Anders; Barrett, Sean P

2013-04-01

308

Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire data on alcoholic violent offenders: specific connections to severe impulsive cluster B personality disorders and violent criminality  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The validity of traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses is currently re-evaluated from a continuous perspective, and the evolving DSM-V classification may describe personality disorders dimensionally. The utility of dimensional personality assessment, however, is unclear in violent offenders with severe personality pathology. METHODS: The temperament structure of 114 alcoholic violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was compared to 84

Roope Tikkanen; Matti Holi; Nina Lindberg; Matti Virkkunen

2007-01-01

309

[Human person and personalism].  

PubMed

The first part of this article is an analysis of the historical and philosophical evolution of the concept of human person, from antiquity to present times, including an outline of its major developments. The second part deals critically with reductionist and empiricist positions -particularly Engelhardt's and of utilitarianism- exposing some of its practical implications in the realm of Bioethics. Finally the author concludes with an enunciation of what would constitute a conceptual basis for the ontological foundation of Personal Bioethics derived from the initial framework of intuitive ideas first outlined by Sgreccia in the eighties. PMID:23745824

Sgreccia, Elio

310

SNOMED CT in pathology.  

PubMed

Pathology information systems have been using SNOMED II for many years, and in most cases, they are in a migration process to SNOMED CT. COST Action IC0604 (EURO-TELEPATH) has considered terminology normalization one of its strategic objectives. This paper reviews the use of SNOMED CT in healthcare, with a special focus in pathology. Nowadays, SNOMED CT is mainly used for concept search and coding of clinical data. Some ontological errors found in SNOMED CT are described. The Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative has fostered the use of SNOMED CT, also in Pathology, as recommended in the Supplement Anatomic Pathology Structured Reports of the IHE Anatomic Pathology Technical Framework. Rule governing concept post-coordination is also described. Some recent initiatives are trying to define a SNOMED CT subset for Pathology. The Spanish Society of Pathology has defined a subset for specimens and procedures in Pathology. Regarding diagnosis coding, the morphological abnormality sub-hierarchy of SNOMED CT need to be significantly extended and improved to become useful for pathologists. A consensus is needed to encode pathology reports with the adequate hierarchies and concepts. This will make the implementation of pathology structured reports more feasible. PMID:22925793

García-Rojo, Marcial; Daniel, Christel; Laurinavicius, Arvydas

2012-01-01

311

Personality disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Personality disorders are a group of mental health conditions in which a person has a long-term pattern ... Causes of personality disorders are unknown. Genetic and ... a role. Mental health professionals categorize these disorders ...

312

Basic Sciences - Surgical Pathology  

Cancer.gov

The Surgical Pathology Section provides expertise and diagnostic services in the field of Anatomic Pathology for Clinical Center patients and collaborates with the research staff in those investigations, which involve the use and study of human pathological material. Approximately 6,000 surgical specimens and biopsies (more than 60,000 slides which include routine and a variety of special stains) are accessioned each year. These include more than 2,000 fresh human tissues.

313

Handheld computing in pathology.  

PubMed

Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

2012-04-18

314

Predictors of engaging in problem gambling treatment: data from the West Virginia Problem Gamblers Help Network.  

PubMed

Gambling help-lines are an essential access point, or frontline resource, for treatment seeking. This study investigated treatment engagement after calling a gambling help-line. From 2000-2007 over 2,900 unique callers were offered an in-person assessment appointment. Logistic regression analyses assessed predictors of (a) accepting the referral to the in-person assessment appointment and (b) attending the in-person assessment appointment. Over 76% of callers accepted the referral and 55% of all callers attended the in-person assessment appointment. This treatment engagement rate is higher than typically found for other help-lines. Demographic factors and clinical factors such as gender, severity of gambling problems, amount of gambling debt, and coercion by legal and social networks predicted engagement in treatment. Programmatic factors such as offering an appointment within 72 hr also aided treatment engagement. Results suggest gambling help-lines can be a convenient and confidential way for many individuals with gambling problems to access gambling-specific treatment. Alternative services such as telephone counseling may be beneficial for those who do not engage in treatment. PMID:21480678

Weinstock, Jeremiah; Burton, Steve; Rash, Carla J; Moran, Sheila; Biller, Warren; Krudelbach, Norman; Phoenix, Natalie; Morasco, Benjamin J

2011-06-01

315

Antisocial Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter discusses the medical understanding of antisocial personality disorder (APSD), including research concerning\\u000a its etiology, prevalence, pathology, differential diagnosis, and treatment. ASPD, and the closely related diagnosis of psychopathy,\\u000a seem to be products of a strong genetic disposition interacting with a variety of environmental contributions. Epidemiological\\u000a studies indicate that ASPD and psychopathy are much more prevalent in men than

Karen J. Derefinko; Thomas A. Widiger

316

Sex differences in salivary cortisol in response to acute stressors among healthy participants, in recreational or pathological gamblers, and in those with posttraumatic stress disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex differences in incidence and severity of some stress-related, neuropsychiatric disorders are often reported to favor men, suggesting that women may be more vulnerable to aberrant hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stress. In this review, we discuss several investigations that we, and others, have conducted assessing salivary cortisol as a measure of HPA function. We have examined basal cortisol among

Jason J. Paris; Christine Franco; Ruthlyn Sodano; Brian Freidenberg; Elana Gordis; Drew A. Anderson; John P. Forsyth; Edelgard Wulfert; Cheryl A. Frye

2010-01-01

317

The Clustering of Psychiatric Disorders in High-Risk Gambling Populations.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to examine the associations between psychiatric disorders and pathological gambling (PG) and the clustering of psychiatric disorders in high risk gambler populations. The sample comprised 140 regular gamblers who were recruited from the general public. A variety of self- report and semi structured questionnaires was administered, including the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, The Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4th Edition, NORC DSM-IV Screen for Gambling Problems Self- administered and Problem Gambling Severity Index. Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders and personality disturbances were found to be more prevalent amongst pathological gamblers than other gamblers with the strongest differences observed for mood and anxiety-related disorders. Almost two-thirds of pathological gamblers reported both an anxiety or mood disorder in conjunction with another type of disorder. These differences between the gambling groups existed even after controlling for gender. The results highlight the high rates of co-morbidity in pathological gamblers in the community and the extent to which anxiety and mood disorders co-existing with other forms of pathology. These results highlight the significant challenges facing treatment services in the treatment of PG and the extent to which this should be treated as the primary disorder. PMID:23774993

Abdollahnejad, Mohammad Reza; Delfabbro, Paul; Denson, Linley

2013-06-18

318

Pathology annual. Part 2  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Applications of in situ DNA hybridization technology to diagnostic surgical pathology; Neoplasms associated with immune deficiencies; Chronic gastritis: The pathologists's role; Necrosis in lymph nodes; Pathologic changes of osteochondrodysplasia in infancy: A review; and Immunoglobulin light chain nephropathies.

Fechner, R.E.; Rosen, P.P.

1987-01-01

319

Sexuality, Personality, and Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess sexuality, personality, and eating pathology in women with eating disorders (EDs), we asked a random sample of 234 clinicians to describe an ED patient (age 16–65). Restricting AN patients tended to be childlike and prim\\/proper, while BN patients tended to be flirtatious and promiscuous. A constricted\\/overcontrolled personality predicted a childlike sexuality independent of AN diagnosis, and an undercontrolled,

KAMRYN T. EDDY; CATHERINE M. NOVOTNY; DREW WESTEN

2004-01-01

320

Intestinal pathology from NSAIDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the pathology of 17 patients with NSAID-associated stricturing and non-stricturing, erosive-ulcerative intestinal\\u000a pathology. Eight patients had stricturing lesions mainly localized in the caecal region and right-sided colon. All except\\u000a one patient who suffered exclusively from jejuno-ileal pathology had been treated with the slow-release form of diclofenac.\\u000a The lesions observed satisfied the macroscopic and microscopic criteria of diaphragm disease

F. Halter; A. Gut; C. Ruchti

1996-01-01

321

Pathology Case Study: Hemoptysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a pulmonary pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55 year old female has spontaneously occurring hemoptysis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, radiology, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Holst, Valerie; Yousem, Sam

2007-08-28

322

[Gunshot wounds: forensic pathology].  

PubMed

Gunshot wounds are among the most complex traumatic lesions encountered in forensic pathology. At the time of autopsy, careful scrutiny of the wounds is essential for correct interpretation of the lesions. Complementary pathological analysis has many interests: differentiation between entrance and exit wounds, estimation of firing distance, differentiation between vital and post mortem wounds and wounds dating. In case of multiple headshots, neuropathological examination can provide arguments for or against suicide. Sampling of gunshot wounds at autopsy must be systematic. Pathological data should be confronted respectively to autopsy and death scene investigation data and also ballistic studies. Forensic pathologist must be aware of the limits of optic microscopy. PMID:22325312

Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

2012-01-17

323

Pathological Anatomy of Complications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of papers in the recent literature have been concerned with various aspects of the pathogenesis of retinal detachment. Little has been written, however, about the pathological anatomy of the eye after operations for reattachment of the retina. In...

M. Boniuk L. E. Zimmerman

1965-01-01

324

Retroviruses and human pathology  

SciTech Connect

This book contains four sections, each consisting of several papers. The section headings are: Retroviruses and the Murine Model System;Retroviruses and the Vertebrate Model System;Retroviruses and Human Pathology;and Retroviruses and Oncogenes.

Gallo, R.C.; Stehelin, D.; Varnier, O.E.

1985-01-01

325

Geographical Pathology of Atherosclerosis,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book presents results of investigations on the geographical pathology of atherosclerosis, conducted in various regions of the Soviet Union during the last 15 years. The methodology and program of study were developed on the initiative of the World Hea...

A. M. Vikhert B. S. Zhdanov E. E. Matova S. G. Aptekar

1987-01-01

326

Pathological gambling: Psychosomatic, emotional and marital difficulties as reported by the spouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two parallel self-administered surveys were distributed at three conferences of Gamblers Anonymous. One survey was for members of Gamblers Anonymous and the other was for members of GamAnon. Approximately 500 respondents completed the surveys, with 215 having completed the questionnaire for the spouse. This article is a report of some of the data from the spouse's survey. This survey focused

Valerie C. Lorenz; Robert A. Yaffee

1988-01-01

327

Personality Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... and inflexible. The behaviors cause serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble ... everyday stresses and problems. They often have stormy relationships with other people. The cause of personality disorders ...

328

Interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism: a social relations analysis.  

PubMed

Impairments in self and interpersonal functioning are core features of personality pathology. Clinical theory and research indicate that compromised self-awareness and distorted interpersonal perceptions are particularly prominent in individuals exhibiting pathological narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Therefore we conducted a study to gain a better understanding of interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism. A large sample (N=437) of moderately acquainted individuals assigned to 1 of 93 small mixed-sex groups completed self- and informant ratings on the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) in a round-robin design. The social relations model (SRM) was used to partition the variance in dyadic ratings to investigate several hypotheses about interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism. SRM analyses demonstrated evidence of assimilation (the tendency to perceive and rate others similarly) and consensus (the extent to which multiple observers form similar impressions of another person) in interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism. Results also indicated modest self-other agreement and assumed similarity (the tendency for people to perceive others as similar to themselves) for PNI higher order factors and subscale ratings. Finally, results suggested that individuals high in pathological narcissism had some awareness of how peers would rate them (metaperception) but believed that others would rate them similarly to how they rated themselves. PMID:23406324

Lukowitsky, Mark R; Pincus, Aaron L

2013-02-13

329

Barriers to help-seeking for a gambling problem: the experiences of gamblers who have sought specialist assistance and the perceptions of those who have not.  

PubMed

This paper presents barriers to help-seeking data as reported by users of a national gambling helpline (help-seekers, HS, N = 125) as well as data pertaining to perceived barriers to seeking help as reported by gamblers recruited from the general population (non-help-seekers, NHS, N = 104). All data were collected via a structured, multi-modal survey. When asked to identify actual or perceived barriers to seeking help, responses indicative of pride (78% of HS participants, 84% of NHS participants), shame (73% of HS participants, 84% of NHS participants) or denial (87% of NHS participants) were most frequently reported. These three factors were also most often identified as the real or perceived primary barrier to help-seeking (collectively accounting for 55% of HS, and 60% of NHS, responses to this question) and were the only barriers to be identified by more than 10% of either HS and NHS participants without prompting. It was of note, however, that participants in both groups identified multiple barriers to help-seeking (mean of 6.7 and 12.2, respectively) and that, when presented with a list of 21 possible barrier items, NHS participants endorsed 19 of the listed items significantly more often than their HS counterparts. The implications of these findings, with respect to promoting greater or earlier help-seeking activity amongst problem gamblers, are discussed. PMID:19050995

Pulford, Justin; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max; Clarke, Dave; Hodgins, David; Williams, Jeremy

2008-12-03

330

Conceptualization and treatment of personality disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an emerging consensus that the essence of personality pathology consists of difficulties with self-identity and chronic interpersonal dysfunction. The nature of normal and abnormal attachment to others, attention control, affect regulation, and the autobiographical self are related developmentally to the early caregiving context. Psychotherapeutic intervention for adults with personality disorders across many schools of psychotherapy is focused on

John F. Clarkin

2006-01-01

331

Illusory control, gambling, and video gaming: an investigation of regular gamblers and video game players.  

