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Sample records for pathological gambling five-year

  1. Pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

    2000-09-01

    With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG. PMID:10986732

  2. Pathological gambling

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the following symptoms: Committing crimes to get money to gamble Feeling restless or irritable when trying ... of sadness or anxiety Gambling larger amounts of money to try to make back past losses Losing ...

  3. Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

  4. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  5. Masochism and pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Richard J

    2015-03-01

    That all pathological gamblers have an "unconscious wish to lose," an idea first expressed by Freud and Bergler, is neither true nor useful; wrong as well, however, are the reasons for neglecting masochism in relation to gambling. There is a small but clinically significant subgroup of pathological gamblers who are masochistic. I present clinical vignettes and a more extended treatment account to illustrate its importance. Masochism has been a confusing concept. As used here it refers to the deliberate seeking of pain, loss, suffering, or humiliation. There may be pleasure in pain, or an obligatory combining of pleasure and pain. A sense of power and control may be achieved through suffering. The case material illustrates clinically useful types (sexual masochism, masochistic personality disorder, moral masochism, relational masochism) as well as some common masochistic dynamics encountered in the treatment of pathological gamblers. These masochistic patterns are often identifiable during the initial evaluation. Distinguishing features may include a reversal of normal attitudes about winning and losing, the absence of an early winning phase, sometimes a memorable early loss. Gamblers may sabotage opportunities for success or create unnecessary obstacles for themselves. Losing may be more comfortable than winning or may be overtly sexualized. PMID:25734872

  6. Pathological Gambling and Related Problems among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Robert; Boudreault, Normand; Jacques, Christian; Vitaro, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Evaluates the prevalence of pathological gambling and related problems among 3,426 students in junior and senior high schools in Quebec City. Results indicate that 77% have gambled in the last twelve months and 13% gamble at least once a week. Results also reveal that pathological gambling is associated with drug and alcohol use, poor grades, and…

  7. Adolescent pathological gambling in Kaunas, Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Skokauskas, Norbertas; Satkeviciute, Regina

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first survey of pathological gambling among adolescents in Kaunas, Lithuania. The results indicated that a large majority of adolescent (82.6%) have engaged in a variety of gambling activities. Although most respondents were classified as "occasional gamblers", there were significantly more females than males who were occasional gamblers and non-gamblers, and significantly more males than females who were regular gamblers. More adolescents surveyed had gambled on Tele-Lotto than on any other gambling activity. Based on Diagnostic statistical manual-IV-Multiple Response-Adapted for Juveniles, 4.2% of participants were categorized as pathological gamblers, with a further 9.1% classified as at-risk gamblers, 69.4% as social gamblers, and 17.3% as non-gamblers. Based on South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents, 5.2% (n = 43) of participants were categorized as pathological gamblers, with a further 10.5% (n = 88) classified as at-risk gamblers, 67% (n = 559) as social gamblers, and 17.3% (n = 145) as non-gamblers. The commonest reason given by adolescents for gambling were "enjoyment", "a chance to try luck" and "to win money"; however, the top reasons reported for pathological gambling were "to relax", "to distract myself from problems" and "to improve mood". Male gender, cognitive distortions regarding gambling, having parents who gamble and gamble too excess, using alcohol regularly, and smoking regularly were characteristics significantly associated with pathological gambling in adolescence. PMID:17454722

  8. Pathological Choice: The Neuroscience of Gambling and Gambling Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Averbeck, Bruno; Payer, Doris; Sescousse, Guillaume; Winstanley, Catharine A.; Xue, Gui

    2013-01-01

    Gambling is pertinent to neuroscience research for at least two reasons. First, gambling is a naturalistic and pervasive example of risky decision making, and thus gambling games can provide a paradigm for the investigation of human choice behavior and “irrationality.” Second, excessive gambling involvement (i.e., pathological gambling) is currently conceptualized as a behavioral addiction, and research on this condition may provide insights into addictive mechanisms in the absence of exogenous drug effects. This article is a summary of topics covered in a Society for Neuroscience minisymposium, focusing on recent advances in understanding the neural basis of gambling behavior, including translational findings in rodents and nonhuman primates, which have begun to delineate neural circuitry and neurochemistry involved. PMID:24198353

  9. Pathological gambling and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, S; Halpern, A L; Portnow, S L

    1986-01-01

    There exists significant interdisciplinary support for eliminating the volitional component of the insanity defense. Somewhat in contrast to this trend is the presentation of pathological gambling as a potentially exculpatory condition in criminal trials. The authors discuss three federal appellate court decisions on this attempted inappropriate usage of psychiatric diagnostic nomenclature. All have upheld convictions, and thereby rejected contentions that such an impulse disorder can form the basis for a valid plea of lack of criminal responsibility. It is suggested that the public interest will be served by statutorily making disturbances of behavioral control insufficient to raise a defense of insanity. PMID:3944564

  10. Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bonnie K.

    2009-01-01

    Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

  11. Problem and Pathological Gambling among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinchfield, Randy; Hanson, William E.; Olson, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines problem and pathological gambling among college students and reports on prevalence rate, risk and protective factors, prevention and intervention, and recommendations for college student personnel and other university administrators.

  12. The Vulnerable Faces of Pathological Gambling

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Pathological gambling is an emerging psychiatric disorder that has medical, psychiatric, and social consequences. Recently, research has been focusing on identifying which portions of the population are most vulnerable to developing problems related to ongoing gambling. Specific populations of interest have included adolescents, elderly, minorities, those with comorbid psychiatric or substance use disorders, and gender differences. Each group possesses unique biological, psychological, and/or social characteristics that confer a vulnerability to develop pathological gambling behaviors. Being able to recognize those who are at risk to become pathological gamblers is the first step toward developing effective prevention and early intervention programs. This is Part Two of a three-part series on pathological gambling. Part One appeared in the March issue of Psychiatry 2005. PMID:21179650

  13. Pathological Gambling: Neuropsychopharmacology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Scott A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) affects about 0.2–2% of adults and the impact extends to family members, employers and society as a whole. Recent research has identified similarities in the pathophysiologies of PG and substance use disorders (SUDs). As such, findings regarding SUDs provide a framework for investigating PG. The aims of the manuscript are two-fold. First, we will briefly revivew neural systems implicated in PG. Cortico-limbic circuitry involving the ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are discussed as are the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioids, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This background will provide a framework for reviewing the psychopharmacological treatments that have been tested for efficacy and safety in treating PG. Of medications, the strongest data suggest the efficacy and tolerability of opioid antagonists in the treatment of PG, and other agents have varying degree of empirical support. As behavioral therapies have also shown efficacy, they will be briefly considered as well. Future research is needed to understand how treatments work in PG and for whom specific treatments might work best. PMID:24349964

  14. The Performance of Two Pathological Gambling Screens in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Jeremiah; Whelan, James P.; Meyers, Andrew W.; McCausland, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    The psychometric properties of two pathological gambling (PG) screening instruments, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and the Massachusetts Gambling Screen-DSM-IV subscale (MAGS), were explored in a sample of college students (N = 159). Participants completed the two screening instruments, a diagnostic interview for PG, the Gambling-Timeline…

  15. Pathological Gambling and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wareham, Justin D.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) has been considered as a behavioral addiction having similarities with substance use disorders (SUDs). Shared features exist in diagnostic, clinical, physiological, and behavioral domains. Current conceptualizations of addiction, as well as experimental studies of PG and SUDs, are reviewed in order to provide a perspective on the areas of convergence between addictive behaviors in PG and SUDs. PMID:20575651

  16. Is pathological gambling moderated by age?

    PubMed

    Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Stinchfield, Randy; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Fröberg, Frida; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Pérez-Serrano, Miriam; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2014-06-01

    The age of a patient is a strong moderator of both the course and the evolution of disorders/diseases. However, the effects of current age in pathological gambling (PG) have rarely been examined. The aim of this study is to explore the moderating effects of the patients' current age in relation to personality traits and clinical outcomes of PG. A total sample of 2,309 treatment-seeking patients for PG, diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, participated in this study and were assessed with the Diagnostic Questionnaire for Pathological Gambling according to DSM-IV criteria, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Symptom Checklist, the Temperament and Character Inventory-R, and other clinical and psychopathological measures. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts showed linear trends in the relationship between age and PG: the older the patient, the more comorbid health problems were visible. The presence of additional quadratic trends also suggests that age plays a significant role in moderating the possibility of existing PG problems and general psychopathology. No interaction term was found between age and sex, but it was present for age and some personality traits: self-transcendence and reward dependence (these two traits were only relevant to the level of impairment due to PG at specific ages). This study suggests that the patients' age influences psychopathological and clinical aspects associated to PG. Intervention in the earliest manifestations of this complex problem is essential in order to better address the need of successful treatment planning. PMID:23494243

  17. Pathological gambling: understanding relapses and dropouts.

    PubMed

    Aragay, Núria; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Ramos-Grille, Irene; Cardona, Sara; Garrido, Gemma; Anisul Islam, Mohammed; Menchón, José M; Vallès, Vicenç

    2015-02-01

    There is little available information on the factors that influence relapses and dropouts during therapy for pathological gambling (PG). The aim of this study was to determine socio-demographic, clinical, personality, and psychopathological predictors of relapse and dropout in a sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. A total of 566 consecutive outpatients diagnosed with PG according to DSM-IV-TR criteria were included. All patients underwent an individualized cognitive-behavioral treatment program. We analyzed predictors of relapse during 6months of treatment and during the subsequent 6months of follow-up, and predictors of dropout over the entire therapeutic program. Eighty patients (14.1%) experienced at least one relapse during the entire follow-up of the study: 50 (8.8%) within the treatment period and 12 (2.1%) during the subsequent 6-month follow-up period. The main predictors of relapse were single marital status, spending less than 100euros/week on gambling, active gambling behavior at treatment inclusion, and high scores on the TCI-R Harm Avoidance personality dimension. One hundred fifty-seven patients (27.8%) missed 3 or more therapeutic sessions over the entire therapeutic program. The main predictors of dropout were single marital status, younger age, and high scores on the TCI-R Novelty Seeking personality dimension. The presence of these factors at inclusion should be taken into account by physicians dealing with PG patients. PMID:25434846

  18. The Role of Metacognition in Pathological Gambling: A Mediation Model.

    PubMed

    Mansueto, Giovanni; Pennelli, Michele; De Palo, Valeria; Monacis, Lucia; Sinatra, Maria; De Caro, Maria Fara

    2016-03-01

    Pathological gambling involves multitudinous costs related to financial, legal, and public health care aspects, as well as to specific psychological disorders. Despite the overall evidence suggesting that comorbid disorders represent a risk factor for pathological gambling, there is scant evidence on the appropriate treatments for gamblers with such disorders. In this context, metacognitive therapy is an interesting approach because it considers psychological disorders as a result of the activation of perseverative cognitive processes and attentional strategies in response to inner events. Several studies report that metacognition is associated with different psychological problems. This study investigated the relationship among comorbid disorders, metacognition, and pathological gambling. 69 pathological gamblers at the first hospital admission and 58 controls drawn from general population (matched for age, gender, education) completed a battery of self report instruments: Symptom Checklist-90-R, Metacognition Questionnaire 30, South Oaks Gambling Scale. Compared to controls, pathological gamblers showed higher level of comorbid symptomatology and metacognition. Correlation analyses showed that: comorbid symptomatology and metacognition were positively and significantly correlated with pathological gambling; metacognition was positively and significantly associated with comorbid symptomatology. Mediation analysis indicated that dysfunctional metacognitive strategies could have an indirect effect on pathological gambling mediated by concurrent psychological disorders. These findings provide some implications for gambling treatment programs: pathological gamblers should be screened for psychiatric disorders, and metacognitive therapy could be considered a correct treatment of pathological gamblers. Metacognitive therapy might lead to the reduction of the pathological gambling by the diminishing of the concurrent psychological disorders. PMID:25600034

  19. Dopamine agonist: pathological gambling and hypersexuality.

    PubMed

    2008-10-01

    (1) Pathological gambling and increased sexual activity can occur in patients taking dopaminergic drugs. Detailed case reports and small case series mention serious familial and social consequences. The frequency is poorly documented; (2) Most affected patients are being treated for Parkinson's disease, but cases have been reported among patients prescribed a dopamine agonist for restless legs syndrome or pituitary adenoma; (3) Patients treated with this type of drug, and their relatives, should be informed of these risks so that they can watch for changes in behaviour. If such disorders occur, it may be necessary to reduce the dose or to withdraw the drug or replace it with another medication. PMID:19536937

  20. Psychological Factors that Promote and Inhibit Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morasco, Benjamin J.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Ledgerwood, David M.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes qualitative data regarding psychological factors that may affect gambling behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Participants (n = 84) diagnosed with pathological gambling were treated in a clinical trial examining the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Qualitative data were collected from…

  1. The relationship of ecological and geographic factors to gambling behavior and pathology.

    PubMed

    Welte, John W; Wieczorek, William F; Barnes, Grace M; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile; Hoffman, Joseph H

    2004-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of neighborhood disadvantage and gambling availability on gambling participation and pathology. A national telephone survey included 2631 US adults. Census data was used to characterize the respondent's neighborhood, and the distance from the respondent's home to gambling facilities was calculated. Logistic and linear regressions were performed to predict gambling participation and pathology. Results showed that the neighborhood disadvantage was positively related to frequency of gambling and problem/pathological gambling. The presence of a casino within 10 miles of the respondent's home was positively related to problem/pathological gambling. The permissiveness of gambling laws was positively related to any gambling in the past year, as well as frequent gambling. These results were interpreted to mean that the ecology of disadvantaged neighborhoods promotes gambling pathology, and that availability of gambling opportunities promotes gambling participation and pathology. PMID:15577275

  2. Pathological gambling and couple: towards an integrative systemic model.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Diana; Relvas, Ana Paula

    2014-06-01

    This article is a critical literature review of pathological gambling focused in the family factors, particularly in the couple dynamics. Its main goal is to develop an explicative integrative systemic model of pathological gambling, based in these couple dynamics. To achieve that aim, a bibliography search was made, using on-line data bases (e.g., EBSCO Host) and recognized books in pathological gambling subject, as well as in the systemic approach in general. This process privileged the recent works (about 70 % of the reviewed literature was published in the last decade), however, also considered some classic works (the oldest one dates back to 1970). The guiding focus of this literature search evolves according to the following steps: (1) search of general comprehension of pathological gambling (19 references), (2) search specification to the subject "pathological gambling and family" (24 references), (3) search specification to the subject "pathological gambling and couple"(11 references), (4) search of systemic information which integrates the evidence resulted in the previous steps (4 references). The developed model is constituted by different levels of systemic complexity (social context, family of origin, couple and individual) and explains the problem as a signal of perturbation in the marital subsystem vital functions (e.g., power and control) though the regularities of marital dynamics of pathological gamblers. Furthermore, it gives theoretical evidence of the systemic familiar intervention in the pathological gambling. PMID:23423730

  3. Changes in Pathological Complete Response Rates after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Carcinoma over Five Years

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Daniel C.; Naikan, Jessica; Rozenblit, Mariya; Mandeli, John; Bleiweiss, Ira; Tiersten, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Historically, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) was extrapolated from adjuvant regimens. Dual HER2 blockade and the introduction of carboplatin for triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) emerged by December 2013 and have improved pathological complete response (pCR) rates. The objective of this study was to assess the pCR rates before and after the introduction of these new neoadjuvant regimens. Materials and Methods. Stage I–III breast cancer patients who received NACT were analyzed for rates of pCR by clinical characteristics (i.e., age, BMI, axillary lymphadenopathy, and histologic subtype), by time period (1 = 3/2010–11/2013, 2 = 12/2013–3/2015), and by type of chemotherapy (e.g., anthracycline/taxane only, carboplatin-containing, and HER2 blockade). Results. 113 patients received NACT. Overall pCR rate was 26.5 percent (n = 30). The pCR rate increased from 14% to 43.1% (p = 0.001) from time period 1 to time period 2 and were associated with HER2 positivity (p = 0.003), receiving treatment during time period 2 (p = 0.001) and using an anthracycline/taxane plus additional agent type of regimen (p = 0.004). Conclusions. Our study revealed a significant difference in rates of pCR over five years. Window of opportunity trials and other trials that utilize pCR analysis should be encouraged. PMID:27382369

  4. Changes in Pathological Complete Response Rates after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Carcinoma over Five Years.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Daniel C; Naikan, Jessica; Rozenblit, Mariya; Mandeli, John; Bleiweiss, Ira; Tiersten, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Historically, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) was extrapolated from adjuvant regimens. Dual HER2 blockade and the introduction of carboplatin for triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) emerged by December 2013 and have improved pathological complete response (pCR) rates. The objective of this study was to assess the pCR rates before and after the introduction of these new neoadjuvant regimens. Materials and Methods. Stage I-III breast cancer patients who received NACT were analyzed for rates of pCR by clinical characteristics (i.e., age, BMI, axillary lymphadenopathy, and histologic subtype), by time period (1 = 3/2010-11/2013, 2 = 12/2013-3/2015), and by type of chemotherapy (e.g., anthracycline/taxane only, carboplatin-containing, and HER2 blockade). Results. 113 patients received NACT. Overall pCR rate was 26.5 percent (n = 30). The pCR rate increased from 14% to 43.1% (p = 0.001) from time period 1 to time period 2 and were associated with HER2 positivity (p = 0.003), receiving treatment during time period 2 (p = 0.001) and using an anthracycline/taxane plus additional agent type of regimen (p = 0.004). Conclusions. Our study revealed a significant difference in rates of pCR over five years. Window of opportunity trials and other trials that utilize pCR analysis should be encouraged. PMID:27382369

  5. Pathological Gambling and Suicidality: An Analysis of Severity and Lethality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maccallum, Fiona; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the nature of suicidal behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers and its relationship to gambling characteristics and depression. High rates of suicidal ideation, suicidal plans, and attempts were found; however, no clear relationship was observed between suicidality and indices of gambling behavior. (Contains 37…

  6. [Responsible gambling: is it an alternative for prevention and treatment of pathological gambling?].

    PubMed

    Echeburua, Enrique; de Corral, Paz

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the new development of controlled gambling embedded in a harm-reduction context as a viable solution both for primary prevention at school and for treatment of some kinds of problematic gamblers. Pathological gambling significantly improves with psychological therapies, such as stimulus control and in vivo exposure with response prevention or cognitive interventions. In some cases psychopharmacological therapy may complement the benefits of treatment for pathological gambling when patients have comorbid depression or high impulsivity. However, in this mental disorder the goal of treatment (total abstinence or controlled gambling) is currently a controversial issue. Controlled gambling may be a therapeutic option for young gamblers or patients without severe dependence. Furthermore, controlled gambling may be a relevant issue for health education in schools, with a view to teaching teenagers how to cope with actual and virtual exposure to gambling. Likewise, the gambling industry and governments are involved in harm minimization initiatives. Thus, it is necessary to coordinate a program of research that includes the industry, science, and public representatives, based on cooperative research that will permit the introduction of controlled gambling within a global strategic framework. We discuss the relevance of this review for clinical practice and for future research, as well as the unsolved problems in this field. PMID:19115019

  7. [Pathological gambling and its consequences for public health].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria Paula Magalhães Tavares de; Silveira, Dartiu Xavier da; Silva, Maria Teresa Araujo

    2008-06-01

    The article aimed to characterize pathological gambling, showing the main consequences of this disorder. Bibliographic survey on this theme was conducted, covering both national and international literature. Publications whose main findings emphasized related prevalence, social and economic costs, gambling legalization and resulting impact on public health, were selected. High suicide rate, comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders, family and work problems, and illicit behavior were consequences reported. The prevalence of this disorder is higher in countries that have legalized gambling and in Brazil there is evidence of growth in the number of pathological gamblers. The development of national research is fundamental to define public policies that are adequate for the Brazilian context. PMID:18461253

  8. Social, psychological and physical consequences of pathological gambling in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bergh, C; Kühlhorn, E

    1994-09-01

    Social, psychological and physical consequences of pathological gambling reported by 42 pathological gamblers recruited mainly by advertising were compared with data on 63 pathological gamblers identified by case-finding within districts of probation, in- and out-patient psychiatric care and social welfare authorities. The two studies gave similar results. Financial breakdown, impaired relations with family and friends, and psychological problems occurred in about 50% of the pathological gamblers. Physical consequences were perceived to be of minor significance. Gambling became a solitary behavior as illegal behaviors to finance gambling increased. The pathological gamblers frequently abused alcohol. Despite these signs of social decay the pathological gamblers strove not to be a burden in society. PMID:24234924

  9. Pathological gambling and treatment outcomes for adults age 50 or older in methadone maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Engel, Rafael J; Rosen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of pathological gambling to negative treatment outcomes for methadone maintenance patients aged 50 or older. The study included 130 methadone maintenance patients. Pathological gambling was determined using the Lie-Bet, a screen for pathological gambling; the outcomes were remaining in treatment and negative urine screens for drug use. Twenty percent of the sample identified as pathological gamblers. Pathological gambling was unrelated to remaining in treatment or negative urine screens. Although pathological gambling had no adverse influence on these treatment outcomes, the prevalence of pathological gambling suggests that screening for it may provide insights about other concerns. PMID:25202832

  10. Pathological gambling and the loss of willpower: a neurocognitive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brevers, Damien; Noël, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to gain more insight on the neurocognitive processes involved in the maintenance of pathological gambling. Firstly, we describe structural factors of gambling games that could promote the repetition of gambling experiences to such an extent that some individuals may become unable to control their gambling habits. Secondly, we review findings of neurocognitive studies on pathological gambling. As a whole, poor ability to resist gambling is a product of an imbalance between any one or a combination of three key neural systems: (1) an hyperactive ‘impulsive’ system, which is fast, automatic, and unconscious and promotes automatic and habitual actions; (2) a hypoactive ‘reflective’ system, which is slow and deliberative, forecasting the future consequences of a behavior, inhibitory control, and self-awareness; and (3) the interoceptive system, translating bottom-up somatic signals into a subjective state of craving, which in turn potentiates the activity of the impulsive system, and/or weakens or hijacks the goal-driven cognitive resources needed for the normal operation of the reflective system. Based on this theoretical background, we focus on certain clinical interventions that could reduce the risks of both gambling addiction and relapse. PMID:24693357

  11. Update on the Pharmacological Treatment of Pathological Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Scott A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    This is an update to a previously published article discussing the neuropsychopharmacology of pathological gambling (PG) (1). In the prior manuscript, we described how cortico-limbic circuitry and neurotransmitter systems (norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioids, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)) have been implicated in PG. These systems represent potential targets for psychopharmacological treatments for PG, with opioid antagonists arguably showing the most consistent benefit in RCTs. In the past year and half since this publication was prepared, there has been one additional randomized clinical trial (RCT) published along with a single case study. Our original manuscript did not describe in detail findings from case studies or open-label studies so in addition to the new RCT data and a new case report involving naltrexone, here we describe case and open-label findings. A PubMed search was conducted using terms such as “pathological gambling treatment”, “clinical trials and gambling”, and “gambling psychopharmacology.” Using these search terms, numerous results were obtained, necessitating further search modifiers. For example, using just “pathological gambling treatment” results in over 1600 hits. In order to focus in on the search modalities, we searched within the initial results for specific phrases such as “psychopharmacology, clinical trial, medication, serotonergic, dopaminergic, etc.” in addition to searching for specific medications. Results not directly related to the treatment of pathological gambling were not included. The study of pathological gambling is relatively new. As such, our search did not exclude any studies due to age of material, but with a few exceptions, the majority of the studies discussed were published later than 2000. This resulted in 24 case studies and/or RCTs not previously included in our original review article. These findings in conjunction with our prior publication provide a

  12. Towards a Comprehensive Developmental Model of Pathological Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Carlos; Hanania, Joan; Petry, Nancy M.; Wall, Melanie M.; Wang, Shuai; Jin, Chelsea J.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To develop a comprehensive etiological model of pathological gambling (PG) for men and women based on Kendler's development model for major depression, which groups 22 risk factors in 5 developmental tiers (childhood, early adolescence, late adolescence, adulthood, last year). We hypothesized that: 1) All risk factors would be significantly associated with PG; 2) The effect of risk factors in earlier developmental tiers would be accounted for by later tiers; and, 3) There would be few gender differences. Design Separate models were built for lifetime gambling and for 12-month PG among those with lifetime gambling. Setting Data drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) in the USA. Participants Respondents to NESARC Wave 1 (n= 43093). Measurements Odds ratios (OR) and Adjusted OR (AOR) were used to determine the risk factors in multiple models. Findings After mutually adjusting for other risk factors, family history of substance use disorders (SUD) or depression, impulsivity, childhood-onset anxiety, number of Axis I and II disorders, history of SUD, nicotine dependence, social deviance in adulthood, and past-year history of SUD, nicotine dependence, and independent stressful life events predicted lifetime gambling. Past history of PG, number of personality disorders and past year nicotine dependence were significantly associated with 12-month PG (all p<.05). There were no significant gender interactions for 12-month PG. Conclusions A modification of Kendler's model for major depression provides a foundation for the development a comprehensive developmental model of pathological gambling. Lifetime history of gambling and 12-month pathological gambling appear to be determined by risk factors in several developmental levels, with the effect of earlier development tiers accounted for by later ones. PMID:25879250

  13. Contemporary issues and future directions for research into pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, M; Baron, E

    2000-08-01

    The recent healthy increase in research into all aspects of gambling is noted. The dominant theme accounting for most of this research is the mental disorder model of pathological gambling and measures that have been derived from this conceptualization. It is suggested that an alternative approach focusing on the construct of choice or subjective control over gambling may be a research direction that will ensure that progress is maintained. In this paper a context for the discussion is provided by first identifying briefly fundamental conceptual and methodological issues associated with the mental disorder model. In particular it is argued that the heterogeneity of the diagnosis of pathological gambling makes the research task of assessing truly independent variables extremely difficult. Subsequently an illustrative schema is presented that demonstrates both the potential advantages and some of the complexities associated with the dependent variable of self-control over gambling behaviour. The main advantages are argued to be (a) the focus of research is narrowed to one potential cause of harmful impacts rather than the great diversity of impacts themselves, (b) prospective studies of regular gamblers in real gambling venues may be a key source of insight into the development of pathological gambling and (c) it promotes the development of theoretical links with the mainstream of the discipline of psychology. Despite the conceptual difficulties that may be associated with the variable of self-control, it is suggested that these may be overcome because contemporary research into the addictive behaviours has demonstrated considerable success in the definition and measurement of control and related themes such as craving, restraint and temptation. PMID:11092063

  14. A Population-Based Study of the Association between Pathological Gambling and Attempted Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Stephen C.; Thompson, Angus H.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the association between pathological gambling and attempted suicide using data from a prevalence study. The odds ratio for pathological gambling was statistically significant when major depression was the only comorbid mental disorder in the model. As terms for additional mental disorders were included, pathological gambling ceased to be…

  15. Thresholds of probable problematic gambling involvement for the German population: Results of the Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study.

    PubMed

    Brosowski, Tim; Hayer, Tobias; Meyer, Gerhard; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; John, Ulrich; Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Consumption measures in gambling research may help to establish thresholds of low-risk gambling as 1 part of evidence-based responsible gambling strategies. The aim of this study is to replicate existing Canadian thresholds of probable low-risk gambling (Currie et al., 2006) in a representative dataset of German gambling behavior (Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology [PAGE]; N = 15,023). Receiver-operating characteristic curves applied in a training dataset (60%) extracted robust thresholds of low-risk gambling across 4 nonexclusive definitions of gambling problems (1 + to 4 + Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition [DSM-5] Composite International Diagnostic Interview [CIDI] symptoms), different indicators of gambling involvement (across all game types; form-specific) and different timeframes (lifetime; last year). Logistic regressions applied in a test dataset (40%) to cross-validate the heuristics of probable low-risk gambling incorporated confounding covariates (age, gender, education, migration, and unemployment) and confirmed the strong concurrent validity of the thresholds. Moreover, it was possible to establish robust form-specific thresholds of low-risk gambling (only for gaming machines and poker). Possible implications for early detection of problem gamblers in offline or online environments are discussed. Results substantiate international knowledge about problem gambling prevention and contribute to a German discussion about empirically based guidelines of low-risk gambling. PMID:26415065

  16. [Pathological gambling and addiction to cannabis: common psychosocial profile?].

