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Sample records for pathological gamblers personality

  1. Investigating facets of personality in adult pathological gamblers with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Davtian, Margarit; Reid, Rory C; Fong, Timothy W

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The present study explored facets of personality in a sample of pathological gamblers with ADHD (n = 52) and without ADHD (n = 43). Participants were assessed for psychopathology and gambling disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Facets of personality were assessed using the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised. Group differences emerged across several facets of personality when analyzed using multivariate statistics. Although both groups experienced difficulties in several areas compared with norming data (e.g., greater depression, higher impulsivity, lower self-esteem and lower self-discipline), these facets of personality were more pronounced in pathological gamblers with ADHD. Most notable among these differences are tendencies for gamblers with ADHD to experience greater levels of emotional instability, interpersonal sensitivity and stress proneness. Pathological gamblers with ADHD also appear to experience lower self-esteem, greater difficulty being assertive and lower levels of self-discipline. Surprisingly, both groups were comparable on facets of impulsivity. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers diagnosed with adult ADHD may experience additional challenges compared with pathological gamblers without ADHD. PMID:22815658

  2. Personality dimensions of male pathological gamblers, alcoholics, and dually addicted gamblers.

    PubMed

    Ciarrocchi, J W; Kirschner, N M; Fallik, F

    1991-06-01

    Previously published studies of MMPI characteristics of pathological gamblers have failed to control for the possible confounding influence of co-existing alcoholism or other substance abuse disorders. This limits the generalizability of such studies since gamblers' MMPI profiles closely resemble profiles of alcoholics. The current study compares MMPI scores for 96 alcoholics with 136 pathological gamblers of which 81 had co-existing alcohol dependence or abuse and 55 had no substance abuse disorder. All were hospitalized male inpatients in a private psychiatric dual diagnosis program (treating addiction and a co-morbid psychiatric disorder). Gamblers had significantly higher mean scores than alcoholics alone on education level and socioeconomic status. Otherwise, no differences on MMPI scores emerged for pathological gamblers in comparison to alcoholics. Nor did differences emerge when non-alcoholic gamblers were compared to either alcoholic gamblers or alcoholics alone. Results are discussed in terms of treatment implications, as well as indicating a need for exploring personality measures which might differentiate more sharply the clinically construed personality differences of pathological gamblers. PMID:24242985

  3. Pathological gamblers and a non-psychiatric control group taking gender differences into account.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; González-Ortega, Itxaso; de Corral, Paz; Polo-López, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify personality traits, emotional states and adjustment variables in a sample of pathological gamblers as compared to a non-gambling control group taking gender differences into account. The sample for this study consisted of 206 subjects (103 pathological gamblers and 103 non-psychiatric subjects from the general population matched for age and gender). Pathological gamblers had a lower educational level and a family history of alcohol abuse higher than non-gamblers. In turn, female gamblers were affected by unemployment and a lower socioeconomic status more often than female non-gamblers. Pathological gamblers were more anxious and impulsive and suffered from a poorer self-esteem than non-gamblers. Likewise, pathological gamblers had a greater history of other Axis I psychiatric disorders and were more often affected by anxiety and depression symptoms and showed a more problematic adjustment to everyday life than non-gamblers. Alcohol abuse was not higher in pathological gamblers than in non-gamblers, but, when gender was taken into account, male gamblers were more affected by alcohol abuse than male non-gamblers. Importantly 68.6% of female gamblers versus 9.8% of control group women reported being victims of intimate partner violence. These findings can be used to specifically inform prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:23866213

  4. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Ammerman, Yola; Bohl, Jaime; Doersch, Anne; Gay, Heather; Kadden, Ronald; Molina, Cheryl; Steinberg, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated efficacy of psychotherapies for pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (N = 231) were randomly assigned to (a) referral to Gamblers Anonymous (GA), (b) GA referral plus a cognitive-behavioral (CB) workbook, or (c) GA referral plus 8 sessions of individual CB therapy. Gambling and related problems were assessed…

  5. Cue reactivity in active pathological, abstinent pathological, and regular gamblers.

    PubMed

    Sodano, Ruthlyn; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2010-03-01

    Twenty-one treatment-seeking pathological gamblers, 21 pathological gamblers in recovery, and 21 recreational gamblers watched two video-taped exciting gambling scenarios and an exciting roller-coaster control scenario while their arousal (heart rate and subjective excitement) and urge to gamble were being measured. The gamblers did not differ significantly in cue-elicited heart rate elevations or excitement. However, the active pathological gamblers reported significantly greater urges to gamble across all cues compared to the abstinent pathological gamblers and, with marginal significance (p = 0.06), also compared to the social gamblers. Further exploration of these findings revealed that active pathological gamblers experience urges to gamble in response to exciting situations, whether or not they are gambling related, whereas abstinent and social gamblers only report urges to an exciting gambling-related cue. This suggests that for pathological gamblers excitement itself, irrespective of its source, may become a conditioned stimulus capable of triggering gambling behavior. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:19662519

  6. [Psychic experience of pathological machine gamblers].

    PubMed

    Avtonomov, D A

    2011-01-01

    The author presents results of the psychopathological phenomena and subjective experience study of 38 patients with the verified diagnosis "Pathological addiction to gambling" (F63.0) without psychotic disorders. In 84,2% cases, the patients preferred slot machine gambling. The causes of such preferences were analyzed. The phenomenology of the psychic experience of the patients who are slot machine gamblers is presented. With the formation of the addiction, the gamblers began to think about slot machines as human beings (creatures), feel attachment to them, see the individuality in them, and experience slot machines as live and real partners in imaginative or even verbal dialogs. Two main "forms of contact" with slot machines were elicited and described: verbal and non-verbal. The gambler has been gradually depleted the image of himself and experiences the "loss of contact" with his own features, qualities, wishes, and intentions. The data obtained may be helpful in psychotherapeutic and rehabilitative work with such patients. PMID:22027663

  7. Retaining Pathological Gamblers in Cognitive Behavior Therapy through Motivational Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfert, Edelgard; Blanchard, Edward B.; Freidenberg, Brian M.; Martell, Rebecca S.

    2006-01-01

    Treatment for pathological gambling is in its infancy. Several cognitive and behavioral interventions have shown promise, but high attrition and relapse rates suggest that gamblers requesting treatment are not uniformly committed to change. This article describes an exploratory study with 9 severe pathological gamblers--in their majority horse…

  8. Investigating risk factors for Internet gaming disorder: a comparison of patients with addictive gaming, pathological gamblers and healthy controls regarding the big five personality traits.

    PubMed

    Müller, K W; Beutel, M E; Egloff, B; Wölfling, K

    2014-01-01

    Engaging in online games has become increasingly important as a part of leisure activity in adolescents and adults. While the majority of people use these games in a healthy way, epidemiological studies show that some develop excessive use and symptoms that are related to those of substance-related addictions. Despite increasing research concerning the epidemiology of internet gaming disorder (IGD), predisposing factors have been examined to a lesser extent. Knowing about specific risk factors would help clarify the nosological features of IGD and enhance prevention and intervention. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between personality traits and IGD. A total of 115 patients meeting the criteria for IGD were compared to 167 control subjects displaying either regular or intense use of online games. Additionally, 115 patients meeting diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling were included. IGD was associated with higher neuroticism, decreased conscientiousness and low extraversion. The comparisons to pathological gamblers indicate that low conscientiousness and low extraversion in particular are characteristic of IGD. An integration of personality variables into an etiopathological model describing presumable mechanisms fostering and maintaining addictive online gaming is proposed. This model could be helpful for the theoretical understanding of addictive gaming, public health campaigns and psychoeducation within therapeutic settings. PMID:24247280

  9. Time Devours Things: How Impulsivity and Time Affect Temporal Decisions in Pathological Gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Rattin, Andrea; Guerreschi, Cesare; Sanfey, Alan G.; Bonini, Nicolao

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is associated with several psychiatric disorders in which the loss of control of a specific behavior determines the syndrome itself. One particularly interesting population characterized by reported high impulsivity and problematic decision-making are those diagnosed with pathological gambling. However the association between impulsivity and decision making in pathological gambling has been only partially confirmed until now. We tested 23 normal controls and 23 diagnosed pathological gamblers in an intertemporal choice task, as well as other personality trait measurements. Results showed that gamblers scored higher on impulsivity questionnaires, and selected a higher percentage of impatient choices (higher percentage of smaller, sooner rewards), when compared to normal controls. Moreover, gamblers were faster in terms of reaction times at selecting the smaller, sooner options and discounted rewards more rapidly over time. Importantly, regression analyses clarified that self-reported measures of impulsivity played a significant role in biasing decisions towards small but more rapidly available rewards. In the present study we found evidence for impulsivity in personality traits and decisions in pathological gamblers relative to controls. We conclude by speculating on the need to incorporate impulsivity and decision biases in the conceptualization of pathological gambling for a better understanding and treatment of this pathology. PMID:25296184

  10. Gender Differences in Treatment-Seeking British Pathological Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Lutri, Vittorio; Smith, Neil; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-06-01

    Background and aim Gambling is a widespread recreational activity in the UK. A significant percentage of gamblers develop subclinical or clinically relevant problem gambling issues, but only a low percentage of them seek treatment. Although characteristics of pathological gamblers from treatment-seeking population have been examined in some research, only a few studies have explored the differences between females and males. This study aimed to examine the gender-related differences in demographics, gambling measures, and clinical variables in an outpatient sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. Methods A total of 1,178 treatment-seeking individuals with gambling disorder were assessed at the National Problem Gambling Clinic in London. Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical variables, and gambling behavior habits were obtained during the assessment evaluation. Of the total sample, 92.5% were males and 7.5% were females. Results Males were more likely to be younger, white, and employed than females. In addition, compared to women, men showed a lower PGSI score, an earlier age of onset of gambling behavior, a higher gambling involvement, and preferred specific forms gambling. Female gamblers were more anxious and depressed, while men were more likely to use alcohol and illicit drugs. Conclusions Our findings support the importance of gender differences in a treatment-seeking population of pathological gamblers both in sociodemographic characteristics, gambling behavior variables, and clinical variables. Males and females might benefit from group-specific treatment. PMID:27348561

  11. Increased CSF Homocysteine in Pathological Gamblers Compared with Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordin, Conny; Sjodin, Ingemar

    2009-01-01

    Neurocognitive disturbances suggesting a frontal lobe dysfunction have been observed in pathological gamblers and alcohol dependents. Given that a high homocysteine level has been suggested to be a mediating factor in alcohol-related cognitive decline, we have determined homocysteine and cobalamine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from 11…

  12. Pathological gamblers are more vulnerable to the illusion of control in a standard associative learning task

    PubMed Central

    Orgaz, Cristina; Estévez, Ana; Matute, Helena

    2013-01-01

    An illusion of control is said to occur when a person believes that he or she controls an outcome that is uncontrollable. Pathological gambling has often been related to an illusion of control, but the assessment of the illusion has generally used introspective methods in domain-specific (i.e., gambling) situations. The illusion of control of pathological gamblers, however, could be a more general problem, affecting other aspects of their daily life. Thus, we tested them using a standard associative learning task which is known to produce illusions of control in most people under certain conditions. The results showed that the illusion was significantly stronger in pathological gamblers than in a control undiagnosed sample. This suggests (1) that the experimental tasks used in basic associative learning research could be used to detect illusions of control in gamblers in a more indirect way, as compared to introspective and domain-specific questionnaires; and (2), that in addition to gambling-specific problems, pathological gamblers may have a higher-than-normal illusion of control in their daily life. PMID:23785340

  13. The Role of Cultural Factors in Differentiating Pathological Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Venuleo, Claudia; Salvatore, Sergio; Mossi, Piergiorgio

    2015-12-01

    It is recognised that cultural factors play a role in the onset and continuation of several mental health problems. However, there is a significant lack of empirical studies investigating the relationships between cultural factors and gambling behavior. This study assessed whether the subjective cultures through which subjects interpret and enact their experience of the social environment play a major role in increasing (or decreasing) the probability of pathological gambling. Participants, recruited in three different contexts (public health services for the treatment of addiction, casino, undergraduate course) were subjected to the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) (Lesieur and Blume in Am J Psychiatry 144(9):1184-1188, 1987), in order to identify a group of pathological gamblers-and with the Questionnaire on the Interpretation of the Social Environment (QUISE) (Mossi and Salvatore in Eur J Educ Psychol 4(2):153-169, 2011)-in order to detect their subjective cultures. The study compares pathological group (scoring >5 on SOGS, n = 34) and a healthy control group (scoring <1 on SOGS, n = 35). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare groups on QUISE scores of subjective culture. Moreover, a logistic regression was applied in order to esteem the capability of the QUISE scores to differentiate between pathological gamblers and control. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that pathological group expresses different subjective cultures compared with no gambler subjects. The theoretical and clinical implications of the results are discussed. PMID:24970696

  14. Adaptive and maladaptive personality traits in high-risk gamblers.

    PubMed

    Carlotta, Davide; Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Borroni, Serena; Frera, Fernanda; Somma, Antonella; Maffei, Cesare; Fossati, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Gambling Disorder (GD) is an addictive disorder resulting in significant impairment in occupational and social functioning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of GD risk to adaptive and maladaptive personality dimensions in a sample of nonreferred Italian gamblers. The authors found the risk for GD to show significant associations with the Openness and Conscientiousness scales of the Big Five Inventory (BFI); however, these effects were not significant after controlling for alcohol and drug use. GD risk showed significant associations with the Detachment and Antagonism domains of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), as well as with the PID-5 facet scales of Hostility, Callousness, Deceitfulness, Manipulativeness, Irresponsibility, and (low) Rigid Perfectionism, even when controlling for alcohol and drug use. Maladaptive personality dispositions may serve as risk factors for pathological gambling, even beyond their impact on frequently concomitant problems with alcohol and other drugs. PMID:25248017

  15. The pathological gambler as criminal offender. Comments on evaluation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, R J; Lorenz, V C

    1992-09-01

    antisocial personality disorder--the group for whom treatment would be least likely to be effective--can be recognized easily both by the pattern of offenses and by diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality. Once this group is excluded, treatment for the others, in combination with restitution, community service, and some form of monitoring, would seem beneficial both for the individual and for society. Once they have stopped gambling, pathological gamblers are frequently hard-working people, whose mathematical skills and intelligence, high energy, and need to excel make them extremely valuable at their jobs. The alternative, imprisonment, may very well reinforce the disorder.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1409026

  16. Suicidal events among pathological gamblers: the role of comorbidity of axis I and axis II disorders.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian; Bischof, Gallus; John, Ulrich; Wurst, Friedrich Martin; Thon, Natasha; Lucht, Michael; Grabe, Hans Joergen; Rumpf, Hans-Juergen

    2015-02-28

    The risk for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among pathological gamblers is high compared to the general population. Little is known about the interplay of Axis I and Axis II disorders, severity of gambling disorder, and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The study aims to address this linkage. The sampling design of the study "Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology" (PAGE) included four recruitment channels: general population, gambling locations, project telephone hotline, and in-patient treatment for pathological gambling. A total of 442 study participants with lifetime pathological gambling received a clinical interview. The multivariate analysis showed mood disorders (Relative Risk Ratio, RRR=5.14, 95%-Confidence Interval, CI=2.91-9.07), substance use disorders (RRR=1.73, CI=1.02-2.94), and early onset of gambling disorder (RRR=0.96, CI=0.93-0.99) to be associated with suicidal ideation. Suicidal attempts were associated with female sex (RRR=3.58, CI=1.56-8.19), mood disorders (RRR=11.92, CI=4.70-30.26), and Cluster B personality disorders (RRR=2.40, CI=1.13-5.10). Among study participants with suicide attempts, more had a Cluster B personality disorder than among participants with ideation solely (RRR=3.08, CI=1.48-6.40). Among this large mixed sample of pathological gamblers, high proportions of individuals with suicidal events, multi-morbidity on Axis I, and a strong linkage to Cluster B personality disorders were found. PMID:25537488

  17. Factors Associated with Suicide and Bankruptcy in Japanese Pathological Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Komoto, Yasunobo

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling can lead to a number of deleterious consequences, including bankruptcy and suicide. The present study examined the correlation between clinical characteristics of pathological gamblers and history of bankruptcy and suicide attempts. Subjects (141; 124 male) were outpatients at a psychiatric hospital from 2007 to 2010. Demographic and medical variables including age, gender, age of gambling onset, psychiatric complications, suicide attempts, and bankruptcy were assessed. Positive correlations were observed between suicide attempt and female gender, family history of addiction, and unemployment (p < 0.05). Similar variables correlated with bankruptcy (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that a family history of addiction was the strongest independent predictor of suicide and bankruptcy. Results suggest that treatment for pathological gambling should address the patient's past experience with addict family members, especially if the patient reports a history of bankruptcy or suicidal ideation. PMID:25285061

  18. Executive function abnormalities in pathological gamblers

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Pathological gambling (PG) is an impulse control disorder characterized by persistent and maladaptive gambling behaviors with disruptive consequences for familial, occupational and social functions. The pathophysiology of PG is still unclear, but it is hypothesized that it might include environmental factors coupled with a genetic vulnerability and dysfunctions of different neurotransmitters and selected brain areas. Our study aimed to evaluate a group of patients suffering from PG by means of some neuropsychological tests in order to explore the brain areas related to the disorder. Methods Twenty outpatients (15 men, 5 women), with a diagnosis of PG according to DSM-IV criteria, were included in the study and evaluated with a battery of neuropsychological tests: the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Wechsler Memory Scale revised (WMS-R) and the Verbal Associative Fluency Test (FAS). The results obtained in the patients were compared with normative values of matched healthy control subjects. Results The PG patients showed alterations at the WCST only, in particular they had a great difficulty in finding alternative methods of problem-solving and showed a decrease, rather than an increase, in efficiency, as they progressed through the consecutive phases of the test. The mean scores of the other tests were within the normal range. Conclusion Our findings showed that patients affected by PG, in spite of normal intellectual, linguistic and visual-spatial abilities, had abnormalities emerging from the WCST, in particular they could not learn from their mistakes and look for alternative solutions. Our results would seem to confirm an altered functioning of the prefrontal areas which might provoke a sort of cognitive "rigidity" that might predispose to the development of impulsive and/or compulsive behaviors, such as those typical of PG. PMID:18371193

  19. Impaired non-verbal emotion processing in Pathological Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Kornreich, Charles; Saeremans, Mélanie; Delwarte, Jennifer; Noël, Xavier; Campanella, Salvatore; Verbanck, Paul; Ermer, Elsa; Brevers, Damien

    2016-02-28

    Impaired perception of emotion in others has been described and confirmed in addictions with substances, but no such data exists regarding addictions without substances. As it has been hypothesized that toxic effect of substances on the brain was responsible for the impairments described, studying addictions without substances could be of interest to confirm this hypothesis. Twenty-two male pathological gamblers were compared to 22 male healthy controls matched for age and education level on non-verbal emotion perception tasks including faces, voices, and musical excerpts. Depression and anxiety levels were controlled for. Pathological gamblers significantly underestimated the intensity of peacefulness in music, and overall they were less accurate when reading emotion in voices and faces. They also overestimated emotional intensity in neutral voices and faces. Although anxiety levels did account for accuracy problems when detecting fear in voices and for overestimating emotions in neutral faces, anxiety levels did not explain the range of deficits observed. This is the first study showing non-verbal perception deficits in a purely behavioural addiction. These findings show that deficits in decoding non-verbal signals are associated with addictive behaviours per se, and are not due solely to toxic effects of substances on the brain. PMID:26730447

  20. The neural basis of impulsive discounting in pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Miedl, Stephan F; Wiswede, Daniel; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Ye, Zheng; Fehr, Thorsten; Herrmann, Manfred; Münte, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Pathological gambling is thought to result from a shift of balance between two competing neurobiological mechanisms: on the one hand the reward system involved in the regulation of the urge to get rewards and on the other hand the top-down control system. Fifteen pathological gamblers (PG) and fifteen healthy controls (HC) were studied in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment where participants had to choose either a smaller, but immediately available monetary reward (SIR) or a larger delayed reward (LDR). We examined contrasts between LDR and SIR decisions. Additionally, we contrasted choices near the individual indifference point (indifferent decisions) and clear SIR or LDR choices (sure decisions). Behavioral data confirmed former results of steeper discount rates in PG. Contrasting choices of LDR vs. SIR showed widespread bilateral activations in PG, including postcentral gyrus, thalamus, superior/medial frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus, whereas HC demonstrated only focal left-sided pre/postcentral activity. Forgoing an immediate reward thus recruits a widespread brain network including typical control areas. Indifferent vs. sure decisions were associated with widespread activation in PG, including the bilateral fronto-parietal cortex, insula, anterior cingulate gyrus, and striatum, whereas in HC, only bilateral frontal cortex and insula were activated. The reverse contrast demonstrated more activity for sure decisions in the cingulate gyrus, insula, and medial frontal gyrus in HC, whereas PG showed inferior parietal and superior temporal activity. The present study demonstrates that pathological gambling is associated with a shift in the interplay between a prefrontal-parietal control network and a brain network involved in immediate reward consumption. PMID:25644499

  1. Randomized Trial of Internet-Delivered Self-Help with Telephone Support for Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlbring, Per; Smit, Filip

    2008-01-01

    Although effective therapies for pathological gambling exist, their uptake is limited to 10% of the target population. To lower the barriers for help seeking, the authors tested an online alternative in a randomized trial (N = 66). The participants were pathological gamblers not presenting with severe comorbid depression. A wait-list control was…

  2. Characteristics of Treatment Seeking Finnish Pathological Gamblers: Baseline Data from a Treatment Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, Tuuli; Halme, Jukka; Pankakoski, Maiju; Sinclair, David; Alho, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behavior of 39 pathological gamblers who participated in our treatment study in 2009. The inclusion criteria of the study were: score of five or more on both the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and a pathological gambling screen based on the Diagnostic and Statistical…

  3. Gambling motivation and passion: a comparison study of recreational and pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Back, Ki-Joon; Lee, Choong-Ki; Stinchfield, Randy

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the structural relationship among gambling motivation, gambling passion, and behavioral intentions to gamble between recreational and pathological gamblers. Specifically, this study aimed to shed light on the different ways in which gambling motivation and affective attitude are associated with recreational and pathological gamblers. Using a purposive sampling method, 400 subjects were selected for and participated in this study during their visits to a casino. Study results echoed the notion of distinctive and separate gambling motivations and passions between recreational and pathological gamblers. Also, results identified specific areas to which casino operators or policy makers should pay special attention in developing effective marketing strategies to promote responsible gambling. PMID:20680417

  4. Neurobehavioral Evidence for the "Near-Miss" Effect in Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, Reza; Dixon, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this translational study was twofold: (1) to contrast behavioral and brain activity between pathological and nonpathological gamblers, and (2) to examine differences as a function of the outcome of the spin of a slot machine, focusing predominately on the "Near-Miss"--when two reels stop on the same symbol, and that symbol is just…

  5. Manipulations of the features of standard video lottery terminal (VLT) games: effects in pathological and non-pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Loba, P; Stewart, S H; Klein, R M; Blackburn, J R

    2001-01-01

    The present study was conducted to identify game parameters that would reduce the risk of abuse of video lottery terminals (VLTs) by pathological gamblers, while exerting minimal effects on the behavior of non-pathological gamblers. Three manipulations of standard VLT game features were explored. Participants were exposed to: a counter which displayed a running total of money spent; a VLT spinning reels game where participants could no longer "stop" the reels by touching the screen; and sensory feature manipulations. In control conditions, participants were exposed to standard settings for either a spinning reels or a video poker game. Dependent variables were self-ratings of reactions to each set of parameters. A set of 2(3) x 2 x 2 (game manipulation [experimental condition(s) vs. control condition] x game [spinning reels vs. video poker] x gambler status [pathological vs. non-pathological]) repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted on all dependent variables. The findings suggest that the sensory manipulations (i.e., fast speed/sound or slow speed/no sound manipulations) produced the most robust reaction differences. Before advocating harm reduction policies such as lowering sensory features of VLT games to reduce potential harm to pathological gamblers, it is important to replicate findings in a more naturalistic setting, such as a real bar. PMID:11842526

  6. Amplified Striatal Responses to Near-Miss Outcomes in Pathological Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Sescousse, Guillaume; Janssen, Lieneke K; Hashemi, Mahur M; Timmer, Monique H M; Geurts, Dirk E M; Ter Huurne, Niels P; Clark, Luke; Cools, Roshan

    2016-09-01

    Near-misses in gambling games are losing events that come close to a win. Near-misses were previously shown to recruit reward-related brain regions including the ventral striatum, and to invigorate gambling behavior, supposedly by fostering an illusion of control. Given that pathological gamblers are particularly vulnerable to such cognitive illusions, their persistent gambling behavior might result from an amplified striatal sensitivity to near-misses. In addition, animal studies have shown that behavioral responses to near-miss-like events are sensitive to dopamine, but this dopaminergic influence has not been tested in humans. To investigate these hypotheses, we recruited 22 pathological gamblers and 22 healthy controls who played a slot machine task delivering wins, near-misses and full-misses, inside an fMRI scanner. Each participant played the task twice, once under placebo and once under a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist (sulpiride 400 mg), in a double-blind, counter-balanced design. Participants were asked about their motivation to continue gambling throughout the task. Across all participants, near-misses elicited higher motivation to continue gambling and increased striatal responses compared with full-misses. Crucially, pathological gamblers showed amplified striatal responses to near-misses compared with controls. These group differences were not observed following win outcomes. In contrast to our hypothesis, sulpiride did not induce any reliable modulation of brain responses to near-misses. Together, our results demonstrate that pathological gamblers have amplified brain responses to near-misses, which likely contribute to their persistent gambling behavior. However, there is no evidence that these responses are influenced by dopamine. These results have implications for treatment and gambling regulation. PMID:27006113

  7. Type of gambling as an independent risk factor for suicidal events in pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian; Bischof, Gallus; John, Ulrich; Wurst, Friedrich Martin; Thon, Natasha; Lucht, Michael; Grabe, Hans-Joergen; Rumpf, Hans-Juergen

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with pathological gambling have an increased risk for suicidal events. Additionally, the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders is high among pathological gamblers. This study analyzes whether the type of gambling is associated with suicidal events in pathological gamblers independently from comorbidity. Participants were recruited in 4 different ways: via random telephone sample from the general population, via individual invitation for study participation in gambling locations, through various media and the distribution of a leaflet in various settings, and via inpatient treatment facilities for pathological gambling. The final sample included 442 participants with a lifetime diagnosis of pathological gambling. A standardized clinical interview was conducted. High financial losses were associated with suicidal events (odds ratio [OR] = 1.94, 95% 95% confidence interval [CI], [1.11, 3.37]), as were mood disorders (OR = 7.70, 95% CI, [4.44, 13.37]) and female gender (OR = 2.52, 95% CI, [1.20, 5.28]). Gambling on electronic gambling machines in gambling halls or bars was associated with increased odds of suicidal events (OR = 2.94, 95% CI, [1.38, 6.24]). Other types of gambling, such as casino games or betting on sports, or the number of DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling were not associated independently with suicidal events. Our findings suggest that gambling on electronic gambling machines in gambling halls or bars is associated with suicidal events in pathological gamblers independently of comorbidity. This result shows that the type of gambling needs to be considered as a relevant factor in gambling research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26795395

  8. Elevated Functional Connectivity in a Striatal-Amygdala Circuit in Pathological Gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Büchel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Both substance-based addiction and behavioural impulse control disorders (ICDs) have been associated with dysfunctions of the ventral striatum. Recent studies using functional connectivity techniques have revealed increased coupling of the ventral striatum with other limbic regions such as amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in patients with substance abuse disorders and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In the present study, we re-analyzed previously published functional magnetic resonance imaging data acquired in pathological gamblers and controls during value-based decision-making to investigate whether PG is associated with similar functional connectivity effects. In line with previous studies in other ICDs, we observed reliable increases in functional coupling between striatum and bilateral amygdala in gamblers vs. controls. Implications of these findings for neural models of self-control and addiction are discussed. PMID:24023940

  9. Pathological gambling in Estonia: relationships with personality, self-esteem, emotional States and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Kaare, Pille-Riin; Mõttus, René; Konstabel, Kenn

    2009-09-01

    Due to changes in gambling accessibility during the last decade gambling has become more widespread in Estonia and the prevalence of pathological gambling has sharply increased. The present study attempts to identify psychological characteristics of Estonian pathological gamblers. It has been shown that a wide range of social, economic, and individual factors (e.g. personality traits and emotional states) predict the likelihood of becoming a pathological gambler. In the present study, pathological gamblers' (N = 33) personality traits, self-esteem, self-reported emotional states and cognitive ability were compared to the respective characteristics in a non-gambling control group (N = 42) matched for age, gender and educational level. It was found that compared to controls, pathological gamblers had higher scores on Neuroticism (especially on its immoderation facet) and lower scores on Conscientiousness (especially on its dutifulness and cautiousness facets) and on self-esteem scale. They reported more negative emotional states during the previous month (especially depression and anxiety). Finally, pathological gamblers had lower general cognitive ability. In a logistic regression model, the likelihood of being a pathological gambler was best predicted by high immoderation score and low cognitive ability. PMID:19234772

  10. Predictors of treatment outcome among Asian pathological gamblers (PGs): clinical, behavioural, demographic, and treatment process factors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Song; Manning, Victoria; Thane, Kyaw Kyaw Wai; Ng, Andrew; Abdin, Edimansyah; Wong, Kim Eng

    2014-03-01

    Research on predictors of treatment outcome among pathological gamblers (PGs) is inconclusive and dominated by studies from Western countries. Using a prospective longitudinal design, the current study examined demographic, clinical, behavioural and treatment programme predictors of gambling frequency at 3, 6 and 12-months, among PGs treated at an addiction clinic in Singapore. Measures included the Hospital anxiety and depression scale, gambling symptom assessment scale (GSAS), personal well-being index (PWI), treatment perception questionnaire and gambling readiness to change scale. Treatment response in relation to changes in symptom severity, personal wellbeing and abstinence were also assessed. Abstinence rates were 38.6, 46.0 and 44.4 % at 3, 6 and 12-months respectively. Significant reductions in gambling frequency, GSAS, and improvement in PWI were reported between baseline and subsequent outcome assessments, with the greatest change occurring in the initial three months. No demographic, clinical, behavioural or treatment programme variable consistently predicted outcome at all three assessments, though treatment satisfaction was the most frequent significant predictor. However, being unemployed, having larger than average debts, poor treatment satisfaction and attending fewer sessions at the later stages of treatment were associated with significantly poorer outcomes, up to 1-year after initiating treatment. These findings show promise for the effectiveness of a CBT-based treatment approach for the treatment of predominantly Chinese PGs. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Taken together, the findings suggest early treatment satisfaction is paramount in improving short-term outcomes, with baseline gambling behaviour and treatment intensity playing a more significant role in the longer term. PMID:22945784

  11. Impulsivity as a Moderator and Mediator between Life Stress and Pathological Gambling among Chinese Treatment-Seeking Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-kum; Wu, Anise M. S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of impulsivity and its interplay with gambling correlates in influencing the severity of pathological gambling in Chinese societies. It also investigated the extent to which impulsivity would moderate and/or mediate the relationship between life stress and pathological gambling in 94 Chinese treatment-seeking gamblers.…

