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Sample records for pathologist assessment compared

  1. Inter-observer reproducibility of HER2 immunohistochemical assessment and concordance with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH): pathologist assessment compared to quantitative image analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In breast cancer patients, HER2 overexpression is routinely assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and equivocal cases are subject to fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Our study compares HER2 scoring by histopathologists with automated quantitation of staining, and determines the concordance of IHC scores with FISH results. Methods A tissue microarray was constructed from 1,212 invasive breast carcinoma cases with linked treatment and outcome information. IHC slides were semi-quantitatively scored by two independent pathologists on a range of 0 to 3+, and also analyzed with an Ariol automated system by two operators. 616 cases were scorable by both IHC and FISH. Results Using data from unequivocal positive (3+) or negative (0, 1+) results, both visual and automated scores were highly consistent: there was excellent concordance between two pathologists (kappa = 1.000, 95% CI: 1-1), between two machines (kappa = 1.000, 95% CI: 1-1), and between both visual and both machine scores (kappa = 0.898, 95% CI: 0.775–0.979). Two pathologists successfully distinguished negative, positive and equivocal cases (kappa = 0.929, 95% CI: 0.909–0.946), with excellent agreement with machine 1 scores (kappa = 0.835, 95% CI: 0.806–0.862; kappa = 0.837, 95% CI: 0.81–0.862), and good agreement with machine 2 scores (kappa = 0.698, 95% CI: 0.6723–0.723; kappa = 0.709, 95% CI: 0.684–0.732), whereas the two machines showed good agreement (kappa = 0.806, 95% CI: 0.785–0.826). When comparing categorized IHC scores and FISH results, the agreement was excellent for visual 1 (kappa = 0.814, 95% CI: 0.768–0.856), good for visual 2 (kappa = 0.763, 95% CI: 0.712–0.81) and machine 1 (kappa = 0.665, 95% CI: 0.609–0.718), and moderate for machine 2 (kappa = 0.535, 95% CI: 0.485–0.584). Conclusion A fully automated image analysis system run by an experienced operator can provide results consistent with visual HER2 scoring. Further development of such systems will

  2. Speech-language pathologists' beliefs about language assessment of bilingual/bicultural individuals.

    PubMed

    Kritikos, Effie Papoutsis

    2003-02-01

    A survey of speech/language pathologists, in 5 states across the United States was conducted to determine their beliefs about the language assessment of bilingual/bicultural individuals. Most SLPs reported low efficacy in bilingual assessment for both their own skills (personal efficacy) and those of the field in general (general efficacy). SLPs who learned a second language in the context of cultural experience (the CE group) reported more personal efficacy in bilingual assessment than speech-language pathologists who learned a second language via academic study (the AS group), who in turn felt more competent than monolingual SLPs (the M group). Furthermore, the 3 groups of respondents differed in terms of attributions for their low personal efficacy. The M group was most likely to mention their lack of knowledge about bilingual issues, the AS group commented on their less than optimal language proficiency, and the CE group focused on both proficiency and experience as influences. Over half of all participants (52%) reported that bilingual input in a child's environment would influence their interpretation of that child's language assessment results. Most of these participants (40%) reported that they would be more conservative in recommending language therapy for a bilingual than a monolingual child, particularly due to the respondent's own lack of knowledge of bilingual issues. Implications regarding the relations between language learning experiences and beliefs about the assessment of bilingual/bicultural individuals among SLPs are discussed. PMID:12680815

  3. Speech-Language Pathologists' Assessment Practices for Children with Suspected Speech Sound Disorders: Results of a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skahan, Sarah M.; Watson, Maggie; Lof, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined assessment procedures used by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) when assessing children suspected of having speech sound disorders (SSD). This national survey also determined the information participants obtained from clients' speech samples, evaluation of non-native English speakers, and time spent on assessment.…

  4. Tools Clinicians Use: A Survey of Language Assessment Procedures Used by School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caesar, Lena G.; Kohler, Paula D.

    2009-01-01

    This study used a mail survey to gather information from 409 school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the state of Michigan regarding the types of language assessment procedures they employed when assessing children's language skills. Descriptive data regarding respondents' demographic, caseload, and employment characteristics were also…

  5. Speech-language pathologists' contribution to the assessment of decision-making capacity in aphasia: a survey of common practices.

    PubMed

    Aldous, Kerryn; Tolmie, Rhiannon; Worrall, Linda; Ferguson, Alison

    2014-06-01

    Speech-language pathologists' scope of practice is currently unclear in relation to their contribution to the multi-disciplinary assessment of decision-making capacity for clients with aphasia and related neurogenic communication disorders. The primary aim of the current research study was to investigate the common practices of speech-language pathologists involved in assessments of decision-making capacity. The study was completed through the use of an online survey. There were 51 of 59 respondents who indicated involvement in evaluations of decision-making. Involvement in this kind of assessment was most commonly reported by speech-language pathologists working in inpatient acute and rehabilitation settings. Respondents reported using a variety of formal and informal assessment methods in their contributions to capacity assessment. Discussion with multidisciplinary team members was reported to have the greatest influence on their recommendations. Speech-language pathologists reported that they were dissatisfied with current protocols for capacity assessments in their workplace and indicated they would benefit from further education and training in this area. The findings of this study are discussed in light of their implications for speech-language pathology practice. PMID:24400775

  6. Assessment and Treatment of Working Memory Deficits in School-Age Children: The Role of the Speech-Language Pathologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Donna; Costanza-Smith, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To review research addressing the relationship of working memory (WM) to language development and academic functioning and to consider the role of the speech-language pathologist (SLP) in assessment and intervention of WM difficulties in school-age children. Method: Aspects of WM critical to language acquisition and academic success are…

  7. Biospecimens and Biorepositories for the Community Pathologist

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Rajesh C.; Robb, James A.; Booker, David L.; Foo, Wen-Chi; Witte, David L.; Bry, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Pathologists have long served as custodians of human biospecimens collected for diagnostic purposes. Rapid advancements in diagnostic technologies require that pathologists change their practices to optimize patient care. The proper handling of biospecimens creates opportunities for pathologists to improve their diagnoses while assessing prognosis and treatment. In addition, the growing need for high-quality biorepositories represents an opportunity for community pathologists to strengthen their role within the health care team, ensuring that clinical care is not compromised while facilitating research. This article provides a resource to community pathologists learning how to create high-quality biorepositories and participating in emerging opportunities in the biorepository field. While a variety of topics are covered to provide breadth of information, the intent is to facilitate a level of understanding that permits community pathologists to make more informed choices in identifying how best their skills and practice may be augmented to address developments in this field. PMID:22646276

  8. Implications of Variability in Clinical Bedside Swallowing Assessment Practices by Speech Language Pathologists.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Sue; Kruger, Samantha; Doeltgen, Sebastian; Tyler-Boltrek, Emma

    2016-10-01

    Speech language pathology (SLP) clinical bedside swallowing assessments (CBSA) are a cornerstone of quality care for patients in acute hospitals who have dysphagia. The CBSA informs clinical diagnosis and decisions regarding further instrumental assessment, and is used to develop a management plan and monitor progress. However, self-report and retrospective research shows that SLPs are highly variable in their use of assessment components considered by experts to be important for quality CBSA, casting doubt on the validity and reliability of CBSA. This prospective study describes the components included by SLPs when designing a standardised evidence based dysphagia assessment protocol for acute care patients and observed patterns of component use. The findings confirm that SLPs use the CBSA for multiple purposes beyond diagnosis of aspiration risk and dysphagia presence/severity. They are highly variable in their use of certain components, but also demonstrate consistent use of a core set. It is apparent that SLPs prioritise the application of clinical reasoning to tailor their CBSA to the patient over following a highly structured item-based protocol. The variability in component use likely reflects a complex clinical reasoning process that draws on a wide variety of information combined with expert knowledge as is also observed in many other medical specialties. Rather than promoting the standardisation of CBSA protocols that constrain SLP practice to strict item-based assessment protocols, consideration should be given to promoting the value and facilitating the clinical reasoning process that supports the utility of the CBSA for diagnosis, patient centred management and treatment planning. PMID:27405423

  9. Frozen Section Interpretation of Pancreatic Margins: Subspecialized Gastrointestinal Pathologists Versus General Pathologists.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Jun; Smith-Chakmakova, Faye; Rassaei, Negar; Han, Bing; Enomoto, Laura M; Crist, Henry; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Karamchandani, Dipti M

    2016-04-01

    Intraoperative assessment of pancreatic parenchymal margin during pancreatectomies is challenging and misinterpretation by the pathologist is a cause of incorrect frozen section (FS) diagnosis. Although the current literature supports that pancreatic margin FS diagnosis and its accuracy has no impact on the patient outcome for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients and reexcision in an attempt to achieve a negative intraoperative pancreatic margin after positive FS is not associated with increased overall survival; still it remains a routine practice in many institutions. To this end, we sought to assess the interobserver variation and accuracy of FS diagnosis between subspecialized gastrointestinal/pancreatobiliary (GI) and general pathologists. Seventy seven consecutive pancreatic parenchymal margin FSs performed on pancreatectomies for PDAC from 2010 to 2013 were retrieved at our institution. These were retrospectively evaluated by 2 GI and 2 general pathologists independently without knowledge of the original FS diagnosis or the final diagnosis. The specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of GI versus general pathologist was 97.8% versus 87.5%, 61.1% versus 66.7%, 78.6% versus 41.4%, 95% versus 95.2%, and 93.5% versus 85.1%, respectively. The interobserver agreement between GI and general pathologists was fair (κ = .337, P < .001). The interobserver agreement between 2 GI pathologists was fair (κ = .373, P = .0005) and between 2 general pathologists was slight (κ = .195, P = .042). Although overall accuracy of subspecialized GI pathologists was higher than that of general pathologists, none had an accuracy of 100%. Our study reaffirms the challenging nature of these FSs. PMID:26378055

  10. [Challenges for pathologists in clinical laboratory medicine].

    PubMed

    Tezuka, F

    2001-06-01

    The number of pathologists in hospitals has been increasing and they are responsible for both surgical pathology and clinical laboratory medicine. In the future they will also play important roles in the modernized reform of the central laboratory as it establishes its own importance in improving the quality and safety of medical activities. As a pathologist, the author reports on challenges faced since assuming the present directorship of the department of laboratory medicine in 1995 including (a) establishing a decision-making system in collaboration with technologists, (b) improving expertise in the department through joining a variety of seminars, conferences and research activities, (c) publishing an annual department report, and (d) introducing both internal and external quality assessment. In the future, for young pathologists training in both pathology and laboratory medicine will be essential. PMID:11452548

  11. "Score the Core" Web-based pathologist training tool improves the accuracy of breast cancer IHC4 scoring.

    PubMed

    Engelberg, Jesse A; Retallack, Hanna; Balassanian, Ronald; Dowsett, Mitchell; Zabaglo, Lila; Ram, Arishneel A; Apple, Sophia K; Bishop, John W; Borowsky, Alexander D; Carpenter, Philip M; Chen, Yunn-Yi; Datnow, Brian; Elson, Sarah; Hasteh, Farnaz; Lin, Fritz; Moatamed, Neda A; Zhang, Yanhong; Cardiff, Robert D

    2015-11-01

    Hormone receptor status is an integral component of decision-making in breast cancer management. IHC4 score is an algorithm that combines hormone receptor, HER2, and Ki-67 status to provide a semiquantitative prognostic score for breast cancer. High accuracy and low interobserver variance are important to ensure the score is accurately calculated; however, few previous efforts have been made to measure or decrease interobserver variance. We developed a Web-based training tool, called "Score the Core" (STC) using tissue microarrays to train pathologists to visually score estrogen receptor (using the 300-point H score), progesterone receptor (percent positive), and Ki-67 (percent positive). STC used a reference score calculated from a reproducible manual counting method. Pathologists in the Athena Breast Health Network and pathology residents at associated institutions completed the exercise. By using STC, pathologists improved their estrogen receptor H score and progesterone receptor and Ki-67 proportion assessment and demonstrated a good correlation between pathologist and reference scores. In addition, we collected information about pathologist performance that allowed us to compare individual pathologists and measures of agreement. Pathologists' assessment of the proportion of positive cells was closer to the reference than their assessment of the relative intensity of positive cells. Careful training and assessment should be used to ensure the accuracy of breast biomarkers. This is particularly important as breast cancer diagnostics become increasingly quantitative and reproducible. Our training tool is a novel approach for pathologist training that can serve as an important component of ongoing quality assessment and can improve the accuracy of breast cancer prognostic biomarkers. PMID:26410019

  12. Support system for pathologists and researchers

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Takumi; Takahashi, Junko; Kasai, Mai; Shiina, Takayuki; Iijima, Yuka; Takemura, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Kuwata, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Aims: In Japan, cancer is the most prevalent cause of death; the number of patients suffering from cancer is increasing. Hence, there is an increased burden on pathologists to make diagnoses. To reduce pathologists’ burden, researchers have developed methods of auto-pathological diagnosis. However, virtual slides, which are created when glass slides are digitally scanned, saved in a unique format, and it is difficult for researchers to work on the virtual slides for developing their own image processing method. This paper presents the support system for pathologists and researchers who use auto-pathological diagnosis (P-SSD). Main purpose of P-SSD was to support both of pathologists and researchers. P-SSD consists of several sub-functions that make it easy not only for pathologists to screen pathological images, double-check their diagnoses, and reduce unimportant image data but also for researchers to develop and apply their original image-processing techniques to pathological images. Methods: We originally developed P-SSD to support both pathologists and researchers developing auto-pathological diagnoses systems. Current version of P-SSD consists of five main functions as follows: (i) Loading virtual slides, (ii) making a supervised database, (iii) learning image features, (iv) detecting cancerous areas, (v) displaying results of detection. Results: P-SSD reduces computer memory size random access memory utilization and the processing time required to divide the virtual slides into the smaller-size images compared with other similar software. The maximum observed reduction in computer memory size and reduction in processing time is 97% and 99.94%, respectively. Conclusions: Unlike other vendor-developed software, P-SSD has interoperability and is capable of handling virtual slides in several formats. Therefore, P-SSD can support both of pathologists and researchers, and has many potential applications in both pathological diagnosis and research area. PMID

  13. Radiographs interpretation by forensic pathologists: a word of warning.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Célia; Racette, Stéphanie; Marton, Dominique; Sauvageau, Anny

    2008-12-01

    In child deaths investigation, radiologic examination is particularly important in the diagnosis of child abuse. In the province of Quebec, Canada, all autopsies for suspicious deaths are performed at a centralized forensic laboratory where, because of budget restrictions, forensic pathologists rely on their own knowledge for radiographs interpretations. To assess the validity of this radiologic examination by nonradiologist forensic specialist, we reviewed all cases of child death on a 1-year period. A total of 20 cases were reviewed by an experienced pediatric radiologist, and this interpretation was compared with pathologist's conclusions. Forensic pathologists missed an important finding in 3 positive cases. Yet, none of those missed findings would have significantly changed the cases outcome, because other autopsy findings had already oriented the final diagnosis. Nevertheless, this result is alarming. In a general context of financing problems, it can be appealing to management team to restrict access to external consultants. This study is important in reminding that such money savings do not come without a decrease in quality. PMID:19259012

  14. Adelaide's blackbirding pathologist.

    PubMed

    Allen, P W

    1998-06-01

    Archibald Watson (1849-1940) was the inaugural Elder Professor of Anatomy at the University of Adelaide. He held the position from 1885 to 1919, having previously trained in Gottingen, Paris, and London under some of the most eminent physicians of those times. Before he started his medical studies, he, Dr James Patrick Murray, and several others were involved in the kidnapping ("blackbirding") of Pacific Islanders (Kanakas) to work on South Sea cotton plantations. A number of the victims were killed. Watson and two others were charged with murder and remanded in Levuka to appear in Sydney. Watson absconded, traveled to Europe, and never stood trial; the other two were convicted and sentenced to death. Watson's life as an anatomist, surgeon, pathologist, member of the Adelaide Club, world traveler, Australian Army doctor during the Boer War and World War I, fisherman, and motorcyclist was full of interest and incidents. The events surrounding the autopsy he performed on a case of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva and the subsequent preservation of the skeleton in the Anatomy Museum of the University of Adelaide are described. PMID:9845740

  15. Comparative Judgement for Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Alastair

    2012-01-01

    Historically speaking, students were judged long before they were marked. The tradition of marking, or scoring, pieces of work students offer for assessment is little more than two centuries old, and was introduced mainly to cope with specific problems arising from the growth in the numbers graduating from universities as the industrial revolution…

  16. Poor agreement between endoscopists and gastrointestinal pathologists for the interpretation of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy findings

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Shajan; Council, Leona; Bang, Ji Young; Neumann, Helmut; Mönkemüller, Klaus; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Wilcox, Charles Melbern

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare the interpretation of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) findings between endoscopists and gastrointestinal (GI)-pathologists. METHODS: All pCLE procedures were undertaken and the endoscopist rendered assessment. The same pCLE videos were then viewed offline by an expert GI pathologist. Histopathology was considered the gold standard for definitive diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosis of dysplastic/ neoplastic GI lesions and interobserver agreement between endoscopists and experienced gastrointestinal pathologist for pCLE findings were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 66 included patients, 40 (60.6%) had lesions in the esophagus, 7 (10.6%) in the stomach, 15 (22.7%) in the biliary tract, 3 (4.5%) in the ampulla and 1 (1.5%) in the colon. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosing dysplastic/neoplastic lesions using pCLE were higher for endoscopists than pathologist at 87.0% vs 69.6%, 80.0% vs 40.0% and 84.8% vs 60.6% (P = 0.0003), respectively. Area under the ROC curve (AUC) was greater for endoscopists than the pathologist (0.83 vs 0.55, P = 0.0001). Overall agreement between endoscopists and pathologist was moderate for all GI lesions (K = 0.43; 95%CI: 0.26-0.61), luminal lesions (K = 0.40; 95%CI: 0.20-0.60) and those of dysplastic/neoplastic pathology (K = 0.55; 95%CI: 0.37-0.72), the agreement was poor for benign (K = 0.13; 95%CI: -0.097-0.36) and pancreaticobiliary lesions (K = 0.19; 95%CI: -0.26-0.63). CONCLUSION: There is a wide discrepancy in the interpretation of pCLE findings between endoscopists and pathologist, particularly for benign and malignant pancreaticobiliary lesions. Further studies are needed to identify the cause of this poor agreement. PMID:25548499

  17. Postmortem Body and Organ Measurements in Neonates and Infants: A Review of Reference Resources Used by Ontario Pathologists (Part 1).