PubMed

There is a paucity of empirical research examining the possible association between gambling and video game play. In two studies, we examined the association between video game playing, erroneous gambling cognitions, and risky gambling behaviour. One hundred and fifteen participants, including 65 electronic gambling machine (EGM) players and 50 regular video game players, were administered a questionnaire that examined video game play, gambling involvement, problem gambling, and beliefs about gambling. We then assessed each groups' performance on a computerised gambling task that involved real money. A post-game survey examined perceptions of the skill and chance involved in the gambling task. The results showed that video game playing itself was not significantly associated with gambling involvement or problem gambling status. However, among those persons who both gambled and played video games, video game playing was uniquely and significantly positively associated with the perception of direct control over chance-based gambling events. Further research is needed to better understand the nature of this association, as it may assist in understanding the impact of emerging digital gambling technologies. PMID:21927806

King, Daniel L; Ejova, Anastasia; Delfabbro, Paul H

2012-09-01

332

Reinforcement Pathology and Obesity  

PubMed Central

Obesity is, in part, a result of positive energy balance or energy intake exceeding physiological needs. Excess energy intake is determined by a series of food choices over time. These choices involve both motivational and executive function processes. Problems arise when there is excessive motivation to eat and low impulse control, a situation we have termed reinforcement pathology. Motivational and executive function processes have also been implicated in the development of drug dependence and addiction. In this review we discuss the application of reinforcement pathology to obesity, and implications of this approach for obesity treatment.

Carr, Katelyn A.; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Lin, Henry; Epstein, Leonard H.

2012-01-01

333

Pathology Case Study: Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 24-day-old baby is failing to thrive and experiencing seizures. Visitors are given the microscopic description, with images, the results of the postmortem examination, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

Lyons, Valerie; Dickman, Paul S.

2009-09-16

334

Pathology Case Study: Peritonitis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 26-year-old woman has had a 13-year history of poorly controlled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Visitors are given both the patient history and laboratory results, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

Pasculle, A. W.; Anhalt, John P.; Torbenson, Michael; Sheaffer, John; Macauley, Robert

2007-10-05

335

Is Psychometrics Pathological Science?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathology of science occurs when the normal processes of scientific investigation break down and a hypothesis is accepted as true within the mainstream of a discipline without a serious attempt being made to test it and without any recognition that this is happening. It is argued that this has happened in psychometrics: The hypothesis upon which it is premised, that

Joel Michell

2008-01-01

336

[Geriatric digestive pathology].  

PubMed

This study shows the digestive diseases frequency, in 438 patients older than 60 years. Gastroduodenal pathology was more frequent (53%) followed by colonic diseases (34%) intestine (25.7%), intestinal parasitosis (24%) anus-rectum (19%), esophagus (17%), biliary Tract (12%) liver (7%) and pancreas (2%). PMID:8018899

Estremadoyro Robles, O

337

Pathological fractures in children  

PubMed Central

Pathological fractures in children can occur as a result of a variety of conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases and infection to tumours. Fractures through benign and malignant bone tumours should be recognised and managed appropriately by the treating orthopaedic surgeon. The most common benign bone tumours that cause pathological fractures in children are unicameral bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, non-ossifying fibromas and fibrous dysplasia. Although pathological fractures through a primary bone malignancy are rare, these should be recognised quickly in order to achieve better outcomes. A thorough history, physical examination and review of plain radiographs are crucial to determine the cause and guide treatment. In most benign cases the fracture will heal and the lesion can be addressed at the time of the fracture, or after the fracture is healed. A step-wise and multidisciplinary approach is necessary in caring for paediatric patients with malignancies. Pathological fractures do not have to be treated by amputation; these fractures can heal and limb salvage can be performed when indicated.

De Mattos, C. B. R.; Binitie, O.; Dormans, J. P.

2012-01-01

338

Airway pathology in asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airway pathology in asthma. M. Saetta, G. Turato. #ERS Journals Ltd 2001. ABSTRACT: This review focuses on the major cellular and structural changes present in the airways and lung parenchyma in asthma in comparison with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in an attempt to underline the possible mechanisms contributing to airflow limitation in these two diseases. Both asthma and COPD

M. Saetta; G. Turato

2001-01-01

339

Pathological Responses to Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many important gains have been made in understanding PTSD and other responses to trauma as a result of neuroscience-based observations. Yet there are many gaps in our knowledge that currently impede our ability to predict those who will develop pathologic responses. Such knowledge is essential for developing appropriate strategies for mounting a mental health response in the aftermath of terrorism

Rachel Yehuda; Richard Bryant; Charles Marmar; Joseph Zohar

2005-01-01

340

Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

Westphal, James R.

2008-01-01

341

Interpersonal perception and personality disorders: Utilization of a thin slice approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study 1 expands upon previous research by looking at the ability of untrained raters to detect pathological traits within a normal population of college students. In Study 1, 30-s video clips of 81 target persons were shown to 42 raters. Ratings of traits of personality disorders made by thin slice raters reliably predicted scores on the personality pathology measures obtained

Jacqueline N. W. Friedman; Thomas F. Oltmanns; Eric Turkheimer

2007-01-01

342

Basic Sciences - Biochemical Pathology  

Cancer.gov

Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are important regulators of normal cell growth and differentiation and play essential roles in pathological conditions such as tumor metastasis and infection by pathogens. We are defining functions of adhesion molecules, their cell surface and matrix receptors, and the signal transduction pathways that regulate their activities in specific diseases. These studies will identify new molecular targets and could provide a basis for designing novel therapeutic agents.

343

Pathology Case Study: Hydrocephalus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. In this particular study an otherwise healthy 9 month old infant is presented with hydrocephalus. The case study provides test results and images along with microscopic photos and description. Clicking on the final diagnosis provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment.

2007-08-20

344

Revisiting Texas' pathology frontier.  

PubMed

Despite sleet, snow, and bitter temperatures, nearly three fourths of the Texas Society of Pathologists (TSP) guest list journeyed to Dallas the first weekend of February to attend the TSP Diamond Jubilee. It would take more than a little slush during the Ice Storm of '96 to keep the oldest contiguous state pathology organization in the nation from celebrating 75 years of scientific, technical, political, and social advances. PMID:8901066

Franke, J

1996-04-01

345

Pathology of peliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peliosis is a pathological entity characterized by the gross appearance of multiple cyst-like, blood-filled cavities within parenchymatous organs. Peliosis has been related to several underlying debilitating illnesses such as tuberculosis, hematological malignancies, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and post-transplant immunodeficiency, as well as intravenous drug abuse, chronic alcoholism, and in conjunction with the intake of oral contraceptives or steroids. The

Michael Tsokos; Andreas Erbersdobler

2005-01-01

346

[Eosinophilic esophagitis, a pathology on the rise].  

PubMed

The eosinophilic esofagitis is a pathology that consists of an inflammatory condition of the esophagus, which is characterized for having a high percentage of eosinophils. It is a problem of allergic origin and his diagnosis is increasing in the population, especially in children and adult young persons, throughout last decade. The fisiopathology is not completely established nowadays. The diagnosis is confirmed with endoscopia and capture of biopsies. The differential diagnosis is necessary to be done with the disease for reflux gastroesofágico, gastroenteritis eosinofílica, by Crohn's disease, pathology of connective fabric, syndrome hipereosinofílico, infections and response of hypersensitivity to medicaments. Nowadays there is no a treatment that is definitive. We present a clinical case, which was valued initially for the consultation of Primary care. PMID:24095173

Miranda García, M; Gutiérrez Teira, B

2012-09-13

347

Molecular pathology of lung cancer: key to personalized medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of lung adenocarcinoma patients with epidermal growth factor receptor- (EGFR) mutated or EML4–ALK rearrangement-positive tumors are sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Both primary and acquired resistance in a significant number of those patients to these therapies remains a major clinical problem. The specific molecular mechanisms associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance are not fully understood. Clinicopathological observations suggest

Liang Cheng; Riley E Alexander; Gregory T MacLennan; Oscar W Cummings; Rodolfo Montironi; Antonio Lopez-Beltran; Harvey M Cramer; Darrell D Davidson; Shaobo Zhang

2012-01-01

348

‘You never told me I would turn into a gambler’: a first person account of dopamine agonist – induced gambling addiction in a patient with restless legs syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopaminergic agents are commonly used and effective treatments for restless legs syndrome (RLS), a disabling sensorimotor disorder. Less known are some of the potentially disabling side effects of these treatments, particularly iatrogenic gambling addiction, as is described here. Here the authors present a 62-year-old man, with a 20–year history of RLS, who developed gambling addiction while on dopaminergic treatment. He

Henrietta Bowden Jones; Sanju George

2011-01-01

349

Personality Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality disorder (PD) is the primary psychiatric illness observed in most patients with psychosocial complaints, particularly\\u000a young adults. PD is present in one sixth of people in the general population and more than half of all psychiatric patients.\\u000a Reliable diagnosis of PD can be made in routine clinical practice by brief assessment of two essential features of a person’s\\u000a character—low

C. Robert Cloninger; Dragan M. Svrakic

350

[Pathology on the Internet].  

PubMed

Authors' experience gained during a one year usage of the Internet is presented. By now we have found many useful information resources related to the field of pathology. The MEDLINE database is available free of charge at several web sites as well as teaching diagnostic seminars, electronic color atlases, medical publishers homepages, etc. There is also a possibility to enter various topic-related groups in the framework of Internet discussion groups. The limiting factors for reaching medical information from the Internet is hardware and software equipment, the cost of Internet connection, and the data transmission capacity of phone lines. PMID:9624824

Ryska, A; D?dic, K

1998-04-01

351

Medicolegal issues in pathology.  

PubMed

The various methods used by risk managers to assist clinicians in handling medicolegal risk, including improving communication with patients and better dealing with medical records issues, are not particularly of benefit to pathologists. An understanding of tort law, the theory of negligence, the principle of standard of care, and the role of the expert witness helps the pathologist generally assess and manage risk and put it into context with daily pathology practice. An understanding of the litigation process and techniques to better handle a deposition and high-risk specimens or diagnoses are of practical value in avoiding a lawsuit or increasing the likelihood for good outcome in medical malpractice litigation. PMID:18251573

Allen, Timothy Craig

2008-02-01

352

Pathology of lung cancer.  

PubMed

This article reviews current concepts in pathologic classification of lung cancer based on the 2004 World Health Organization classification of lung tumors and the 2011 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) classification of lung adenocarcinoma. Preinvasive lesions are discussed. The major changes in lung disease diagnosis affected by the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification are presented. For adenocarcinomas diagnosed in small biopsies, specific terminology and diagnostic criteria are proposed along with recommendations for strategic management of tissue and EGFR mutation testing in patients with advanced adenocarcinoma. Histologic criteria are also presented for other tumors. PMID:22054879

Travis, William D

2011-12-01

353

Pathology Case Study: Dysphagia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. The patient in this particular case is a 64-year-old male with difficulty swallowing anything other than liquids. Patient history and both the gross and microscopic descriptions, which include images, are included in this case study. The contributing doctors provide a detailed discussion of the patientâÂÂs condition in the âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ section. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Barnes, Leon, 1941-; Fusco, Gregory P.; Perez, Mia C.

2009-08-25

354

Forest & Shade Tree Pathology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forest & Shade Tree Pathology is a site created by Jim Worrall, a former professor at the College of Environmental Science and Forestry. The major focus of this resource is the study of tree diseases, "their causes (etiology), factors that affect their spread (epidemiology), ecological and economic impacts, and management." The site is divided into four sections: "Main Topics" such as fungi, root diseases and wilts; "General Topics," which includes quizzes, references, and links to other forest health sites; "Disease Profiles," which includes information on specific diseases like chestnut blight and armillaria root disease; and "Disease Notes," which contains news and updates on specific diseases.

2008-02-01

355

Cognitive distortions as a component and treatment focus of pathological gambling: a review.  