  12. An 8-week stress management program in pathological gamblers: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Linardatou, C; Parios, A; Varvogli, L; Chrousos, G; Darviri, C

    2014-09-01

    Stress plays a major role at the onset and relapse of pathological gambling (PG), but at the same time it can also be the aftermath of gambling behavior, thus revealing a reciprocal relationship. Although the role of stress has been well-documented, there is a paucity of studies investigating the effect of an adjunctive stress management program on PG. In this 8-week parallel randomized waitlist controlled trial pathological gamblers, already in the gamblers anonymous (GA) group, were assigned randomly in two groups, with the intervention group (n = 22) receiving an additional stress management program (consisting of education on diet and exercise, stress coping methods, relaxation breathing -RB- and progressive muscle relaxation -PMR). Self-reported measures were used in order to evaluate stress, depression, anxiety, sleep quality/disturbances, life-satisfaction and daily routine. The statistical analyses for the between group differences concerning the main psychosocial study outcomes revealed a statistically significant amelioration of stress, depression, anxiety symptoms and an increase of life-satisfaction and a better daily routine in participants of the intervention group. We hope that these will encourage researchers and clinicians to adopt stress management in their future work. PMID:24912736

  13. The Structure of Pathological Gambling among Korean Gamblers: A Cluster and Factor Analysis of Clinical and Demographic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tae Kyung; LaBrie, Richard A.; Grant, Jon E.; Kim, Suck Won; Shaffer, Howard J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the underlying structure of the demographic and clinical characteristics of level 3 (i.e., pathological) Korean casino gamblers. The participants reported their gambling behavior and clinical characteristics known to be associated with gambling problems (e.g., alcohol use problems, eating disorders, depression, anxiety, and…

  14. Ability to use the wait-and-see strategy in pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Kertzman, Semion; Vainder, Michael; Visne, Tali; Aizer, Anat; Kotler, Moshe; Dannon, Pinhas N

    2015-12-15

    Pathological gamblers (PGs) perform differently on neurocognitive tests than do healthy controls (HC). The aim of this study was to assess "waiting ability" - a major components of inhibition control-using a modified Stop Signal Task (SST) in a population of male PGs (N=55), and HCs (N=53). Results indicated no differences between PGs and HCs in reaction times, intra-individual response variability, or number of false alarms and misses. In conclusion, PGs were not impaired in their ability to manipulate their on-line response strategy during the experimental task and were instead able to change their strategy to decrease the number of false alarms. However, much more empirical and theoretical work needs to be carried out in order to understand the key neural basis of impulsivity among PGs. PMID:26500070

  15. Randomized trial of brief motivational treatments for pathological gamblers: More is not necessarily better.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, David C; Currie, Shawn R; Currie, Gillian; Fick, Gordon H

    2009-10-01

    The efficacy of brief treatments for media-recruited pathological gamblers was tested in a randomized clinical trial design (N = 314). Two self-directed motivational interventions were compared with a 6-week waiting list control and a workbook only control. Brief motivational treatment involved a telephone motivational interview and a mailed self-help workbook. Brief motivational booster treatment involved a telephone motivational interview, a workbook, and 6 booster telephone calls over a 9-month period. Primary outcomes were gambling frequency and dollar losses. As hypothesized, brief and brief booster treatment participants reported less gambling at 6 weeks than those assigned to the control groups. Brief and brief booster treatment participants gambled significantly less often over the first 6 months of the follow-up than workbook only participants. However, the workbook only participants were as likely to have significantly reduced their losses over the year and to have not met criteria for pathological gambling. Contrary to the hypothesis, participants in the brief booster treatment group showed no greater improvement than brief treatment participants. These results provide further support for the value of brief motivational treatments for pathological gambling. PMID:19803574

  16. A Personality-Based Latent Class Analysis of Emerging Adult Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Rinker, Dipali V; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-12-01

    Increases in access to gambling venues have been accompanied by increased gambling behavior among young adults. The present research examined associations among Five Factor Model personality traits, motives for gambling, and gambling behavior and problems using latent class analysis. College students (N = 220) completed online measures of personality and gambling behavior as part of a larger intervention trial. Agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with indicators of gambling behavior. Low agreeableness and high neuroticism were associated with gambling-specific motives, particularly for less frequently endorsed motives. Personality-based latent class analyses of emerging adult gamblers revealed support for three distinct groups reflecting a resilient personality group, a normative personality group, and a vulnerable personality group, which were further differentiated by gambling behaviors and gambling-specific motives. Associations between personality traits and gambling-specific motives highlight potential heterogeneity among college students who gamble. Together, findings suggest that the correlational and latent class-based analyses, as well as the personality and motivation analyses, present complementary information with respect to the attributes of college student gamblers. Implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:25228408

  17. A Gamblers Clustering Based on Their Favorite Gambling Activity.

    PubMed

    Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Renard, Noëlle; Legauffre, Cindy; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Gorsane, Mohamed-Ali; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify profiles of gamblers to explain the choice of preferred gambling activity among both problem and non-problem gamblers. 628 non-problem and problem gamblers were assessed with a structured interview including "healthy" (sociodemographic characteristics, gambling habits and personality profile assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory-125) and "pathological" [diagnosis of pathological gambling, gambling-related cognitions (GRCs) and psychiatric comorbidity] variables. We performed a two-step cluster analysis based solely on "healthy" variables to identify gamblers' profiles which typically reflect the choice of preferred gambling activity. The obtained classes were then described using both "healthy" and "pathological" variables, by comparing each class to the rest of the sample. Clusters were generated. Class 1 (Electronic Gaming Machines gamblers) showed high cooperativeness, a lower level of GRC about strategy and more depressive disorders. Class 2 (games with deferred results gamblers) were high novelty seekers and showed a higher level of GRC about strategy and more addictive disorders. Class 3 (roulette gamblers) were more often high rollers and showed a higher level of GRC about strategy and more manic or hypomanic episodes and more obsessive-compulsive disorders. Class 4 (instant lottery gamblers) showed a lower tendency to suicide attempts. Class 5 (scratch cards gamblers) were high harm avoiders and showed a lower overall level of GRC and more panic attacks and eating disorders. The preference for one particular gambling activity may concern different profiles of gamblers. This study highlights the importance of considering the pair gambler-game rather than one or the other separately, and may provide support for future research on gambling and preventive actions directed toward a particular game. PMID:25192752

  18. The use of personalized behavioral feedback for online gamblers: an empirical study

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Michael M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, online gambling has become a more common leisure time activity. However, for a small minority, the activity can become problematic. Consequently, the gambling industry has started to acknowledge their role in player protection and harm minimization and some gambling companies have introduced responsible gambling tools as a way of helping players stay in control. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of mentor (a responsible gambling tool that provides personalized feedback to players) among 1,015 online gamblers at a European online gambling site, and compared their behavior with matched controls (n = 15,216) on the basis of age, gender, playing duration, and theoretical loss (i.e., the amount of money wagered multiplied by the payout percentage of a specific game played). The results showed that online gamblers receiving personalized feedback spent significantly less time and money gambling compared to controls that did not receive personalized feedback. The results suggest that responsible gambling tools providing personalized feedback may help the clientele of gambling companies gamble more responsibly, and may be of help those who gamble excessively to stay within their personal time and money spending limits. PMID:26441779

  19. The use of personalized behavioral feedback for online gamblers: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Auer, Michael M; Griffiths, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, online gambling has become a more common leisure time activity. However, for a small minority, the activity can become problematic. Consequently, the gambling industry has started to acknowledge their role in player protection and harm minimization and some gambling companies have introduced responsible gambling tools as a way of helping players stay in control. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of mentor (a responsible gambling tool that provides personalized feedback to players) among 1,015 online gamblers at a European online gambling site, and compared their behavior with matched controls (n = 15,216) on the basis of age, gender, playing duration, and theoretical loss (i.e., the amount of money wagered multiplied by the payout percentage of a specific game played). The results showed that online gamblers receiving personalized feedback spent significantly less time and money gambling compared to controls that did not receive personalized feedback. The results suggest that responsible gambling tools providing personalized feedback may help the clientele of gambling companies gamble more responsibly, and may be of help those who gamble excessively to stay within their personal time and money spending limits. PMID:26441779

  20. Pathological Gamblers Respond Equally Well to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Regardless of Other Mental Health Treatment Status

    PubMed Central

    Champine, Robey B.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Data consistently demonstrate comorbidity between pathological gambling and psychiatric disorders. This study compares severity of gambling and psychosocial problems and gambling treatment outcomes in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers (N = 231) based on their self-reported mental health treatment utilization. As expected, participants currently receiving mental health treatment demonstrated the most psychiatric problems, and those with no mental health treatment the least. Although preferred gambling activity differed according to mental health treatment status, severity of gambling problems and gambling treatment outcomes did not. Individual cognitive-behavioral therapy was efficacious in reducing gambling problems irrespective of mental health treatment utilization. PMID:20958852

  1. Blunted Endogenous Opioid Release Following an Oral Amphetamine Challenge in Pathological Gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Mick, Inge; Myers, Jim; Ramos, Anna C; Stokes, Paul R A; Erritzoe, David; Colasanti, Alessandro; Gunn, Roger N; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Searle, Graham E; Waldman, Adam D; Parkin, Mark C; Brailsford, Alan D; Galduróz, José C F; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Clark, Luke; Nutt, David J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R

    2016-01-01

    Pathological gambling is a psychiatric disorder and the first recognized behavioral addiction, with similarities to substance use disorders but without the confounding effects of drug-related brain changes. Pathophysiology within the opioid receptor system is increasingly recognized in substance dependence, with higher mu-opioid receptor (MOR) availability reported in alcohol, cocaine and opiate addiction. Impulsivity, a risk factor across the addictions, has also been found to be associated with higher MOR availability. The aim of this study was to characterize baseline MOR availability and endogenous opioid release in pathological gamblers (PG) using [11C]carfentanil PET with an oral amphetamine challenge. Fourteen PG and 15 healthy volunteers (HV) underwent two [11C]carfentanil PET scans, before and after an oral administration of 0.5 mg/kg of d-amphetamine. The change in [11C]carfentanil binding between baseline and post-amphetamine scans (ΔBPND) was assessed in 10 regions of interest (ROI). MOR availability did not differ between PG and HV groups. As seen previously, oral amphetamine challenge led to significant reductions in [11C]carfentanil BPND in 8/10 ROI in HV. PG demonstrated significant blunting of opioid release compared with HV. PG also showed blunted amphetamine-induced euphoria and alertness compared with HV. Exploratory analysis revealed that impulsivity positively correlated with caudate baseline BPND in PG only. This study provides the first evidence of blunted endogenous opioid release in PG. Our findings are consistent with growing evidence that dysregulation of endogenous opioids may have an important role in the pathophysiology of addictions. PMID:26552847

  2. Blunted Endogenous Opioid Release Following an Oral Amphetamine Challenge in Pathological Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Mick, Inge; Myers, Jim; Ramos, Anna C; Stokes, Paul R A; Erritzoe, David; Colasanti, Alessandro; Gunn, Roger N; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Searle, Graham E; Waldman, Adam D; Parkin, Mark C; Brailsford, Alan D; Galduróz, José C F; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Clark, Luke; Nutt, David J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R

    2016-06-01

    Pathological gambling is a psychiatric disorder and the first recognized behavioral addiction, with similarities to substance use disorders but without the confounding effects of drug-related brain changes. Pathophysiology within the opioid receptor system is increasingly recognized in substance dependence, with higher mu-opioid receptor (MOR) availability reported in alcohol, cocaine and opiate addiction. Impulsivity, a risk factor across the addictions, has also been found to be associated with higher MOR availability. The aim of this study was to characterize baseline MOR availability and endogenous opioid release in pathological gamblers (PG) using [(11)C]carfentanil PET with an oral amphetamine challenge. Fourteen PG and 15 healthy volunteers (HV) underwent two [(11)C]carfentanil PET scans, before and after an oral administration of 0.5 mg/kg of d-amphetamine. The change in [(11)C]carfentanil binding between baseline and post-amphetamine scans (ΔBPND) was assessed in 10 regions of interest (ROI). MOR availability did not differ between PG and HV groups. As seen previously, oral amphetamine challenge led to significant reductions in [(11)C]carfentanil BPND in 8/10 ROI in HV. PG demonstrated significant blunting of opioid release compared with HV. PG also showed blunted amphetamine-induced euphoria and alertness compared with HV. Exploratory analysis revealed that impulsivity positively correlated with caudate baseline BPND in PG only. This study provides the first evidence of blunted endogenous opioid release in PG. Our findings are consistent with growing evidence that dysregulation of endogenous opioids may have an important role in the pathophysiology of addictions. PMID:26552847

  3. Intertemporal choice behavior is constrained by brain structure in healthy participants and pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Bahram; Hammer, Anke; Miedl, Stephan F; Wiswede, Daniel; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Herrmann, Manfred; Münte, Thomas F

    2016-07-01

    The steepness of the delay discounting function shows considerable interindividual differences. Moreover, faster devaluation of future rewards has been consistently observed in pathological gamblers (PGs). Here, we asked whether variability in delay discounting is at least partially driven by differences in the anatomy of gray and white matter. For 40 healthy young subjects (study 1) as well as 15 PG and 15 age-matched healthy controls (HCs, study 2), the individual discounting parameter k was obtained. Based on 3D T1-weighted high-resolution magnetic resonance scans and diffusion tensor imaging, we performed voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics, respectively, to examine the relation of gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter properties (as indicated by fractional anisotropy, FA) to k. Healthy groups from both studies showed a negative correlation between k and FA for the superior longitudinal fascicle and inferior longitudinal fascicle, whereas a positive correlation was found in the PG group for the inferior longitudinal fascicle and left inferior fronto-occipital fascicle. The latter also was significantly different between HC and PG in the group statistics (albeit on the right side), thus suggesting that this is a significant structure for the development of pathological gambling. GMV of the right frontal orbital cortex, left insular cortex and right lateral occipital cortex showed a positive correlation to k HC (studies 1 and 2) and PG, whereas a negative correlation was found for the left frontal pole in all three groups. Group comparison of GMV (study 2) revealed a decrease in PG for several cortical and subcortical areas. PMID:26239549

  4. Aberrant neural signatures of decision-making: Pathological gamblers display cortico-striatal hypersensitivity to extreme gambles.

    PubMed

    Gelskov, Sofie V; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Ramsøy, Thomas Z; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2016-03-01

    Pathological gambling is an addictive disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to gamble despite severe consequences. One of the hallmarks of pathological gambling is maladaptive and highly risky decision-making, which has been linked to dysregulation of reward-related brain regions such as the ventral striatum. However, previous studies have produced contradictory results regarding the implication of this network, revealing either hypo- or hypersensitivity to monetary gains and losses. One possible explanation is that the gambling brain might be misrepresenting the benefits and costs when weighting the potential outcomes, and not the gains and losses per se. To address this issue, we investigated whether pathological gambling is associated with abnormal brain activity during decisions that weight the utility of possible gains against possible losses. Pathological gamblers and healthy human subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while they accepted or rejected mixed gain/loss gambles with fifty-fifty chances of winning or losing. Contrary to healthy individuals, gamblers showed a U-shaped response profile reflecting hypersensitivity to the most appetitive and most aversive bets in an executive cortico-striatal network including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus. This network is concerned with the evaluation of action-outcome contingencies, monitoring recent actions and anticipating their consequences. The dysregulation of this specific network, especially for extreme bets with large potentials consequences, offers a novel understanding of the neural basis of pathological gambling in terms of deficient associations between gambling actions and their financial impact. PMID:26780575

  5. Comfort for uncertainty in pathological gamblers: A fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Brevers, Damien; Bechara, Antoine; Hermoye, Laurent; Divano, Luisa; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study examined neural anticipation of monetary reward in pathological gamblers (PG) by varying the type of uncertainty associated with the reward. Ten PG and ten controls were scanned while deciding whether to accept (“bet” option, featuring high-uncertain monetary rewards) or reject (“safe” option, featuring low-certain rewards) a bet, within situations of decision-making under risk (probability of the “bet” reward is known) or ambiguity (probability of the “bet” reward is unknown). During decision under risk (as compared to ambiguity), controls exhibited activation in brain areas involved in reward processing (putamen), interoception (insula) and cognitive control (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; middle frontal gyrus). By contrast, PG exhibited no differential brain activation as a function of the type of uncertainty associated with the “bet” option. Moreover, prior choosing of the “safe” option (as compared to “bet” choices), controls exhibited activation in the posterior insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and middle frontal gyrus. By contrast, PG exhibited higher neural activation during the elaboration of “bet” choices, and in motivational-arousal areas (caudate; putamen; posterior insula). Between-groups contrasts revealed that, as compared to controls, PG showed (i) decreased neural activity in the globus pallidus for decision-making under risk, as opposed to decision under ambiguity, and (ii) increased neural activity within the putamen prior to bet choices, as opposed to safe choices. These findings suggest that (i) unlike control participants, a variation in the level of uncertainty associated with monetary rewards seems to have no significant impact on PGs' decision to gamble and (ii) PG exhibit stronger brain activation while anticipating high-uncertain monetary rewards, as compared with lower-certain rewards. PMID:25277841

  6. Comfort for uncertainty in pathological gamblers: a fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Brevers, Damien; Bechara, Antoine; Hermoye, Laurent; Divano, Luisa; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier

    2015-02-01

    This study examined neural anticipation of monetary reward in pathological gamblers (PG) by varying the type of uncertainty associated with the reward. Ten PG and ten controls were scanned while deciding whether to accept ("bet" option, featuring high-uncertain monetary rewards) or reject ("safe" option, featuring low-certain rewards) a bet, within situations of decision-making under risk (probability of the "bet" reward is known) or ambiguity (probability of the "bet" reward is unknown). During decision under risk (as compared to ambiguity), controls exhibited activation in brain areas involved in reward processing (putamen), interoception (insula) and cognitive control (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; middle frontal gyrus). By contrast, PG exhibited no differential brain activation as a function of the type of uncertainty associated with the "bet" option. Moreover, prior choosing of the "safe" option (as compared to "bet" choices), controls exhibited activation in the posterior insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and middle frontal gyrus. By contrast, PG exhibited higher neural activation during the elaboration of "bet" choices, and in motivational-arousal areas (caudate; putamen; posterior insula). Between-groups contrasts revealed that, as compared to controls, PG showed (i) decreased neural activity in the globus pallidus for decision-making under risk, as opposed to decision under ambiguity, and (ii) increased neural activity within the putamen prior to bet choices, as opposed to safe choices. These findings suggest that (i) unlike control participants, a variation in the level of uncertainty associated with monetary rewards seems to have no significant impact on PGs' decision to gamble and (ii) PG exhibit stronger brain activation while anticipating high-uncertain monetary rewards, as compared with lower-certain rewards. PMID:25277841

  7. A Randomized Trial of Brief Interventions for Problem and Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Ledgerwood, David M.; Morasco, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Limited research exists regarding methods for reducing problem gambling. Problem gamblers (N = 180) were randomly assigned to assessment only control, 10 min of brief advice, 1 session of motivational enhancement therapy (MET), or 1 session of MET plus 3 sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Gambling was assessed at baseline, at 6 weeks, and…

  8. Pathological gambling and personality disorders: an exploratory study with the IPDE.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2004-10-01

    This article describes the most frequent personality disorders related to pathological gambling. Participants included 50 pathological gamblers assessed with the IPDE, and 50 normative subjects from the general population with the same demographic features (age, sex, and socioeconomic level). Thirty-two percent of the clinical sample (vs. the 8% of the normative sample) showed at least one personality disorder. The most prevalent disorders were Borderline (16%), followed by Antisocial, Paranoid, Narcissistic, and Non-specified (8% each). Gamblers with personality disorders presented an average of 1.5 disorders and they reported higher gambling severity and more severe symptoms of anxiety, depression and alcohol abuse. The implications of this study for clinical practice and research are discussed. PMID:15519959

  9. Behavioral assessment of impulsivity in pathological gamblers with and without substance use disorder histories versus healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Ledgerwood, David M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Phoenix, Natalie; Petry, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Pathological gamblers (PGs) may have high levels of impulsivity, and a correlation between substance use disorders (SUD) and impulsivity is well established. However, only a handful of studies have attempted to assess impulsivity and other impulse-spectrum traits (e.g., sensation seeking) using a variety of behavioral and self-report measures in PGs and few examined the independent impact of SUDs. We compared 30 PGs without SUD histories, 31 PGs with SUD histories and 40 control participants on self-reported impulsivity, delayed discounting, attention/memory, response inhibition, risk taking, sensation seeking and distress tolerance measures. PGs, regardless of SUD history, discounted delayed rewards at greater rates than controls. PGs also reported acting on the spur of the moment, experienced trouble planning and thinking carefully, and noted greater attention difficulties than controls. PGs with SUD took greater risks on a risk-taking task than did PGs without SUD histories, but the two groups did not differ on any other measures of impulsivity. We conclude that PGs are more impulsive than non-problem gamblers in fairly specific ways, but PGs with and without SUD histories differ on few measures. More research should focus on specific ways in which PGs exhibit impulsivity to better address impulsive behaviors in treatment. PMID:19615829

  10. Psychological Characteristics of Problem Gamblers With and Without Mood Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lister, Jamey J; Milosevic, Aleks; Ledgerwood, David M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Problem and pathological gamblers are significantly more likely to experience mood disorders, compared with the general population. Our study examined the relation of psychological characteristics (personality, trait impulsiveness, and gambling motives) to current co-occurring mood disorder (major depression and dysthymia) status among problem and pathological gamblers. Method: Problem and pathological gamblers (N = 150) underwent a clinical interview to assess current co-occurring mood disorders; participants completed measures of problem gambling severity, personality, impulsiveness, and gambling motives. Results: Problem and pathological gamblers with a current co-occurring mood disorder were more likely to be female, older, and to report higher lifetime and past-year gambling severity. A co-occurring mood disorder was associated with higher personality scores for alienation and stress reaction, lower scores for well-being, social closeness, and control, as well as higher impulsiveness scores for urgency and lack of premeditation, and lower sensation seeking scores. Participants with a co-occurring mood disorder also reported higher coping motives for gambling. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that personality factors (lower social closeness and higher alienation) contributed to the greatest likelihood of being diagnosed with a co-occurring mood disorder. Conclusions: Mood disorders frequently co-occur with problem and pathological gambling, and they are associated with greater gambling severity. These findings highlight that interpersonal facets of personality contribute substantially to co-occurring mood disorder status. Implications for treatment will be discussed. PMID:26454559

  11. Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yansong; Sescousse, Guillaume; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction characterized by a chronic failure to resist the urge to gamble. It shares many similarities with drug addiction. Glucocorticoid hormones including cortisol are thought to play a key role in the vulnerability to addictive behaviors, by acting on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Based on our previous report of an imbalanced sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives in the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers (PGs), we investigated whether this imbalance was mediated by individual differences in endogenous cortisol levels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined the relationship between cortisol levels and the neural responses to monetary versus non-monetary cues, while PGs and healthy controls were engaged in an incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and erotic rewards. We found a positive correlation between cortisol levels and ventral striatal responses to monetary versus erotic cues in PGs, but not in healthy controls. This indicates that the ventral striatum is a key region where cortisol modulates incentive motivation for gambling versus non-gambling related stimuli in PGs. Our results extend the proposed role of glucocorticoid hormones in drug addiction to behavioral addiction, and help understand the impact of cortisol on reward incentive processing in PGs. PMID:24723862

  12. The Prevalence of Comorbid Personality Disorders in Treatment-Seeking Problem Gamblers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Nicki A; Cowlishaw, S; Jackson, A C; Merkouris, S S; Francis, K L; Christensen, D R

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review and meta-analyze the prevalence of comorbid personality disorders among treatment-seeking problem gamblers. Almost one half (47.9%) of problem gamblers displayed comorbid personality disorders. They were most likely to display Cluster B disorders (17.6%), with smaller proportions reporting Cluster C disorders (12.6%) and Cluster A disorders (6.1%). The most prevalent personality disorders were narcissistic (16.6%), antisocial (14.0%), avoidant (13.4%), obsessive-compulsive (13.4%), and borderline (13.1%) personality disorders. Sensitivity analyses suggested that these prevalence estimates were robust to the inclusion of clinical trials and self-selected samples. Although there was significant variability in reported rates, subgroup analyses revealed no significant differences in estimates of antisocial personality disorder according to problem gambling severity, measure of comorbidity employed, and study jurisdiction. The findings highlight the need for gambling treatment services to conduct routine screening and assessment of co-occurring personality disorders and to provide treatment approaches that adequately address these comorbid conditions. PMID:25248010

  13. Clinical profiles as a function of level and type of impulsivity in a sample group of at-risk and pathological gamblers seeking treatment.

    PubMed

    Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Wainstein, Laura; Feuillet, Fanny; Bouju, Gaëlle; Rocher, Bruno; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Sébille-Rivain, Véronique

    2012-06-01

    Level and type of impulsivity are essential variables to be taken into consideration during the initial evaluation of a pathological gambler. The aim of this study was to measure the score for 4 impulsivity-related traits (Urgency, (lack of) Premeditation, (lack of) Perseverance and Sensation seeking) in a sample group of at-risk and pathological gamblers, and to highlight any links with certain elements of clinical data. The UPPS Impulsive Behaviour Scale was administered to 84 problem gamblers seeking treatment. The severity of gambling disorders was evaluated using the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-IV. Psychiatric and addictive comorbidities were also explored. The results indicated that the score for the Urgency facet had a positive correlation with the severity of gambling disorders. It appeared that participants displayed different clinical profiles according to the level and type of impulsivity. Several of the UPPS scales were identified as risk factors for mood disorders, risk of suicide, alcohol use disorders, and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The results confirm both the complexity of the multi-dimensional concept of impulsivity and the reason why the UPPS is of interest for a more in-depth study of the subject. PMID:21698341

  14. Female Pathological Gamblers--A Critical Review of the Clinical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Dahl, Alv A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that more and more women gamble and develop gambling problems and pathological gambling (PG). Research has further indicated that female and male PGs differ in their clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to do a critical review of the literature concerning clinical characteristics of female pathological…

  15. Personality correlates of pathological gambling derived from Big Three and Big Five personality models

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joshua D.; MacKillop, James; Fortune, Erica E.; Maples, Jessica; Lance, Charles E.; Campbell, W. Keith; Goodie, Adam S.

    2013-01-01

    Personality traits have proven to be consistent and important factors in a variety of externalizing behaviors including addiction, aggression, and antisocial behavior. Given the comorbidity of these behaviors with pathological gambling (PG), it is important to test the degree to which PG shares these trait correlates. In a large community sample of regular gamblers (N=354; 111 with diagnoses of pathological gambling), the relations between measures of two major models of personality – Big Three and Big Five – were examined in relation to PG symptoms derived from a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Across measures, traits related to the experience of strong negative emotions were the most consistent correlates of PG, regardless of whether they were analyzed using bivariate or multivariate analyses. In several instances, however, the relations between personality and PG were moderated by demographic variable such as gender, race, and age. It will be important for future empirical work of this nature to pay closer attention to potentially important moderators of these relations. PMID:23078872

  16. Personality correlates of pathological gambling derived from Big Three and Big Five personality models.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Mackillop, James; Fortune, Erica E; Maples, Jessica; Lance, Charles E; Keith Campbell, W; Goodie, Adam S

    2013-03-30

    Personality traits have proved to be consistent and important factors in a variety of externalizing behaviors including addiction, aggression, and antisocial behavior. Given the comorbidity of these behaviors with pathological gambling (PG), it is important to test the degree to which PG shares these trait correlates. In a large community sample of regular gamblers (N=354; 111 with diagnoses of pathological gambling), the relations between measures of two major models of personality - Big Three and Big Five - were examined in relation to PG symptoms derived from a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Across measures, traits related to the experience of strong negative emotions were the most consistent correlates of PG, regardless of whether they were analyzed using bivariate or multivariate analyses. In several instances, however, the relations between personality and PG were moderated by demographic variable such as gender, race, and age. It will be important for future empirical work of this nature to pay closer attention to potentially important moderators of these relations. PMID:23078872

  17. Psychophysiological determinants and concomitants of deficient decision making in pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Goudriaan, Anna E; Oosterlaan, Jaap; de Beurs, Edwin; van den Brink, Wim

    2006-10-01

    Psychophysiological responses are considered to be a mediating factor in the development of pathological gambling (PG) and PG has been associated with differential arousal levels during gambling. Yet little is known about the specific psychophysiological responses to wins and losses in PG. This study investigated heart rate (HR) and skin conductance responses (SCRs) during the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in an adult PG group (n=46) and a normal control (NC) group (n=47). Anticipatory psychophysiological reactions to disadvantageous and advantageous choices during the IGT and psychophysiological responses to wins and losses were measured. The PG group performed worse than the NC group on the IGT and exhibited lower anticipatory SCRs and HR decreases when pondering choices of disadvantageous card decks during the IGT. The PG group showed a decrease in HR after losses and wins, whereas the NC group showed a decrease in HR after losses, but an increase in HR after wins. Reward and punishment sensitivity as measured by the self-report BIS/BAS scale influenced IGT performance and psychophysiological responses, but in general these effects were similar for the PG group and the NC group. Lower anticipatory psychophysiological responses to disadvantageous choices in PG suggest impaired risk assessment in this group. Absence of a HR increase after wins possibly implies that reward sensitivity is decreased in PG. Because levels of reward and punishment sensitivity were associated with differential anticipatory HR responses to advantageous and disadvantageous decks, it would be advisable to include this taxonomy in studies on psychophysiological responses to rewards and losses. PMID:16574343

  18. Sex differences in salivary cortisol in response to acute stressors among healthy participants, in recreational or pathological gamblers, and in those with posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Jason J.; Franco, Christine; Sodano, Ruthlyn; Freidenberg, Brian; Gordis, Elana; Anderson, Drew A.; Forsyth, John P.; Wulfert, Edelgard; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Sex differences in incidence and severity of some stress-related, neuropsychiatric disorders are often reported to favor men, suggesting that women may be more vulnerable to aberrant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stress. In this review, we discuss several investigations that we, and others, have conducted assessing salivary cortisol as a measure of HPA function. We have examined basal cortisol among healthy men and women and also following acute exposure to stressors. Among healthy participants, men had higher basal cortisol levels than did women. In response to acute stressors, such as carbon dioxide or noise, respectively, cortisol levels were comparable between men and women or higher among women. We have also examined cortisol levels among those with problem eating, gambling, or post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women with restrained eating habits have higher basal cortisol levels than do women without restrained eating habits. Pathological gamblers have more aberrant stress response to gambling stimuli than do recreational gamblers, and these effects are more prominent among men than women. Men who have motor-vehicle accident related PTSD, demonstrate more aberrant cortisol function, than do their female counterparts. Although these sex differences in cortisol seem to vary with type of stress exposure and/or pathophysiological status of the individual, other hormones may influence cortisol response. To address this, cortisol levels among boys and girls with different stress-related experiences, will be the subject of future investigation. PMID:19538960

  19. Towards a Validation of the Three Pathways Model of Pathological Gambling.

    PubMed

    Valleur, Marc; Codina, Irène; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Gorsane, Mohamed-Ali; Guilleux, Alice; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle

    2016-06-01

    With the aim of validating the three pathways hypothesis of pathological gambling (Blaszczynski and Nower in Addiction 97:487-499, 2002) 372 pathological gamblers meeting DSM IV (2000) criteria were assessed via a structured clinical interview as well as being subjected to personality tests and evaluation of their gambling practices. Our results show that it is possible to identify three subgroups corresponding to the three pathways: behaviourally conditioned problem gamblers, emotionally vulnerable problem gamblers and antisocial impulsivist problem gamblers. Our results particularly demonstrate that impulsivist gamblers preferentially choose semi-skilful gambling (horse racing and sports gambling) whereas emotionally vulnerable gamblers are significantly more attracted to games of chance (one-armed bandits, scratch cards, etc.) This led us to propose a functional presentation of the three pathways model which differs somewhat from the Blaszczynski and Nower presentation. PMID:25980378

  20. Personality Pathology and Interpersonal Problem Stability

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Scott, Lori N.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are often described as stable, which ignores the important dynamic processes and shifts that are observed clinically in individuals with PD. The current study examined patterns of variability in problematic interpersonal functioning, a core feature of personality pathology. Participants (N=150) were assessed for personality pathology at baseline and also completed the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems–Circumplex Scales at baseline and every three months over the course of a year. Baseline PD was used to predict individual means and variability parameters in generalized interpersonal distress, agentic problems, and communal problems across repeated assessments. Disorders associated with disinhibition predicted variability in generalized distress and agentic problems, whereas only antagonism related disorders predicted variability in communal problems. These associations reveal dynamic processes involved in multiple dimensions of personality pathology and suggest that future research on instability is needed that expands beyond the historical focus on borderline PD. PMID:25562539

  1. The interpersonal core of personality pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pincus, Aaron L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that personality pathology is, at its core, fundamentally interpersonal. We review the proposed DSM-5 Section 3 redefinition of personality pathology involving self and interpersonal dysfunction, which we regard as a substantial improvement over the DSM-IV (and DSM-5 Section 2) definition. We note similarities between the proposed scheme and contemporary interpersonal theory and interpret the DSM-5 Section 3 definition using the underlying assumptions and evidence base of the interpersonal paradigm in clinical psychology. We describe how grounding the proposed DSM-5 Section 3 definition in interpersonal theory, and in particular a focus on the “interpersonal situation”, adds to its theoretical texture, empirical support, and clinical utility. We provide a clinical example that demonstrates the ability of contemporary interpersonal theory to augment the DSM-5 definition of personality pathology. We conclude with directions for further research that could clarify the core of personality pathology, and how interpersonal theory can inform research aimed at enhancing the DSM-5 Section 3 proposal and ultimately justify its migration to DSM-5 Section 2. PMID:23735037

  2. Dopamine DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A and DAT1 VNTR polymorphisms are associated with a cognitive flexibility profile in pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Fagundo, Ana B; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; de la Torre, Rafael; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Gené, Manel; Barrot, Carme; Sánchez, Cristina; Alvarez-Moya, Eva; Ochoa, Cristian; Aymamí, Maria Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Menchón, Jose M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2014-12-01

    Like drug addiction, pathological gambling (PG) has been associated with impairments in executive functions and alterations in dopaminergic functioning; however, the role of dopamine (DA) in the executive profile of PG remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify whether the DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A-rs1800497 and the DAT1-40 bp VNTR polymorphisms are associated with cognitive flexibility (measured by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Trail Making Test (TMT)) and inhibition response (measured by Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT)), in a clinical sample of 69 PG patients. Our results showed an association between DA functioning and cognitive flexibility performance. The Taq1A A1+ (A1A2/A1A1) genotype was associated with poorer TMT performance (p<0.05), while DAT1 9-repeat homozygotes displayed better WCST performance (p<0.05) than either 10-repeat homozygotes or heterozygotes. We did not find any association between the DRD2 or DAT1 polymorphisms and the inhibition response. These results suggested that pathological gamblers with genetic predispositions toward lower availability of DA and D2 receptor density are at a higher risk of cognitive flexibility difficulties. Future studies should aim to shed more light on the genetic mechanisms underlying the executive profile in PG. PMID:25237117

  3. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    PubMed

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. PMID:27031593

  4. Differential Gambling Motivations and Recreational Activity Preferences Among Casino Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Bernhard, Bo Jason; Kim, Jungsun; Fong, Timothy; Lee, Tae Kyung

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated three different types of gamblers (recreational, problem, and pathological gamblers) to determine differences in gambling motivations and recreational activity preferences among casino gamblers. We collected data from 600 gamblers recruited in an actual gambling environment inside a major casino in South Korea. Findings indicate that motivational factors of escape, sightseeing, and winning were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. When looking at motivations to visit the casino, pathological gamblers were more likely to be motivated by winning, whereas recreational gamblers were more likely to be motivated by scenery and culture in the surrounding casino area. Meanwhile, the problem gamblers fell between these two groups, indicating higher preferences for non-gambling activities than the pathological gamblers. As this study builds upon a foundational previous study by Lee et al. (Psychiatry Investig 6(3):141-149, 2009), the results of this new study were compared with those of the previous study to see if new developments within a resort-style casino contribute to changes in motivations and recreational activity preferences. PMID:25398482

  5. Differences in Addiction Severity between Social and Probable Pathological Gamblers among Substance Abusers in Treatment in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Ana Carolina R.; Vargens, Renata W.; Kessler, Felix H.; Cruz, Marcelo S.

    2009-01-01

    There is a strong association between pathological gambling and substance abuse. The objective of this study is to identify the differences between substance abusers with and without gambling problems. A cross sectional study was conducted interviewing with Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), alcohol and drug…

  6. A Comparison of the Status, Legal, Economic, and Psychological Characteristics of Types of Adult Male Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, A; Dinur Klein, L; Dannon, P N

    2015-09-01

    Gambling behavior is not a unique behavior. There are certain differences in behavior, gambling habits, gambling beliefs, and their reflection in psychosocial life. We have compared three groups of adult male gamblers—sports gamblers (n = 41), machine gamblers (n = 36), and poker gamblers (n = 35)—in regard to measures of personal status and legal-social characteristics. We found no difference between groups in terms of the length of gambling behavior, personal status, or age. We found no legal difference between groups in terms of the number of court cases for debt, stealing, or family court cases. In terms of economic circumstances, sports gamblers suffered more losses than the other groups (p < 0.0001). There were higher rates of bankruptcy among sports gamblers compared with machine gamblers (p < 0.01). Sports gamblers were more likely to borrow money from the black market compared with the other groups (p < 0.01). In terms of mental health, sports and machine gamblers had more suicidal thoughts and gestures than poker gamblers (p < 0.05), whereas the rate of suicide attempts was higher in machine gamblers compared with poker players (p < 0.05). Our results indicated higher vulnerability in sports gamblers in terms of economic problems compared with the other groups, whereas machine gamblers had vulnerability to suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts compared with poker gamblers. PMID:24838781

  7. Masochism and pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Richard J

    2015-03-01

    That all pathological gamblers have an "unconscious wish to lose," an idea first expressed by Freud and Bergler, is neither true nor useful; wrong as well, however, are the reasons for neglecting masochism in relation to gambling. There is a small but clinically significant subgroup of pathological gamblers who are masochistic. I present clinical vignettes and a more extended treatment account to illustrate its importance. Masochism has been a confusing concept. As used here it refers to the deliberate seeking of pain, loss, suffering, or humiliation. There may be pleasure in pain, or an obligatory combining of pleasure and pain. A sense of power and control may be achieved through suffering. The case material illustrates clinically useful types (sexual masochism, masochistic personality disorder, moral masochism, relational masochism) as well as some common masochistic dynamics encountered in the treatment of pathological gamblers. These masochistic patterns are often identifiable during the initial evaluation. Distinguishing features may include a reversal of normal attitudes about winning and losing, the absence of an early winning phase, sometimes a memorable early loss. Gamblers may sabotage opportunities for success or create unnecessary obstacles for themselves. Losing may be more comfortable than winning or may be overtly sexualized. PMID:25734872

  8. Using neural networks to model the behavior and decisions of gamblers, in particular, cyber-gamblers.

    PubMed

    Chan, Victor K Y

    2010-03-01

    This article describes the use of neural networks (a type of artificial intelligence) and an empirical data sample of, inter alia, the amounts of bets laid and the winnings/losses made in successive games by a number of cyber-gamblers to longitudinally model gamblers' behavior and decisions as to such bet amounts and the temporal trajectory of winnings/losses. The data was collected by videoing Texas Holdem gamblers at a cyber-gambling website. Six "persistent" gamblers were identified, totaling 675 games. The neural networks on average were able to predict bet amounts and cumulative winnings/losses in successive games accurately to three decimal places of the dollar. A more important conclusion is that the influence of a gambler's skills, strategies, and personality on his/her successive bet amounts and cumulative winnings/losses is almost totally reflected by the pattern(s) of his/her winnings/losses in the few initial games and his/her gambling account balance. This partially invalidates gamblers' illusions and fallacies that they can outperform others or even bankers. For government policy-makers, gambling industry operators, economists, sociologists, psychiatrists, and psychologists, this article provides models for gamblers' behavior and decisions. It also explores and exemplifies the usefulness of neural networks and artificial intelligence at large in the research on gambling. PMID:19593655

  9. Roulette gamblers and gamblers at electronic game machines: Where are the differences?

    PubMed

    Kroeber, H L

    1992-03-01

    In an unselected group of 46 excessive gamblers who came for psychiatric help or for an expert opinion on legal responsibility, two different groups of gamblers are compared: roulette gamblers and those who played at German-style slot machines. In all excessive gamblers, childhood developmental limitations as well as disorders in the ability to form and maintain partner relationships in later life were frequent; at the same time the childhood conditions and their life histories are diverse. The spectrum of observed psychiatric disorders is rather wide. Gamblers at electronic game machines began to play at an average age of 19 years; they more often belong to the lower classes and show depressive and reactive disorders more frequently. Roulette gamblers began to gamble excessively on average nine years later than other gamblers; they showed signs of personality disorders, especially narcissistic and cyclothymic patterns, significantly more often. Anti-social behavior and delinquency before the onset of excessive gambling were frequent in both groups. PMID:24243283

  10. Pathological personality traits modulate neural interactions.

    PubMed

    James, Lisa M; Engdahl, Brian E; Leuthold, Arthur C; Krueger, Robert F; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2015-12-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), includes an empirically supported dimensional model of personality pathology that is assessed via the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5). Here we used magnetoencephalography (MEG; 248 sensors) to evaluate resting-state neural network properties associated with the five primary DSM-5 maladaptive personality domains (negative affect, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism) in 150 healthy veterans ("control" group) and 179 veterans with various psychiatric disorders ("psychopathology" group). Since a fundamental network property is the strength of functional connectivity among network elements, we used the absolute value of the pairwise correlation coefficient (aCC) between prewhitened MEG sensor time series as a measure of neural functional connectivity and assessed its relations to the quantitative PID-5 scores in a linear regression model, where the log-transformed aCC was the dependent variable and individual PID scores, age, and gender were the independent variables. The partial regression coefficient (pRC) for a specific PID-5 score in that model provided information concerning the direction (positive, negative) and size (absolute value) of the PID effect on the strength of neural correlations. We found that, overall, PID domains had a negative effect (i.e., negative pRC; decorrelation) on aCC in the control group, but a positive one (i.e., positive pRC; hyper-correlation) in the psychopathology group. This dissociation of PID effects on aCC was especially pronounced for disinhibition, psychoticism, and negative affect. These results document for the first time a fundamental difference in neural-PID relations between control and psychopathology groups. PMID:26319544

  11. SLEEP AND GAMBLING SEVERITY IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE OF GAMBLERS

    PubMed Central

    Parhami, Iman; Siani, Aaron; Rosenthal, Richard J.; Lin, Stephanie; Collard, Michael; Fong, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    Although sleep has been extensively studied in substance related disorders, it has yet to be examined as thoroughly in gambling-related disorders. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between gambling severity and sleep disturbances in a sample of non-treatment seeking gamblers (N = 96) using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Mean ESS scores for recreational, problem, and pathological gamblers were 4.13, 5.81, and 8.69, respectively, with a significant difference between pathological gamblers and both problem (P = .007) and recreational gamblers (P < .001). Mean PSQI scores for recreational, problem, and pathological gamblers were 3.35, 5.30, and 5.44, respectively, with a significant difference in sleep quality between recreational and problem gamblers (P = .018), as well as recreational and pathological gamblers (P = .008). As the first study to use objective sleep measures, these findings will not only increase awareness of this relationship, but also provide a foundation on which others can investigate the benefits of screening and adjunct treatment for sleep disorders in the gambling population. PMID:22356670

  12. A Comparative Study of Involvement and Motivation among Casino Gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Lee, BongKoo; Bernhard, Bo Jason

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to investigate three different types of gamblers (which we label "non-problem", "some problem", and "probable pathological gamblers") to determine differences in involvement and motivation, as well as differences in demographic and behavioral variables. Methods The analysis takes advantage of a unique opportunity to sample on-site at a major casino in South Korea, and the resulting purposive sample yielded 180 completed questionnaires in each of the three groups, for a total number of 540. Factor analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan tests, and Chi-square tests are employed to analyze the data collected from the survey. Results Findings from ANOVA tests indicate that involvement factors of importance/self-expression, pleasure/interest, and centrality derived from the factor analysis were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. The "probable pathological" and "some problem" gamblers were found to have similar degrees of involvement, and higher degrees of involvement than the non-problem gamblers. The tests also reveal that motivational factors of escape, socialization, winning, and exploring scenery were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. When looking at motivations to visit the casino, "probable pathological" gamblers were more likely to seek winning, the "some problem" group appeared to be more likely to seek escape, and the "non-problem" gamblers indicate that their motivations to visit centered around explorations of scenery and culture in the surrounding casino area. Conclusion The tools for exploring motivations and involvements of gambling provide valuable and discerning information about the entire spectrum of gamblers. PMID:20046388

  13. Mental Health and Online, Land-Based and Mixed Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Blaszczynski, A; Russell, A; Gainsbury, S; Hing, N

    2016-03-01

    Although high rates of problem gambling have been identified among Internet gamblers, most studies have failed to identify the relative contribution of multiple forms of gambling as opposed to the exclusive participation in online forms. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in mental health status in exclusive online, exclusive land-based, and mixed Internet and land-based samples of gamblers drawn from the general population. A sample of 4594 respondents completing an online survey were categorised as exclusive online, land-based and mixed form gamblers. Participants completed a questionnaire eliciting demographic details, participation on all forms of gambling, use of alcohol, tobacco and drugs, help-seeking, and personal problems experienced due to gambling, as well as measures of problem gambling and psychological distress. Findings indicated that mixed gamblers exhibited higher problem gambling scores, level of gambling involvement, and consumption of alcohol during gambling than exclusive online gamblers. Land-based gamblers experienced higher levels of psychological distress, self-acknowledged need for treatment, and help-seeking behaviour. These findings suggest that exclusive online gamblers represent a different subpopulation at lower risk of harm compared to gamblers engaging in multiple forms. Understanding the characteristics of different problem gambling subpopulations may inform the development of more effective targeted interventions. PMID:25744658

  14. Clustering Finnish Gambler Profiles Based on the Money and Time Consumed in Gambling Activities.

    PubMed

    Heiskanen, Maria; Toikka, Arho

    2016-06-01

    Gambling involves consumption of gamblers' money and time. Gamblers are a heterogeneous group, and in addition to grouping gamblers based on personality factors, it is also important to find different gambler profiles with respect to their gambling behavior. Using the nationally representative survey 'Finnish Gambling 2011' (N = 4484), this article studies the subtypes of Finnish gamblers based on the frequency of gambling and the amounts of money and time used in different gambling forms. Cluster analysis reveals six profiles of gamblers, from infrequent gamblers to omnivorous gamblers. In the further analysis of the clusters, it was found that the highest problem gambling prevalence was in the groups of sport betting + electronic gaming machine gamblers and omnivorous gamblers, which were also both dominated by men. Certain gambling consumption patterns and risk factors for problem gambling are related to both socio-demographic backgrounds of the gamblers as well as the structural and situational characteristics of the games. The results have implications for the prevention of problem gambling, as some consumption patterns may be connected with the probability of developing gambling problems. PMID:26026988

  15. [Slot machine and roulette gamblers. Psychiatric and criminologic differences].

    PubMed

    Kröber, H L

    1991-11-01

    In an unselected group of 48 excessive gamblers who came for psychiatric help or for an expert opinion on legal responsibility, childhood developmental limitations were frequent, as well as disorders in the ability to form and maintain partner relationships in later life. However, the childhood conditions and biographies of this group were diverse, and the spectrum of their observed mental and personality disorders rather wide. Differences in age, social class and psychiatric spectrum were found between gamblers at electronic game machines (german style slot-machines) and roulette gamblers. Delinquent behaviour was relatively frequent and had usually started before the onset of excessive gambling. PMID:1770966

  16. Gambling onset and progression in a sample of at-risk gamblers from the general population.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Elizabeth; Tavares, Hermano; Sanches, Marcos; Pinsky, Ilana; Caetano, Raul; Zaleski, Marcos; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2014-05-30

    The goal of this study was to investigate gambling-related behavior, onset and progression in a sample of at-risk gamblers from the community. A national household survey was conducted in Brazil, covering individuals 14 years old or older. Subjects were screened for at-risk gambling, those testing positive answered a questionnaire about gambling progression, preferred games and DSM-IV pathological gambling criteria. Out of 3007 respondents, 118 were considered at-risk gamblers according to the Lie/Bet Questionnaire. According to the DSM-IV, 32.7% and 24.9% of those were considered problem and pathological gamblers, respectively. Early at-risk gamblers (onset prior to 20 years of age), were more likely to be male, to prefer non-commercially structured games, and to chase losses while gambling. Young pathological gamblers (under 35 years of age) progressed faster from regular to problem gambling (roughly 2 years) than mature pathological gamblers (12 years). Such findings had not been described before because previous reports focused mostly on clinical samples that lack young, male, early-onset gamblers. Gambling programs have not satisfactorily covered this segment of gamblers. Outreach strategies and early interventions should be provided to prevent these individuals from rapidly evolving into pathological gambling. PMID:24656520

  17. Personalized medicine for pathological circadian dysfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Skelton, Rachel L.; Kornhauser, Jon M.; Tate, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    The recent approval of a therapeutic for a circadian disorder has increased interest in developing additional medicines for disorders characterized by circadian disruption. However, previous experience demonstrates that drug development for central nervous system (CNS) disorders has a high failure rate. Personalized medicine, or the approach to identifying the right treatment for the right patient, has recently become the standard for drug development in the oncology field. In addition to utilizing Companion Diagnostics (CDx) that identify specific genetic biomarkers to prescribe certain targeted therapies, patient profiling is regularly used to enrich for a responsive patient population during clinical trials, resulting in fewer patients required for statistical significance and a higher rate of success for demonstrating efficacy and hence receiving approval for the drug. This personalized medicine approach may be one mechanism that could reduce the high clinical trial failure rate in the development of CNS drugs. This review will discuss current circadian trials, the history of personalized medicine in oncology, lessons learned from a recently approved circadian therapeutic, and how personalized medicine can be tailored for use in future clinical trials for circadian disorders to ultimately lead to the approval of more therapeutics for patients suffering from circadian abnormalities. PMID:26150790

  18. Pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

    2000-09-01

    With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG. PMID:10986732

  19. Adolescent pathological gambling in Kaunas, Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Skokauskas, Norbertas; Satkeviciute, Regina

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first survey of pathological gambling among adolescents in Kaunas, Lithuania. The results indicated that a large majority of adolescent (82.6%) have engaged in a variety of gambling activities. Although most respondents were classified as "occasional gamblers", there were significantly more females than males who were occasional gamblers and non-gamblers, and significantly more males than females who were regular gamblers. More adolescents surveyed had gambled on Tele-Lotto than on any other gambling activity. Based on Diagnostic statistical manual-IV-Multiple Response-Adapted for Juveniles, 4.2% of participants were categorized as pathological gamblers, with a further 9.1% classified as at-risk gamblers, 69.4% as social gamblers, and 17.3% as non-gamblers. Based on South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents, 5.2% (n = 43) of participants were categorized as pathological gamblers, with a further 10.5% (n = 88) classified as at-risk gamblers, 67% (n = 559) as social gamblers, and 17.3% (n = 145) as non-gamblers. The commonest reason given by adolescents for gambling were "enjoyment", "a chance to try luck" and "to win money"; however, the top reasons reported for pathological gambling were "to relax", "to distract myself from problems" and "to improve mood". Male gender, cognitive distortions regarding gambling, having parents who gamble and gamble too excess, using alcohol regularly, and smoking regularly were characteristics significantly associated with pathological gambling in adolescence. PMID:17454722

  20. Factorial Structure of Pathological Personality as Evaluated by Peers

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Cannon; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how individuals apply features of personality disorders (PDs) to peers. Members of groups nominated peers who exhibited symptoms for each of the 10 PDs in the DSM–IV. Data were gathered in 2 samples: 1st-year college students (n = 1,440) and Air Force recruits (n = 2,075). The peer method reliably identified group members exhibiting specific PD features. Factor analyses identified a clearly interpretable structure relevant to the pathological personality constructs being assessed. The structure replicated well across samples and showed expected relationships to broader models of normal personality. However, cross-method correlations of factor scores were only moderate, suggesting that peer reports are reliably different from self-reports regarding the presence of pathological personality traits. PMID:12653416

  1. A Metastructural Model of Mental Disorders and Pathological Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Simms, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychiatric comorbidity is extensive in both psychiatric settings and the general population. Such comorbidity challenges whether DSM-based mental disorders serve to effectively carve nature at its joints. In response, a substantial literature has emerged showing that a small number of broad dimensions—internalizing, externalizing, and psychoticism—can account for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders. However, the location of personality disorders within this emerging metastructure has only recently been studied, and no studies have yet examined where pathological personality traits fit within such a broad metastructural framework. Methods We conducted joint structural analyses of common mental disorders, personality disorders, and pathological personality traits in a sample of 628 current or recent psychiatric outpatients. Results Bridging across the psychopathology and personality trait literatures, the results provide evidence for a robust five-factor metastructure of psychopathology, including broad domains of symptoms and features related to internalizing, disinhibition, psychoticism, antagonism, and detachment. Conclusions These results reveal evidence for a psychopathology metastructure that (a) parsimoniously accounts for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders, personality disorders, and related personality traits, and (b) provides an empirical basis for the organization and classification of mental disorder. PMID:25903065

  2. [Pathological gambling and addiction to cannabis: common psychosocial profile?].

    PubMed

    Parolaa, Nathalie; Boyer, Laurent; Simon, Nicolas; Aghababian, Valérie; Lançon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Addiction can involve substances (heroin, cannabis, cocaine) or be characterised by behaviour (pathological gambling, addiction to sport, etc.). The question is to establish whether or not there is a specific personality profile (character, temperament) and emotional functioning (anxiety, depression, alexithymia) in subjects presenting addictive behaviour with and without substance use. To find some answers, a team from Sainte-Marguerite General Hospital in Marseille carried out a study comparing a group of cannabis addicts and a group of pathological gamblers. PMID:24741830

  3. Manipulating Slot Machine Preference in Problem Gamblers through Contextual Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastally, Becky L.; Dixon, Mark R.; Jackson, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Pathological and nonpathological gamblers completed a task that assessed preference among 2 concurrently available slot machines. Subsequent assessments of choice were conducted after various attempts to transfer contextual functions associated with irrelevant characteristics of the slot machines. Results indicated that the nonproblem gambling…

  4. What's in a Name? Assessing the Accuracy of Self-identifying as a Professional or Semi-Professional Gambler.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex; Blaszczynski, Alex; Gainsbury, Sally M

    2015-12-01

    Growing interest in pursuing a professional gambling career has been accompanied by a rise in individuals self-identifying as professional gamblers. Whether this trend reflects an actual increase in individuals sustaining livelihoods from gambling or inaccurate appropriation of a now glamorized identity is unclear. Adopting a self-image of professional gambler in the absence of ability to earn a sustainable income from the activity may increase risk of problem gambling and deter help-seeking. However, extent of problem gambling in this cohort is uncertain. This study aimed to: (1) determine any differences that might validate the self-reported identity of professional and semi-professional gamblers by investigating characteristics and behaviors that distinguish them from amateur gamblers; and (2) identify characteristics and behaviors that distinguish between self-identified semi-professional/professional gamblers with and without gambling problems. In an online survey of 4,594 Australian gamblers, 1.2% identified as professional gamblers, 6.8% as semi-professional gamblers, and 92.0% as amateur gamblers. Self-identified professional and semi-professional gamblers were distinguished from amateur gamblers by preference for skill-based gambling, higher reported likelihood of winning, and greater use of online gambling and multiple online operators. Two-fifths of professional and three-fifths of semi-professional gamblers scored as moderate risk or problem gamblers, but negative consequences were more likely personal, interpersonal and work/study related, rather than financial. Although results support the general accuracy of self-reported semi/professional gambling status, measures are needed to help semi/professional gamblers distinguish whether their gambling is a problem or profession. PMID:25344662

  5. Prevalence of Cerebral Amyloid Pathology in Persons Without Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Willemijn J.; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Knol, Dirk L.; Tijms, Betty M.; Scheltens, Philip; Verhey, Frans R. J.; Visser, Pieter Jelle

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Cerebral amyloid-β aggregation is an early pathological event in Alzheimer disease (AD), starting decades before dementia onset. Estimates of the prevalence of amyloid pathology in persons without dementia are needed to understand the development of AD and to design prevention studies. OBJECTIVE To use individual participant data meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of amyloid pathology as measured with biomarkers in participants with normal cognition, subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). DATA SOURCES Relevant biomarker studies identified by searching studies published before April 2015 using the MEDLINE and Web of Science databases and through personal communication with investigators. STUDY SELECTION Studies were included if they provided individual participant data for participants without dementia and used an a priori defined cutoff for amyloid positivity. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Individual records were provided for 2914 participants with normal cognition, 697 with SCI, and 3972 with MCI aged 18 to 100 years from 55 studies. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Prevalence of amyloid pathology on positron emission tomography or in cerebrospinal fluid according to AD risk factors (age, apolipoprotein E [APOE] genotype, sex, and education) estimated by generalized estimating equations. RESULTS The prevalence of amyloid pathology increased from age 50 to 90 years from 10% (95% CI, 8%-13%) to 44% (95% CI, 37%-51%) among participants with normal cognition; from 12% (95% CI, 8%-18%) to 43% (95% CI, 32%-55%) among patients with SCI; and from 27% (95% CI, 23%-32%) to 71% (95% CI, 66%-76%) among patients with MCI. APOE-ε4 carriers had 2 to 3 times higher prevalence estimates than noncarriers. The age at which 15% of the participants with normal cognition were amyloid positive was approximately 40 years for APOEε4ε4 carriers, 50 years for ε2ε4 carriers, 55 years for ε3ε4 carriers, 65 years for ε3ε3 carriers, and

  6. Personality Pathology of Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder Without Accompanying Intellectual Impairment in Comparison to Adults With Personality Disorders.

    PubMed

    Strunz, Sandra; Westphal, Linda; Ritter, Kathrin; Heuser, Isabella; Dziobek, Isabel; Roepke, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Differentiating autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) without accompanying intellectual impairment from personality disorders is often challenging. Identifying personality traits and personality pathology specific to ASD might facilitate diagnostic procedure. We recruited a sample of 59 adults with ASD without accompanying intellectual impairment, 62 individuals with narcissistic personality disorder, 80 individuals with borderline personality disorder, and 106 nonclinical controls. Personality traits, measured with the neo-personality inventory-revised (NEO-PI-R), and personality pathology, measured with the dimensional assessment of personality pathology (DAPP-BQ), were assessed. Personality traits and personality pathology specific to ASD could be identified. ASD individuals scored significantly lower on the NEO-PI-R scales extraversion and openness to experience and significantly higher on the DAPP-BQ scales inhibitedness and compulsivity relative to all other groups. Diagnostic implications are discussed. PMID:25022250

  7. Recreational gamblers with and without parental addiction

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Liana Renee Nelson; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon Edgar

    2012-01-01

    Research has found that children who have parents with an addiction may be more vulnerable to developing psychopathology compared to children without parental addiction. We compared young adult, recreational gamblers with and without parental addiction on measures of gambling behavior and impulsivity. A total of 286 recreational gamblers (defined as having gambled at least five times in the past 12 months) between the ages of 18 and 29 participated in an initial intake of a longitudinal study assessing susceptibility to pathological gambling. Trained staff interviewed subjects and subjects completed cognitive testing and self-report measures. Fifty-three subjects (18.53%) reported at least one parent with an addiction (including alcohol and substance dependence and pathological gambling). Subjects with at least one addicted parent were significantly more likely to report problems resulting from gambling, have significantly greater rates of psychiatric comorbidity, and report significantly more current marijuana and tobacco use. Subjects with an addicted parent were not significantly different on measures of impulsivity. These findings suggest that even at a stage of low-risk gambling, before what has been considered a psychopathology arises, those with a possible environmental and/or genetic risk of addiction exhibit a range of problematic behaviors. PMID:22401973

  8. The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect…

  9. Viewing relational aggression through multiple lenses: temperament, personality, and personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Kushner, Shauna C; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Smack, Avante J; Reardon, Kathleen W

    2014-08-01

    Dispositional trait frameworks offer great potential to elucidate the nature and development of psychopathology, including the construct of relational aggression. The present study sought to explore the dispositional context of relational aggression across three dispositional frameworks: temperament, personality, and personality pathology. Participants comprised a large community sample of youth, aged 6 to 18 years (N = 1,188; 51.2% female). Ratings of children's relational aggression, temperament, personality, and personality pathology traits were obtained through parent report (86.3% mothers). Results showed convergence and divergence across these three dispositional frameworks. Like other antisocial behavior subtypes, relational aggression generally showed connections with traits reflecting negative emotionality and poor self-regulation. Relational aggression showed stronger connections with temperament traits than with personality traits, suggesting that temperament frameworks may capture more relationally aggressive content. Findings at the lower order trait level help differentiate relational aggression from other externalizing problems by providing a more nuanced perspective (e.g., both sociability and shyness positively predicted relational aggression). In addition, there was little evidence of moderation of these associations by gender, age, or age2, and findings remained robust even after controlling for physical aggression. Results are discussed in the broader context of conceptualizing relational aggression in an overarching personality-psychopathology framework. PMID:25047304

  10. Molecular pathology as the driving force for personalized oncology.

    PubMed

    Oktay, Maja H; Hui, Pei

    2012-11-01

    Innovative Tissue-Based Diagnostics Philadelphia, PA, USA, 4-5 June 2012 This article focuses on the current and emerging molecular diagnostics relevant to clinical practice of oncology discussed in the session of Molecular Pathology as the Driving Force for Personalized Oncology, one of the three main themes of innovative tissue-based diagnostics with the other two being pathology in cancer drug development, and in vivo microscopy and intraoperative imaging. The session brought together seven topics and a keynote presentation in the area of precision cancer diagnosis and treatment: single gene molecular testing as the most popular cancer molecular diagnostics in current time, panel gene mutation analysis as an emerging theme for cancer therapy targeting at multiple signaling pathways, and the next-generation sequencing platform - an ultimate molecular analysis of cancer for future clinical practice. Novel tactics based on existing technology were emphasized including in vitro drug sensitivity testing and exploring immunohistochemistry in combination with histocytological assays for risk assessment of tumor metastasis and layered immunohistochemistry to predict tumor response to target cancer treatment. Clinical molecular assay development, verification and validation were among practical topics in molecular diagnostic operations. The conference was culminated by Marc Ladanyi's keynote presentation of the current and future strategies for comprehensive routine clinical genotyping of lung cancers for optimal selection of targeted therapies. PMID:23249199

  11. Social perspective coordination in youth with borderline personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Tarni C; Hulbert, Carol A; Jackson, Henry J; Chanen, Andrew M

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated social perspective coordination (SPC) in youth (15-24-year-olds) with first-presentation borderline personality disorder (BPD). SPC is defined as the capacity to differentiate and integrate the perspective of the self with the perspectives of others (Selman, Beardslee, Schultz, Krupa, & Podorefsky, 1986). Two groups: patients with full or sub-syndromal BPD (n = 30) and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 30) completed measures of SPC derived from the interpersonal negotiation strategies (INS) model (Selman et al., 1986). Compared with the MDD group, the BPD group responded to all vignettes with significantly lower SPC scores and SPC was a significant predictor of BPD status over and above self-reported, personality factors (Neuroticism and Agreeableness), attachment disturbance and functional impairment. These findings suggest that disturbances in social cognition are an important characteristic of individuals with BPD pathology. These difficulties extended beyond attachment contexts and were not limited to situations involving BPD-related themes of abandonment, deprivations or mistrust/abuse. PMID:22369170

  12. Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bonnie K.