    PubMed

    Evetts, Audrey-Ann Marie; Shkrum, Michael J; Tugaleva, Elena

    2016-09-01

    It is common practice in pediatric autopsies to compare the body and organ measurements of the deceased child against the existing reference data. Although a number of resources are available, many are outdated and have significant limitations. The goal of this study was to assess the reference sources currently used by the Ontario pathologists in pediatric autopsies. A survey of 14 Ontario pathologists, who do coroners' pediatric autopsies, identified 20 publications commonly referenced for body and organ measurements. Of all the cited sources, only a few had all the features regarded by the pathologists as ideal for a reference source. These features included accessibility to the source, large sample size, defined control populations, statistical analyses, and sex distinctions. The results of this study will be used to guide the development of a new reference, based on Ontario data, that will enhance measurement standards in pediatric autopsy practice. PMID:27438787

  18. Training pathologists in mouse pathology.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, J P; Ward, J M; HogenEsch, H; Nikitin, A Yu; Treuting, P M; Macauley, J B; Schofield, P N

    2012-03-01

    Expertise in the pathology of mice has expanded from traditional regulatory and drug safety screening (toxicologic pathology) primarily performed by veterinary pathologists to the highly specialized area of mouse research pathobiology performed by veterinary and medical pathologists encompassing phenotyping of mutant mice and analysis of research experiments exploiting inbred mouse strains and genetically engineered lines. With increasing use of genetically modified mice in research, mouse pathobiology and, by extension, expert mouse research-oriented pathologists have become integral to the success of basic and translational biomedical research. Training for today's research-oriented mouse pathologist must go beyond knowledge of anatomic features of mice and strain-specific background diseases to the specialized genetic nomenclature, husbandry, and genetics, including the methodology of genetic engineering and complex trait analysis. While training can be accomplished through apprenticeships in formal programs, these are often heavily service related and do not provide the necessary comprehensive training. Specialty courses and short-term mentoring with expert specialists are opportunities that, when combined with active practice and publication, will lead to acquisition of the skills required for cutting-edge mouse-based experimental science. PMID:20817889

  19. Occupational health risks of pathologists - results from a nationwide online questionnaire in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pathologists are highly trained medical professionals who play an essential part in the diagnosis and therapy planning of malignancies and inflammatory diseases. Their work is associated with potential health hazards including injuries involving infectious human tissue, chemicals which are assumed to be carcinogenic or long periods of microscope and computer work. This study aimed to provide the first comprehensive assessment of the health situation of pathologists in Switzerland. Methods Pathologists in Switzerland were contacted via the Swiss Society of Pathologists and asked to answer an ethically approved, online anonymous questionnaire comprising 48 questions on occupational health problems, workplace characteristics and health behaviour. Results 163 pathologists participated in the study. Forty percent of pathologists reported musculoskeletal problems in the previous month. The overall prevalence was 76%. Almost 90% of pathologists had visual refraction errors, mainly myopia. 83% of pathologists had experienced occupational injuries, mostly cutting injuries, in their professional career; more than one fifth of participants reported cutting injuries in the last year. However, long lasting injuries and infectious diseases were rare. Depression and burnout affected every eighth pathologist. The prevalence of smoking was substantially below that of the general Swiss population. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that more care should be taken in technical and personal protective measures, ergonomic workplace optimisation and reduction of work overload and work inefficiencies. Despite the described health risks, Swiss pathologists were optimistic about their future and their working situation. The high rate of ametropia and psychological problems warrants further study. PMID:23216705

  20. A pathologist׳s perspective on the perinatal autopsy.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Linda M

    2015-02-01

    The perinatal autopsy is an important tool in the investigation of fetal and neonatal death, and a complete understanding of its risks and benefits is necessary for providers of perinatal care. This review, from the perspective of a perinatal pathologist, reports the details of the autopsy procedure, its goals, its value to individual patients and the health care system in general, and its alternatives. Even with new emerging technologies, the conventional perinatal autopsy remains the gold standard for determining the cause of death and the final summary of all pathologic findings. Therefore, the information provided in this review can help providers properly convey information about perinatal autopsy to bereaved families. PMID:25511296

  1. The Changing Role of Speech-Language Pathologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karr, Susan T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Once limited to correcting articulation and lisps, speech-language pathologists now work with students with wide-ranging disabilities and educational needs. Principals should support their efforts to help teachers integrate speech and language goals with students' academic objectives, conduct screening and diagnostic assessments, develop…

  2. Modeling complexity in pathologist workload measurement: the Automatable Activity-Based Approach to Complexity Unit Scoring (AABACUS).

    PubMed

    Cheung, Carol C; Torlakovic, Emina E; Chow, Hung; Snover, Dale C; Asa, Sylvia L

    2015-03-01

    Pathologists provide diagnoses relevant to the disease state of the patient and identify specific tissue characteristics relevant to response to therapy and prognosis. As personalized medicine evolves, there is a trend for increased demand of tissue-derived parameters. Pathologists perform increasingly complex analyses on the same 'cases'. Traditional methods of workload assessment and reimbursement, based on number of cases sometimes with a modifier (eg, the relative value unit (RVU) system used in the United States), often grossly underestimate the amount of work needed for complex cases and may overvalue simple, small biopsy cases. We describe a new approach to pathologist workload measurement that aligns with this new practice paradigm. Our multisite institution with geographically diverse partner institutions has developed the Automatable Activity-Based Approach to Complexity Unit Scoring (AABACUS) model that captures pathologists' clinical activities from parameters documented in departmental laboratory information systems (LISs). The model's algorithm includes: 'capture', 'export', 'identify', 'count', 'score', 'attribute', 'filter', and 'assess filtered results'. Captured data include specimen acquisition, handling, analysis, and reporting activities. Activities were counted and complexity units (CUs) generated using a complexity factor for each activity. CUs were compared between institutions, practice groups, and practice types and evaluated over a 5-year period (2008-2012). The annual load of a clinical service pathologist, irrespective of subspecialty, was ∼40,000 CUs using relative benchmarking. The model detected changing practice patterns and was appropriate for monitoring clinical workload for anatomical pathology, neuropathology, and hematopathology in academic and community settings, and encompassing subspecialty and generalist practices. AABACUS is objective, can be integrated with an LIS and automated, is reproducible, backwards compatible

  3. Regulatory Forum Opinion Piece*: Veterinary Pathologists in Translational Pharmacology and Biomarker Integration in Drug Discovery and Development.

    PubMed

    Ramaiah, Shashi K; Walker, Dana B

    2016-02-01

    This article highlights emerging roles for veterinary pathologists outside of traditional functions and in line with the translational research (TR) approach. Veterinary pathologists offer unique and valuable expertise toward addressing particular TR and associated translational pharmacology questions, identifying gaps and risks in biomarker and pathology strategies, and advancing TR team decision making. Veterinary pathologists' attributes that are integral to the TR approach include (i) well-developed understanding of comparative physiology, pathology, and disease; (ii) extensive experience in interpretation and integration of complex data sets on whole-body responses and utilizing this for deciphering pathogenesis and translating events between laboratory species and man; (iii) proficiency in recognizing differences in disease end points among individuals, animal species and strains, and assessing correlations between these differences and other investigative (including biomarker) findings; and (iv) strong background in a wide spectrum of research technologies that can address pathomechanistic questions and biomarker needs. Some of the more evident roles in which veterinary pathologists can offer their greatest contributions to address questions and strategies of TR and biomarker integration will be emphasized. PMID:26839329

  4. Training speech pathologists through microtherapy.

    PubMed

    Irwin, R B

    1981-03-01

    Two microtraining methods were evaluated for training speech pathologists in the acquisition of skills utilized in treating misarticulations. Fifteen subjects in an introductory class in speech pathology were randomly placed in two groups (modeling, video replay, and counseling versus video replay and counseling). The training included reading a manual about the skills and a sequence of three teach sessions. The control group did not view the video model. According to the results, the model group made a greater gain score (M = 8.38) than the nonmodel group (M = 3.88). Significant gains were made for both experimental groups between teach sessions one and two, but no significant gains were made between the second and third teach sessions. PMID:7019270

  5. An experimental study of pathologist's navigation patterns in virtual microscopy.

    PubMed

    Roa-Peña, Lucia; Gómez, Francisco; Romero, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    In virtual microscopy, a sequential process of captures of microscopical fields, allows to construct a virtual slide which is visualized using a specialized software, called the virtual microscopy viewer. This tool allows useful exploration of images, composed of thousands of microscopical fields of view at different levels of magnification, emulating an actual microscopical examination. The aim of this study was to establish the main pathologist's navigation patterns when exploring virtual microscopy slides, using a graphical user interface, adapted to the pathologist's workflow. Four pathologists with a similar level of experience, graduated from the same pathology program, navigated six virtual slides. Different issues were evaluated, namely, the percentage of common visited image regions, the time spent at each and its coincidence level, that is to say, the region of interest location. In addition, navigation patterns were also assessed, i.e., mouse movement velocities and linearity of the diagnostic paths. Results suggest that regions of interest are determined by a complex combination of the visited area, the time spent at each visit and the coincidence level among pathologists. Additionally, linear trajectories and particular velocity patterns were found for the registered diagnostic paths. PMID:21087502

  6. An experimental study of pathologist's navigation patterns in virtual microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In virtual microscopy, a sequential process of captures of microscopical fields, allows to construct a virtual slide which is visualized using a specialized software, called the virtual microscopy viewer. This tool allows useful exploration of images, composed of thousands of microscopical fields of view at different levels of magnification, emulating an actual microscopical examination. The aim of this study was to establish the main pathologist's navigation patterns when exploring virtual microscopy slides, using a graphical user interface, adapted to the pathologist's workflow. Four pathologists with a similar level of experience, graduated from the same pathology program, navigated six virtual slides. Different issues were evaluated, namely, the percentage of common visited image regions, the time spent at each and its coincidence level, that is to say, the region of interest location. In addition, navigation patterns were also assessed, i.e., mouse movement velocities and linearity of the diagnostic paths. Results suggest that regions of interest are determined by a complex combination of the visited area, the time spent at each visit and the coincidence level among pathologists. Additionally, linear trajectories and particular velocity patterns were found for the registered diagnostic paths. PMID:21087502

  7. REGIONAL SCALE COMPARATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) is an approach to regional-scale ecological risk assessment that is currently under development by EPA's Office of Research and Development. The pilot assessment will be done for the mid-Atlantic region and builds on data collected for th...

  8. Activity-based differentiation of pathologists' workload in surgical pathology.

    PubMed

    Meijer, G A; Oudejans, J J; Koevoets, J J M; Meijer, C J L M

    2009-06-01

    Adequate budget control in pathology practice requires accurate allocation of resources. Any changes in types and numbers of specimens handled or protocols used will directly affect the pathologists' workload and consequently the allocation of resources. The aim of the present study was to develop a model for measuring the pathologists' workload that can take into account the changes mentioned above. The diagnostic process was analyzed and broken up into separate activities. The time needed to perform these activities was measured. Based on linear regression analysis, for each activity, the time needed was calculated as a function of the number of slides or blocks involved. The total pathologists' time required for a range of specimens was calculated based on standard protocols and validated by comparing to actually measured workload. Cutting up, microscopic procedures and dictating turned out to be highly correlated to number of blocks and/or slides per specimen. Calculated workload per type of specimen was significantly correlated to the actually measured workload. Modeling pathologists' workload based on formulas that calculate workload per type of specimen as a function of the number of blocks and slides provides a basis for a comprehensive, yet flexible, activity-based costing system for pathology. PMID:19399515

  9. Veterinary clinical pathologists in the biopharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Schultze, A Eric; Bounous, Denise I; Bolliger, Anne Provencher

    2008-06-01

    There is an international shortage of veterinary clinical pathologists in the workplace. Current trainees in veterinary clinical pathology may choose to pursue careers in academe, diagnostic laboratories, government health services, biopharmaceutical companies, or private practice. Academic training programs attempt to provide trainees with an exposure to several career choices. However, due to the proprietary nature of much of the work in the biopharmaceutical industry, trainees may not be fully informed regarding the nature of work for veterinary clinical pathologists and the myriad opportunities that await employment in the biopharmaceutical industry. The goals of this report are to provide trainees in veterinary clinical pathology and other laboratory personnel with an overview of the work-life of veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry, and to raise the profile of this career choice for those seeking to enter the workforce. Biographical sketches, job descriptions, and motivation for 3 successful veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry are provided. Current and past statistics for veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry are reviewed. An overview of the drug development process and involvement of veterinary clinical pathologists in the areas of discovery, lead optimization, and candidate evaluation are discussed. Additional duties for veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry include development of biomarkers and new technologies, service as scientific resources, diagnostic support services, and laboratory management responsibilities. There are numerous opportunities available for trainees in veterinary clinical pathology to pursue employment in the biopharmaceutical industry and enjoy challenging and rewarding careers. PMID:18533913

  10. Culturally/Linguistically Different Children: Report Writing Guidelines for Speech-Language Pathologists [and] Summary of Project Communicate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloff, Rose-Laurie; Martinez, Silvia

    Guidelines for writing assessments of the English language skills of minority, bilingual, preschool and elementary school children are presented for monolingual speech-language pathologists. In addition, a project (Project Communicate) providing direct client services and training of speech-language pathologists is briefly described. With regard…

  11. Comparative energy storage assessment item

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giudici, B.

    1984-01-01

    This analysis, a Space Station application study, rediscovered Integrated Power and Attitude Control (IPAC) and found the approach to have lower initial and resupply weight and lower initial and resupply cost than either battery/CMG or regenerative fuel cell/CMG systems. Preliminary trade studies were performed comparing (IPAC) with equivalent independent electrochemical power and control moment gyro (CMG) control approaches. Technologies considered to have adequate status for an initial Space Station were: (1) nickel cadmium batteries (NiCd batteries), (2) regenerative fuel cells (RFC), (3) Skylab class CMG's, and (4) state of the art IPAC using metal wheels and ball bearing suspension (SOA-IPAC). An advanced IPAC (ADV-IPAC) employing composite rotor material and magnetic suspension was included in the comparisons to illustrate a possible range of performance and cost of inertial systems. The candidates were compared on the basis of initial weight and cost and on the basis of resupply weight and cost for a 15 year mission. Thus, SOA-IPAC would appear to be an attractive approach for the initial Space Station and possible technology improvements would further the appeal for the initial and/or growth Space Station.

  12. Comparative energy storage assessment item

    SciTech Connect

    Giudici, B.