PubMed

The literature on the role of cognitive distortions in the understanding and treatment of pathological gambling (PG) is reviewed, with sections focusing on (a) conceptual underpinnings of cognitive distortions, (b) cognitive distortions related to PG, (c) PG therapies that target cognitive distortions, (d) methodological factors and outcome variations, and (e) conclusions and prescriptive recommendations. The conceptual background for distortions related to PG lies in the program of heuristics and biases (Kahneman & Tversky, 1974) as well as other errors identified in basic psychology. The literature has focused on distortions arising from the representativeness heuristic (gambler's fallacy, overconfidence, and trends in number picking), the availability heuristic (illusory correlation, other individuals' wins, and inherent memory bias), and other sources (the illusion of control and double switching). Some therapies have incorporated cognitive restructuring within broader cognitive-behavioral therapies, with success. Other therapies have focused more narrowly on correcting distorted beliefs, more often with limited success. It is concluded that the literature establishes the role of cognitive distortions in PG and suggests therapies with particularly good promise, but is in need of further enrichment. PMID:22121918

Fortune, Erica E; Goodie, Adam S

2011-11-28

356

Decision-making impairments in patients with pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological gambling (PG) is most likely associated with functional brain changes as well as neuropsychological and personality alterations. Recent research with the Iowa Gambling Task suggests decision-making impairments in PG. These deficits are usually attributed to disturbances in feedback processing and associated functional alterations of the orbitofrontal cortex. However, previous studies with other clinical populations found relations between executive (dorsolateral

Matthias Brand; Elke Kalbe; Kirsten Labudda; Esther Fujiwara; Josef Kessler; Hans J. Markowitsch

2005-01-01

357

Population Density and Pathology: What Are the Relationships for Man?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evidence of high population density's serious inhibiting effects on the reproductive, aggressive, withdrawal and sexual behavior of various animals, motivated a study of human pathology in overcrowded areas. Ecological relationships in Chicago and their impact on human behavior were assessed. The number of persons per acre, Standardized Mortality…

Galle, Omer R.; And Others

358

Pathological Narcissism and Interpersonal Behavior in Daily Life.  

PubMed

The cognitive-affective processing system (CAPS) has been proposed as a useful metaframework for integrating contextual differences in situations with individual differences in personality pathology. In this article, we evaluated the potential of combining the CAPS metaframework and contemporary interpersonal theory to investigate how individual differences in pathological narcissism influenced interpersonal functioning in daily life. University students (N = 184) completed event-contingent reports about interpersonal interactions across a 7-day diary study. Using multilevel regression models, we found that combinations of narcissistic expression (grandiosity, vulnerability) were associated with different interpersonal behavior patterns reflective of interpersonal dysfunction. These results are among the first to empirically demonstrate the usefulness of the CAPS model to conceptualize personality pathology through the patterning of if-then interpersonal processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23205698

Roche, Michael J; Pincus, Aaron L; Conroy, David E; Hyde, Amanda L; Ram, Nilam

2012-12-01

359

Paranoid Personality Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Paranoid Personality Disorder What is paranoid personality disorder? Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is one of a group of conditions called eccentric personality disorders. People with these disorders ...

360

PERSONS WITH MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, Internal Self 1lelpers (ISM) of persons with multiple personality rlisorrler OWPI)) have been deseriberl by rr )7mill Humber of therapists. ii is .studV Iwo\\/ens the base ala I inaton relating to ISHs. Forty respondents who collectively had been therapists fur-rr totrtl of 690 i11P1) patients participated in the snarly. 77re findings of this study suti g ges

M. Ann Adams; Ann Adams; M. N. Sc

1989-01-01

361

Anesthesia and tau pathology.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and remains a growing worldwide health problem. As life expectancy continues to increase, the number of AD patients presenting for surgery and anesthesia will steadily rise. The etiology of sporadic AD is thought to be multifactorial, with environmental, biological and genetic factors interacting together to influence AD pathogenesis. Recent reports suggest that general anesthetics may be such a factor and may contribute to the development and exacerbation of this neurodegenerative disorder. Intra-neuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), composed of hyperphosphorylated and aggregated tau protein are one of the main neuropathological hallmarks of AD. Tau pathology is important in AD as it correlates very well with cognitive dysfunction. Lately, several studies have begun to elucidate the mechanisms by which anesthetic exposure might affect the phosphorylation, aggregation and function of this microtubule-associated protein. Here, we specifically review the literature detailing the impact of anesthetic administration on aberrant tau hyperphosphorylation as well as the subsequent development of neurofibrillary pathology and degeneration. PMID:23535147

Whittington, Robert A; Bretteville, Alexis; Dickler, Maya F; Planel, Emmanuel

2013-03-25

362

Tracking in Anatomic Pathology.  

PubMed

Bar code-based tracking solutions, long present in clinical pathology laboratories, have recently made an appearance in anatomic pathology (AP) laboratories. Tracking of AP "assets" (specimens, blocks, slides) can enhance laboratory efficiency, promote patient safety, and improve patient care. Routing of excess clinical material into research laboratories and biorepositories are other avenues that can benefit from tracking of AP assets. Implementing tracking is not as simple as installing software and turning it on. Not all tracking solutions are alike. Careful analysis of laboratory workflow is needed before implementing tracking to assure that this solution will meet the needs of the laboratory. Such analysis will likely uncover practices that may need to be modified before a tracking system can be deployed. Costs that go beyond simply that of purchasing software will be incurred and need to be considered in the budgeting process. Finally, people, not technology, are the key to assuring quality. Tracking will require significant changes in workflow and an overall change in the culture of the laboratory. Preparation, training, buy-in, and accountability of the people involved are crucial to the success of this process. This article reviews the benefits, available technology, underlying principles, and implementation of tracking solutions for the AP and research laboratory. PMID:23634908

Pantanowitz, Liron; Mackinnon, Alexander C; Sinard, John H

2013-05-01

363

Personal Revelation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Activity: You are going to develop a scripture chain that teaches us how we can receive Personal Revelation. Remember, when we talk to Heavenly Father we call it prayer. When Heavenly Father responds to us by the Holy Ghost we call it Personal Revelation. Teaching Emphasis (Core) I cannot use any language that describes to you what a revelation is. Somebody said, How can I tell if I have a revelation? I have had a feeling that such and such is true. How can I be sure? ...Revelation is something you experience, and the way that ...

Vasas, Brother

2008-10-15

364

Digital pathology: Attitudes and practices in the Canadian pathology community  

PubMed Central

Digital pathology is a rapidly evolving niche in the world of pathology and is likely to increase in popularity as technology improves. We performed a questionnaire for pathologists and pathology residents across Canada, in order to determine their current experiences and attitudes towards digital pathology; which modalities digital pathology is best suited for; and to assess the need for training in digital pathology amongst pathology residents and staff. An online survey consisting of 24 yes/no, multiple choice and free text questions regarding digital pathology was sent out via E-mail to all members of the Canadian Association of Pathologists and pathology residents across Canada. Survey results showed that telepathology (TP) is used in approximately 43% of institutions, primarily for teaching purposes (65%), followed by operating room consults (46%). Seventy-one percent of respondents believe there is a need for TP in their practice; 85% use digital images in their practice. The top two favored applications for digital pathology are teaching and consultation services, with the main advantage being easier access to cases. The main limitations of using digital pathology are cost and image/diagnostic quality. Sixty-two percent of respondents would attend training courses in pathology informatics and 91% think informatics should be part of residency training. The results of the survey indicate that Pathologists and residents across Canada do see a need for TP and the use of digital images in their daily practice. Integration of an informatics component into resident training programs and courses for staff Pathologists would be welcomed.

Bellis, Magdaleni; Metias, Shereen; Naugler, Christopher; Pollett, Aaron; Jothy, Serge; Yousef, George M.

2013-01-01

365

Similar hyporesponsiveness of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex in problem gamblers and heavy smokers during an inhibitory control task  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBehavioral addictions like pathological gambling share many clinical characteristics with substance dependence. In addition, both types of disorders are associated with impairments in inhibitory control. Studies in patients with substance use disorders point to hyporesponsiveness of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. However, no such data exist on behavioral addictions.

Michiel B. de Ruiter; Jaap Oosterlaan; Dick J. Veltman; Wim van den Brink; Anna E. Goudriaan

366

Person-first labeling and stuttering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four groups of subjects, speech-language-hearing impaired clients, parents of clients, speech-language pathology students, and the general public, reacted to 28 words used to label individuals. Twelve words were either person-first (e.g., “Stutterer”) or direct labels (e.g., “Person who stutters”) and 16 were identical anchor labels in alternate forms of questionnaires. Nine labels identified speech, language, or hearing disorders. Highly variable

Kenneth O. St. Louis

1999-01-01

367

Personality Subtypes in Disruptive Adolescent Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether personality differences might ac- count for meaningful heterogeneity within and across DSM-IV diagnostic categories for disruptive adolescent boys. In a broader study of personality pathology in adolescence, a national sample of 293 clinicians completed the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure 200-A on randomly selected outpa- tients aged 14 to 18 in their care. Of 138 boys in the

John J. DiLallo; Meredith Jones; Drew Westen

2009-01-01

368

AGENDA HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. AGENDA HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES PANEL MEETING Hilton Washington DC North, Gaithersburg, MD ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

369

Opportunistic pathology-based screening for diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the potential of opportunistic glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) testing of pathology samples to detect previously unknown diabetes. Design Pathology samples from participants collected for other reasons and suitable for HbA1c testing were utilised for opportunistic diabetes screening. HbA1c was measured with a Biorad Variant II turbo analyser and HbA1c levels of ?6.5% (48?mmol/mol) were considered diagnostic for diabetes. Confirmation of previously unknown diabetes status was obtained by a review of hospital medical records and phone calls to general practitioners. Setting Hospital pathology laboratory receiving samples from hospital-based and community-based (CB) settings. Participants Participants were identified based on the blood sample collection location in the CB, emergency department (ED) and inpatient (IP) groups. Exclusions pretesting were made based on the electronic patient history of: age <18?years, previous diabetes diagnosis, query for diabetes status in the past 12?months, evidence of pregnancy and sample collected postsurgery or transfusion. Only one sample per individual participant was tested. Results Of the 22?396 blood samples collected, 4505 (1142 CB, 1113 ED, 2250 IP) were tested of which 327 (7.3%) had HbA1c levels ?6.5% (48?mmol/mol). Of these 120 (2.7%) were determined to have previously unknown diabetes (11 (1%) CB, 21 (1.9%) ED, 88 (3.9%) IP). The prevalence of previously unknown diabetes was substantially higher (5.4%) in hospital-based (ED and IP) participants aged over 54?years. Conclusions Opportunistic testing of referred pathology samples can be an effective method of screening for diabetes, especially in hospital-based and older persons.

Simpson, Aaron J; Krowka, Renata; Kerrigan, Jennifer L; Southcott, Emma K; Wilson, J Dennis; Potter, Julia M; Nolan, Christopher J; Hickman, Peter E

2013-01-01

370

Abnormalities of functional brain networks in pathological gambling: a graph-theoretical approach  

PubMed Central

Functional neuroimaging studies of pathological gambling (PG) demonstrate alterations in frontal and subcortical regions of the mesolimbic reward system. However, most investigations were performed using tasks involving reward processing or executive functions. Little is known about brain network abnormalities during task-free resting state in PG. In the present study, graph-theoretical methods were used to investigate network properties of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in PG. We compared 19 patients with PG to 19 healthy controls (HCs) using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT). None of the examined global metrics differed between groups. At the nodal level, pathological gambler showed a reduced clustering coefficient in the left paracingulate cortex and the left juxtapositional lobe (supplementary motor area, SMA), reduced local efficiency in the left SMA, as well as an increased node betweenness for the left and right paracingulate cortex and the left SMA. At an uncorrected threshold level, the node betweenness in the left inferior frontal gyrus was decreased and increased in the caudate. Additionally, increased functional connectivity between fronto-striatal regions and within frontal regions has also been found for the gambling patients. These findings suggest that regions associated with the reward system demonstrate reduced segregation but enhanced integration while regions associated with executive functions demonstrate reduced integration. The present study makes evident that PG is also associated with abnormalities in the topological network structure of the brain during rest. Since alterations in PG cannot be explained by direct effects of abused substances on the brain, these findings will be of relevance for understanding functional connectivity in other addictive disorders.

Tschernegg, Melanie; Crone, Julia S.; Eigenberger, Tina; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Fauth-Buhler, Mira; Lemenager, Tagrid; Mann, Karl; Thon, Natasha; Wurst, Friedrich M.; Kronbichler, Martin

2013-01-01

371

Abnormalities of functional brain networks in pathological gambling: a graph-theoretical approach.  