    2009-01-01

    Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

  13. How Useful Are Indices of Personality Pathology when Assessing Domestic Violence Perpetrators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Peter; Collins, Marjorie; Reid, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    There has been considerable debate about profiling personality pathology when assessing and treating male perpetrators of domestic violence (DV). This study used the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) to explore the severity and diversity of male perpetrator personality pathology and response bias in a group of DV perpetrators being…

  14. Personality Pathology of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder without Accompanying Intellectual Impairment in Comparison to Adults with Personality Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunz, Sandra; Westphal, Linda; Ritter, Kathrin; Heuser, Isabella; Dziobek, Isabel; Roepke, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) without accompanying intellectual impairment from personality disorders is often challenging. Identifying personality traits and personality pathology specific to ASD might facilitate diagnostic procedure. We recruited a sample of 59 adults with ASD without accompanying intellectual impairment, 62…

  15. A Case for Personalized Instruction in Pathology: Student Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, A. Duane; Bickley, Harmon C.

    1976-01-01

    To accomodate the increased need for pathology in pharmaceutical education, the University of Wyoming School of Pharmacy has modified its instructional program, presented according to Keller's PSI method. Students take a course that integrates basic anatomic pathology with the fundamental concepts of clinical laboratory technique. (LBH)

  16. Level of Agreement between Self and Spouse in the Assessment of Personality Pathology

    PubMed Central

    South, Susan C.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Johnson, Jarrod; Turkheimer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Informant reports can provide important information regarding the presence of pathological personality traits, and they can serve as useful supplements to self-report instruments. Ratings from a spouse may be a particularly valuable source of personality assessment because spouses are very well acquainted with the target person, have typically known the person for a long time, and witness behaviors across a variety of situations. In the current study, self- and spouse report measures based on the DSM-IV personality disorder criteria were collected from a non-clinical sample of 82 couples (N=164). Agreement between self- and spouse report for several pathological personality factors was significant and somewhat higher than has been found for self- and peer agreement. Nevertheless, the magnitude of self-spouse agreement was still moderate in size (Mean r=.36). Findings are discussed with regard to utilizing spouse-report in the assessment of personality pathology. PMID:21220382

  17. Level of Agreement between Self and Spouse in the Assessment of Personality Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Susan C.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Johnson, Jarrod; Turkheimer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Informant reports can provide important information regarding the presence of pathological personality traits, and they can serve as useful supplements to self-report instruments. Ratings from a spouse may be a particularly valuable source of personality assessment because spouses are very well acquainted with the target person, have typically…

  18. Social, psychological and physical consequences of pathological gambling in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bergh, C; Kühlhorn, E

    1994-09-01

    Social, psychological and physical consequences of pathological gambling reported by 42 pathological gamblers recruited mainly by advertising were compared with data on 63 pathological gamblers identified by case-finding within districts of probation, in- and out-patient psychiatric care and social welfare authorities. The two studies gave similar results. Financial breakdown, impaired relations with family and friends, and psychological problems occurred in about 50% of the pathological gamblers. Physical consequences were perceived to be of minor significance. Gambling became a solitary behavior as illegal behaviors to finance gambling increased. The pathological gamblers frequently abused alcohol. Despite these signs of social decay the pathological gamblers strove not to be a burden in society. PMID:24234924

  19. Opioidergic and dopaminergic manipulation of gambling tendencies: a preliminary study in male recreational gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Porchet, Roseline I.; Boekhoudt, Linde; Studer, Bettina; Gandamaneni, Praveen K.; Rani, Nisha; Binnamangala, Somashekar; Müller, Ulrich; Clark, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Gambling is characterized by cognitive distortions in the processing of chance and skill that are exacerbated in pathological gambling. Opioid and dopamine dysregulation is implicated in pathological gambling, but it is unclear whether these neurotransmitters modulate gambling distortions. The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol on gambling behavior. Male recreational gamblers (n = 62) were assigned to receive single oral doses of naltrexone 50 mg, haloperidol 2 mg or placebo, in a parallel-groups design. At 2.5 h post-dosing, participants completed a slot machine task to elicit monetary wins, “near-misses,” and a manipulation of personal choice, and a roulette game to elicit two biases in sequential processing, the gambler's fallacy and the hot hand belief. Psychophysiological responses (electrodermal activity and heart rate) were taken during the slot machine task, and plasma prolactin increase was assessed. The tasks successfully induced the gambling effects of interest. Some of these effects differed across treatment groups, although the direction of effect was not in line with our predictions. Differences were driven by the naltrexone group, which displayed a greater physiological response to wins, and marginally higher confidence ratings on winning streaks. Prolactin levels increased in the naltrexone group, but did not differ between haloperidol and placebo, implying that naltrexone but not haloperidol may have been functionally active at these doses. Our results support opioid modulation of cognition during gambling-like tasks, but did not support the more specific hypothesis that naltrexone may act to ameliorate cognitive distortions. PMID:24109443

  20. An Interpersonal Analysis of Pathological Personality Traits in "DSM-5"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    The proposed changes to the personality disorder section of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (5th ed.) places an increased focus on interpersonal impairment as one of the defining features of personality psychopathology. In addition, a proposed trait model has been offered to provide a means of capturing phenotypic…

  1. Personality traits and pathology in older and younger incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Susan; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2002-04-01

    Personality disorders were examined in 157 incarcerated women, using the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP; Clark, 1996) to assess 10 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised (DSM-III-R; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) diagnostic categories and dimensions and 15 domains of trait/temperament relevant to disordered personality. Similar to both community samples and incarcerated men, older women had lower rates of personality disorders than younger women, and the difference was mostly accounted for by differences in the Cluster B disorders. In an exploratory analysis of trait and temperament scales, the older women also scored lower in Aggression, Disinhibition, Entitlement, Exhibitionism, Impulsivity, and Manipulativeness while younger women scored lower in Workaholism and Propriety. These findings suggest that remission of antisocial behavior in women may be associated with changes in lower order personality traits or temperament. PMID:11920697

  2. The Gambler's Fallacy: A Bayesian Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonassi, Fernando V.; Stern, Rafael B.; Wechsler, Sergio

    2008-11-01

    We study the problem of prediction in sequences of binary random variables. The models are then considered vis-à-vis the Gambler's Fallacy. Another model in which the Gambler's Fallacy need not be a fallacy is presented. The results may contribute for the judgment of how reasonable the assumption of infinite exchangeability is relative to typical human perception.

  3. Predicting problematic alcohol use with the DSM-5 alternative model of personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Creswell, Kasey G; Bachrach, Rachel L; Wright, Aidan G C; Pinto, Anthony; Ansell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    High comorbidity between personality disorders and alcohol use disorders appears related to individual differences in underlying personality dimensions of behavioral undercontrol and affective dysregulation. However, very little is known about how the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition; DSM-5) Section III trait model of personality pathology relates to alcohol problems or how the strength of the relationship between personality pathology and alcohol problems changes with age and across gender. The current study examined these questions in a sample of 877 participants using the General Assessment of Personality Disorder to assess general personality dysfunction, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 to measure specific traits, and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess problematic alcohol use. Results demonstrated that general personality pathology (Criterion A) was significantly related to problematic alcohol use after controlling for age and gender effects. Furthermore, 2 of the 5 higher-order personality trait domains (Criterion B), Antagonism and Disinhibition, remained significant predictors of problematic alcohol use after accounting for the influence of general personality pathology; however, general personality pathology no longer predicted hazardous alcohol use once Antagonism and Disinhibition were added into the model. Finally, these 2 specific traits interacted with age, such that Antagonism was a stronger predictor of AUDIT scores among older individuals and Disinhibition was a stronger predictor of alcohol problems among younger individuals. Findings support the general validity of this new personality disorder diagnostic system and suggest important age effects in the relationship between traits and problematic alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26389625

  4. Dimensions of Personality Pathology in Adolescence: Longitudinal Associations With Big Five Personality Dimensions Across Childhood and Adolescence.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Alithe L; Prinzie, Peter; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2016-04-01

    To investigate validity of the dimensions that underlie pathological personality in adolescence, we delineated the hierarchical structure of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Short Form-Adolescent version (DAPP-SF-A; Tromp & Koot, 2008) and examined longitudinal associations with Big Five personality dimensions assessed four times from middle childhood to late adolescence. A total of 426 adolescents provided self-reports on the DAPP-SF-A (age M = 18.6, SD = 1.17; 53% female). Mothers provided information on their child's personality eleven, eight, five, and three years earlier. Previous findings on the hierarchical structure of the DAPP-BQ replicated up to the four-component solution (emotional dysregulation, dissocial behavior, inhibition, and compulsivity). In the solution, a thought disturbance component emerged. Interestingly, the five-component solution already showed most differentiated associations with childhood personality in middle childhood. Childhood personality dimensions predicted four out of five adolescent pathological personality traits, indicating continuity of normal and abnormal personality across childhood and adolescence. PMID:25893551

  5. Comparing Problem Gamblers with Moderate-Risk Gamblers in a Sample of University Students

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yi; Kairouz, Sylvia; Nadeau, Louise; Robillard, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims In an effort to provide further empirical evidence of meaningful differences, this study explores, in a student population, the distinctions in gambling behavioral patterns and specific associated problems of two levels of gambling severity by comparing problem gamblers (PG) and moderate-risk gamblers (MR) as defined by the score on the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI; MR: 3-7; PG: 8 and more). Methods The study sample included 2,139 undergraduate students (male = 800, mean age = 22.6) who completed the PGSI and questionnaires on associated problems. Results Results show that problem gamblers engage massively and more diversely in gambling activities, more often and in a greater variety of locations, than moderate-risk gamblers. In addition, important differences have been observed between moderate-risk and problem gamblers in terms of expenditures and accumulated debt. In regards to the associated problems, compared to moderate-risk gamblers, problem gamblers had an increased reported psychological distress, daily smoking, and possible alcohol dependence. Discussion and Conclusions The severity of gambling and associated problems found in problem gamblers is significantly different from moderate-risk gamblers, when examined in a student population, to reiterate caution against the amalgamation of these groups in future research. PMID:26014673

  6. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles.

    PubMed

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; McCabe, Gillian A; Vrabel, Jennifer K

    2016-08-01

    Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion) have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594). Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor. PMID:27547254

  7. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

    PubMed Central

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; McCabe, Gillian A.; Vrabel, Jennifer K.

    2016-01-01

    Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion) have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594). Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor. PMID:27547254

  8. The Joint Hierarchical Structure of Adolescent Personality Pathology: Converging Evidence from Two Approaches to Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Shauna C.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; De Clercq, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the joint hierarchical structure of two measures of adolescent personality pathology within a community sample of Canadian adolescents. Method: Self-reported data on demographic information and pathological personality traits were obtained from 144 youth (Mage = 16.08 years, SD = 1.30). Personality pathology was measured using the youth-version of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP-Y; Linde, Stringer, Simms, & Clark, in press) and the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI; De Clercq, De Fruyt, Van Leeuwen, & Mervielde, 2006). Lower-order scales were subjected to structural hierarchical analyses. Results: Scales from the two measures were complementary in defining higher-order traits. Traits at the 4-factor level of the hierarchy (Need for Approval, Disagreeableness, Detachment, and Compulsivity) showed similarities and differences with previous results in adults. Conclusions: The current investigation integrated top-down and bottom-up measures for a comprehensive account of the higher-order hierarchy of adolescent personality pathology. Results are discussed in the context of convergence across approaches and in comparison with previous findings in adult samples. PMID:23970908

  9. The Effect of Borderline Personality Pathology on Outcome of Cognitive Behavior Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lis, Eric; Myhr, Gail

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based psychotherapeutic approach which has been shown to be an effective intervention for most psychiatric disorders. There are conflicting data in the literature regarding whether a comorbid personality disorder worsens the prognosis of CBT for depression, anxiety, and other complaints. This study examined data collected before and after courses of CBT for patients with significant borderline (n=39, 11.5%) or obsessive-compulsive (n=66, 19.4%) personality pathology or no personality disorder (n=235, 69.1%). A diagnosis of personality pathology was not a significant predictor of outcome in CBT as measured by the reliable change index. However, patients with borderline personality pathology did demonstrate a greater response to CBT than other patients in terms of improvement on several measures of symptoms. Patients with borderline personality pathology appear to enter therapy with greater subjective depression and interpersonal difficulty than other patients but achieve larger gains during therapy. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:27427839

  10. 'You never told me I would turn into a gambler': a first person account of dopamine agonist--induced gambling addiction in a patient with restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jones, Henrietta Bowden; George, Sanju

    2011-01-01

    Dopaminergic agents are commonly used and effective treatments for restless legs syndrome (RLS), a disabling sensorimotor disorder. Less known are some of the potentially disabling side effects of these treatments, particularly iatrogenic gambling addiction, as is described here. Here the authors present a 62-year-old man, with a 20-year history of RLS, who developed gambling addiction while on dopaminergic treatment. He was not forewarned of this side effect, nor was he ever screened for gambling behaviours prior to or during treatment. Eight months after discontinuation of dopaminergic treatment and after 10 sessions of cognitive-behavioural therapy for gambling addiction, his gambling behaviours have partially resolved. To our knowledge, this is the first ever first person account of this condition. To prevent the devastating consequences of gambling addiction or to minimise its impact by early intervention, the authors call for clinicians involved in treatment of RLS to follow these simple measures: screen patients for gambling behaviours prior to the onset and during dopaminergic treatment; forewarn patients of this potential side effect; and if patients screen positive, refer them to specialist gambling treatment services, in addition to making necessary changes to their medication regime. PMID:22678941

  11. The relation between personal relative deprivation and the urge to gamble among gamblers is moderated by problem gambling severity: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Callan, Mitchell J; Shead, N Will; Olson, James M

    2015-06-01

    One psychosocial factor that has been identified to motivate gambling is personal relative deprivation (PRD), which refers to resentment stemming from the belief that one is deprived of a desired and deserved outcome compared to some referent. Although several lines of evidence point to a positive association between PRD and the urge to gamble, the factors that might moderate this relation have yet to be investigated. Through a quantitative research synthesis, we sought to test (a) the overall relation between PRD and gambling urges among people reporting recent gambling experience, and (b) whether this relation is moderated by problem gambling severity. Meta-analysis revealed that, overall, higher self-reported PRD was associated with stronger urges to gamble (r=.26). A meta-regression revealed that, across studies, the strength of this relation depended on problem gambling severity, such that the relation between PRD and gambling urges was stronger among samples higher in average problem gambling severity. This pattern was corroborated by an analysis of the aggregated individual participant data (N=857), such that PRD predicted gambling urges only among participants higher in problem gambling severity. The potential practical implications and limitations of these results are discussed. PMID:25665918

  12. Three-Pronged Assessment and Diagnosis of Personality Disorder and its Consequences: Personality Functioning, Pathological Traits, and Psychosocial Disability

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Lee Anna; Ro, Eunyoe

    2014-01-01

    The alternative dimensional model of personality disorder (PD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), Section III, has two main criteria: Impairment in personality functioning and one or more pathological personality traits. The former is defined as disturbances in self functioning (viz., identity, self-direction), and/or interpersonal functioning (viz., empathy, intimacy). Distinguishing personality functioning and traits is important conceptually, because simply having extreme traits is not necessarily pathological. However, adding personality functioning to PD diagnosis represents an empirical challenge, because the constructs overlap conceptually. Further, there is debate regarding whether diagnosis of mental disorder requires either distress or disability, concepts that also overlap with maladaptive-range personality traits and personality dysfunction. We investigated interrelations among these constructs using multiple self-report measures of each domain in a mixed community-patient sample (N = 402). We examined the structures of functioning (psychosocial disability and personality), and personality traits, first independently, then jointly. The disability/functioning measures yielded the three dimensions we have found previously (Ro & Clark, 2013). Trait measures had a hierarchical structure which, at the five-factor level, reflected neuroticism/negative affectivity (N/NA), (low) sociability, disinhibition, (dis)agreeableness, and rigid goal engagement. When all measures were co-factored, a hierarchical structure again emerged which, at the five-factor level, included (1) internalizing (N/NA and self-pathology vs. quality-of-life/satisfaction), (2) externalizing (social/interpersonal dysfunction, low sociability, and disagreeableness), (3) disinhibition, (4) poor basic functioning, and (5) rigid goal engagement. Results are discussed in terms of developing an integrated PD

  13. Impulsivity mediates the association between borderline personality pathology and body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Iacovino, Juliette M.; Powers, Abigail D.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with obesity, a major risk factor for a number of chronic illnesses (e.g., cardiovascular disease). We examined whether impulsivity and affective instability mediate the association between BPD pathology and body mass index (BMI). Participants were a community sample of adults ages 55–64 and their informants. The Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality measured BPD symptoms and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory measured self- and informant-report impulsivity and affective instability. Mediation analyses demonstrated that only higher self-report impulsivity significantly mediated the association between greater BPD pathology and higher BMI. A subsequent model revealed that higher scores on the impulsiveness (lack of inhibitory control) and deliberation (planning) facets of impulsivity mediated the BPD–BMI association, with impulsiveness exerting a stronger mediation effect than deliberation. Obesity interventions that improve inhibitory control may be most effective for individuals with BPD pathology. PMID:24505165

  14. CBT for eating disorders: The impact of early changes in eating pathology on later changes in personality pathology, anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Turner, Hannah; Marshall, Emily; Wood, Francesca; Stopa, Lusia; Waller, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    Whilst studies have consistently identified early symptom reduction as an important predictor of treatment outcome, the impact of early change on common comorbid features has not been investigated. This study of CBT for eating disorders explored patterns of early change in eating pathology and longer-term change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. It also explored the impact of early change in eating pathology on overall change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. Participants were 179 adults diagnosed with eating disorders who were offered a course of CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed a measure of eating disorder psychopathology at the start of treatment and following the 6th session. They also completed measures of personality disorder cognitions, anxiety and depression at the start and end of treatment. There were significant changes in eating pathology over the first six sessions of treatment. Significant improvements were also seen in personality disorder pathology, anxiety and depression by the end of therapy. Effect sizes were medium to large for both completer and intention to treat analyses. Early changes in eating pathology were associated with later changes in common comorbid features, with early reduction in restraint being a key predictor. These findings demonstrate that early symptom change can be achieved in CBT for eating disorders when delivered in routine clinical practice. Such change has long-term benefits that go beyond the domain of eating pathology, enhancing change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. PMID:26690743

  15. Toward a model for assessing level of personality functioning in DSM-5, part II: empirical articulation of a core dimension of personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Morey, Leslie C; Berghuis, Han; Bender, Donna S; Verheul, Roel; Krueger, Robert F; Skodol, Andrew E

    2011-07-01

    The extensive comorbidity among Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994 ) personality disorders might be compelling evidence of essential commonalities among these disorders reflective of a general level of personality functioning that in itself is highly relevant to clinical decision making. This study sought to identify key markers of such a level, thought to reflect a core dimension of personality pathology involving impairments in the capacities of self and interpersonal functioning, and to empirically articulate a continuum of severity of these problems for DSM-5. Using measures of hypothesized core dimensions of personality pathology, a description of a continuum of severity of personality pathology was developed. Potential markers at various levels of severity of personality pathology were identified using item response theory (IRT) in 2 samples of psychiatric patients. IRT-based estimates of participants' standings on a latent dimension of personality pathology were significantly related to the diagnosis of DSM-IV personality disorder, as well as to personality disorder comorbidity. Further analyses indicated that this continuum could be used to capture the distribution of pathology severity across the range of DSM-IV personality disorders. The identification of a continuum of personality pathology consisting of impairments in self and interpersonal functioning provides an empirical foundation for a "levels of personality functioning" rating proposed as part of a DSM-5 personality disorder diagnostic formulation. PMID:22804673

  16. Relationship between PTSD and pathological personality traits in context of disasters.

    PubMed

    Reis, Ana Maria; de Francisco Carvalho, Lucas; Elhai, Jon D

    2016-07-30

    One of the recurrent outcomes after a stressor event as a disaster is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which appears to be mediated, in part, by emotional, behavioral, and psychological responses, arising from the belief system associated with the traumatic experience. Studies suggest that personality traits are related to how individuals face or adapt in the event of disaster phenomena. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between PTSD, posttraumatic beliefs and personality traits in people who experienced disasters. 113 individuals participated in the survey, of both sexes (58.4% women) with ages ranging between 19 and 63 years (M=37.5; SD=12.1). We used the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory (IDCP), the Brazilian version of the Davidson Trauma Scale, and the Brazilian version of the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory. Among the findings, pathological personality characteristics relate positively with PTSD symptomatology, individuals who experienced disaster events presented more pathological personality traits when compared to those who did not experience these events, and negative beliefs were positively related with pathological characteristics of personality. We highlight the need for research on the relationships between personality characteristics and post-traumatic beliefs in order to promote more adequate interventions given the possible disease chronicity. PMID:27156030

  17. Personality pathology and daily aspects of marital functioning.

    PubMed

    South, Susan C

    2014-04-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are associated with a host of interpersonal problems, including unstable and dysfunctional romantic relationships. In previous research, PD symptoms have been linked to one's own and spouse's self-reported level of marital satisfaction and marital conflict. The current study extends on this work by examining whether Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) PD criteria would predict aspects of daily marital functioning. A total of 99 newlywed couples (N = 198) recruited from the community were assessed for PD symptoms using a self-report measure and subsequently completed a 6-day diary protocol. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the association of PD symptoms with three major aspects of daily functioning: overall relationship sentiment, serious conflicts with one's spouse, and quality of interactions. Results indicated that PD symptoms significantly predicted aspects of all three measures of daily functioning. The individual PDs generally showed the greatest associations with aspects of conflict. Paranoid, schizoid, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive PD scores were significantly negatively related to overall relationship sentiment whereas Cluster A and Cluster C PD scores negatively predicted various daily interaction behaviors. Findings provide insight into the mechanisms that might explain the associations between PD symptoms and overall measures of relationship functioning. PMID:24364502

  18. How useful are indices of personality pathology when assessing domestic violence perpetrators?

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Peter; Collins, Marjorie; Reid, Corinne

    2011-03-01

    There has been considerable debate about profiling personality pathology when assessing and treating male perpetrators of domestic violence (DV). This study used the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) to explore the severity and diversity of male perpetrator personality pathology and response bias in a group of DV perpetrators being assessed for a treatment program (N = 177). We analyzed the sample using the interpretive guidelines of White and Gondolf (2000); 54% of profiles in our sample fell into categories indicative of a personality disorder, and 37% of the total sample provided profiles indicative of severe personality pathology. These percentages were higher than White and Gondolf's findings but lower than some others. There was considerable diversity of personality pathology as well, supporting the contention that there is no one male DV perpetrator profile. Because of debate concerning the manner of responding on self-report instruments, we paid special attention to response biases in our sample. Twenty-six percent of our sample exaggerated (12%) or minimized (14%) their responses. We also found that response biases on the MCMI-III Modifying Indices were related to self-reported severity of psychopathology. This suggests that assessing severity of psychopathology is inadequate without reference to such biases. PMID:21381843

  19. Practicing Pathology in the Era of Big Data and Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jiang; Taylor, Clive R.; Phil, D

    2014-01-01

    The traditional task of the pathologist is to assist physicians in making the correct diagnosis of diseases at the earliest possible stage to effectuate the optimal treatment strategy for each individual patient. In this respect surgical pathology (the traditional tissue diagnosis) is but a tool. It is not, of itself, the purpose of pathology practice; and change is in the air. This January 2014 issue of Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology (AIMM) embraces that change by the incorporation of the agenda and content of the journal Diagnostic Molecular Morphology (DMP). Over a decade ago AIMM introduced and promoted the concept of “molecular morphology,” and has sought to publish molecular studies that correlate with the morphologic features that continue to define cancer and many diseases. That intent is now reinforced and extended by the merger with DMP, as a logical and timely response to the growing impact of a wide range of genetic and molecular technologies that are beginning to reshape the way in which pathology is practiced. The use of molecular and genomic techniques already demonstrates clear value in the diagnosis of disease, with treatment tailored specifically to individual patients. Personalized medicine is the future, and personalized medicine demands personalized pathology. The need for integration of the flood of new molecular data, with surgical pathology, digital pathology, and the full range of pathology data in the electronic medical record has never been greater. This review describes the possible impact of these pressures upon the discipline of pathology, and examines possible outcomes. There is a sense of excitement and adventure. Active adaption and innovation are required. The new AIMM, incorporating DMP, seeks to position itself for a central role in this process. PMID:24326463

  20. Can personality traits predict pathological responses to audiovisual stimulation?

    PubMed

    Yambe, Tomoyuki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Fukudo, Shin; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Shizuka, Kazuhiko; Nanka, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Akira; Abe, Ken-ichi; Shouji, Tomonori; Hongo, Michio; Tabayashi, Kouichi; Nitta, Shin-ichi

    2003-10-01

    The "Pockemon shock" is the most famous accident in the history of the broadcasting industry in Japan. Based on the experiences of this unfortunate accident from famous animation program "Pocket Monster", this study focused on the psychology and psychosomatics of the patients. A head-mounted display was used as the three-dimensional image presentation device and "Descent", a free software shooting game, was used as the software. Ten healthy adult male volunteers were used in this experiment after obtaining their informed consent. The oxygen metabolic change in the anterior lobe of the brain was measured by near infrared spectroscopy and recorded on an electrocardiogram. The mental scaling tendency of the object was analyzed using the type A behavior pattern and the hostility scaling. The Cook and Medley hostility (HO) scale from the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) was also used in this experiment. From this scaling methodology, the paranoid scale, cynicism scale, lie scale, social support quality and social support quantity were calculated. All measured time series data were kept in the normal range, and no fatal arrhythmia or epilepsy were observed during experiments. In some cases, the brain oxygen metabolism may completely differ for the objects of Type A and Type B behavior patterns. On the whole, correlation did not become significant in type A scaling and hostility scaling. In a comparison of the percent changes of the HF in HRV with lie scaling, significant negative correlation was observed. The social support quantity was calculated from Cook and Medley, and significant negative correlations were observed with percent changes of LF/HF in HRV. The lie scale and social support quantity are opposite scaling. The sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system have an opposite function also. Therefore, our results showed an interesting phenomenon, when considering the relationship between the autonomic function and the

  1. [Role of contemporary pathological diagnostics in the personalized treatment of cancer].

    PubMed

    Tímár, József

    2013-03-01

    Due to the developments of pathology in the past decades (immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology) classification of cancers changed fundamentally, laying a ground for personalized management of cancer patients. Our picture of cancer is more complex today, identifying the genetic basis of the morphological variants. On the other hand, this picture has a much higher resolution enabling us to subclassify similar histological cancer types based on molecular markers. This redefined classification of cancers helps us to better predict the possible biological behavior of the disease and/or the therapeutic sensitivity, opening the way toward a more personalized treatment of this disease. The redefined molecular classification of cancer may affect the universal application of treatment protocols. To achieve this goal molecular diagnostics must be an integral and reimbursed part of the routine pathological diagnostics. On the other hand, it is time to extend the multidisciplinary team with molecular pathologist to improve the decision making process of the management of cancer patients. PMID:23573519

  2. Personality Disorders, Impulsiveness, and Novelty Seeking in Persons with DSM-IV Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Coryell, William H; Crowe, Raymond R; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the presence of personality disorders, impulsiveness, and novelty seeking in probands with DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG), controls, and their respective first-degree relatives using a blind family study methodology. Ninety-three probands with DSM-IV PG, 91 controls, and their 395 first-degree relatives were evaluated for the presence of personality disorder with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality. Impulsiveness was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Novelty seeking was evaluated using questions from Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory. Results were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations to account for within family correlations. PG probands had a significantly higher prevalence of personality disorders than controls (41 vs. 7 %, OR = 9.0, P < 0.001), along with higher levels of impulsiveness and novelty seeking. PG probands with a personality disorder had more severe gambling symptoms; earlier age at PG onset; more suicide attempts; greater psychiatric comorbidity; and a greater family history of psychiatric illness than PG probands without a personality disorder. PG relatives had a significantly higher prevalence of personality disorder than relatives of controls (24 vs. 9%, OR = 3.2, P < 0.001) and higher levels of impulsiveness. Risk for PG in relatives is associated with the presence of personality disorder and increases along with rising BIS Non-Planning and Total scale scores. Personality disorders, impulsiveness, and novelty seeking are common in people with PG and their first-degree relatives. The presence of a personality disorder appears to be a marker of PG severity and earlier age of onset. Risk for PG in relatives is associated with the presence of personality disorder and trait impulsiveness. These findings suggest that personality disorder and impulsiveness may contribute to a familial diathesis for PG. PMID:25424057

  3. Latent Class Analysis of Gambling Activities in a Sample of Young Swiss Men: Association with Gambling Problems, Substance Use Outcomes, Personality Traits and Coping Strategies.