    1984-11-01

    This analysis, a Space Station application study, rediscovered Integrated Power and Attitude Control (IPAC) and found the approach to have lower initial and resupply weight and lower initial and resupply cost than either battery/CMG or regenerative fuel cell/CMG systems. Preliminary trade studies were performed comparing (IPAC) with equivalent independent electrochemical power and control moment gyro (CMG) control approaches. Technologies considered to have adequate status for an initial Space Station were: (1) nickel cadmium batteries (NiCd batteries), (2) regenerative fuel cells (RFC), (3) Skylab class CMG's, and (4) state of the art IPAC using metal wheels and ball bearing suspension (SOA-IPAC). An advanced IPAC (ADV-IPAC) employing composite rotor material and magnetic suspension was included in the comparisons to illustrate a possible range of performance and cost of inertial systems. The candidates were compared on the basis of initial weight and cost and on the basis of resupply weight and cost for a 15 year mission. Thus, SOA-IPAC would appear to be an attractive approach for the initial Space Station and possible technology improvements would further the appeal for the initial and/or growth Space Station.

  13. A pathologist is as a pathologist does. Changing roles in a changing time.

    PubMed

    Elevitch, F R

    1995-07-01

    Managed care challenges pathologists to a paradoxical cultural transition requiring clinical participation in the community while refining competitive managerial skills to maintain a livelihood. This presentation explores several role changes that a pathologist may undertake to acquire perceived clinical and economic value in a managed care system. PMID:7625896

  14. [Neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer: implications for the pathologist].

    PubMed

    Le Guellec, Sophie; Perallon, Romain; Alunni, Jean-Philippe; Charitansky, Hélène; Leaha, Christina; Gonzalez, Aurélie Maran; Chateau, Marie-Christine; Simony-Lafontaine, Joelle; Jacot, William; Gutowski, Marian; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Dalenc, Florence; Lacroix-Triki, Magali

    2011-12-01

    These past few years, neoadjuvant strategy has taken an increasing place in the management of breast cancer patients. This strategy is mainly indicated to obtain a tumour bulk regression allowing a breast conserving surgery in patients that otherwise would have undergone mastectomy. Of note, development of new chemotherapy agents and targeted therapies has critically helped in the progress of neoadjuvant strategy as it is currently associated with better pathological response rates. In this context, the pathologist is at the crossroad of this multidisciplinary process. First, he provides on the initial core needle biopsy the tumour pathological characteristics that are critical for the choice of treatment strategy, i.e. histological type, histological grade, proliferative activity (mitotic count and Ki67/MIB1 index labeling), hormone receptor status (oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor) and HER2 status. Secondly, the pathologist evaluates the pathological response and the status of surgical margins with regards to the residual tumour on the surgical specimen after neoadjuvant treatment. These parameters are important for the management of the patient, since it has been shown that complete pathological response is associated with improved disease free survival. Several grading systems are used to assess the pathological response in breast and axillary lymph nodes. The most frequently used in France are currently the systems described by Sataloff et al. and Chevallier et al. In this review, we detail the different steps involving the pathologist in neoadjuvant setting, with special regards to the quality process and future perspectives such as emerging predictive biomarkers. PMID:22172117

  15. Pathologists as stewards of laboratory information.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Walter H; Wilkerson, Myra L; Castellani, William J; Whitsitt, Mark S; Sinard, John H

    2015-03-01

    Just as electronic health records are transforming the practice of medicine and health care information management, practicing in the era of the electronic health record offers opportunities, if not imperatives, for pathologists to take on new and "transformative" professional and leadership roles for the organizations they serve. Experience indicates that clinicians will perceive pathologists and laboratories as responsible for all aspects of laboratory testing and information management, including order entry and results reporting, even though such functions may fall beyond the control of the laboratory. As described and expanded upon in the previous 4 articles of this series, the use of electronic health records dictates changes in how clinicians interact with laboratory information. In this environment, pathologists are uniquely positioned to act as the stewards for laboratory information in electronic health records and throughout health care organizations. PMID:25724030

  16. Commentary: Roles for Pathologists in a High-throughput Image Analysis Team.

    PubMed

    Aeffner, Famke; Wilson, Kristin; Bolon, Brad; Kanaly, Suzanne; Mahrt, Charles R; Rudmann, Dan; Charles, Elaine; Young, G David

    2016-08-01

    Historically, pathologists perform manual evaluation of H&E- or immunohistochemically-stained slides, which can be subjective, inconsistent, and, at best, semiquantitative. As the complexity of staining and demand for increased precision of manual evaluation increase, the pathologist's assessment will include automated analyses (i.e., "digital pathology") to increase the accuracy, efficiency, and speed of diagnosis and hypothesis testing and as an important biomedical research and diagnostic tool. This commentary introduces the many roles for pathologists in designing and conducting high-throughput digital image analysis. Pathology review is central to the entire course of a digital pathology study, including experimental design, sample quality verification, specimen annotation, analytical algorithm development, and report preparation. The pathologist performs these roles by reviewing work undertaken by technicians and scientists with training and expertise in image analysis instruments and software. These roles require regular, face-to-face interactions between team members and the lead pathologist. Traditional pathology training is suitable preparation for entry-level participation on image analysis teams. The future of pathology is very exciting, with the expanding utilization of digital image analysis set to expand pathology roles in research and drug development with increasing and new career opportunities for pathologists. PMID:27343178

  17. TOXICOGENOMICS DRUG DISCOVERY AND THE PATHOLOGIST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicogenomics, drug discovery, and pathologist.

    The field of toxicogenomics, which currently focuses on the application of large-scale differential gene expression (DGE) data to toxicology, is starting to influence drug discovery and development in the pharmaceutical indu...

  18. A Comparative Judgement Approach to Teacher Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Suzanne; Jones, Ian

    2015-01-01

    We report one teacher's response to a top-down shift from external examinations to internal teacher assessment for summative purposes in the Republic of Ireland. The teacher adopted a comparative judgement approach to the assessment of secondary students' understanding of a chemistry experiment. The aims of the research were to investigate whether…

  19. Speech outcome following palatoplasty in primary school children: do lay peer observers agree with speech pathologists?

    PubMed

    Witt, P D; Berry, L A; Marsh, J L; Grames, L M; Pilgram, T K

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to test the ability of normal children to discriminate the speech of children with repaired cleft palate from the speech of unaffected peers and (2) to compare these naive assessments of speech acceptability with the sophisticated assessments of speech pathologists. The study group (subjects) was composed of 21 children of school age (aged 8 to 12 years) who had undergone palatoplasty at a single cleft center and 16 matched controls. The listening team (student raters) was composed of 20 children who were matched to the subjects for age, sex, and other variables. Randomized master audio-tape recordings of the children who had undergone palatoplasty were presented in blinded fashion and random order to student raters who were inexperienced in the evaluation of patients with speech dysfunction. The same sound recordings were evaluated by an experienced panel of extramural speech pathologists whose intrarater and interrater reliabilities were known; they were not direct care providers. Additionally, the master tape was presented in blinded fashion and random order to the velopharyngeal staff at the cleft center for intramural assessment. Comparison of these assessment methodologies forms the basis of this report. Naive raters were insensitive to speech differences in the control and cleft palate groups. Differences in the mean scores for the groups never approached statistical significance, and there was adequate power to discern a difference of 0.75 on a 7-point scale. Expert raters were sensitive to differences in resonance and intelligibility in the control and cleft palate groups but not to other aspects of speech. The expert raters recommended further evaluation of cleft palate patients more often than control patients. Speech pathologists discern differences that the laity does not. Consideration should be given to the utilization of untrained listeners to add real-life significance to clinical speech assessments. Peer

  20. Role of forensic pathologists in mass disasters.

    PubMed

    Schuliar, Yves; Knudsen, Peter Juel Thiis

    2012-06-01

    The forensic pathologist has always had a central role in the identification of the dead in every day practice, in accidents, and in disasters involving hundreds or thousands of victims. This role has changed in recent years, as advances in forensic odontology, genetics and anthropology have improved the chances of identifying victims beyond recognition. According to the Interpol DVI Guide, fingerprints, dental examination and DNA are the primary identifiers, and this has given new emphasis to the role of the forensic pathologist as the leader of a multidisciplinary team of experts in a disaster situation, based on his or her qualifications and the experience gained from doing the same work in the everyday situation of an institute of forensic medicine. PMID:22160735

  1. Professor Witold Nowicki - a greatly spirited pathologist.

    PubMed

    Wincewicz, A; Szepietowska, A; Sulkowski, S

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a complete overview of the scientific, professional and social activity of a great Polish pathologist, Witold Nowicki (1878-1941), from mainly Polish-written, original sources with a major impact on mostly his own publications. The biographical commemoration of this eminent professor is not only due to the fact that he provided a profound microscopic characterization of pneumatosis cystoides in 1909 and 1924. Nowicki greatly influenced the development of anatomical pathology in Poland, having authored over 82 publications, with special reference to tuberculosis, lung cancer, sarcomatous carcinomas, scleroma and others. However, the first of all his merits for the readership of Polish pathologists was his textbook titled Anatomical Pathology, which was a basic pathology manual in pre-war Poland. Witold Nowicki - as the head of the academic pathological anatomy department and former dean of the medical faculty - was shot with other professors by Nazi Germans in the Wuleckie hills in Lvov during World War Two. Professor Nowicki was described as being "small in size but great in spirit" by one of his associates, and remains an outstanding example of a meticulous pathologist, a patient tutor and a great social activist to follow. PMID:27543863

  2. Inadequate fine needle aspiration biopsy samples: Pathologists versus other specialists

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Macías, GS; Garza-Guajardo, R; Segura-Luna, J

    2009-01-01

    Background: Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is a simple, sensitive, quick and inexpensive method in which operator experience is essential for obtaining the best results. Methods: A descriptive study in which the aspiration biopsy cases of the Pathology and Cytopathology Service of the University Hospital of the UANL (2003–2005) were analyzed. These were divided into three study groups: Group 1, FNAB performed by a pathologist; Group 2, FNAB performed by specialists who are not pathologists, Group 3, FNAB guided by an imaging study with immediate evaluation by a pathologist. The samples were classified as adequate and inadequate for diagnosis, the organ, the size and characteristics of the lesions were taken into consideration. Results: A total of 1905 FNAB were included. In Group 1: 1347 were performed of which 1242 (92.2%) were adequate and 105 (7.7%) were inadequate. Of the 237 from Group 2, 178 were adequate (75.1%) and 59 inadequate (24.8%); in Group 3 there were 321 of which 283 (88.1%) were adequate and 38 (11.8%) inadequate. A statistically significant difference was found between FNAB performed by Group 1 (p< 0.001) and the other groups. A multivariate analysis was done where the organ punctured, the study groups, the size and characteristics of the lesion by study group were compared, finding that the most important variable was the person who performed the procedure. Conclusion: The experience and training of the person performing the aspiration biopsy, as well as immediate evaluation of the material when it is guided, substantially reduces the number of inadequate samples, improving the sensitivity of the method as well as reducing the need for open biopsies to reach a diagnosis. PMID:19621092

  3. Management of communication and swallowing in intensive care: the role of the speech pathologist.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Christina A; Bewyer, Emily; Bruner, Diane

    2008-01-01

    Patients in adult, pediatric, and neonatal intensive care settings often require the services of a speech-language pathologist. It is common practice to consult a speech pathologist to determine whether a patient is ready to initiate oral intake or help a patient with an artificial airway communicate. Assessments for dysphagia are initially clinical and conducted at bedside. Results from the clinical evaluation help determine if and when an instrumental examination should be completed. Patients who are tracheostomized, or had been, and those who were intubated for a prolonged period are at risk for aspiration. Speaking valves allow patients to communicate orally. Some studies have shown that speaking valves might also reduce the risk of aspiration with oral intake. Collaboration between speech-language pathologists and critical care nurses is a vital component for ensuring patient safety and success in both communication and eating. PMID:18981745

  4. Fold assessment for comparative protein structure modeling.

    PubMed

    Melo, Francisco; Sali, Andrej

    2007-11-01

    Accurate and automated assessment of both geometrical errors and incompleteness of comparative protein structure models is necessary for an adequate use of the models. Here, we describe a composite score for discriminating between models with the correct and incorrect fold. To find an accurate composite score, we designed and applied a genetic algorithm method that searched for a most informative subset of 21 input model features as well as their optimized nonlinear transformation into the composite score. The 21 input features included various statistical potential scores, stereochemistry quality descriptors, sequence alignment scores, geometrical descriptors, and measures of protein packing. The optimized composite score was found to depend on (1) a statistical potential z-score for residue accessibilities and distances, (2) model compactness, and (3) percentage sequence identity of the alignment used to build the model. The accuracy of the composite score was compared with the accuracy of assessment by single and combined features as well as by other commonly used assessment methods. The testing set was representative of models produced by automated comparative modeling on a genomic scale. The composite score performed better than any other tested score in terms of the maximum correct classification rate (i.e., 3.3% false positives and 2.5% false negatives) as well as the sensitivity and specificity across the whole range of thresholds. The composite score was implemented in our program MODELLER-8 and was used to assess models in the MODBASE database that contains comparative models for domains in approximately 1.3 million protein sequences. PMID:17905832

  5. Health Literacy and the Role of the Speech-Language Pathologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Eva Jackson; Stevens-Ratchford, Regena

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article reviews concepts of health literacy and discusses the role of speech-language pathologists in improving the health literacy of individuals with and without communication disorders. Method: A literature review was completed of health literacy definitions, concepts, and health literacy assessment and intervention studies with…

  6. Speech-Language Pathologists' Knowledge of Tongue/Palate Contact for Consonants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2011-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) rely on knowledge of tongue placement to assess and provide intervention. A total of 175 SLPs who worked with children with speech sound disorders (SSDs) drew coronal diagrams of tongue/palate contact for 24 English consonants. Comparisons were made between their responses and typical English-speaking adults'…

  7. Laser capture microdissection for the investigative pathologist.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; McDowell, T L; Hanson, N E; Tang, X; Fujimoto, J; Rodriguez-Canales, J

    2014-01-01

    An important step in translational research is the validation of molecular findings from in vitro experiments using tissue specimens. However, tissue specimens are complex and contain a multitude of diverse cell populations that interfere with the molecular profiling data of a specific cell type. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) alleviates this issue by providing a valuable tool for the enrichment of a specific cell type within complex tissue samples. However, LCM and molecular analysis from tissue specimens can be complex and challenging due to numerous issues related with the tissue processing and its impact on the integrity of biomolecules in the specimen. The intricate nature of this application highlights the essential role a pathologist plays in translational research by contributing an expertise in histopathology, tissue handling, tissue analysis techniques, and clinical correlation of biological findings. The present review examines key practical aspects in tissue handling, specimen selection, quality control, and sample preparation for LCM and downstream molecular analyses that are a primary objective of the investigative pathologist. PMID:24227008

  8. Vocal fold nodule vs. vocal fold polyp: answer from surgical pathologist and voice pathologist point of view.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Lesly; Jackson-Menaldi, Cristina; Holland, Wayne; Giraldo, Alvaro

    2004-03-01

    Vocal fold polyps and nodules are caused by inflammation caused by stress or irritation. Our study involved looking retrospectively at 30 patients. A clinical diagnosis was established by an otolaryngologist and voice pathologist through videostroboscopic analysis. Histological sections after removal of the vocal fold lesion were available for microscopic examination. All of these cases have also been previously evaluated and photographed. A clinical diagnosis of either a polyp or a laryngeal nodule have been made and documented. Two pathologists made the histological evaluation separately initially unaware of the clinical diagnosis. Their impression was recorded. After the clinical diagnosis become available and comparison between the clinical and pathological diagnosis were made, a retrospective review of the tissue was attempted to reconcile the differences. In conclusion, after careful histological evaluation, no definitive histological distinction can be made between laryngeal nodules and polyps. Our data showed no distinction between the two entities when compared for the presence of edema, fibrin, inflammation, and amyloid-like material. A statistically significant difference was found in the size of the specimen and the presence of telangiectasias. Based on our data, a biopsy larger than 0.3 cm could be a polyp and a biopsy less than 0.3 cm could be a nodule. PMID:15070232

  9. Comparative analysis of selected hydromorphological assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Sípek, Václav; Matousková, Milada; Dvorák, Martin

    2010-10-01

    The European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC aims to achieve a good ecological status of all surface water bodies in Europe. The definition of the ecological status is based on the hydromorphological, hydrochemical, and hydrobiological features of water bodies. Numerous methods are applied for the purpose of hydromorphological status assessment. This study attempts to compare four different methods (EcoRivHab, LAWA Field and Overview Survey, and Rapid Bioassessment Protocol) that were applied at two study areas in the Czech part of the Elbe River Basin. The selected catchments represent areas with different sizes and physical geographic as well as socioeconomic characteristics. All the methods applied showed the capacity to identify the natural and even the completely changed reaches and provided good information on the river physical habitat state. However, they are varied from the viewpoint of the number of parameters, number of monitored zones, time and knowledge demands of the performed assessment. PMID:19760083

  10. Dysphagia Management: A Survey of School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists in Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Tiffany L.; Gerety, Katherine W.; Mulligan, Moira

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study (a) gathered information about the kinds of dysphagia management services school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide, (b) examined the attitudes of SLPs related to dysphagia management, (c) compared the responses of SLPs on the basis of their experience working in a medical setting, and (d) investigated the…

  11. Comparative environmental assessment of unconventional power installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnina, E. N.; Masleeva, O. V.; Kryukov, E. V.