PubMed

Functional neuroimaging studies of pathological gambling (PG) demonstrate alterations in frontal and subcortical regions of the mesolimbic reward system. However, most investigations were performed using tasks involving reward processing or executive functions. Little is known about brain network abnormalities during task-free resting state in PG. In the present study, graph-theoretical methods were used to investigate network properties of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in PG. We compared 19 patients with PG to 19 healthy controls (HCs) using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT). None of the examined global metrics differed between groups. At the nodal level, pathological gambler showed a reduced clustering coefficient in the left paracingulate cortex and the left juxtapositional lobe (supplementary motor area, SMA), reduced local efficiency in the left SMA, as well as an increased node betweenness for the left and right paracingulate cortex and the left SMA. At an uncorrected threshold level, the node betweenness in the left inferior frontal gyrus was decreased and increased in the caudate. Additionally, increased functional connectivity between fronto-striatal regions and within frontal regions has also been found for the gambling patients. These findings suggest that regions associated with the reward system demonstrate reduced segregation but enhanced integration while regions associated with executive functions demonstrate reduced integration. The present study makes evident that PG is also associated with abnormalities in the topological network structure of the brain during rest. Since alterations in PG cannot be explained by direct effects of abused substances on the brain, these findings will be of relevance for understanding functional connectivity in other addictive disorders. PMID:24098282

Tschernegg, Melanie; Crone, Julia S; Eigenberger, Tina; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Lemènager, Tagrid; Mann, Karl; Thon, Natasha; Wurst, Friedrich M; Kronbichler, Martin

2013-09-27

372

DSM5 Borderline Personality Disorder: At the Border Between a Dimensional and a Categorical View  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the DSM-5 Personality Disorders Workgroup offered its proposed revision for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and other personality\\u000a disorder types (http:\\/\\/www.dsm5.org). According to the workgroup, this revision reflects an attempt to address excessive comorbidity among personality disorders,\\u000a place personality pathology on continua, and replace individual behavioral criteria with personality traits. Essentially,\\u000a the committee proposes a hybrid model of BPD (ie,

Timothy J. Trull; Marijn A. Distel; Ryan W. Carpenter

2011-01-01

373

[Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].  

PubMed

Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness. PMID:1654715

Baliasny?, M M

1991-01-01

374

Person Tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most basic building blocks for the understanding of human actions and interactions is the accurate detection and tracking of persons in a scene. In constrained scenarios involving at most one subject, or in situations where persons can be confined to a controlled monitoring space or required to wear markers, sensors, or microphones, these tasks can be solved with relative ease. However, when accurate localization and tracking have to be performed in an unobtrusive or discreet fashion, using only distantly placed microphones and cameras, in a variety of natural and uncontrolled scenarios, the challenges posed are much greater. The problems faced by video analysis are those of poor or uneven illumination, low resolution, clutter or occlusion, unclean backgrounds, and multiple moving and uncooperative users that are not always easily distinguishable.

Bernardin, Keni; Stiefelhagen, Rainer; Pnevmatikakis, Aristodemos; Lanz, Oswald; Brutti, Alessio; Casas, Josep R.; Potamianos, Gerasimos

375

Personalizing Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA is the essence of biological diversity. But it's responsible for more than just the basics like eye color, hair texture or height. At a less visible level, DNA also varies our bodies' reactions to our environment. It's also the foundation of personalized medicine, a developing medical model that takes our genetic differences into account.\\u000aThis new approach may reshape

2011-01-01

376

Typical findings in pathological grief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Patients exhibiting pathological grief reactions are those in the middle portion of a spectrum between those on one end with “normal” grief and those on the other end who suffer from full-blown neurosis, psychosomatic symptoms, etc., which are directly related to aknown loss. After examining 23 cases, the author suggests that patients who suffer from pathological grief share a

Vamik Volkan

1970-01-01

377

Unusual scrotal pathology: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diverse embryological origins of the contents of the scrotum create an environment that fosters a wide variety of unusual pathologies. Most scrotal pathologies are discovered by the patient and are initially evaluated by a thorough physical examination and scrotal ultrasonography. Scrotal lesions can be broadly grouped by the anatomical location in which they develop; the clinician must consider a

Henry M. Rosevear; Alek Mishail; Yefim Sheynkin; Moshe Wald

2009-01-01

378

PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUNG MALE NARCOTIC ADDICTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A COMPARISON WAS MADE OF THE PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS MEASURED BY THE MMPI OF 45 YOUNG MALE NARCOTIC ADDICTS AND 45 NONADDICTED MALES OF SIMILAR SOCIOECONOMIC LEVEL. ALTHOUGH SOME MALADJUSTMENT EXISTED IN BOTH GROUPS, RESULTS SUGGEST DEEP-SEATED AND WIDESPREAD PATHOLOGY AMONG THE ADDICTS. OUTSTANDING ARE THE ADDICT'S PSYCHOPATHIC TRAITS, HIS DEPRESSION, TENSION, INSECURITY, AND FEELINGS OF INADEQUACY, AND HIS DIFFICULTY IN

JEANNE G. GILBERT; DONALD N. LOMBARDI

1967-01-01

379

Exploring the interface of neurobehaviorally linked personality dimensions and personality organization in borderline personality disorder: the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire and Inventory of Personality Organization.  

PubMed

Advances in our understanding of complex psychopathology will likely benefit from approaches to mind, brain, and behavior that seek to (a) specify those general neurobehavioral processes underpinning pathology and (b) bridge to other process-based models of psychopathology at different levels of analysis. Well-defined neurobehavioral processes (e.g., positive emotionality, negative emotionality, nonaffective constraint, fear, affiliation) and their phenotypic indicators are firmly rooted in neural substrates (Depue & Lenzenweger, 2005). Furthermore, long-studied psychodynamic psychological processes, such as identity diffusion, primitive psychological defensive functioning, and reality-testing dimensions, are important to understanding personality pathology (Kernberg & Caligor, 2005). Both theoretical perspectives view the cardinal processes involved in the determination of personality disorders (PDs) as relevant across existing PD diagnostic entities. The authors examined relationships between psychometric indicators of these two sets of processes, the neurobehavioral and the psychodynamic, in a well-characterized sample of individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD; N = 92). In bridging these two levels of analysis, the authors found that the alienation, aggression, and absorption constructs represent important linkages to the psychodynamic processes, especially primitive psychological defenses and reality-testing impairments. These results are discussed in terms of their potential for joining these two domains of analysis--a neurobehaviorally informed view of personality and the psychodynamic--in efforts to (a) foster a process-oriented approach, (b) resolve heterogeneity, and (c) facilitate identification of endophenotypes in BPD. The heuristic value of this approach for understanding other forms of psychopathology is also discussed. PMID:23281675

Lenzenweger, Mark F; McClough, Joel F; Clarkin, John F; Kernberg, Otto F

2012-12-01

380

Dementia with Lewy bodies showing advanced Lewy pathology but minimal Alzheimer pathology--Lewy pathology causes neuronal loss inducing progressive dementia.  

PubMed

The present study concerns an autopsied case of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) showing advanced Lewy pathology but minimal Alzheimer pathology. The patient was a 50-year-old Japanese male without inheritance. His initial symptoms at the age of 43 suggested the diagnosis ofjuvenile idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), but were followed by memory disturbance 1 year later. He showed parkinsonism, dementia, personality change, fluctuating cognition and visual hallucinations 3 years later. Neuroradiological examination revealed moderate brain atrophy, predominantly in the frontal and temporal lobes. Neuropathological examination demonstrated a widespread occurrence of Lewy bodies (LB) with LB-related neurites not only in the brainstem but also in the cerebrum. The present case showed Lewy pathology which corresponded to stage IV by our staging and was parallel to neuronal loss. There was marked neuronal loss with many LB-related neurites in the CA2 of the hippocampus. Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) were almost restricted to the entorhinal cortex, while senile plaques were absent. Consequently, the present case was pathologically diagnosed as having DLB of the neocortical type, pure form. In the present study, we suggest that Lewy pathology in the cerebral cortex could be responsible for progressive dementia. PMID:12489676

Uchikado, H; Iseki, E; Tsuchiya, K; Togo, T; Katsuse, O; Uéda, K; Kato, M; Kosaka, K

381

[Personalized neurooncology].  

PubMed

The treatment of patients with intrinsic brain tumors is radically changing. This change is currently not (yet) signified by the use of targeted therapy in clinical practice but more by the definition of molecular markers as predictors for response to therapy which have been used for a long time. While in the past the choice of treatment has been based solely on the tumor entity and its degree of malignancy derived from histological analyses, large randomized trials have now provided a solid basis for personalized molecular-guided treatment decisions. For instance, in the German NOA-08 trial a benefit of chemotherapy with temozolomide alone was only demonstrated in a subgroup of elderly patients with malignant gliomas displaying promoter hypermethylation of the DNA repair enzyme MGMT. This is only one of several examples where molecular analysis of tumor tissue becomes clinically relevant as these analyses can and should be taken into account for treatment decisions and not, as previously, just as an additional parameter for estimating prognosis. This article illustrates the current developments in the area of personalized neurooncology and critically reviews the impact on clinical decision-making in daily practice. PMID:23775285

Platten, M; Steinbach, J P; Wick, W

2013-08-01

382

Personality factors and profiles in variants of irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To study the association between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) variants (constipation, diarrhea, or both) and personality traits in non-psychiatric patients. METHODS: IBS was diagnosed using the Rome ? diagnostic criteria after exclusion of organic bowel pathology. The entry of each patient was confirmed following a psychiatric interview. Personality traits and the score of each factor were evaluated using the

Alireza Farnam; Mohammad H Somi; Firouz Sarami; Sara Farhang; Sanaz Yasrebinia

2007-01-01

383

Exploring the Association between Emotional Abuse and Childhood Borderline Personality Features: The Moderating Role of Personality Traits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most of the extant literature on borderline personality disorder has focused on the course, consequences, and correlates of this disorder among adults. However, little is known about childhood borderline personality (BP) features, or the factors associated with the emergence of BP pathology in childhood. A greater understanding of childhood BP…

Gratz, Kim L.; Latzman, Robert D.; Tull, Matthew T.; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Lejuez, C. W.

2011-01-01

384

Meckel on developmental pathology.  

PubMed

Before Schleiden and Schwann, Darwin and Mendel there passed briefly a towering giant, Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833), now glimpsed only fleetingly and obscurely through the mist of time and former controversies, who can nowadays easily and clearly be identified as the father of a "pre-modern" developmental biology. At his beginning this prodigiously gifted physician-scholar had, as one would say nowadays, an unfair advantage, his cradle having been rocked, as it were, by the preparators in his father's and grandfather's huge collection of normal and abnormal anatomical "specimens" in the home in which he was born and raised including his father's own skeleton (with two anatomical anomalies!). Initially reluctant to follow in the steps of his illustrious anatomist/physician grandfather and father, he nevertheless early demonstrated extraordinary gifts in anatomy and zootomy. Napoleon's conquest of his homeland notwithstanding, Meckel spent at least 2 extremely fruitful years in Paris, under the tutelage of Cuvier, but also in close contact with Geoffroy St. Hilaire (Etienne), Lamarck, and von Humboldt. He not only translated Cuvier's Leçons d'anatomie comparée into German but also greatly enriched this pivotal treatise with observations of embryonic and malformed fetuses and animals only of passing interest to his mentor. In his numerous publications, Meckel was the first to relate abnormal to normal development, define anomalies of incomplete differentiation (vestigia), but, most importantly, to relate those malformations known in humans to those that are normal adult developmental states in "lower" animals (atavisms). Thus, Meckel's three-fold parallelism of the scala naturae, normal ontogeny, and the malformations in humans and animals makes him a recapitulationist par excellence, however, without ever venturing into a fully articulated and explicit theory of descent. Today Meckel is remembered solely as the discoverer of the syndrome and cartilage named after him, and as having interpreted, correctly, the developmental nature of the "Meckel" diverticulum. It is virtually unknown that Meckel also first enuntiated the concept and distinction between primary and secondary malformations/anomalies, introduced the notion of heredity into the causal analysis of congenital anomalies, was the father of syndromology (the Meckel syndrome), had a clear understanding of pleiotropy and heterogeneity, and can unequivocally be regarded as the father of developmental pathology. In hindsight, and inspite of much professional success, Meckel emerges as a tragic figure in the history of biology, his life cut short at 52 without an ability to incorporate cell theory and the embryological insights of his younger contemporaries into his intellectual edifice which might have made it possible for him to finally and clearly see "analogy" (now homology), of which he was the greatest expert in his era, as incontrovertible evidence for descent. In that case, Darwin and Haeckel might have even had the courtesy of a tip-of-the-hat in Meckel's direction. PMID:16353245

Opitz, John M; Schultka, Rüdiger; Göbbel, Luminita

2006-01-15

385

The interface between multiple personality, spirit mediumship, and hypnosis.  