    PubMed

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Simon, Olivier; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    The study aimed to identify different patterns of gambling activities (PGAs) and to investigate how PGAs differed in gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. A representative sample of 4989 young Swiss males completed a questionnaire assessing seven distinct gambling activities, gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. PGAs were identified using latent class analysis (LCA). Differences between PGAs in gambling and substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies were tested. LCA identified six different PGAs. With regard to gambling and substance use outcomes, the three most problematic PGAs were extensive gamblers, followed by private gamblers, and electronic lottery and casino gamblers, respectively. By contrast, the three least detrimental PGAs were rare or non-gamblers, lottery only gamblers and casino gamblers. With regard to personality traits, compared with rare or non-gamblers, private and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sensation seeking. Electronic lottery and casino gamblers, private gamblers and extensive gamblers had higher levels of aggression-hostility. Extensive and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sociability, whereas casino gamblers reported lower levels of anxiety-neuroticism. Extensive gamblers used more maladaptive and less adaptive coping strategies than other groups. Results suggest that gambling is not a homogeneous activity since different types of gamblers exist according to the PGA they are engaged in. Extensive gamblers, electronic and casino gamblers and private gamblers may have the most problematic PGAs. Personality traits and coping skills may predispose individuals to PGAs associated with more or less negative outcomes. PMID:25929440

  4. Advancing the Assessment of Personality Pathology With the Cognitive-Affective Processing System.

    PubMed

    Huprich, Steven K; Nelson, Sharon M

    2015-01-01

    The Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) is a dynamic and expansive model of personality proposed by Mischel and Shoda (1995) that incorporates dispositional and processing frameworks by considering the interaction of the individual and the situation, and the patterns of variation that result. These patterns of cognition, affect, and behavior are generally defined through the use of if … then statements, and provide a rich understanding of the individual across varying levels of assessment. In this article, we describe the CAPS model and articulate ways in which it can be applied to conceptualizing and assessing personality pathology. We suggest that the CAPS model is an ideal framework that integrates a number of current theories of personality pathology, and simultaneously overcomes a number of limits that have been empirically identified in the past. PMID:26214351

  5. A Mutual Support Group for Young Problem Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    A Swedish mutual support group for young problem gamblers is described and discussed. During the study period, 116 weekly meetings occurred, usually involving six to ten participants; in total, 69 problem gamblers (66 male and three female), aged 17-25, and 23 partners and friends attended the meetings. Half the gamblers had problems with Internet…

  6. The gambler's fallacy in penalty shootouts.

    PubMed

    Braun, Sebastian; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2015-07-20

    A well-known bias in subjective perceptions of chance is the gambler's fallacy: people typically believe that a streak generated by a series of independent random draws, such as a coin toss, becomes increasingly more likely to break when the streak becomes longer. In a fascinating study, Misirlisoy and Haggard analysed sequential behavior of kickers and goalkeepers in penalty shootouts. They report that goalkeepers are prone to the gambler's fallacy: after a series of three kicks in the same direction, goalkeepers are more likely to dive in the opposite direction at the next kick. Here we argue, first, that a binomial test is more appropriate for testing gambler's fallacy than the tests employed by Misirlisoy and Haggard, and second, that penalty shootouts may not be well-suited to analyze the gambler's fallacy. Using a binomial test, we neither find statistically significant evidence for gambler's fallacy in Misirlisoy and Haggard's original data, nor in extended data, nor in data from an idealised laboratory experiment that we ran to address the second point. In line with Misirlisoy and Haggard's original result, we do, however, find evidence for a systematic pattern of goalkeeper's behavior that kickers could exploit. PMID:26196482

  7. Pathological Gambling in Parkinson's disease patients: Dopaminergic medication or personality traits fault?

    PubMed

    Brusa, L; Pavino, V; Massimetti, M C; Ceravolo, R; Stefani, S; Stanzione, P

    2016-07-15

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are clinically relevant in Parkinson disease (PD) patients, with an established association with PD medication. Aim of our study was to study whether the increased frequency of pathological gambling (PG), reported in subgroups of PD patients, is related to specific personality tracts additional to dopaminergic medications. Thirty-seven PD patients with a personal history of PG where enrolled. Twenty one PD patients, matched for disease and dopaminergic therapy, never experiencing PG, were enrolled as controls. All subjects were tested with the Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory Personality scales (MMPI-2). Our data showed that PD group with PG exhibited significantly higher mean values of the three validity scales in comparison to the non-PG-PD group, demonstrating an higher tendency to lie. Content scales showed a significant increase of cynicism and bizarre ideation scales score in the PG-PD group, not exhibiting pathological values at the validity scales, (p: 0.02) in comparison to non-PG PD patients. According to our results, PG seems to be associated with precise personality tracts. Personality profiles of cluster A personality disturbances - Axys 2 according with DSM-5 TR (paranoid type) at MMPI-2 might be a warning index helpful in selecting dopaminergic treatment, to avoid subsequent ICDs appearance. PMID:27288799

  8. The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality for Youth (SNAP-Y): a new measure for assessing adolescent personality and personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Linde, Jennifer A; Stringer, Deborah; Simms, Leonard J; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-08-01

    The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Youth Version (SNAP-Y) is a new, reliable self-report questionnaire that assesses 15 personality traits relevant to both normal-range personality and the alternative DSM-5 model for personality disorder. Community adolescents, 12 to 18 years old (N = 364), completed the SNAP-Y; 347 also completed the Big Five Inventory-Adolescent, 144 provided 2-week retest data, and 128 others completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent. Outpatient adolescents (N = 103) completed the SNAP-Y, and 97 also completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent. The SNAP-Y demonstrated strong psychometric properties, and structural, convergent, discriminant, and external validities. Consistent with the continuity of personality, results paralleled those in adult and college samples using the adult Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Second Edition (SNAP-2), from which the SNAP-Y derives and which has established validity in personality-trait assessment across the normal-abnormal continuum. The SNAP-Y thus provides a new, clinically useful instrument to assess personality traits and personality pathology in adolescents. PMID:23794180

  9. Preparing Addiction Specialists to Include Case Management and Vocational Rehabilitation Services in the Treatment Model for Problem Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Margaret K.; Diaz, Sebastian R.; Hawley, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Professionals in the field of addictions view problems associated with recovery management across multiple domains. This exploratory study utilized concept mapping and pattern matching methodology to conceptualize the resulting 7 domains of concern for treatment and aftercare of problem and pathological gamblers. The information can be used by…

  10. Male gamblers have significantly greater salivary cortisol before and after betting on a horse race, than do female gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Franco, C.; Paris, J. J.; Wulfert, E.; Frye, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Prevalence rates of gambling are influenced by gender. Among normative populations, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress is affected by gender. However, pathological, compared to recreational, gamblers demonstrate perturbations in HPA activation in response to gambling stimuli. We examined whether there were gender differences in HPA response to gambling in a naturalistic setting among horse-race bettors and scratch-off lottery bettors. Salivary cortisol was collected from horse-race gamblers (n=32) and scratch-off lottery ticket players (n=39) before and after (0, 10, or 20 minutes) betting on a horse race at an off-track betting establishment. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly higher among men than among women, both prior to and following, betting on a horse race. Among women, but not men, there was a decline in salivary cortisol across time in scratch-off bettors, whereas women horse-race bettors maintained consistent low concentrations of salivary cortisol at every time point sampled. Together these data suggest that engaging in gambling may have different effects on stress responses of men, compared to women. Whether these gender differences in HPA activation contribute to gender-related differences in gambling behavior is the subject of ongoing investigation. PMID:19683542

  11. Clinical, psychological, and personality correlates of asceticism in anorexia nervosa: from saint anorexia to pathologic perfectionism.

    PubMed

    Fassino, Secondo; Pierò, Andrea; Gramaglia, Carla; Daga, Giovanni Abbate; Gandione, Marina; Rovera, Giovanni Giacomo; Bartocci, Goffredo

    2006-12-01

    This study investigated the personality and clinical correlates of asceticism in 154 anorectic patients. Multiple linear regression models showed that asceticism was related to angry temperament, high control over anger, perfectionism, maturity fears, and number of vomiting episodes per week. These results suggest that the self-discipline and hypercontrol of anorectic patients are related to a temperament prone to angry feelings in subjects with a fear of becoming adult and with a trait of pathologic perfectionism. PMID:17166949

  12. Evaluating the South Oaks Gambling Screen with DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria: results from a diverse community sample of gamblers.

    PubMed

    Goodie, Adam S; MacKillop, James; Miller, Joshua D; Fortune, Erica E; Maples, Jessica; Lance, Charles E; Campbell, W Keith

    2013-10-01

    Despite widespread use, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) has been criticized for excessive false positives as an indicator of pathological gambling (PG), and for items that misalign with PG criteria. We examine the relationship between SOGS scores and PG symptoms and convergent validity with regard to personality, mood, and addictive behaviors in a sample of 353 gamblers. SOGS scores correlated r = .66 with both DSM-IV and DSM-5 symptoms, and they manifested similar correlations with external criteria (intraclass correlation of .95). However, 195 false positives and 1 false negative were observed when using the recommended cut point, yielding an 81% false alarm rate. For uses with DSM-IV criteria, a cut point of 10 would retain high sensitivity with greater specificity and fewer false positives. For DSM-5 criteria, we advocate a cut point of 8 for use as a clinical screen and a cut point of 12 for prevalence and pseudo-experimental studies. PMID:23946283

  13. Evaluating the South Oaks Gambling Screen With DSM-IV and DSM-5 Criteria: Results From a Diverse Community Sample of Gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Goodie, Adam S.; MacKillop, James; Miller, Joshua D.; Fortune, Erica E.; Maples, Jessica; Lance, Charles E.; Campbell, W. Keith

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread use, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) has been criticized for excessive false positives as an indicator of pathological gambling (PG), and for items that misalign with PG criteria. We examine the relationship between SOGS scores and PG symptoms and convergent validity with regard to personality, mood, and addictive behaviors in a sample of 353 gamblers. SOGS scores correlated r = .66 with both DSM-IV and DSM-5 symptoms, and they manifested similar correlations with external criteria (intraclass correlation of .95). However, 195 false positives and 1 false negative were observed when using the recommended cut point, yielding an 81% false alarm rate. For uses with DSM-IV criteria, a cut point of 10 would retain high sensitivity with greater specificity and fewer false positives. For DSM-5 criteria, we advocate a cut point of 8 for use as a clinical screen and a cut point of 12 for prevalence and pseudo-experimental studies. PMID:23946283

  14. Associations between Antisocial Personality Disorder and Sex on Discounting Rates

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Leonardo F.; Riven, Levi; Petry, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies show that individuals with substance use and gambling problems discount delayed and probabilistic outcomes at different rates than controls. Few studies, however, investigated the association of discounting with antisocial personality disorders (ASPD), and none evaluated whether sex impacts these relationships. Because females with ASPD exhibit different patterns of antisocial behavior than their male counterparts, they may also differ in their decision-making tendencies. This study examined the effects of ASPD and sex on discounting in pathological gamblers. Results revealed effects of ASPD, and an interaction between ASPD and sex, on probability discounting rates. None of these variables, however, were related to delay discounting. Females with ASPD highly preferred probabilistic outcomes, suggesting that female gamblers with ASPD are particularly impulsive when it comes to probabilistic rewards. Greater understanding of sex differences in ASPD might help guide the selection of more effective sex-specific prevention and treatment programs. PMID:25364042

  15. The Role of Metacognition in Pathological Gambling: A Mediation Model.

    PubMed

    Mansueto, Giovanni; Pennelli, Michele; De Palo, Valeria; Monacis, Lucia; Sinatra, Maria; De Caro, Maria Fara

    2016-03-01

    Pathological gambling involves multitudinous costs related to financial, legal, and public health care aspects, as well as to specific psychological disorders. Despite the overall evidence suggesting that comorbid disorders represent a risk factor for pathological gambling, there is scant evidence on the appropriate treatments for gamblers with such disorders. In this context, metacognitive therapy is an interesting approach because it considers psychological disorders as a result of the activation of perseverative cognitive processes and attentional strategies in response to inner events. Several studies report that metacognition is associated with different psychological problems. This study investigated the relationship among comorbid disorders, metacognition, and pathological gambling. 69 pathological gamblers at the first hospital admission and 58 controls drawn from general population (matched for age, gender, education) completed a battery of self report instruments: Symptom Checklist-90-R, Metacognition Questionnaire 30, South Oaks Gambling Scale. Compared to controls, pathological gamblers showed higher level of comorbid symptomatology and metacognition. Correlation analyses showed that: comorbid symptomatology and metacognition were positively and significantly correlated with pathological gambling; metacognition was positively and significantly associated with comorbid symptomatology. Mediation analysis indicated that dysfunctional metacognitive strategies could have an indirect effect on pathological gambling mediated by concurrent psychological disorders. These findings provide some implications for gambling treatment programs: pathological gamblers should be screened for psychiatric disorders, and metacognitive therapy could be considered a correct treatment of pathological gamblers. Metacognitive therapy might lead to the reduction of the pathological gambling by the diminishing of the concurrent psychological disorders. PMID:25600034

  16. The relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and temperament in adolescent borderline and antisocial personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Jovev, Martina; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Simmons, Julian Guy; Allen, Nicholas B; Chanen, Andrew M

    2014-02-01

    Investigating etiological processes early in the life span represents an important step toward a better understanding of the development of personality pathology. The current study evaluated the interaction between an individual difference risk factor (i.e., temperament) and a biological risk factor for aggressive behavior (i.e., atypical [larger] rightward hippocampal asymmetry) in predicting the emergence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder symptoms during early adolescence. The sample consisted of 153 healthy adolescents (M = 12.6 years, SD = 0.4, range = 11.4-13.7) who were selected from a larger sample to maximize variation in temperament. Interactions between four temperament factors (effortful control, negative affectivity, surgency, and affiliativeness), based on the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised, and volumetric measures of hippocampal asymmetry were examined as cross-sectional predictors of BPD and antisocial personality disorder symptoms. Boys were more likely to have elevated BPD symptoms if they were high on affiliation and had larger rightward hippocampal asymmetry. In boys, low affiliation was a significant predictor of BPD symptoms in the presence of low rightward hippocampal asymmetry. For girls, low effortful control was associated with elevated BPD symptoms in the presence of atypical rightward hippocampal asymmetry. This study builds on previous work reporting significant associations between atypical hippocampal asymmetry and poor behavioral regulation. PMID:24274051

  17. A focus group study of predictors of relapse in electronic gaming machine problem gambling, part 2: factors that 'pull' the gambler away from relapse.

    PubMed

    Oakes, J; Pols, R; Battersby, M; Lawn, S; Pulvirenti, M; Smith, D

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to develop an empirically based description of relapse in Electronic Gaming Machine (EGM) problem gambling (PG) by describing the processes and factors that 'pull' the problem gambler away from relapse contrasted with the 'push' towards relapse. These conceptualisations describe two opposing, interacting emotional processes occurring within the problem gambler during any relapse episode. Each relapse episode comprises a complex set of psychological and social behaviours where many factors interact sequentially and simultaneously within the problem gambler to produce a series of mental and behaviour events that end (1) with relapse where 'push' overcomes 'pull' or (2) continued abstinence where 'pull' overcomes 'push'. Four focus groups comprising thirty participants who were EGM problem gamblers, gamblers' significant others, therapists and counsellors described their experiences and understanding of relapse. The groups were recorded, recordings were then transcribed and analysed using thematic textual analysis. It was established that vigilance, motivation to commit to change, positive social support, cognitive strategies such as remembering past gambling harms or distraction techniques to avoid thinking about gambling to enable gamblers to manage the urge to gamble and urge extinction were key factors that protected against relapse. Three complementary theories emerged from the analysis. Firstly, a process of reappraisal of personal gambling behaviour pulls the gambler away from relapse. This results in a commitment to change that develops over time and affects but is independent of each episode of relapse. Secondly, relapse may be halted by interacting factors that 'pull' the problem gambler away from the sequence of mental and behavioural events, which follow the triggering of the urge and cognitions to gamble. Thirdly, urge extinction and apparent 'cure' is possible for EGM gambling. This study provides a qualitative, empirical model for

  18. Heterogeneity of interpersonal problems among depressed young adults: Associations with substance abuse and pathological personality traits

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Sindes; Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    This study extended previous theory and research on interpersonal heterogeneity in depression by identifying groups of depressed young adults who differ in their type and degree of interpersonal problems, and by examining patterns of pathological personality traits and alcohol abuse among these groups. We examined the interpersonal problems, personality traits, and alcohol-related problems of 172 college students with at least moderate levels of self-reported depression on the Patient Health Questionnaire (Spitzer, Kroenke, & Williams, 1999). Scores from the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems – Short Circumplex (Soldz, Budman, Demby, & Merry, 1995) were subjected to latent profile analysis, which classified individuals into five distinct groups defined by the types of interpersonal problems they experience (dominant, warm, submissive, cold, and undifferentiated). As hypothesized, groups did not differ in depression severity, but did show predicted patterns of differences on normative and maladaptive personality traits, as well as alcohol-related problems. The presence of clinically meaningful interpersonal heterogeneity in depression may have important implications for designing more individualized treatments and prevention efforts for depression that target diverse associated interpersonal problems. PMID:23560433

  19. Multimodal assessment of emotional reactivity in borderline personality pathology: The moderating role of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.; Gratz, Kim L.; Tull, Matthew T.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional reactivity has been theorized to play a central role in borderline personality (BP) pathology. Although growing research provides evidence for subjective emotional reactivity in BP pathology, research on physiological or biological reactivity among people with BP pathology is less conclusive. With regard to biological reactivity in particular, research on cortisol reactivity (a neurobiological marker of emotional reactivity) in response to stressors among individuals with BP pathology has produced contradictory results and highlighted the potential moderating role of PTSD-related pathology. Thus, this study sought to examine the moderating role of PTSD symptoms in the relation between BP pathology and both subjective (self-report) and biological (cortisol) emotional reactivity to a laboratory stressor. Participants were 171 patients in a residential substance use disorder treatment center. Consistent with hypotheses, results revealed a significant main effect of BP pathology on subjective emotional reactivity to the laboratory stressor. Furthermore, results revealed a significant interaction between BP pathology and PTSD symptoms in the prediction of cortisol reactivity, such that BP pathology was associated with heightened cortisol reactivity only among participants with low levels of PTSD symptoms. Similar findings were obtained when examining the interaction between BP pathology and the reexperiencing and avoidance/numbing symptoms of PTSD specifically. Results highlight the moderating role of PTSD symptoms in the BP-reactivity relation. PMID:23375184

  20. Multimodal assessment of emotional reactivity in borderline personality pathology: the moderating role of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T

    2013-08-01

    Emotional reactivity has been theorized to play a central role in borderline personality (BP) pathology. Although growing research provides evidence for subjective emotional reactivity in BP pathology, research on physiological or biological reactivity among people with BP pathology is less conclusive. With regard to biological reactivity in particular, research on cortisol reactivity (a neurobiological marker of emotional reactivity) in response to stressors among individuals with BP pathology has produced contradictory results and highlighted the potential moderating role of PTSD-related pathology. Thus, this study sought to examine the moderating role of PTSD symptoms in the relation between BP pathology and both subjective (self-report) and biological (cortisol) emotional reactivity to a laboratory stressor. Participants were 171 patients in a residential substance use disorder treatment center. Consistent with hypotheses, results revealed a significant main effect of BP pathology on subjective emotional reactivity to the laboratory stressor. Furthermore, results revealed a significant interaction between BP pathology and PTSD symptoms in the prediction of cortisol reactivity, such that BP pathology was associated with heightened cortisol reactivity only among participants with low levels of PTSD symptoms. Similar findings were obtained when examining the interaction between BP pathology and the reexperiencing and avoidance/numbing symptoms of PTSD specifically. Results highlight the moderating role of PTSD symptoms in the BP-reactivity relation. PMID:23375184

  1. Response perseveration and ventral prefrontal sensitivity to reward and punishment in male problem gamblers and smokers.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Michiel B; Veltman, Dick J; Goudriaan, Anna E; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; van den Brink, Wim

    2009-03-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is associated with maladaptive perseverative behavior, but the underlying mechanism and neural circuitry is not completely clear. Here, the hypothesis was tested that PG is characterized by response perseveration and abnormalities in reward and/or punishment sensitivity in the ventral frontostriatal circuit. Executive functioning was assessed to verify if these effects are independent of the dorsal frontostriatal circuit. A group of smokers was also included to examine whether impairments in PG generalize to substance use disorders. Response perseveration and reward/punishment sensitivity were measured with a probabilistic reversal-learning task, in which subjects could win and lose money. Executive functioning was measured with a planning task, the Tower of London. Performance and fMRI data were acquired in 19 problem gamblers, 19 smokers, and 19 healthy controls. Problem gamblers showed severe response perseveration, associated with reduced activation of right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in response to both monetary gain and loss. Results did not fully generalize to smokers. Planning performance and related activation of the dorsal frontostriatal circuit were intact in both problem gamblers and smokers. PG is related to response perseveration and diminished reward and punishment sensitivity as indicated by hypoactivation of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex when money is gained and lost. Moreover, intact planning abilities and normal dorsal frontostriatal responsiveness indicate that this deficit is not due to impaired executive functioning. Response perseveration and ventral prefrontal hyporesponsiveness to monetary loss may be markers for maladaptive behavior seen in chemical and nonchemical addictions. PMID:18830241

  2. The twofold diagnosis of personality disorder: How do personality dysfunction and pathological traits increment each other at successive levels of the trait hierarchy?

    PubMed

    Bastiaansen, Leen; Hopwood, Christopher J; Van den Broeck, Joke; Rossi, Gina; Schotte, Christiaan; De Fruyt, Filip

    2016-07-01

    Besides the categorical classification of personality disorders (PDs) in Section II of the DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), which has been transferred as such from DSM-IV, Section III provides an alternative model to stimulate further research on the dimensional conceptualization of PDs. In this alternative system, a PD diagnosis is based on 2 essential criteria: impaired personality functioning and the presence of pathological traits. One topic that warrants further research concerns the incremental validity of these 2 components. The current study addresses this issue in a mixed community-patient sample (N = 233). First, Goldberg's (2006) "bass-ackwards" method was used to examine the hierarchical structure of pathological traits as measured by the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP-BQ; Livesley & Jackson, 2009). We then extracted a single higher order factor from the Severity Index of Personality Problems (SIPP-118; Verheul et al., 2008) to derive 1 coherent indicator of personality dysfunction. Correlation and hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine the incremental validity of the dysfunction factor versus the trait components at succeeding levels of the DAPP-BQ hierarchy. The results only partially supported the 2-component PD diagnosis, as traits and dysfunction appeared to have only limited incremental validity. Moreover, lower order traits were generally unable to outperform higher order components in predicting specific DSM-IV PDs. Implications for the conceptualization and assessment of personality pathology are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26551042

  3. Personality pathology and alcohol dependence at midlife in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Arpana; Narayanan, Gitanjali; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the association between personality pathology (PP) and alcohol dependence (AD; both lifetime and in the past 12 months) among middle-aged to older adults incorporating three sources of assessment, specifically, diagnostic interviews as well as self- and informant reports. We collected data from a representative sample of community participants (N = 1,630; ages 54-65 years) and their informants (N = 1,462). Measures employed were the substance use disorder sections of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview Schedule for Mental Disorders, the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR SIDP) and the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R., Revised NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) manual, 1992, Odessa, FL, Psychological Assessment Resources; self-report and informant versions). To complement the diagnostic interview for personality disorders (PDs), we utilized a PD-count technique derived from the five-factor model (FFM), which provided an index of PP liability. Factors representing lifetime and past-12 month AD were regressed on each of the 10 PP factors constructed from the SIDP interview, as well as self-report and informant FFM-count scores. Lifetime diagnosis of AD was positively associated with higher scores on several PP measures, including paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PP. There was an inverse relation between lifetime AD and the factor score for obsessive-compulsive PP. With regard to AD in the past 12 months, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PP factors were significantly associated with increased risk for AD, whereas the obsessive-compulsive and schizoid PP factors were associated with decreased risk for AD. The present data indicate that features of antisocial and

  4. Desperate Housewives: An Analysis of the Characterisations of Female Gamblers Portrayed in Gambling Movies in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohtsuka, Keis; Chan, Chi Chuen

    2009-01-01

    This article examines portrayals of female gamblers in recent Hong Kong movies. The authors report that the depiction of female gamblers is very different from that of male gamblers in the movies made in the same period. Whereas the male gamblers are pitching a lonely and desperate battle against an evil opponent, the female gamblers portrayed in…

  5. Metacognition in Pathological Gambling and Its Relationship with Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Paula; Urbiola, Irache; Estevez, Ana

    2016-06-01

    Gambling disorder is associated with elevated comorbidity with depressive and anxious disorders, and one variable that might help in the understanding of this association is metacognition. In the present study, the relationship between gambling and metacognition and the mediating role of metacognition in the relationship between gambling and depressive and anxious symptomatology were assessed. The sample comprised 124 pathological gamblers from centers that assist pathological gamblers and 204 participants from the general population. The results showed that pathological gamblers had higher levels of depressive and anxious symptomatology. Additionally, pathological gamblers had higher scores for positive beliefs about worry, negative beliefs of uncontrollability and danger, and beliefs about the need to control thoughts; these factors were also positively correlated with depressive and anxious symptomatology. Metacognition also fully mediated the association between gambling and depressive and anxious symptomatology. These results suggest that metacognition could contribute to explaining gambling disorder and the symptomatology associated with it. PMID:25962856

  6. Pathological gambling: understanding relapses and dropouts.

    PubMed

    Aragay, Núria; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Ramos-Grille, Irene; Cardona, Sara; Garrido, Gemma; Anisul Islam, Mohammed; Menchón, José M; Vallès, Vicenç

    2015-02-01

    There is little available information on the factors that influence relapses and dropouts during therapy for pathological gambling (PG). The aim of this study was to determine socio-demographic, clinical, personality, and psychopathological predictors of relapse and dropout in a sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. A total of 566 consecutive outpatients diagnosed with PG according to DSM-IV-TR criteria were included. All patients underwent an individualized cognitive-behavioral treatment program. We analyzed predictors of relapse during 6months of treatment and during the subsequent 6months of follow-up, and predictors of dropout over the entire therapeutic program. Eighty patients (14.1%) experienced at least one relapse during the entire follow-up of the study: 50 (8.8%) within the treatment period and 12 (2.1%) during the subsequent 6-month follow-up period. The main predictors of relapse were single marital status, spending less than 100euros/week on gambling, active gambling behavior at treatment inclusion, and high scores on the TCI-R Harm Avoidance personality dimension. One hundred fifty-seven patients (27.8%) missed 3 or more therapeutic sessions over the entire therapeutic program. The main predictors of dropout were single marital status, younger age, and high scores on the TCI-R Novelty Seeking personality dimension. The presence of these factors at inclusion should be taken into account by physicians dealing with PG patients. PMID:25434846

  7. Gambler Risk Perception: A Mental Model and Grounded Theory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Spurrier, Michael; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Rhodes, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have investigated how gamblers perceive risk or the role of risk perception in disordered gambling. The purpose of the current study therefore was to obtain data on lay gamblers' beliefs on these variables and their effects on decision-making, behaviour, and disordered gambling aetiology. Fifteen regular lay gamblers (non-problem/low risk, moderate risk and problem gamblers) completed a semi-structured interview following mental models and grounded theory methodologies. Gambler interview data was compared to an expert 'map' of risk-perception, to identify comparative gaps or differences associated with harmful or safe gambling. Systematic overlapping processes of data gathering and analysis were used to iteratively extend, saturate, test for exception, and verify concepts and themes emerging from the data. The preliminary findings suggested that gambler accounts supported the presence of expert conceptual constructs, and to some degree the role of risk perception in protecting against or increasing vulnerability to harm and disordered gambling. Gambler accounts of causality, meaning, motivation, and strategy were highly idiosyncratic, and often contained content inconsistent with measures of disordered gambling. Disordered gambling appears heavily influenced by relative underestimation of risk and overvaluation of gambling, based on explicit and implicit analysis, and deliberate, innate, contextual, and learned processing evaluations and biases. PMID:24402720

  8. Validation of the FFM PD count technique for screening personality pathology in later middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Joke; Rossi, Gina; De Clercq, Barbara; Dierckx, Eva; Bastiaansen, Leen

    2013-01-01

    Research on the applicability of the five factor model (FFM) to capture personality pathology coincided with the development of a FFM personality disorder (PD) count technique, which has been validated in adolescent, young, and middle-aged samples. This study extends the literature by validating this technique in an older sample. Five alternative FFM PD counts based upon the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) are computed and evaluated in terms of both convergent and divergent validity with the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders Questionnaire (shortly ADP-IV; DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth edition). For the best working count for each PD normative data are presented, from which cut-off scores are derived. The validity of these cut-offs and their usefulness as a screening tool is tested against both a categorical (i.e., the DSM-IV - Text Revision), and a dimensional (i.e., the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology; DAPP) measure of personality pathology. All but the Antisocial and Obsessive-Compulsive counts exhibited adequate convergent and divergent validity, supporting the use of this method in older adults. Using the ADP-IV and the DAPP - Short Form as validation criteria, results corroborate the use of the FFM PD count technique to screen for PDs in older adults, in particular for the Paranoid, Borderline, Histrionic, Avoidant, and Dependent PDs. Given the age-neutrality of the NEO PI-R and the considerable lack of valid personality assessment tools, current findings appear to be promising for the assessment of pathology in older adults. PMID:22913535

  9. Dynamic of Change in Pathological Personality Trait Dimensions: A Latent Change Analysis Among at-Risk Women

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Baptiste; Hunter, Scott R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores longitudinally a four-factor structure of pathological personality trait dimensions (PPTDs) to examine both its structural stability and intra-individual changes among PPTDs over time. Personality Disorder (PD) scales of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III were administered to 361 low-income women with various psychiatric conditions (drug dependence, depression), who were followed in a two-wave study over 5-years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal factor analyses outlined a robust factorial structure of PPTDs, extrinsically invariant over time, representing Negative Emotionality, Introversion, Antagonism and Impulsivity. Despite moderate rank-order stability in the PPTDs, results also indicated substantial intra-individual variability in the degree and direction of change, consistent with trajectories of change in participants’ clinical diagnoses. Results are discussed in light of current debates on the structure and dynamic of pathological personality. PMID:23710108

  10. Pair Gamblers Anonymous with Other Treatments for Best Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Gamblers Anonymous helps people with gambling problems, and it's even more effective when used ... published between 2002 and 2015 that examined problem gambling. The research included data on various aspects of ...