    2015-08-01

    Procedure of the strategic environmental assessment of the power installations operating on the basis of renewable energy sources (RES) was developed and described. This procedure takes into account not only the operational process of the power installation but also the whole life cycles: from the production and distribution of power resources for manufacturing of the power installations to the process of their recovery. Such an approach gives an opportunity to make a more comprehensive assessment of the influence of the power installations on environments and may be used during adaptation of the current regulations and development of new regulations for application of different types of unconventional power installations with due account of the ecological factor. Application of the procedure of the integrated environmental assessment in the context of mini-HPP (Hydro Power Plant); wind, solar, and biogas power installations; and traditional power installation operating natural gas was considered. Comparison of environmental influence revealed advantages of new energy technologies compared to traditional ones. It is shown that solar energy installations hardly pollute the environment during operation, but the negative influence of the mining operations and manufacturing and utilization of the materials used for solar modules is maximum. Biogas power installations are on the second place as concerns the impact on the environment due to the considerable mass of the biogas installation and gas reciprocating engine. The minimum impact on the environment is exerted by the mini-HPP. Consumption of material and energy resources for the production of the traditional power installation is less compared to power installations on RES; however, this factor incomparably increases when taking into account the fuel extraction and transfer. The greatest impact on the environment is exerted by the operational process of the traditional power installations.

  12. How does a pathologist make a diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Pena, Gil Patrus; Andrade-Filho, José de Souza

    2009-01-01

    A pathologic diagnosis is the result of a complex series of activities, mastered by the pathologist. The nature of these activities is, however, rarely talked about in depth. The medical literature occasionally discusses aspects of the pathologic diagnosis processes, generally departing from the pathologic practice. The lack of a model makes discussions about the subject a matter of preference or personal style. Educational programs are largely based on the apprenticeship model, and the development of specific abilities rests on the personal aspects of both apprentice and mentor. A model for the pathologic diagnostic process is proposed. The process of diagnosis can be viewed as an action plan, encompassing 4 domains: (1) cognitive, (2) communicative, (3) normative, and (4) medical conduct. The cognitive domain involves processes of perception, attention, memory, search, hypothesis creation, and verification, among others. Communicative skills consist of providing arguments in support of a diagnostic conclusion, with adequate clinical and relevant pathologic information. Pathologic diagnosis is also subject to technical rules (based on empirical experiences), rules of rational choice (strategies aiming at definite goals), and consensual rules among peers. Finally, the pathologic diagnosis has to be evaluated in the sphere of medical conduct, from the perspectives of both the pathologist and the referring clinician. An understanding of the diagnostic process from a theoretic perspective will benefit pathology as a science and a medical specialty because it provides the basis for understanding diagnostic variations and discrepancies. Pathologic difficulties or errors can be mapped, allowing the institution of specific remedies. This model may also enhance training and educational strategies because specific emphasis can be directed toward a particular difficulty. PMID:19123724

  13. Job Stress of School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Stephanie Ferney; Prater, Mary Anne; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Heath, Melissa Allen

    2009-01-01

    Stress and burnout contribute significantly to the shortages of school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs). At the request of the Utah State Office of Education, the researchers measured the stress levels of 97 school-based SLPs using the "Speech-Language Pathologist Stress Inventory." Results indicated that participants' emotional-fatigue…

  14. Comparative assessment of four drug interaction compendia

    PubMed Central

    Vitry, Agnes I

    2007-01-01

    Aims To assess the consistency of inclusion and grading of major drug interactions for 50 drugs in four leading international drug interaction compendia. Methods Four international drug interaction compendia were compared: the drug interactions appendix of the British National Formulary, the interaction supplement in the French drug compendium Vidal, and two US drug interaction compendia, Drug Interaction Facts and the Micromedex (Drug-Reax) program. Major interactions were defined as potentially hazardous in BNF or with the warning ‘contraindication’ or ‘avoid’ in Vidal or with the significance grading 1 or 2 in DIF. Major interactions for a list of 50 drugs were searched in all four compendia. Results A total of 1264 interactions meeting the inclusion criteria were identified for these 50 drugs. After deletion of 169 duplicates, 1095 interactions were included in the analysis. Of the drug interactions classified as major in any one compendium between 14% and 44% were not listed in the other compendia. The grading systems used for the severity and the quality of the supporting evidence in Micromedex and DIF were inconsistent. Conclusions There is a lack of consistency in the inclusion and grading of drug interactions of major significance for 50 drugs across the four drug compendia examined. This may reflect the lack of standardization of the terminology used to classify drug interactions and the lack of good epidemiological evidence on which to base the assessment of the clinical relevance of drug interactions. PMID:17166171

  15. Comparing Two Approaches for Assessing Observation Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todling, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Langland and Baker introduced an approach to assess the impact of observations on the forecasts. In that approach, a state-space aspect of the forecast is defined and a procedure is derived ultimately relating changes in the aspect with changes in the observing system. Some features of the state-space approach are to be noted: the typical choice of forecast aspect is rather subjective and leads to incomplete assessment of the observing system, it requires availability of a verification state that is in practice correlated with the forecast, and it involves the adjoint operator of the entire data assimilation system and is thus constrained by the validity of this operator. This article revisits the topic of observation impacts from the perspective of estimation theory. An observation-space metric is used to allow inferring observation impact on the forecasts without the limitations just mentioned. Using differences of observation-minus-forecast residuals obtained from consecutive forecasts leads to the following advantages: (i) it suggests a rather natural choice of forecast aspect that directly links to the data assimilation procedure, (ii) it avoids introducing undesirable correlations in the forecast aspect since verification is done against the observations, and (iii) it does not involve linearization and use of adjoints. The observation-space approach has the additional advantage of being nearly cost free and very simple to implement. In its simplest form it reduces to evaluating the statistics of observationminus- background and observation-minus-analysis residuals with traditional methods. Illustrations comparing the approaches are given using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System.

  16. Comparative assessment of amphibious hearing in pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Reichmuth, Colleen; Holt, Marla M; Mulsow, Jason; Sills, Jillian M; Southall, Brandon L

    2013-06-01

    Auditory sensitivity in pinnipeds is influenced by the need to balance efficient sound detection in two vastly different physical environments. Previous comparisons between aerial and underwater hearing capabilities have considered media-dependent differences relative to auditory anatomy, acoustic communication, ecology, and amphibious life history. New data for several species, including recently published audiograms and previously unreported measurements obtained in quiet conditions, necessitate a re-evaluation of amphibious hearing in pinnipeds. Several findings related to underwater hearing are consistent with earlier assessments, including an expanded frequency range of best hearing in true seals that spans at least six octaves. The most notable new results indicate markedly better aerial sensitivity in two seals (Phoca vitulina and Mirounga angustirostris) and one sea lion (Zalophus californianus), likely attributable to improved ambient noise control in test enclosures. An updated comparative analysis alters conventional views and demonstrates that these amphibious pinnipeds have not necessarily sacrificed aerial hearing capabilities in favor of enhanced underwater sound reception. Despite possessing underwater hearing that is nearly as sensitive as fully aquatic cetaceans and sirenians, many seals and sea lions have retained acute aerial hearing capabilities rivaling those of terrestrial carnivores. PMID:23563644

  17. Perceptions of pathology informatics by non-informaticist pathologists and trainees

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Addie; Garcia, Christopher; Baron, Jason M.; Gudewicz, Thomas M.; Gilbertson, John R.; Henricks, Walter H.; Lee, Roy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although pathology informatics (PI) is essential to modern pathology practice, the field is often poorly understood. Pathologists who have received little to no exposure to informatics, either in training or in practice, may not recognize the roles that informatics serves in pathology. The purpose of this study was to characterize perceptions of PI by noninformatics-oriented pathologists and to do so at two large centers with differing informatics environments. Methods: Pathology trainees and staff at Cleveland Clinic (CC) and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) were surveyed. At MGH, pathology department leadership has promoted a pervasive informatics presence through practice, training, and research. At CC, PI efforts focus on production systems that serve a multi-site integrated health system and a reference laboratory, and on the development of applications oriented to department operations. The survey assessed perceived definition of PI, interest in PI, and perceived utility of PI. Results: The survey was completed by 107 noninformatics-oriented pathologists and trainees. A majority viewed informatics positively. Except among MGH trainees, confusion of PI with information technology (IT) and help desk services was prominent, even in those who indicated they understood informatics. Attendings and trainees indicated desire to learn more about PI. While most acknowledged that having some level of PI knowledge would be professionally useful and advantageous, only a minority plan to utilize it. Conclusions: Informatics is viewed positively by the majority of noninformatics pathologists at two large centers with differing informatics orientations. Differences in departmental informatics culture can be attributed to the varying perceptions of PI by different individuals. Incorrect perceptions exist, such as conflating PI with IT and help desk services, even among those who claim to understand PI. Further efforts by the PI community could address such

  18. The role of the toxicologic pathologist in the biopharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    van Tongeren, Susan; Fagerland, Jane A; Conner, Michael W; Diegel, Kelly; Donnelly, Kevin; Grubor, Branka; Lopez-Martinez, Alric; Bolliger, Anne Provencher; Sharma, Alok; Tannehill-Gregg, Sarah; Turner, Patricia V; Wancket, Lyn M

    2011-10-01

    Toxicologic pathologists contribute significantly to the development of new biopharmaceuticals, yet there is often a lack of awareness of this specialized role. As the members of multidisciplinary teams, toxicologic pathologists participate in all aspects of the drug development process. This review is part of an initiative by the Society of Toxicologic Pathology to educate scientists about toxicologic pathology and to attract junior scientists, veterinary students, and veterinarians into the field. We describe the role of toxicologic pathologists in identifying candidate agents, elucidating bioactive pathways, and evaluating efficacy and toxicity in preclinical animal models. Educational and specialized training requirements and the challenges of working in a global environment are discussed. The biopharmaceutical industry provides diverse, challenging, and rewarding career opportunities in toxicologic pathology. We hope that this review promotes understanding of the important role the toxicologic pathologist plays in drug development and encourages exploration of an important career option. PMID:21878555

  19. Pathologists and the judicial process: how to avoid it.

    PubMed

    Epstein, J I

    2001-04-01

    This review article covers the full range of issues concerning malpractice as it relates to pathologists. Following a brief summary as to the incidence and general statistics on the outcome of lawsuits as well as common pathology misdiagnoses resulting in lawsuits, the definition of malpractice is discussed. These include duty, breech of standard of care, proximal cause, and damage. Details are provided as to what a pathologist should do from the initial threat of a lawsuit, to the initial lawsuit, and through the initial physician/lawyer meeting. An in-depth analysis as to how pathologists should handle themselves through the discovery process and, in particular, deposition is provided. Plaintiff attorneys' goals at deposition are covered in depth. These goals include: 1) education about the pathologist's case and strategies; 2) impeachment of the pathologist's credibility; and 3) judgment as to how effective a witness the pathologist will be at trial. Various types of plaintiff's attorney at deposition are summarized. Also discussed is the post-deposition meeting with the legal representative, whether to settle, and specific issues relating to trial. Finally, general tips on how to avoid a lawsuit in pathology are reviewed. PMID:11257629

  20. Comparing Computerized versus Traditional Psychological Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukin, Mark E.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study utilized a Latin Squares design to assess equivalence of computer and paper-and-pencil testing methods in a clinical setting with college students. No significant differences between scores on measures of anxiety, depression, and psychological reactance were found across group and administration format. Most subjects preferred…

  1. Risk Assessment and Alternatives Assessment: Comparing Two Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The selection and use of chemicals and materials with less hazardous profiles reflects a paradigm shift from reliance on risk minimization through exposure controls to hazard avoidance. This article introduces risk assessment and alternatives assessment frameworks in order to clarify a misconception that alternatives assessment is a less effective tool to guide decision making, discusses factors promoting the use of each framework, and also identifies how and when application of each framework is most effective. As part of an assessor's decision process to select one framework over the other, it is critical to recognize that each framework is intended to perform different functions. Although the two frameworks share a number of similarities (such as identifying hazards and assessing exposure), an alternatives assessment provides a more realistic framework with which to select environmentally preferable chemicals because of its primary reliance on assessing hazards and secondary reliance on exposure assessment. Relevant to other life cycle impacts, the hazard of a chemical is inherent, and although it may be possible to minimize exposure (and subsequently reduce risk), it is challenging to assess such exposures through a chemical's life cycle. Through increased use of alternatives assessments at the initial stage of material or product design, there will be less reliance on post facto risk‐based assessment techniques because the potential for harm is significantly reduced, if not avoided, negating the need for assessing risk in the first place. PMID:26694655

  2. Speech-language pathologists' roles in the delivery of positive behavior support for individuals with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Karen D; Brown, Kenneth E; Mirenda, Pat

    2004-02-01

    Positive behavior support interventions such as functional communication training (FCT) and visual schedules are increasingly being used with individuals with autism and other severe developmental disabilities who engage in problem behavior and use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The increasing use of these communication interventions has implications for speech-language pathologists who provide support to these individuals. The purpose of this tutorial is to summarize the research regarding the use of FCT/AAC interventions and visual schedules, and to provide suggestions for the roles that speech-language pathologists can play with regard to assessment, intervention design, and implementation in school and home settings. PMID:15101810

  3. QUANTITATIVE TOXICOLOGIC PATHOLOGY-METHODS AND INTERPRETATION' SESSION AT THE JOINT MEETING OF SOCIETY OF TOXICOLOGIC PATHOLOGISTS AND THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF SOCIETIES OF TOXICOLOGIC PATHOLOGISTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Report of the 'Quantitative Toxicologic Pathology - Methods and Interpretation' session at the Joint meeting of Society of Toxicologic Pathologists and the International Federation of Societies of Toxicologic Pathologists, Orlando, Florida, USA, June 24-28, 2001. Douglas C. Wolf,...

  4. The European College of Veterinary Pathologists (ECVP): the professional body for European veterinary pathologists.

    PubMed

    Kipar, Anja; Aleksandersen, Mona; Benazzi, Cinzia; Suter, Maja

    2007-01-01

    The European College of Veterinary Pathologists (ECVP) was established in 1995 with the aim of advancing veterinary pathology and promoting high standards within the specialty in Europe. The ECVP is one of 21 European colleges recognized by the European Board of Veterinary Specialisation (EBVS), which represents a quality-assurance system for European veterinary specialists. Until the ECVP was founded, there was no unified European system recognizing the specialty of pathology, and many European countries followed their own qualification systems, which varied in form and standard. The ECVP provides an annual certifying examination, the passing of which is required to gain membership (diplomate status) in the college. This qualification is now accepted on equal terms by the well-established American College of Veterinary Pathologists (ACVP). In line with EBVS requirements, the ECVP has also established a standard continuing professional development (CPD) and re-registration system for its membership. Furthermore, it has promoted and unified European post-graduate training in veterinary pathology by setting up requirements for residency training programs and making registration and monitoring of these programs by the ECVP a prerequisite for approval of an institution as a training facility. The concurrent establishment, together with the European Society of Veterinary Pathology, of an annual summer school that trains residents for the certifying examination has further fostered European post-graduate training. Within 10 years, the ECVP has succeeded in establishing common standards and a unified approach to veterinary pathology throughout Europe. This article describes the evolution and organization of the ECVP. PMID:18287475

  5. Comparative assessment of ecotoxicity of urban aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turóczi, B.; Hoffer, A.; Tóth, Á.; Kováts, N.; Ács, A.; Ferincz, Á.; Kovács, A.; Gelencsér, A.