    PubMed

    Parolaa, Nathalie; Boyer, Laurent; Simon, Nicolas; Aghababian, Valérie; Lançon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Addiction can involve substances (heroin, cannabis, cocaine) or be characterised by behaviour (pathological gambling, addiction to sport, etc.). The question is to establish whether or not there is a specific personality profile (character, temperament) and emotional functioning (anxiety, depression, alexithymia) in subjects presenting addictive behaviour with and without substance use. To find some answers, a team from Sainte-Marguerite General Hospital in Marseille carried out a study comparing a group of cannabis addicts and a group of pathological gamblers. PMID:24741830

  17. Behavioral Treatment for Pathological Gambling in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guercio, John M.; Johnson, Taylor; Dixon, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation examined a behavior-analytic clinical treatment package designed to reduce the pathological gambling of 3 individuals with acquired brain injury. A prior history of pathological gambling of each patient was assessed via caregiver report, psychological testing, and direct observation of gambling behavior. Using an 8-week…

  18. Pathological Gambling Associated With Aripiprazole or Dopamine Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Sauvaget, Anne; Perrouin, Fanny; Leboucher, Juliette; Etcheverrigaray, François; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Gaboriau, Louise; Derkinderen, Pascal; Jolliet, Pascale; Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Background In the last 10 years, dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) has become a well-known risk factor for developing an impulse control disorder, such as gambling disorder (GD). Another medication, aripiprazole (ARI), has been more recently identified as another risk factor. Dopamine replacement therapy and ARI share a dopamine agonist action. Our work aimed at comparing patients with PG according to their treatment with DRT or ARI. Methods Two methods were combined—a systematic review concentrated on case reports and the analysis of a French disordered gamblers cohort focused on patients using ARI or DRT at inclusion. Results We reported 48 cases of GD possibly due to DRT and 17 cases of GD possibly due to ARI. Because of their standardized assessment, only the EVALJEU patients could be compared. Two clinical patterns emerged. Patients in the ARI group were young, impulsive, and high novelty seekers and had a history of substance misuse. Their first gambling experience occurred during adolescence. Conversely, patients in the DRT group were old, and they began gambling late in life. They showed low levels of gambling-related cognition. Conclusions Patients in the ARI group seemed to be more severe pathological gamblers than patients in the DRT group. Aripiprazole is a partial D2 receptor agonist, whereas DRT includes full D2 receptor agonist. The trigger mechanism of PG development is complex and cannot only be attributed only to the pharmacodynamic effects of dopaminergic drugs. Indeed, individual vulnerability factors and environmental factors need to be considered. PMID:26658263

  19. Type of gambling as an independent risk factor for suicidal events in pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian; Bischof, Gallus; John, Ulrich; Wurst, Friedrich Martin; Thon, Natasha; Lucht, Michael; Grabe, Hans-Joergen; Rumpf, Hans-Juergen

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with pathological gambling have an increased risk for suicidal events. Additionally, the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders is high among pathological gamblers. This study analyzes whether the type of gambling is associated with suicidal events in pathological gamblers independently from comorbidity. Participants were recruited in 4 different ways: via random telephone sample from the general population, via individual invitation for study participation in gambling locations, through various media and the distribution of a leaflet in various settings, and via inpatient treatment facilities for pathological gambling. The final sample included 442 participants with a lifetime diagnosis of pathological gambling. A standardized clinical interview was conducted. High financial losses were associated with suicidal events (odds ratio [OR] = 1.94, 95% 95% confidence interval [CI], [1.11, 3.37]), as were mood disorders (OR = 7.70, 95% CI, [4.44, 13.37]) and female gender (OR = 2.52, 95% CI, [1.20, 5.28]). Gambling on electronic gambling machines in gambling halls or bars was associated with increased odds of suicidal events (OR = 2.94, 95% CI, [1.38, 6.24]). Other types of gambling, such as casino games or betting on sports, or the number of DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling were not associated independently with suicidal events. Our findings suggest that gambling on electronic gambling machines in gambling halls or bars is associated with suicidal events in pathological gamblers independently of comorbidity. This result shows that the type of gambling needs to be considered as a relevant factor in gambling research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26795395

  20. Social Strain, Self-Control, and Juvenile Gambling Pathology: Evidence From Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Nicole W. T.

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent concerns over youthful problem gambling, few gambling studies have looked into Asian adolescent populations. This study of a stratified, random sample of high school students in Hong Kong is designed to estimate the prevalence of gambling pathology among Chinese adolescents and to examine the relationships between social strain,…

  1. Examining DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling: psychometric properties and evidence from cognitive biases.

    PubMed

    Lakey, Chad E; Goodie, Adam S; Lance, Charles E; Stinchfield, Randy; Winters, Ken C

    2007-12-01

    We examined the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling as assessed with the DSM-IV-based Diagnostic Interview for Gambling Severity (DIGS; Winters, Specker, & Stinchfield, 2002). We first analyzed the psychometric properties of the DIGS, and then assessed the extent to which performance on two judgment and decision-making tasks, the Georgia Gambling Task (Goodie, 2003) and the Iowa Gambling Task (Bechara, Damasio, Damasio, & Anderson, 1994), related to higher reports of gambling pathology. In a sample of frequent gamblers, we found strong psychometric support for the DSM-IV conception of pathological gambling as measured by the DIGS, predictive relationships between DIGS scores and all cognitive performance measures, and significant differences in performance measures between individuals with and without pathological gambling. Analyses using suggested revisions to the pathological gambling threshold (Stinchfield, 2003) revealed that individuals meeting four of the DSM-IV criteria aligned significantly more with pathological gamblers than with non-pathological gamblers, supporting the suggested change in the cutoff score from five to four symptoms. Discussion focuses on the validity of the DSM-IV criteria as assessed by the DIGS and the role of cognitive biases in pathological gambling. PMID:17453325

  2. Behavioral Interventions in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: A Review of Activity Scheduling and Desensitization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Nicki; Jackson, Alun C.; Thomas, Shane A.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and behavioral interventions have been cautiously recommended as "best practice" in the treatment of pathological gambling. Behavioral interventions, using a range of techniques, have been the most commonly evaluated approach to the psychological treatment of pathological gambling. The recent literature evaluating behavioral treatments…

  3. Gambling motivation and passion: a comparison study of recreational and pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Back, Ki-Joon; Lee, Choong-Ki; Stinchfield, Randy

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the structural relationship among gambling motivation, gambling passion, and behavioral intentions to gamble between recreational and pathological gamblers. Specifically, this study aimed to shed light on the different ways in which gambling motivation and affective attitude are associated with recreational and pathological gamblers. Using a purposive sampling method, 400 subjects were selected for and participated in this study during their visits to a casino. Study results echoed the notion of distinctive and separate gambling motivations and passions between recreational and pathological gamblers. Also, results identified specific areas to which casino operators or policy makers should pay special attention in developing effective marketing strategies to promote responsible gambling. PMID:20680417

  4. Desensitization of triggers and urge reprocessing for pathological gambling: a case series.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hwallip; Han, Changwoo; Kim, Daeho

    2015-03-01

    This case series introduces the desensitization of triggers and urge reprocessing (DeTUR), as a promising adjunctive therapy in addition to comprehensive treatment package for pathological gambling. This addiction protocol of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing was delivered to four male inpatients admitted to a 10-week inpatient program for pathological gambling. The therapist gave three 60-min weekly sessions of the DeTUR using bilateral stimulation (horizontal eye movements or alternative tactile stimuli) focusing on the hierarchy of triggering situations and the urge to initiate gambling behaviors. After treatment, self-reported gambling symptoms, depression, anxiety, and impulsiveness were all improved, and all the participants reported satisfaction with the therapy. They were followed up for 6 months and all maintained their abstinence from gambling and their symptomatic improvements. Given the efficiency (i.e., brevity and efficacy) of the treatment, a controlled study to confirm the effects of the DeTUR on pathological gambling would be justified. PMID:24293014

  5. A Latent Class Analysis of Pathological-Gambling Criteria Among High School Students: Associations With Gambling, Risk and Health/Functioning Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Hoff, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify subtypes of adolescent gamblers based on the 10 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria for pathological gambling and the 9 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition criteria for gambling disorder and to examine associations between identified subtypes with gambling, other risk behaviors, and health/functioning characteristics. Methods Using cross-sectional survey data from 10 high schools in Connecticut (N = 3901), we conducted latent class analysis to classify adolescents who reported past-year gambling into gambling groups on the basis of items from the Massachusetts Gambling Screen. Adolescents also completed questions assessing demographic information, substance use (cigarette, marijuana, alcohol, and other drugs), gambling behaviors (relating to gambling formats, locations, motivations, and urges), and health/functioning characteristics (eg, extracurricular activities, mood, aggression, and body mass index). Results The optimal solution consisted of 4 classes that we termed low-risk gambling (86.4%), at-risk chasing gambling (7.6%), at-risk negative consequences gambling (3.7%), and problem gambling (PrG) (2.3%). At-risk and PrG classes were associated with greater negative functioning and more gambling behaviors. Different patterns of associations between at-risk and PrG classes were also identified. Conclusions Adolescent gambling classifies into 4 classes, which are differentially associated with demographic, gambling patterns, risk behaviors, and health/functioning characteristics. Early identification and interventions for adolescent gamblers should be sensitive to the heterogeneity of gambling subtypes. PMID:25275877

  6. Pathological Gambling, Problem Gambling and Sleep Complaints: An Analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey: Replication (NCS-R)

    PubMed Central

    Siani, Aaron; Rosenthal, Richard J.; Fong, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between sleep disturbances and gambling behavior. Data from the National Comorbidity Survey—Replication (NCS-R) was used to examine the relationship between three specific sleep complaints (difficulty initiating sleep [DIS], difficulty maintaining sleep [DMS], and early morning awakening [EMA]) and gambling behavior. Bivariate logistic regression models were used to control for potentially confounding psychiatric disorders and age. Almost half of respondents with problem gambling behavior (45.9%) and two thirds (67.7%) of respondents with pathological gambling behavior reported at least one sleep compliant. Compared to respondents with no gambling pathology, respondents with pathological gambling were significantly more likely to report at least one sleep complaint (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 3.444, 95% CI = 1.538–7.713), to report all sleep complaints (AOR = 3.449, 95% CI = 1.503–7.914), and to report any individual complaint (DIS: OR = 2.300, 95% CI = 1.069–4.946; DMS: AOR = 4.604, 95% CI = 2.093–10.129; EMA: AOR = 3.968, 95% CI = 1.856–8.481). The relationship between problem gambling and sleep complaints were more modest (any sleep complaint: AOR = 1.794, 95% CI = 1.142–2.818; all three sleep complaints: AOR = 2.144, 95% CI = 1.169–3.931; DIS: AOR = 1.961, 95% CI = 1.204–3.194; DMS: AOR = 1.551, 95% CI = 0.951–2.529; EMA: AOR = 1.796, 95% CI = 1.099–2.935). Given the individual and societal ramifications linked with the presence of sleep problems, this study presents another health-related repercussion associated with gambling pathology rarely discussed in the literature. PMID:22396174

  7. The impulsivity and sensation-seeking mediators of the psychological consequences of pathological gambling in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Ana; Herrero-Fernández, David; Sarabia, Izaskun; Jauregui, Paula

    2015-03-01

    Pathological gambling has severe consequences for adolescents and their families and friends. Despite its high prevalence, pathological gambling in adolescents has been insufficiently studied. Sensation seeking and impulsivity are two variables that are related to the appearance and maintenance of pathological gambling. However, few studies have determined the role these variables play in the development of the dysfunctional symptomatology of gambling behavior in adolescents and young adults. The aims of this study were to analyze the consequences of gambling in young adults and adolescents, and to evaluate the roles of sensation seeking and impulsivity in the appearance of dysfunctional symptomatology. The sample consisted of 1,241 young adults and adolescents recruited from scholar centers and free-time groups, as well as 71 subjects from associations that assist pathological gamblers. Pathological gambling, impulsive behavior, dysfunctional symptomatology and sensation seeking were assessed. The results confirmed that young adults and adolescents who gamble pathologically have more dysfunctional symptomatology related to anxiety, depression, hostility, obsessive-compulsive behavior and somatization, as well as sensation seeking, impulsivity and addictive behavior. Moreover, the results showed that sensation seeking did not mediate the appearance of dysfunctional symptomatology and that impulsivity partially mediated the appearance of anxiety, phobic anxiety, depression and psychosis and perfectly mediated somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoid ideation and hostility. These results have consequences for the development of treatment and prevention programs for adolescent pathological gambling. PMID:24297606

  8. Late-onset pathological gambling: clinical correlates and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won; Odlaug, Brian L; Buchanan, Stephanie N; Potenza, Marc N

    2009-01-01

    Age at illness onset has significant clinical implications for psychiatric disorders. Prior research has not systematically examined age at illness onset and its relationship to the clinical characteristics of pathological gambling (PG). Among a sample of 322 consecutive subjects with current DSM-IV PG, those with late-onset (at or after age 55 years) PG were compared to those with earlier onsets (at or prior to age 25, 26-54 years old) on measures of PG severity, co-occurring disorders, social and legal problems, and family history. Forty-two (13.4%) subjects reported onset of PG at or after age 55 years, 63 (19.6%) reported onset prior to age 25 years, and the majority (n=217; 67.4%) reported onset between the ages of 26 and 54 years. The late-onset group were less likely to declare bankruptcy (p=.029) or have credit card debt attributable to gambling (p=.006). Late-onset PG subjects were significantly more likely to have an anxiety disorder (p<.001) and significantly less likely to have a father (p=.025) or a mother (p=.048) with a gambling problem. Exploratory analyses identified an age-by-gender interaction with respect to treatment-seeking, with more pronounced age-related shortening in the duration between problem onset and treatment seeking observed in men. Age at onset of PG is associated with multiple important clinical features. Long durations of PG prior to treatment-seeking indicate the need for improved prevention efforts among individuals with early PG onset. Late-onset PG is relatively common and has distinct clinical characteristics suggesting that this population might benefit from unique prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:18499125

  9. Increased striatal dopamine release in Parkinsonian patients with pathological gambling: a [11C] raclopride PET study

    PubMed Central

    Steeves, T. D. L.; Miyasaki, J.; Zurowski, M.; Lang, A. E.; Pellecchia, G.; Van Eimeren, T.; Rusjan, P.; Houle, S.; Strafella, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pathological gambling is an impulse control disorder reported in association with dopamine agonists used to treat Parkinson’s disease. Although impulse control disorders are conceptualized as lying within the spectrum of addictions, little neurobiological evidence exists to support this belief. Functional imaging studies have consistently demonstrated abnormalities of dopaminergic function in patients with drug addictions, but to date no study has specifically evaluated dopaminergic function in Parkinson’s disease patients with impulse control disorders. We describe results of a [11C] raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) study comparing dopaminergic function during gambling in Parkinson’s disease patients, with and without pathological gambling, following dopamine agonists. Patients with pathological gambling demonstrated greater decreases in binding potential in the ventral striatum during gambling (13.9%) than control patients (8.1%), likely reflecting greater dopaminergic release. Ventral striatal bindings at baseline during control task were also lower in patients with pathological gambling. Although prior imaging studies suggest that abnormality in dopaminergic binding and dopamine release may be markers of vulnerability to addiction, this study presents the first evidence of these phenomena in pathological gambling. The emergence of pathological gambling in a number of Parkinson’s disease patients may provide a model into the pathophysiology of this disorder. PMID:19346328

  10. Metacognition in Pathological Gambling and Its Relationship with Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Paula; Urbiola, Irache; Estevez, Ana

    2016-06-01

    Gambling disorder is associated with elevated comorbidity with depressive and anxious disorders, and one variable that might help in the understanding of this association is metacognition. In the present study, the relationship between gambling and metacognition and the mediating role of metacognition in the relationship between gambling and depressive and anxious symptomatology were assessed. The sample comprised 124 pathological gamblers from centers that assist pathological gamblers and 204 participants from the general population. The results showed that pathological gamblers had higher levels of depressive and anxious symptomatology. Additionally, pathological gamblers had higher scores for positive beliefs about worry, negative beliefs of uncontrollability and danger, and beliefs about the need to control thoughts; these factors were also positively correlated with depressive and anxious symptomatology. Metacognition also fully mediated the association between gambling and depressive and anxious symptomatology. These results suggest that metacognition could contribute to explaining gambling disorder and the symptomatology associated with it. PMID:25962856

  11. Gambling pathology is associated with dampened cortisol response among men and women.

    PubMed

    Paris, J J; Franco, C; Sodano, R; Frye, C A; Wulfert, E

    2010-02-01

    Pathological gambling has many similarities to pharmacological addiction. Notably, both pathological gambling and drug addiction are characterized by aberrations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responding. As well, there are indications that gender differences may play a role in these processes. Whether gender and/or HPA response are associated with pathological gambling was of interest. Recreational and pathological gamblers (15 men and 6 women per group) had the HPA factor, cortisol, assessed in saliva before and after watching a video of their preferred mode of gambling (slot machines, horse race betting, scratch-off tickets, blackjack, video poker, craps, sports betting, online casino games, or lottery tickets), and a video of neutral stimuli (a rollercoaster ride). Basal levels of salivary cortisol did not significantly differ among recreational and pathological gamblers. However, recreational gamblers demonstrated significantly increased salivary cortisol levels after the gambling and rollercoaster videos, whereas pathological gamblers demonstrated no salivary cortisol increase in response to either video stimulus. There was also a non-significant trend for women to have a greater cortisol response to video stimuli compared to men. These data suggest that pathological gambling is associated with hypoactive HPA response to gambling stimuli, similar to chronic drug exposure, and gender may contribute to this effect. PMID:19361537

  12. Retrospective and Prospective Reports of Precipitants to Relapse in Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgins, David C.; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2004-01-01

    A prospective design was used to explore the precipitants of relapse in a naturalistic sample of pathological gamblers (N = 101) who had recently quit gambling. Relapse rates were high; only 8% were entirely free of gambling during the 12-month follow-up. Relapses were highly variable but occurred most frequently in the evening, when the person…

  13. Impulsivity as a Moderator and Mediator between Life Stress and Pathological Gambling among Chinese Treatment-Seeking Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-kum; Wu, Anise M. S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of impulsivity and its interplay with gambling correlates in influencing the severity of pathological gambling in Chinese societies. It also investigated the extent to which impulsivity would moderate and/or mediate the relationship between life stress and pathological gambling in 94 Chinese treatment-seeking gamblers.…

  14. Sexual abuse, residential schooling and probable pathological gambling among Indigenous Peoples.

    PubMed

    Dion, Jacinthe; Cantinotti, Michael; Ross, Amélie; Collin-Vézina, Delphine

    2015-06-01

    Sexual abuse leads to short-term and long-lasting pervasive outcomes, including addictions. Among Indigenous Peoples, sexual abuse experienced in the context of residential schooling may have led to unresolved grief that is contributing to social problems, such as pathological (disordered) gambling. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between child sexual abuse, residential schooling and probable pathological gambling. The participants were 358 Indigenous persons (54.2% women) aged between 18 and 87 years, from two communities and two semi-urban centers in Quebec (Canada). Probable pathological gambling was evaluated using the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and sexual abuse and residential schooling were assessed with dichotomous questions (yes/no). The results indicate an 8.7% past-year prevalence rate of pathological gambling problems among participants, which is high compared with the general Canadian population. Moreover, 35.4% were sexually abused, while 28.1% reported having been schooled in a residential setting. The results of a logistic regression also indicate that experiences of child sexual abuse and residential schooling are associated with probable pathological gambling among Indigenous Peoples. These findings underscore the importance of using an ecological approach when treating gambling, to address childhood traumas alongside current addiction problems. PMID:25816756

  15. Imbalance in the sensitivity to different types of rewards in pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Sescousse, Guillaume; Barbalat, Guillaume; Domenech, Philippe; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2013-08-01

    Pathological gambling is an addictive disorder characterized by a persistent and compulsive desire to engage in gambling activities. This maladaptive behaviour has been suggested to result from a decreased sensitivity to experienced rewards, regardless of reward type. Alternatively, pathological gambling might reflect an imbalance in the sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives. To directly test these two hypotheses, we examined how the brain reward circuit of pathological gamblers responds to different types of rewards. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared the brain responses of 18 pathological gamblers and 20 healthy control subjects while they engaged in a simple incentive task manipulating both monetary and visual erotic rewards. During reward anticipation, the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers showed a differential response to monetary versus erotic cues, essentially driven by a blunted reactivity to cues predicting erotic stimuli. This differential response correlated with the severity of gambling symptoms and was paralleled by a reduced behavioural motivation for erotic rewards. During reward outcome, a posterior orbitofrontal cortex region, responding to erotic rewards in both groups, was further recruited by monetary gains in pathological gamblers but not in control subjects. Moreover, while ventral striatal activity correlated with subjective ratings assigned to monetary and erotic rewards in control subjects, it only correlated with erotic ratings in gamblers. Our results point to a differential sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary rewards in pathological gambling, both at the motivational and hedonic levels. Such an imbalance might create a bias towards monetary rewards, potentially promoting addictive gambling behaviour. PMID:23757765

  16. [Pathological gambling and computergame-addiction. Current state of research regarding two subtypes of behavioural addiction].

    PubMed

    Wölfling, K; Müller, K W

    2010-04-01

    Behavioral addictions, like pathological gambling and computer game addiction (or internet addiction), have become a growing concern in research and public interest. Currently similarities between behavioral addictions and substance dependency are controversially discussed in the scientific community. Unfortunately a mismatch exists between the large number of people seeking treatment and the small number of scientific studies on pathological gambling and computer game addiction. Prevalence of pathological gambling among the German population is estimated to be 0.2-0.5%. These estimations are comparable to prevalence rates reported for drug dependency. Latest research states that about 3% of German adolescents and young adults are believed to suffer from computer game addiction. Therefore, it is important to enhance investigations regarding the clinical and neuroscientific basis of computer game addiction. This review offers a summary of current results of research regarding pathological gambling and internet addiction. The phenomenological description of these two disorders is meant to allow a deeper understanding of behavioral addictions. PMID:20195558

  17. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders. PMID:27348555

  18. The feasibility of computer-aided monitoring of the workflow in surgical pathology: a five-year experience.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chih-En; Chiang, Hsiu-Huei; Shih, Liang-Yu; Liao, Kai-Sheng

    2014-02-01

    To explore the feasibility of computer-aided monitoring of the workflow in surgical pathology. We collected 5-year data about computer-aided monitoring of the workflow in surgical pathology and analyzed the four subprocesses in the surgical pathologic process: 1) from arranging surgical pathology examination to receipt of the examination sheet and sample by the laboratory; 2) from receipt of the sample to issuance of the pathology report; 3) from issuance of the pathology report to automatic computer forwarding of positive pathology reports by e-mail to the physician who ordered the examination; 4) from receipt of the positive report by the physician to his/her response of acknowledging receipt. A total 115,648 surgical pathological cases were reviewed in this study. The overdue rate of delivery of samples was 0.82%. The most common cause (62.92%) of overdue delivery was clinicians in the outpatient department arranging for the examination more than 1 day in advance of specimen collection. The cumulative rates of report completion within 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 work days were 12.82%, 53.56%, 86.42%, 95.90% and 98.85%, respectively. The rate of overdue reporting was 1.15% over the 5-year study. The most common cause (56.30%) of overdue reporting was case complexity. The learning time for adapting this subprocess of report issuance was 7 months. There were 12,151 positive reports (10.51% of all cases) that required automatic computer forwarding to the physicians' e-mail boxes. A total of 113 cases (0.93%) failed in automatic computer forwarding during the 5-year period. The learning time for constructing a stable automatic computer forwarding system was 2.5 years. Of the 12,038 reports successfully forwarded, 10,107 (83.96%) were received by physicians and acknowledged by automated receipt within 120 h, and the other 1,931 (16.04%) showed no response within 120 h. The major reason for an overdue reply was that the physicians did not check their e-mail boxes (94.89%). We

  19. Exploring the Relationship Between Treatment Satisfaction, Perceived Improvements in Functioning and Well-Being and Gambling Harm Reduction Among Clients of Pathological Gambling Treatment Programs

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, Bo; Abarbanel, Brett L. L.; St. John, Sarah; Kalina, Ashlee

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between treatment service quality, perceived improvement in social, functional, and material well-being and reduction in gambling behaviors among clients of Nevada state-funded pathological gambling treatment programs. Utilizing survey data from 361 clients from 2009 to 2010, analyses revealed that client satisfaction with treatment services is positively associated with perceived improvements in social, functional, and material well-being, abstinence from gambling, reduction in gambling thoughts and reduction in problems associated with gambling, even after controlling for various respondent characteristics. These findings can be useful to treatment program staff in managing program development and allocating resources. PMID:23756725

  20. Abstinence versus Moderation Goals in Brief Motivational Treatment for Pathological Gambling.

    PubMed

    Stea, Jonathan N; Hodgins, David C; Fung, Tak

    2015-09-01

    The present study examined the nature and impact of participant goal selection (abstinence versus moderation) in brief motivational treatment for pathological gambling via secondary analyses from a randomized controlled trial. The results demonstrated that the pattern of goal selection over time could be characterized by both fluidity and stability, whereby almost half of participants switched their goal at least one time, over 25% of participants selected an unchanging goal of 'quit most problematic type of gambling', almost 20% selected an unchanging goal of 'quit all types of gambling', and approximately 10% selected an unchanging goal of 'gamble in a controlled manner.' The results also demonstrated that pretreatment goal selection was uniquely associated with three variables, whereby compared to participants who selected the goal to 'cut back on problem gambling', those who selected the goal to 'quit problem gambling' were more likely to have greater gambling problem severity, to have identified video lottery terminal play as problematic, and to have greater motivation to overcome their gambling problem. Finally, the results demonstrated that goal selection over time had an impact on the average number of days gambled over the course of treatment, whereby those with abstinence-based goals gambled significantly fewer days than those with moderation-based goals. Nevertheless, goal selection over time was not related to dollars gambled, dollars per day gambled, or perceived goal achievement. The findings do not support the contention that abstinence-based goals are more advantageous than moderation goals and are discussed in relation to the broader alcohol treatment literature. PMID:24748014

  1. "Alea Iacta Est" (a case series report of problem and pathological gambling).