  11. Psychological Factors that Promote and Inhibit Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morasco, Benjamin J.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Ledgerwood, David M.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes qualitative data regarding psychological factors that may affect gambling behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Participants (n = 84) diagnosed with pathological gambling were treated in a clinical trial examining the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Qualitative data were collected from…

  12. Behavioral Treatment for Pathological Gambling in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guercio, John M.; Johnson, Taylor; Dixon, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation examined a behavior-analytic clinical treatment package designed to reduce the pathological gambling of 3 individuals with acquired brain injury. A prior history of pathological gambling of each patient was assessed via caregiver report, psychological testing, and direct observation of gambling behavior. Using an 8-week…

  13. The Efficacy of Three Modalities of Internet-Based Psychotherapy for Non–Treatment-Seeking Online Problem Gamblers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tanguy, Marie-Laure; Lagadec, Marthylle; Benyamina, Amine; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Reynaud, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet-based interventions targeted at the most at-risk gamblers could reduce the treatment gap for addictive disorders. Currently, no clinical trial has included non–treatment-seeking patients who have been recruited directly in their gambling environment. This study was the first exclusively Internet-based randomized controlled trial among non–help-seeking problem gamblers with naturalistic recruitment in their gambling environment. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of three modalities of Internet-based psychotherapies with or without guidance, compared to a control condition, among problem gamblers who play online poker. Methods All active poker gamblers on the Winamax website were systematically offered screening. All problem poker gamblers identified with a Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) score of ≥5 were eligible to be included in the trial. Problem gamblers were randomized into four groups: (1) waiting list (control group), (2) personalized normalized feedback on their gambling status by email, (3) an email containing a self-help book to be downloaded with a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) program without guidance, and (4) the same CBT program emailed weekly by a trained psychologist with personalized guidance. Efficacy was assessed based on the change in PGSI between baseline and 6 weeks (end of treatment) or 12 weeks (maintenance) and supported by player account-based gambling data automatically collected at the three time points. Results All groups met high attrition rates (83%), but the group with guidance had a significantly higher dropout rate than the other three groups, including the control group. Although all groups showed some improvement, with a mean decrease of 1.35 on the PGSI, no significant difference in efficacy between the groups was observed. One-third of the problem gamblers fell below the problem gambling threshold at 6 weeks. Conclusions Guidance could have aversively affected

  14. The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality for Youth (SNAP-Y): A New Measure for Assessing Adolescent Personality and Personality Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linde, Jennifer A.; Stringer, Deborah; Simms, Leonard J.; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-01-01

    The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Youth Version (SNAP-Y) is a new, reliable self-report questionnaire that assesses 15 personality traits relevant to both normal-range personality and the alternative "DSM"-5 model for personality disorder. Community adolescents, 12 to 18 years old (N = 364), completed the SNAP-Y; 347…

  15. Imbalance in the sensitivity to different types of rewards in pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Sescousse, Guillaume; Barbalat, Guillaume; Domenech, Philippe; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2013-08-01

    Pathological gambling is an addictive disorder characterized by a persistent and compulsive desire to engage in gambling activities. This maladaptive behaviour has been suggested to result from a decreased sensitivity to experienced rewards, regardless of reward type. Alternatively, pathological gambling might reflect an imbalance in the sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives. To directly test these two hypotheses, we examined how the brain reward circuit of pathological gamblers responds to different types of rewards. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared the brain responses of 18 pathological gamblers and 20 healthy control subjects while they engaged in a simple incentive task manipulating both monetary and visual erotic rewards. During reward anticipation, the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers showed a differential response to monetary versus erotic cues, essentially driven by a blunted reactivity to cues predicting erotic stimuli. This differential response correlated with the severity of gambling symptoms and was paralleled by a reduced behavioural motivation for erotic rewards. During reward outcome, a posterior orbitofrontal cortex region, responding to erotic rewards in both groups, was further recruited by monetary gains in pathological gamblers but not in control subjects. Moreover, while ventral striatal activity correlated with subjective ratings assigned to monetary and erotic rewards in control subjects, it only correlated with erotic ratings in gamblers. Our results point to a differential sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary rewards in pathological gambling, both at the motivational and hedonic levels. Such an imbalance might create a bias towards monetary rewards, potentially promoting addictive gambling behaviour. PMID:23757765

  16. Gamblers' habits: empirical evidence on the behavior of regulars, newcomers and dropouts.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Ingo

    2013-06-01

    Electronic gambling offers the opportunity to analyze huge and unbiased data sets of automatically recorded actual gambling behavior. This study refers to data on 2,127,887 poker playing identities from the Online Poker Database of the University of Hamburg (OPD-UHH) to analyze three subgroups of gamblers: regulars, newcomers, and dropouts. Their gambling habits over 6 months are analyzed in total, as well as over time. Regulars show a much higher involvement than non-regulars and increase their playing volume slightly over the observation period. Newcomers have a lower involvement than non-newcomers and most of them decrease their playing volume over time. Still, there is a small group of newcomers which increases their playing volume sharply and is, hence, very interesting for the industry as well as for the early prevention of pathological gambling. Dropouts have a higher gambling involvement than newcomers but play less than players who have not stopped stop gambling. Most dropouts also show a decreasing playing volume before dropping out. An analysis of the correlations between different variables of gambling habits shows that most of them reinforce each other, for example: gamblers with a higher total playing time tend to play at more tables simultaneously. Only playing frequency is a moderating variable of gambling involvement. PMID:22562549

  17. Factors associated with suicidal risk among a French cohort of problem gamblers seeking treatment.

    PubMed

    Guillou-Landreat, Morgane; Guilleux, Alice; Sauvaget, Anne; Brisson, Lucille; Leboucher, Juliette; Remaud, Manon; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-06-30

    Compared to general population, pathological gamblers are 3.4 times more likely to attempt suicide. Our objective was to identify specific profiles of problem gamblers (PGs) with suicidal risk according to sociodemographic, clinical and gambling characteristics. The PGs cohort, called "EVALJEU" , consists in the inclusion of any new PG seeking treatment in our Department. Patients underwent a semi-structured clinical interview and completed self-report questionnaires. The "suicidal risk module" of the Mini International Psychiatric interview (MINI) allowed to constitute two groups of patients that were compared, according to the presence of a suicidal risk. A logistic regression was performed to identify factors related to suicidal risk in PGs. In our sample (N=194), 40.21% presented a suicidal risk. A history of major depression and anxiety disorders were predictors of suicidal risk as well as the perceived inability to stop gambling. Suicidality is a significant clinical concern in PGs. Therefore, three specific predictors, identified by our study, must be assessed. PMID:27078754

  18. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders. PMID:27348555

  19. Are psychology university student gamblers representative of non-university students and general gamblers? A comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Russell, Alex; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2014-03-01

    Students recruited from psychology undergraduate university populations are commonly used in psychology research, including gambling studies. However, the extent to which the use of this subpopulation produces findings that can be extrapolated to other groups is questionable. The present study was designed to compare results from university-recruited psychology student gamblers to those obtained from a sample of gamblers recruited from the general population that also included students. An online survey measuring gambling behavior and Internet gambling, attitudes and knowledge about gambling and problem gambling severity was posted on websites accessed by gamblers. Participants were recruited from two sources, a psychology undergraduate university population (n = 461) and online websites (n = 4,801). Results showed university-recruited students differed significantly from both adults and students recruited from the general population in respect to demographic variables and gambling behavior. Psychology undergraduate students were younger, more likely to be female, and had lower incomes. When relevant demographic variables were controlled, psychology undergraduate students were found to gamble less frequently, at different times, and to be at lower-risk for gambling-related problems, but had more irrational beliefs and more negative attitudes towards gambling than gamblers recruited from the general population. Results suggest that caution should be used in extrapolating findings from research using university-recruited psychology student gamblers to wide community populations due to differences related to gambling thoughts, attitudes and behaviors. PMID:23065178

  20. Statistical, Practical, Clinical, and Personal Significance: Definitions and Applications in Speech-Language Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bothe, Anne K.; Richardson, Jessica D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss constructs and methods related to assessing the magnitude and the meaning of clinical outcomes, with a focus on applications in speech-language pathology. Method: Professionals in medicine, allied health, psychology, education, and many other fields have long been concerned with issues referred to variously as practical…

  1. Pedal pathology potentiated by personal pedicure procedures in the presence of painless peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhubrak, Michelle S; Fisher, Timothy K; Armstrong, David G

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature is replete with recommendations for people with diabetes-particularly those with neuropathy, ischemia, or both-to avoid caring for corns and calluses on their own feet, there are virtually no reports of damage associated with this care. The purpose of this article is to report on the potential perils of personal pedicures in the presence of peripheral neuropathy by using a case-based example. In this article, we report on the inappropriate use of a Ped Egg personal pedicure device that led to limb-threatening lesions in a gentleman with diabetic peripheral sensory neuropathy. PMID:24072378

  2. Altering the "Near-Miss" Effect in Slot Machine Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Jackson, James E.; Habib, Reza

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the potential for recreational gamblers to respond as if certain types of losing slot machine outcomes were actually closer to a win than others (termed the "near-miss effect"). Exposure to conditional discrimination training and testing disrupted this effect for 10 of the 16 participants. These 10 participants demonstrated…

  3. Detection of Problem Gambler Subgroups Using Recursive Partitioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Francis; Young, Martin; Doran, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The multivariate socio-demographic risk factors for problem gambling have been well documented. While this body of research is valuable in determining risk factors aggregated across various populations, the majority of studies tend not to specifically identify particular subgroups of problem gamblers based on the interaction between variables. The…

  4. Decoding Problem Gamblers' Signals: A Decision Model for Casino Enterprises.

    PubMed

    Ifrim, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to offer a validated decision model for casino enterprises. The model enables those users to perform early detection of problem gamblers and fulfill their ethical duty of social cost minimization. To this end, the interpretation of casino customers' nonverbal communication is understood as a signal-processing problem. Indicators of problem gambling recommended by Delfabbro et al. (Identifying problem gamblers in gambling venues: final report, 2007) are combined with Viterbi algorithm into an interdisciplinary model that helps decoding signals emitted by casino customers. Model output consists of a historical path of mental states and cumulated social costs associated with a particular client. Groups of problem and non-problem gamblers were simulated to investigate the model's diagnostic capability and its cost minimization ability. Each group consisted of 26 subjects and was subsequently enlarged to 100 subjects. In approximately 95% of the cases, mental states were correctly decoded for problem gamblers. Statistical analysis using planned contrasts revealed that the model is relatively robust to the suppression of signals performed by casino clientele facing gambling problems as well as to misjudgments made by staff regarding the clients' mental states. Only if the last mentioned source of error occurs in a very pronounced manner, i.e. judgment is extremely faulty, cumulated social costs might be distorted. PMID:24938732

  5. A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members…

  6. Internet Gambling Behavior in a Sample of Online Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Jessica; Derevensky, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined Internet gambling behavior in a sample of online gamblers. Participants (N = 563; 382 male; ages 18-over 65) were recruited from a banner placed in an online newsletter. Questionnaires were completed online and assessed demographic information, game-play patterns (e.g., frequency, duration, wagering), preferred type of…

  7. Refining the Measurement of Axis II: A Q-sort Procedure for Assessing Personality Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shedler, Jonathan; Westen, Drew

    1998-01-01

    Results from a study involving 153 clinicians who used the new Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (a Q-sort approach) and eight patient interviews suggest the usefulness of the SWAP to measure personality disorders and refine categories and criteria according to Axis II of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American…

  8. Pathological Gambling and Suicidality: An Analysis of Severity and Lethality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maccallum, Fiona; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the nature of suicidal behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers and its relationship to gambling characteristics and depression. High rates of suicidal ideation, suicidal plans, and attempts were found; however, no clear relationship was observed between suicidality and indices of gambling behavior. (Contains 37…

  9. A Head-to-Head Comparison of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) With the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4) in Predicting the General Level of Personality Pathology Among Community Dwelling Subjects.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Andrea; Somma, Antonella; Borroni, Serena; Maffei, Cesare; Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F

    2016-02-01

    In order to evaluate if measures of DSM-5 Alternative PD Model domains predicted interview-based scores of general personality pathology when compared to self-report measures of DSM-IV Axis II/DSM-5 Section II PD criteria, 300 Italian community adults were administered the Iowa Personality Disorder Screen (IPDS) interview, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+). Multiple regression analyses showed that the five PID-5 domain scales collectively explained an adequate rate of the variance of the IPDS interview total score. This result was slightly lower than the amount of variance in the IPDS total score explained by the 10 PDQ-4+ scales. The PID-5 traits scales performed better than the PDQ-4+, although the difference was marginal. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the PID-5 domain and trait scales provided a moderate, but significant increase in the prediction of the general level of personality pathology above and beyond the PDQ-4+ scales. PMID:26828108

  10. Age and remission of personality pathology in the psychotic disorders compared to mood and/or anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianhong; Good, Mary-Jo D; Good, Byron J; Chow, Annabelle; Wang, Lanlan; Dai, Yunfei; Xiao, Zeping

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore age-related differences in personality pathology between psychotic disorder (PSD) and mood and/or anxiety disorder (MAD) among psychiatric outpatients, 2,354 subjects were sampled randomly from outpatients in Shanghai and divided into two groups: PSD (N = 951) and MAD (N = 1403). Dimensional scores for personality disorder (PD) traits were assessed by using a self-reported personality diagnostic questionnaire (PDQ4+). Significant age differences were observed in most of the PD traits in MAD patients. Cluster B and C PD traits displayed an apparent decrease with age in MAD group, but such decline trend was not evident in PSD group. In both groups, the decline of self-reported Cluster A PD traits were less visible than the other clusters. Age-related mellowing of some PD traits such as "dramatic, erratic, anxious" occurred primarily in MAD patients; however the same traits in PSD patients appear to be less resistant to aging. Besides, "old eccentric" PD traits in both MAD and PSD patients seem to be maintained and less modified by aging. PMID:23586279

  11. Using negative emotions to trace the experience of borderline personality pathology: Interconnected relationships revealed in an experience sampling study

    PubMed Central

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R. Michael

    2015-01-01

    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a BDP diagnosis was associated with experiencing more negative emotions. Multilevel modeling supported positive concurrent relationships between negative emotions and BPD symptoms. Lagged models showed that even after three hours negative emotions and several symptoms continued to influence each other. Therefore, results indicated that negative emotions and BPD symptoms are intricately related; some evidenced long-lasting relationships. This research supports emotion-symptom contingencies within BPD and provides insight regarding the reactivity and functionality of negative emotions in borderline pathology. PMID:25710731

  12. Using Negative Emotions to Trace the Experience of Borderline Personality Pathology: Interconnected Relationships Revealed in an Experience Sampling Study.

    PubMed

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R Michael

    2016-02-01

    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a BDP diagnosis was associated with experiencing more negative emotions. Multilevel modeling supported positive concurrent relationships between negative emotions and BPD symptoms. Lagged models showed that even after 3 hours negative emotions and several symptoms continued to influence each other. Therefore, results indicated that negative emotions and BPD symptoms are intricately related; some evidenced long-lasting relationships. This research supports emotion-symptom contingencies within BPD and provides insight regarding the reactivity and functionality of negative emotions in borderline pathology. PMID:25710731

  13. Health behaviour and body mass index among problem gamblers: results from a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Algren, Maria H; Ekholm, Ola; Davidsen, Michael; Larsen, Christina V L; Juel, Knud

    2015-06-01

    Problem gambling is a serious public health issue. The objective of this study was to investigate whether past year problem gamblers differed from non-problem gamblers with regard to health behaviour and body mass index (BMI) among Danes aged 16 years or older. Data were derived from the Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys in 2005 and 2010. Past year problem gambling was defined using the lie/bet questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between past year problem gambling and health behaviour and BMI. Problem gambling was associated with unhealthy behaviour and obesity. The odds of smoking was significantly higher among problem gamblers than among non-problem gamblers. Further, the odds of high-risk alcohol drinking and illicit drug use were significantly higher among problem gamblers. The prevalence of sedentary leisure activity, unhealthy diet pattern and obesity was higher among problem gamblers than among non-problem gamblers. The associations found in this study remained significant after adjustment for sex, age, educational and cohabiting status as well as other risk factors. Our findings highlight the presence of a potential, public health challenge and elucidate the need for health promotion initiatives targeted at problem gamblers. Furthermore, more research is needed in order to understand the underlying social mechanism of the association between problem gamblers and unhealthy behaviour. PMID:24390713

  14. Subtypes of Disordered Gamblers: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)

    PubMed Central

    Nower, Lia; Martins, Silvia S.; Lin, Keng-Han; Blanco, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Aims To derive empirical subtypes of problem gamblers based on etiological and clinical characteristics described in the Pathways Model, using data from a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults. Design & Measurement Data were collected from structured diagnostic face-to-face interviews using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-IV version IV (AUDADIS-IV). Setting The study utilized data from U.S. National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Participants All disordered gambling participants (N = 581) from a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of civilian non-institutionalized adults aged 18 years or older. Findings Latent class analyses indicated the best-fitting model was a three-class solution. Those in the largest class (Class 1: 51%, n=295) reported the lowest overall levels of psychopathology including gambling problem severity and mood disorders. In contrast, respondents in Class 2 (20%, n=117) had a high probability of endorsing past-year substance use disorders, moderate probabilities of having parents with alcohol/drug problems and of having a personality disorder, and the highest probability for past-year mood disorders. Respondents in Class 3 (29%, n=169) had the highest probabilities of personality and prior-to-past year mood disorders, substance use disorders, separation/divorce, drinking-related physical fights, and parents with alcohol/drug problems and/or a history of ASPD. Conclusions Three subtypes of disordered gamblers can be identified, roughly corresponding to the sub-types of the Pathways Model, ranging from a subgroup with low levels of gambling severity and psychopathology to one with high levels of gambling problem severity and comorbid psychiatric disorders. PMID:23072599

  15. Gambling pathology is associated with dampened cortisol response among men and women.

    PubMed

    Paris, J J; Franco, C; Sodano, R; Frye, C A; Wulfert, E

    2010-02-01

    Pathological gambling has many similarities to pharmacological addiction. Notably, both pathological gambling and drug addiction are characterized by aberrations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responding. As well, there are indications that gender differences may play a role in these processes. Whether gender and/or HPA response are associated with pathological gambling was of interest. Recreational and pathological gamblers (15 men and 6 women per group) had the HPA factor, cortisol, assessed in saliva before and after watching a video of their preferred mode of gambling (slot machines, horse race betting, scratch-off tickets, blackjack, video poker, craps, sports betting, online casino games, or lottery tickets), and a video of neutral stimuli (a rollercoaster ride). Basal levels of salivary cortisol did not significantly differ among recreational and pathological gamblers. However, recreational gamblers demonstrated significantly increased salivary cortisol levels after the gambling and rollercoaster videos, whereas pathological gamblers demonstrated no salivary cortisol increase in response to either video stimulus. There was also a non-significant trend for women to have a greater cortisol response to video stimuli compared to men. These data suggest that pathological gambling is associated with hypoactive HPA response to gambling stimuli, similar to chronic drug exposure, and gender may contribute to this effect. PMID:19361537

  16. Borderline, avoidant, sadistic personality traits and emotion dysregulation predict different pathological skin picking subtypes in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Pozza, Andrea; Giaquinta, Nicoletta; Dèttore, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Pathological skin picking (SP) is a strongly impairing condition characterized by repetitive picking behaviors resulting in significant tissue damage and distress. Recent research suggested the presence of different subtypes of SP. No study has investigated which personality traits could be specifically associated with different subtypes. In a community sample (N=285, 71.20% females, mean age =34.98 years, standard deviation =15.91), this cross-sectional study investigated which personality traits and emotion regulation deficits could predict specific SP subtypes. Participants completed the Milwaukee Inventory for the Dimensions of Adult Skin Picking (MIDAS), Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III personality scales (MCMI-III), and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) questionnaires. Higher scores on the MCMI-III borderline (β=0.28, t=4.88, P<0.001), MCMI-III avoidant scale (β=0.18, t=2.59, P<0.01), and DERS difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior (β=0.19, t=3.27, P<0.01) predicted higher scores on the MIDAS automatic scale. Higher scores on the MCMI-III borderline (β=0.30, t=5.23, P<0.001) and DERS difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior (β=0.15, t=2.52, P<0.05) and DERS limited access to emotion regulation strategies (β=0.21, t=3.26, P<0.01) predicted higher scores on the MIDAS focused scale. Higher scores on the MCMI-III sadistic (β=0.19, t=3.30, P<0.001) and DERS difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior (β=0.15, t=2.68, P<0.01) predicted higher scores on the MIDAS mixed scale. Implications for future research and treatment are discussed. PMID:27536108

  17. Borderline, avoidant, sadistic personality traits and emotion dysregulation predict different pathological skin picking subtypes in a community sample

    PubMed Central

    Pozza, Andrea; Giaquinta, Nicoletta; Dèttore, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Pathological skin picking (SP) is a strongly impairing condition characterized by repetitive picking behaviors resulting in significant tissue damage and distress. Recent research suggested the presence of different subtypes of SP. No study has investigated which personality traits could be specifically associated with different subtypes. In a community sample (N=285, 71.20% females, mean age =34.98 years, standard deviation =15.91), this cross-sectional study investigated which personality traits and emotion regulation deficits could predict specific SP subtypes. Participants completed the Milwaukee Inventory for the Dimensions of Adult Skin Picking (MIDAS), Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III personality scales (MCMI-III), and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) questionnaires. Higher scores on the MCMI-III borderline (β=0.28, t=4.88, P<0.001), MCMI-III avoidant scale (β=0.18, t=2.59, P<0.01), and DERS difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior (β=0.19, t=3.27, P<0.01) predicted higher scores on the MIDAS automatic scale. Higher scores on the MCMI-III borderline (β=0.30, t=5.23, P<0.001) and DERS difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior (β=0.15, t=2.52, P<0.05) and DERS limited access to emotion regulation strategies (β=0.21, t=3.26, P<0.01) predicted higher scores on the MIDAS focused scale. Higher scores on the MCMI-III sadistic (β=0.19, t=3.30, P<0.001) and DERS difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior (β=0.15, t=2.68, P<0.01) predicted higher scores on the MIDAS mixed scale. Implications for future research and treatment are discussed. PMID:27536108

  18. An examination of factors driving chinese gamblers' fallacy bias.

    PubMed

    Fong, Lawrence Hoc Nang; Law, Rob; Lam, Desmond

    2014-09-01

    Gambling is a leisure activity, which is enjoyed by many people around the world. Among these people, Chinese are known for their high propensity to gamble and are highly sought after by many casinos. In this exploratory study, the effect of two types of fallacy bias-positive recency and negative recency-on the betting behavior of Chinese gamblers is investigated. Although the influence of fallacy bias on a betting decision is well documented, little is known about the interaction of the factors that dictate fallacy bias. Drawing from an analysis of 2,645 betting decisions, the results show that Chinese gamblers primarily endorse positive recency, especially when the latest outcome is more frequent. This is contrary to most findings on Western subjects in which negative recency is more common. Current findings have meaningful implications to casino gaming entertainment businesses and public policymakers. PMID:23740349

  19. A Case of Mistaken Identity? A Comparison of Professional and Amateur Problem Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Professional gamblers are more likely than amateur gamblers to meet criteria for problem gambling but minimal research has examined their gambling behavior and its consequences. This study compared gambling behavior, problem gambling symptoms, related harms, recognition, and help-seeking among problem semi/professional gamblers (PPGs/PSPGs) and problem amateur gamblers (PAGs). Surveys completed by 57 self-identified professional gamblers, 311 semi-professional gamblers and 4226 amateur gamblers were analysed. PPGs/PSPGs were significantly more likely than PAGs to be male, younger, never married, speak a language other than English at home, and have higher psychological distress, compared to PAGs. PPGs/PSPGs were more likely to gamble more frequently on many skills-based forms, but most also participated in several chance-based forms. PPGs'/PSPGs' most common problematic gambling form was electronic gaming machines and they were more likely to have problems with sports betting than PAGs. Most PPGs/PSPGs reported coming out behind on all gambling forms over the previous year. PPGs/PSPGs were more likely than PAGs to report chasing losses and numerous detrimental financial gambling consequences. This group's self-identification as PPGs/PSPGs is clearly inaccurate and perhaps a means to avoid stigma, elevate status and support problem denial. PPGs/PSPGs may represent an extreme example of gamblers with erroneous cognitions and beliefs who lack the required discipline and skill to be successful professional gamblers. The findings identify a group of problem gamblers who may benefit from interventions to dispel their mistaken self-identity, and emphasize the need for more rigorous confirmation of professional gambler status in future research. PMID:25722076

  20. Exposure to Violence, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Borderline Personality Pathology Among Adolescents in Residential Psychiatric Treatment: The Influence of Emotion Dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Buckholdt, Kelly E; Weiss, Nicole H; Young, John; Gratz, Kim L

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to violence during adolescence is a highly prevalent phenomenon associated with a range of deleterious outcomes. Theoretical literature suggests that emotion dysregulation is one consequence of exposure to violence associated with the manifestation of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and borderline personality (BP) pathology. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine the mediating role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between exposure to violence and both PTSS and BP pathology in a sample of 144 adolescents (age 10- to 17-years; 51% male; 55% African American) admitted to a psychiatric residential treatment center. Exposure to violence was associated with greater emotion dysregulation, which, in turn, was associated with greater PTSS and BP pathology. Furthermore, emotion dysregulation mediated the associations between exposure to violence and both PTSS and BP pathology. Findings suggest the importance of assessing and treating emotion dysregulation among violence-exposed adolescents in psychiatric residential treatment. PMID:25500759

  1. Internet Self-Exclusion: Characteristics of Self-Excluded Gamblers and Preliminary Evidence for Its Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayer, Tobias; Meyer, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary scientific evidence indicates that online gamblers are more likely to be problem gamblers and thus point to the need for effective protection measures. This study focuses on an online self-exclusion program and seeks to comprehensively examine the benefits of this measure. It was intended to collect detailed information on the…

  2. A dangerous cocktail: Alcohol consumption increases suicidal ideations among problem gamblers in the general population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoun S; Salmon, Melissa; Wohl, Michael J A; Young, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    The current research examined whether alcohol consumption exacerbates suicidal ideations among gamblers in the general population. While prior research suggests problem gambling severity and excessive alcohol consumption are unique predictors of suicidal behaviors, the extant literature as almost exclusively focused on gamblers in treatment. This represents a significant gap in the literature as less than 10% of gamblers seek treatment. Furthermore, gamblers in treatment are not representative of gamblers in the general population, precluding a simple generalization of research findings. We address this gap using data obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycle 4.1)--a cross-sectional national survey that assesses health-related information among the Canadian population. To this end, we conducted a moderation analysis with problem gambling severity as the independent variable, weekly alcohol consumption as the moderator variable and suicidal ideations (in the past 12 months) as the dependent variable. The results found that alcohol consumption alone did not reliably predict suicidal ideation among gamblers who did not gamble problematically. However, as predicted, the odds of suicidal ideation were greatest among problem gamblers who frequently consumed alcohol. Thus, it may behoove policy makers to re-visit the availability of alcohol in gambling venues. Moreover, responsible gambling-oriented education initiatives may be advanced by informing gamblers about the increased risk of suicidal ideations when problematic gambling is combined with frequent alcohol consumption. PMID:26790140

  3. Recruiting Gamblers from the General Population for Research Purposes: Outcomes from Two Contrasting Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeremy D.; Pulford, Justin; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max

    2010-01-01

    Multiple means exist by which gamblers including problem gamblers may be recruited from the general population for research survey purposes. However, there appears to be limited discussion in the published literature about the relative merits of one or other approach. This paper addresses this gap, in part, by reporting the experiences of…

  4. A Typology of UK Slot Machine Gamblers: A Longitudinal Observational and Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Slot machine gambling is a popular leisure activity worldwide yet there has been very little research into different types of slot machine gamblers. Earlier typologies of slot machine gamblers have only concentrated on adolescents in arcade environments. This study presents a new typology of slot machine players based on over 1000 h of participant…

  5. All in the Family: Help-Seeking by Significant Others of Problem Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hing, Nerilee; Tiyce, Margaret; Holdsworth, Louise; Nuske, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Problem gambling can significantly affect the lives of concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers, especially family members, but little is known about their help-seeking activities and experiences. This paper explores help-seeking by CSOs of problem gamblers and their related motivators and barriers. A telephone interview was…

  6. Clinical predictors of severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy and influence of APOE genotype in persons with pathologically-verified Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Ringman, John M.; Sachs, Michael C.; Zhou, Yan; Monsell, Sarah E.; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Vinters, Harry V.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Though cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) has important clinical implications, our understanding of it and ability to diagnose it is limited. Objective We sought to determine pathological correlates and clinical factors identifiable during life that predict the presence of severe CAA in persons with pathologically-confirmed Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Design We compared demographic and clinical variables at the earliest visit during life at which subjects were found to have cognitive impairment, and pathological variables between persons ultimately found to have no or severe CAA at autopsy using logistic regression. Analyses were repeated separately for carriers and non-carriers of the APOE ε4 allele. Setting Data were obtained from the Uniform Data Set that comprises longitudinal clinical assessments performed in the Alzheimer’s Disease Centers funded by the National Institute on Aging. Participants 193 persons with severe CAA and 232 persons with no CAA. All subjects had cognitive impairment and met NIA-Reagan neuropathological criteria for AD. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of demographic characteristics and the APOE ε4 allele and odds ratios of clinical variables for the prediction of severe CAA. Results Persons with severe CAA were more likely to carry an APOE ε4 allele (64.9% vs. 42.8%), to be Hispanic (6.8% vs. 1.3%, p = 0.003), to have had a transient ischemic attack (TIA, 12.5% vs. 6.1%, OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1 – 4.4), and had lower degrees of diffuse amyloid plaque pathology (mean CERAD scores 1.2 vs. 1.4, p = 0.01) than persons with no CAA. Intracerebral hemorrhage (9.3% vs. 3.5%, p = 0.01), cortical microinfarcts (20.7% vs. 12.9%, p = 0.03), and subcortical leukoencephalopathy (20.5% vs. 12.1%, p = 0.02) were more common in persons with CAA. A higher prevalence of stroke (11.1% vs. 3.9%, OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.0 – 14.6) and hypercholesterolemia (50% vs. 33.3%, OR = 2.3, CI 1.1 – 4.7) were found in non-carriers of the ε4 allele with

  7. Characteristics and Help-Seeking Behaviors of Internet Gamblers Based on Most Problematic Mode of Gambling

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies of problem Internet gamblers have failed to distinguish whether their problem gambling relates to Internet or land-based gambling modes. Therefore, characteristics and help-seeking behaviors of people whose gambling problems relate specifically to Internet gambling are unknown, but could inform the optimal alignment of treatment and support services with the needs and preferences of problem gamblers. Objective This study aimed to compare (1) characteristics of problem Internet gamblers and problem land-based gamblers and (2) uptake of different types and modes of help between problem Internet gamblers and problem land-based gamblers. Hypothesis 1 was that problem Internet gamblers are less likely to seek help. Hypothesis 2 was that problem Internet gamblers are more likely to use online modes of help. Methods A sample of 620 respondents meeting criteria for problem gambling was drawn from an online survey of 4594 Australian gamblers. Respondents were recruited through advertisements on gambling and gambling help websites, Facebook, and Google. Measures consisted of gambling participation; proportion of gambling on the Internet; most problematic mode of gambling; help seeking from 11 different sources of formal help, informal help, and self-help for gambling problems; psychological distress (Kessler 6); problem gambling severity (Problem Gambling Severity Index, PGSI); and demographics. Results Problem Internet gamblers were significantly more likely than problem land-based gamblers to be male (χ2 1=28.3, P<.001, φ=0.21), younger (t 616.33=4.62, P<.001, d=0.37), have lower psychological distress (χ2 1=5.4, P=.02, φ=0.09), and experience problems with sports and race wagering (χ2 4=228.5, P<.001, φ=0.61). Uptake of help was significantly lower among problem Internet compared to problem land-based gamblers (χ2 1=6.9, P<.001, φ=0.11), including from face-to-face services, gambling helplines, online groups, self-exclusion from land

  8. Pathological gambling and treatment outcomes for adults age 50 or older in methadone maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Engel, Rafael J; Rosen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of pathological gambling to negative treatment outcomes for methadone maintenance patients aged 50 or older. The study included 130 methadone maintenance patients. Pathological gambling was determined using the Lie-Bet, a screen for pathological gambling; the outcomes were remaining in treatment and negative urine screens for drug use. Twenty percent of the sample identified as pathological gamblers. Pathological gambling was unrelated to remaining in treatment or negative urine screens. Although pathological gambling had no adverse influence on these treatment outcomes, the prevalence of pathological gambling suggests that screening for it may provide insights about other concerns. PMID:25202832

  9. Emotion: empirical contribution. Maternal borderline personality pathology and infant emotion regulation: examining the influence of maternal emotion-related difficulties and infant attachment.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Kim L; Kiel, Elizabeth J; Latzman, Robert D; Elkin, T David; Moore, Sarah Anne; Tull, Matthew T

    2014-02-01

    Evidence suggests that maternal borderline personality (BP) pathology increases offspring risk. This study examined the relations between maternal BP pathology and related emotional dysfunction (including emotion regulation [ER] difficulties and emotional intensity/reactivity) and infant ER difficulties. Specifically, we examined both self-focused and caregiver-focused ER behaviors and the modulation of emotional expressions (one indicator of ER in young children) in response to fear- and anger-eliciting stimuli among 101 infants (12 to 23 months old) of mothers with and without clinically relevant BP pathology. The authors also examined the moderating role of mother-infant attachment. Findings of a series of multiple regression mediation analyses revealed an indirect effect of maternal BP pathology on infant ER difficulties through maternal emotional dysfunction, with maternal ER difficulties facilitating an indirect effect of maternal BP pathology on expressivity-related indicators of infant ER difficulties and maternal emotional intensity/reactivity linking maternal BP pathology to lower self-focused ER for infants in insecure-resistant attachment relationships. PMID:24344887

  10. A test of social cognitive theory reciprocal and sequential effects: hope, superstitious belief and environmental factors among lottery gamblers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai; Chanchalermporn, Nathanat

    2007-06-01

    This study tested social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) hypotheses of reciprocal and sequential effects among person, environment variables and behavior. The study examined the impact of hope, superstitious belief and environmental factors on the frequency, amounts of lottery gambling and chasing of particular numbers among Thai lottery gamblers. One hundred and fifty gamblers who visited two temples in Bangkok to search for number clues before buying tickets and 150 gamblers who simply bought lottery tickets from the stalls were recruited for the study. Models were constructed to test the effect of hope, superstitious belief and environmental factors on gambling behavior, and the reciprocal effect of gambling behavior on hope, superstitious belief and environmental factors. Results confirmed the theoretical reciprocal effects. A sequential effect model showing the effects of environmental factors on superstitious belief, hope and gambling behavior was also constructed and hope was found to be the result of superstitious belief. To reduce lottery gambling, the players need to be warned of their distorted hope and the small chance of winning lottery. PMID:17149670

  11. Intergenerational Childhood Maltreatment in Persons with DSM-IV Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Samuel K; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff; Black, Donald W

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of individuals with DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG) who experienced childhood maltreatment and rates of maltreatment occurring in their first-degree relatives (FDRs). 94 subjects with DSM-IV PG, 91 controls, and 312 FDRs were assessed for childhood maltreatment as part of a family study of PG. Maltreatment was evaluated using the Revised Childhood Experiences Questionnaire. The Family Assessment Device was used to evaluate the functionality of the PG subject's (or control's) family of origin. Data were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations. Rates of maltreatment were significantly higher in subjects with PG than controls (61 vs. 25 %, P < 0.001). Subjects with PG who experienced maltreatment were more likely to be female, had more severe PG symptoms, had co-occurring mood and anxiety disorders, and reported greater early family life dysfunction than those with PG who did not experience maltreatment. Rates of maltreatment were higher in FDRs of PG subjects than controls (41 vs. 24 %, P = .002). Rates in FDRs of individuals with PG who experienced maltreatment themselves were still higher that in FDRs of those with PG who did not experience maltreatment (50 vs. 28 %, P = .009). The former were also more likely to have anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and suicide attempts. The results suggest that childhood maltreatment in persons with PG is common and intergenerational. Rates of maltreatment in FDRs of PG subjects are high, particularly among those who experienced abuse. The implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:26749583

  12. A unifying perspective on personality pathology across the life span: Developmental considerations for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    TACKETT, JENNIFER L.; BALSIS, STEVE; OLTMANNS, THOMAS F.; KRUEGER, ROBERT F.