    2012-04-01

    In addition to its mass concentration, the health effects of urban particulate matter may depend on its particle size distribution and chemical composition. Yet air pollution regulations rely on exclusively bulk PM10 concentration measurements, without regard to their potentially different health effects under different conditions. Aerosols from various sources are well known to contain a plethora of toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic constituents such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In spite of the fact that tremendous efforts have been put to establish links between aerosol pollution and human health or mortality, the potential acute effects of PM2.5/PM10 have never been assessed for lack of adequate methodology. Here we present the application of a simple and sensitive method for the direct assessment of the overall ecotoxicity of various PM2.5/PM10 samples collected on filters. The method is based on the Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition bioassay that has been standardized for solid samples, representing a relevant biological exposure route. Direct emission samples proved to be significantly more ecotoxic than photochemically processed aerosol, thus marked differences were observed between the ecotoxicities of urban PM10 in summer and winter. The previously overlooked acute effects of urban PM10 may add to the established effects of gaseous primary pollutants aggravating health problems during severe air pollution episodes.

  6. Comparative assessment of ecotoxicity of urban aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turóczi, B.; Hoffer, A.; Tóth, Á.; Kováts, N.; Ács, A.; Ferincz, Á.; Kovács, A.; Gelencsér, A.

    2012-08-01

    In addition to its mass concentration, the health effects of urban particulate matter may depend on its particle size distribution and chemical composition. Yet air pollution regulations rely on exclusively bulk PM10 concentration measurements, without regard to their potentially different health effects under different conditions. Aerosols from various sources are well known to contain a plethora of toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic constituents such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Extensive public health studies established the link between mass concentrations of PM2.5 / PM10 and health problems within the population. However, little is known about the relative importance of PM from different sources and the effect of seasonality on the toxicity. Here we present the application of a simple and sensitive method for the direct assessment of the overall ecotoxicity of various PM2.5 / PM10 samples collected on filters. The method is based on the Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition bioassay that has been standardized for solid samples, representing a relevant biological exposure route. Direct emission samples proved to be significantly more ecotoxic than photochemically processed aerosol, thus marked differences were observed between the ecotoxicities of urban PM10 in summer and winter. These effects of urban PM10 may be useful supplementary indicators besides the mass concentrations of PM2.5 / PM10 in cities.

  7. Research by pathologists not funded by external grant agencies: a success story.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, A; Berman, J J; Moore, G W

    1992-09-01

    The paradigm of pathology research as an endeavor among grant-funded principal investigators resulting in first-author publications is unsupported by quantitative examination of author profiles extracted from the scientific literature. Publications in six pathology journals (Modern Pathology, American Journal of Surgical Pathology, Human Pathology, Acta Cytologica, Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, and American Journal of Clinical Pathology) and three general science journals (Science, New England Journal of Medicine, and Proceedings of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences) were reviewed. Twenty articles per journal from each of three years (1987, 1989, and 1991) were examined (a total of 520 articles). Of these, 295 articles were first-authored by a member of a department of pathology. Of the 295 articles first-authored by a member of a pathology department, 47 (16%) articles listed competitive grant support. Of the grant-supported articles, 20 articles listed NIH support, but only four had an NIH-supported principle investigator as the first author of the article. Unfunded research represented the vast majority (84%) of work produced by pathologists. A review of the ISI Citation Index showed that those articles written by funded pathologists averaged 8.7 (S.D. 7.8) citations per article, compared to 10.4 (S.D. 12.1) citations per article for unfunded pathologists. Results suggest that unfunded research accounts for the majority of pathology research activity as well as their resulting literature citations. PMID:1344824

  8. Impedance Screening by the School Speech-Language Pathologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucker, Jay R.; Samsky, Jay G.

    1979-01-01

    Questions regarding the use of minimally trained speech-language pathologists in conducting an impedance screening program, obtaining the cooperation of the children during testing, and dealing with problems related to referral procedures are discussed, and an account of a pilot otoadmittance screening program is presented. (Author/DLS)

  9. Knowledge and Confidence of Speech-Language Pathologists Regarding Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    The increased prevalence rate of autism has immense implications for speech language pathologists (SLPs) who are directly involved in the education and service delivery for students with autism. However, few studies have documented the effectiveness of the knowledge and confidence of SLPs regarding autism. The purpose of this study was to measure…

  10. Recruiting and Retaining Speech-Language Pathologists in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Cheryl L.

    This study surveyed special education directors and speech language pathologists (SLPs) to identify recruitment and retention strategies currently in place in West Virginia and related problems. A 13-item questionnaire was mailed to all 55 Special Education Directors (SED) in West Virginia. A second survey instrument, consisting of 36 items, was…

  11. What do plant pathologists want from the Fungal Barcoding Initiative?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant pathologists want from the Fungal Barcoding Initiative what everyone wants, specifically a fast, accurate identification of their causal plant pathogen resulting in a scientific name that synthesizes current knowledge of that organism. It sounds so easy! Yet, accurate DNA barcodes can only b...

  12. Bullying: What Speech-Language Pathologists Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to the broad issues surrounding the problem of school bullying in childhood and adolescence. Specifically, types of bullying and their causes are considered, as are the roles students take when bullying occurs and the effects of bullying on students with…

  13. Thickened Liquids: Practice Patterns of Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Jane Mertz; Chambers, Edgar, IV; Molander, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    This study surveyed the practice patterns of speech-language pathologists in their use of thickened liquids for patients with swallowing difficulties. A 25-item Internet survey about thickened liquids was posted via an e-mail list to members of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Division 13, Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders…

  14. Speech-Language Pathologists' Opinions on Response to Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Dixie; Mohling, Sara; Stremlau, Aliza

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the opinions of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) on response to intervention (RTI). Questionnaires were mailed to 2,000 randomly selected elementary and secondary SLPs throughout the United States. Mean results of 583 respondents (29.15%) indicated that SLPs agreed on 37 Likert-type items and responded…

  15. Computer Usage by Speech-Language Pathologists in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Gail Ruppert

    1988-01-01

    Investigation of factors influencing public school speech-language pathologists' acceptance and/or resistance to computer technology found differences between frequent computer users and rare users which were attributed to differences in attitudes toward computers, available funding for computers, in-service training, and physical facilities.…

  16. Education of Speech-Language Pathologists in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Judy K.

    2006-01-01

    The education of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the United Kingdom and Ireland has many parallels with the university programs in the United States. A comparison of the two also reveals several differences. I know several SLPs who have moved to Ireland to assume excellent positions; furthermore, I recently met three other professionals who…

  17. Diagnosis of gastric epithelial neoplasia: Dilemma for Korean pathologists.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon Mee; Cho, Mee-Yon; Sohn, Jin Hee; Kang, Dae Young; Park, Cheol Keun; Kim, Woo Ho; Jin, So-Young; Kim, Kyoung Mee; Chang, Hee Kyung; Yu, Eunsil; Jung, Eun Sun; Chang, Mee Soo; Joo, Jong Eun; Joo, Mee; Kim, Youn Wha; Park, Do Youn; Kang, Yun Kyung; Park, Sun Hoo; Han, Hye Seung; Kim, Young Bae; Park, Ho Sung; Chae, Yang Seok; Kwon, Kye Won; Chang, Hee Jin

    2011-06-01

    The histopathological diagnosis of gastric mucosal biopsy and endoscopic mucosal resection/endoscopic submucosal dissection specimens is important, but the diagnostic criteria, terminology, and grading system are not the same in the East and West. A structurally invasive focus is necessary to diagnose carcinoma for most Western pathologists, but Japanese pathologists make a diagnosis of cancer based on severe dysplastic cytologic atypia irrespective of the presence of invasion. Although the Vienna classification was introduced to reduce diagnostic discrepancies, it has been difficult to adopt due to different concepts for gastric epithelial neoplastic lesions. Korean pathologists experience much difficulty making a diagnosis because we are influenced by Japanese pathologists as well as Western medicine. Japan is geographically close to Korea, and academic exchanges are active. Additionally, Korean doctors are familiar with Western style medical terminology. As a result, the terminology, definitions, and diagnostic criteria for gastric intraepithelial neoplasia are very heterogeneous in Korea. To solve this problem, the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has made an effort and has suggested guidelines for differential diagnosis: (1) a diagnosis of carcinoma is based on invasion; (2) the most important characteristic of low grade dysplasia is the architectural pattern such as regular distribution of crypts without severe branching, budding, or marked glandular crowding; (3) if nuclear pseudostratification occupies more than the basal half of the cryptal cells in three or more adjacent crypts, the lesion is considered high grade dysplasia; (4) if severe cytologic atypia is present, careful inspection for invasive foci is necessary, because the risk for invasion is very high; and (5) other structural or nuclear atypia should be evaluated to make a final decision such as cribriform pattern, papillae, ridges, vesicular nuclei

  18. How do surgical pathologists evaluate critical diagnoses (critical values)?

    PubMed Central

    Mireskandari, Masoud

    2008-01-01

    Background After introduction of the concept of critical value (CV) in laboratory medicine, some efforts were performed to define possible critical values in surgical pathology. Critical diagnosis (critical value) is a concept recently established in surgical pathology and is a challenging issue among pathologists and clinical specialists. The concept may be the subject of variation according to the geographical or work setting differences. The current study was performed to bring the contribution of the Iranian pathologists to the evolving concept of critical diagnoses (critical values) in surgical pathology. Materials and methods During annual meeting of Iranian Pathologist Society, November 2006, Tehran, Iran, anonymous questionnaires were distributed among participants. They were requested to openly name conditions in which a pathologist should communicate the results immediately with clinicians. Results 147 pathologists completed the questionnaire. They were varied in their level of experience and setting of workplace. Each participant referred to 1–7 (mean 3) conditions as CV. About 90 different conditions which were considered as CV by participants were extracted from the questionnaires. Discussion The list of conditions obtained through this survey as CVs in surgical pathology covered most items previously described in literature. Major differences are low number (or lack) of refers to some relatively routine and potentially important conditions and considering many unimportant conditions as CV by participants of present survey. Almost all conducted surveys have been performed on this issue so far (including the present survey) suffer from lack of supportive scientific evidences and based mainly on experience and common sense of participants in survey. Potential problems with application of CV concept in daily routine work flow of pathology, particularly in developing countries like Iran, were discussed. PMID:18620590

  19. Papanicolaou tests diagnosed as atypical by a cytotechnologist and downgraded to benign by a pathologist: a measure of laboratory quality.

    PubMed

    Condel, Jennifer L; Mahood, Laura K; Grzybicki, Dana M; Sturgis, Charles D; Raab, Stephen S

    2002-04-01

    Follow-up of Papanicolaou (Pap) tests diagnosed as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS) by a cytotechnologist and downgraded to benign by a pathologist has not been measured. Squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) follow-up rates were obtained for Pap tests diagnosed as ASCUS (288) or AGUS (94) and downgraded to benign and for Pap tests diagnosed as repair (231). Statistically significant associations were seen between 7 cytotechnologists and between 7 pathologists and ASCUS, AGUS, downgraded ASCUS, and downgraded AGUS rates. The percentage of downgraded ASCUS cases compared with all ASCUS cases per pathologist ranged from 4.8% to 43.7%. Statistically significant associations between pathologists and SIL follow-up rates for downgraded ASCUS diagnoses were seen. The SIL follow-up rate for repair (7.9%) was similar to that for a downgraded ASCUS (11.0%) or AGUS (7.3%). The parameters of downgraded ASCU and AGUS Pap test interpretations are good quality indicators of individual performance and overall laboratory quality. PMID:11939726

  20. Predicting Adolescent Suicidality: Comparing Multiple Informants and Assessment Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Jennifer; Rueter, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Adolescent suicidality is a serious problem among American youth. Common risk factors for adolescent suicidality include depression and conduct problems but there is little agreement on the best means to assess these factors. We compared multiple informants (mothers, fathers, the adolescent and a sibling) and multiple assessment techniques using a…

  1. Comparative Validity of the Shedler and Westen Assessment Procedure-200

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N.; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    A predominant dimensional model of general personality structure is the five-factor model (FFM). Quite a number of alternative instruments have been developed to assess the domains of the FFM. The current study compares the validity of 2 alternative versions of the Shedler and Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-200) FFM scales, 1 that was developed…

  2. Susceptibility to human cancer: From the perspective of a pathologist.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Haruhiko

    2016-07-01

    The etiologies of human cancer can only be discerned when the genetic clustering of cancer occurs within a family or when cancer occurs endemically in a particular environment. The possible approaches to solving the nature/nurture problem, especially for human carcinogenesis, posit a fascinating challenge for pathologists. This perspective review presents some examples of how clues to human cancer etiologies and/or susceptibilities reside in the realm of pathology practice. These examples using various omics techniques including adductomics, which I would like to highlight in this article, show that the currently available concepts and methods in human pathology can open a path toward the brave new world of a post-genomic era of medicine for young pathologists, whether their original intention was toward the pursuit of diagnostic or investigative knowledge. PMID:27216305

  3. Juvenile Toxicology: Relevance and Challenges for Toxicologists and Pathologists.

    PubMed

    Remick, Amera K; Catlin, Natasha R; Quist, Erin M; Steinbach, Thomas J; Dixon, Darlene

    2015-12-01

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) Education Committee and the STP Reproductive Special Interest Group held a North Carolina regional meeting entitled, "Juvenile Toxicology: Relevance and Challenges for Toxicologists and Pathologists" on March 13, 2015, at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Toxicology Program in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The purpose of this regional meeting was to familiarize attendees with the topic of juvenile toxicity testing and discuss its relevance to clinical pediatric medicine, regulatory perspectives, challenges of appropriate study design confronted by toxicologists, and challenges of histopathologic examination and interpretation of juvenile tissues faced by pathologists. The 1-day meeting was a success with over 60 attendees representing industry, government, research organizations, and academia. PMID:26220944

  4. Enhancing and Customizing Laboratory Information Systems to Improve/Enhance Pathologist Workflow.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Douglas J

    2016-03-01

    Optimizing pathologist workflow can be difficult because it is affected by many variables. Surgical pathologists must complete many tasks that culminate in a final pathology report. Several software systems can be used to enhance/improve pathologist workflow. These include voice recognition software, pre-sign-out quality assurance, image utilization, and computerized provider order entry. Recent changes in the diagnostic coding and the more prominent role of centralized electronic health records represent potential areas for increased ways to enhance/improve the workflow for surgical pathologists. Additional unforeseen changes to the pathologist workflow may accompany the introduction of whole-slide imaging technology to the routine diagnostic work. PMID:26851662

  5. Oropharyngeal dysphagia: surveying practice patterns of the speech-language pathologist.

    PubMed

    Martino, Rosemary; Pron, Gaylene; Diamant, Nicholas E

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to obtain a comprehensive view of the dysphagia assessment practice patterns of speech-language pathologists and their opinion on the importance of these practices using survey methods and taking into consideration clinician, patient, and practice-setting variables. A self-administered mail questionnaire was developed following established methodology to maximize response rates. Eight dysphagia experts independently rated the new survey for content validity. Test-retest reliability was assessed with a random sample of 23 participants. The survey was sent to 50 speech-language pathologists randomly selected from the Canadian professional association database of members who practice in dysphagia. Surveys were mailed according to the Dillman Total Design Method and included an incentive offer. High survey (64%) and item response (95%) rates were achieved and clinicians were reliable reporters of their practice behaviors (ICC>0.60). Of all the clinical assessment items, 36% were reported with high (>80%) utilization and 24% with low (<20%) utilization, the former pertaining to tongue motion and vocal quality after food/fluid intake and the latter to testing of oral sensation without food. One-third (33%) of instrumental assessment items were highly utilized and included assessment of bolus movement and laryngeal response to bolus misdirection. Overall, clinician experience and teaching institutions influenced greater utilization. Opinions of importance were similar to utilization behaviors (r = 0.947, p = 0.01). Of all patients referred for dysphagia assessment, full clinical assessments were administered to 71% of patients but instrumental assessments to only 36%. A hierarchical model of practice behavior is proposed to explain this pattern of progressively decreasing item utilization. PMID:15383946

  6. Comparing visual and objective skin assessment with pressure injury risk.

    PubMed

    Borzdynski, Caroline J; McGuiness, William; Miller, Charne

    2016-08-01

    Contemporary approaches to pressure injury (PI) risk identification rely on the use of risk assessment tools and visual skin assessment. Objective biophysical measures that assess skin hydration, melanin, erythema and lipids have not been traditionally used in PI risk; however, these may prove useful as a risk assessment tool. The relationship between subjective visual assessments of skin condition, biophysical measures and PI risk warrants investigation. This study used a descriptive correlational design to examine the relationship between measures of skin hydration, colour (melanin and erythema) and lipids at PI-prone areas amongst geriatric persons (n = 38), obtained using biophysical skin measures and visual skin assessment. Twice daily measures of epidermal hydration, colour and lipids were assessed using the SD202 Skin Diagnostic (Courage + Khazaka GmBH, Cologne, Germany) over pressure-prone areas of the body of study participants over seven consecutive days. Concurrent visual assessment of skin hydration and colour was performed. Results obtained using the SD202 Skin Diagnostic were compared with results gathered from visual assessment and examined for their association with participants' PI risk based on scores of the Norton Risk Assessment Scale. While epidermal hydration and skin colour reading scores did not vary significantly over the data collection period, lipid readings could not be registered on any occasion. With the exception of skin dryness, skin parameters via both objective and subjective means had significant, positive correlations. Statistically significant correlations emerged between visual assessment of skin wetness at the sacrum (r = -0·441, P < 0·01) and ischia (r = -0·468, P < 0·01) and Norton Risk Assessment Scale scores. It was found that the objective assessment of epidermal hydration (skin wetness) was also significantly associated with PI risk at the sacrum (r = -0·528, P < 0·01), as well as the right ischia (r = -0·410, P

  7. Eye Movements as an Index of Pathologist Visual Expertise: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Brunyé, Tad T.; Carney, Patricia A.; Allison, Kimberly H.; Shapiro, Linda G.; Weaver, Donald L.; Elmore, Joann G.