    PubMed

    Koić, Elvira; Filaković, Pavo; Djordjević, Veljko; Nadj, Sanea

    2009-09-01

    Gambling or gaming is a common term for a group of various games, activities and behavior that involve wagering money on an event with an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning additional money, i.e., a player risks and hopes to get back what he/she had gambled, or to win more. When the player is unable to resist impulses to gamble, and gambling behavior harmfully affects him or the others, then he/she is suffering from the so called "pathological gambling", which is one of six categories of the "Impulse control disorders" in the International Classification of Diseases. Since, at present, there is no standardized program and approach to the problem of gambling in Croatia, and having in mind the arising accessibility and popularity of the "games of chance", the authors are presenting seven cases of problem and pathological gambling and call for broad public discussion on the problem from medical-psychiatric and forensic-point of view. The first patient was treated on an outpatient basis with cognitive-behavioral and family therapy for problem gambling; for the second patient was treated for impulse control disorders; for the third patient gambling was a symptom of psychotic form of depressive disorder; the fourth had primary diagnosis of personality disorder; and the fifth patient was prosecuted for armed robbery and evaluated by a psychiatric expert. The sixth and the seventh patients were women suffering from primary bipolar affective and major depressive disorder, respectively. The authors conclude that, due to the size of the problem and its consequences, the prevention of pathological gambling is very important. The prevention can be carried out primarily through screening at the school level and primary health care services, whereas secondary screening may be conducted through the system of psychiatric care. It is recommended to invest into research, education of a wider population, and development of preventive programs. PMID:19860133

  2. Irrational beliefs, biases and gambling: exploring the role of animal models in elucidating vulnerabilities for the development of pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Cocker, P J; Winstanley, C A

    2015-02-15

    Gambling is a heterogeneous and complex disorder. Multiple factors may lead to problem gambling, yet one of the most important appears to be the increased presence of cognitive biases or distortions. These biases are thought to precipitate gambling as they can lead to dysfunctional decision making under risk or ambiguity. Modelling these cognitive perturbations in animals can improve our understanding of their neurobiological bases, and potentially stimulate novel treatment options. The first aim of this review is to give a broad overview of some of the cognitive biases that are most commonly associated with gambling. Secondly, we will discuss several animal models that we have developed in which rodent decision-making appears hallmarked by the same cognitive inconsistencies as human choice. In particular, we will discuss two tasks that capture elements of risk and loss averse decision making, and another in which rats appear susceptible to the 'near-miss' effect. To date, findings from both human and non-human studies suggest that these different biases are neuropharmacologically and neurostructurally dissociable, and that dopamine plays a key role in their expression. Lastly, we will briefly discuss areas in both human and animal research where limitations within the field may be hampering a more complete understanding of pathological gambling as a disorder. PMID:25446745

  3. Treatments for PTSD and pathological gambling: what do patients want?

    PubMed

    Najavits, Lisa M

    2011-06-01

    This study explored the treatment preferences of 106 people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pathological gambling (PG), or both. It is the first know study of its type for this comorbidity. Sixteen different treatment types were rated, with a broad array of modalities including manualized psychotherapies, medication, self-help, alternative therapies, coaching, and self-guided treatments (use of books and computerized therapy). A consistent finding was that PTSD treatments were rated more highly than PG treatments, even among those with both disorders. Further, of the sixteen treatment types, the sample expressed numerous preferences for some over others. For example, among PG treatments, self-help was the highest-rated. Among PTSD treatments, psychotherapies were the highest-rated; and individual therapy was rated higher than group therapy. For both PG and PTSD, medications were rated lower than other treatment types. Non-standard treatments (i.e., computerized treatment, books, coaching, family therapy, alternative therapies) were generally rated lower than other types. Discussion includes implications for the design of treatments, as well as methodological limitations. PMID:20517639

  4. Neurobiological considerations in understanding behavioral treatments for pathological gambling

    PubMed Central

    Potenza, Marc N.; Balodis, Iris M.; Franco, Christine A.; Bullock, Scott; Xu, Jiansong; Chung, Tammy; Grant, Jon E.

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG), a disorder currently categorized as an impulse-control disorder but being considered as a non-substance addiction in DSM-5 discussions, represents a significant public health concern. Over the past decade, considerable advances have been made with respect to understanding the biological underpinnings of PG. Research has also demonstrated the efficacies of multiple treatments, particularly behavioral therapies, for treating PG. Despite these advances, relatively little is known regarding how biological measures, particularly those assessing brain function, relate to treatments for PG. In this article, we present a conceptual review focusing on the neurobiology of behavioral therapies for PG. To illustrate issues related to study design, we present proof-of-concept preliminary data that link Stroop-related brain activations prior to treatment onset to treatment outcome in individuals with PG receiving a cognitive behavioral treatment incorporating aspects of imaginal desensitization and motivational interviewing. We conclude with recommendations about current and future directions regarding how to incorporate and translate biological findings into improved therapies for individuals with non-substance and substance addictions. PMID:23586456

  5. Compulsive features in behavioral addictions: the case of pathological gambling

    PubMed Central

    el-Guebaly, Nady; Mudry, Tanya; Zohar, Joseph; Tavares, Hermano; Potenza, Marc N.

    2011-01-01

    Aims To describe, in the context of DSM-V, how a focus on addiction and compulsion is emerging in the consideration of pathological gambling (PG). Methods A systematic literature review of evidence for the proposed re-classification of PG as an addiction. Results Findings include: 1. Phenomenological models of addiction highlighting a motivational shift from impulsivity to compulsivity associated with a protracted withdrawal syndrome and blurring of the ego-syntonic/ego-dystonic dichotomy; 2. Common neurotransmitter (dopamine, serotonin) contributions to PG and substance use disorders (SUDs); 3. Neuroimaging support for shared neurocircuitries between “behavioral” and substance addictions and differences between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), impulse control disorders (ICDs) and SUDs; 4. Genetic findings more closely related to endophenotypic constructs like compulsivity and impulsivity than to psychiatric disorders; 5. Psychological measures such as harm avoidance identifying a closer association between SUDs and PG than with OCD; 6. Community and pharmaco-therapeutic trials data supporting a closer association between SUDs and PG than with OCD. Adapted behavioral therapies, such as exposure therapy appear applicable to OCD, PG, or SUDs, suggesting some commonalities across disorders. Conclusions PG shares more similarities with SUDs than with OCD. Similar to the investigation of impulsivity, studies of compulsivity hold promising insights concerning the course, differential diagnosis and treatment of PG, SUDs, and OCD. PMID:21985690

  6. Cognitive-behavioural treatment of pathological gambling in individuals with chronic schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; Gómez, Montserrat; Freixa, Montserrat

    2011-11-01

    The current study aimed to test the clinical effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural program (CBT) specifically adapted for pathological gamblers with chronic schizophrenia, carried out in a naturalistic setting of community Mental Health Centres. Forty-four pathological gamblers with chronic schizophrenia were assigned either to a standard drug therapy for schizophrenia (control group) or to cognitive-behavioural therapy for pathological gambling plus a standard drug therapy for schizophrenia (experimental group). Psychological treatment comprised a 20-session program including psychoeducation, stimulus control, gradual exposure and relapse prevention. Therapeutic success was defined as abstinence or the occurrence of only 1 or 2 episodes of gambling during the follow-up period. While the patients treated in the experimental group showed a rate of success of 73.9%, only 19% of the participants belonging to the control group gave up gambling at the 3-month follow-up. The CBT group also did better than the control group in the number of gambling episodes and in the amount of money spent on gambling. However, the improvement of the experimental group was weaker at the 6- and 12-month follow-up. These findings support the beneficial effects of CBT as adjunctive therapy for patients with dual diagnoses (schizophrenia and pathological gambling). PMID:21920501

  7. Towards a Validation of the Three Pathways Model of Pathological Gambling.

    PubMed

    Valleur, Marc; Codina, Irène; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Gorsane, Mohamed-Ali; Guilleux, Alice; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle

    2016-06-01

    With the aim of validating the three pathways hypothesis of pathological gambling (Blaszczynski and Nower in Addiction 97:487-499, 2002) 372 pathological gamblers meeting DSM IV (2000) criteria were assessed via a structured clinical interview as well as being subjected to personality tests and evaluation of their gambling practices. Our results show that it is possible to identify three subgroups corresponding to the three pathways: behaviourally conditioned problem gamblers, emotionally vulnerable problem gamblers and antisocial impulsivist problem gamblers. Our results particularly demonstrate that impulsivist gamblers preferentially choose semi-skilful gambling (horse racing and sports gambling) whereas emotionally vulnerable gamblers are significantly more attracted to games of chance (one-armed bandits, scratch cards, etc.) This led us to propose a functional presentation of the three pathways model which differs somewhat from the Blaszczynski and Nower presentation. PMID:25980378

  8. Pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease. A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Gabriella; Barone, Paolo; Trojano, Luigi; Vitale, Carmine

    2013-07-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) and other Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs), such as hypersexuality, compulsive eating and buying, are often reported in Parkinson's disease (PD). The prevalence of PG is 2.2%-7% in treated PD patients, which is higher than the background population rate. As other non motor symptoms in PD, PG is frequently under-reported by patients and caregivers and may be under-recognized by the treating physicians. Factors associated with PG include male sex, younger age or younger age at PD onset, personal or family history of substance abuse or ICD, a personality profile characterized by impulsiveness, and treatment with dopamine agonists (DA) more than with levodopa (l-dopa). The DA effect seems to be a class effect and not specific for any DA. Neurofunctional studies suggest that medication-induced downregulation of frontostriatal connections and upregulation of striatum might combine to induce impulsive behavior. A dysfunction of fronto-subcortical circuits in PD patients with PG is also supported by neuropsychological findings of impaired executive control and monitoring abilities. Management of ICDs in PD is complex, and until now only discontinuation and/or tapering of DA treatment seem to be an effective management strategy for ICDs in PD. There is no empirical evidence supporting the use of psychiatric drugs for PG such as antipsychotics and antidepressants. Data regarding the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS), particularly of subthalamic nucleus, on PG and ICDs in PD are still limited and sometimes conflicting since improvement of PG or new onset of PG after surgery have been reported. PMID:23490464

  9. Lifetime of Prevalence and Risk Factors of Problem and Pathologic Gambling in North Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Çakıcı, Mehmet; Çakıcı, Ebru; Karaaziz, Meryem

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the results of the national survey of adult gambling behavior in North Cyprus (NC) in 2012 are presented. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of adults' participation in gambling, and to determine the prevalence of 'problem and pathological gambling' in NC. The population of this study was formed from all the people living permanently in NC, speaking Turkish, and within the age group 18-65. Household interviews were conducted with 966 people. To obtain data, a 30 item questionnaire prepared by the researchers and a Turkish version of the Revised South Oaks Gambling Screen were used. Prevalence rates are compared with the results of the study conducted in 2007 using the same methodology and survey form. The lifetime prevalence of participating at least once in any of the 17 gambling activities investigated in the survey was 66.4 %. 3.5 % of the respondents scored as lifetime probable pathological gamblers and 9.2 % as probable problem gamblers. Risk factors for becoming probable problem and pathological gamblers include being male, being in the 19-28 age group, having a high education level, having a job and being born in Cyprus. This study shows that the prevalence of problem gambling is high in NC and increasing gradually. NC has socio-cultural features such as a history of colonization, socioeconomic problems and high unemployment, similar to other high prevalence gambling regions, which is suggestive of the importance of socio-cultural factors on gambling behavior. PMID:25722075

  10. Pathological gambling in Estonia: relationships with personality, self-esteem, emotional States and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Kaare, Pille-Riin; Mõttus, René; Konstabel, Kenn

    2009-09-01

    Due to changes in gambling accessibility during the last decade gambling has become more widespread in Estonia and the prevalence of pathological gambling has sharply increased. The present study attempts to identify psychological characteristics of Estonian pathological gamblers. It has been shown that a wide range of social, economic, and individual factors (e.g. personality traits and emotional states) predict the likelihood of becoming a pathological gambler. In the present study, pathological gamblers' (N = 33) personality traits, self-esteem, self-reported emotional states and cognitive ability were compared to the respective characteristics in a non-gambling control group (N = 42) matched for age, gender and educational level. It was found that compared to controls, pathological gamblers had higher scores on Neuroticism (especially on its immoderation facet) and lower scores on Conscientiousness (especially on its dutifulness and cautiousness facets) and on self-esteem scale. They reported more negative emotional states during the previous month (especially depression and anxiety). Finally, pathological gamblers had lower general cognitive ability. In a logistic regression model, the likelihood of being a pathological gambler was best predicted by high immoderation score and low cognitive ability. PMID:19234772

  11. Techno economic systems and excessive consumption: a political economy of 'pathological' gambling.

    PubMed

    Reith, Gerda

    2013-12-01

    This article argues that gambling is a paradigmatic form of consumption that captures the intensified logic at the heart of late modern capitalist societies. As well as a site of intensified consumption, it claims that gambling has also become the location of what has been described as a new form of 'social pathology' related to excess play. Drawing on Castells' (1996) notion of techno-economic systems, it explores the ways that intersections between technology, capital and states have generated the conditions for this situation, and critiques the unequal distribution of gambling environments that result. It argues that, while the products of these systems are consumed on a global scale, the risks associated with them tend to be articulated in bio-psychological discourses of 'pathology' which are typical of certain types of knowledge that have salience in neo-liberal societies, and which work to conceal wider structural relationships. We argue that a deeper understanding of the political and cultural economy of gambling environments is necessary, and provide a synoptic overview of the conditions upon which gambling expansion is based. This perspective highlights parallels with the wider global economy of finance capital, as well as the significance of intensified consumption, of which gambling is an exemplary instance. It also reveals the existence of a geo-political dispersal of 'harms', conceived as deteriorations of financial, temporal and social relationships, which disproportionately affect vulnerable social groups. From this, we urge an understanding of commercial gambling based on a critique of the wider social body of gambling environments within techno economic systems, rather than the (flawed) individual bodies within them. PMID:24320073

  12. Internet-Based Treatment of Pathological Gambling with a Three-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Carlbring, Per; Degerman, Nicklas; Jonsson, Jakob; Andersson, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Effective therapies for pathological gambling exist, but their use is limited to about 10% of the target population. In an attempt to lower the barriers for help, Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) has been shown to be effective when delivered to anon-depressed sample with pathological gambling. This study sought to extend this finding to a larger, more representative population, and also test a model to predict responder status. Following advertisement, a total of 284 participants started an 8-week ICBT programme with minimal therapist contact via e-mail and weekly telephone calls of less than 15 min. The average time spent on each participant, including telephone conversations, e-mail, and administration, was 4 h. In addition to a mixed effects model to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment, two logistic regression analyses were performed with the following eight pre-defined response predictor variables: work-life satisfaction, primary gambling activity, debts due to gambling, social support, personal yearly salary, alcohol consumption, stage of change, and dissociative gambling. ICBT resulted in statistically significant reductions in the scores of pathological gambling, anxiety, and depression as well as an increase in quality of life compared to pre-treatment levels. Follow-ups carried out in the treatment group at 6, l8, and 36 months indicated that treatment effects were sustained. Using the eight predictor variable model rendered an acceptable predictive ability to identify responders both at post-test (AUC = .72, p < .01) and at 36-month follow-up (AUC = .70, p < .01). We conclude that ICBT for pathological gamblers, even if depressed, can be effective and that outcome can partly be predicted by pre-treatment characteristics. PMID:22620990

  13. Impaired decision-making, higher impulsivity, and drug severity in substance dependence and pathological gambling

    PubMed Central

    Krmpotich, Theodore; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan; Sakai, Joseph; Thompson, Laetitia; Banich, Marie T.; Tanabe, Jody

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Substance use disorder is characterized by impaired decision-making, impulsivity, and risk-taking. Pathological gambling shares many of these characteristics and having both diagnoses may be associated with greater problems than either diagnosis alone. We investigated whether among substance dependent individuals, co-morbid pathological gambling would be associated with worse decision-making, greater impulsivity, risk-taking, and drug severity. Methods Ninety-six substance dependent individuals were recruited from a residential treatment program and divided into one of two groups depending on whether they met DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling (SDPG, n=26) or not (SD, n=70). Ninety-two controls were recruited from the community. Participants completed a decision-making task (modified Iowa Gambling Task), measures of impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale and Delay Discounting), and risk-taking (Balloon Analog Risk Task). Decision-making was analyzed using a computational model. We tested for group differences using ANCOVA or Kruskal-Wallis and appropriate post-hoc tests. Results The groups differed in decision-making parameters (p<0.001) and self-report impulsivity (p<0.001). All post-hoc comparisons were significant on these measures, and indicated stepwise changes in controls, followed by SD, followed by SDPG, with SDPG performing worse on decision-making and being more impulsive. Compared to SD, SDPG had greater drug severity (p<0.001). No group differences were observed in delay discounting or risk-taking. Conclusions Compared to individuals with substance dependence without pathological gambling, those with both disorders demonstrated worse decision-making and significantly more drug-related symptoms. When evaluating patients with substance dependence, clinicians should consider diagnostic assessments for gambling, as the co-occurrence of both disorders may impact clinical characteristics. PMID:25918968

  14. Internet-based treatment of pathological gambling with a three-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Carlbring, Per; Degerman, Nicklas; Jonsson, Jakob; Andersson, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Effective therapies for pathological gambling exist, but their use is limited to about 10% of the target population. In an attempt to lower the barriers for help, Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) has been shown to be effective when delivered to a non-depressed sample with pathological gambling. This study sought to extend this finding to a larger, more representative population, and also test a model to predict responder status. Following advertisement, a total of 284 participants started an 8-week ICBT programme with minimal therapist contact via e-mail and weekly telephone calls of less than 15 min. The average time spent on each participant, including telephone conversations, e-mail, and administration, was 4 h. In addition to a mixed effects model to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment, two logistic regression analyses were performed with the following eight pre-defined response predictor variables: work-life satisfaction, primary gambling activity, debts due to gambling, social support, personal yearly salary, alcohol consumption, stage of change, and dissociative gambling. ICBT resulted in statistically significant reductions in the scores of pathological gambling, anxiety, and depression as well as an increase in quality of life compared to pre-treatment levels. Follow-ups carried out in the treatment group at 6, 18, and 36 months indicated that treatment effects were sustained. Using the eight predictor variable model rendered an acceptable predictive ability to identify responders both at post-test (AUC = .72, p < .01) and at 36-month follow-up (AUC = .70, p < .01). We conclude that ICBT for pathological gamblers, even if depressed, can be effective and that outcome can partly be predicted by pre-treatment characteristics. PMID:22620990

  15. Subtypes of Pathological Gambling with Concurrent Illegal Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Fagundo, Ana Beatriz; Sauchelli, Sarah; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Islam, Mohammed A; Tàrrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study are: to explore empirical clusters in a sample of individuals with a gambling disorder (GD) according to the presence of illegal behaviors, to describe the subgroups at a clinical level and to examine whether a temporal change has taken place across the last 9 years. The sample consisted of 378 patients with a GD who consecutively received outpatient treatment, and who reported the presence of the DSM-IV criteria "presence of illegal behavior". Two-step clustering procedure revealed the existence of four empirical groups, which differed in both sociodemographic and clinical profiles. The patients, who have committed illegal acts due to their gambling behavior, are a heterogeneous group in which it is possible to identify different subtypes, based on sociodemographic, psychopathological, clinical and personality characteristics. PMID:25228407

  16. A Study on Problem and Pathological Gambling among University Students in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubarak, A. R.; Blanksby, P.

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the correlates of problem and pathological gambling among university students in South Australia. Convenience sampling method was used to select participants ("n" = 163; 55.2 per cent women, 44.8 per cent men; age range 17-57 years) from two faculties in a South Australian university. A…

  17. Aberrant neural signatures of decision-making: Pathological gamblers display cortico-striatal hypersensitivity to extreme gambles.

    PubMed

    Gelskov, Sofie V; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Ramsøy, Thomas Z; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2016-03-01

    Pathological gambling is an addictive disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to gamble despite severe consequences. One of the hallmarks of pathological gambling is maladaptive and highly risky decision-making, which has been linked to dysregulation of reward-related brain regions such as the ventral striatum. However, previous studies have produced contradictory results regarding the implication of this network, revealing either hypo- or hypersensitivity to monetary gains and losses. One possible explanation is that the gambling brain might be misrepresenting the benefits and costs when weighting the potential outcomes, and not the gains and losses per se. To address this issue, we investigated whether pathological gambling is associated with abnormal brain activity during decisions that weight the utility of possible gains against possible losses. Pathological gamblers and healthy human subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while they accepted or rejected mixed gain/loss gambles with fifty-fifty chances of winning or losing. Contrary to healthy individuals, gamblers showed a U-shaped response profile reflecting hypersensitivity to the most appetitive and most aversive bets in an executive cortico-striatal network including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus. This network is concerned with the evaluation of action-outcome contingencies, monitoring recent actions and anticipating their consequences. The dysregulation of this specific network, especially for extreme bets with large potentials consequences, offers a novel understanding of the neural basis of pathological gambling in terms of deficient associations between gambling actions and their financial impact. PMID:26780575

  18. [Computer games and Internet addiction as well as pathological gambling. Therapy approaches].

    PubMed

    Wölfling, K; Leménager, T; Peukert, P; Batra, A

    2013-05-01

    In accordance with the development of substance-related disorders, behavioral addictions, such as internet use disorder and pathological gambling are regarded as repetitive excessive behavior which increasingly turns into an automatic action which is difficult to control intentionally. This automatic behavior is reinforced by learning processes, associated with neuroadaption, especially in the dopaminergic reward system. Treatment aims at finding alternatives for gambling or online activities and reducing times online so that social contacts need to be re-established. The following article provides a short overview on studies assessing the effects of different psychotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions and details psychotherapeutic treatment options. PMID:23584401

  19. Remission from pathological gambling among Hispanics and Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Joseph; Canive, Jose; Thuras, Paul; Kim, Suk W; Crosby, Ross; Thompson, James; Garrard, Judith

    2006-12-01

    This community survey studied remission from pathological gambling (PG) among American Indian (AI) and Hispanic American (HA) veterans. Remission was defined as having a lifetime diagnosis of PG, but no gambling symptoms in the last year. Sample consisted of 1624 AI and Hispanic veterans. Instruments included demographic data, the computer-based algorithmic Quick Diagnostic Interview Schedule Symptom, and three symptom checklists, one each for substance related problems (MAST/AD), anxiety and depressive symptoms (BSI-57), and combat-related post-trauma symptoms (PCL/M). Remission was associated with absence of a current Axis 1 diagnosis, especially absence of a current post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:16897410

  20. A comparison of individual and group cognitive-behavioural treatment for female pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Nicki; Smith, David; Thomas, Trang

    2007-09-01

    The current study aimed to determine the differential efficacy of a cognitive-behavioural treatment program for female pathological gamblers delivered in individual and group format. Fifty-six female pathological gamblers with electronic gaming machine gambling problems were randomly assigned to the control (waiting list) group or one of the treatment groups (individual or group treatment). Treatment comprised a 12-session program including financial limit setting, alternative activity planning, cognitive correction, problem solving, communication training, relapse prevention, and imaginal desensitisation. Treatment outcome was evaluated with conceptually related measures within the areas of gambling behaviour and psychological functioning. While individual and group treatment formats generally produced comparable outcomes in terms of gambling behaviour and psychological functioning, group treatment failed to produce superior outcomes to the control group in relation to several measures of psychological functioning. Moreover, by the completion of the six-month follow-up, 92% of the gamblers allocated to individual treatment compared with 60% allocated to group treatment no longer satisfied the diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling. These findings suggest that some caution should be employed when delivering cognitive-behavioural treatment in a group format until further research is conducted to establish its efficacy. PMID:17196159

  1. The Structure of Pathological Gambling among Korean Gamblers: A Cluster and Factor Analysis of Clinical and Demographic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tae Kyung; LaBrie, Richard A.; Grant, Jon E.; Kim, Suck Won; Shaffer, Howard J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the underlying structure of the demographic and clinical characteristics of level 3 (i.e., pathological) Korean casino gamblers. The participants reported their gambling behavior and clinical characteristics known to be associated with gambling problems (e.g., alcohol use problems, eating disorders, depression, anxiety, and…

  2. Pathological gambling and personality disorders: an exploratory study with the IPDE.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2004-10-01

    This article describes the most frequent personality disorders related to pathological gambling. Participants included 50 pathological gamblers assessed with the IPDE, and 50 normative subjects from the general population with the same demographic features (age, sex, and socioeconomic level). Thirty-two percent of the clinical sample (vs. the 8% of the normative sample) showed at least one personality disorder. The most prevalent disorders were Borderline (16%), followed by Antisocial, Paranoid, Narcissistic, and Non-specified (8% each). Gamblers with personality disorders presented an average of 1.5 disorders and they reported higher gambling severity and more severe symptoms of anxiety, depression and alcohol abuse. The implications of this study for clinical practice and research are discussed. PMID:15519959

  3. Pathological gambling and posttraumatic stress disorder: a study of the co-morbidity versus each alone.

    PubMed

    Najavits, Lisa M; Meyer, Tamar; Johnson, Kay M; Korn, David

    2011-12-01

    This report is the first empirical study to compare pathological gambling (PG), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and their co-occurrence. The sample was 106 adults recruited from the community (35 with current PG; 36 with current PTSD, and 35 with BOTH). Using a cross-sectional design, the three groups were rigorously diagnosed and compared on various measures including sociodemographics, psychopathology (e.g., dissociation, suicidality, comorbid Axis I and II disorders), functioning, cognition, life history, and severity of gambling and PTSD. Overall, the PG group reported better psychological health and higher functioning than PTSD or BOTH; and there were virtually no differences between PTSD and BOTH. This suggests that it is the impact of PTSD, rather than comorbidity per se, that appears to drive a substantial increase in symptoms. We also found high rates of additional co-occurring disorders and suicidality in PTSD and BOTH, which warrants further clinical attention. Across the total sample, many reported a family history of substance use disorder (59%) and gambling problems (34%), highlighting the intergenerational impact of these. We also found notable subthreshold PTSD and gambling symptoms even among those not diagnosed with the disorders, suggesting a need for preventive care. Dissociation measures had mixed results. Discussion includes methodology considerations and future research areas. PMID:21191636

  4. Motivational Interviewing Versus Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy in the Treatment of Problem and Pathological Gambling: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Carlbring, Per; Jonsson, Jakob; Josephson, Henrik; Forsberg, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Pathological gambling is a widespread problem with major implications for society and the individual. There are effective treatments, but little is known about the relative effectiveness of different treatments. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of motivational interviewing, cognitive behavioral group therapy, and a no-treatment control (wait-list) in the treatment of pathological gambling. This was done in a randomized controlled trial at an outpatient dependency clinic at Karolinska Institute (Stockholm, Sweden). A total of 150 primarily self-recruited patients with current gambling problems or pathological gambling according to an NORC DSM-IV screen for gambling problems were randomized to four individual sessions of motivational interviewing (MI), eight sessions of cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT), or a no-treatment wait-list control. Gambling-related measures derived from timeline follow-back as well as general levels of anxiety and depression were administered at baseline, termination, and 6 and 12 months posttermination. Treatment showed superiority in some areas over the no-treatment control in the short term, including the primary outcome measure. No differences were found between MI and CBGT at any point in time. Instead, both MI and CBGT produced significant within-group decreases on most outcome measures up to the 12-month follow-up. Both forms of intervention are promising treatments, but there is room for improvement in terms of both outcome and compliance. PMID:19967577

  5. Gambling, Sex, and…Parkinson's Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... are spent, browse our financial information. Learn More Gambling, Sex, and…Parkinson's Disease? By Laura Marsh, M. ... elevated, expansive, grandiose or irritable mood states. Pathological gambling Pathological gambling refers to recurrent, maladaptive gambling behaviors, ...

  6. Five Year Flashlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An ultra-reliable flashlight, initially developed for rescue signaling and utility use by NASA astronauts and military aircrews, has attracted a broad commercial market. Called the Five Year Light, it has a shelf life at least that long because there is no power drain on the batteries when the flashlight is not in use. The NASA version of the light was developed under contract with Langley Research Center by ACR Electronics, Inc., now known as the Chromalloy Electronics Division of Chromalloy American Corporation, Hollywood, Florida. NASA wanted a light that had long shelf life and assured reliability in case it was needed in an emergency. Reliability was designed into the flashlight by means of a unique switch. Instead of the customary thumb-button, the Five Year Light is turned on by rotating its collar to make contact with the battery terminal; the turning motion wipes away any corrosion that might be present and makes contact virtually certain. The Five Year Light available commercially is a repackaged version of the NASA light. It is sold for car, home, industrial, police, firefighting, recreational and a variety of other uses, and sales have topped two million units.