PubMed

In this paper I draw parallels between multiple personality, spirit mediumship, and hypnosis from historical, anthropological, and clinical perspectives. I emphasize Milton H. Erickson's view of multiple personalities as not necessarily pathological but as potential resources. He employed hypnosis to gain access to personalities and to transform their behavior from involuntary to voluntary actions. I discuss similarities between this view and the use of spirits as a resource with mediums. Natural trance therapies in other cultures offer a new perspective for viewing the normalcy or pathology of "other selves." PMID:1543146

Richeport, M M

1992-01-01

386

Demystified ... Molecular pathology in oncology  

PubMed Central

In the past 10 years, molecular biology has found major applications in pathology, particularly in oncology. This has been a field of enormous expansion, where pure science has found a place in clinical practice and is now of everyday use in any academic unit. This demystified review will discuss the techniques used in molecular pathology and then provide examples of how these can be used in oncology.

Crocker, J

2002-01-01

387

Personal construct psychology and personal selling performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes an alternative approach to understanding personal selling performance based on personal construct psychology, a cognitively based personality paradigm, originally formulated in clinical psychology by George Kelly. Explains how personal construct psychology theory (PCT), which reflects a constructivist epistemology, provides a conceptual framework for understanding and predicting sales performance. Demonstrates how PCT can be integrated with existing theoretical models of

Richard E. Plank; Joel N. Greene

1996-01-01

388

A 6-month follow-up of imaginal desensitization plus motivational interviewing in the treatment of pathological gambling  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Pathological gambling (PG), a disabling disorder experienced by approximately 1% of adults, has few empirically validated treatments. A recent study demonstrated that 6 sessions of imaginal desensitization plus motivational interviewing (IDMI) was effective in achieving abstinence for a majority of individuals with PG. This study sought to examine whether those benefits were maintained 6 months post-treatment. METHODS Sixty-eight individuals who met DSM-IV criteria for PG were randomly assigned to 6 sessions of IDMI or Gamblers Anonymous (GA) referral over an 8-week period. Participants who failed to respond to GA were offered IDMI after the 8-week acute treatment period. All individuals who responded to IDMI were contacted after 6 months and assessed with measures of gambling severity and psychosocial functioning. RESULTS Forty-four participants completed 6 sessions of IDMI (25 initially assigned to IDMI and 19 to GA). Thirty-five of the 44 (79.5%) responded during acute treatment, and all 35 were available for a 6-month evaluation. All gambling severity scales maintained statistically significant gains from baseline, although some measures showed significant worsening compared with post-IDMI treatment. CONCLUSIONS Six sessions of IDMI resulted in statistically significant reductions in PG urges and behavior, which were largely maintained for 6 months.

Grant, Jon E.; Donahue, Christopher B.; Odlaug, Brian L.; Kim, Suck Won

2012-01-01

389

42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

2011-10-01

390

42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

2012-10-01

391

Evidence for the criterion validity and clinical utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory  

PubMed Central

In this study we evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (Ns = 299, 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability with established indices of normal personality traits, psychopathology and clinical concerns, and pathological personality traits. Overall, the pattern of correlations supported the convergent and discriminate validity of grandiose and vulnerable conceptualizations of pathological narcissism as measured by the PNI. Clinical utility was assessed by evaluating the extent to which clinicians without specific training in pathological narcissism as well as clinicians with expertise in pathological narcissism could accurately predict the correlates of PNI grandiosity and vulnerability with normal and pathological personality traits and psychopathology. The rcontrast-cv coefficient (Westen & Rosenthal, 2003) provided a global index of accuracy in clinicians’ predictions that was more fully elaborated by examining systematic discrepancies across groups. Overall, novice and expert clinicians were generally able to predict criterion correlations, with some exceptions (e.g., counter to predictions, pathological narcissism was negatively associated with treatment resistance). These results provide further evidence regarding the validity and utility of the narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability constructs as measured by the PNI.

Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

392

Practice of forensic medicine and pathology in Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

The practice of forensic medicine and pathology in Sri Lanka is based on the British model. Medical students during their third and fourth years receive approximately 50 hours of lectures and tutorials in forensic medicine and pathology and then undergo an examination. After completing an internship, these doctors are sent to various hospitals throughout Sri Lanka where they may be asked to perform medicolegal examinations on victims and suspects in rape cases, persons suspected of being under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol, and, injured live patients. As well, they may be asked to perform medicolegal autopsies. Depending upon their experience, some medical officers may be designated as judicial medical officers and appointed full time to do medicolegal work. Up until 1980, judicial medical officers with at least 2 years of work experience were allowed to obtain their postgraduate qualifications in the United Kingdom. However, since 1981 and the establishment of its own Postgraduate Institute of Medicine in Colombo, Sri Lanka, medical officers are offered 2 postgraduate programs in forensic medicine and pathology, a diploma in legal medicine and a doctorate in medicine (forensic medicine). After completing the doctorate in forensic medicine, doctors are allowed to train abroad for a further year in an approved center. Upon return they can then be appointed as consultant judicial medical officers. The practice of forensic medicine and pathology in Sri Lanka is unique and vibrant. However, due to the country's prevailing civil war, the practice of forensic medicine and pathology is suboptimal. PMID:21284435

Balachandra, A Thambirajah; Vadysinghe, Amal N; William, Anita L

2011-02-01

393

The relationship between personality organization as assessed by theory-driven profiles of the Dutch Short Form of the MMPI and self-reported features of personality organization.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the relationships between features of personality organization (PO) as assessed by theory driven profiles of the Dutch Short Form of the MMPI (DSFM; Luteijn & Kok, 1985) and 2 self-report measures of personality pathology, that is, the Dutch Inventory of Personality Organization (Berghuis, Kamphuis, Boedijn, & Verheul, 2009) and the Dutch Schizotypy Personality Questionnaire-Revised (Vollema & Hoijtink, 2000), in a sample of 190 outpatient psychiatric patients. Results showed that the single scales of all 3 measures segregated into 2 theoretically expected and meaningful dimensions, that is, a dimension assessing severity of personality pathology and an introversion/extraversion dimension. Theory-driven combinations of single DSFM subscales as a measure of level of PO distinguished characteristics of patients at various levels of PO in theoretically predicted ways. Results also suggest that structural personality pathology may not be fully captured by self-report measures. PMID:20954062

Eurelings-Bontekoe, Elisabeth H M; Luyten, Patrick; Remijsen, Mila; Koelen, Jurrijn

2010-11-01

394

The pathology of shin splints.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate experimental evidence describing the pathology associated with shin splints. Shin splints are defined as medial or posteromedial leg pain which is brought about by walking, running, or related activities and which decreases with rest. The evidence indicates that shin splints may be due to pathology of the posteromedial tibial cortex, the periosteum of the posteromedial tibia, or the crural fascia of the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Research is needed to determine if increased pressure in the deep posterior compartment of the leg or pathology of the muscles, tendons, or interosseous membrane of the leg are associated with shin splints. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1990;12(3):115-121. PMID:18796881

Kues, J M

1990-01-01

395

[Pathological buying -- a literature review].  

PubMed

This review summarizes the literature on pathological buying published during the past 15 years. Pathological or compulsive buying is defined as frequent preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy that are experienced as irresistible, intrusive, and/or senseless. The buying behavior causes marked distress, interferes with social functioning, and often results in financial problems. Studies on the phenomenology, diagnosis, classification, comorbidity, epidemiology, and treatment are presented. Pathological buying should be diagnosed as impulse control disorder not otherwise specified (ICD-10 F63.9). Psychiatric comorbidity is frequent, particulary mood, anxiety, substance use, eating, impulse control and obsessive-compulsive disorders. The positive results of pharmacological treatment with antidepressants (usually SSRI) and opioid antagonists could not be confirmed in controlled trials. A disorder specific cognitive-behavioral group treatment manual was published in USA. A controlled study is currently conducted in USA and since 2003 at the Department of Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy at the University Hospital Erlangen. PMID:15633069

Müller, Astrid; Reinecker, Hans; Jacobi, Corinna; Reisch, Lucia; de Zwaan, Martina

2005-01-01

396

Assessing Personality in the DSM–5: The Utility of Bipolar Constructs  

Microsoft Academic Search

All previous editions of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) have described and assessed personality solely in terms of pathological categories. Nonetheless, there is compelling evidence that normal-range personality traits also provide clinically useful information, emphasizing the importance of thoroughly assessing both adaptive and maladaptive aspects of personality within a clinical context. The proposed

Douglas B. Samuel

2011-01-01

397

Pathology Case Study: Chronic Sinusitis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man reported a history of chronic sinusitis that was not responding to nasal and antibiotic treatments. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of head and neck pathology.

Fowler, Jason C.; Becich, Michael J.

2008-04-28

398

Pathology Case Study: Liver Transplant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 34-year-old is experiencing complications following a liver transplant. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

Richert, Charles A.

2007-08-22

399

Pathology Case Study: Back Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman who presented with two months of back pain. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Schoedel, Karen; Lu, Zhengbin

2009-04-17

400

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 72-year-old man has abdominal pain, anorexia, and weight loss but no significant past medical history. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

Nine, Jeff S.; Weir, Ed

2007-12-03

401

Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâÂÂs history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Smith, Sharyn; Lownie, Steven P.; Duggal, Neil; Hammond, Robert R.

2007-12-10

402

Pathology Case Study: Renal Insufficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 65-year-old woman with systemic rheumatoid arthritis has developed renal insufficiency. Visitors are given the gross and microscopic descriptions, electron microscopy exam results, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.

Bastacky, Sheldon; Wang, Jianzhou

2009-09-17

403

Borderline Personality Characteristics and Treatment Outcome in Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for PTSD in Female Rape Victims  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many studies report that comorbid borderline personality pathology is associated with poorer outcomes in the treatment of Axis I disorders. Given the high rates of comorbidity between borderline personality pathology and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it is essential to determine whether borderline symptomatology affects PTSD treatment…

Clarke, Stephanie B.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Resick, Patricia A.

2008-01-01

404

PERSONAL NETWORKS AND THE PERSONAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to technologically deterministic approaches that focus on how communication technology affects social relationships, this paper examines how individuals draw on a variety of commonly used communication media in conjunction with in-person contact to stay connected to their personal networks. I term this use of multiple communication media the ‘personal communication system’. Findings are based on a random sample

Jeffrey Boase

2008-01-01

405

Can computer personalities be human personalities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study demonstrates that (1) computer personalities can be easily created using a minimal set of cues, and (2) that people will respond to these personalities in the same way they would respond to similar human personalities. The present study focuses on the “simikirityattraction hypothesis,” which predicts that people will prefer to interact with others who are similar in

Clifford Nass; Youngme Moon; B. J. Fogg; Byron Reeves; Chris Dryer

1995-01-01

406

Dependent personality disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Dependent personality disorder is a mental health condition in which people depend too much on others to meet their emotional ... Cause of dependent personality disorder is unknown. The disorder usually ... is one of the most common personality disorders and is ...

407

Schizoid Personality Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... of disorders, which includes schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia. These conditions all have similar symptoms, such as ... emotional expression. However, unlike schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia, people with schizoid personality disorder: Are in touch ...