    2010-01-01

    Proposed changes in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) include replacing current personality disorder (PD) categories on Axis II with a taxonomy of dimensional maladaptive personality traits. Most of the work on dimensional models of personality pathology, and on personality disorders per se, has been conducted on young and middle-aged adult populations. Numerous questions remain regarding the applicability and limitations of applying various PD models to early and later life. In the present paper, we provide an overview of such dimensional models and review current proposals for conceptualizing PDs in DSM-V. Next, we extensively review existing evidence on the development, measurement, and manifestation of personality pathology in early and later life focusing on those issues deemed most relevant for informing DSM-V. Finally, we present overall conclusions regarding the need to incorporate developmental issues in conceptualizing PDs in DSM-V and highlight the advantages of a dimensional model in unifying PD perspectives across the life span. PMID:19583880

  13. The Activation of Reward Versus Relief Gambling Outcome Expectancies in Regular Gamblers: Relations to Gambling Motives.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sunghwan; Stewart, Melissa; Collins, Pamela; Stewart, Sherry H

    2015-12-01

    Gambling outcome expectancies refer to the anticipated outcomes that gamblers expect will occur from gambling (i.e., learned memory associations between gambling cues, behavior, and outcomes). Unlike previous approaches to gambling outcome expectancies that have predominantly focused on the valence of outcome expectancies (positive vs. negative), the present study investigated two specific types of positive gambling outcome expectancies: reward and relief gambling outcome expectancies. Specifically, the primary purpose of the current research was to examine whether gambling prime exposure activates different types of positive gambling outcome expectancies in enhancement- versus coping-motivated gamblers. Fifty adult, community-recruited regular gamblers performed a reaction time (RT) task and completed a self-report expectancy scale, both designed to assess reward and relief gambling outcome expectancies. They also completed the Gambling Motives Questionnaire (Stewart and Zack in Addiction 103:1110-1117 2008) to assess their levels of coping and enhancement motives for gambling. As hypothesized, reward gambling outcome expectancies were more strongly activated by gambling prime exposure than relief outcome expectancies on the RT task for gamblers with high enhancement motives. On the self-report expectancy measure, high enhancement-motivated gamblers endorsed stronger reward gambling outcome expectancies than low enhancement-motivated gamblers, and high coping-motivated gamblers endorsed stronger relief gambling outcome expectancies than low coping-motivated gamblers. Results suggest that automatic activation of reward gambling outcome expectancies is particularly strong for high enhancement-motivated gamblers. Possible reasons for the failure to observe an association between coping gambling motives and automatic relief gambling outcome expectancies are discussed. PMID:24916965

  14. Sociodemographic Correlates and Morbidity in Lottery Gamblers: Results from a Population Survey.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Tang, Benjamin; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Picco, Louisa; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the socio-demographic correlates, the association of mental and physical illness, and the prevalence of pathological gambling among three groups (1) those with lottery gambling only (2) those with lottery and other types of gambling and (3) those with other types of gambling only-such as playing cards, sports betting, horse racing, casino gambling etc. Data was used from a nationwide cross-sectional epidemiological nationally representative survey of the resident (Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents) population in Singapore of 6616 Singaporean adults aged 18 years and older. All respondents were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen to screen for pathological gambling. The diagnoses of mental disorders were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and relevant socio-demographic data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Lottery gambling was by far the most popular form of gambling in Singapore, with 83.5 % of those who had ever gambled indicating that they had participated in lottery gambling. Those who participated in lottery gambling alone were more likely to belong to the older age group (as compared to the 18-35 years age group), be of Indian ethnicity, have a secondary or vocational education, and earn a lower income as compared to the other two groups. Our findings that those with pure lottery gambling were significantly less likely to be pathological gamblers and had significantly lower odds of psychiatric and physical morbidity as compared to the other two groups are unique and need further research. PMID:25773868

  15. Retrospective and Prospective Reports of Precipitants to Relapse in Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgins, David C.; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2004-01-01

    A prospective design was used to explore the precipitants of relapse in a naturalistic sample of pathological gamblers (N = 101) who had recently quit gambling. Relapse rates were high; only 8% were entirely free of gambling during the 12-month follow-up. Relapses were highly variable but occurred most frequently in the evening, when the person…

  16. Examining DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling: psychometric properties and evidence from cognitive biases.

    PubMed

    Lakey, Chad E; Goodie, Adam S; Lance, Charles E; Stinchfield, Randy; Winters, Ken C

    2007-12-01

    We examined the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling as assessed with the DSM-IV-based Diagnostic Interview for Gambling Severity (DIGS; Winters, Specker, & Stinchfield, 2002). We first analyzed the psychometric properties of the DIGS, and then assessed the extent to which performance on two judgment and decision-making tasks, the Georgia Gambling Task (Goodie, 2003) and the Iowa Gambling Task (Bechara, Damasio, Damasio, & Anderson, 1994), related to higher reports of gambling pathology. In a sample of frequent gamblers, we found strong psychometric support for the DSM-IV conception of pathological gambling as measured by the DIGS, predictive relationships between DIGS scores and all cognitive performance measures, and significant differences in performance measures between individuals with and without pathological gambling. Analyses using suggested revisions to the pathological gambling threshold (Stinchfield, 2003) revealed that individuals meeting four of the DSM-IV criteria aligned significantly more with pathological gamblers than with non-pathological gamblers, supporting the suggested change in the cutoff score from five to four symptoms. Discussion focuses on the validity of the DSM-IV criteria as assessed by the DIGS and the role of cognitive biases in pathological gambling. PMID:17453325

  17. Real limits in the virtual world: self-limiting behavior of Internet gamblers.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Sarah E; LaPlante, Debi A; Peller, Allyson J; Schumann, Anja; LaBrie, Richard A; Shaffer, Howard J

    2008-12-01

    The recent expansion of Internet gambling has stimulated debate, policy, and research on this relatively new phenomenon and its potential consequences. The current study focuses on bettors experiencing problems by sampling Internet gamblers who imposed limits on the amount they were allowed to deposit to a betting site. We analyzed the betting transactions over 18 months of all gamblers who subscribed to an online betting site in February, 2005 (N = 47,134), 567 of whom utilized the site's self-limit feature. Self-limiting gamblers played a wider variety of games and placed more bets than others prior to imposing limits. After imposing limits, self-limiters reduced their activity, but did not reduce the amount they wagered per bet. Time spent gambling, not just money spent, appears to be an important indicator of gambling problems. Self-limit programs appear to be promising options for Internet gamblers at-risk for gambling problems. PMID:18696219

  18. [Self-help program: a new tool to facilitate the access to treatment for problem gamblers].

    PubMed

    Saeremans, M; Noël, X; Verbanck, P

    2015-01-01

    Shame, fear of stigmatization, denial, accessibility to and the cost of treatment program may explain why only a small proportion of problem gamblers sought clinical treatment. In the hope to overcome these barriers, the Gambling Clinic and Other Behavioral Addictions of C.H.U. Brugmann (Brussels) has developed its own self-help program for excessive gamblers. Our goals were to foster readiness to change gambling behaviors and when appropriate to facilitate the transition from self-help program to classical face-to-face clinical intervention. In a sample of 172 problem gamblers who participated, 40% had never sought help (e.g., clinical treatment) and/or never attempted quit gambling. Interestingly, for some, internet-based self-help treatment preceded their determination for seeking a traditional face-to-face therapeutic setting. Those results led us to discuss this program as a valid clinical tool within a broader health care setting in excessive gamblers. PMID:26164965

  19. Efficacy of Personalized Normative Feedback as a Brief Intervention for College Student Gambling: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Rinker, Dipali V.; Agana, Maigen; Gonzales, Rubi G.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Foster, Dawn W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Social influences on gambling among adolescents and adults have been well documented and may be particularly evident among college students, who have higher rates of problem and pathological gambling relative to the general population. Personalized normative feedback (PNF) is a brief intervention designed to correct misperceptions regarding the prevalence of problematic behavior by showing individuals engaging in such behaviors that their own behavior is atypical with respect to actual norms. The current randomized controlled trial evaluated a computer-delivered PNF intervention for problem gambling college students. Method Following a baseline assessment, 252 college student gamblers scoring 2+ on the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) were randomly assigned to receive PNF or attention-control feedback. Follow-up assessments were completed 3 and 6 months postintervention. Results Results indicated significant intervention effects in reducing perceived norms for quantities lost and won, and in reducing actual quantity lost and gambling problems at the 3-month follow-up. All intervention effects except reduced gambling problems remained at the 6-month follow-up. Mediation results indicated that changes in perceived norms at 3 months mediated the intervention effects. Further, the intervention effects were moderated by self-identification with other student gamblers, suggesting that PNF worked better at reducing gambling for those who more strongly identified with other student gamblers. Conclusions Results support the use of PNF as a stand-alone brief intervention for at-risk gambling students. Extending this approach more broadly may provide an accessible, empirically supported gambling prevention option for universities and related institutions. PMID:26009785

  20. The Vulnerable Faces of Pathological Gambling

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Pathological gambling is an emerging psychiatric disorder that has medical, psychiatric, and social consequences. Recently, research has been focusing on identifying which portions of the population are most vulnerable to developing problems related to ongoing gambling. Specific populations of interest have included adolescents, elderly, minorities, those with comorbid psychiatric or substance use disorders, and gender differences. Each group possesses unique biological, psychological, and/or social characteristics that confer a vulnerability to develop pathological gambling behaviors. Being able to recognize those who are at risk to become pathological gamblers is the first step toward developing effective prevention and early intervention programs. This is Part Two of a three-part series on pathological gambling. Part One appeared in the March issue of Psychiatry 2005. PMID:21179650

  1. Motivators for seeking gambling-related treatment among Ontario problem gamblers.

    PubMed

    Suurvali, Helen; Hodgins, David C; Toneatto, Tony; Cunningham, John A

    2012-06-01

    A random digit dialing telephone survey was used to interview 8,467 adults in Ontario, Canada. The NODS-CLiP was used to identify a representative sample of 730 gamblers (54.3% male, mean age 45.3 years) with possible past year gambling problems in order to explore factors that might affect disordered gamblers' motivators for seeking gambling-related help. A final sample of 526 gamblers provided useable data on possible reasons for and barriers to seeking help, awareness of services, self-perception of gambling problems and experience with help-seeking. Financial and relationship issues were the most frequently volunteered motivators. However, over two-thirds of the respondents could not think of a reason for seeking help. Gamblers who had self-admitted or more severe problems, who knew how to get help, who were employed and had more education, and who identified possible barriers to seeking help were more likely to suggest motivators, especially financial ones. More research is recommended on gamblers' trajectory towards recognition of a gambling problem, the process of overcoming specific barriers to treatment, and the role of social advantage (e.g., education and employment), in order to devise educational campaigns that will encourage earlier help-seeking among disordered gamblers. PMID:21932112

  2. An examination of the correlates of fearless dominance and self-centered impulsivity among high-frequency gamblers.

    PubMed

    Maples, Jessica L; Miller, Joshua D; Fortune, Erica; MacKillop, James; Campbell, W Keith; Lynam, Donald R; Lance, Chuck E; Goodie, Adam S

    2014-06-01

    The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) is a commonly used assessment of psychopathy. Questions have been raised, however, regarding the validity of its Fearless Dominance (FD) factor. In the current study, the correlations manifested by FD and Self-centered Impulsivity (ScI) in relation to external criteria were examined in a sample of gamblers. Two key hypotheses were also tested: (a) does FD perform differently when paired with high scores on ScI, and (b) does FD serve as an index of narcissism. As expected, FD and ScI manifested a divergent pattern of correlations such that only ScI was associated with psychopathology or impairment. FD's relations with the external criteria were not generally moderated by scores on ScI. FD was significantly correlated with narcissism, but the two differed such that only narcissism was associated with any degree of maladaptivity. It remains unclear whether FD should be considered a core component of psychopathy. PMID:24344842

  3. Application of gambler's ruin model to sediment transport problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Christina W.; Hsu, Yaowen; Lai, Kung-Chung; Wu, Nai-Kuang

    2014-03-01

    This study applies the gambler's ruin model to simulate sediment transport. First, the model is mathematically formulated to determine the probability of reaching the maximum state of the sediment carrying capacity, and the mean time spent in transient states before reaching the maximum sediment carrying capacity. Experimental data are used to model the sediment movement process given the bedload and the suspended load particles in the water column. The impact of different parameters is discussed under varying flow conditions and varying sediment particle characteristics. The model shows that, as the maximum number of particles increases, the probability that the flow can carry the particles decreases. A smaller particle size is normally associated with a higher probability of reaching the maximum sediment carrying capacity under the same flow condition. It is also found that as the time a particle spends in the water column increases, the probability of the flow maintaining the same number of particles after several sediment particle transitions into different states increases. In the second case study, the effective risk of a given number of sediment particles in the water column reaching the maximum capacity of the water treatment plant in the Shihmen Reservoir Basin in 2008 is modeled. The Xia Yun hydrologic station is selected for the simulation because it is a fully comprehensive hydrologic station and is located near the Shihmen Reservoir. Moreover, a novel approach is used to incorporate uncertainty analysis in the gambler's ruin model: the Perturbance Moments Method (PMM). Results of expected value and one-standard-deviation interval in the number of sediment particles in the water column are acquired.

  4. Social responsibility tools in online gambling: a survey of attitudes and behavior among Internet gamblers.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Mark D; Wood, Richard T A; Parke, Jonathan

    2009-08-01

    To date, little empirical research has focused on social responsibility in gambling. This study examined players' attitudes and behavior toward using the social responsibility tool PlayScan designed by the Swedish gaming company Svenska Spel. Via PlayScan, players have the option to utilize various social responsibility control tools (e.g., personal gaming budgets, self-diagnostic tests of gambling habits, self-exclusion options). A total of 2,348 participants took part in an online questionnaire study. Participants were clientele of the Svenska Spel online gambling Web site. Results showed that just over a quarter of players (26%) had used PlayScan. The vast majority of those who had activated PlayScan (almost 9 in 10 users) said that PlayScan was easy to use. Over half of PlayScan users (52%) said it was useful; 19% said it was not. Many features were seen as useful by online gamblers, including limit setting (70%), viewing their gambling profile (49%), self-exclusion facilities (42%), self-diagnostic problem gambling tests (46%), information and support for gambling issues (40%), and gambling profile predictions (36%). In terms of actual (as opposed to theoretical) use, over half of PlayScan users (56%) had set spending limits, 40% had taken a self-diagnostic problem gambling test, and 17% had used a self-exclusion feature. PMID:19594379

  5. Mirror mirror on the ward, who’s the most narcissistic of them all? Pathologic personality traits in health care

    PubMed Central

    Bucknall, Vittoria; Burwaiss, Suendoss; MacDonald, Deborah; Charles, Kathy; Clement, Rhys

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stereotypes in medicine have become exaggerated for the purpose of workplace amusement. Our objective was to assess the levels of “dark triad” personality traits expressed by individuals working in different health care specialties in comparison with the general population. Methods: We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study within multiple departments of a UK secondary care teaching hospital. A total of 248 health care professionals participated, and 159 members of the general population were recruited as a comparison group. We measured 3 personality traits — narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy — through the validated self-reported personality questionnaires Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), MACH-IV and the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP), respectively. Results: Health care professionals scored significantly lower on narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy (mean scores 12.0, 53.0 and 44.7, respectively) than the general population (p < 0.001). Nursing professionals exhibited a significantly higher level of secondary psychopathy than medical professionals (p = 0.04, mean LSRP score 20.3). Within the cohort of medical professionals, surgeons expressed significantly higher levels of narcissism (p = 0.03, mean NPI score 15.0). Interpretation: Health care professionals expressed low levels of dark triad personality traits. The suggestion that health care professionals are avaricious and untrustworthy may be refuted, even for surgeons. PMID:26644545

  6. Examining the gambling behaviors of Chinese online lottery gamblers: are they rational?

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jia

    2015-06-01

    In this research, we explore a unique Chinese peer to peer (P2P) online lottery gambling data (n = 388,123) and examine the rationality of Chinese online lottery gamblers. We show that Chinese online lottery gamblers are irrational in the sense that they are significantly affected by the lottery winning history of others even though this winning history is shown to be merely an exogenous random shock. Specifically, in this Chinese P2P online lottery gambling game, some of the lottery gamblers (named the proposers) propose lottery packages first, and then, other lottery gamblers (named the followers) will follow by choosing among the different packages and deciding on how much to purchase. The past lottery winning return rate of each proposer is provided as public information and calculated as the ratio between her past winning money and wager. It is shown that this past return rate is merely a random shock because winning in the past cannot predict anything about the performance in the future. However, we find that Chinese online P2P lottery gamblers are significantly more likely to join a lottery package if it is proposed by proposers with higher return rates. PMID:24420960

  7. [Pathological gambling and its consequences for public health].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria Paula Magalhães Tavares de; Silveira, Dartiu Xavier da; Silva, Maria Teresa Araujo

    2008-06-01

    The article aimed to characterize pathological gambling, showing the main consequences of this disorder. Bibliographic survey on this theme was conducted, covering both national and international literature. Publications whose main findings emphasized related prevalence, social and economic costs, gambling legalization and resulting impact on public health, were selected. High suicide rate, comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders, family and work problems, and illicit behavior were consequences reported. The prevalence of this disorder is higher in countries that have legalized gambling and in Brazil there is evidence of growth in the number of pathological gamblers. The development of national research is fundamental to define public policies that are adequate for the Brazilian context. PMID:18461253

  8. Superstitious Beliefs and Problem Gambling Among Thai Lottery Gamblers: The Mediation Effects of Number Search and Gambling Intensity.

    PubMed

    Pravichai, Sunisa; Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2015-12-01

    Thai lottery gamblers won prizes after betting on numbers they obtained from newspaper stories. We hypothesized that Thai lottery gamblers' superstitious beliefs were related to their problem gambling through the mediation of number search and gambling intensity. In a study among 380 Thai lottery gamblers, superstitious beliefs were operationally defined as the beliefs in events or objects that seemed to reveal numbers, number search as an attempt to identify numbers to bet, gambling intensity as the frequency and amounts of lottery gambling, and problem gambling as the symptoms of problems relating to lottery gambling. Results support the hypotheses. There is a statistically significant indirect relationship between Thai lottery gamblers' superstitious beliefs and their problem gambling through the mediation of number search and gambling intensity. Thai lottery gamblers need to be reminded that their superstitious beliefs and number search are precursors of their problem gambling. PMID:25424058

  9. Slot Machine Preferences of Pathological and Recreational Gamblers Are Verbally Constructed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark R.; Bihler, Holly L.; Nastally, Becky L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study attempted to alter preferences for concurrently available slot machines of equal payout through the development of equivalence classes and subsequent transfers of functions. Participants rated stimuli consisting of words thought to be associated with having a gambling problem (e.g., "desperation" and "debt"), words associated…

  10. Suicide Ideations, Suicide Attempts, and Completed Suicide in Persons with Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; McCormick, Brett; Shaw, Martha; Allen, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    We examined the relationship between suicidal ideations and attempts in 95 probands with pathological gambling (PG), 91 controls, and 1075 first-degree relatives. The results were analyzed using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Thirty-four PG probands (35.8%) and 4 controls (4.4%) had attempted suicide (OR = 12.12, p < .001); in 13 probands, the attempt occurred before PG onset. Lifetime suicidal ideations occurred in 60 PG probands (63.2%) and 12 controls (13.2%) (OR = 11.29, p < .001). Suicidality in PG probands is a marker of PG severity and is associated with greater psychiatric comorbidity. Offspring of PG probands had significantly higher rates of suicide attempts than control offspring. PMID:25845522

  11. Internet-Based Treatment of Pathological Gambling with a Three-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Carlbring, Per; Degerman, Nicklas; Jonsson, Jakob; Andersson, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Effective therapies for pathological gambling exist, but their use is limited to about 10% of the target population. In an attempt to lower the barriers for help, Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) has been shown to be effective when delivered to anon-depressed sample with pathological gambling. This study sought to extend this finding to a larger, more representative population, and also test a model to predict responder status. Following advertisement, a total of 284 participants started an 8-week ICBT programme with minimal therapist contact via e-mail and weekly telephone calls of less than 15 min. The average time spent on each participant, including telephone conversations, e-mail, and administration, was 4 h. In addition to a mixed effects model to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment, two logistic regression analyses were performed with the following eight pre-defined response predictor variables: work-life satisfaction, primary gambling activity, debts due to gambling, social support, personal yearly salary, alcohol consumption, stage of change, and dissociative gambling. ICBT resulted in statistically significant reductions in the scores of pathological gambling, anxiety, and depression as well as an increase in quality of life compared to pre-treatment levels. Follow-ups carried out in the treatment group at 6, l8, and 36 months indicated that treatment effects were sustained. Using the eight predictor variable model rendered an acceptable predictive ability to identify responders both at post-test (AUC = .72, p < .01) and at 36-month follow-up (AUC = .70, p < .01). We conclude that ICBT for pathological gamblers, even if depressed, can be effective and that outcome can partly be predicted by pre-treatment characteristics. PMID:22620990

  12. Internet-based treatment of pathological gambling with a three-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Carlbring, Per; Degerman, Nicklas; Jonsson, Jakob; Andersson, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Effective therapies for pathological gambling exist, but their use is limited to about 10% of the target population. In an attempt to lower the barriers for help, Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) has been shown to be effective when delivered to a non-depressed sample with pathological gambling. This study sought to extend this finding to a larger, more representative population, and also test a model to predict responder status. Following advertisement, a total of 284 participants started an 8-week ICBT programme with minimal therapist contact via e-mail and weekly telephone calls of less than 15 min. The average time spent on each participant, including telephone conversations, e-mail, and administration, was 4 h. In addition to a mixed effects model to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment, two logistic regression analyses were performed with the following eight pre-defined response predictor variables: work-life satisfaction, primary gambling activity, debts due to gambling, social support, personal yearly salary, alcohol consumption, stage of change, and dissociative gambling. ICBT resulted in statistically significant reductions in the scores of pathological gambling, anxiety, and depression as well as an increase in quality of life compared to pre-treatment levels. Follow-ups carried out in the treatment group at 6, 18, and 36 months indicated that treatment effects were sustained. Using the eight predictor variable model rendered an acceptable predictive ability to identify responders both at post-test (AUC = .72, p < .01) and at 36-month follow-up (AUC = .70, p < .01). We conclude that ICBT for pathological gamblers, even if depressed, can be effective and that outcome can partly be predicted by pre-treatment characteristics. PMID:22620990

  13. Stability of the DSM-5 Section III Pathological Personality Traits and their Longitudinal Associations with Psychosocial Functioning in Personality Disordered Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Calabrese, William R.; Rudick, Monica M.; Yam, Wern How; Zelazny, Kerry; Williams, Trevor F.; Rotterman, Jane H.; Simms, Leonard J.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish (a) the stability of the DSM-5 Section III personality disorder (PD) traits, (b) whether these traits predict future psychosocial functioning, and (c) whether changes in traits track with changes in psychosocial functioning across time. Ninety-three outpatients (61% Female) diagnosed with at least one PD completed patient-report measures at two time-points (M time between assessments = 1.44 years), including the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 and several measures of psychosocial functioning. Effect sizes of rank-order and mean-level change were calculated. In addition, Time 1 traits were used to predict functioning measures at Time 2. Finally, latent change score models were estimated for DSM-5 Section III traits and functioning measures, and correlations among latent change scores were calculated to establish the relationship between change in traits and functional outcomes. Findings demonstrated that the DSM-5 Section III traits were highly stable in terms of normative (i.e., mean-level) change and rank-order stability over the course of the study. Furthermore, traits prospectively predicted psychosocial functioning. However, at the individual level traits and functioning were not entirely static over the study, and change in individuals’ functioning tracked with changes in trait levels. These findings demonstrate that the DSM-5 Section III traits are highly stable consistent with the definition of PD, prospectively predictive of psychosocial functioning, and dynamically associated with functioning over time. This study provides important evidence in support of the DSM-5 Section III PD model. PMID:25384070

  14. Personalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca Martin

    1996-01-01

    Describes how a typical high school in Huntington Beach, California, curbed disruptive student behavior by personalizing the school experience for "problem" students. Through mostly volunteer efforts, an adopt-a-kid program was initiated that matched kids' learning styles to adults' personality styles and resulted in fewer suspensions and numerous…

  15. Reflections on the voluntary self-exclusion of gamblers and the law-suits against Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation.