  7. An Exploratory Study of Clinical Measures Associated with Subsyndromal Pathological Gambling in Patients with Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Both binge eating disorder (BED) and pathological gambling (PG) are characterized by impairments in impulse control. Subsyndromal levels of PG have been associated with measures of adverse health. The nature and significance of PG features in individuals with BED is unknown. Ninety-four patients with BED (28 men and 66 women) were classified by gambling group based on inclusionary criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) PG and compared on a range of behavioral, psychological and eating disorder (ED) psychopathology variables. One individual (1.1% of the sample) met criteria for PG, although 18.7% of patients with BED displayed one or more DSM-IV criteria for PG, hereafter referred to as problem gambling features. Men were more likely than women to have problem gambling features. BED patients with problem gambling features were distinguished by lower self-esteem and greater substance problem use. After controlling for gender, findings of reduced self-esteem and increased substance problem use among patients with problem gambling features remained significant. In patients with BED, problem gambling features are associated with a number of heightened clinical problems. PMID:20577790

  8. Personality correlates of pathological gambling derived from Big Three and Big Five personality models

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joshua D.; MacKillop, James; Fortune, Erica E.; Maples, Jessica; Lance, Charles E.; Campbell, W. Keith; Goodie, Adam S.

    2013-01-01

    Personality traits have proven to be consistent and important factors in a variety of externalizing behaviors including addiction, aggression, and antisocial behavior. Given the comorbidity of these behaviors with pathological gambling (PG), it is important to test the degree to which PG shares these trait correlates. In a large community sample of regular gamblers (N=354; 111 with diagnoses of pathological gambling), the relations between measures of two major models of personality – Big Three and Big Five – were examined in relation to PG symptoms derived from a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Across measures, traits related to the experience of strong negative emotions were the most consistent correlates of PG, regardless of whether they were analyzed using bivariate or multivariate analyses. In several instances, however, the relations between personality and PG were moderated by demographic variable such as gender, race, and age. It will be important for future empirical work of this nature to pay closer attention to potentially important moderators of these relations. PMID:23078872

  9. Personality correlates of pathological gambling derived from Big Three and Big Five personality models.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Mackillop, James; Fortune, Erica E; Maples, Jessica; Lance, Charles E; Keith Campbell, W; Goodie, Adam S

    2013-03-30

    Personality traits have proved to be consistent and important factors in a variety of externalizing behaviors including addiction, aggression, and antisocial behavior. Given the comorbidity of these behaviors with pathological gambling (PG), it is important to test the degree to which PG shares these trait correlates. In a large community sample of regular gamblers (N=354; 111 with diagnoses of pathological gambling), the relations between measures of two major models of personality - Big Three and Big Five - were examined in relation to PG symptoms derived from a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Across measures, traits related to the experience of strong negative emotions were the most consistent correlates of PG, regardless of whether they were analyzed using bivariate or multivariate analyses. In several instances, however, the relations between personality and PG were moderated by demographic variable such as gender, race, and age. It will be important for future empirical work of this nature to pay closer attention to potentially important moderators of these relations. PMID:23078872

  10. Pathological gambling

    MedlinePlus

    Complications may include: Alcohol and drug abuse problems Anxiety Depression Financial, social, and legal problems (including bankruptcy, divorce, job loss, time in prison) Heart attacks (from the stress and ...

  11. [Gambling addiction].

    PubMed

    Böning, J; Meyer, G; Hayer, T

    2013-05-01

    Extensive coherent clinical, psychopathological, neurobiological and genetic similarities with substance-related addictions justify the forthcoming classification of gambling addiction under the new category "Substance Use and Addictive Disorders" in the DSM-5. Thus, gambling addiction can be regarded as the prototype of behavioral addiction. In general it should be kept in mind that isolated gambling forms are associated with varying addictive potential due to specific situational and structural game characteristics. High rates of indebtedness, suicidality, social isolation and gambling-related crime often accompany pathological gambling. As a consequence gambling addiction represents a mental disorder with a significant economic burden. In Germany 12-month prevalence rates for problem gambling in adulthood range from 0.24 % to 0.64  % and for pathological gambling from 0.20 % to 0.56 %. Because gambling products rank among the so-called demeriting (i.e. potentially harmful) social activities, player and youth protection measures to prevent gambling disorders and associated crime should be best regulated as a state monopoly. PMID:23529775

  12. Seeking safety therapy for pathological gambling and PTSD: a pilot outcome study.

    PubMed

    Najavits, Lisa M; Smylie, Diane; Johnson, Kay; Lung, John; Gallop, Robert J; Classen, Catherine C

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated Seeking Safety (SS) therapy for seven outpatients with current comorbid pathological gambling (PG) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This represents the first treatment outcome study of this population, and included both genders and 29% minorities. We found significant improvements in: PTSD/trauma (the PTSD Checklist criterion B symptoms; the Trauma Symptom Inventory overall mean and subscales anxiety, dissociation, sexual abuse trauma index, sex problems; and the World Assumptions Scale benevolence subscale); gambling (the Gamblers Beliefs Questionnaire overall mean and subscales illusion of control); functioning (the Basis-32 overall mean and depression/anxiety subscale); psychopathology (the Brief Symptom Inventory overall mean and subscales anxiety and depression; and the Addiction Severity Index, ASI, psychiatric composite score); self-compassion (the Self-Compassion Scale overall mean and subscales isolation, overidentified, and self-judgment); and helping alliance (the Helping Alliance Questionnaire overall mean). One variable indicated worsening (employment composite subscale on the ASI), possibly reflecting measurement issues. SS attendance was excellent. PTSD onset occurred prior to PG onset for most of the sample, and most believed the two disorders were related. Overall, we found that SS can be effectively conducted for comorbid PTSD and PG, with improvements in numerous domains and high acceptability. Limitations are discussed. PMID:23662327

  13. Fronto-striatal dysregulation in drug addiction and pathological gambling: Consistent inconsistencies?☆

    PubMed Central

    Limbrick-Oldfield, Eve H.; van Holst, Ruth J.; Clark, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in appetitive processing are central to the major psychological theories of addiction, with differential predictions made by the reward deficiency, incentive salience, and impulsivity hypotheses. Functional MRI has become the chief means of testing these predictions, with experiments reliably highlighting disturbances at the level of the striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, and affiliated regions. However, demonstrations of hypo-reactivity and hyper-reactivity of this circuitry in drug addicted groups are reported in approximately equal measure. Similar findings are echoed in the emergent neuroimaging literature on pathological gambling, which has recently witnessed a coming of age. The first aim of this article is to consider some of the methodological aspects of these experiments that could influence the observed direction of group-level effects, including the baseline condition, trial structure and timing, and the nature of the appetitive cues (drug-related, monetary, or primary rewards). The second aim is to highlight the conceptual traction that is offered by pathological gambling, as a model of a ‘toxicity free’ addiction and an illness where tasks of monetary reinforcement afford a more direct mapping to the abused commodity. Our conclusion is that relatively subtle decisions in task design appear capable of driving group differences in fronto-striatal circuitry in entirely opposing directions, even with tasks and task variants that look ostensibly similar. Differentiation between the psychological theories of addiction will require a greater breadth of experimental designs, with more research needed on processing of primary appetitive cues, aversive processing, and in vulnerable/at-risk groups. PMID:24179792

  14. Abnormalities of functional brain networks in pathological gambling: a graph-theoretical approach

    PubMed Central

    Tschernegg, Melanie; Crone, Julia S.; Eigenberger, Tina; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Lemènager, Tagrid; Mann, Karl; Thon, Natasha; Wurst, Friedrich M.; Kronbichler, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies of pathological gambling (PG) demonstrate alterations in frontal and subcortical regions of the mesolimbic reward system. However, most investigations were performed using tasks involving reward processing or executive functions. Little is known about brain network abnormalities during task-free resting state in PG. In the present study, graph-theoretical methods were used to investigate network properties of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in PG. We compared 19 patients with PG to 19 healthy controls (HCs) using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT). None of the examined global metrics differed between groups. At the nodal level, pathological gambler showed a reduced clustering coefficient in the left paracingulate cortex and the left juxtapositional lobe (supplementary motor area, SMA), reduced local efficiency in the left SMA, as well as an increased node betweenness for the left and right paracingulate cortex and the left SMA. At an uncorrected threshold level, the node betweenness in the left inferior frontal gyrus was decreased and increased in the caudate. Additionally, increased functional connectivity between fronto-striatal regions and within frontal regions has also been found for the gambling patients. These findings suggest that regions associated with the reward system demonstrate reduced segregation but enhanced integration while regions associated with executive functions demonstrate reduced integration. The present study makes evident that PG is also associated with abnormalities in the topological network structure of the brain during rest. Since alterations in PG cannot be explained by direct effects of abused substances on the brain, these findings will be of relevance for understanding functional connectivity in other addictive disorders. PMID:24098282

  15. Pathological Gambling in Parkinson's disease patients: Dopaminergic medication or personality traits fault?

    PubMed

    Brusa, L; Pavino, V; Massimetti, M C; Ceravolo, R; Stefani, S; Stanzione, P

    2016-07-15

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are clinically relevant in Parkinson disease (PD) patients, with an established association with PD medication. Aim of our study was to study whether the increased frequency of pathological gambling (PG), reported in subgroups of PD patients, is related to specific personality tracts additional to dopaminergic medications. Thirty-seven PD patients with a personal history of PG where enrolled. Twenty one PD patients, matched for disease and dopaminergic therapy, never experiencing PG, were enrolled as controls. All subjects were tested with the Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory Personality scales (MMPI-2). Our data showed that PD group with PG exhibited significantly higher mean values of the three validity scales in comparison to the non-PG-PD group, demonstrating an higher tendency to lie. Content scales showed a significant increase of cynicism and bizarre ideation scales score in the PG-PD group, not exhibiting pathological values at the validity scales, (p: 0.02) in comparison to non-PG PD patients. According to our results, PG seems to be associated with precise personality tracts. Personality profiles of cluster A personality disturbances - Axys 2 according with DSM-5 TR (paranoid type) at MMPI-2 might be a warning index helpful in selecting dopaminergic treatment, to avoid subsequent ICDs appearance. PMID:27288799

  16. Disordered Gambling and Its Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Pathological gambling is an increasing concern with the growth of legalized gambling opportunities, and clinicians who provide general psychotherapy, as well as those specializing in some disorders, are likely to encounter patients with gambling problems. This review article describes the diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling and screening…

  17. Parental bonding in subjects with pathological gambling disorder compared with healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Villalta, Laia; Arévalo, Rubén; Valdepérez, Ana; Pascual, Juan C; de los Cobos, J Pérez

    2015-03-01

    The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-V) includes pathological gambling disorder (PGD) in the subgroup of "Addiction and Related Disorders" due to the similarities between PGD and substance-based addictions in neurobiological, psychological, and social risk factors. Family factors as parental rearing attitudes play a crucial role in the development of substance use disorders and PGD. The aim of the present study was to assess the parental bonding during childhood perceived for adults with PGD compared with healthy controls. Twenty males with PGD and 20 control subjects answered the parental bonding instrument, which measures subjects' recollections of parenting on dimensions of care and protection. Subjects with PGD showed significantly lower maternal and paternal care (p = 0.016 and p = 0.031, respectively) than controls, and higher paternal protection (p = 0.003). The most common parental pattern for PGD subjects was the affectionless control (50% for the father and 60% for the mother). Preliminary results suggest that, as previously reported for substance use disorders, an affectionless control parenting style is associated with PGD. PMID:25447192

  18. Anhedonia in Parkinson's disease patients with and without pathological gambling: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Pettorruso, Mauro; Martinotti, Giovanni; Fasano, Alfonso; Loria, Giovanna; Di Nicola, Marco; De Risio, Luisa; Ricciardi, Lucia; Conte, Gianluigi; Janiri, Luigi; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita

    2014-02-28

    Anhedonia is present in Parkinson's Disease (PD) as well as in addictive behaviors. Pathological Gambling (PG) and other Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs) have emerged as iatrogenic complications associated with dopamine replacement therapy. We studied 154 PD patients, divided into three groups: 11 with PG, 23 with other ICDs (compulsive buying, hypersexuality, binge eating), 120 without ICDs. All patients underwent a thorough clinical, neuropsychological and psychiatric evaluation. The PG-group, compared to the ICDs-group and PD-controls, reported a significantly higher incidence of anhedonia (45% vs. 9% vs. 14% respectively), higher Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) scores (2.0±1.3 vs. 1.0±1.1 vs. 1.0±1.2), higher levels of impulsivity traits as measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (70.0±10.6 vs. 64.8±11 vs. 60.9±9.3) and more severe frontal dysfunctions (Frontal Assessment Battery, FAB: 12.4±4.9 vs. 15.5±1.6 vs. 14.4±3). A model for PG (incorporating anhedonia, impulsivity levels and frontal impairment) is discussed in the context of the pathophysiology of addictive behaviors. The impairment of hedonic capacity, possibly resulting from an underlying neuropsychological dysfunction, might facilitate loss of control over reward-related behavior, thus favoring the shift towards predominantly habit-based compulsive behaviors. PMID:24373553

  19. Pathological gambling and compulsive buying: do they fall within an obsessive-compulsive spectrum?

    PubMed Central

    Black, Donald W.; Shaw, Martha; Blum, Nancee

    2010-01-01

    Both compulsive buying (CB) and pathological gambling (PG) have been proposed as members of a spectrum of disorders related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The spectrum hypothesis originated in the early 1990s and has gained considerable support, despite the lack of empirical evidence. Interest in this hypothesis has become critical because some investigators have recommended the creation of a new category that includes these disorders in DSM-5, now under development. In this article, the authors describe the origin of the obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum and its theoretical underpinnings, review both CB and PG, and discuss the data both in support of and against an OC spectrum. Both disorders are described in terms of their history, definition, classification, phenomenology, family history, pathophysiology, and clinical management. The authors conclude that: (i) CB and PG are probably not related to OCD, and there is insufficient evidence to place them within an OC spectrum in DSM-V; (ii) PG should stay with the impulse-control disorders (ICDs); and ( iii) a new diagnosis of CB should be created and be classified as an ICD. PMID:20623922

  20. Increased Functional Connectivity between Prefrontal Cortex and Reward System in Pathological Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Saskia; Ovadia-Caro, Smadar; van der Meer, Elke; Villringer, Arno; Heinz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) shares clinical characteristics with substance-use disorders and is thus discussed as a behavioral addiction. Recent neuroimaging studies on PG report functional changes in prefrontal structures and the mesolimbic reward system. While an imbalance between these structures has been related to addictive behavior, whether their dysfunction in PG is reflected in the interaction between them remains unclear. We addressed this question using functional connectivity resting-state fMRI in male subjects with PG and controls. Seed-based functional connectivity was computed using two regions-of-interest, based on the results of a previous voxel-based morphometry study, located in the prefrontal cortex and the mesolimbic reward system (right middle frontal gyrus and right ventral striatum). PG patients demonstrated increased connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to the right striatum as compared to controls, which was also positively correlated with nonplanning aspect of impulsiveness, smoking and craving scores in the PG group. Moreover, PG patients demonstrated decreased connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to other prefrontal areas as compared to controls. The right ventral striatum demonstrated increased connectivity to the right superior and middle frontal gyrus and left cerebellum in PG patients as compared to controls. The increased connectivity to the cerebellum was positively correlated with smoking in the PG group. Our results provide further evidence for alterations in functional connectivity in PG with increased connectivity between prefrontal regions and the reward system, similar to connectivity changes reported in substance use disorder. PMID:24367675

  1. An Examination of a Proposed DSM-IV Pathological Gambling Hierarchy in a Treatment Seeking Population: Similarities with Substance Dependence and Evidence for Three Classification Systems.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Darren R; Jackson, Alun C; Dowling, Nicki A; Volberg, Rachel A; Thomas, Shane A

    2015-09-01

    Toce-Gerstein et al. (Addiction 98:1661-1672, 2003) investigated the distribution of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) pathological gambling criteria endorsement in a U.S. community sample for those people endorsing a least one of the DSM-IV criteria (n = 399). They proposed a hierarchy of gambling disorders where endorsement of 1-2 criteria were deemed 'At-Risk', 3-4 'Problem gamblers', 5-7 'Low Pathological', and 8-10 'High Pathological' gamblers. This article examines these claims in a larger Australian treatment seeking population. Data from 4,349 clients attending specialist problem gambling services were assessed for meeting the ten DSM-IV pathological gambling criteria. Results found higher overall criteria endorsement frequencies, three components, a direct relationship between criteria endorsement and gambling severity, clustering of criteria similar to the Toce-Gerstein et al. taxonomy, high accuracy scores for numerical and criteria specific taxonomies, and also high accuracy scores for dichotomous pathological gambling diagnoses. These results suggest significant complexities in the frequencies of criteria reports and relationships between criteria. PMID:24627139

  2. Pathological and Sub-Clinical Problem Gambling in a New Zealand Prison: A Comparison of the Eight and SOGS Gambling Screens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Sean; Brown, Robert; Skinner, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Prison populations have been identified as having elevated levels of problem gambling prevalence, and screening for problem gambling may provide an opportunity to identify and address a behavior that may otherwise lead to re-offending. A problem gambling screen for this purpose would need to be brief, simple to score, and be able to be…

  3. Columbine High: Five Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Marianne D.

    2004-01-01

    A few weeks before the fifth anniversary of the Columbine High School shootings on April 20, 1999, Principal Frank DeAngelis reflects on how his school has changed over the past five years. Much like the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States, "Columbine" carries a chilling meaning that resonates across the country. That…

  4. Gambling Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Gambling Addiction KidsHealth > For Teens > Gambling Addiction Print A ... So what's the story with gambling? What Is Gambling? Gambling means taking part in any activity or ...

  5. 1992 five year battery forecast

    SciTech Connect

    Amistadi, D.

    1992-12-01

    Five-year trends for automotive and industrial batteries are projected. Topic covered include: SLI shipments; lead consumption; automotive batteries (5-year annual growth rates); industrial batteries (standby power and motive power); estimated average battery life by area/country for 1989; US motor vehicle registrations; replacement battery shipments; potential lead consumption in electric vehicles; BCI recycling rates for lead-acid batteries; US average car/light truck battery life; channels of distribution; replacement battery inventory end July; 2nd US battery shipment forecast.

  6. Five-year science outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Research on water quality, on solar activity's possible link to earth climate, and on potential resource deposits will be among the top scientific and technological problems to be tackled during the next 5 years, according to a National Research Council (NRC) report, ‘Outlook for Science and Technology: The Next Five Years.’ Written and reviewed by more than 200 scientists, the report is the second in a series describing current research trends; the first report was issued in 1979. The NRC report also offers a concise overview and comparison of the research environments in the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom, and France. In addition, the report identifies prospects for new technologies in seven fields with emerging technologies or emerging situations that rely heavily on technology. The fields discussed are recombinant DNA, superconductivity, medical technology, energy storage, potential new resource deposits, the space shuttle and the space telescope, and information processing.

  7. Civil partnerships five years on.

    PubMed

    Ross, Helen; Gask, Karen; Berrington, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The Civil Partnership Act 2004, which came into force in December 2005 allowing same-sex couples in the UK to register their relationship for the first time, celebrated its fifth anniversary in December 2010. This article examines civil partnership in England and Wales, five years on from its introduction. The characteristics of those forming civil partnerships between 2005 and 2010 including age, sex and previous marital/civil partnership status are examined. These are then compared with the characteristics of those marrying over the same period. Further comparisons are also made between civil partnership dissolutions and divorce. The article presents estimates of the number of people currently in civil partnerships and children of civil partners. Finally the article examines attitudes towards same-sex and civil partner couples both in the UK and in other countries across Europe. PMID:21987019

  8. Suicide Ideations, Suicide Attempts, and Completed Suicide in Persons with Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; McCormick, Brett; Shaw, Martha; Allen, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    We examined the relationship between suicidal ideations and attempts in 95 probands with pathological gambling (PG), 91 controls, and 1075 first-degree relatives. The results were analyzed using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Thirty-four PG probands (35.8%) and 4 controls (4.4%) had attempted suicide (OR = 12.12, p < .001); in 13 probands, the attempt occurred before PG onset. Lifetime suicidal ideations occurred in 60 PG probands (63.2%) and 12 controls (13.2%) (OR = 11.29, p < .001). Suicidality in PG probands is a marker of PG severity and is associated with greater psychiatric comorbidity. Offspring of PG probands had significantly higher rates of suicide attempts than control offspring. PMID:25845522

  9. Five Years of GWAS Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, Peter M.; Brown, Matthew A.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Yang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The past five years have seen many scientific and biological discoveries made through the experimental design of genome-wide association studies (GWASs). These studies were aimed at detecting variants at genomic loci that are associated with complex traits in the population and, in particular, at detecting associations between common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and common diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, auto-immune diseases, and psychiatric disorders. We start by giving a number of quotes from scientists and journalists about perceived problems with GWASs. We will then briefly give the history of GWASs and focus on the discoveries made through this experimental design, what those discoveries tell us and do not tell us about the genetics and biology of complex traits, and what immediate utility has come out of these studies. Rather than giving an exhaustive review of all reported findings for all diseases and other complex traits, we focus on the results for auto-immune diseases and metabolic diseases. We return to the perceived failure or disappointment about GWASs in the concluding section. PMID:22243964

  10. Gambling as a Social Problem: On the Social Conditions of Gambling in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barmaki, Reza

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1980s, Canadian legalized gambling has undergone a massive growth, resulting in numerous social problems such as crime, political corruption, and, most importantly, pathological gambling. When it comes to theorizing gambling in Canada, pathological gambling has been the centre of the attention for two related reasons: (1) the increasing…

  11. Increased corticolimbic connectivity in cocaine dependence versus pathological gambling is associated with drug severity and emotion-related impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Albein-Urios, Natalia; Vilar-López, Raquel; Perales, Jose C; Martínez-Gonzalez, Jose M; Fernández-Serrano, Maria J; Lozano-Rojas, Oscar; Clark, Luke; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Neural biomarkers for the active detrimental effects of cocaine dependence (CD) are lacking. Direct comparisons of brain connectivity in cocaine-targeted networks between CD and behavioural addictions (i.e. pathological gambling, PG) may be informative. This study therefore contrasted the resting-state functional connectivity networks of 20 individuals with CD, 19 individuals with PG and 21 healthy individuals (controls). Study groups were assessed to rule out psychiatric co-morbidities (except alcohol abuse and nicotine dependence) and current substance use or gambling (except PG). We first examined global connectivity differences in the corticolimbic reward network and then utilized seed-based analyses to characterize the connectivity of regions displaying between-group differences. We examined the relationships between seed-based connectivity and trait impulsivity and cocaine severity. CD compared with PG displayed increased global functional connectivity in a large-scale ventral corticostriatal network involving the orbitofrontal cortex, caudate, thalamus and amygdala. Seed-based analyses showed that CD compared with PG exhibited enhanced connectivity between the orbitofrontal and subgenual cingulate cortices and between caudate and lateral prefrontal cortex, which are involved in representing the value of decision-making feedback. CD and PG compared with controls showed overlapping connectivity changes between the orbitofrontal and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices and between amygdala and insula, which are involved in stimulus-outcome learning. Orbitofrontal-subgenual cingulate cortical connectivity correlated with impulsivity and caudate/amygdala connectivity correlated with cocaine severity. We conclude that CD is linked to enhanced connectivity in a large-scale ventral corticostriatal-amygdala network that is relevant to decision making and likely to reflect an active cocaine detrimental effect. PMID:25818325

  12. Personality Disorders, Impulsiveness, and Novelty Seeking in Persons with DSM-IV Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Coryell, William H; Crowe, Raymond R; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the presence of personality disorders, impulsiveness, and novelty seeking in probands with DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG), controls, and their respective first-degree relatives using a blind family study methodology. Ninety-three probands with DSM-IV PG, 91 controls, and their 395 first-degree relatives were evaluated for the presence of personality disorder with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality. Impulsiveness was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Novelty seeking was evaluated using questions from Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory. Results were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations to account for within family correlations. PG probands had a significantly higher prevalence of personality disorders than controls (41 vs. 7 %, OR = 9.0, P < 0.001), along with higher levels of impulsiveness and novelty seeking. PG probands with a personality disorder had more severe gambling symptoms; earlier age at PG onset; more suicide attempts; greater psychiatric comorbidity; and a greater family history of psychiatric illness than PG probands without a personality disorder. PG relatives had a significantly higher prevalence of personality disorder than relatives of controls (24 vs. 9%, OR = 3.2, P < 0.001) and higher levels of impulsiveness. Risk for PG in relatives is associated with the presence of personality disorder and increases along with rising BIS Non-Planning and Total scale scores. Personality disorders, impulsiveness, and novelty seeking are common in people with PG and their first-degree relatives. The presence of a personality disorder appears to be a marker of PG severity and earlier age of onset. Risk for PG in relatives is associated with the presence of personality disorder and trait impulsiveness. These findings suggest that personality disorder and impulsiveness may contribute to a familial diathesis for PG. PMID:25424057

  13. Five years of Homo floresiensis.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Leslie C

    2010-06-01

    Since Homo floresiensis was first described in October 2004 there has been a lively debate over its status. Is it a late surviving species of early Homo or merely a modern individual afflicted with disordered growth and one of the many syndromes resulting in microchephaly? Recently the discovery team has published a series of articles providing detailed descriptions of the hominin material, its geomorphological context, and the associated archaeology and faunal material (Morwood and Jungers: J Hum Evol 57 (2009) 437-648). In addition, other researchers have put forward new hypotheses for possible pathologies including Laron's Syndrome and Myxoedematous Endemic (ME) Cretinism. Here I review this new information and conclude that the evidence supports the hypothesis that Homo floresiensis is a late-surviving species of early Homo with its closest morphological affinities to early African pre-erectus/ergaster hominins. Although this hypothesis requires fundamental paradigm changes in our understanding of human evolution, it provides a more economical explanation for H. floresiensis than do the alternatives. None of the current explanations for microcephaly and disordered growth account for the range of features observed in H. floresiensis. Neither do they provide explanations for why a pathological condition in modern humans would mimic so closely the morphology observed in earlier hominins. This conclusion is based on the current evidence for H. floresiensis and on the particular pathological explanations that have appeared in the literature. There is no doubt that controversy over H. floresiensis will continue until new and conclusive evidence is available to settle the debate one way or another. PMID:20229502

  14. Teen Gambling

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Teen Gambling Page Content Article Body How can I tell ... son or daughter is having a problem with gambling? Look for the following warning signs: Finding gambling " ...

  15. Should pathological gambling and obesity be considered addictive disorders? A factor analytic study in a nationally representative sample

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Carlos; García-Anaya, María; Wall, Melanie; de los Cobos, José Carlos Pérez; Swierad, Ewelina; Wang, Shuai; Petry, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pathological gambling (PG) is now aligned with substance use disorders in the DSM-5 as the first officially recognized behavioral addiction. There is growing interest in examining obesity as an addictive disorder as well. The goal of this study was to investigate whether epidemiological data provide support for the consideration of PG and obesity as addictive disorders. Method Factor analysis of data from a large, nationally representative sample of US adults (N=43,093), using nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, PG and obesity as indicators. It was hypothesized that nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence and drug use dependence would load on a single factor. It was further hypothesized that if PG and obesity were addictive disorders, they would load on the same factor as substance use disorders, whereas failure to load on the addictive factor would not support their conceptualization as addictive disorders. Results A model with one factor including nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, drug dependence and PG, but not obesity, provided a very good fit to the data, as indicated by CFI=0.99, TLI=0.99 and RMSEA=.01 and loadings of all indicators >0.4. Conclusion Data from this study support the inclusion of PG in a latent factor with substance use disorders but do not lend support to the consideration of obesity, as defined by BMI, as an addictive disorder. Future research should investigate whether certain subtypes of obesity are best conceptualized as addictive disorders and the shared biological and environmental factors that account for the common and specific features of addictive disorders. PMID:25769392

  16. Intergenerational Childhood Maltreatment in Persons with DSM-IV Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Samuel K; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff; Black, Donald W

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of individuals with DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG) who experienced childhood maltreatment and rates of maltreatment occurring in their first-degree relatives (FDRs). 94 subjects with DSM-IV PG, 91 controls, and 312 FDRs were assessed for childhood maltreatment as part of a family study of PG. Maltreatment was evaluated using the Revised Childhood Experiences Questionnaire. The Family Assessment Device was used to evaluate the functionality of the PG subject's (or control's) family of origin. Data were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations. Rates of maltreatment were significantly higher in subjects with PG than controls (61 vs. 25 %, P < 0.001). Subjects with PG who experienced maltreatment were more likely to be female, had more severe PG symptoms, had co-occurring mood and anxiety disorders, and reported greater early family life dysfunction than those with PG who did not experience maltreatment. Rates of maltreatment were higher in FDRs of PG subjects than controls (41 vs. 24 %, P = .002). Rates in FDRs of individuals with PG who experienced maltreatment themselves were still higher that in FDRs of those with PG who did not experience maltreatment (50 vs. 28 %, P = .009). The former were also more likely to have anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and suicide attempts. The results suggest that childhood maltreatment in persons with PG is common and intergenerational. Rates of maltreatment in FDRs of PG subjects are high, particularly among those who experienced abuse. The implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:26749583

  17. Compulsive Gambling

    MedlinePlus

    Many people enjoy gambling, whether it's betting on a horse or playing poker on the Internet. Most people who gamble don't have a problem, but some lose control of their gambling. Signs of problem gambling include Always thinking about ...