408

Molecular Pathology in Early Hepatocarcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors characterized by an obvious multistage process of tumor development. Remarkable progress in diagnostic imaging has led to the discovery of small equivocal lesions, now widely recognized as dysplastic nodule, or early HCC. Early HCC is considered a key step in HCC development and progression. However, the molecular pathology involved

Kathryn Effendi; Michiie Sakamoto

2010-01-01

409

Direct Simulation of Pathological Detonations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous papers we have demonstrated how the direct simulation Monte Carlo method can be used to simulate detonations. Those simulations were limited to exothermic reactions. In this paper exothermic and endothermic reactions are simulated. Under these circumstances, one obtains pathological detonations. That is, these simulations cannot be predicted using the well-known Chapman-Jouguet hypothesis. The details of these simulations can

James B. Anderson; Lyle N. Long

410

Direct Simulation of Pathological Detonations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous papers we have demonstrated how the direct simulation Monte Carlo method can be used to simulate detonations. Those simulations were limited to exothermic reactions. In this paper exothermic and endothermic reactions are simulated. Under these circumstances, one obtains pathological detonations. That is, these simulations cannot be predicted using the well-known Chapman-Jouguet hypothesis. The details of these simulations can

James B. Anderson; Lyle N. Long

2003-01-01

411

Avian clinical pathology. General considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

General aspects of avian clinical pathology are reviewed. It is concluded that in a clinical setting a volume of blood equivalent to 1 per cent of body weight can be collected safely from avian species for laboratory examinations. The anticoagulant of choice for most laboratory investigations is lithium heparin. In most bird species the right jugular vein is the preferred

J. T. Lumeij

1987-01-01

412

Pathological Gambling: A General Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the course of history, gambling has been a popular activity across most cultures. In the United States, gambling has transitioned from early acceptance to prohibition to widespread proliferation. For most, gambling is a relaxing and recreational activity; however, for some individuals gambling becomes more than harmless fun. The most severe form of gambling, pathological gambling, is recognized as a

Larry L. Ashley; Karmen K. Boehlke

2012-01-01

413

Central mechanisms of pathological pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic pain is a major challenge to clinical practice and basic science. The peripheral and central neural networks that mediate nociception show extensive plasticity in pathological disease states. Disease-induced plasticity can occur at both structural and functional levels and is manifest as changes in individual molecules, synapses, cellular function and network activity. Recent work has yielded a better understanding of

Rohini Kuner

2010-01-01

414

Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Imaging to Pathology  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review is to describe the multimodal imaging (ultrasound, magnetic resonance, computed tomography, and nuclear medicine) of primary hyperparathyroidism and its correlation to the pathological findings. In the last decades, imaging science has progressed a great deal. Accurate preoperative localization of the involved glands is essential for surgical success.

Piciucchi, Sara; Barone, Domenico; Gavelli, Giampaolo; Dubini, Alessandra; Oboldi, Devil; Matteuci, Federica

2012-01-01

415

THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

CROME, L.; STERN, J.

416

Pathological Fear of Cot Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cot death (sudden infant death syndrome) is one of the most common causes of death in the first year of life. Four cases with a pathological fear of cot death are presented. All the patients were depressed and in 2 cases the fear of cot death had an obsessional quality. In all cases there were complications during pregnancy (miscarriage, threatened

Helen Weightman; Brian M. Dalal; I. F. Brockington

1998-01-01

417

Avoidant Personality Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Home > Health & Education Avoidant Personality Disorder Avoidant personality disorder is characterized by extreme social inhibition (shyness), feelings of inadequacy, and acute sensitivity to actual or perceived ...

418

Schizotypal Personality Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... subject of bullying or teasing. Schizotypal personality vs. schizophrenia Schizotypal personality disorder can easily be confused with schizophrenia, a severe mental illness in which people lose ...

419

[Personal genome research and neurological diseases: overview].  

PubMed

Neurological diseases include those caused by a single defective gene,e.g., Huntington's disease, other polyglutamine diseases, and muscular dystrophies, and those that are mostly sporadic but rarely show Mendelian inheritance in some families, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and epilepsy. The latter diseases are considered polygenic disorders. Both sporadic and Mendelian cases of these diseases are believed to share some common pathological mechanisms. Since the detection of causal genes for the Mendelian cases, studies have been initiated on disease pathology. SNPs and rare gene variants play important roles in common neurological diseases. From a technological perspective, next-generation sequencers have become widely available and have contributed to the advancement of research based on individual genome sequences (personal genome). This paper presents an overview, as well as a historical context, of the contribution of personal genome research to neurological disease studies. PMID:23475514

Toda, Tatsushi

2013-03-01

420

Personality disorders as maladaptive, extreme variants of normal personality: borderline personality disorder and neuroticism in a substance using sample.  

PubMed

Although the current diagnostic manual conceptualizes personality disorders (PDs) as categorical entities, an alternative perspective is that PDs represent maladaptive extreme versions of the same traits that describe normal personality. Existing evidence indicates that normal personality traits, such as those assessed by the five-factor model (FFM), share a common structure and obtain reasonably predictable correlations with the PDs. However, very little research has investigated whether PDs are more extreme than normal personality traits. Utilizing item-response theory analyses, the authors of the current study extend previous research to demonstrate that the diagnostic criterion for borderline personality disorder and FFM neuroticism could be fit along a single latent dimension. Furthermore, the authors' findings indicate that the borderline criteria assessed the shared latent trait at a level that was more extreme (d = 1.11) than FFM neuroticism. This finding provides further evidence for dimensional understanding of personality pathology and suggests that a trait model in DSM-5 should span normal and abnormal personality functioning, but focus on the extremes of these common traits. PMID:24044664

Samuel, Douglas B; Carroll, Kathleen M; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Ball, Samuel A

2013-10-01

421

Integrated pathology reporting, indexing, and retrieval system using natural language diagnoses.  

PubMed

Pathology computer systems are making increasing use of natural language diagnoses. The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions integrated pathology reporting system, a commercial product with extensive, locally added enhancements, covers all information management functions within autopsy and surgical pathology divisions and has on-line linkages to clinical laboratory reports and the medical library's Mini-MEDLINE system. All diagnoses are written in natural language, using a word processor and spelling checker. A security system with personal passwords and different levels of access for different staff members allows reports to be signed out with an electronic signature. The system produces financial reports, overdue case reports, and Boolean searches of the database. Our experience with 128,790 consecutively entered pathology reports suggests that the greater precision of natural language diagnoses makes them the most suitable vehicle for follow-up, retrieval, and systems development functions in pathology. PMID:3070549

Moore, G W; Boitnott, J K; Miller, R E; Eggleston, J C; Hutchins, G M

1988-01-01

422

Borderline Personality Disorder and Psychosis: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early views of borderline personality disorder (BPD) were based on the idea that patients with this pathology were “on the\\u000a border” of psychosis. However, more recent studies have not supported this view, although they have found evidence of a malevolent\\u000a interpersonal evaluation and a significant proportion of BPD patients showing psychotic symptoms. For example, in one study,\\u000a 24% of BPD

Sven Barnow; Elisabeth A. Arens; Simkje Sieswerda; Ramona Dinu-Biringer; Carsten Spitzer; Simone Lang

2010-01-01

423

Factors Associated with the Severity of Gambling Problems in a Community Gambling Treatment Agency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Factors (demographics, gambling behaviors and comorbid problems) that may be related to the severity of gambling problems were investigated among 440 problem gamblers seeking treatment in an Australian outpatient treatment agency. The participants were divided into sub-threshold pathological gamblers (SPGs; N = 104) and pathological gamblers

Namrata, Raylu; Oei, Tian P. S.

2009-01-01

424

Development and psychometric evaluation of a three-dimensional Gambling Motives Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims This study was designed to develop and evaluate a self-report measure of gambling motives. Participants A community-recruited sample of 193 gamblers (70% male; mean age = 35.5 years) were selected to fill two groups according to scores on the South Oaks Gambling Screen: probable pathological gamblers (PPG; n = 154) and non- pathological gamblers (NPG; n = 39). Measures

Sherry H. Stewart; Martin Zack

2008-01-01

425

Personality traits and disorders among transsexuals.  

PubMed

A group of transsexuals, 9 biological men and 10 women, was assessed according to clinical DSM-III-R diagnosis and a self-report instrument for Axis II diagnoses based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID screen). A control group of 133 individuals was assessed by the same instrument. Combined with a functional criterion according to the Global Assessment of Functioning, the SCID screen showed good agreement with clinical Axis II diagnoses. The overall proportion of Axis II criteria fulfilled, proportion of criteria fulfilled for every single personality disorder and number of personality disorders were calculated from the modified version of the SCID screen. Personality disorders, mainly within cluster B, were identified among 5 of 19 transsexuals, and a majority had multiple personality disorders. Among controls, no personality disorder was identified. Personality traits as measured by the SCID screen revealed significantly more subthreshold pathology among transsexuals than controls in 8 of 12 personality categories. The proportion of overall Axis II criteria fulfilled was 29% among transsexuals versus 17% among controls. Sex differences among transsexuals, the usefulness of the SCID screen and diagnostic problems in DSM-III-R with respect to gender identity disorders are discussed. PMID:8296575

Bodlund, O; Kullgren, G; Sundbom, E; Höjerback, T

1993-11-01

426

Pathology Case Study: Postmenopausal Bleeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This gynecologic pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 57-year-old female with postmenopausal bleeding. The patientâÂÂs history, and results from a pelvic ultrasound are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Kanbour, Anisa; Chen, Lei; Kessinger, Rovena L.

2008-12-15

427

Pathology Case Study: Cervicomedullary Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in learning. This neuropathology case is centered on a 22-month-old female patient with a history of posterior neck discomfort, episodic crying, scratching, and hard coughing. MRI images of the patient along with the patient's history and microscopic descriptions allow readers to test their diagnostic skills and develop an understanding of the patient's condition. The "Final Diagnosis" section contains the official conclusions of the patient's condition. Students entering health sciences fields will find this resource very helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

Hamilton, Ronald

2007-10-16

428

Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes "a 46-year-old gentleman with a persistent right lower lobe pulmonary mass after a successfully treated cavitary pneumonia 5 months ago." Visitors are given patient history along with radiology findings and images. They are also given gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Yousem, Sam; Johnson, Douglas R.; Gregorio, Remigio; Nodit, Laurentia

2009-03-11

429

Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Nodules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pediatric pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. The learning objectives located at the top of the page are a great way for students to evaluate their learning progress. This case involves a 12-year-old girl presenting with recurrent lung nodules. Images from chest x-rays and a lung biopsy provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. A description of these images is also provided. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Hasegawa, Susan; Arnold, Sonya

2009-05-08

430

Evaluating mutant mice: anatomic pathology.  

PubMed

As the human and mouse genome projects approach their goals, initiatives in functional genomics are advancing. When the nucleotide sequences are available, identification of gene functions will assume even greater importance. Determination of gene products and their proximal biochemical functions provide a part of the picture, but determination of their functions in the context of the whole organism is the ultimate goal. The manipulated mouse genome has become accepted as a model for understanding the genetic basis of human conditions and diseases. Consequently, biomedical research institutions have seen significant increases in the use of mice since the early 1980s, and these increases are largely attributable to the use of genetically modified mice. The role of comparative pathology in research on mutant mouse models of disease is increasing in response to these trends. Evaluation and phenotypic characterization of mutant mice, via clinical and anatomic pathology techniques, will be an important component of functional genomics initiatives. PMID:11199155

Brayton, C; Justice, M; Montgomery, C A

2001-01-01

431

Innovations in teaching plant pathology.  

PubMed

The teaching environment for plant pathology is changing in both positive and negative ways. Teaching expectations are increasing and resources are decreasing, but recent educational research and instructional technology offer new approaches to meet these challenges. Plant pathologists are teaching courses that may attract new students to the discipline or at least improve agricultural awareness. The Internet offers rapid access to information and images for both students and instructors. Instructional technology provides new tools for classroom presentations, communication with students, reaching new audiences, and distance learning, but using these new tools to enhance learning requires skilled and creative instructors. In the past, many plant pathology instructors worked in relative isolation, but new communication technologies and publishing opportunities for teaching scholarship should improve the sharing of instructional resources and methods. PMID:12730395

Schumann, G L

2003-04-29

432

Pathology Case Study: Cerebellar Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 16-year-old female who presented with a seven-month history of headaches and difficulty with gait. Visitors are given examination findings, imaging studies, and pathological findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Diagnosis and Discussion" section provides the findings, discussion of the disease, along with references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Cummings, Thomas J.; McLendon, Roger E., 1957-; Ebert, Robert H.; Provenzale, James M.

2008-03-24

433

Diagnostic pathology in 2012: development of digital pathology in an open access journal  

PubMed Central

Abstract Herein we describe and interpret the digital world of diagnostic surgical pathology, and take the in Pathology leading Open Access Journal Diagnostic Pathology as example. Virtual slide http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1944221953867351

2013-01-01

434

Optical diagnostics of liver pathology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The applicability of reflectance spectroscopy to detect pathological changes in human liver tissue was investigated. Post mortem reflectance spectra were collected from liver tissue originating from 13 individuals. A point counting method was applied to determine relative areas of connective tissue, liver cells with or without fat vacuoles, and vascular spaces in the liver. Preliminary results show that the amount of fat and connective tissue in liver can be estimated from reflectance spectra.

Randeberg, Lise L.; Haugen, Olav A.; Svaasand, Lars O.

2003-10-01

435

Pathology Case Study: Visual Disturbances  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a neuropathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 49 year old woman has visual disturbances. Visitors are given the microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Bilbao, Juan M., 1938-; Vidal, Sergio; Syro, Luis; Uribe, Humberto; Kovacs, Kalman; Horvath, Eva, Ph.D.