    2014-01-01

    A pilot study examined the extent to which eye movements occurring during interpretation of digitized breast biopsy whole slide images (WSI) can distinguish novice interpreters from experts, informing assessments of competency progression during training and across the physician-learning continuum. A pathologist with fellowship training in breast pathology interpreted digital WSI of breast tissue and marked the region of highest diagnostic relevance (dROI). These same images were then evaluated using computer vision techniques to identify visually salient regions of interest (vROI) without diagnostic relevance. A non-invasive eye tracking system recorded pathologists’ (N = 7) visual behavior during image interpretation, and we measured differential viewing of vROIs versus dROIs according to their level of expertise. Pathologists with relatively low expertise in interpreting breast pathology were more likely to fixate on, and subsequently return to, diagnostically irrelevant vROIs relative to experts. Repeatedly fixating on the distracting vROI showed limited value in predicting diagnostic failure. These preliminary results suggest that eye movements occurring during digital slide interpretation can characterize expertise development by demonstrating differential attraction to diagnostically relevant versus visually distracting image regions. These results carry both theoretical implications and potential for monitoring and evaluating student progress and providing automated feedback and scanning guidance in educational settings. PMID:25084012

  8. A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, Helcio; Atkinson, Barbara; Lekov, Alex

    2011-05-24

    When policy makers propose new policies, there is a need to assess the costs and benefits of the proposed policy measures, to compare them to existing and alternative policies, and to rank them according to their effectiveness. In the case of equipment energy efficiency regulations, comparing the effects of a range of alternative policy measures requires evaluating their effects on consumers’ budgets, on national energy consumption and economics, and on the environment. Such an approach should be able to represent in a single framework the particularities of each policy measure and provide comparable results. This report presents an integrated methodological framework to assess prospectively the energy, economic, and environmental impacts of energy efficiency policy measures. The framework builds on the premise that the comparative assessment of energy efficiency policy measures should (a) rely on a common set of primary data and parameters, (b) follow a single functional approach to estimate the energy, economic, and emissions savings resulting from each assessed measure, and (c) present results through a set of comparable indicators. This framework elaborates on models that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has used in support of its rulemakings on mandatory energy efficiency standards. In addition to a rigorous analysis of the impacts of mandatory standards, DOE compares the projected results of alternative policy measures to those projected to be achieved by the standards. The framework extends such an approach to provide a broad, generic methodology, with no geographic or sectoral limitations, that is useful for evaluating any type of equipment energy efficiency market intervention. The report concludes with a demonstration of how to use the framework to compare the impacts estimated for twelve policy measures focusing on increasing the energy efficiency of gas furnaces in the United States.

  9. Comparing Two Forms of Dynamic Assessment and Traditional Assessment of Preschool Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantor, Patricia Thatcher; Wagner, Richard K.; Torgesen, Joseph K.; Rashotte, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to compare two forms of dynamic assessment and standard assessment of preschool children's phonological awareness. The first form of dynamic assessment was a form of scaffolding in which item formats were modified in response to an error so as to make the task easier or more explicit. The second form of dynamic…

  10. Comparative validity of the Shedler and Westen Assessment Procedure-200.

    PubMed

    Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N; Widiger, Thomas A

    2008-06-01

    A predominant dimensional model of general personality structure is the five-factor model (FFM). Quite a number of alternative instruments have been developed to assess the domains of the FFM. The current study compares the validity of 2 alternative versions of the Shedler and Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-200) FFM scales, 1 that was developed on the basis of items identified by J. Shedler and D. Westen (2004) and 1 that used items identified by R. R. McCrae, C. E. Lokenhoff, and P. T. Costa (2005). The comparative validity of both measures was examined in a sample of persons who evidenced personality-related problems in living (N = 94). The McCrae et al. Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Openness scales were superior to their respective Shedler and Westen scales. Both research teams developed comparably valid Extraversion and Conscientiousness scales. Implications of the results for future SWAP-200 research are discussed. PMID:18557696

  11. Autopsy Practice in Ghana - Reflections of a Pathologist.

    PubMed

    Anim, J T

    2015-06-01

    Autopsy practice in Ghana can be said to be far from satisfactory. Most Ghanaians do not know that there are different categories of death, which categories of death require an autopsy and who is required to perform the autopsy. The problems have further been complicated by the fact that, unlike other countries where separate facilities are available for storage of the different categories of dead bodies, all dead bodies in Ghana are conveyed to the hospital mortuary, thus encouraging hospitals to expand body storage facilities in their mortuaries to meet the increasing demand. Public or community mortuaries used elsewhere for storage of bodies of deaths occurring in the community pending the Coroner's directions are non-existent in Ghana. Storage of all categories of dead bodies in hospital mortuaries has resulted in virtually all autopsies being done by the hospital pathologists, especially in the large centres, at the expense of other very important diagnostic functions of the pathologist. This paper explains relevant portions of the Coroner's Act of 1960 and emphasises the need to separate the few hospital autopsies that require the expertise of the pathologist from Coroner's autopsies that may be carried out by any registered medical officer, as specified in the Act, or better still, by specially trained Forensic Physicians/Medical Examiners, as pertains in other countries. The paper also clarifies the different categories of death, those that fall in the jurisdiction of the Coroner and the personnel required to assist the Coroner in his investigastions. Suggestions have also been made on how to approach manpower development to ensure that appropriate personnel are trained to assist the Coroner in the investgation of medico-legal cases. PMID:26339096

  12. Current Training and Continuing Education Needs of Preschool and School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists regarding Children with Cleft Lip/Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedwinek, Anne P.; Kummer, Ann W.; Rice, Gale B.; Grames, Lynn Marty

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to obtain information regarding the education and experience of preschool and school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) regarding the assessment and treatment of children born with cleft lip and/or palate and to determine their continuing education needs in this area. Method: A 16-item mixed-methods…

  13. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale: comparing reviewers’ to authors’ assessments

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lack of appropriate reporting of methodological details has previously been shown to distort risk of bias assessments in randomized controlled trials. The same might be true for observational studies. The goal of this study was to compare the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) assessment for risk of bias between reviewers and authors of cohort studies included in a published systematic review on risk factors for severe outcomes in patients infected with influenza. Methods Cohort studies included in the systematic review and published between 2008–2011 were included. The corresponding or first authors completed a survey covering all NOS items. Results were compared with the NOS assessment applied by reviewers of the systematic review. Inter-rater reliability was calculated using kappa (K) statistics. Results Authors of 65/182 (36%) studies completed the survey. The overall NOS score was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the reviewers’ assessment (median = 6; interquartile range [IQR] 6–6) compared with those by authors (median = 5, IQR 4–6). Inter-rater reliability by item ranged from slight (K = 0.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.19, 0.48) to poor (K = −0.06, 95% CI = −0.22, 0.10). Reliability for the overall score was poor (K = −0.004, 95% CI = −0.11, 0.11). Conclusions Differences in assessment and low agreement between reviewers and authors suggest the need to contact authors for information not published in studies when applying the NOS in systematic reviews. PMID:24690082

  14. Accidental childhood death and the role of the pathologist.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W

    2000-01-01

    The following study provides an overview of accidental childhood death. This study is based on a review of 369 cases of fatal childhood accidents taken from the records of the Department of Histopathology, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, Australia, over a 34-year period from 1963 to 1996. Data provide information on deaths due to motor vehicle accidents, drownings, accidental asphyxia, burns, poisonings, electrocution, and miscellaneous trauma. In addition, certain categories have undergone further examination, including asphyxial deaths due to unsafe sleeping environments and unsafe eating practices, drowning deaths, and deaths on farms, following identification of significant child safety problems in these areas as part of the "Keeping Your Baby and Child Safe" program. Previously unrecognized dangers to children detected through this program include mesh-sided cots, V-shaped pillows, and certain types of stroller-prams. The production of information pamphlets and packages for parents and the recall of certain dangerous products following recommendations made by pathologists demonstrate that pediatric and forensic pathologists have an important role to play in preventive medicine issues and in formulating public health strategies. PMID:10890925

  15. Information Uncertainty to Compare Qualitative Reasoning Security Risk Assessment Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Gregory M; Key, Brian P; Zerkle, David K; Shevitz, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    The security risk associated with malevolent acts such as those of terrorism are often void of the historical data required for a traditional PRA. Most information available to conduct security risk assessments for these malevolent acts is obtained from subject matter experts as subjective judgements. Qualitative reasoning approaches such as approximate reasoning and evidential reasoning are useful for modeling the predicted risk from information provided by subject matter experts. Absent from these approaches is a consistent means to compare the security risk assessment results. Associated with each predicted risk reasoning result is a quantifiable amount of information uncertainty which can be measured and used to compare the results. This paper explores using entropy measures to quantify the information uncertainty associated with conflict and non-specificity in the predicted reasoning results. The measured quantities of conflict and non-specificity can ultimately be used to compare qualitative reasoning results which are important in triage studies and ultimately resource allocation. Straight forward extensions of previous entropy measures are presented here to quantify the non-specificity and conflict associated with security risk assessment results obtained from qualitative reasoning models.

  16. Comparative life cycle assessment of three biohydrogen pathways.

    PubMed

    Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2011-02-01

    A life cycle assessment was performed to quantify and compare the energetic and environmental performances of hydrogen from wheat straw (WS-H(2)), sweet sorghum stalk (SSS-H(2)), and steam potato peels (SPP-H(2)). Inventory data were derived from a pilot plant. Impacts were assessed using the impact 2002+ method. When co-product was not considered, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 5.60 kg CO(2eq) kg(-1) H(2) for WS-H(2), 5.32 kg CO(2eq) kg(-1) H(2) for SSS-H(2), and 5.18 kg CO(2eq) kg(-1) H(2) for SPP-H(2). BioH(2) pathways reduced GHG emissions by 52-56% compared to diesel and by 54-57% compared to steam methane reforming production of H(2). The energy ratios (ER) were also comparable: 1.08 for WS-H(2), 1.14 for SSS-H(2) and 1.17 for SPP-H(2). A shift from SPP-H(2) to WS-H(2) would therefore not affect the ER and GHG emissions of these BioH(2) pathways. When co-product was considered, a shift from SPP-H(2) to WS-H(2) or SSS-H(2) decreased the ER, while increasing the GHG emissions significantly. Co-product yield should be considered when selecting BioH(2) feedstocks. PMID:21112211

  17. Perspectives of Speech-Language Pathologists on the Use of Telepractice in Schools: Quantitative Survey Results

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Janice K.

    2012-01-01

    This research surveyed 170 school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in one northeastern state, with only 1.8% reporting telepractice use in school-settings. These results were consistent with two ASHA surveys (2002; 2011) that reported limited use of telepractice for school-based speech-language pathology. In the present study, willingness to use telepractice was inversely related to age, perhaps because younger members of the profession are more accustomed to using technology. Overall, respondents were concerned about the validity of assessments administered via telepractice; whether clinicians can adequately establish rapport with clients via telepractice; and if therapy conducted via telepractice can be as effective as in-person speech-language therapy. Most respondents indicated the need to establish procedures and guidelines for school-based telepractice programs. PMID:25945204

  18. A pathologist-in-the-loop IHC antibody test selection using the entropy-based probabilistic method

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dmitriy; Arthur, Gerald; Caldwell, Charles; Popescu, Mihail; Petruc, Marius; Diaz-Arias, Alberto; Shyu, Chi-Ren

    2012-01-01

    Background: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an important tool to identify and quantify expression of certain proteins (antigens) to gain insights into the molecular processes in a diseased tissue. However, it is a challenge for pathologists to remember the discriminative characteristics of the growing number of such antigens across multiple diseases. The complexity of their expression patterns, fueled by continuous discoveries in molecular pathology, gives rise to a combinatorial explosion that places an unprecedented burden on a practicing pathologist and therefore increases cost and variability of IHC studies. Materials and Methods: To tackle these issues, we have developed antibody test optimized selection method, a novel informatics tool to help pathologists in improving the IHC antibody selection process. The method uses extensions of Shannon's information entropies and Bayesian probabilities to dynamically build an efficient diagnostic tree. Results: A comparative analysis of our method with the expert and World Health Organization classification guidelines showed that the proposed method brings threefold reduction in number of antibody tests required to reach a diagnostic conclusion. Conclusion: The developed method can significantly streamline the antibody test selection process, decrease associated costs and reduce inter- and intrapathologist variability in IHC decision-making. PMID:22439121

  19. Comparative assessment of nanomaterial definitions and safety evaluation considerations.

    PubMed

    Boverhof, Darrell R; Bramante, Christina M; Butala, John H; Clancy, Shaun F; Lafranconi, Mark; West, Jay; Gordon, Steve C

    2015-10-01

    Nanomaterials continue to bring promising advances to science and technology. In concert have come calls for increased regulatory oversight to ensure their appropriate identification and evaluation, which has led to extensive discussions about nanomaterial definitions. Numerous nanomaterial definitions have been proposed by government, industry, and standards organizations. We conducted a comprehensive comparative assessment of existing nanomaterial definitions put forward by governments to highlight their similarities and differences. We found that the size limits used in different definitions were inconsistent, as were considerations of other elements, including agglomerates and aggregates, distributional thresholds, novel properties, and solubility. Other important differences included consideration of number size distributions versus weight distributions and natural versus intentionally-manufactured materials. Overall, the definitions we compared were not in alignment, which may lead to inconsistent identification and evaluation of nanomaterials and could have adverse impacts on commerce and public perceptions of nanotechnology. We recommend a set of considerations that future discussions of nanomaterial definitions should consider for describing materials and assessing their potential for health and environmental impacts using risk-based approaches within existing assessment frameworks. Our intent is to initiate a dialogue aimed at achieving greater clarity in identifying those nanomaterials that may require additional evaluation, not to propose a formal definition. PMID:26111608

  20. The boundaries of cellular pathology: how pathologists see their clinical role.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David; Philips, Zoë; Grisaffiî, Kate; Whynes, David K

    2002-03-01

    There has been much recent public attention on the effects of the practices of cellular pathology on patients and their relatives. It is important to establish clearly pathologists' views about their professional relationships to clinicians and patients. A national postal questionnaire survey was performed to investigate how cellular pathologists perceive their role in clinical practice and whether there are important differences between different groups of pathologists. Responses were received from 773 pathologists, of whom 167 were trainees. On the basis of responses to 25 attitude statements, it appears that the profession shares a core belief that pathologists are clinicians rather than scientists and sees diagnosis as its main clinical responsibility. However, the role that each pathologist feels clear about differs significantly between pathologists, with a stronger consensus over function, responsibility, and professional image than on the clinical practice of pathology, job satisfaction, and the impact of technological change. Academic activities are a minority interest, although academic pathologists express better job satisfaction and more radical views of professional practice. Young trainees are more likely to work in teaching hospitals, to be female, to have trained outside the UK, and to have had experience in other specialties. They have, however, a more restricted view of the clinical role of pathology than accredited pathologists. Most cellular pathologists see themselves as clinicians with a special role in diagnosis, but how this is interpreted and the extent to which pathologists involve themselves in clinical decision-making is inconsistent. This professional dilemma should be addressed by research to obtain more systematic knowledge of the clinical impact of cellular pathology and especially the ill-defined links between diagnosis and clinical decision-making. PMID:11857501

  1. Transcription factor motif quality assessment requires systematic comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kibet, Caleb Kipkurui; Machanick, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factor (TF) binding site prediction remains a challenge in gene regulatory research due to degeneracy and potential variability in binding sites in the genome. Dozens of algorithms designed to learn binding models (motifs) have generated many motifs available in research papers with a subset making it to databases like JASPAR, UniPROBE and Transfac. The presence of many versions of motifs from the various databases for a single TF and the lack of a standardized assessment technique makes it difficult for biologists to make an appropriate choice of binding model and for algorithm developers to benchmark, test and improve on their models. In this study, we review and evaluate the approaches in use, highlight differences and demonstrate the difficulty of defining a standardized motif assessment approach. We review scoring functions, motif length, test data and the type of performance metrics used in prior studies as some of the factors that influence the outcome of a motif assessment. We show that the scoring functions and statistics used in motif assessment influence ranking of motifs in a TF-specific manner. We also show that TF binding specificity can vary by source of genomic binding data. We also demonstrate that information content of a motif is not in isolation a measure of motif quality but is influenced by TF binding behaviour. We conclude that there is a need for an easy-to-use tool that presents all available evidence for a comparative analysis. PMID:27092243

  2. Alternative future scenarios for the SPS comparative assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, R.U.; Ridker, R.G.; Watson, W.D. Jr.; Arnold, J.; Tayi, G.