  18. Problem Gambling in New Mexico: 1996 and 1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starling, Randall; Blankenship, Jason; May, Philip; Woodall, Gill

    2009-01-01

    Included in both the 1996 and 1998 Survey of Gambling Behavior in New Mexico was a scale of individual problem gambling. To assess problems related to gambling behavior, questions were developed using the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. The purpose of this paper is to describe problem gamblers in New Mexico. Descriptive data indicate…

  19. Has gambling changed after major amendments of gambling regulations in Germany? A propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Monika; Kraus, Ludwig; Müller, Stefanie; Braun, Barbara; Bühringer, Gerhard

    2012-12-01

    Aims This study examined changes in general population gambling in the light of two major amendments of the German gambling regulation, the Fifth Amendment of the German Gambling Ordinance (AGO) for commercial amusement machines with prizes (AWP) and the State Treaty on Gambling (STG) for gambling activities subject to the state monopoly. Methods Applying cross-sectional data from the 2006 and 2009 Epidemiological Survey of Substance Abuse (ESA), propensity-score-matched samples of 7,970 subjects and 3,624 12-month gamblers aged 18-64 years were used for analyses. Logistic regression was employed to examine changes in gambling controlling for possible confounding variables. Results Overall participation in state gambling activities, participation in lotto as well as TV lottery decreased and gambling on Internet card games increased. No changes were found for any other gambling activity, 12-month prevalence of any gambling and pathological gambling. While weekly gambling declined, overall multiple gambling increased. Effects were similar in the total sample and among current gamblers. Conclusions Prohibiting specific gambling activities, e.g., Internet gambling, seem to be insufficient approaches to change gambling behavior. Supply reduction might need to be enhanced by changes in game characteristics and implementation of early intervention measures. However, long-term consequences are uncertain and further monitoring is needed. PMID:26165602

  20. ITER faces further five-year delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clery, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    The €14bn ITER fusion reactor currently under construction in Cadarache, France, will require an additional cash injection of €4.6bn if it is to start up in 2025 – a target date that is already five years later than currently scheduled.

  1. EXAMETNET: The first five years, 1966 - 1970

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An assessment of the first five years of operation of the Experimental InterAmerican Meterological Rocket Network is presented. The formation of the network, and international and national relations are described. The technology and data procedures and techniques are reported, and their improvements and the research accomplished as a result of the cooperative effort among Argentina, Brazil, and the United States are discussed.

  2. Five Year Teacher Education Program Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Thomas W.; Bordner, Mary Kay

    The five year teacher education program at the University of Tennessee Knoxville requires students to major in an arts or science field and to minor in either elementary or secondary education. Following the acquisition of a bachelor's degree, students may enroll in fifth-year education courses and a year-long internship. Teaching licenses are…

  3. MATHEMATICAL ENGINEERING, A FIVE YEAR PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ANDERSON, RICHARD D.

    THIS REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM IN MATHEMATICS (CUPM) DESCRIBES A PROPOSED FIVE-YEAR PROGRAM FOR THE UNDERGRADUATE PREPARATION OF STUDENTS IN MATHEMATICAL ENGINEERING. THE MAJOR PURPOSES OF THIS PROGRAM ARE TO PREPARE STUDENTS IN THE MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES, TO ENABLE THEM TO APPLY THIS EDUCATION TO THE COMPLICATED…

  4. Gambling Awareness for Youth: An Analysis of the "Don't Gamble Away Our Future[TM]" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lisa M.; Hillyard, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Gambling has become increasingly popular among minors and is easily accessible to them. This is alarming since research has indicated that minors are more susceptible to gambling pathology than adults. Additionally, gambling has devastating effects on minors that gamble as well as their families and communities. The Illinois Institute for…

  5. A Preliminary Study of DBH (Encoding Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase) Genetic Variation and Neural Correlates of Emotional and Motivational Processing in Individuals With and Without Pathological Gambling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bao-Zhu; Balodis, Iris M; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Xu, Jiansong; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Corticostriatal-limbic neurocircuitry, emotional and motivational processing, dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems and genetic factors have all been implicated in pathological gambling (PG). However, allelic variants of genes influencing dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurotransmitters have not been investigated with respect to the neural correlates of emotional and motivational states in PG. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) converts dopamine to norepinephrine; the T allele of a functional single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1611115 (C-1021T) in the DBH gene is associated with less DBH activity and has been linked to emotional processes and addiction. Here, we investigate the influence of rs1611115 on the neural correlates of emotional and motivational processing in PG and healthy comparison (HC) participants. Methods While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, 18 PG and 25 HC participants, all European Americans, viewed gambling-, sad-, and cocaine-related videotapes. Analyses focused on brain activation differences related to DBH genotype (CC/T-carrier [i.e., CT and TT]) and condition (sad/gambling/cocaine). Results CC participants demonstrated greater recruitment of corticostriatal-limbic regions, relative to T-carriers. DBH variants were also associated with altered corticostriatal-limbic activations across the different videotape conditions, and this association appeared to be driven by greater activation in CC participants relative to T-carriers during the sad condition. CC relative to T-carrier subjects also reported greater subjective sadness to the sad videotapes. Conclusions Individual differences in genetic composition linked to aminergic function contribute significantly to emotional regulation across diagnostic groups and warrant further investigation in PG. PMID:27194378

  6. Gambling Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamble. They end up losing a lot of money and get into financial trouble. Gambling usually causes ... rush" you feel when you win and lose money. A person's experiences and personality type also play ...

  7. Gambling by Greek-Affiliated College Students: An Association between Affiliation and Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockey, Donald L.; Beason, Kim R.; Howington, Eric B.; Rockey, Christine M.; Gilbert, James D.

    2005-01-01

    This investigation compared the prevalence rates of pathological and problem gambling between Greek-affiliated and non-Greek-affiliated college students. The 954 participants volunteered to take the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS; Lesieur & Blume, 1987), which measures gambling disorders. A statistically significant association was found between…

  8. Stellar Coronae: The First Twenty - Five Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    2000-01-01

    Hot X-ray emitting coronae were detected on stars other than the Sun about twenty-five years ago. Within only a few years of the first detections, the Einstein Observatory had mapped out coronal activity across the HR diagram. These observations provided the foundations for a coarse theoretical understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for hot coronae on stars that has changed relatively little in the intervening years: plasma trapped in magnetic structures generated by dynamo processes somewhere beneath the photosphere is heated by as yet unidentified mechanisms that appear to transfer kinetic energy from underlying convective regions of the stellar envelope into the outer atmosphere. This review will describe the observational advances that have lead to some further theoretical understanding of stellar coronae, including the first results from high resolution X-ray spectroscopy obtained by Chandra and XMM-Newton, and will highlight the observational directions needed to make further progress.

  9. Five years of achievement in ISCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDuffie, Thomas E., Jr.; Derose, James V.

    Achievement associated with a school district committed to the implementation of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) materials and instructional strategy is the focus of this report. While ISCS is a three level, activity oriented, junior high program, the research was limited to the first year or Level I. Data were gathered from Level I students (mostly seventh graders) during a five year period. Analyses were per- formed to help answer questions such as: Are IQ and reading scores the highest correlates of achievement? Do IQ and reading correlates hold for both quantitative and qualitative indices of achievement? Do ISCS learning relationships hold over time? Are students able to evaluate how well they understand the concepts covered?Received: 21 June 1979; Revised: 11 March 1981;

  10. Factors associated with disordered gambling in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the socio-demographic characteristics of non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers and pathological gamblers, to investigate the association between gambling related factors and perceived health and well-being among the three subgroups of gamblers, and to analyse simultaneously socio-demographic characteristics, gambling related factors and perceived health and well-being and the severity of disordered gambling (problem gamblers and pathological gamblers). Methods The data were collected through a nationwide telephone survey in 2011. Participants were selected through a random population sample of 15-74-year-old Finns. From that sample, persons with any past-year gambling involvement (N = 3451) were selected for a subsample for the descriptive and inferential analysis in the present paper. Gambling was assessed using the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Statistical significance was determined by chi-squared tests. The odds ratio and effect size were computed by using multivariate-adjusted multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results The most significant socio-demographic characteristics (male gender, young age, education ≤12 years), gambling related factors (slot machine gambling, internet gambling) and perceived health and well-being (feeling lonely, smoking daily, risky alcohol consumption, mental health problems) explained 22.9 per cent of the variation in the severity of disordered gambling. Conclusion Male gender and loneliness were found to be associated with problem gambling in particular, along with smoking and risky alcohol consumption. Mental health problems and risky alcohol consumption were associated with pathological gambling. These identified associations between disordered gambling, mental health problems and risky alcohol consumption should be taken into consideration when implementing screenings of disordered gambling. PMID:23816162

  11. The Relationship between Endorsing Gambling as an Escape and the Display of Gambling Problems

    PubMed Central

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has reported a strong relationship between endorsing gambling as an escape and problem/pathological gambling as measured by the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). The present study recruited 249 university students to complete the Gambling Functional Assessment-Revised (GFA-R), which measures the function of the respondent's gambling, as well as the SOGS and the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), which was designed to identify gambling problems in the general population. Endorsing gambling as an escape on the GFA-R was again predictive of SOGS scores. The function of one's gambling was also predictive of the respondents' PGSI scores, but whether gambling for positive reinforcement or as an escape was the significant predictor differed between male and female respondents. Scores on the GFA-R subscales also accounted for a significant amount of variance in PGSI scores above and beyond that accounted for by SOGS scores. The present results support the idea that both practitioners and researchers should be interested in the function of an individual's gambling as well as the presence or the absence of pathology. They also suggest that differences in the function of gambling might also exist between the sexes. PMID:24804136

  12. The Relationship between Endorsing Gambling as an Escape and the Display of Gambling Problems.

    PubMed

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has reported a strong relationship between endorsing gambling as an escape and problem/pathological gambling as measured by the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). The present study recruited 249 university students to complete the Gambling Functional Assessment-Revised (GFA-R), which measures the function of the respondent's gambling, as well as the SOGS and the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), which was designed to identify gambling problems in the general population. Endorsing gambling as an escape on the GFA-R was again predictive of SOGS scores. The function of one's gambling was also predictive of the respondents' PGSI scores, but whether gambling for positive reinforcement or as an escape was the significant predictor differed between male and female respondents. Scores on the GFA-R subscales also accounted for a significant amount of variance in PGSI scores above and beyond that accounted for by SOGS scores. The present results support the idea that both practitioners and researchers should be interested in the function of an individual's gambling as well as the presence or the absence of pathology. They also suggest that differences in the function of gambling might also exist between the sexes. PMID:24804136

  13. Transitions in Gambling Participation during Late Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Bethany C.; Lee, Grace P.; Liu, Weiwei; Storr, Carla L.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Martins, Silvia S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine transitions in gambling participation from late adolescence into emerging adulthood, and to identify factors (i.e., gender, race, intervention status, lunch status, conduct disorder, parental monitoring, neighborhood environment, and substance use) that might influence these transitions. Methods Markov modeling was used to describe movement between past-year gambling states (i.e., non-gambling and gambling) over five years. Annual data on past-year gambling behavior and substance use were collected from 515 young men and women starting at age 17. Results Past-year gambling declined from 51% prevalence at age 17 to 21% prevalence at age 22. Participants who reported no past-year gambling at a particular annual assessment had more than an 80% probability of also reporting no past-year gambling at the following assessment. Men were 1.07–2.82 times more likely than women to transition from past-year non-gambling to gambling year-to-year, and women were 1.27–5.26 times more likely than men to transition from past-year gambling to non-gambling year-to-year. In addition, gender and past-year tobacco use interacted such that men who used tobacco were most likely (and men who did not use tobacco least likely) to gamble at baseline. Conclusions Transition rates between gambling states appear to be relatively stable over time from late adolescence into emerging adulthood; however, men and those who engage in substance use may be at increased risk for gambling participation. Implications and Contribution The current study provides important information about the naturalistic transitions in gambling behavior during late adolescence and emerging adulthood among an urban, mainly ethnic minority population. The finding that approximately half of past-year gamblers do not gamble during the following year suggests that gambling follows a variable developmental course. PMID:24656449

  14. Quantum Gambling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenberg, Lior; Vaidman, Lev; Wiesner, Stephen

    1999-04-01

    We present a two-party protocol for ``quantum gambling,'' a new task closely related to coin tossing. The protocol allows two remote parties to play a gambling game such that in a certain limit it becomes a fair game. No unconditionally secure classical method is known to accomplish this task.

  15. Student Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbeke, Emily M.; Dittrick-Nathan, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Gambling has been long recognized as an adult pastime characterized by thrills and risks. In recent years, however, it has increased significantly among adolescents, who have grown up in a society where it is legal and widely accepted. Movies, TV shows, and increased access to gaming through the Internet have helped embed gambling in modern youth…

  16. Factors Associated with the Severity of Gambling Problems in a Community Gambling Treatment Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namrata, Raylu; Oei, Tian P. S.

    2009-01-01

    Factors (demographics, gambling behaviors and comorbid problems) that may be related to the severity of gambling problems were investigated among 440 problem gamblers seeking treatment in an Australian outpatient treatment agency. The participants were divided into sub-threshold pathological gamblers (SPGs; N = 104) and pathological gamblers (PGs;…

  17. Virtual Knowledge Center Five Year Vision

    SciTech Connect

    KENNY, N.E.

    2003-06-01

    The vision for Virtual Knowledge Center (VKC) is to make information accessible from one verifiable source, provide an environment for knowledge capture and sharing, and provide for automated business process management. VKC will be the foundation for management and integration of information activities at the Hanford Site for the next 5 years. It provides a distinctive solution that can increase return on investment, increase a facility's efficiency, and reduce a project's cost and schedule. This Five-Year Vision presents a clear path forward to support the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors in their goals of achieving the Site's missions of preparing for the future, restoring the river corridor, and transitioning the central plateau. Diminishing funds and reduced availability of resources has created a direct obligation for the Hanford Site to be more innovative and resourceful in the use of its current information assets. The difficulty and, in some instances, the inability of current systems to effectively and efficiently meet evolving standards and directions, coupled with Hanford's geographical size, pose challenges to information acquisition, sharing, and use. An imbalance exists in the lifecycle process of information between locating information and executing work. The need to capture and retain workers' knowledge for future use was evaluated to identify cost effective alternatives. The VKC is comprised of a suite of technologies that enables seamless access to the information available through integration of databases and systems. The VKC uses web technology to provide the environment for gathering information from disparate data sources. The VKC makes information available to users; allowing them to search, access documents, retain enterprise knowledge, or interact with other users. The VKC provides a single path to electronic information; allows capture of knowledge at its source and makes data and information available for informed decision

  18. EDITORIAL: Five years of development and growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimondo, Ennio

    2004-02-01

    The last issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics under my editorship has recently been published. During the last five years, since its change of title, the journal has significantly modified its targets. Starting from a balanced mix of quantum optics and semiclassical optics, new topics have been brought within the scope of the journal, such as atom optics, degenerate quantum gases, quantum computation and quantum information, representing the growing role played by lasers within our technologically oriented society. Furthermore, the journal has greatly expanded the number of Special Issues and has introduced PhD Tutorials. While many authors do not have time to invest in preparing review articles, we have found the review-style PhD Tutorials to be very popular. Looking back over the evolution of the journal, the most obvious criterion of its development, at least from the point of view of the prospective contributing author, has been the gratifying increase in the impact factor measured by ISI, reflecting the leading position of Journal of Optics B as a European journal devoted exclusively to optics research. It is most rewarding to report that the number of printed pages has increased by 77% since 1999 and by more than 20% in the last year, far above the target planned by the publisher. Furthermore, from an Editorial point of view, the high standing of the journal is demonstrated by the very high quality ratings given by referees to the top fraction of submitted manuscripts and by the large number of full text web downloads reported for those papers. Special Issues also attract high numbers of web downloads, demonstrating the special attention these issues attract within the scientific community. Such results have been achieved only through teamwork, and I wish to express my gratitude to all those who contributed to this result over the years: Françoise Chavel from the European Optical Society secretariat in Paris, John Haynes, Tom Spicer

  19. Five years on: Revisiting GSN data quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, L. S.; Nettles, M.; Ekstrom, G.; Davis, J. P.; Ringler, A. T.; Storm, T. L.; Wilson, D.; Anderson, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    In 2010, the Lamont Waveform Quality Center (WQC) conducted an in-depth review of ten stations in the Global Seismographic Network (GSN). IU stations (CASY, DAV, KIP, KONO, WCI), IC stations (SSE, XAN), and II stations (ALE, DGAR, RPN) were analyzed using a scaling analysis based on data-synthetic comparisons, evaluation of noise levels, assessment of inter-sensor coherence, and polarization analysis. These reports (available from http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~ekstrom/Projects/WQC.html) highlighted a number of significant problems in GSN data quality, including the frequency-dependent loss of gain in the STS-1 seismometer (Ekström et al., 2006) that has been attributed to the presence of humidity in the electronics, cables, and connectors (Yuki and Ishihara, 2002; Hutt and Ringler, 2011). The reports from the WQC spurred a number of changes in the operation of the GSN, including the adoption of the policy of annual calibrations and the development of new tools and metrics to monitor, evaluate, and communicate data quality. In parallel, the USGS' Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL) and UCSD's Project IDA worked with the IRIS Consortium to upgrade GSN stations with new data acquisition systems, to refurbish the STS-1 seismometers with new electronics, and to expand the deployment of secondary broadband sensors. We revisit the 2010 reports, using the tools of the WQC as well as a number of newly developed tools such as the USGS' Data Quality Analyzer and IRIS' MUSTANG, and provide an update on GSN data quality. Our initial focus is on CASY and KIP, the first two stations reviewed by the WQC. Our goal is to evaluate progress in the last five years and assess our ability to quantify data quality as well as to identify potential problems that could compromise data quality in the future. Ekström, G., C. A. Dalton, and M. Nettles (2006). Observations of time-dependent errors in long-period instrument gain at global seismic stations. Seismological Research Letters

  20. Gambling: A Poison Chalice for Indigenous Peoples'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyall, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous populations are now being encouraged to be involved in the business of gambling as an operator or if not given that status, are actively encouraged to participate in gambling activities. Research both published and unpublished show that different indigenous populations often have a higher prevalence of problem and pathological gambling…

  1. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  2. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  3. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  4. Gambling and problem gambling among recently sentenced women in new zealand prisons.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Max W; McKenna, Brian G

    2005-01-01

    Ninety-four recently sentenced women prisoners were interviewed to assess aspects of their gambling involvement, problem gambling and relationships between gambling and criminal offending. A third of the women, on the basis of their SOGS-R scores, were assessed as lifetime probable pathological gamblers and just under a quarter were assessed as probable pathological gamblers during the 6 months prior to imprisonment. For women prisoners, a preference for non-casino gaming machines and housie were predictive of problem gambling. Relative to non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers experienced higher rates of childhood conduct disorder and current non-psychotic mental disorder. Just over a quarter of prisoners and a half of the problem gamblers had committed a crime to obtain money to gamble. Few women said their early offending or convictions related to gambling. It was concluded that most women were "criminals first and problem gamblers second" rather than people whose offending careers commenced as a consequence of problem gambling. However, the extent of problem gambling-related offending among the women prisoners highlights the potential for comprehensive assessment and treatment programs in prison to reduce recidivism and other adverse impacts of problem gambling and gambling-related offending. PMID:16311882

  5. Internet gambling in problem gambling college students

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Gonzalez-Ibanez, Angels

    2014-01-01

    Internet gambling is popular in college students and associated with problem gambling behaviors. This study evaluated Internet gambling in 117 students participating in study evaluating brief interventions to reduce gambling; the brief interventions consisted of minimal advice, motivational enhancement therapy, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (1–4 sessions). Compared to their counterparts who did not gamble via the Internet (n = 60), those who reported recent Internet gambling (n = 57) wagered in greater frequencies and amounts and reported missing school more often and more problems with family and anxiety due to gambling. Recent Internet gamblers demonstrated similar reductions in gambling over time and in response to the brief interventions as non-Internet gamblers. These data suggest that Internet gambling is common in problem gambling college students, and students who wager over the Internet can benefit from brief interventions. PMID:24337905

  6. Internet Gambling Among Community Adults and University Students in Macao.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anise M S; Lai, Mark H C; Tong, Kwok-Kit

    2015-09-01

    Despite the high availability of offline gambling in Macao, China, Internet gambling may remain attractive to many gamblers due to its anonymity and convenience. Given the scarcity of relevant research, this study aims to not only investigate the public attitude and prevalence of Internet gambling but also identify the demographic and psychological characteristics of Internet gamblers in Macao. We recruited 952 community adults with the random residential number dialing method and 427 university students through convenience sampling. Only 5.4% of the community adult respondents preferred online gambling compared to offline gambling, and the past-year prevalence of online gambling was about 1%. As hypothesized, Internet gambling was found to be positively associated with pathological gambling in both community and student samples. It was also associated with casino employment across samples. Moreover, we found that male gender, casino employment, materialism, and life dissatisfaction were significant risk factors of pathological gambling among Chinese gamblers. The findings provide insights on future designs of preventive measures and research direction for Internet gambling and pathological gambling in Chinese communities. PMID:24596073

  7. College Students' Gambling Behavior: When Does It Become Harmful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Jeremiah; Whelan, James P.; Meyers, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated behavioral indicators of pathological gambling in a college student sample. Participants and Methods: The authors administered a diagnostic interview for pathological gambling to 159 college students, who also completed a demographic questionnaire, and a self-report measure of psychological distress. Results:…

  8. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Problem Gambling among College Students.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Krieger, Heather; Tackett, Jennifer L; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-06-01

    The college years are a formative period where the risk for development of problematic gambling is high. Research examining racial and ethnic differences in gambling behaviors has been limited and inconsistent. The aims of this study were to examine racial and ethnic differences in problem gambling among a large sample of college students. Undergraduates (N = 3058) from a large southern university completed an online screening questionnaire which included demographics, gambling frequency, gambling expenditure (i.e. money lost) in the previous 6 months, and the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Negative binomial regression results indicated that Asian participants gambled less frequently than participants who were Caucasian or Hispanic/Latino(a), but spent more money than participants who were African-American (AA)/Black or Hispanic/Latino(a). A significantly larger proportion of Asian students met probable pathological gambling criteria (SOGS 5+; 7.8 %) and at-risk gambling criteria (SOGS 3+; 16.3 %)) than Caucasian (5.2; 10.1 %), AA/Black (3.9; 10.2 %), or Hispanic/Latino(a) (3.6; 9.4 %) students. Additionally, a significantly larger proportion of Asian students endorsed problematic gambling indicators such as lying about losses, feeling guilty about gambling, feeling like they had a gambling problem, being criticized for their gambling, feeling like they couldn't stop gambling, losing time from school or work due to gambling, having a family history of problem gambling, and arguing with close others about their gambling than Caucasian, AA/Black or Hispanic/Latino(a) students. Results suggest that Asian students may be a high-risk sub-group of college gamblers, and that there is a critical need for targeted interventions for this population. PMID:26209271

  9. Prevalence of problem gambling in Iowa: Revisiting Shaffer's adaptation hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Black, Donald W.; McCormick, Brett; Losch, Mary E.; Shaw, Martha; Lutz, Gene; Allen, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pathological gambling (PG) is an important public health problem. We assessed the prevalence of PG and problem (at-risk) gambling in a random sample of Iowa adults and compared the results to survey data collected in 1989 and 1995. The goal of this study was to examine whether continued expansion of gambling venues is associated with increased rates of problematic gambling behavior. METHODS A random digit dialing telephone screening was conducted in eastern Iowa of men and women age ≥18. Respondents were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) to assess lifetime gambling behavior. Demographic and clinical variables were collected. RESULTS A total of 356 respondents (147 men, 209 women) completed the SOGS, and all reported lifetime gambling participation. PG (SOGS ≥5) was found in 5 (1.4%) and problem gambling (SOGS = 3, 4) in 8 (2.2%) respondents. Disordered gambling (SOGS ≥3) was found in 13 (3.6%) respondents. Risk factors for disordered gambling included age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.64 per 10-year age increase), income (OR = 0.82 per $10,000 increase), minority group status (OR = 5.75), number of lifetime gambling activities (OR = 1.27), and having ever gambled ≥$100 (OR = 13.3). Overall gambling participation was significantly less in the current sample, compared with data collected in 1995. CONCLUSIONS Recent gambling participation was less than in 1995, despite the continued expansion of gaming opportunities. Disordered gambling was associated with younger age, lower income, and minority group status. The results are consistent with Shaffer's “adaptation” hypothesis, which posits that following an initial increase in gambling participation, problematic gambling stabilizes at a lower level. PMID:23145384

  10. Overall gambling behaviors and gambling treatment needs among a statewide sample of drug treatment clients in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Sherba, R Thomas; Martt, Nicholas J

    2015-03-01

    Casino gambling in Ohio became available for the first time in May 2012. This gambling expansion led the Ohio substance abuse monitoring (OSAM) Network, Ohio's drug abuse surveillance system that collects drug trend data on an ongoing basis, to amend its protocol in June 2011 to include collection of data related to problem and pathological gambling to inform current treatment and prevention needs. OSAM collected gambling data from July 2011 to June 2012 via focus group interviews of 714 drug users recruited from alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment programs throughout Ohio. Participants who reported gambling during the past 6 months (N = 412) completed the South Oaks gambling screen. This study found a prevalence estimate of 12.1 % for probable pathological gambling among its statewide sample. Sizeable proportions of participants reported that they gambled more when using AOD (23.5 %) and used more AOD when gambling (19.4 %). A majority of study participants (59.2 %) reported participation in at least one type of gambling during the past 6 months, and of those participants, only 22.2 % reported ever having been asked about gambling while receiving AOD treatment services, with just 12.5 % reporting ever having had gambling treatment services offered to them. Men were 4.1 times more likely to screen positive for probable pathological gambling than women; non-Whites were 61.0 % more likely to screen positive than Whites. Findings presented in this report have the potential to help shape and strengthen problem and pathological gambling prevention and treatment measures in Ohio. PMID:23934370

  11. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  12. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  13. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  14. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  15. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  16. National gambling experiences in the US: Will history repeat itself?