2009-08-18

436

Pathological features of glutaminase toxicity.  

PubMed

In an investigation of the toxicity of the anti-tumour enzyme glutaminase Rhesus monkeys, marmosets, rabbits and mice were given various doses of chemically modified glutaminase parenterally. The enzyme induced diarrhoea and dysentery and at all but the lowest doses caused illness which was fatal within 10 days. Pathological lesions produced were hepatic lipidosis and glycogen accumulation, and, in the primates, acute necrotizing colitis. PMID:6775661

Baskerville, A; Hambleton, P; Benbough, J E

1980-04-01

437

Risk factors for pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand pathological gambling, potential risk factors were assessed within three domains—gambling behaviors, substance abuse and other problem behaviors, and sociodemographic factors. A random-digit-dial telephone survey was conducted in 1999–2000 with a representative sample of the U.S. population aged 18 or older. The current analyses uses data from the 2168 respondents who gambled in the year before the interview.

John W. Welte; Grace M. Barnes; William F. Wieczorek; Marie-Cecile O. Tidwell; John C. Parker

2004-01-01

438

Pathology of hereditary breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are predisposed to breast cancer. The BRCA1-associated breast cancers have distinct morphology, being more often medullary-like, triple negative and showing a ‘basal’ phenotype. On the other hand, BRCA2 and BRCAX cancers are a heterogeneous group without a specific phenotype. When incorporated into risk assessment models, pathology data improves prediction of carrier

Leonard Da Silva; Sunil R Lakhani

2010-01-01

439

Stiff-Person Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Stiff-Person Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Stiff-Person Syndrome? Is there ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Stiff-Person Syndrome? Stiff-person syndrome (SPS) is a rare neurological ...

440

PERSONAL VERSUS MASS COMMUNICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the comparison of the various aspects of advertising and personal selling, it can be seen that personal selling is a more effective and powerful communication tool than advertising, but advertising is more time and cost efficient than personal selling. Thus advertising and personal selling are tools at the disposal of a marketer and subjects to a firm’s overall objectives.

Girboveanu Sorina

2007-01-01

441

Person memory and judgment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two general types of information about a person are considered in this article: One pertains to specific behaviors a person has manifested, and the other refers to more abstract personality disposi- tions or behavioral tendencies. A theoretical model of person memory that incorporates both types of information is developed. The model accounts for a large number of factors that are

Thomas K. Srull; Robert S. Wyer

1989-01-01

442

Long term predictive validity of diagnostic models for personality disorder: Integrating trait and disorder concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Several conceptual models have been considered for the assessment of personality pathology in DSM-5. This study sought to extend our previous findings to compare the long-term predictive validity of three such models: the Five-Factor Model (FFM), the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP), and DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs).\\u000aMethod. An inception cohort from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorder

Leslie C. Morey; Christopher J. Hopwood; John C. Markowitz; John G. Gunderson; Carlos M. Grilo; Thomas H. McGlashan; M. Tracie Shea; Shirley Yen; Charles A. Sanislow; Andrew E. Skodol

2012-01-01

443

Identification in healthy and pathological character formation.  

PubMed

The character of the ego is built up via a series of identifications carried out in the course of development. As infants are forced by experience to give up the 'internal illusion' of primal identification with the powerful mother, the sense of helplessness that ensues leads to secondary identification to create an 'external illusion' of oneness with the mother during heightened stress or tension. Adequate experiences, leading to increasing trust and tolerance of frustration and tension, promote ego structuralization, self-object differentiation, and oedipal, triadic object relations. Inadequate experiences lead to pathological identifications that interfere with ego development. Oedipal conflicts produce new problems, which are dealt with in part by complex identifications that contribute extensively to the child's personality structure. Superego crystallization derives largely from these later identifications. In optimal circumstances, the identifications out of which the child's character is built become reworked and modified so that it becomes increasingly unique and independent of its sources in others. Stability is never absolute, however. Under stress, reversion is possible to dependence on powerful, charismatic leaders that offers return to the illusion of identificatory union with a powerful, protective, parental 'other'. This can be exploited by potentially dangerous, destructive leaders. PMID:3721741

Silverman, M A

1986-01-01

444

Multidimensional assessment of personality in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine whether patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) have evidence of maladaptive personality, and whether they have a single or several different typical pathological personality profiles. Methods: Patients were recruited from the department of epileptology, Bonn, Germany. In all, 85 patients with PNES and 63 with epilepsy completed a postal questionnaire including the dimensional assessment of personality pathology – basic questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). The DAPP-BQ was also completed by 100 healthy volunteers. The groups were compared and the PNES group was subjected to cluster analysis. Results: Patients with PNES had a greater degree of personality abnormality than clinical and non-clinical controls. There were several clusters of personality pathology. The profile of the largest cluster (n = 43) resembled that found in borderline personality disorder, that of the second largest (n = 37) was characterised by an overly controlled personality, that of the third (n = 4) was similar to the profile in avoidant personality disorder. Outcome differed between clusters. Conclusions: Maladaptive personality is common in patients with PNES. PNES are associated with several distinct profiles of pathological personality. This is relevant because outcome differed between profiles.

Reuber, M; Pukrop, R; Bauer, J; Derfuss, R; Elger, C

2004-01-01

445

Balancing personalized medicine and personalized care.  

PubMed

The current description of personalized medicine by the National Institutes of Health is "the science of individualized prevention and therapy." Although physicians are beginning to see the promise of genetic medicine coming to fruition, the rapid pace of sequencing technology, informatics, and computer science predict a revolution in the ability to care for patients in the near future. The enthusiasm expressed by researchers is well founded, but the expectations voiced by the public do not center on advancing technology. Rather, patients are asking for personalized care: a holistic approach that considers physical, mental, and spiritual well-being. This perspective considers psychological, religious, and ethical challenges that may arise as the precision of preventive medicine improves. Psychological studies already highlight the barriers to single gene testing and suggest significant barriers to the predictive testing envisioned by personalized medicine. Certain religious groups will likely mount opposition if they believe personalized medicine encourages embryo selection. If the technology prompts cost-containment discussions, those concerned about the sanctity of life may raise ethical objections. Consequently, the availability of new scientific developments does not guarantee advances in treatment because patients may prove unwilling to receive and act on personalized genetic information. This perspective highlights current efforts to incorporate personalized medicine and personalized care into the medical curriculum, genetic counseling, and other aspects of clinical practice. Because these efforts are generally independent, the authors offer recommendations for physicians and educators so that personalized medicine can be implemented in a manner that meets patient expectations for personalized care. PMID:23348082

Cornetta, Kenneth; Brown, Candy Gunther

2013-03-01

446

Task Force on Speech Pathology and Audiology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results and conclusions of a 1972 study performed by the Task Force on Speech Pathology and Audiology. Thirteen educational institutions offering degrees in speech pathology and audiology in Louisiana were surveyed, and completed ...

J. L. Peterson

1973-01-01

447

Pathologic Complete Response in Neoadjuvant Treatment of ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Pathologic Complete Response in Neoadjuvant Treatment of High-Risk ... Pathologic Complete Response in Neoadjuvant Treatment of High-Risk ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

448

Pathological Effects of Thyroid Irradiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Therapeutic doses of X-rays to the thyroid region of children have been followed after some years by the development of thyroid neoplasms. Whereas the percent of cases of malignant neoplasms is small, the proportion of persons irradiated who develop nodul...

1966-01-01

449

Exotic pathology of the hand and foot. A pictorial review.  

PubMed

In this article, the imaging findings of the most frequently encountered import pathology of the hand and foot are reviewed, including leprosy, loiasis, snake bites or penetration of spines of sea urchins in the hand and foot. Our objective is to familiarize the radiologist of the Western countries with these diseases, which are still prevalent in developing areas. Due to the rising traveling to foreign countries and continuous immigration, it is important that these disorders be considered in the differential diagnosis in a specific population of asylum-seekers, economic refugees and any other group of persons traveling around the globe. Imaging findings on conventional radiography will be emphasized. PMID:18817091

Luyckx, G; Vanhoenacker, F M; Parizel, P M

450

Investigation into the relationship between personality traits and OCD  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the light of recent research suggesting that obsessive-compulsive disorder is more likely to be associated with constellations of personality traits other than obsessive-compulsive personality traits, the present study was undertaken to explore this relationship further and to remove the possibly confounding effects of general pathology, anxiety and depression. By using a non-clinical sample and partialling out the effects of

Kate V. Rosen; Frank Tallis

1995-01-01

451

The relationship between maladaptive personality and right wing ideology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research investigates the relationship between right wing ideology and maladaptive personality as measured by the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ) in an adult sample (N=225). Analogous to previous studies, Openness to Experience was significantly related to right wing ideology. Conscientiousness was only modestly related to right wing ideology, but its maladaptive equivalent—Compulsiveness—was significantly related to right

A Van Hiel; I Mervielde; F De Fruyt

2004-01-01

452

Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Personality Disorders in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality disorders, by DSM-IV (American Psychological Association, 1994) definition, are long-standing\\/stable, first evidenced\\u000a in adolescence or early adulthood, and have associated pervasive difficulties in both interpersonal and impulsive functioning.\\u000a Based on these criteria, it is difficult to adequately assess personality pathology in older adults for whom adolescence and\\u000a early adulthood may have occurred decades ago. Additionally, several authors have argued

Jennifer S. Cheavens; Thomas R. Lynch

453

Personality Characteristics as Predictors of Institutional Violence among Incarcerated Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

There remains little research about violence in prison among women and the role that personality characteristics take in producing such violence. This study examined the ability of borderline, antisocial, and psychopathic personality pathology to accurately discriminate between first-time female inmates who did and did not engage in institutional violence. Measures used in the sample included the PCL-R, DSM-IV-TR symptoms of

Elizabeth Stotler-Turner

2011-01-01

454

Personality and Fibromyalgia Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objectives: We aimed to review how personality characteristics contribute to the onset, maintenance or modulation of fibromyalgia. Method: The databases Medline and PsychINFO were examined from 1967 to 2012 to identify studies that investigated associations between fibromyalgia and personality. Search terms included fibromyalgia and personality, trait psychology, characteristics and individual differences. Results: Numerous studies indicate that patients with fibromyalgia experience psychological distress. Various instruments have been used to evaluate distress and related psychological domains, such as anxiety or depression, in fibromyalgia. In many cases, these same instruments have been used to study personality characteristics in fibromyalgia with a subsequent blurring of cause and effect between personality and psychological distress. In addition, the symptoms of fibromyalgia may change pre-illness personality characteristics themselves. These issues make it difficult to identify specific personality characteristics that might influence the fibromyalgia process. Despite this inherent problem with the methodologies used in the studies that make up this literature review, or perhaps because of it, we found no defined personality profile specific to fibromyalgia. However, many patients with fibromyalgia do show personality characteristics that facilitate psychological responses to stressful situations, such as catastrophising or poor coping techniques, and these in turn associate with mechanisms contributing to fibromyalgia. Conclusion: No specific fibromyalgia personality is defined but it is proposed that personality is an important filter that modulates a person’s response to psychological stressors. Certain personalities may facilitate translation of these stressors to physiological responses driving the fibromyalgia mechanism.

Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey O

2012-01-01

455

Interactions of Pathological Hallmark Proteins  

PubMed Central

The disordered tubulin polymerization promoting protein (TPPP/p25) was found to be co-enriched in neuronal and glial inclusions with ?-synuclein in Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy, respectively; however, co-occurrence of ?-synuclein with ?-amyloid (A?) in human brain inclusions has been recently reported, suggesting the existence of mixed type pathologies that could result in obstacles in the correct diagnosis and treatment. Here we identified TPPP/p25 as an interacting partner of the soluble A? oligomers as major risk factors for Alzheimer disease using ProtoArray human protein microarray. The interactions of oligomeric A? with proteins involved in the etiology of neurological disorders were characterized by ELISA, surface plasmon resonance, pelleting experiments, and tubulin polymerization assay. We showed that the A?42 tightly bound to TPPP/p25 (Kd = 85 nm) and caused aberrant protein aggregation by inhibiting the physiologically relevant TPPP/p25-derived microtubule assembly. The pair-wise interactions of A?42, ?-synuclein, and tubulin were found to be relatively weak; however, these three components formed soluble ternary complex exclusively in the absence of TPPP/p25. The aggregation-facilitating activity of TPPP/p25 and its interaction with A? was monitored by electron microscopy with purified proteins by pelleting experiments with cell-free extracts as well as by confocal microscopy with CHO cells expressing TPPP/p25 or amyloid. The finding that the interaction of TPPP/p25 with A? can produce pathological-like aggregates is tightly coupled with unusual pathology of the Alzheimer disease revealed previously; that is, partial co-localization of A? and TPPP/p25 in the case of diffuse Lewy body disease with Alzheimer disease.