    1980-08-01

    The objective of the comparative assessment is to develop an initial understanding of the SPS with respect to a limited set of energy alternatives. A comparative methodology report describes the multi-step process in the comparative assessment. The first step is the selection and characterization of alternative energy systems. Terrestrial alternatives are selected, and their cost, performance, and environmental and social attributes are specified for use in the comparison with the SPS in the post-2000 era. Data on alternative technologies were sought from previous research and from other comparisons. The object of this study is to provide a futures framework for evaluating SPS (i.e., factor prices, primary energy prices, and energy demands for the US from 1980 to 2030). The economic/energy interactions are discussed, and a number of specific modelling schemes that have been used for long-range forecasting purposes are described. This discussion provides the rationale for the choice of a specific model and methodology, which is described. Long-range cost assumptions used in the forecast are detailed, and the basis for the selection of specific scenarios follows. Results of the analysis are detailed. (WHK)

  3. Biogrouting compared to jet grouting: environmental (LCA) and economical assessment.

    PubMed

    Suer, Pascal; Hallberg, Niklas; Carlsson, Christel; Bendz, David; Holm, Goran

    2009-03-01

    In order to predict consequences of replacing jet grouting with biogrouting, and identify major contributors to the cost of both technologies, a large road project in Stockholm, Sweden, was used as a case study. Jet grouting had been used to seal the contact between sheet piling and bedrock, biogrouting for the same function was computed. A comparative environmental and economical assessment was carried out using life cycle assessment (LCA). The results show that biogrouting was cheaper than jet grouting and would have had lower environmental impact. The major difference was the transport and use of heavier equipment for jet grouting. Biogrouting also used less water and produced less landfilled waste. However, the production of urea and CaCl(2) for biogrouting required much energy. PMID:19184701

  4. Comparative Assessment of Fetal Malnutrition by Anthropometry and CAN Score

    PubMed Central

    Soundarya, Mahalingam; Basavaprabhu, Achappa; Raghuveera, Kamila; Baliga, BS; Shivanagaraja, BSV

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Fetal malnutrition (FM) implies soft tissue wasting at birth with significant postnatal consequences and morbidity, and is identified by clinical assessment (CAN score) and anthropometry. No previous studies have been done to study all these parameters and evolve a screening method. The aim of this study was identifying the incidence of FM using CAN score and compare the nutritional assessment with anthropometry and evolve a screening tool for rapid assessment of FM. Methods Prospective study in Government district maternity hospital. 300 term newborns were assessed by CAN score and anthropometry recorded. The newborns were classified as per weight for age. Ponderal index (PI), Body mass index (BMI) and midarm circumference/head circumference ratio (MAC/HC) calculated and compared to CAN Score for accuracy in identifying FM. Findings Incidence of FM was 24%. Newborns identified malnourished by PI, BMI, MAC/HC were evaluated by CAN score and significant number of them (31/78 in PI, 60/121 in BMI, 51/81 in MAC/HC) were found well nourished. Similarly those recognized as normal by PI, BMI, MAC/HC were malnourished by CAN score(25/222 in PI, 11/179 in BMI, 42/219 in MAC/HC) with statistical significance(0.0001). BMI had the highest sensitivity and 11 neonates with normal BMI had low CAN score ann 9 of them had normal PI also making a combination of BMI and PI a good indicator of normal nutrition. Conclusion FM is best identified by CAN Score. BMI is the best screening tool for malnutrition and when coupled with PI will identify most normally nourished newborns. PMID:23056862

  5. Framework for a comparative environmental assessment of drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.

    1998-11-01

    During the drilling of an oil or gas well, drilling fluid (or mud) is used to maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. In response to effluent limitation guidelines promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for discharge of drilling wastes offshore, alternatives to water and oil-based muds have been developed. These synthetic-based muds (SBMs) are more efficient than water-based muds (WBMs) for drilling difficult and complex formation intervals and have lower toxicity and smaller environmental impacts than diesel or conventional mineral oil-based muds (OBMs). A third category of drilling fluids, derived from petroleum and called enhanced mineral oils (EMOs), also have these advantages over the traditionally used OBMs and WBMs. EPA recognizes that SBMs and EMOs are new classes of drilling fluids, but their regulatory status is unclear. To address this uncertainty, EPA is following an innovative presumptive rulemaking process that will develop final regulations for SBM discharges offshore in less than three years. This report develops a framework for a comparative risk assessment for the discharge of SBMs and EMOs, to help support a risk-based, integrated approach to regulatory decision making. The framework will help identify potential impacts and benefits associated with the use of SBMs, EMOs, WBMs, and OBMs; identify areas where additional data are needed; and support early decision-making in the absence of complete data. As additional data becomes available, the framework can support a full quantitative comparative assessment. Detailed data are provided to support a comparative assessment in the areas of occupational and public health impacts.

  6. Comparing potential early caries assessment methods for teledentistry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Optical caries detection has the potential to be incorporated in telehealth medicine for preventive dental screening. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare visible and near infrared detection methods for identifying early non-cavitated ex vivo occlusal demineralization. Methods Six blinded examiners were used to compare the accuracy of the following three examinations in detecting occlusal demineralization: Midwest Caries ID™ (MID), visual photographic examination (CAM) and Cross Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography (CP-OCT). For each diagnostic method, two examiners assessed the extracted tooth samples 1–2 weeks apart. Teeth were then sectioned and lesion depth was confirmed (n = 42) by a blinded histological examination using a glycol based caries indicator dye. The sensitivity (Sen), specificity (Sp), Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), and Area under the Receiver Operator Curve (AUC) were calculated. Results For detecting any demineralization versus sound pit and fissure enamel, the mean Sen/Sp found was 46.9/85.0 for MID, 80.5/52.5 for CAM, and 83.4/45.0 for CP-OCT. For detecting non-cavitated demineralization that progressed into the dentin, the mean Sen/Sp found was 17.3/88.0 for MID, 48.0/57.8 for CAM, and 44.2/72.7 for CP-OCT. AUC values were statistically significant (P < 0.05) in three out of four examiner assessments when MID and CP-OCT were used to detect any demineralization. AUC values were significant for a single CAM examination. When assessing deeper non-cavitated lesions, none of the assessment methods were able to yield AUC values that were significantly different than a random ‘coin flip’ test. When examining reliability, MID demonstrated the highest ICC score (0.83) and CP-OCT had the lowest (0.49). Conclusion Although MID and CP-OCT were useful in detecting the presence of demineralization, examiners were not able to utilize these devices to adequately assess the depth of the

  7. Comparative endocrinology of leptin: Assessing function in a phylogenetic context

    PubMed Central

    Londraville, Richard L.; Macotela, Yazmin; Duff, Robert J.; Easterling, Marietta R.; Liu, Qin; Crespi, Erica J.

    2014-01-01

    As we approach the end of two decades of leptin research, the comparative biology of leptin is just beginning. We now have several leptin orthologs described from nearly every major clade among vertebrates, and are moving beyond gene descriptions to functional studies. Even at this early stage, it is clear that non-mammals display clear functional similarities and differences with their better-studied mammalian counterparts. This review assesses what we know about leptin function in mammals and non-mammals, and gives examples of how these data can inform leptin biology in humans. PMID:24525452

  8. Individual differences and subjective workload assessment - Comparing pilots to nonpilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

    1987-01-01

    Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.

  9. Juvenile Toxicology: Relevance and Challenges for Toxicologists and Pathologists

    PubMed Central

    Remick, Amera K.; Catlin, Natasha R.; Quist, Erin M.; Steinbach, Thomas J.; Dixon, Darlene

    2015-01-01

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) Education Committee and the STP Reproductive Special Interest Group held a North Carolina regional meeting entitled, “Juvenile Toxicology: Relevance and Challenges for Toxicologists and Pathologists” on March 13, 2015, at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Toxicology Program in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The purpose of this regional meeting was to familiarize attendees with the topic of juvenile toxicity testing and discuss its relevance to clinical pediatric medicine, regulatory perspectives, challenges of appropriate study design confronted by toxicologists, and challenges of histopathologic examination and interpretation of juvenile tissues faced by pathologists. The 1-day meeting was a success with over 60 attendees representing industry, government, research organizations, and academia. PMID:26220944

  10. Science-based practice and the speech-language pathologist.

    PubMed

    Lof, Gregory L

    2011-06-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a well established concept in the field of speech-language pathology. However, evidence from research may not be the primary information that practitioners use to guide their treatment selection from the many potential options. There are various alternative therapy procedures that are strongly promoted, so clinicians must become skilled at identifying pseudoscience from science in order to determine if a treatment is legitimate or actually quackery. In order to advance the use of EBP, clinicians can gather practice-based evidence (PBE) by using the scientific method. By adhering to the principles of science, speech-language pathologists can incorporate science-based practice (SBP) into all aspects of their clinical work. PMID:21054232

  11. An Approach to Assess Generalizability in Comparative Effectiveness Research

    PubMed Central

    Steventon, Adam; Grieve, Richard; Bardsley, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Policy makers require estimates of comparative effectiveness that apply to the population of interest, but there has been little research on quantitative approaches to assess and extend the generalizability of randomized controlled trial (RCT)–based evaluations. We illustrate an approach using observational data. Methods. Our example is the Whole Systems Demonstrator (WSD) trial, in which 3230 adults with chronic conditions were assigned to receive telehealth or usual care. First, we used novel placebo tests to assess whether outcomes were similar between the RCT control group and a matched subset of nonparticipants who received usual care. We matched on 65 baseline variables obtained from the electronic medical record. Second, we conducted sensitivity analysis to consider whether the estimates of treatment effectiveness were robust to alternative assumptions about whether “usual care” is defined by the RCT control group or nonparticipants. Thus, we provided alternative estimates of comparative effectiveness by contrasting the outcomes of the RCT telehealth group and matched nonparticipants. Results. For some endpoints, such as the number of outpatient attendances, the placebo tests passed, and the effectiveness estimates were robust to the choice of comparison group. However, for other endpoints, such as emergency admissions, the placebo tests failed and the estimates of treatment effect differed markedly according to whether telehealth patients were compared with RCT controls or matched nonparticipants. Conclusions. The proposed placebo tests indicate those cases when estimates from RCTs do not generalize to routine clinical practice and motivate complementary estimates of comparative effectiveness that use observational data. Future RCTs are recommended to incorporate these placebo tests and the accompanying sensitivity analyses to enhance their relevance to policy making. PMID:25986472

  12. Speech-Language Pathologist and General Educator Collaboration: A Model for Tier 2 Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Gina D.; Bellon-Harn, Monica L.

    2014-01-01

    Tier 2 supplemental instruction within a response to intervention framework provides a unique opportunity for developing partnerships between speech-language pathologists and classroom teachers. Speech-language pathologists may participate in Tier 2 instruction via a consultative or collaborative service delivery model depending on district needs.…

  13. A Methodology for Robust Comparative Life Cycle Assessments Incorporating Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Jeremy R; Noshadravan, Arash; Olivetti, Elsa A; Kirchain, Randolph E

    2016-06-21

    We propose a methodology for conducting robust comparative life cycle assessments (LCA) by leveraging uncertainty. The method evaluates a broad range of the possible scenario space in a probabilistic fashion while simultaneously considering uncertainty in input data. The method is intended to ascertain which scenarios have a definitive environmentally preferable choice among the alternatives being compared and the significance of the differences given uncertainty in the parameters, which parameters have the most influence on this difference, and how we can identify the resolvable scenarios (where one alternative in the comparison has a clearly lower environmental impact). This is accomplished via an aggregated probabilistic scenario-aware analysis, followed by an assessment of which scenarios have resolvable alternatives. Decision-tree partitioning algorithms are used to isolate meaningful scenario groups. In instances where the alternatives cannot be resolved for scenarios of interest, influential parameters are identified using sensitivity analysis. If those parameters can be refined, the process can be iterated using the refined parameters. We also present definitions of uncertainty quantities that have not been applied in the field of LCA and approaches for characterizing uncertainty in those quantities. We then demonstrate the methodology through a case study of pavements. PMID:27219285

  14. Coaches' assessment of their coaching efficacy compared to athletes' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Short, Sandra E; Short, Martin W

    2004-10-01

    This study compared coaches' assessments of their own coaching efficacy with their athletes' perceptions of the coaches' efficacy. Coaching efficacy was measured with the Coaching Efficacy Scale. Participants were 9 football coaches and 76 football players from the same team. Analysis indicated coaches were confident in their coaching abilities (range 6.5 to 9.0 on a 9-point scale). For 7 of the 9 coaches the coaches' ratings of themselves were higher than the athletes' ratings. For the other 2 coaches, athletes' ratings of coaches' efficacy were higher than the coaches' ratings of themselves. All coaches' ratings fell within the 95% confidence interval based on the athletes' ratings of the coaches' efficacy. Results are discussed in terms of the interplay between athletes and coaches efficacy beliefs and its influence on behavior. PMID:15560366

  15. Comparing life cycle assessments of different biofuel options.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Alissa; Yuan, Juhong

    2013-06-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has shown that first generation biofuels provide a little to no benefit for greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions compared to petroleum fuels, particularly when indirect effects are considered. Second generation fuels are intended to achieve greater GHG reductions and avoid other sustainability issues. LCAs of second generation biofuels exhibit great variability and uncertainty, leading to inconclusive results for the performance of particular pathways (combinations of feedstocks and fuels). Variability arises in part because of the prospective nature of LCAs for future fuels; however, a review of recent articles on biofuel LCA methodology indicates two additional sources of variability: real sources such as spatiotemporal heterogeneity, and methodological sources such as choices for co-product allocation methods and system boundary definition. PMID:23490811

  16. A comparative assessment of the economics of plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.A.; Miller, J.W.; Reid, R.L.

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) has been evaluating three technologies for the disposition of approximately 50 metric tons of surplus plutonium from defense-related programs: reactors, immobilization, and deep boreholes. As part of the process supporting an early CY 1997 Record of Decision (ROD), a comprehensive assessment of technical viability, cost, and schedule has been conducted by DOE/MD and its national laboratory contractors. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has managed and coordinated the life-cycle cost (LCC) assessment effort for this program. This paper discusses the economic analysis methodology and the results prior to ROD. A secondary intent of the paper is to discuss major technical and economic issues that impact cost and schedule. To evaluate the economics of these technologies on an equitable basis, a set of cost-estimating guidelines and a common cost-estimating format were utilized by all three technology teams. This paper also includes the major economic analysis assumptions and the comparative constant-dollar and discounted-dollar LCCs.

  17. Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicles: A comparative assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A representative set of space systems, functions, and missions for NASA and DoD from which launch vehicle requirements and characteristics was established as well as a set of air-breathing launch vehicles based on graduated technology capabilities corresponding to increasingly higher staging Mach numbers. The utility of the air-breathing launch vehicle candidates based on lift-off weight, performance, technology needs, and risk was assessed and costs were compared to alternative concepts. The results indicate that a fully reusable launch vehicle, whether two stage or one stage, could potentially reduce the cost per flight 60-80% compared to that for a partially reusable vehicle but would require advances in thermal protection system technology. A two-stage-to-orbit, parallel-lift vehicle with an air-breathing booster would cost approximately the same as a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle, but the former would have greater flexibility and a significantly reduced developmental risk. A twin-booster, subsonic-staged, parallel-lift vehicle represents the lowest system cost and developmental risk. However, if a large supersonic turbojet engine in the 350,000-N thrust class were available, supersonic staging would be preferred, and the investment in development would be returned in reduced program cost.