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Aims The aim of this paper is to offer an account of the history and current status of gambling research in the United States (US). Methods A review of the literature. Results Gambling has been a part of society in the US since its early history. However, it was not until 1980 that the medical profession in the US first recognized pathological gambling as a psychiatric disorder. Today, it is still rarely diagnosed or treated and relatively little federal funding is available to support research in this area. With the upcoming fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, pathological gambling is likely to be included alongside substance use disorders, as the first non-substance related addictive disorder. This change may represent an opportunity to expand research on gambling and treatment of pathological gambling. Conclusions We provide 10 suggestions for reducing societal and personal harm associated with this disorder. PMID:23067256

  17. Delay Discounting and Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Gregory J.; Francisco, Monica T.; Brewer, Adam T.; Stein, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Delay discounting describes the decline in the value of a reinforcer as the delay to that reinforcer increases. A review of the available studies revealed that steep delay discounting is positively correlated with problem or pathological gambling. One hypothesis regarding this correlation derives from the discounting equation proposed by Mazur (1989). According to the equation, steeper discounting renders the difference between fixed-delayed rewards and gambling-like variable-delayed rewards larger; with the latter being more valuable. The present study was designed to test this prediction by first assessing rats’ impulsive choices across four delays to a larger-later reinforcer. A second condition quantified strength of preference for mixed- over fixed-delays, with the duration of the latter adjusted between sessions to achieve indifference. Strength of preference for the mixed-delay alternative is given by the fixed delay at indifference (lower fixed-delay values reflect stronger preferences). Percent impulsive choice was not correlated with the value of the fixed delay at indifference and, therefore, the prediction of the hyperbolic model of gambling was not supported. A follow-up assessment revealed a significant decrease in impulsive choice after the second condition. This shift in impulsive choice could underlie the failure to observe the predicted correlation between impulsive choice and degree of preference for mixed- over fixed delays. PMID:21352902

  18. GAMBLING: SOMETIMES UNSEEMLY; NOT WHAT IT SEEMS

    PubMed Central

    Fantino, Edmund; Stolarz-Fantino, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Gambling offers opportunities for basic research and theory, and has hugely important applied implications. As I have said recently: “The current view of pathological gambling as an addiction cries out for a functional analysis of the controlling variables and for strategies of behavioral intervention.” (Fantino, 2008). This view echoed that of Dixon (2007), who called out for behavior analysts to apply their very relevant skills to discovering the causes of gambling disorders. To understand the behavior of gambling, one must understand the basic processes and variables involved in making the decisions gamblers make. Behavior analysts, those experimental psychologists who approach psychological phenomena from a behavioral (or functional) perspective, have long concentrated on the choices organisms make. Thus, they should be in a strong position to contribute to our appreciation of the factors controlling gambling. In this paper we will examine some of the advances already made, and also propose some directions for future research. PMID:21614146

  19. Methods of assessing craving to gamble: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Ashrafioun, Lisham; Rosenberg, Harold

    2012-09-01

    Although the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) does not explicitly list craving as a diagnostic criterion for pathological gambling, theories of disordered gambling and research on relapse precipitants suggest that cravings--among other factors--provoke and maintain episodes of gambling. Assessment of craving to gamble is complicated by questions regarding (a) the emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components of such craving; (b) the degree to which craving is viewed as an acute and fluctuating experience or as a relatively stable preoccupation with or inclination to gamble; (c) the threshold separating mild desire from pathological craving to gamble; and (d) the degree to which disordered gamblers are aware of, and able to report on, their experience of craving. Our literature search revealed various self-report methods that could be used to assess craving to gamble, including single-item rating scales, multi-item questionnaires, and application of the think-aloud procedure. In addition, psychophysiological reactivity (e.g., heart rate, brain activation) to gambling-related stimuli and reaction time (RT) tasks (e.g., gambling Stroop, Lexical Salience Task) may serve as proxy measures of subjective craving to gamble. Although researchers have assessed elements of reliability and validity of many measures, most require additional evaluation to examine their predictive and construct validity and their utility across different modes of gambling. The field would also benefit from further research to develop and evaluate additional self-report and proxy measures. PMID:22121917

  20. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a... information: (1) Date, time, and approximate duration of the release; (2) Chemical(s) released; (3)...

  1. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a... information: (1) Date, time, and approximate duration of the release; (2) Chemical(s) released; (3)...

  2. Five year global dataset: NMC operational analyses (1978 to 1982)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straus, David; Ardizzone, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    This document describes procedures used in assembling a five year dataset (1978 to 1982) using NMC Operational Analysis data. These procedures entailed replacing missing and unacceptable data in order to arrive at a complete dataset that is continuous in time. In addition, a subjective assessment on the integrity of all data (both preliminary and final) is presented. Documentation on tapes comprising the Five Year Global Dataset is also included.

  3. The Social Costs of Gambling: An Economic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Walker, Douglas M.; Barnett, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    Much of the opposition to legalized gambling is based on analyses of the social costs that occur as a result of pathological gambling. It is our contention that many, if not most, authors who have contributed to this literature are either unclear or misguided in what they define as social costs. Instead of starting with a clear definition of what constitutes a social cost, these authors have adopted an ad hoc approach-using "common sense" to determine what constitutes losses to society and then attempting to quantify the impact of those activities. We believe this is not, as some suggest, simply a matter of semantics. Rather, it is a serious problem in the gambling literature. How do we differentiate between a consequence of pathological gambling that is a "social cost" and one that is not? Which of the consequences of addictive behaviors that are associated with gambling arise when gambling is legal, and which will be manifest in some form whether or not gambling is legal? In this article we explain the economic perspective on social costs. An understanding of this paradigm removes the subjectivity in the classification of pathological gambling's social costs. The paper has three major components. First, we introduce the economic notion of social costs. Using this paradigm, we differentiate between the "true" social costs related to pathological gambling, and other negative consequences that cannot legitimately be classified as social costs. Second, we evaluate a recent social cost study using the economics social cost paradigm. Third, we discuss two types of social costs that have been largely overlooked in the gambling literature. One is caused by gambling prohibition. The other occurs as a result of "rent seeking" that is related to the political process surrounding the legalization of gambling. PMID:12766457

  4. Social and behavioral problems among five gambling severity groups.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Jacquelene F; Yoon, Gihyun; Campos, Michael D; Fong, Timothy W

    2015-12-15

    Gambling has been associated with various social and behavioral problems, but previous analyses have been limited by sample bias regarding gambling symptom severity range and the role of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). This study utilized a nationally representative data set and examined various characteristics of behavioral problems and ASPD among five gambling severity groups. Participants were 42,038 individuals who took part in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and provided information on social and behavioral problems, ASPD, and gambling. Using DSM-IV criteria, we derived five gambling groups from the total sample: non-gambling, low-risk, at-risk, problem, and pathological gambling. Associations between all problematic behaviors and nearly every gambling severity level were significant prior to adjustment for sociodemographic variables and ASPD. Following the adjustment, all significant associations persisted, with the exception of sexual coercion. In the adjusted model, the financially oriented behaviors had the strongest associations with gambling. All gambling severity levels were associated with an increased risk for a number of problematic behaviors and social problems in comparison to non-gamblers.Further examination of gambling problems in financial and criminal justice settings is recommended. PMID:26391652

  5. [Gambling and internet addiction: review and research agenda].

    PubMed

    Wölfling, K; Bühler, M; Leménager, T; Mörsen, C; Mann, K

    2009-09-01

    Behavioral addictions, especially pathological gambling and internet addiction, have become a growing concern in research and health policy. Similarities between behavioral addictions and substance dependency are currently being discussed in the scientific community. Unfortunately the number of scientific studies on pathological gambling and internet addiction is still very low. The estimated prevalence of pathological gambling among the German population is 0.2-0.5%. These numbers are comparable to prevalence rates reported for illegal drug dependency. About 1.5 million people, i.e. 3% of the German population, are believed to be at risk of internet addiction. Therefore, it is important to investigate in more detail the clinical and neuroscientific basis of pathological gambling and internet addiction. In this review we summarize the current status of research regarding pathological gambling and internet addiction and outline possible future research perspectives in the field of neuroimaging and genetics. The aim is to develop a multifactorial and explanatory model which helps to improve the quality of existing therapeutic approaches and prevention strategies. At present, parts of the research are funded by the federal states. The authors of this article, supported by scientific associations, have established a research platform called 'pathological gambling' in which research methods and strategies will be discussed which facilitate the implementation of different studies on pathological gambling. PMID:19697001

  6. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review.

    PubMed

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence gambling by Aboriginal groups, which are individually different, making it difficult to implement a cohesive strategy to address gambling-related harms. Because of this complexity, a thorough literature review is necessary to identify gaps in policy and research. This paper uses a public health framework to consider multi-dimensional influences (personal, environmental, economic, cultural and social) that affect gambling uptake. Such analysis is also important for identifying risk factors which facilitate the development and maintenance of problem gambling and potentially for underpinning protection, prevention and treatment programs. It is advised that strategies be developed in consultation with Aboriginal peoples to guide public health policy and research to minimise any gambling-related harms. PMID:24707239

  7. College Student Beliefs About Wagering: An Evaluation of the Adolescent Gambling Expectancies Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ginley, Meredith K.; Whelan, James P.; Relyea, George E.; Simmons, Jessica L.; Meyers, Andrew W.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Expectancy theory posits that decisions to engage in a given behavior are closely tied to expectations of the outcome of that behavior. Gambling outcome expectancies have predicted adolescent gambling and gambling problems. When high school students’ outcome expectancies were measured by Wickwire, Whelan and Meyers (2010), the Adolescent Gambling Expectancy Survey (AGES) revealed five categories of expectancies that were each predictive of gambling frequency and pathology. The present study aimed to explore if the AGES could be successfully replicated with college students. When administered to a diverse college student population, factor analyses identified five factors similar to those found in the high school sample. Several factors of the AGES were also found to predict gambling frequency and gambling problems for college students. Gambling frequency and gambling activity preference were also addressed. PMID:23934368

  8. College student beliefs about wagering: an evaluation of the adolescent gambling expectancies survey.

    PubMed

    Ginley, Meredith K; Whelan, James P; Relyea, George E; Simmons, Jessica L; Meyers, Andrew W; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2015-03-01

    Expectancy theory posits that decisions to engage in a given behavior are closely tied to expectations of the outcome of that behavior. Gambling outcome expectancies have predicted adolescent gambling and gambling problems. When high school students' outcome expectancies were measured by Wickwire et al. (Psychol Addict Behav 24(1):75-88 2010), the Adolescent Gambling Expectancy Survey (AGES) revealed five categories of expectancies that were each predictive of gambling frequency and pathology. The present study aimed to explore if the AGES could be successfully replicated with college students. When administered to a diverse college student population, factor analyses identified five factors similar to those found in the high school sample. Several factors of the AGES were also found to predict gambling frequency and gambling problems for college students. Gambling frequency and gambling activity preference were also addressed. PMID:23934368

  9. Gambling Problems Among Community Cocaine Users.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Magali; Nguyen, Noël; Bertrand, Karine; Perreault, Michel; Jutras-Aswad, Didier; Morvannou, Adèle; Bruneau, Julie; Berbiche, Djamal; Roy, Élise

    2016-09-01

    Cocaine use is highly prevalent and a major public health problem. While some studies have reported frequent comorbidity problems among cocaine users, few studies have included evaluation of gambling problems. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of gambling problems and compare those who were at-risk gamblers with non-problem gamblers in terms of mental health problems, substance use problems, and some risk factors (i.e. family antecedents, erroneous perceptions and coping strategies) among individuals who smoke or inject cocaine. A total of 424 smoked or injected cocaine users recruited through community-based programs in Montreal (Quebec) completed the questionnaire, including the Canadian Pathological Gambling Index, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, the CAGE, and the Severity Dependence Scale. Of the sample, 18.4 % were considered at-risk gamblers, of whom 7.8 % had problems gambling and 10.6 % were moderate-risk gamblers. The at-risk group was more likely to have experienced a recent phobic disorder and alcohol problems than the non-problem group. A multivariate analysis showed that, compared to those who were non-problem gamblers, the at-risk ones were more likely to have lost a large sum of money when they first started gambling, believed that their luck would turn, and gambled in reaction to painful life events. These results indicate the need to include routines for screening to identify gambling problem among cocaine users. PMID:26983825

  10. Advertising and Public Relations Education: A Five-Year Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Keith F.; Ross, Billy I.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates data reported in "Where Shall I Go to Study Advertising?" over the last five years and measures growth and decline of degrees granted, level of those degrees, and changes in enrollment and faculty. Finds that the number of advertising programs dropped 6.1% while public relations grew by only 5.1%, and joint programs increased 47.2%.…

  11. Taylor Proposes Five-Year Child-Care Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Glen

    Senator Glen Taylor of Minnesota proposed a five-year child-care program for the purposes of encouraging employer-sponsored child care and increasing by 53,000 the number of children in low-income families who were covered. This report lists central features of the program, which include: (1) tax incentives which employers can use when they build…

  12. IceCube awarded five-year extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The continued operation and management of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory buried beneath the ice at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station is secure for another five years, thanks to 35m in funding from the US National Science Foundation (NSF).

  13. Five-Year Strategic Plan: Fiscal Years 2011-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the U.S. Department of Education (Department) Office of Inspector General (OIG) Strategic Plan for fiscal years 2011 through 2015. This plan describes the focus and direction of OIG's operations over the next five years, establishes its organizational goals, and outlines the strategies it will employ to reach those goals and…

  14. India: Problems with the Sixth Five-Year Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masani, Minoo R.

    1978-01-01

    Examines background of India's Sixth Five-Year Plan, describes the current status of the Plan, and assesses the future of economic and political development in India based upon the Plan's achievements in areas including the small industries sector, heavy industry, public services, agriculture, and political cooperation. Journal availability: see…

  15. Reading First in Pennsylvania: Achievement Findings after Five Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Rita; Draper, Jason; Turner, Greg; Zigmond, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the student achievement outcomes for third graders in Reading First (RF) schools in Pennsylvania over the five years of implementation for the group as a whole, for disaggregated groups of third graders, and for third graders who received reading instruction in RF schools for one, two, and three years. We also present a…

  16. Clinical and Research Implications of Gambling Disorder in DSM-5

    PubMed Central

    Weinstock, Jeremiah; Rash, Carla J.

    2014-01-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders contains significant changes related to the diagnosis of gambling problems. These changes include the renaming of the disorder from pathological gambling to gambling disorder, reclassification of gambling disorder from an impulse control disorder to an addictive disorder, removal of the illegal acts criterion, lowering diagnostic threshold to endorsement of four criteria, and recognizing that the course of the disorder is no longer chronic for all diagnosed. This paper reviews the rationale and research support for these changes. Implications of the new revisions for both research and clinical practice are reviewed, including a discussion about future directions for research efforts. PMID:26885470

  17. Gambling households in Canada.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Martha; McMullan, John L; Perrier, David C

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of gambling dollars in Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan and Canada and studies the impact of this spending on households. We focus first on how gambling expenditures are related to the level and source of household income as well as to other demographic characteristics such as age, education, household composition, geographical area, and sources of income. Next we analyze how gambling expenditures are distributed among those households that gamble. We show how expenditure patterns differ in the intensity of gambling as measured by the proportion of household income or total amount of dollars spent on gambling. Then we study the affects that gambling has on spending on household necessities, changes in net worth, retirement savings and household debt. Finally we determine whether gambling expenditures act as a substitute or a complement to other recreational spending on entertainment products and services. Throughout the paper we offer a comparative analysis of provincial and national data. PMID:15353922

  18. Population goal set for China's new five-year plan.

    PubMed

    1986-06-01

    China's 7th Five-Year Plan recommends that China's total mainland population be held within the limit of 1.113 billion, with an annual average natural growth rate of about 12.4/1000. As a large number of youths will reach marriage and childbearing age during the course of the 7th Five-Year Plan, the Plan affords a high priority to the family planning program and to the control of population growth. The plan proposes 5 policies and measures to realize its goal: continuous efforts need to be made to give family planning a high priority; late marriage, late childbearing, and the 1-child family should be advocated; ideological and political education should be strengthened; scientific and technological research devoted to family planning should be intensified; and family planning communication and service centers at the county level should be consolidated and strengthened, and the family planning program should be conducted systematically and be ongoing. PMID:12314415

  19. Gender identity disorder in a five-year-old boy.

    PubMed Central

    Herman, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    Markedly effeminate behavior in a young boy is a source of concern and confusion for parents, teachers, and the child. It also represents a therapeutic dilemma for the child psychiatrist. The case of a five-year-old boy with gender identity disorder of childhood is presented and the literature on hypotheses of etiology, treatment, and long-term follow-up is reviewed. The ethical and philosophical questions posed by such a case are discussed. PMID:6880245

  20. Splenic Epidermoid Cyst in a Five-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Bhavna; Sood, Neena; Singh, Satpal

    2016-01-01

    Splenic epidermoid cysts are rare non-parasitic true cysts affecting the spleen. We report a five-year-old child who presented with an abdominal lump associated with pain of 15 days. Ultrasonography of the abdomen showed a huge cystic lesion of obscure origin. At laprotomy a huge unilocular cyst involving upper part of spleen containing pultaceous fluid was seen and its removal necessitated splenectomy. Histopathological findings were consistent with splenic epidermoid cyst. Thus histopathology helped in elucidating the aetiology and diagnosis.

  1. A Five-Year-Old Child with Renal Hydatidosis

    PubMed Central

    Moscatelli, Guillermo; Moroni, Samanta; Freilij, Héctor; Salgueiro, Fabián; García Bournissen, Facundo; Altcheh, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Hydatidosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. Clinical manifestations include cyst formation, most commonly in the liver (67–89%) and lungs (10–15%). Renal localizations are rare. We report a case of renal hydatidosis in a five-year-old child treated in a tertiary pediatric hospital in Argentina. After the diagnosis was made, elective surgery was performed, which led to a rapid recovery. PMID:23897992

  2. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…

  3. Idaho Supplementation Studies : Five Year Report : 1992-1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Jody P.

    1999-08-01

    In 1991, the Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) project was implemented to address critical uncertainties associated with hatchery supplementation of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha populations in Idaho. The project was designed to address questions identified in the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) Five-Year-Workplan (STWG 1988). Two goals of the project were identified: (1) assess the use of hatchery chinook salmon to increase natural populations in the Salmon and Clearwater river drainages, and (2) evaluate the genetic and ecological impacts of hatchery chinook salmon on naturally reproducing chinook salmon populations. Four objectives to achieve these goals were developed: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced fish; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; (3) determine which supplementation strategies (broodstock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity; and (4) develop supplementation recommendations. This document reports on the first five years of the long-term portion of the ISS project. Small-scale studies addressing specific hypotheses of the mechanisms of supplementation effects (e.g., competition, dispersal, and behavior) have been completed. Baseline genetic data have also been collected. Because supplementation broodstock development was to occur during the first five years, little evaluation of supplementation is currently possible. Most supplementation adults did not start to return to study streams until 1997. The objectives of this report are to: (1) present baseline data on production and productivity indicators such as adult escapement, redd counts, parr densities, juvenile emigrant estimates, and juvenile survival to Lower Granite Dam (lower Snake

  4. Psychometric properties of the inventory of gambling situations with a focus on gender and age differences.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Lindsay M; Petry, Nancy M

    2008-04-01

    Environmental, interpersonal, and psychological factors contribute to gambling, but no standardized instrument for assessing high-risk gambling situations exists. This study evaluates the factor structure of the Inventory of Gambling Situations (IGS), a newly developed measure to examine situations that precipitate gambling. Pathological gamblers (n = 233) beginning a treatment study completed the IGS. Principal component analysis revealed that a 5-factor solution best fit the data, representing items related to Negative Affect, Luck and Control, Positive Affect, Social Situations, and Gambling Cues. Overall, Cronbach alpha was 0.960, ranging from 0.820 to 0.935 for the 5 factors. IGS scores correlated with other indices of gambling problems. Women scored higher on the Gambling Cues factor than men, and younger respondents, regardless of gender, scored higher on the Luck and Control factor than older respondents. The IGS may assist in better understanding situations in which pathological gamblers wager, and individual differences with respect to these situations. PMID:18414127

  5. Buddhist philosophy for the treatment of problem gambling.

    PubMed

    Shonin, Edo; Van Gordon, William; Griffiths, Mark D

    2013-06-01

    Purpose In the last five years, scientific interest into the potential applications of Buddhist-derived interventions (BDIs) for the treatment of problem gambling has been growing. This paper reviews current directions, proposes conceptual applications, and discusses integration issues relating to the utilisation of BDIs as problem gambling treatments. Method Aliterature search and evaluation of the empirical literature for BDIs as problem gambling treatments was undertaken. Results To date, research has been limited to cross-sectional studies and clinical case studies and findings indicate that Buddhist-derived mindfulness practices have the potential to play an important role in ameliorating problem gambling symptomatology. As an adjunct to mindfulness, other Buddhist-derived practices are also of interest including: (i) insight meditation techniques (e.g., meditation on 'emptiness') to overcome avoidance and dissociation strategies, (ii) 'antidotes' (e.g., patience, impermanence, etc.) to attenuate impulsivity and salience-related issues, (iii) loving-kindness and compassion meditation to foster positive thinking and reduce conflict, and (iv) 'middle-way' principles and 'bliss-substitution' to reduce relapse and temper withdrawal symptoms. In addition to an absence of controlled treatment studies, the successful operationalisation of BDIs as effective treatments for problem gambling may be impeded by issues such as a deficiency of suitably experienced BDI clinicians, and the poor provision by service providers of both BDIs and dedicated gambling interventions. Conclusions Preliminary findings for BDIs as problem gambling treatments are promising, however, further research is required. PMID:26165927

  6. Neosporosis in animals--the last five years.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Schares, G

    2011-08-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. Until 1988, it was misdiagnosed as Toxoplasma gondii. Since its first recognition in 1984 in dogs and the description of a new genus and species Neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of cattle and dogs worldwide. Abortions and neonatal mortality are a major problem in livestock operations and neosporosis is a major cause of abortion in cattle. This review is focused on current status of neosporosis in animals based on papers published in the last five years. Worldwide seroprevalences are tabulated. Strategies for control and prevention are discussed. PMID:21704458

  7. Many new CAA requirements, deadlines scheduled during next five years

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanchuk, R. )

    1993-06-01

    Since the CAA Amendments were signed into law, EPA's rulemaking process has been underway, delineating specific compliance regulations. Many of the legislation's requirements and deadlines will be finalized over the next five years. The following list summarizes upcoming regulations and anticipated compliance deadlines. Title I applies to VOC and NOx controls in ozone non-attainment areas. Title III contains the Hazardous Organic National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Title V consists of the operating permit rule. Title VII applies to the enhanced monitoring rule. The rule will require major sources to enhance monitoring systems to determine whether compliance is continuous or intermittent.

  8. Treating feverish illness in children aged under five years.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Penny

    2014-12-01

    Fever is the most likely reason for a child to be taken to the doctor and, occasionally, the signs may indicate the start of serious illness. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has issued a quality standard for the care of feverish illness in children aged under five years, designed to ensure that no such cases are missed. Carers, usually parents, should be offered written and verbal advice if it is judged that they can safely take the child home and are happy to do so. The traffic light system is designed to assist assessment of the child on presentation and throughout the illness journey. PMID:25487400

  9. Illness prevention in the NHS five year forward view.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Sabrina

    2015-06-01

    Illness prevention is a priority for the NHS Mandate and the Five Year Forward View, and offers a means to maintain sustainable health and social care services in the context of an ageing population and the growth of behaviour-related illness. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance recommends a structured approach to embedding behaviour change interventions into clinical care, and effective implementation requires organisational support. This article describes how nurse leaders, managers and commissioners can ensure this implementation through setting objectives for staff, training and development, as well as supporting staff to adopt healthier lifestyles. PMID:26014792

  10. www.cefalea.it: the first five years.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Paolo; Sances, Grazia; Nappi, Giuseppe

    2005-09-01

    The Italian headache disorders website (www.cefalea.it) was launched in 1999 by the CIRNA foundation in partnership with Al.Ce, which is a lay association and member of the World Headache Alliance. In 2004, the website registered almost 130 000 hits (+200% on the 1999 figure). The most visited parts were the sections devoted to topical issues relating to headache, the list of headache specialists, the headache glossary and the support group. This article summarises the website's first five years of activity and highlights the Internet's potential to improve headache-related decision-making, behaviour and outcomes. PMID:16362682

  11. [Gambling disorder in Japan].

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Gambling disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior, associated with impaired functioning, reduced quality of life, and frequent divorce and bankruptcy. Gambling disorder is reclassified in the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in the DSM-5 because its clinical features closely resemble those of substance use disorders, and gambling activates the reward system in brain in much the same way drugs do. Prevalence of gambling disorder in Japan is high rate because of slot machines and pachinko game are very popular in Japan. The author recommend group psychotherapy and self-help group (Gamblers Anonymous), because group dynamics make them accept their wrongdoings related to gambling and believe that they can enjoy their lives without gambling. PMID:26394523

  12. Problem Gambling on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComb, Jennifer L.; Hanson, William E.

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of college students gamble, with some doing so problematically. This article discusses gambling and problem gambling among college students, framing it as an emerging health issue on college campuses nationwide. Given that 4 out of 5 college students admit to gambling, and that approximately 8% gamble problematically, it is…

  13. Cue reactivity in active pathological, abstinent pathological, and regular gamblers.

    PubMed

    Sodano, Ruthlyn; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2010-03-01

    Twenty-one treatment-seeking pathological gamblers, 21 pathological gamblers in recovery, and 21 recreational gamblers watched two video-taped exciting gambling scenarios and an exciting roller-coaster control scenario while their arousal (heart rate and subjective excitement) and urge to gamble were being measured. The gamblers did not differ significantly in cue-elicited heart rate elevations or excitement. However, the active pathological gamblers reported significantly greater urges to gamble across all cues compared to the abstinent pathological gamblers and, with marginal significance (p = 0.06), also compared to the social gamblers. Further exploration of these findings revealed that active pathological gamblers experience urges to gamble in response to exciting situations, whether or not they are gambling related, whereas abstinent and social gamblers only report urges to an exciting gambling-related cue. This suggests that for pathological gamblers excitement itself, irrespective of its source, may become a conditioned stimulus capable of triggering gambling behavior. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:19662519

  14. The Challenge of Online Gambling: The Effect of Legalization on the Increase in Online Gambling Addiction.

    PubMed

    Chóliz, Mariano

    2016-06-01

    It is possible that the growth and promotion of online gambling will result in substantially increased use of these types of games in countries where they are legal. This may be especially true for young people due to their interest in such games. In this context, it is important to note that online gambling is more addictive than any other type of game due its structural characteristics, such as immediacy, accessibility, ease of betting, and so on. This study examined the effect of online gambling in Spain 2 years after its legalization. The sample included 1277 pathological gamblers in recovery at 26 gambling addiction treatment centers. Our results showed a significant increase in young pathological gamblers since the legalization of this activity. This is a very relevant issue because, as in the case of Spain, many countries are currently in process of legalization of many types of online games. Scientific research can be useful to adapt the adequate gambling policies in order to prevent the gambling addiction. PMID:26058374

  15. IBEX: THE FIRST FIVE YEARS (2009-2013)

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D. J.; Allegrini, F.; Dayeh, M. A.; Fuselier, S. A.; Schwadron, N. A.; Bzowski, M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Sokół, J. M.; DeMajistre, R.; Funsten, H. O.; Gruntman, M.; Janzen, P. H.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Kucharek, H.; Möbius, E.; Tokumaru, M.

    2014-08-01

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) returned its first five years of scientific observations from 2009 to 2013. In this study, we examine, validate, initially analyze, and provide to the broad scientific community this complete set of energetic neutral atom (ENA) observations for the first time. IBEX measures the fluxes of ENAs reaching 1 AU from sources in the outer heliosphere and most likely the very nearby interstellar space beyond the heliopause. The data, maps, and documentation provided in this study represent the fourth major release of the IBEX data, incorporate important improvements, and should be used for future studies and as the citable reference for the current version of the IBEX data. In this study, we also examine five years of time evolution in the outer heliosphere and the resulting ENA emissions. These observations show a complicated variation with a general decrease in ENA fluxes from 2009 to 2012 over most regions of the sky, consistent with a 2-4 year recycle time for the previously decreasing solar wind flux. In contrast, the heliotail fluxes continue to decrease, again consistent with a significantly more distant source in the downwind direction. Finally, the Ribbon shows the most complicated time variations, with a leveling off in the southern hemisphere and continued decline in the northern one; these may be consistent with the Ribbon source being significantly farther away in the north than in the south. Together, the observations and results shown in this study expose the intricacies of our heliosphere's interaction with the local interstellar medium.