Olah, Judit; Vincze, Orsolya; Virok, Dezso; Simon, Dora; Bozso, Zsolt; Tokesi, Natalia; Horvath, Istvan; Hlavanda, Emma; Kovacs, Janos; Magyar, Anna; Szucs, Maria; Orosz, Ferenc; Penke, Botond; Ovadi, Judit

2011-01-01

456

Cerebrovascular Disease Pathology and Parkinsonian Signs in Old Age  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Mild motor symptoms including parkinsonian signs are common in old age but their underlying neuropathology is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that cerebrovascular pathologies are related to parkinsonian signs. Methods We studied brain autopsies from 418 deceased participants from the Religious Order Study, who underwent evaluation of parkinsonian signs with a modified version of the motor section of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (mUPDRS). Brains were evaluated for macroscopic and microinfarcts and the severity of arteriolosclerosis. Regression analyses were employed to examine the association of cerebrovascular pathologies with parkinsonian signs. Results More than 35% of cases (N=149) showed macroscopic infarcts. Almost 30% of cases without macroscopic infarcts, showed pathologies not detected by conventional brain imaging: microinfarcts (N=33, 7.9%); arteriolosclerosis (N=62, 14.8%) or both (N=24, 5.7%). Macroscopic infarcts, specifically multiple cortical and one or more subcortical macroscopic infarcts were related to higher global parkinsonian scores. The presence of multiple and cortical microinfarcts were associated with global parkinsonian score. Arteriolosclerosis was associated with global parkinsonian score but this effect was attenuated and no longer significant after accounting for infarcts. Each of the 3 pathologies were separately associated with parkinsonian gait [macroscopic infarcts (Estimate= 0.552; SE=0.210; p=0.009); microinfarcts (Estimate= 0.424; SE=0.213; p=0.047); arteriolosclerosis (Estimate= 0.191; SE=0.056; p<0.001)]. Further analyses showed that subcortical macroscopic and microinfarcts were specifically associated with the severity of parkinsonian gait. Conclusion Cerebrovascular pathologies, including macroscopic infarcts, microinfarcts and arteriolosclerosis, are common in older persons and may be unrecognized common etiologies of mild parkinsonian signs, especially parkinsonian gait, in old age.

Buchman, Aron S.; Leurgans, Sue E.; Nag, Sukriti; Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.

2011-01-01

457

Pathology Case Study: Chronic Hypertension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a clinical chemistry case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 57-year-old female has longstanding hypertension and peripheral vascular disease. Visitors are given catheterization procedure data and retroperitoneal ultrasound findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

Schubert, Eric

2007-08-23

458

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 65-year-old man is complaining of abdominal pain. Visitors are given the radiology, gross and microscopic descriptions, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostics, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

Latulippe, Steven; Ohori, N. P.

2007-12-05

459

Pathology Case Study: Progressive Tetraparesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This neuropathology case, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, illustrates the process of diagnosing the cause of a patientâÂÂs progressive weakening of the limbs. Microscopic images of a biopsy specimen are included in the case study along with a gross description and image of the specimen. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with the diagnostic process and techniques.

Pittella, Josãâ© E.; Da Costa, Cristiane C.; Giannetti, Alexandre V.; Perpãâ©tuo, Francisco O.

2009-01-21

460

Pathology Case Study: Intraventricular Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 22-year-old previously healthy woman was admitted to the hospital following a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Visitors are given admission data, CT scan images as well as microscopic description and images in order to provide the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Bilbao, Juan M., 1938-; Mainprize, Todd

2009-08-11

461

Pathology Case Study: Precocious Puberty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a neuropathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 4-year-old girl has early onset puberty. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology medicine.

Hamilton, Ronald

2007-10-04

462

Pathologically activated therapeutics for neuroprotection.  

PubMed

Many drugs that have been developed to treat neurodegenerative diseases fail to gain approval for clinical use because they are not well tolerated in humans. In this article, I describe a series of strategies for the development of neuroprotective therapeutics that are both effective and well tolerated. These strategies are based on the principle that drugs should be activated by the pathological state that they are intended to inhibit. This approach has already met with success, and has led to the development of the potentially neuroprotective drug memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type and glutamate receptor antagonist. PMID:17882256

Lipton, Stuart A

2007-10-01

463

Pathology Case Study: Gait Disorders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman with a 20-year history of gait disorders and dizziness. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

2009-04-21

464

[Whose borderline is it? Hypothesized etiologies of borderline personality].  

PubMed

Borderline personality is a well known concept in psychiatric literature, however, not fully understood as to its very nature. This article presents a short review of hypothesized etiologies of the borderline personality, starting with so called traditional theories, namely, borderline personality as a consolidated personality organization, in which the patient pathologically deals with his or her inner aggression, or with an enduring developmental failure. More modern hypotheses focus on possible childhood sexual abuse as the origin of the borderline, viewing the adult personality as a chronic, unresolved, post-traumatic disorder. Additionally, a neuro-epigenetic view hypothesized that a unique congenital neurological structure interacts with consequential events in early childhood to create the borderline personality. PMID:19264013

Gil, Tsvi E

2008-11-01

465

Proteomics of saliva: personal experience  

PubMed Central

Summary The salivary proteome is a complex protein mixture resulting from the activity of salivary glands with the contribution of other components that form the oral environment such as oral tissues and micro-organisms. For diagnosis purposes, saliva collection has the great advantage of being an easy and non-invasive technique. Human saliva proteomics have proven to be a novel approach in the search for protein biomarkers for detection of different local and systemic diseases. Currently, more than 1400 salivary proteins have been identified. In the last few years, our research group has extensively studied the salivary proteomics in order to analyse the salivary composition, investigating the major families of proteins present in human and mammalian saliva, the post-translational modifications, the different contributions of glands, the physiological and pathological modifications of saliva. The aim of this report is to present our personal experience in salivary proteomics. In conclusion, salivary proteome analysis represents an important field both for diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases and could be considered a novel approach to prevention of various pathological conditions.

Scarano, E; Fiorita, A; Picciotti, PM; Passali, GC; Calo, L; Cabras, T; Inzitari, R; Fanali, C; Messana, I; Castagnola, M; Paludetti, G

2010-01-01

466

Factors associated with disordered gambling in Finland  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to compare the socio-demographic characteristics of non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers and pathological gamblers, to investigate the association between gambling related factors and perceived health and well-being among the three subgroups of gamblers, and to analyse simultaneously socio-demographic characteristics, gambling related factors and perceived health and well-being and the severity of disordered gambling (problem gamblers and pathological gamblers). Methods The data were collected through a nationwide telephone survey in 2011. Participants were selected through a random population sample of 15-74-year-old Finns. From that sample, persons with any past-year gambling involvement (N?=?3451) were selected for a subsample for the descriptive and inferential analysis in the present paper. Gambling was assessed using the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Statistical significance was determined by chi-squared tests. The odds ratio and effect size were computed by using multivariate-adjusted multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results The most significant socio-demographic characteristics (male gender, young age, education ?12 years), gambling related factors (slot machine gambling, internet gambling) and perceived health and well-being (feeling lonely, smoking daily, risky alcohol consumption, mental health problems) explained 22.9 per cent of the variation in the severity of disordered gambling. Conclusion Male gender and loneliness were found to be associated with problem gambling in particular, along with smoking and risky alcohol consumption. Mental health problems and risky alcohol consumption were associated with pathological gambling. These identified associations between disordered gambling, mental health problems and risky alcohol consumption should be taken into consideration when implementing screenings of disordered gambling.

2013-01-01

467

Dopamine agonists and pathologic behaviors.  

PubMed

The dopamine agonists ropinirole and pramipexole exhibit highly specific affinity for the cerebral dopamine D3 receptor. Use of these medications in Parkinson's disease has been complicated by the emergence of pathologic behavioral patterns such as hypersexuality, pathologic gambling, excessive hobbying, and other circumscribed obsessive-compulsive disorders of impulse control in people having no history of such disorders. These behavioral changes typically remit following discontinuation of the medication, further demonstrating a causal relationship. Expression of the D3 receptor is particularly rich within the limbic system, where it plays an important role in modulating the physiologic and emotional experience of novelty, reward, and risk assessment. Converging neuroanatomical, physiological, and behavioral science data suggest the high D3 affinity of these medications as the basis for these behavioral changes. These observations suggest the D3 receptor as a therapeutic target for obsessive-compulsive disorder and substance abuse, and improved understanding of D3 receptor function may aid drug design of future atypical antipsychotics. PMID:22567537

Kelley, Brendan J; Duker, Andrew P; Chiu, Peter

2012-04-05

468

Dopamine Agonists and Pathologic Behaviors  

PubMed Central

The dopamine agonists ropinirole and pramipexole exhibit highly specific affinity for the cerebral dopamine D3 receptor. Use of these medications in Parkinson's disease has been complicated by the emergence of pathologic behavioral patterns such as hypersexuality, pathologic gambling, excessive hobbying, and other circumscribed obsessive-compulsive disorders of impulse control in people having no history of such disorders. These behavioral changes typically remit following discontinuation of the medication, further demonstrating a causal relationship. Expression of the D3 receptor is particularly rich within the limbic system, where it plays an important role in modulating the physiologic and emotional experience of novelty, reward, and risk assessment. Converging neuroanatomical, physiological, and behavioral science data suggest the high D3 affinity of these medications as the basis for these behavioral changes. These observations suggest the D3 receptor as a therapeutic target for obsessive-compulsive disorder and substance abuse, and improved understanding of D3 receptor function may aid drug design of future atypical antipsychotics.

Kelley, Brendan J.; Duker, Andrew P.; Chiu, Peter

2012-01-01

469

[RNA pathologies in neurological disorders].  

PubMed

RNA is not a simple intermediate between DNA and proteins. RNA is widely transcribed from a variety of genomic regions, and researchers are extensively exploring the functional roles and the regulations of non-coding RNAs and small RNAs including siRNAs and mRNAs. In addition, the human genome project disclosed that we humans carry as few as approximately 22,000 genes. Humans employ tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific alternative splicing to generate a large variety of proteins in a specific cell at a specific developmental stage. Neurological disorders are not the exceptions that can escape from aberrations of the splicing machinery. A large variety of neurological disorders is causally associated with RNA pathologies, but this lecture was mostly focused on aberrant splicings due to pathological alterations of splicing cis- and trans-elements. The neurological diseases covered include congenital myasthenic syndromes, genetic forms of Parkinson's disease, spastic paraplegia, myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2, sporadic Alzheimer's disease, facioscapulohumeral dystrophy, fragile X-associated tremor/ ataxia syndrome, Rett syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, spinocerebellar atrophy type 8, and Waardenburg-Shah syndrome. Potential therapeutic modalities targeting RNA are addressed on congenital myasthenic syndromes, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, and familial dysautonomia. PMID:18210802

Ohno, Kinji

2007-11-01

470

Convergent Validity of Measures of Cognitive Distortions, Impulsivity, and Time Perspective With Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the convergent validity of the Gamblers' Beliefs Questionnaire (GBQ; T. A. Steenbergh, A. W. Meyers, R. K. May, & J. P. Whelan, 2002), Gambling Passion Scale (GPS; F. Rousseau, R. J. Vallerand, C. F. Ratelle, G. Mageau, & P. J. Provencher, 2002), Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire (EIQ; S. B. G. Eysenck & H. J. Eysenck, 1978), and

James MacKillop; Emily J. Anderson; Bryan A. Castelda; Richard E. Mattson; Peter J. Donovick

2006-01-01

471

Personal Software Process (PSP).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Personal Software Process (PSP) provides engineers with a disciplined personal framework for doing software work. The PSP process consists of a set of methods, forms. and scripts that show software engineers how to plan, measure, and manage their work...

W. S. Humphrey

2000-01-01

472

Person Centered Planning. (Video).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this broadcast is to familiarize surveyors of intermediate care facilities for persons with mental retardation (ICFs/MR) and other professionals with the terms, concepts and survey issues related to person centered planning, a new paradigm ...

1997-01-01

473

Cryptosporidium: Infection - Immunocompromised Persons  

MedlinePLUS

... Who might be immunocompromised or have a weakened immune system? Examples of persons with weakened immune systems include ... Top How does cryptosporidiosis affect you if your immune system is severely weakened? In persons with AIDS and ...