    PubMed

    Faregh, Neda; Leth-Steensen, Craig

    2009-06-01

    Legalized gambling in Canada is governed by Provincial legislation. In Ontario, the Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation is responsible for all aspects of gambling in the Province. There have been a number of recent lawsuits against this Crown agency of the Government of Ontario by gamblers, most of which have been settled or otherwise resolved. A recent class-action lawsuit on behalf of thousands of Ontario gamblers against this agency raises a number of interesting questions regarding the issue of responsibility and liability. The questions surround the issue of self-exclusionary practices of gamblers who deem themselves in need of external intervention in order interesting questions regarding the issue of responsibility and liability. The questions surround the issue to abstain from further gambling. A contract is voluntarily signed by the self-excluding gamblers whereby their further attendance at gaming venues is prevented and could be punishable by law. Where the gaming venues have failed to enforce the terms of this contract, gamblers have continued to gamble at these establishments. The class-action lawsuit stems from the grievances of these self-excluded gamblers who were not turned away. Relevant psychological theories and recent findings pertaining to gambling are reviewed and questions relevant to these grievances are discussed in favor of government responsibility and liability toward gamblers. PMID:19212809

  16. Beginning of personalized medicine in Panama: Molecular and pathological characteristics of gastrointestinal stromal tumors from archival paraffin-embedded tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Yaxelis; Singh, Carlos; Castillo Mewa, Juan; Fonseca, Evelise; Smith, Rebecca; Pascale, Juan M.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first study from Central America to analyze genetic mutations and histopathological features associated with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Mutations found in the tyrosine kinase membrane receptors c-kit and pdgfra are associated with clinical and pathological characteristics of GIST. New drugs that inhibit the expression of these oncogenes at the molecular level substantially improve the quality of life for patients with this tumor. It is therefore essential for patient care in Panama that genetic analysis of GIST tumors continues to develop from the pilot study presented herein into routine clinical use. This study evaluated 39 cases of GIST in Panama, using samples archived at the Instituto Oncológico Nacional from 1994 to 2004. DNA from paraffin‑embedded tumor tissues was isolated and amplified for the exons of c-kit and pdgfra associated with a high frequency of mutations. Direct PCR sequencing of specific exons was performed, and those with different alleles were cloned and re-sequenced. Amino acid sequences were inferred from DNA and aligned to Genbank reference sequences to determine the position and type of mutation. The highest frequency of mutations was found in exon 11 of the c-kit gene (70%). Mutations found in this exon were heterogeneous, while only one type of mutation (p.A502_Y503dup) was observed in c-kit exon 9. Mutations in the pdgfra gene constituted several substitutions, with the deletion p.D842V being observed most frequently. The observed GIST-associated mutations were previously described. Four patients with mutations associated with familial GIST were also found. The majority (66%) of patients with mutations in exon 11 (residues 550-591) were considered to be at high risk and 75% of patients with mutations specifically within residues 556-560 (exon 11) were considered to have high-risk GIST. This is the first molecular study of GIST in Central America. It was performed to gain a better understanding of the cancer

  17. Molecular pathology of prostate cancer revealed by next-generation sequencing: opportunities for genome-based personalized therapy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiaoti; Wang, Jason K.; Sun, Yin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This article reviews recently identified genomic mutations in prostate cancer. Recent findings Advanced sequencing technologies have made it possible to obtain large amounts of data on genomes and transcriptomes of cancers. Such technologies have been used to sequence prostate cancer of different stages, from treatment-naive cancers, to advanced, castration-resistant cancers to the aggressive small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. For each category of prostate cancer, distinct and overlapping DNA sequence alterations were discovered, including point mutations, small insertions or deletions, copy number changes and chromosomal rearrangements. There appears to be a stepwise increase in genomic alterations from low risk to high risk to advanced cancers. Summary These novel findings have significantly increased our knowledge of the genetic basis of human prostate cancer and the molecular mechanisms responsible for disease progression and treatment resistance. Some of the lesions are potential therapeutic targets. Studies along this direction will eventually make it possible to design personalized management plans for individual patients. PMID:23385974

  18. The current status and future direction of self-help treatments for problem gamblers.

    PubMed

    Raylu, Namrata; Oei, Tian P S; Loo, Jasmine

    2008-12-01

    The self-help treatment (SHT) studies for other psychological problems significantly outweigh those for problem gambling. Currently, very little is published about the application and efficacy of various forms of SHTs for problem gambling. Thus, this paper reviews the self-help literature (using the PsycINFO database--all years up to April 2008) to stimulate further research in this area for problem gambling. The findings show that SHTs in problem gambling are still in their infancy. Although the problem gambling literature has mainly reported on two forms of SHTs with problem gamblers (i.e. use of self-help manuals and audiotapes), the review discuss utilizing a wide range of SHTs with problem gamblers. These include written materials (e.g. self-help books and treatment manuals), audiotapes, videotapes, computer-based SHTs implemented on palmtop computers, desktop computers, via telephone (Interactive Voice Response systems--IVR) or via the Internet and virtual reality applications. These SHTs would suit those problem gamblers who are not accessing professional treatment due to shame, guilt, fear of stigma, privacy concerns or financial difficulties, as well as those living in rural areas or with less severe gambling problems. The review also suggest future protocols for conducting further research in this area with problem gamblers, highlighting a need for a cohesive theory to guide research. PMID:18760868

  19. Medical Relabeling in Gamblers Anonymous: The Construction of an Ideal Member.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, David N.; Saunders, Danny

    1990-01-01

    Observed 2 Gamblers Anonymous (GA) groups in South Wales over a 12-month period. Determined 2 broad consequences arose from encountering fellow sufferers: acceptance of diagnosis and commitment to recovery and to will of GA, or rejection of the diagnosis with the knowledge that they are returning to the outside world with a reconstituted…

  20. A Preliminary Outcome Study of an Outpatient Treatment Program for Gamblers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Sheldon; And Others

    The Gamblers Treatment Clinic (GTC) opened in 1982 as a New York State Office of Mental Health Demonstration Program. The basic premise of the GTC is that excessive gambling is a disorder of impulse control. Treatment, conducted in the community in a time-limited fashion, attempts to uncover the underlying dynamics that precipitate disorders of…

  1. A Pilot Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program for Problem Gamblers in a Rural Australian Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Jane; Gardiner, Paula; McLaughlin, Kristin; Battersby, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    An innovative pilot treatment program was developed for problem gamblers living in rural areas of Australia using cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) modified from an established specialist therapy service. The standard 12 weekly group program was delivered on site by adapting it to two 1 week blocks with daily group sessions and 1 week of patient…

  2. Gambling behaviour and the prevalence of gambling problems in adult EGM gamblers when EGMs are banned. A natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Lund, Ingeborg

    2009-06-01

    In this article, findings of a panel study among former EGM gamblers are discussed. The data were collected in two waves during 2007, and 1293 people, 18 years or older, participated. The background for the study was the Norwegian ban on EGMs from 1 July 2007, and the aim was to investigate how this ban affected gambling involvement and problem levels in the sample. The analysis shows that gambling participation, gambling frequencies and gambling problems were reduced after EGMs disappeared from the market. There was no indication of the development of an illegal EGM market, or of substitution of EGMs with other types of gambling. A reduction in other types of gambling is interpreted as an indication of synergetic effects between games. Reduced gambling participation among the most active EGM gamblers, and among risk gamblers, shows that the reductions in gambling availability had an effect even on highly involved gamblers. PMID:19322645

  3. A comparison of individual and group cognitive-behavioural treatment for female pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Nicki; Smith, David; Thomas, Trang

    2007-09-01

    The current study aimed to determine the differential efficacy of a cognitive-behavioural treatment program for female pathological gamblers delivered in individual and group format. Fifty-six female pathological gamblers with electronic gaming machine gambling problems were randomly assigned to the control (waiting list) group or one of the treatment groups (individual or group treatment). Treatment comprised a 12-session program including financial limit setting, alternative activity planning, cognitive correction, problem solving, communication training, relapse prevention, and imaginal desensitisation. Treatment outcome was evaluated with conceptually related measures within the areas of gambling behaviour and psychological functioning. While individual and group treatment formats generally produced comparable outcomes in terms of gambling behaviour and psychological functioning, group treatment failed to produce superior outcomes to the control group in relation to several measures of psychological functioning. Moreover, by the completion of the six-month follow-up, 92% of the gamblers allocated to individual treatment compared with 60% allocated to group treatment no longer satisfied the diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling. These findings suggest that some caution should be employed when delivering cognitive-behavioural treatment in a group format until further research is conducted to establish its efficacy. PMID:17196159

  4. Computational Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Louis, David N.; Feldman, Michael; Carter, Alexis B.; Dighe, Anand S.; Pfeifer, John D.; Bry, Lynn; Almeida, Jonas S.; Saltz, Joel; Braun, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E.; Gilbertson, John R.; Sinard, John H.; Gerber, Georg K.; Galli, Stephen J.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Becich, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Context We define the scope and needs within the new discipline of computational pathology, a discipline critical to the future of both the practice of pathology and, more broadly, medical practice in general. Objective To define the scope and needs of computational pathology. Data Sources A meeting was convened in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2014 prior to the annual Association of Pathology Chairs meeting, and it was attended by a variety of pathologists, including individuals highly invested in pathology informatics as well as chairs of pathology departments. Conclusions The meeting made recommendations to promote computational pathology, including clearly defining the field and articulating its value propositions; asserting that the value propositions for health care systems must include means to incorporate robust computational approaches to implement data-driven methods that aid in guiding individual and population health care; leveraging computational pathology as a center for data interpretation in modern health care systems; stating that realizing the value proposition will require working with institutional administrations, other departments, and pathology colleagues; declaring that a robust pipeline should be fostered that trains and develops future computational pathologists, for those with both pathology and non-pathology backgrounds; and deciding that computational pathology should serve as a hub for data-related research in health care systems. The dissemination of these recommendations to pathology and bioinformatics departments should help facilitate the development of computational pathology. PMID:26098131

  5. Nonhuman gamblers: lessons from rodents, primates, and robots

    PubMed Central

    Paglieri, Fabio; Addessi, Elsa; De Petrillo, Francesca; Laviola, Giovanni; Mirolli, Marco; Parisi, Domenico; Petrosino, Giancarlo; Ventricelli, Marialba; Zoratto, Francesca; Adriani, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The search for neuronal and psychological underpinnings of pathological gambling in humans would benefit from investigating related phenomena also outside of our species. In this paper, we present a survey of studies in three widely different populations of agents, namely rodents, non-human primates, and robots. Each of these populations offers valuable and complementary insights on the topic, as the literature demonstrates. In addition, we highlight the deep and complex connections between relevant results across these different areas of research (i.e., cognitive and computational neuroscience, neuroethology, cognitive primatology, neuropsychiatry, evolutionary robotics), to make the case for a greater degree of methodological integration in future studies on pathological gambling. PMID:24574984

  6. Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22943008

  7. DSM-5 criteria for gambling disorder: Underlying structure and applicability to specific groups of gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Sleczka, Pawel; Braun, Barbara; Piontek, Daniela; Bühringer, Gerhard; Kraus, Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims DSM-5 provides nine diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder. All criteria have a pre-assumed equal diagnostic impact and are applied to all individuals and groups in an equal manner. The aims of the study are to analyse the structure underlying the diagnosis and to assess whether DSM-5 is equally applicable to different groups of gamblers. Methods Data from the 2009 German Epidemiological Survey of Substance Abuse and from a study on slot machine gamblers were used. Item Response Theory analysis was applied to estimate discrimination and severity parameters of the criteria. With the use of Differential Item Functioning analysis, potential criterion biases were analysed. We analysed data from 107 participants from the general population sample and 376 participants from the slot machine gamblers’ sample who answered a 19-item diagnostic questionnaire based on the DSM criteria for gambling disorder. Results A single underlying factor, the severity of gambling disorder, was identified in both samples. In the general population sample the criteria of preoccupation and chasing were least severe and showed low discriminatory power. Bailout, withdrawal and jeopardized matters criteria had highest severity and discriminatory power. The comparison of the two samples revealed two criterion biases in the preoccupation and tolerance criteria. Conclusions The structure underlying the criteria is unidimensional but the disorder is manifested differently depending on disorder severity. The assumed equal impact of each criterion lacks support in the findings. The DSM-5 criteria measure a partially different construct in slot machine gamblers than in gamblers in the general population. PMID:26690617

  8. Exposure to and engagement with gambling marketing in social media: Reported impacts on moderate-risk and problem gamblers.

    PubMed

    Gainsbury, Sally M; King, Daniel L; Russell, Alex M T; Delfabbro, Paul; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Hing, Nerilee

    2016-03-01

    Digital advertising for gambling and specifically marketing via social media have increased in recent years, and the impact on vulnerable consumers, including moderate-risk and problem gamblers, is unknown. Social media promotions often fall outside of advertising restrictions and codes of conduct and may have an inequitable effect on susceptible gamblers. This study aimed to investigate recall of exposure to, and reported impact on gamblers of, gambling promotions and marketing content on social media, with a focus on vulnerable users currently experiencing gambling problems. Gamblers who use social media (N = 964) completed an online survey assessing their exposure to and engagement with gambling operators on social media, their problem gambling severity, and the impact of social media promotions on their gambling. Gamblers at moderate risk and problem gamblers were significantly more likely to report having been exposed to social media gambling promotions and indicated actively engaging with gambling operators via these platforms. They were more likely to self-report that they had increased gambling as a result of these promotions, and over one third reported that the promotions had increased their problems. This research suggests that gamblers at moderate risk or those experiencing gambling problems are more likely to be impacted by social media promotions, and these may play a role in exacerbating disordered gambling. Future research should verify these self-reported results with behavioral data. However, the potential influence of advertisements via these new platforms should be considered by clinicians and policymakers, given their potential role in the formation of this behavioral addiction. PMID:26828642

  9. Musculoskeletal Pathology.

    PubMed

    Peat, Frances J; Kawcak, Christopher E

    2015-08-01

    The current understanding of pathology as it relates to common diseases of the equine musculoskeletal system is reviewed. Conditions are organized under the fundamental categories of developmental, exercise-induced, infectious, and miscellaneous pathology. The overview of developmental pathology incorporates the new classification system of juvenile osteochondral conditions. Discussion of exercise-induced pathology emphasizes increased understanding of the contribution of cumulative microdamage caused by repetitive cyclic loading. Miscellaneous musculoskeletal pathology focuses on laminitis, which current knowledge indicates should be regarded as a clinical syndrome with a variety of possible distinct mechanisms of structural failure that are outlined in this overview. PMID:26037607

  10. Gambling-Related Problems as a Mediator Between Treatment and Mental Health with At-Risk College Student Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Geisner, Irene Markman; Bowen, Sarah; Lostutter, Ty W; Cronce, Jessica M; Granato, Hollie; Larimer, Mary E

    2015-09-01

    Disordered gambling has been linked to increased negative affect, and some promising treatments have been shown to be effective at reducing gambling behaviors and related problems (Larimer et al. in Addiction 107:1148-1158, 2012). The current study seeks to expand upon the findings of Larimer et al. (Addiction 107:1148-1158, 2012) by examining the relationship between gambling-related problems and mental health symptoms in college students. Specifically, the three-group design tested the effects of two brief interventions for gambling—an individual, in-person personalized feedback intervention (PFI) delivered using motivational interviewing and group-based cognitive behavioral therapy, versus assessment only on mood outcomes. The mediating effect of gambling-related problems on mood was also explored. Participants (N = 141; 65% men; 60% Caucasian, 28% Asian) were at-risk college student gamblers [South Oaks Gambling Screen (Lesieur and Blume in Am J Psychiatry 144:1184-1188, 1987) ≥3], assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Gambling problems were assessed using the Gambling Problems Index (Neighbors et al. in J Gamb Stud 18:339-360, 2002). Mental health symptoms were assessed using the depression, anxiety, and hostility subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis in Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI): administration, scoring, and procedures manual, National Computer Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, 1993). Results revealed that the PFI condition differentially reduced negative mood, and that reductions in gambling-related problems partially mediated this effect. Implications for intervention for comorbid mood and gambling disorders are discussed. PMID:24706331

  11. Chasing losses in online poker and casino games: characteristics and game play of Internet gamblers at risk of disordered gambling.

    PubMed

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Suhonen, Niko; Saastamoinen, Jani

    2014-07-30

    Disordered Internet gambling is a psychological disorder that represents an important public health issue due to the increase in highly available and conveniently accessible Internet gambling sites. Chasing losses is one of the few observable markers of at-risk and problem gambling that may be used to detect early signs of disordered Internet gambling. This study examined loss chasing behaviour in a sample of Internet casino and poker players and the socio-demographic variables, irrational beliefs, and gambling behaviours associated with chasing losses. An online survey was completed by 10,838 Internet gamblers (58% male) from 96 countries. The results showed that Internet casino players had a greater tendency to report chasing losses than poker players and gamblers who reported chasing losses were more likely to hold irrational beliefs about gambling and spend more time and money gambling than those who reported that they were unaffected by previous losses. Gamblers who played for excitement and to win money were more likely to report chasing losses. This study is one of the largest ever studies of Internet gamblers and the results are highly significant as they provide insight into the characteristics and behaviours of gamblers using this mode of access. PMID:24746392

  12. A Preliminary Study of an Integrated and Culturally Attuned Cognitive Behavioral Group Treatment for Chinese Problem Gamblers in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Chung, Catherine Lai Ping; Wu, Janet; Tang, Joe; Lau, Patrick; Wan, Jennie Po Ching

    2015-09-01

    Chinese people may have a higher rate of gambling problems than other cultural groups. However, there are very few clinical outcome studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of clinical interventions for helping Chinese gamblers. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective for helping problem gamblers to significantly reduce their gambling problems in western countries. Very few CBT clinical trials have been conducted with the Chinese populations, and the results were masked by methodological limitations. This preliminary study attempted to test the effectiveness of an integrated and culturally attuned CBT group treatment for Chinese problem gamblers in Hong Kong. This study adopted a randomized control design and 38 participants were allocated randomly to the experimental condition (n = 18) and control condition (n = 20). The experimental group received 10 weekly CBT group sessions and individual counseling services while control group only received the individual counseling services. Significant decreases in gambling severity and frequencies of gambling were found in the experimental group. The findings also showed that a change in gambling cognitions predicted the changes in gambling severity and gambling urge while a change in gambling severity was also linked to a change in depression. Preliminary evidence highlights the potential benefits of an integrated and culturally attuned CBT group treatment for Chinese problem gamblers in Hong Kong. However, a more vigorous research design with a larger sample is needed to provide solid evidence of the effectiveness of the model for Chinese problem gamblers. PMID:24699943

  13. Impulsivity and predictive control are associated with suboptimal action-selection and action-value learning in regular gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Matthew S.M.; Jocham, Gerhard; Hunt, Laurence T.; Behrens, Timothy E.J.; Rogers, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Heightened impulsivity and cognitive biases are risk factors for gambling problems. However, little is known about precisely how these factors increase the risks of gambling-related harm in vulnerable individuals. Here, we modelled the behaviour of eighty-seven community-recruited regular, but not clinically problematic, gamblers during a binary-choice reinforcement-learning game, to characterise the relationships between impulsivity, cognitive biases, and the capacity to make optimal action selections and learn about action-values. Impulsive gamblers showed diminished use of an optimal (Bayesian-derived) probability estimate when selecting between candidate actions, and showed slower learning rates and enhanced non-linear probability weighting while learning action values. Critically, gamblers who believed that it is possible to predict winning outcomes (as 'predictive control') failed to use the game's reinforcement history to guide their action selections. Extensive evidence attests to the ease with which gamblers can erroneously perceive structure in the reinforcement history of games when there is none. Our findings demonstrate that the generic and specific risk factors of impulsivity and cognitive biases can interfere with the capacity of some gamblers to utilise structure when it is available in the reinforcement history of games, potentially increasing their risks of sustaining gambling-related harms. PMID:27274706

  14. Pathological gambling and couple: towards an integrative systemic model.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Diana; Relvas, Ana Paula

    2014-06-01

    This article is a critical literature review of pathological gambling focused in the family factors, particularly in the couple dynamics. Its main goal is to develop an explicative integrative systemic model of pathological gambling, based in these couple dynamics. To achieve that aim, a bibliography search was made, using on-line data bases (e.g., EBSCO Host) and recognized books in pathological gambling subject, as well as in the systemic approach in general. This process privileged the recent works (about 70 % of the reviewed literature was published in the last decade), however, also considered some classic works (the oldest one dates back to 1970). The guiding focus of this literature search evolves according to the following steps: (1) search of general comprehension of pathological gambling (19 references), (2) search specification to the subject "pathological gambling and family" (24 references), (3) search specification to the subject "pathological gambling and couple"(11 references), (4) search of systemic information which integrates the evidence resulted in the previous steps (4 references). The developed model is constituted by different levels of systemic complexity (social context, family of origin, couple and individual) and explains the problem as a signal of perturbation in the marital subsystem vital functions (e.g., power and control) though the regularities of marital dynamics of pathological gamblers. Furthermore, it gives theoretical evidence of the systemic familiar intervention in the pathological gambling. PMID:23423730

  15. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  16. Predictors of Problem Gambling Severity in Treatment Seeking Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounslow, Vanessa; Smith, David; Battersby, Malcolm; Morefield, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Problem gambling has become a widespread problem following the rapid expansion of electronic gaming machines into hotels and clubs over the last 10 years. Recent literature indicates that certain factors can influence problem gambling severity, such as psychiatric co-morbidity and personality traits, gambling related cognitions, substance use and…

  17. Voluntary limit setting and player choice in most intense online gamblers: an empirical study of gambling behaviour.

    PubMed

    Auer, Michael; Griffiths, Mark D

    2013-12-01

    Social responsibility in gambling has become a major issue for the gaming industry. The possibility for online gamblers to set voluntary time and money limits are a social responsibility practice that is now widespread among online gaming operators. The main issue concerns whether the voluntary setting of such limits has any positive impact on subsequent gambling behaviour and whether such measures are of help to problem gamblers. In this paper, this issue is examined through data collected from a representative random sample of 100,000 players who gambled on the win2day gambling website. When opening an account at the win2day site, there is a mandatory requirement for all players to set time and cash-in limits (that cannot exceed 800 per week). During a 3-month period, all voluntary time and/or money limit setting behaviour by a subsample of online gamblers (n = 5,000) within this mandatory framework was tracked and recorded for subsequent data analysis. From the 5,000 gamblers, the 10 % most intense players (as measured by theoretical loss) were further investigated. Voluntary spending limits had the highest significant effect on subsequent monetary spending among casino and lottery gamblers. Monetary spending among poker players significantly decreased after setting a voluntary time limit. The highest significant decrease in playing duration was among poker players after setting a voluntary playing duration limit. The results of the study demonstrated that voluntary limit setting had a specific and significant effect on the studied gamblers. Therefore, voluntary limits appear to show an appropriate effect in the desired target group (i.e., the most gaming intense players). PMID:22948847

  18. Differences between problem and nonproblem gamblers in subjective arousal and affective valence amongst electronic gaming machine players.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen L; Rodda, Simone; Phillips, James G

    2004-12-01

    Arousal-based theories of gambling suggest that excitement gained from gambling reinforces further gambling behavior. However, recent theories of emotion conceptualize mood as comprising both arousal and valence dimensions. Thus, excitement comprises arousal with positive valence. We examined self-reported changes in arousal and affective valence in 27 problem and 40 nonproblem gamblers playing electronic gaming machines (EGMs). Problem gamblers reported greater arousal increases after gambling and increases in negative valence if they lost. This accords poorly with an excitement-based explanation of problem gambling. PMID:15530730

  19. The Application of an Etiological Model of Personality Disorders to Problem Gambling.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meredith; Allen, J Sabura; Dowling, Nicki A

    2015-12-01

    Problem gambling is a significant mental health problem that creates a multitude of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and social difficulties. Recent empirical evidence suggests that personality disorders, and in particular borderline personality disorder (BPD), are commonly co-morbid with problem gambling. Despite this finding there has been very little research examining overlapping factors between these two disorders. The aim of this review is to summarise the literature exploring the relationship between problem gambling and personality disorders. The co-morbidity of personality disorders, particularly BPD, is reviewed and the characteristics of problem gamblers with co-morbid personality disorders are explored. An etiological model from the more advanced BPD literature-the biosocial developmental model of BPD-is used to review the similarities between problem gambling and BPD across four domains: early parent-child interactions, emotion regulation, co-morbid psychopathology and negative outcomes. It was concluded that personality disorders, in particular BPD are commonly co-morbid among problem gamblers and the presence of a personality disorder complicates the clinical picture. Furthermore BPD and problem gambling share similarities across the biosocial developmental model of BPD. Therefore clinicians working with problem gamblers should incorporate routine screening for personality disorders and pay careful attention to the therapeutic alliance, client motivations and therapeutic boundaries. Furthermore adjustments to therapy structure, goals and outcomes may be required. Directions for future research include further research into the applicability of the biosocial developmental model of BPD to problem gambling. PMID:25373399

  20. Molecular Pathology Informatics.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somak

    2015-06-01

    Molecular informatics (MI) is an evolving discipline that will support the dynamic landscape of molecular pathology and personalized medicine. MI provides a fertile ground for development of clinical solutions to bridge the gap between clinical informatics and bioinformatics. Rapid adoption of next generation sequencing (NGS) in the clinical arena has triggered major endeavors in MI that are expected to bring a paradigm shift in the practice of pathology. This brief review presents a broad overview of various aspects of MI, particularly in the context of NGS based testing. PMID:26065793

  1. Cognitive-behavioural treatment of pathological gambling in individuals with chronic schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; Gómez, Montserrat; Freixa, Montserrat

    2011-11-01

    The current study aimed to test the clinical effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural program (CBT) specifically adapted for pathological gamblers with chronic schizophrenia, carried out in a naturalistic setting of community Mental Health Centres. Forty-four pathological gamblers with chronic schizophrenia were assigned either to a standard drug therapy for schizophrenia (control group) or to cognitive-behavioural therapy for pathological gambling plus a standard drug therapy for schizophrenia (experimental group). Psychological treatment comprised a 20-session program including psychoeducation, stimulus control, gradual exposure and relapse prevention. Therapeutic success was defined as abstinence or the occurrence of only 1 or 2 episodes of gambling during the follow-up period. While the patients treated in the experimental group showed a rate of success of 73.9%, only 19% of the participants belonging to the control group gave up gambling at the 3-month follow-up. The CBT group also did better than the control group in the number of gambling episodes and in the amount of money spent on gambling. However, the improvement of the experimental group was weaker at the 6- and 12-month follow-up. These findings support the beneficial effects of CBT as adjunctive therapy for patients with dual diagnoses (schizophrenia and pathological gambling). PMID:21920501

  2. Instant ticket purchasing by Ontario baby boomers: increasing risk for problem gamblers.

    PubMed

    Papoff, Katharine M; Norris, Joan E

    2009-06-01

    Instant ticket purchase gambling (ITPG) is pervasive in Ontario and has features that mimic slot machine play. Previous researchers have reported that ITPG is one preferred activity for at-risk/problem gamblers. In the general Canadian population, rate of participation in ITPG is second only to lottery ticket gambling. Both are particularly favored by youth and seniors. The next cohort of seniors will be Canada's baby boomers, one-third of whom live in Ontario. Secondary analysis of Statistics Canada data revealed that adults in this cohort who buy instant gambling tickets (N = 1781) are significantly different from the complete group of their age peers (N = 4266) in number of activities pursued and frequency of involvement. At-risk/problem gambling prevalence was 10.2% amongst Ontario baby boomers who participate in instant ticket gambling, significantly higher than the 6.7% found amongst the total group of baby boom gamblers. For those who reported experiencing one or more of the Canadian Problem Gambling Index indicators for problem gambling (N = 237), 73% were buying instant tickets. Future research should consider cohort effects and explore combinations of preferred gambling activities that may increase risk for problem gambling. Social policy recommendations include the use of all ITPG venues as key locations for promoting awareness of problem gambling treatment services. PMID:19247820

  3. The use of messages in altering risky gambling behavior in experienced gamblers.

    PubMed

    Jardin, Bianca F; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2012-03-01

    The present study was an experimental analogue that examined the relationship between gambling-related irrational beliefs and risky gambling behavior. Eighty high-frequency gamblers were randomly assigned to four conditions and played a chance-based computer game in a laboratory setting. Depending on the condition, during the game a pop-up screen repeatedly displayed either accurate or inaccurate messages concerning the game, neutral messages, or no messages. Consistent with a cognitive-behavioral model of gambling, accurate messages that correctly described the random contingencies governing the game decreased risky gambling behavior. Contrary to predictions, inaccurate messages designed to mimic gamblers' irrational beliefs about their abilities to influence chance events did not lead to more risky gambling behavior than exposure to neutral or no messages. Participants in the latter three conditions did not differ significantly from one another and all showed riskier gambling behavior than participants in the accurate message condition. The results suggest that harm minimization strategies that help individuals maintain a rational perspective while gambling may protect them from unreasonable risk-taking. PMID:22181580

  4. All for the Winner: An Analysis of the Characterization of Male Gamblers in Hong Kong Movies with Gambling Theme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Chi Chuen; Ohtsuka, Keis

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the characterization of male gamblers in popular Hong Kong movies in the past 50 years. A total of nine Hong Kong films with gambling themes were selected for analysis. The criteria for selection of the films were as follows: the movies in which the protagonists are portrayed by well known Hong Kong actors that…

  5. Characteristics of Internet Gamblers among a Sample of Students at a Large, Public University in Southwestern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shead, N. Will; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Fong, Timothy W.; Gupta, Rina

    2012-01-01

    There is a current lack of descriptive information on college students who gamble on the Internet. With the increasing popularity of Internet gambling, this study aimed to better understand the profile of Internet gamblers among a sample of college students. Of 909 students at the University of California-Los Angeles who completed an online…

  6. Pathological Gambling Associated With Aripiprazole or Dopamine Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Sauvaget, Anne; Perrouin, Fanny; Leboucher, Juliette; Etcheverrigaray, François; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Gaboriau, Louise; Derkinderen, Pascal; Jolliet, Pascale; Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Background In the last 10 years, dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) has become a well-known risk factor for developing an impulse control disorder, such as gambling disorder (GD). Another medication, aripiprazole (ARI), has been more recently identified as another risk factor. Dopamine replacement therapy and ARI share a dopamine agonist action. Our work aimed at comparing patients with PG according to their treatment with DRT or ARI. Methods Two methods were combined—a systematic review concentrated on case reports and the analysis of a French disordered gamblers cohort focused on patients using ARI or DRT at inclusion. Results We reported 48 cases of GD possibly due to DRT and 17 cases of GD possibly due to ARI. Because of their standardized assessment, only the EVALJEU patients could be compared. Two clinical patterns emerged. Patients in the ARI group were young, impulsive, and high novelty seekers and had a history of substance misuse. Their first gambling experience occurred during adolescence. Conversely, patients in the DRT group were old, and they began gambling late in life. They showed low levels of gambling-related cognition. Conclusions Patients in the ARI group seemed to be more severe pathological gamblers than patients in the DRT group. Aripiprazole is a partial D2 receptor agonist, whereas DRT includes full D2 receptor agonist. The trigger mechanism of PG development is complex and cannot only be attributed only to the pharmacodynamic effects of dopaminergic drugs. Indeed, individual vulnerability factors and environmental factors need to be considered. PMID:26658263

  7. Cocaine Dependent Individuals and Gamblers Present Different Associative Learning Anomalies in Feedback-Driven Decision Making: A Behavioral and ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Ana; Catena, Andrés; Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Megías, Alberto; Perales, José C.

    2013-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that addicts behave less flexibly than healthy controls in the probabilistic reversal learning task (PRLT), in which participants must gradually learn to choose between a probably rewarded option and an improbably rewarded one, on the basis of corrective feedback, and in which preferences must adjust to abrupt reward contingency changes (reversals). In the present study, pathological gamblers (PG) and cocaine dependent individuals (CDI) showed different learning curves in the PRLT. PG also showed a reduced electroencephalographic response to feedback (Feedback-Related Negativity, FRN) when compared to controls. CDI’s FRN was not significantly different either from PG or from healthy controls. Additionally, according to Standardized Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography analysis, cortical activity in regions of interest (previously selected by virtue of their involvement in FRN generation in controls) strongly differed between CDI and PG. However, the nature of such anomalies varied within-groups across individuals. Cocaine use severity had a strong deleterious impact on the learning asymptote, whereas gambling intensity significantly increased reversal cost. These two effects have remained confounded in most previous studies, which can be hiding important associative learning differences between different populations of addicts. PMID:23516173

  8. Lifetime of Prevalence and Risk Factors of Problem and Pathologic Gambling in North Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Çakıcı, Mehmet; Çakıcı, Ebru; Karaaziz, Meryem

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the results of the national survey of adult gambling behavior in North Cyprus (NC) in 2012 are presented. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of adults' participation in gambling, and to determine the prevalence of 'problem and pathological gambling' in NC. The population of this study was formed from all the people living permanently in NC, speaking Turkish, and within the age group 18-65. Household interviews were conducted with 966 people. To obtain data, a 30 item questionnaire prepared by the researchers and a Turkish version of the Revised South Oaks Gambling Screen were used. Prevalence rates are compared with the results of the study conducted in 2007 using the same methodology and survey form. The lifetime prevalence of participating at least once in any of the 17 gambling activities investigated in the survey was 66.4 %. 3.5 % of the respondents scored as lifetime probable pathological gamblers and 9.2 % as probable problem gamblers. Risk factors for becoming probable problem and pathological gamblers include being male, being in the 19-28 age group, having a high education level, having a job and being born in Cyprus. This study shows that the prevalence of problem gambling is high in NC and increasing gradually. NC has socio-cultural features such as a history of colonization, socioeconomic problems and high unemployment, similar to other high prevalence gambling regions, which is suggestive of the importance of socio-cultural factors on gambling behavior. PMID:25722075

  9. Female Sexual-Offenders: Personality Pathology as a Mediator of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Sexual Abuse Perpetration against Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…

  10. Identifying X-consumers using causal recipes: "whales" and "jumbo shrimps" casino gamblers.

    PubMed

    Woodside, Arch G; Zhang, Mann

    2012-03-01

    X-consumers are the extremely frequent (top 2-3%) users who typically consume 25% of a product category. This article shows how to use fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to provide "causal recipes" sufficient for profiling X-consumers accurately. The study extends Dik Twedt's "heavy-half" product users for building theory and strategies to nurture or control X-behavior. The study here applies QCA to offer configurations that are sufficient in identifying "whales" and "jumbo shrimps" among X-casino gamblers. The findings support the principle that not all X-consumers are alike. The theory and method are applicable for identifying the degree of consistency and coverage of alternative X-consumers among users of all product-service category and brands. PMID:21365441