  16. The Extent and Distribution of Gambling-Related Harms and the Prevention Paradox in a British Population Survey.

    PubMed

    Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To examine whether the "prevention paradox" applies to British individuals in relation to gambling-related harm. Methods Data were derived from 7,756 individuals participating in the British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2010, a comprehensive interview-based survey conducted in Great Britain between November 2009 and May 2010. Gambling-related harm was assessed using an adapted version of the DSM-IV Pathological Gambling criteria. The previous year's prevalence of problem gamblers was examined using the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Gambling involvement was measured by gambling frequency and gambling participation (gambling volume as expressed by time and money spent gambling). Results The prevalence rates for past-year gambling harms were dependence harm (16.4%), social harm (2.2%), and chasing losses (7.9%). Gambling-related harms were distributed across low- to moderate-risk gamblers (and not limited to just problem gamblers) and were reported by the majority of gamblers who were non-high time and spend regular gamblers than high time and spend regular gamblers. Conclusions The prevention paradox is a promising way of examining gambling-related harm. This suggests that prevention of gambling might need to consider the population approach to minimizing gambling harm. PMID:27156382

  17. At-Risk/Problematic Shopping and Gambling in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Yip, Sarah W; Mei, Songli; Pilver, Corey E; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen J; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-12-01

    Elevated levels of both pathological gambling (PG) and problem shopping (PS) have been reported among adolescents, and each is associated with a range of other negative health/functioning measures. However, relationships between PS and PG, particularly during adolescence, are not well understood. In this study, we explored the relationship between different levels of problem-gambling severity and health/functioning characteristics, gambling-related social experiences, gambling behaviors and motivations among adolescents with and without at-risk/problematic shopping (ARPS). Survey data from Connecticut high school students (n = 2,100) were analyzed using bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling. Although at-risk/problematic gambling (ARPG) was not increased among adolescents with ARPS, adolescents with ARPG (vs non-gamblers) were more likely to report having experienced a growing tension or anxiety that could only be relieved by shopping and missing other obligations due to shopping. In comparison to the non-ARPS group, a smaller proportion of respondents in the ARPS group reported paid part-time employment, whereas a greater proportion of respondents reported excessive gambling by peers and feeling concerned over the gambling of a close family member. In general, similar associations between problem-gambling severity and measures of health/functioning and gambling-related behaviors and motivations were observed across ARPS and non-ARPS adolescents. However, associations were weaker among ARPS adolescents for several variables: engagement in extracurricular activities, alcohol and caffeine use and gambling for financial reasons. These findings suggest a complex relationship between problem-gambling severity and ARPS. They highlight the importance of considering co-occurring risk behaviors such as ARPS when treating adolescents with at-risk/problem gambling. PMID:25117852

  18. Linking Gambling and Trauma: A Phenomenological Hermeneutic Case Study Using Almaas' Transformation of Narcissism Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Gary; Solowoniuk, Jason; Boni, Lauren Julia; Kalischuk, Ruth Grant

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the phenomenon of pathological gambling and addiction from the perspective of writer and teacher A.H Almaas. By drawing on his Diamond Mind approach we trace the origin of addictive behaviors and pathological gambling to narcissistic wounding, which constitutes the loss of connection with the Essential…

  19. Female Gambling, Trauma, and the Not Good Enough Self: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Gary; Evans, Kyler; Kalischuk, Ruth Grant; Solowoniuk, Jason; McCallum, Karim; Hagen, Brad

    2013-01-01

    A gap exists within current literature regarding understanding the role that trauma may play in the initiation, development, and progression of female problem and pathological gambling. The purpose of this study is to further illustrate the relationship between trauma and the development problem and pathological gambling by investigating the lived…

  20. Gambling severity predicts midbrain response to near-miss outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Henry W.; Clark, Luke

    2010-01-01

    Gambling is a common recreational activity that becomes dysfunctional in a subset of individuals, with DSM ‘pathological gambling’ regarded as the most severe form. During gambling, players experience a range of cognitive distortions that promote an over-estimation of the chances of winning. Near-miss outcomes are thought to fuel these distortions. We observed previously that near-misses recruited overlapping circuitry to monetary wins in a study in healthy volunteers (Clark et al. 2009). The present study sought to extend these observations in regular gamblers and relate brain responses to an index of gambling severity. Twenty regular gamblers, who varied in their involvement from recreational players to probable pathological gamblers, were scanned whilst performing a simplified slot-machine task that delivered occasional monetary wins, as well as near-miss and full-miss non-win outcomes. In the overall group, near-miss outcomes were associated with a significant response in the ventral striatum, which was also recruited by monetary wins. Gambling severity, measured with the South Oaks Gambling Screen, predicted a greater response in the dopaminergic midbrain to near-miss outcomes. This effect survived controlling for clinical co-morbidities that were present in the regular gamblers. Gambling severity did not predict win-related responses in the midbrain or elsewhere. These results demonstrate that near-miss events during gambling recruit reward-related brain circuitry in regular players. An association with gambling severity in the midbrain suggests that near-miss outcomes may enhance dopamine transmission in disordered gambling, which extends neurobiological similarities between pathological gambling and drug addiction. PMID:20445043

  1. Research on the effects of integrated resorts in Korea on gambling addiction

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chan-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This research discusses the effects of the integrated resorts centered around casinos being implemented in Korea. It particularly focuses on the symptoms and most recent definitions of gambling addiction such as physiological or psychological dependence from excessive gambling. This paper suggests that there is a high prevalence rate of pathological gambling in Korea. It provides an argument for prevention, early detection, and lastly, active and voluntary treatment. Furthermore, the study addresses the physiological pathway of gambling addiction and the physiological factors of gambling addicts to suggest exercise rehabilitation that are currently limited to psychological treatments. PMID:26331132

  2. Harmonizing Screening for Gambling Problems in Epidemiological Surveys - Development of the Rapid Screener for Problem Gambling (RSPG).

    PubMed

    Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Perrot, Bastien; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims The aim of this study was to test the screening properties of several combinations of items from gambling scales, in order to harmonize screening of gambling problems in epidemiological surveys. The objective was to propose two brief screening tools (three items or less) for a use in interviews and self-administered questionnaires. Methods We tested the screening properties of combinations of items from several gambling scales, in a sample of 425 gamblers (301 non-problem gamblers and 124 disordered gamblers). Items tested included interview-based items (Pathological Gambling section of the DSM-IV, lifetime history of problem gambling, monthly expenses in gambling, and abstinence of 1 month or more) and self-report items (South Oaks Gambling Screen, Gambling Attitudes, and Beliefs Survey). The gold standard used was the diagnosis of a gambling disorder according to the DSM-5. Results Two versions of the Rapid Screener for Problem Gambling (RSPG) were developed: the RSPG-Interview (RSPG-I), being composed of two interview items (increasing bets and loss of control), and the RSPG-Self-Assessment (RSPG-SA), being composed of three self-report items (chasing, guiltiness, and perceived inability to stop). Discussion and conclusions We recommend using the RSPG-SA/I for screening problem gambling in epidemiological surveys, with the version adapted for each purpose (RSPG-I for interview-based surveys and RSPG-SA for self-administered surveys). This first triage of potential problem gamblers must be supplemented by further assessment, as it may overestimate the proportion of problem gamblers. However, a first triage has the great advantage of saving time and energy in large-scale screening for problem gambling. PMID:27348558

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Ammerman, Yola; Bohl, Jaime; Doersch, Anne; Gay, Heather; Kadden, Ronald; Molina, Cheryl; Steinberg, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated efficacy of psychotherapies for pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (N = 231) were randomly assigned to (a) referral to Gamblers Anonymous (GA), (b) GA referral plus a cognitive-behavioral (CB) workbook, or (c) GA referral plus 8 sessions of individual CB therapy. Gambling and related problems were assessed…

  4. Neonatal lupus erythematosis: a five-year case review.

    PubMed

    Porcel Chacón, Rocío; Tapia Ceballos, Leopoldo; Díaz Cabrera, Rocío; Gutiérrez Perandones, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal lupus erythematosus is an infrequent disease seen in newborns. It is caused by transplacental maternal autoantibody passage. Cutaneous involvement and congenital heart block (CHB) are the most common affections, although it may involve multiple organs like the liver, lungs, blood, nervous or digestive systems. This article present a review of the four cases diagnosed in the past five years in a Neonatal Unit, which shows the different clinical spectrum which can develop around this disease (CHB, multisystemic affection and two cutaneous cases), different autoantibodies (specially anti-SSA) with an early negativization during the first year of life and the possibility of future collagen vascular disease as occurred in one case. PMID:24296269

  5. The Five Year Fermi/GBM Magnetar Burst Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collazzi, A. C.; Kouveliotou, C.; van der Horst, A. J.; Younes, G. A.; Kaneko, Y.; Göğüş, E.; Lin, L.; Granot, J.; Finger, M. H.; Chaplin, V. L.; Huppenkothen, D.; Watts, A. L.; von Kienlin, A.; Baring, M. G.; Gruber, D.; Bhat, P. N.; Gibby, M. H.; Gehrels, N.; McEnery, J.; van der Klis, M.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.

    2015-05-01

    Since launch in 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected many hundreds of bursts from magnetar sources. While the vast majority of these bursts have been attributed to several known magnetars, there is also a small sample of magnetar-like bursts of unknown origin. Here, we present the Fermi/GBM magnetar catalog, providing the results of the temporal and spectral analyses of 440 magnetar bursts with high temporal and spectral resolution. This catalog covers the first five years of GBM magnetar observations, from 2008 July to 2013 June. We provide durations, spectral parameters for various models, fluences, and peak fluxes for all the bursts, as well as a detailed temporal analysis for SGR J1550-5418 bursts. Finally, we suggest that some of the bursts of unknown origin are associated with the newly discovered magnetar 3XMM J185246.6+0033.7.

  6. Scandinavian NATO policy: The next five years. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.

    1990-05-01

    Based on reports from the Foreign Broadcast Information Service, this Note assesses the future of Danish and Norwegian security policies and the probable internal and external factors that will influence them. In the next five years, Danish politics will be marked by instability as rapid disarmament and tension reduction are pursued. The somewhat more stable Norwegian political environment is also entering a period of uncertainty. However, the weakening of centrism in Norwegian politics should not undermine a traditional concern for arms control and reduced tensions in Europe. While neither Scandinavian nation is expected to take a leading role in the NATO policy debate, they will make clear their opposition to the modernization or expansion of nuclear forces. Although both Norway and Denmark may turn their attention increasingly toward regional or Nordic solutions, the importance of their sea-lanes to U.S. maritime interests will ensure a continued U.S. commitment to maintaining some form of security relationship with them.

  7. Five year magnetic tape for unattended satellite tape recorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benn, G. S. L.; Gutfreund, K.

    1972-01-01

    The development and fabrication of a quantity of long life magnetic tape with properties selected specifically for unattended operation in spacecraft tape recorders was studied. A detailed analytical consideration of various binder systems was undertaken. This included the chemical aspects of the binders, cohesion and adhesion effects, stability and the mechanical and physical properties. The ability to form free films of these polymers and their combination with various oxide loadings and other additives allowed a rapid selection of four polymer candidates for a five year magnetic tape. Samples were evaluated under actual running conditions which included physical, magnetic, and extensive life testing. These sample tapes withstood 50,000 bidirectional tape passes under fairly harsh operating conditions.

  8. Astronomy Education Review: A Five-Year Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, Andrew; Wolff, S.

    2006-12-01

    For the last five years, we have been publishing (with support from NOAO, NASA, the AAS, and the ASP) an on-line journal/magazine called Astronomy Education Review, focusing on astronomy and space-science education and outreach. It can be found at: http://aer.noao.edu This project, the first of its kind in our field, has made it possible to elaborate, encourage, and support -in one convenient location -the literature of astronomy education research, together with discussions of some of the key issues that professionals in the field are grappling with. (In this sense, the journal resembles Science or Nature.) We present statistics about the 164 papers and articles published in the first nine issues of the journal and about its international readership. We also discuss the future plans for this publication and the role that the AAS community can play in supporting it.

  9. Interactive multimedia dental education: the next five years and beyond.

    PubMed

    Wright, D N

    1995-01-01

    This presentation is intended to provide "Ten Good Reasons" why interactive multimedia should play a major role in both undergraduate curriculum and graduate level continuing education in the next five years. Multimedia is currently best presented on CD-ROM disks, but virtual reality, interactive television, video-desktop conferencing, and Internet applications will become available before the end of the century. Many dental schools, associations and private companies have already entered the development and production of dental multimedia titles, and it is anticipated that schools and dentists will soon be constrained to purchase multimedia capable systems to take advantage of the "Ten Good Reasons." Guidelines are given to those who desire to publish material in interactive multimedia format. A vision of the future is presented. PMID:8591432

  10. Educational affairs plan: A five-year strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A five-year plan is presented to guide the use of NASA resources in administering a focused and consistent set of aeronautics and space science education programs. Major initiatives outlined in this plan fall into two categories: programmatic priorities and institutional priorities. Programmatic priorities for this plan include elementary education, teacher education, underrepresented minority participation, educational technology and the Aerospace Education Services Project (AESP). Institutional priorities highlighted in this plan include university programs, educational publications and their distribution, educational partnerships with public and private organizations, educational research and evaluation, and activities of the educational affairs administration. The plan's aim is to directly and indirectly help to ensure an adequate pool of talented scientists, engineers and technical personnel to keep NASA at the forefront of advancements for the 21st century.

  11. Public psychiatrists' perceptions of changes over the past five years.

    PubMed

    Ranz, Jules

    2004-10-01

    This study examines which issues public psychiatrists perceive as having most impacted their careers over the past five years and whether this impact was differentially experienced by staff psychiatrists and medical directors. The authors sent a questionnaire to all members of the American Association of Community Psychiatrists (AACP) in clinical practice for at least 5 years. Surprisingly, public psychiatrists report that the impact of recent changes have been primarily positive, except in the domain of economic developments. Both program and agency medical directors report experiencing about the same amount of change, though significantly more positive overall impact, compared to staff psychiatrists. This finding should encourage psychiatrists to become program medical directors, a feasible next step for many staff psychiatrists. PMID:15529481

  12. Galaxy Evolution Explorer Celebrates Five Years in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    Since its launch five years ago, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer has photographed hundreds of millions of galaxies in ultraviolet light. M106 is one of those galaxies, and from 22 light years away, it strikes a pose in blue and gold for this new commemorative portrait.

    The galaxy's extended arms are the blue filaments that curve around its edge, creating its outer disk. Tints of blue in M106's arms reveal hot, young massive stars. Traces of gold toward the center show an older stellar population and indicate the presence of obscuring dust.

    From 24 million light-years away, neighboring galaxy NGC 4248 also makes a memorable appearance, sitting just right of M106. The irregular galaxy looks like a yellow smudge, with a bluish-white bar in the center. The galaxy's outer golden glow indicates a population of older stars, while the blue central region shows a younger stellar demographic.

    Dwarf galaxy UGC 7365 emerges at the bottom center of this image, as a faint yellow smudge directly below M106. This galaxy is not forming any new stars, and looks much smaller than M106 despite being closer to Earth, at 14 million light-years away.

    Over the past five years, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer has imaged half a billion objects over 27,000 square degrees of sky equivalent to an area that would be covered by 138,000 full moons. The telescope orbits Earth every 94 minutes and travels approximately 408,470 million miles per day. Its overarching question is: how do galaxies grow and change over 10 billion years of cosmic history?

    M106, also known as NGC 4258, is located in the constellation Canes Venatici. This image is a two-color composite, where far-ultraviolet light is blue, and near-ultraviolet light is red.

  13. Scratchcard gambling among adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, M

    2000-01-01

    Playing instant scratchcards has become a popular activity among a significant minority of the UK population since their introduction by the National Lottery operators (Camelot) on March 21, 1995. This study examined scratchcard gambling in a group of adolescent males. A total of 204 boys from two secondary schools in Birmingham (aged 11 to 16 years; mean age 13.6 years) were administered a questionnaire on their scratchcard gambling behaviour. Ten classes (five in each school) took part in the survey with one class from each year group selected at random by the headteacher. Within each class almost all the children took part. Forty-two percent of the sample (n=86) had bought their own scratchcards since their introduction in March 1995. Ten children (12% of the gamblers who had bought scratchcards themselves) met an adapted version of the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling on scratchcards. Furthermore, a significant relationship was found between parents buying scratchcards and the child's scratchcard purchasing behaviour. PMID:14634322

  14. Updates of the prevalence of problem gambling in Romanian teenagers.

    PubMed

    Lupu, Viorel; Todirita, Izabela Ramona

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to find out what is the prevalence of pathological in Romanian teenagers. We questioned one thousand thirty-two teenagers in Cluj-Napoca and Harghita counties. Participants completed a questionnaire with 40 items including gamblers anonymous twenty questions. The sample included teenagers aged 11-19 years; 65.57% were male and 34.43% were female. The subjects were divided into three groups: non-gambling/recreational gambling or occasional gambling (0-1 positive answers -Level 1)-753 subjects (72.96%) [316 females and 437 males]; problem gambling (2-6 points-Level 2)-243 subjects (23.54%) [43 females and 200 males]; pathological gambling (above 7 points-Level 3)-36 subjects (3.48%) [3 females and 33 males]. The mean age of pathological gamblers was 16.48 years. Gender differences were as expected, males engaging in pathological gambling (91.66% from pathological gamblers) more than females did (8.33% from pathological gamblers). Data revealed that the most encountered games practiced weekly were sport bets and slot machines in the case of 36.11% of the pathological gamblers; lotto, internet casino and pool bets each with 25%, followed by roulette and black-jack with 22.22%.From those who reported practicing gambling at a pathological level 66.66% engaged in alcohol consumption, 13.88% illicit drug use and 19.44% licit drugs. Just 16.66% smoke cigarettes. Data revealed higher rates of prevalence in Romanian teenagers than in other Central and Eastern European countries. A prevalence study at a national level should be designed. PMID:22350682

  15. Gambling, Drinking and Quality of Life: Evidence from Macao and Australia.

    PubMed

    Loo, Jasmine M Y; Shi, Yongdong; Pu, Xiaohong

    2016-06-01

    The investigation of the interface between psychological constructs, compulsive consumption of alcohol and pathological gambling is an important avenue for development of future initiatives in social marketing or prevention programs. This cross-cultural study attempts to bridge the gap in literature by providing an evaluation of the predictive ability of psychological variables such as gambling urge, gambling-related erroneous cognitions and comorbid alcohol consumption on pathological gambling behaviour and its impact on overall quality of life indicators. Participants consist of 445 Macao and Australian young adults (Mean age = 23 years). Results indicate that probable pathological gamblers as compared with non-gamblers reported significantly lower quality of life in all domains-physical health, psychological well-being, social relationships and environment. Adults who drank more alcohol and have stronger erroneous cognitions evidenced higher pathological gambling behavior. Our research model fits both cohorts and interestingly, erroneous gambling-related cognitions serve as a full mediator for the predictive relationship between gambling urge and pathological gambling in the Macao sample, but serve as a partial mediator in the Australian sample. Targeting erroneous cognitions in future social marketing or preventive campaigns should demonstrate to be an important strategy in reducing the effects of urge to gamble among at-risk individuals. Further implications for the industry, marketing and governmental strategies are discussed. PMID:26337063

  16. Long-term outcomes five years after selective dorsal rhizotomy

    PubMed Central

    Nordmark, Eva; Josenby, Annika Lundkvist; Lagergren, Jan; Andersson, Gert; Strömblad, Lars-Göran; Westbom, Lena

    2008-01-01

    Background Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is a well accepted neurosurgical procedure performed for the relief of spasticity interfering with motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). The goal is to improve function, but long-term outcome studies are rare. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term functional outcomes, safety and side effects during five postoperative years in all children with diplegia undergoing SDR combined with physiotherapy. Methods This study group consisted of 35 children, consecutively operated, with spastic diplegia, of which 26 were Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels III–V. Mean age was 4.5 years (range 2.5–6.6). They were all assessed by the same multidisciplinary team at pre- and at 6, 12, 18 months, 3 and 5 years postoperatively. Clinical and demographic data, complications and number of rootlets cut were prospectively registered. Deep tendon reflexes and muscle tone were examined, the latter graded with the modified Ashworth scale. Passive range of motion (PROM) was measured with a goniometer. Motor function was classified according to the GMFCS and measured with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88) and derived into GMFM-66. Parent's opinions about the children's performance of skills and activities and the amount of caregiver assistance were measured with Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory (PEDI). Results The mean proportion of rootlets cut in S2-L2 was 40%. Muscle tone was immediately reduced in adductors, hamstrings and dorsiflexors (p < 0.001) with no recurrence of spasticity over the 5 years. For GMFCS-subgroups I–II, III and IV–V significant improvements during the five years were seen in PROM for hip abduction, popliteal angle and ankle dorsiflexion (p = 0.001), capacity of gross motor function (GMFM) (p = 0.001), performance of functional skills and independence in self-care and mobility (PEDI) (p = 0.001). Conclusion SDR is a safe and effective method for

  17. Trends in Behavior-Analytic Gambling Research and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Mark R; Whiting, Seth W; Gunnarsson, Karl F; Daar, Jacob H; Rowsey, Kyle E

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the present review was to analyze research outcomes for all gambling studies reported in the behavior analysis literature. We used the search term "gambling" to identify articles that were published in behaviorally oriented journals between the years 1992 and 2012 and categorized the content of each article as empirical or conceptual. Next, we examined and categorized the empirical articles by inclusion of an experimental manipulation and treatment to alleviate at least some aspect of pathological gambling, participant population used, type of gambling task employed in the research, whether the participants in the study actually gambled, and the behavioral phenomena of interest. The results show that the rate of publication of gambling research has increased in the last 6 years, and a vast majority of articles are empirical. Of the empirical articles, examinations of treatment techniques or methods are scarce; slot machine play is the most represented form of gambling, and slightly greater than half of the research included compensation based on gambling outcomes within experiments. We discuss implications and future directions based on these observations of the published literature. PMID:27606170

  18. Aerosol sun photometry throughout five years in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, I.; Mukai, S.; Holben, B.

    Japan locates in an interesting region for aerosol study Most of natural and anthropogenic aerosols can be measured Some of natural aerosols are the oceanic type aerosols provided from the ocean e g West Pacific Ocean Sea of Japan and East China Sea and the other is Asian dust what one calls Yellow sand coming from Gobi and Taklamakan desert area in China It should be enhanced that most of these natural aerosols especially dust aerosols are mixed with the anthropogenic e g nitrate and sulfate aerosols during long distance transportation Two automatic sun sky radiometers have been set for the worldwide aerosol sun photometer network AERONET One is facing to Pacific Ocean Shirahama for taking continuous measurements of background aerosols of Japan and the other is set at megalopolis city Osaka This work intends to show the temporary and or spatially change of aerosol properties e g aerosol optical thickness at 0 44 0 67 and 0 87 microns size distribution and single scattering albedo For instance the regional difference between city and remote area is examined and time variation involves long time change over five years and also seasonal change

  19. The Pasadena Recommendations: Five Years After AAS Endorsement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezek, Patricia; Frattare, L.; Ulvestad, J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been five years since the AAS Council unanimously endorsed the document, known as "Equity Now: The Pasadena Recommendations for Gender Equality in Astronomy," in January 2005. This document was the main product of the conference entitled "Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After” (WIA II), held in June 2003 in Pasadena, CA. Participants of that 2003 meeting assessed the progress for women in science, offering insights into causes of the slower advancement of women, and discussed strategies to accelerate the achievement of equality. These insights and strategies were then incorporated into the "Pasadena Recommendations" by the CSWA. It was subsequently released to the entire AAS community for review and comments prior to its endorsement by the AAS. We will discuss the Recommendations and their impact since the endorsement by the AAS, including the process that is in place for organizations and departments to formally endorse the Pasadena Recommendations, thus making an organizational commitment to their implementation (see http://www.aas.org/cswa/pasadena_endorse.html).

  20. Solar energy technology - A five-year update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, M. K.

    Major developments and trends in the field of solar energy in the past five years are reviewed. The tremendous growth in both the intensity and diversity of solar energy research and development projects is illustrated by the growth of government funding in the past decade. Attention is then given to the major directions and objectives of technology advances in the areas of solar and wind resource assessment, low temperature systems including the flat-plate solar collector and storage technology, medium-temperature systems with sunlight concentration for industrial applications, thermal electric and high-temperature systems including the 10 MW(e) pilot plant under construction in Barstow, California, wind energy, biomass production and conversion, photochemical and photovoltaic conversion, ocean thermal energy conversion, and satellite power systems. The rapid, however uneven, growth in the application of solar technology to water and space heating, utilization, and wind and photovoltaics in electricity generation is considered, and future prospects for solar technologies in light of commercial, political, social, and environmental concerns are discussed.

  1. NASA Glenn Research Center Acoustical Testing Laboratory: Five year retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Beth A.; Akers, James C.; Passe, Paul J.

    2005-09-01

    In the five years since the NASA Glenn Research Center Acoustical Testing Laboratory (ATL) opened its doors in September, 2000, it has developed a comprehensive array of services and products that support hearing conservation goals within NASA and industry. The ATL provides acoustic emission testing and noise control engineering services for a variety of specialized customers, particularly developers of equipment and science experiments manifested for NASA's manned space missions. The ATL aggressively supports the vision of a low-noise on-orbit environment, which facilitates mission success as well as crew health, safety, and comfort. In concert with these goals, the ATL also produces and distributes free educational resources and low-noise advocacy tools for hearing conservation education and awareness. Among these are two compact discs of auditory demonstrations (of phenomena in acoustics, hearing conservation, and communication), and presentations, software packages, and other educational materials for use by engineers, audiologists, and other hearing conservation stakeholders. This presentation will highlight ATL's construction, history, technical capabilities, and current projects and will feature demonstrations of some of the unique educational resource materials that are distributed by the ATL.

  2. Porcine bocavirus: achievements in the past five years.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng; Sun, Haoting; Wang, Yuyan

    2014-12-01

    Porcine bocavirus is a recently discovered virus that infects pigs and is classified within the Bocavirus genus (family Parvoviridae, subfamily Parvovirinae). The viral genome constitutes linear single-stranded DNA and has three open reading frames that encode four proteins: NS1, NP1, VP1, and VP2. There have been more than seven genotypes discovered to date. These genotypes have been classified into three groups based on VP1 sequence. Porcine bocavirus is much more prevalent in piglets that are co-infected with other pathogens than in healthy piglets. The virus can be detected using PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, cell cultures, indirect immunofluorescence, and other molecular virology techniques. Porcine bocavirus has been detected in various samples, including stool, serum, lymph nodes, and tonsils. Because this virus was discovered only five years ago, there are still many unanswered questions that require further research. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge and primary research achievements regarding porcine bocavirus. PMID:25514206

  3. [Special considerations in children under five years with asthma].

    PubMed

    Cuevas Schacht, Francisco J; Cano Salas, Maria del Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Currently, clinical practice guidelines and international guidelines on diagnosis and management of asthma, including special considerations in patients under five years old, given the frequent respiratory morbidity associated with this age group and poor or no cooperation from the child for testing respiratory function, favoring the underdiagnosis, delaying treatment and affecting the proper assessment of severity, level of control, and adequate clinical response to treatment. That is why the proper understanding of the natural history and the different phenotypes in infants and toddlers, allow for functional and clinical considerations on the progression of asthma from early childhood to adulthood, being necessary to make a special deal considering personal and family history, symptoms and progression of comorbidities exist which in turn will classify, monitor and plan treatment to achieve and maintain control of the disease, so far as asthma is not cured but their control is achieved in most patients. The doctor-patient interaction, family, education, control of risk factors and comorbidities, assessment, treatment and monitoring of the development of asthma are the foundation for success in the management of asthmatic patients. PMID:20873059

  4. PG 1553+113: FIVE YEARS OF OBSERVATIONS WITH MAGIC

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksic, J.; Blanch, O.; Alvarez, E. A.; Asensio, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Bonnoli, G.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Bastieri, D.; Gonzalez, J. Becerra; Berger, K.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Boller, A.; Braun, I.; Bock, R. K.; Tridon, D. Borla E-mail: elisa.prandini@pd.infn.it; and others

    2012-03-20

    We present the results of five years (2005-2009) of MAGIC observations of the BL Lac object PG 1553+113 at very high energies (VHEs; E > 100 GeV). Power-law fits of the individual years are compatible with a steady mean photon index {Gamma} = 4.27 {+-} 0.14. In the last three years of data, the flux level above 150 GeV shows a clear variability (probability of constant flux < 0.001%). The flux variations are modest, lying in the range from 4% to 11% of the Crab Nebula flux. Simultaneous optical data also show only modest variability that seems to be correlated with VHE gamma-ray variability. We also performed a temporal analysis of (all available) simultaneous Fermi/Large Area Telescope data of PG 1553+113 above 1 GeV, which reveals hints of variability in the 2008-2009 sample. Finally, we present a combination of the mean spectrum measured at VHEs with archival data available for other wavelengths. The mean spectral energy distribution can be modeled with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model, which gives the main physical parameters governing the VHE emission in the blazar jet.

  5. Low countries' NATO policy: The next five years. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Bitzinger, R.A.

    1990-02-01

    This is one of a series of seven RAND Notes written as part of the project on Theater Nuclear Deterrence after the INF Treaty, sponsored by the U.S. Air Force Europe, analyzing the potential alternative short-run NATO policies of major member nations. This note explores the near-term future of Belgian and Dutch security policy, particularly as it affects the Western alliance. It examines the domestic environment in which the Low Countries' NATO policy is formulated and the reasons the security consensus in these countries is currently in transition. It also looks at the state of the Belgian and Dutch defense efforts. Finally, the note postulates on the Low Countries' NATO policies over the next five years, arguing that arms control, detente, and a declining defense capability should increasingly characterize Belgian and Dutch security policy over the short run. Furthermore, these characteristics of security will likely remain intact, no matter what changes occur in Soviet or other NATO countries' security policies or in the domestic political situation.

  6. Pathological Gamblers Respond Equally Well to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Regardless of Other Mental Health Treatment Status

    PubMed Central

    Champine, Robey B.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Data consistently demonstrate comorbidity between pathological gambling and psychiatric disorders. This study compares severity of gambling and psychosocial problems and gambling treatment outcomes in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers (N = 231) based on their self-reported mental health treatment utilization. As expected, participants currently receiving mental health treatment demonstrated the most psychiatric problems, and those with no mental health treatment the least. Although preferred gambling activity differed according to mental health treatment status, severity of gambling problems and gambling treatment outcomes did not. Individual cognitive-behavioral therapy was efficacious in reducing gambling problems irrespective of mental health treatment utilization. PMID:20958852

  7. Gambling and perceived health among adult jail inmates.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Kari; Kerber, Cindy H; Kim, MyoungJin; Astroth, Kim S; Schlenker, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Gambling problems have been associated with lower perceived health in community samples, but little research has examined this relationship in an incarcerated population. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived health and gambling problems of adult inmates (18-49 years old) in a county jail. We surveyed 184 male and female inmates aged 18-49 years. Nearly 35% of inmates scored as problem or pathological gamblers, and inmates scored significantly lower on all Short Form-36 Version 2 perceived health scales than the U.S. population norm. There were no significant differences on perceived health scores between recreational and problem/pathological gamblers. The high prevalence of gambling problems and poor perceived health necessitates research to provide screenings and test effectiveness of gambling and health interventions in this population. PMID:24553394

  8. Characteristics of Treatment Seeking Finnish Pathological Gamblers: Baseline Data from a Treatment Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, Tuuli; Halme, Jukka; Pankakoski, Maiju; Sinclair, David; Alho, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behavior of 39 pathological gamblers who participated in our treatment study in 2009. The inclusion criteria of the study were: score of five or more on both the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and a pathological gambling screen based on the Diagnostic and Statistical…

  9. Open water scuba diving accidents at Leicester: five years' experience.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, A J; White, S A; Conboy, P J; Bodiwala, G; Quinton, D

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, type, outcome, and possible risk factors of diving accidents in each year of a five year period presenting from one dive centre to a large teaching hospital accident and emergency (A&E) department. METHODS: All patients included in this study presented to the A&E department at a local teaching hospital in close proximity to the largest inland diving centre in the UK. Our main outcome measures were: presenting symptoms, administration of recompression treatment, mortality, and postmortem examination report where applicable. RESULTS: Overall, 25 patients experienced a serious open water diving accident at the centre between 1992 and 1996 inclusive. The percentage of survivors (n = 18) with symptoms of decompression sickness receiving recompression treatment was 52%. All surviving patients received medical treatment for at least 24 hours before discharge. The median depth of diving accidents was 24 metres (m) (range 7-36 m). During the study period, 1992-96, the number of accidents increased from one to 10 and the incidence of diving accidents increased from four per 100,000 to 15.4 per 100,000. Over the same time period the number of deaths increased threefold. CONCLUSIONS: The aetiology of the increase in the incidence of accidents is multifactorial. Important risk factors were thought to be: rapid ascent (in 48% of patients), cold water, poor visibility, the number of dives per diver, and the experience of the diver. It is concluded that there needs to be an increased awareness of the management of diving injuries in an A&E department in close proximity to an inland diving centre. PMID:10353047

  10. Five Years of Stereo Magnetospheric Imaging by TWINS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, J.; McComas, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) is the first stereoscopic magnetospheric imager. TWINS is a NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity performing simultaneous energetic neutral atom (ENA) imaging from two widely-separated Molniya orbits on two different spacecraft, and providing nearly continuous coverage of magnetospheric ENA emissions. The ENA imagers observe energetic neutrals produced from global ion populations, over a broad energy range (1-100 keV/u) with high angular (4∘×4∘) and time (about 1-minute) resolution. TWINS distinguishes hydrogen ENAs from oxygen ENAs. Each TWINS spacecraft also carries a Lyman- α geocoronal imager to monitor the cold exospheric hydrogen atoms that produce ENAs from ions via charge exchange. Complementing the imagers are detectors that measure the local charged particle environment around the spacecraft. During its first five years of science operations, TWINS has discovered new global properties of geospace plasmas and neutrals, fostered understanding of causal relationships, confirmed theories and predictions based on in situ data, and yielded key insights needed to improve geospace models. Analysis and modeling of TWINS data have: (1) obtained continuous (main phase through recovery) global ion spectra, (2) revealed a previously unknown local-time dependence of global pitch angle, (3) developed quantitative determination of ion fluxes from low altitude ENAs (4) determined dynamic connections between local pitch angle and global ion precipitation, (5) confirmed local-time dependence of precipitating ion temperature, (6) imaged global dynamic heating of the magnetosphere, (7) explained why the oxygen ring current survives longer into recovery than hydrogen, and (8) revealed new global exospheric density features and their influence upon ring current decay rates. Over the next several years of the solar cycle, TWINS observations of three-dimensional (3D) global ion dynamics, composition, origins and

  11. Internet Gambling in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to overview the issues, concerns and challenges relating to gambling--and more specifically internet gambling--in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: Using psychological literature, this paper outlines a number of important and inter-related areas including brief overviews of gambling and problem gambling,…

  12. Collaboration on DIII-D Five Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, S

    2003-04-01

    This document summarizes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) plan for fusion research on the DIII-D Tokamak, located at General Atomics (GA) in San Diego, California, in the time period FY04-FY08. This document is a companion document to the DIII-D Five-Year Program Plan; which hereafter will be referred to as the ''D3DPP''. The LLNL Collaboration on DIII-D is a task-driven program in which we bring to bear the full range of expertise needed to complete specific goals of plasma science research on the DIII-D facility. This document specifies our plasma performance and physics understanding goals and gives detailed plans to achieve those goals in terms of experimental leadership, code development and analysis, and diagnostic development. Our program is designed to be consistent with the long-term mission of the DIII-D program as documented in the D3DPP. The overall DIII-D Program mission is ''to establish the scientific basis for the optimization of the tokamak approach to fusion energy production''. LLNL Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) supports this mission, and we contribute to two areas of the DIII-D program: divertor physics and advanced tokamak (AT) physics. We lead or contribute to the whole cycle of research: experimental planning, diagnostic development, execution of experiments, and detailed analysis. We plan to continue this style in the next five years. DIII-D has identified three major research themes: AT physics, confinement physics, and mass transport. The LLNL program is part of the AT theme: measurement of the plasma current profile, and the mass transport theme: measurement and modeling of plasma flow. In the AT area, we have focused on the measurement and modeling of the current profile in Advanced Tokamak plasmas. The current profile, and it's effect on MHD stability of the high-{beta} ''AT'' plasma are at the heart of the DIII-D program. LLNL has played a key role in the development of the Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic. Starting

  13. Gambling onset and progression in a sample of at-risk gamblers from the general population.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Elizabeth; Tavares, Hermano; Sanches, Marcos; Pinsky, Ilana; Caetano, Raul; Zaleski, Marcos; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2014-05-30

    The goal of this study was to investigate gambling-related behavior, onset and progression in a sample of at-risk gamblers from the community. A national household survey was conducted in Brazil, covering individuals 14 years old or older. Subjects were screened for at-risk gambling, those testing positive answered a questionnaire about gambling progression, preferred games and DSM-IV pathological gambling criteria. Out of 3007 respondents, 118 were considered at-risk gamblers according to the Lie/Bet Questionnaire. According to the DSM-IV, 32.7% and 24.9% of those were considered problem and pathological gamblers, respectively. Early at-risk gamblers (onset prior to 20 years of age), were more likely to be male, to prefer non-commercially structured games, and to chase losses while gambling. Young pathological gamblers (under 35 years of age) progressed faster from regular to problem gambling (roughly 2 years) than mature pathological gamblers (12 years). Such findings had not been described before because previous reports focused mostly on clinical samples that lack young, male, early-onset gamblers. Gambling programs have not satisfactorily covered this segment of gamblers. Outreach strategies and early interventions should be provided to prevent these individuals from rapidly evolving into pathological gambling. PMID:24656520

  14. CRAB NEBULA: FIVE-YEAR OBSERVATION WITH ARGO-YBJ

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Bernardini, P.; D'Amone, A.; De Mitri, I.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Di Sciascio, G.; Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2015-01-10

    The ARGO-YBJ air shower detector monitored the Crab Nebula gamma-ray emission from 2007 November to 2013 February. The integrated signal, consisting of ∼3.3 × 10{sup 5} events, reached the statistical significance of 21.1 standard deviations. The obtained energy spectrum in the energy range 0.3-20 TeV can be described by a power law function dN/dE = I {sub 0} (E/2 TeV){sup –α}, with a flux normalization I {sub 0} = (5.2 ± 0.2) × 10{sup –12} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} TeV{sup –1} and α = 2.63 ± 0.05, corresponding to an integrated flux above 1 TeV of 1.97 × 10{sup –11} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}. The systematic error is estimated to be less than 30% for the flux normalization and 0.06 for the spectral index. Assuming a power law spectrum with an exponential cutoff dN/dE = I {sub 0} (E/2 TeV){sup –α} exp (–E/E {sub cut}), the lower limit of the cutoff energy E {sub cut} is 12 TeV, at 90% confidence level. Our extended data set allows the study of the TeV emission over long timescales. Over five years, the light curve of the Crab Nebula in 200-day bins is compatible with a steady emission with a probability of 7.3 × 10{sup –2}. A correlated analysis with Fermi-LAT data over ∼4.5 yr using the light curves of the two experiments gives a Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.56 ± 0.22. Concerning flux variations on timescales of days, a ''blind'' search for flares with a duration of 1-15 days gives no excess with a significance higher than four standard deviations. The average rate measured by ARGO-YBJ during the three most powerful flares detected by Fermi-LAT is 205 ± 91 photons day{sup –1}, consistent with the average value of 137 ± 10 day{sup –1}.

  15. ADS on WWW: Doubling Yearly for Five Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, M. J.; Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Murray, S. S.

    1998-12-01

    It is now five years since the NASA ADS Abstract Service became available on the World Wide Web, in late winter of 1994. Following the explosive growth of the service (when compared with the old propriatory network access system) in the early months of WWW service, ADS growth has settled to doubling yearly. Currently ADS users make 440,000 queries per month, and receive 8,000,000 bibliographic references and 70,000 full-text articles, as well as abstracts, citation histories, links to data, and links to other data centers. Of the 70,000 full-text articles accessed through ADS each month, already 30% are via pointers to the electronic journals. This number is certain to increase. It is difficult to determine the exact number of ADS users. We track usage by the number of unique ``cookies'' which access ADS, and by the number of unique IP addresses. There are difficulties with each technique. In addition many non-astronomers find ADS through portal sites like Yahoo, which skews the statistics. 10,000 unique cookies access the full-text articles each month, 17,000 make queries, and 30,000 visit the site. 91% of full-text users have cookies, but only 65% of site visitors. From another perspective the number of IP addresses from a single typical research site (STScI) which access the full-text data is within 5% of the number of unique cookies assiociated with full-text use from stsci.edu, and also within 5% of the number of AAS members listing an STScI address. The number of unique IP addresses from STScI which make any sort of query to ADS is 40% higher than this. Those who access the full-text average one article per day, those who make queries average two per day. We believe nearly all active astronomy researchers, as well as students and affiliated professionals use ADS on a regular basis.

  16. Twenty-Five Year Site Plan FY2013 - FY2037

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, William H.

    2012-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is the nation's premier national security science laboratory. Its mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the United States (U.S.) nuclear stockpile; reduce the threat of weapons of mass destruction, proliferation, and terrorism; and solve national problems in defense, energy, and the environment. The fiscal year (FY) 2013-2037 Twenty-Five Year Site Plan (TYSP) is a vital component for planning to meet the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) commitment to ensure the U.S. has a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent. The Laboratory also uses the TYSP as an integrated planning tool to guide development of an efficient and responsive infrastructure that effectively supports the Laboratory's missions and workforce. Emphasizing the Laboratory's core capabilities, this TYSP reflects the Laboratory's role as a prominent contributor to NNSA missions through its programs and campaigns. The Laboratory is aligned with Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) modernization activities outlined in the NNSA Strategic Plan (May 2011) which include: (1) ensuring laboratory plutonium space effectively supports pit manufacturing and enterprise-wide special nuclear materials consolidation; (2) constructing the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement Nuclear Facility (CMRR-NF); (3) establishing shared user facilities to more cost effectively manage high-value, experimental, computational and production capabilities; and (4) modernizing enduring facilities while reducing the excess facility footprint. Th is TYSP is viewed by the Laboratory as a vital planning tool to develop an effi cient and responsive infrastructure. Long range facility and infrastructure development planning are critical to assure sustainment and modernization. Out-year re-investment is essential for sustaining existing facilities, and will be re-evaluated on an annual basis. At the same

  17. Gambling in the Iranian-American Community and an Assessment of Motives: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Siani, Aaron; Campos, Michael D.; Rosenthal, Richard J.; Fong, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly half a million United States residents identify themselves as being of Iranian origin, and many in this population are of high socioeconomic status. Although games of chance have been a notable part of Iranian culture for thousands of years, there is almost no research exploring gambling in this population. The objective of this case study is to explore gambling pathology, gambling behavior, and gambling motives among Iranian-Americans using a convenience sample (N=182) at a September 2010 Iranian festival in Southern California. Of this sample, 20% (n=37) and 7% (n=13) screened positive for problem and pathological gambling, respectively. According to the Gambling Motives Questionnaire, enhancement was the preferred motive for gambling (“because you like the feeling, because it’s exciting, to get a high feeling, because it’s fun, because it makes you feel good”). Pathological gamblers showed a considerable difference in subscale scores between enhancement and either coping or social motives, and problem gamblers showed a considerable difference between enhancement and coping motives. Possible explanations for the higher prevalence of gambling disorders in this sample are discussed. Our results support the notion that underlying cultural factors play a role in the development of gambling disorders. PMID:23814531

  18. Implications of American Indian Gambling for Social Work Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momper, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1988 passage of the Indian Gaming and Regulatory Act (IGRA), American Indian tribal communities have rapidly opened up casinos. American Indian participation in recreational gambling has increased, resulting in an increase in problem and pathological gambling. However, increased revenues from gaming have significantly benefited tribes.…

  19. 78 FR 26616 - Draft NOAA Five Year Research and Development Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... NOAA Five Year Research and Development Plan AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Draft NOAA Five Year Research and Development Plan for Public Review. SUMMARY: NOAA's draft Five Year Research and Development Plan is available for...

  20. 77 FR 28355 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... identified the antidumping duty order for which a five-year review (``Sunset Review'') was being initiated.\\1\\ This notice is a correction. \\1\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 77 FR 25683 (May 1... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review; Correction AGENCY:...

  1. Pellissippi State Technical Community College Five-Year Strategic Planning Directions, 1998-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellissippi State Technical Community Coll., Knoxville, TN.

    The document contains the strategic plan for Pellissippi State Technical Community College (Tennessee). The previous five-year strategic plan, "The Pathfinder Project," was prepared in 1994 but was out of date before the end of the five-year planning cycle. To secure information for projecting new five-year strategic directions and goals for the…

  2. Five years of the Normal Oceanic Mantle (NOMan) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utada, Hisashi; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Shiobara, Hajime; Baba, Kiyoshi; Isse, Takehi; Suetsugu, Daisuke; NOMan Project Team

    2016-04-01

    The Normal Oceanic Mantle (NOMan) project was carried out for 5 years from 2010, aiming to solve two fundamental questions on the 'normal' oceanic mantle from observational approach, which are: (a) Cause of asthenosphere lubrication, and (b) Amount of water in the mantle transition zone. We selected two study areas (A and B) of similar seafloor age (about 130 and 140 Ma, respectively) in the northwestern Pacific Ocean where the mantle below is supposed to be normal. This presentation will give an overview of five years of the NOMan project, especially of its observational activities and a summary of preliminary results so far obtained. In June 2010, we deployed a small array consisting of 5 (both seismic and EM) sites and started data acquisition from area A, which we call the NOMan pilot experiment. The main observation by long-term seafloor arrays in areas A and B was started by two installation cruises carried out in November 2011 and in August 2012, deploying state-of-the-art ocean bottom seismic and electromagnetic instruments (BBOBS-NXs and EFOSs) in area A that are handled by ROV for installation and recovery. Conventional instruments (BBOBS and OBEM of free-fall/self-pop-up type) were also deployed both in areas A and B. Most of instruments of the pilot experiment were recovered by the cruise in August 2012. So-called advanced instruments (BBOBS-NXs and EFOSs) were equipped with batteries sufficient for 2 years of deployment, but conventional instruments (BBOBSs and OBEMs) only for one year or so. Therefore, we conducted a cruise by W/V Kaiyu in August 2013 to maintain the observation array by retrieving and re-deploying respective instruments. In June 2014, we conducted another W/V Kaiyu cruise, in which we recovered most of conventional instruments in area A after conducting a controlled source seismic experiment by using explosive sources. In September 2014, we completed a recovery cruise by R/V Kairei with ROV Kaiko-7000II. By these two cruises

  3. Alcohol affects video lottery terminal (VLT) gambling behaviors and cognitions differently.

    PubMed

    Ellery, Michael; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-03-01

    People frequently combine alcohol use and gambling. However, our understanding of the effects of alcohol on gambling behavior is limited, both in terms of what the effects are and how they occur. The effects of a moderately intoxicating dose of alcohol (i.e., a blood alcohol concentration of .06 g%) on the video lottery terminal (VLT) gambling behaviors and cognitions of community-recruited nonpathological (n = 30) and probable pathological gamblers (n = 30) were compared. Alcohol increased the rate of double up betting (i.e., choosing to play a bonus game, after a winning video poker hand, which involves trying to pick a higher ranked card than the dealer's card from among 5 face down cards) of probable pathological gamblers, but did not influence their irrational beliefs about VLT play. Alcohol maintained the irrational beliefs about VLT play of nonpathological gamblers, but did not influence their gambling behaviors. Results are consistent with a growing body of research finding that gambling cognitions have an equivocal role in explaining actual gambling behaviors. Potential mechanisms for the observed effects are discussed. Applied implications discussed include: educating regular VLT players about the effects of alcohol on irrational gambling cognitions; reconsidering policies and practices that make alcohol available where machine gambling takes place; and targeting even moderate alcohol use in the treatment of gambling problems. PMID:24731116

  4. On a roll: the process of initiation and cessation of problem gambling among adolescents.

    PubMed

    DiClemente, C C; Story, M; Murray, K

    2000-01-01

    As gambling becomes more accessible and acceptable in society, problems associated with gambling and gaming have begun to affect ever increasing numbers of adolescents. Although restricted from most forms of gambling by law, many adolescents are finding a path into problem gambling. Some are becoming compulsive gamblers early in their gambling career, facing a future filled with consequences and problems. Understanding the pathway or process by which these adolescents become engaged in gambling behavior and how they can extricate themselves from this addictive behavior can enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of our interventions. This article offers a perspective on the initiation and cessation of compulsive gambling using the basic elements of the process of intentional behavior change outlined in the Stages of Change from the Transtheoretical Model. The process of initiation of a problematic behavior is similar to the process of modification or cessation of a problematic behavior in terms of these stages of change. With adolescents it is important to distinguish between the process of initiation, which has implications for prevention of gambling problems, and the process of cessation, which often necessitates the assistance of treatment. Creating interventions that parallel the process of change offers the potential for personalizing and potentiating efforts to reduce the prevalence and consequences associated with compulsive or pathological and problem gambling. Application of this model to gambling behavior offers a heuristic that is intriguing and requires substantiation through rigorous research. PMID:14634317

  5. Video Lottery is the Most Harmful Form of Gambling in Canada.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, Vance Victor

    2016-06-01

    This paper summarizes the degree to which different forms of legal gambling contribute to Problem and Pathological Gambling (PPG) in Canada. Legal gambling activities were compared using meta-analysis of publicly available data concerning Canada's legal gambling industry. The majority of revenues in the decade spanning 2002-2012 were drawn from Video Lottery Terminals and casino slot machines. Population surveys indicated that three quarters of Canadians reported some form of past-year gambling participation, but most did not play Electronic Gambling Machines. Annual revenues divided by estimated numbers of participants in various gambling activities showed that Video Lottery players spent more money on average than did participants in other forms of gambling. The relative risk of PPG was higher among Video Lottery players than it was for other common forms of gambling. Results from a community study of frequent Video Lottery players showed that the risk of frequent players reporting symptoms of PPG was elevated if they reported playing weekly, spending $50 or more per session, or playing for more than an hour per session. These studies provide converging evidence that Video Lottery is more hazardous to consumers than other forms of gambling that are commonly practised in Canada. PMID:26233645

  6. A Gamblers Clustering Based on Their Favorite Gambling Activity.

    PubMed

    Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Renard, Noëlle; Legauffre, Cindy; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Gorsane, Mohamed-Ali; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify profiles of gamblers to explain the choice of preferred gambling activity among both problem and non-problem gamblers. 628 non-problem and problem gamblers were assessed with a structured interview including "healthy" (sociodemographic characteristics, gambling habits and personality profile assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory-125) and "pathological" [diagnosis of pathological gambling, gambling-related cognitions (GRCs) and psychiatric comorbidity] variables. We performed a two-step cluster analysis based solely on "healthy" variables to identify gamblers' profiles which typically reflect the choice of preferred gambling activity. The obtained classes were then described using both "healthy" and "pathological" variables, by comparing each class to the rest of the sample. Clusters were generated. Class 1 (Electronic Gaming Machines gamblers) showed high cooperativeness, a lower level of GRC about strategy and more depressive disorders. Class 2 (games with deferred results gamblers) were high novelty seekers and showed a higher level of GRC about strategy and more addictive disorders. Class 3 (roulette gamblers) were more often high rollers and showed a higher level of GRC about strategy and more manic or hypomanic episodes and more obsessive-compulsive disorders. Class 4 (instant lottery gamblers) showed a lower tendency to suicide attempts. Class 5 (scratch cards gamblers) were high harm avoiders and showed a lower overall level of GRC and more panic attacks and eating disorders. The preference for one particular gambling activity may concern different profiles of gamblers. This study highlights the importance of considering the pair gambler-game rather than one or the other separately, and may provide support for future research on gambling and preventive actions directed toward a particular game. PMID:25192752

  7. Impulsive Action but Not Impulsive Choice Determines Problem Gambling Severity

    PubMed Central

    Brevers, Damien; Cleeremans, Axel; Verbruggen, Frederick; Bechara, Antoine; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Background Impulsivity is a hallmark of problem gambling. However, impulsivity is not a unitary construct and this study investigated the relationship between problem gambling severity and two facets of impulsivity: impulsive action (impaired ability to withhold a motor response) and impulsive choice (abnormal aversion for the delay of reward). Methods The recruitment includes 65 problem gamblers and 35 normal control participants. On the basis of DSM-IV-TR criteria, two groups of gamblers were distinguished: problem gamblers (n = 38) and pathological gamblers (n = 27) with similar durations of gambling practice. Impulsive action was assessed using a response inhibition task (the stop-signal task). Impulsive choice was estimated with the delay-discounting task. Possible confounds (e.g., IQ, mood, ADHD symptoms) were recorded. Results Both problem and pathological gamblers discounted reward at a higher rate than their controls, but only pathological gamblers showed abnormally low performance on the most demanding condition of the stop-signal task. None of the potential confounds covaried with these results. Conclusions These results suggest that, whereas abnormal impulsive choice characterizes all problem gamblers, pathological gamblers' impairments in impulsive action may represent an important developmental pathway of pathological gambling. PMID:23209796

  8. Prosthetic Rehabilitation of a Patient With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Five-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Moretto, G; Pupo, Y M; Bueno, Aln; Araujo, F O

    2016-01-01

    Tooth wear is a multifactorial process that is a growing concern in dentistry. This phenomenon can be caused by mechanical (attrition, abrasion, or abfraction) or chemical (erosion) processes. Etiologic factors in dental erosion can be due to changes in behavior, an unbalanced diet, or gastrointestinal disorders such as acid regurgitation, which may influence the salivary flow rate and buffering capacity of saliva. This case report describes an esthetic rehabilitation of a patient with gastroesophageal reflux and dental erosion, with a treatment rationale that includes the use of a diagnostic template and five-year follow-up. This technique, presented here in a clinical case with moderate enamel loss, integrates an additive wax-up and a direct intraoral bis-acryl resin mock-up. Lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) laminate veneers were fabricated with the heatpress technique. They were veneered with a layering ceramic (IPS e.max Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent) to improve the appearance of the incisal edge. The case demonstrated the success of veneers as an effective, conservative, and esthetic treatment for patients with this pathology. PMID:26449592

  9. Female Pathological Gamblers--A Critical Review of the Clinical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Dahl, Alv A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that more and more women gamble and develop gambling problems and pathological gambling (PG). Research has further indicated that female and male PGs differ in their clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to do a critical review of the literature concerning clinical characteristics of female pathological…

  10. Exploring College Student Gambling Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lostutter, Ty W.; Cronce, Jessica M.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2006-01-01

    The present research combined qualitative and quantitative approaches in examining gambling motives among college student gamblers. A comprehensive set of 16 gambling motives was identified by categorizing 762 open-ended reasons for gambling, provided by 184 college student gamblers. Results revealed that most college students gamble to win money, for fun, for social reasons, for excitement, or just to have something to do. Overall, the results suggest the need for an eclectic biopsychosocial approach with regard to etiology of college student gambling. PMID:12514915