  18. Comparative Assessment of Lixisenatide, Exenatide, and Liraglutide Pen Devices

    PubMed Central

    Enginee, Diplom; Elton, Hina; Penfornis, Alfred; Edelman, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a relatively recent addition to the treatment options for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and are administered using prefilled pen devices. Method: In this open-label task and interview-based pilot study, 3 GLP-1 receptor agonist pen devices—exenatide (Byetta®, Bristol-Myers Squibb/AstraZeneca), liraglutide (Victoza®, Novo Nordisk), and lixisenatide (Lyxumia®, Sanofi-Aventis)—were comparatively assessed in a randomized order in 30 participants with T2DM for ease of use, using a series of key performance measures (time taken to complete a series of tasks, number of user errors [successful performance], and user satisfaction rating). Linear and logistic regression analysis was conducted for the lixisenatide and liraglutide pens versus the exenatide pen. Participants’ mean age was 60 years; 27% and 20% of the participants had visual impairments and reduced manual dexterity, respectively. Results: Tasks were completed faster (P < .001) and with higher successful performance (P = .001) with the lixisenatide pen than with the exenatide pen, whereas the liraglutide pen was not statistically significant versus the exenatide pen on these parameters. Overall, user satisfaction was statistically higher for the lixisenatide and liraglutide pens versus the exenatide pen (P < .001 for both). Conclusions: Lixisenatide and liraglutide pens are associated with higher user satisfaction compared with the exenatide pen. In addition, the lixisenatide pen is faster and results in fewer errors than its comparator (exenatide). The lixisenatide pen may therefore be a suitable choice for patients with T2DM, including older and pen device-naïve patients, and those with visual impairments and reduced manual dexterity. PMID:24876548

  19. Making environmental assessments of biomass production systems comparable worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Markus A.; Seppelt, Ralf; Witing, Felix; Priess, Joerg A.

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for agricultural and forestry products fundamentally affects regional land-use change associated with environmental impacts (EIs) such as erosion. In contrast to aggregated global metrics such as greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, local/regional EIs of different agricultural and forestry production regions need methods which enable worldwide EI comparisons. The key aspect is to control environmental heterogeneity to reveal man-made differences of EIs between production regions. Environmental heterogeneity is the variation in biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. In the present study, we used three approaches to control environmental heterogeneity: (i) environmental stratification, (ii) potential natural vegetation (PNV), and (iii) regional environmental thresholds to compare EIs of solid biomass production. We compared production regions of managed forests and plantation forests in subtropical (Satilla watershed, Southeastern US), tropical (Rufiji basin, Tanzania), and temperate (Mulde watershed, Central Germany) climates. All approaches supported the comparison of the EIs of different land-use classes between and within production regions. They also standardized the different EIs for a comparison between the EI categories. The EIs for different land-use classes within a production region decreased with increasing degree of naturalness (forest, plantation forestry, and cropland). PNV was the most reliable approach, but lacked feasibility and relevance. The PNV approach explicitly included most of the factors that drive environmental heterogeneity in contrast to the stratification and threshold approaches. The stratification approach allows consistent global application due to available data. Regional environmental thresholds only included arbitrarily selected aspects of environmental heterogeneity; they are only available for few EIs. Especially, the PNV and stratification approaches are options to compare regional EIs of biomass or crop production

  20. Regulatory forum opinion piece: the role of the toxicologic pathologist in the postgenomic era: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Maronpot, Robert R

    2012-10-01

    The "omics," high-throughput screening, computational modeling, and database mining revolutions have each arrived with euphoric expectations, considerable hand waving, and promises to set toxicity testing priorities and reduce reliance on conventional animal toxicity and carcinogenicity testing. Reflecting back on prior experience with other predictive approaches and alternatives, what follows the rush to endorse a promising new technology or different approach to toxicity/carcinogenicity testing is years of grinding out data for validation and optimization. Much of what has driven the enthusiasm for each new emerging technology and approach is the costly, labor-intensive, and sometimes irrelevant and inefficient rodent bioassay-testing paradigm. However, no one should expect abandonment of all animal testing for the foreseeable future, especially for agrochemicals and environmental xenobiotic exposures. It is reasonable to anticipate the future will bring still new approaches to safety testing and human risk assessment. In the past, each new approach has not achieved the inflated expectations for safety testing and human risk assessment but often has become a useful research tool with tangible contributions to basic biology and clinical medicine. The toxicologic pathologist is embedded in the matrix of a mixed disciplinary milieu and is faced with some critical challenges and important opportunities in the postgenomic decades ahead. So what advice do we give to the journeyman toxicologic pathologist who will hopefully function effectively in the postgenomic decades ahead? And what advice do we also give to the experienced bench pathologist confronted with emerging technologies each accompanied by a bewildering array of techno-jargon so that he or she can remain effective as a toxicologic pathology practitioner? PMID:22585943

  1. Pathologists' roles in clinical utilization management. A financing model for managed care.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J J; Liberman, A

    2000-03-01

    In ancillary or laboratory utilization management, the roles of pathologists have not been explored fully in managed care systems. Two possible reasons may account for this: pathologists' potential contributions have not been defined clearly, and effective measurement of and reasonable compensation for the pathologist's contribution remains vague. The responsibilities of pathologists in clinical practice may include clinical pathology and laboratory services (which have long been well-defined and are compensated according to a resource-based relative value system-based coding system), laboratory administration, clinical utilization management, and clinical research. Although laboratory administration services have been compensated with mechanisms such as percentage of total service revenue or fixed salary, the involvement of pathologists seems less today than in the past, owing to increased clinical workload and time constraints in an expanding managed care environment, especially in community hospital settings. The lack of financial incentives or appropriate compensation mechanisms for the services likely accounts for the current situation. Furthermore, the importance of pathologist-driven utilization management in laboratory services lacks recognition among hospital administrators, managed care executives, and pathologists themselves, despite its potential benefits for reducing cost and enhancing quality of care. We propose a financial compensation model for such services and summarize its advantages. PMID:10705812

  2. Ethical dilemmas experienced by speech-language pathologists working in private practice.

    PubMed

    Flatley, Danielle R; Kenny, Belinda J; Lincoln, Michelle A

    2014-06-01

    Speech-language pathologists experience ethical dilemmas as they fulfil their professional roles and responsibilities. Previous research findings indicated that speech-language pathologists working in publicly funded settings identified ethical dilemmas when they managed complex clients, negotiated professional relationships, and addressed service delivery issues. However, little is known about ethical dilemmas experienced by speech-language pathologists working in private practice settings. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by speech-language pathologists working in private practice. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 10 speech-language pathologists employed in diverse private practice settings. Participants explained the nature of ethical dilemmas they experienced at work and identified their most challenging and frequently occurring ethical conflicts. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse transcribed data and generate themes. Four themes reflected the nature of speech-language pathologists' ethical dilemmas; balancing benefit and harm, fidelity of business practices, distributing funds, and personal and professional integrity. Findings support the need for professional development activities that are specifically targeted towards facilitating ethical practice for speech-language pathologists in the private sector. PMID:24735456

  3. Raising future forensic pathologists (second report): results of a preliminary interview survey.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Manabu; Matoba, Kotaro; Hayakawa, Akira; Terazawa, Koichi

    2012-08-01

    Fostering the specialists of forensic pathology has become a worldwide problem. In Japan, factors such as government budget cuts, the introduction of initial postgraduate clinical training system, as well as national policy on increasing autopsy rates, may deter young graduates from entering this specialty. The aim of this study was to look for clues to promote the training of young forensic pathologists. We selected and interviewed five forensic pathologists, with each interview lasting approximately 60 minutes, and picked up common views among them. The interviews topic, based on a prior survey, was: "What do you believe forensic pathologists require to promote the training of their successors." We selected common views on the three themes listed below; 1) standardization of minimum requirements to be independent forensic pathologists, 2) balancing forensic pathologists' time among autopsy practice, research, and education, and 3) preparing positions for younger forensic pathologists. These opinions were the same as those of previous studies conducted overseas and must be discussed at academic conferences in the future, where both junior and senior forensic pathologists participate. PMID:23016268

  4. Inter-observer reproducibility before and after web-based education in the Gleason grading of the prostate adenocarcinoma among the Iranian pathologists.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Alireza; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Meysamie, Alipasha; Bakhshandeh, Mohammadreza; Hosseinzadeh, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at determining intra and inter-observer concordance rates in the Gleason scoring of prostatic adenocarcinoma, before and after a web-based educational course. In this self-controlled study, 150 tissue samples of prostatic adenocarcinoma are re-examined to be scored according to the Gleason scoring system. Then all pathologists attend a free web-based course. Afterwards, the same 150 samples [with different codes compared to the previous ones] are distributed differently among the pathologists to be assigned Gleason scores. After gathering the data, the concordance rate in the first and second reports of pathologists is determined. In the pre web-education, the mean kappa value of Interobserver agreement was 0.25 [fair agreement]. Post web-education significantly improved with the mean kappa value of 0.52 [moderate agreement]. Using weighted kappa values, significant improvement was observed in inter-observer agreement in higher scores of Gleason grade; Score 10 was achieved for the mean kappa value in post web-education was 0.68 [substantial agreement] compared to 0.25 (fair agreement) in pre web-education. Web-based training courses are attractive to pathologists as they do not need to spend much time and money. Therefore, such training courses are strongly recommended for significant pathological issues including the grading of the prostate adenocarcinoma. Through web-based education, pathologists can exchange views and contribute to the rise in the level of reproducibility. Such programs need to be included in post-graduation programs. PMID:24902017

  5. Comparative environmental assessment of natural and recycled aggregate concrete.

    PubMed

    Marinković, S; Radonjanin, V; Malešev, M; Ignjatović, I

    2010-11-01

    Constant and rapid increase in construction and demolition (C&D) waste generation and consumption of natural aggregate for concrete production became one of the biggest environmental problems in the construction industry. Recycling of C&D waste represents one way to convert a waste product into a resource but the environment benefits through energy consumption, emissions and fallouts reductions are not certain. The main purpose of this study is to determine the potentials of recycled aggregate concrete (concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate) for structural applications and to compare the environmental impact of the production of two types of ready-mixed concrete: natural aggregate concrete (NAC) made entirely with river aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) made with natural fine and recycled coarse aggregate. Based on the analysis of up-to-date experimental evidence, including own tests results, it is concluded that utilization of RAC for low-to-middle strength structural concrete and non-aggressive exposure conditions is technically feasible. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed for raw material extraction and material production part of the concrete life cycle including transport. Assessment is based on local LCI data and on typical conditions in Serbia. Results of this specific case study show that impacts of aggregate and cement production phases are slightly larger for RAC than for NAC but the total environmental impacts depend on the natural and recycled aggregates transport distances and on transport types. Limit natural aggregate transport distances above which the environmental impacts of RAC can be equal or even lower than the impacts of NAC are calculated for the specific case study. PMID:20434898

  6. Comparative Assessment of Very High Resolution Satellite and Aerial Orthoimagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrafiotis, P.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to assess the accuracy and radiometric quality of orthorectified high resolution satellite imagery from Pleiades-1B satellites through a comparative evaluation of their quantitative and qualitative properties. A Pleiades-B1 stereopair of high resolution images taken in 2013, two adjacent GeoEye-1 stereopairs from 2011 and aerial orthomosaic (LSO) provided by NCMA S.A (Hellenic Cadastre) from 2007 have been used for the comparison tests. As control dataset orthomosaic from aerial imagery provided also by NCMA S.A (0.25m GSD) from 2012 was selected. The process for DSM and orthoimage production was performed using commercial digital photogrammetric workstations. The two resulting orthoimages and the aerial orthomosaic (LSO) were relatively and absolutely evaluated for their quantitative and qualitative properties. Test measurements were performed using the same check points in order to establish their accuracy both as far as the single point coordinates as well as their distances are concerned. Check points were distributed according to JRC Guidelines for Best Practice and Quality Checking of Ortho Imagery and NSSDA standards while areas with different terrain relief and land cover were also included. The tests performed were based also on JRC and NSSDA accuracy standards. Finally, tests were carried out in order to assess the radiometric quality of the orthoimagery. The results are presented with a statistical analysis and they are evaluated in order to present the merits and demerits of the imaging sensors involved for orthoimage production. The results also serve for a critical approach for the usability and cost efficiency of satellite imagery for the production of Large Scale Orthophotos.

  7. Impersonal medical care. Role of the pathologist in its evolution.

    PubMed

    Angrist, A A

    1975-07-01

    An evaluation of the change in the former close relationship between the patient and his physician, and the contribution of the pathologist to its development, is presented. The effect of these changes on the interest in and care of the patient by all in the hospital in this changing medical scene is decried; the patient loses much. The problem of impersonal care now involves all hospital care and all fields of medicine. The decline of interest in the autopsy and the formalization of this denigration of the autopsy by the Accreditation Commission has done harm to pathology and the care of the patient; the autopsy is still an important quality control of such care. Further, this change in the medical scene has promoted the development of the employee status of the doctor, with its further loss of independence, individual interest, and personalized care by all in the hospital, even the physician, and inevitably has led to his loss of the protection of due process. Seven recommendations are offered to recapture the old one-to-one doctor-patient arrangement, to yield a combination of tender loving and scientific care for the patient. An active effort must be made to reverse the influence of some of the forces working to the disadvantage of doctor and patient in the changing medical scene. PMID:1155370

  8. Providing high-quality research training for veterinary pathologists in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kipar, A; Aleksandersen, M; Benazzi, C; Hodge, T; Sukura, A; Wyers, M

    2007-03-01

    Despite their key role in a wide range of fields relating to animal and public health, there is currently a lack of veterinary pathologists in Europe. In 1999, to help address the problem, the European College of Veterinary Pathologists (ECVP) and the European Society of Veterinary Pathology (ESVP) established a joint Education Committee. In this Special Article, Professor Anja Kipar and colleagues, all members of the committee, describe the ECVP/ESVP Summer Schools in Veterinary Pathology programme, which aims to provide high-quality research training for veterinary pathologists from all over Europe and beyond. PMID:17337604

  9. Comparative assessment of the methods for exchangeable acidity measuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanchikova, E. V.; Shamrikova, E. V.; Bespyatykh, N. V.; Zaboeva, G. A.; Bobrova, Yu. I.; Kyz"yurova, E. V.; Grishchenko, N. V.

    2016-05-01

    A comparative assessment of the results of measuring the exchangeable acidity and its components by different methods was performed for the main mineral genetic horizons of texturally-differentiated gleyed and nongleyed soddy-podzolic and gley-podzolic soils of the Komi Republic. It was shown that the contents of all the components of exchangeable soil acidity determined by the Russian method (with potassium chloride solution as extractant, c(KCl) = 1 mol/dm3) were significantly higher than those obtained by the international method (with barium chloride solution as extractant, c(BaCl2) = 0.1 mol/dm3). The error of the estimate of the concentration of H+ ions extracted with barium chloride solution equaled 100%, and this allowed only qualitative description of this component of the soil acidity. In the case of the extraction with potassium chloride, the error of measurements was 50%. It was also shown that the use of potentiometric titration suggested by the Russian method overestimates the results of soil acidity measurement caused by the exchangeable metal ions (Al(III), Fe(III), and Mn(II)) in comparison with the atomic emission method.

  10. Comparative assessment of municipal wastewater disposal methods in southeast Florida.

    PubMed

    Bloetscher, Frederick; Englehardt, James D; Chin, David A; Rose, Joan B; Tchobanoglous, George; Amy, Vincent P; Gokgoz, Sinem

    2005-01-01

    A comparative assessment of the risks of three effluent disposal alternatives currently available to wastewater utilities in Southeast Florida is presented in this paper. The alternatives are: deep well injection and ocean outfalls following secondary treatment, and surface water (canal) discharges following secondary wastewater treatment, filtration and nutrient removal. Water quality data, relative to disposal of wastewater treatment plant effluent were gathered, along with water quality data on the receiving waters, from utilities. Comparisons and conclusions regarding potential health concerns associated with the three disposal alternatives are presented. The results indicated that health risks associated with deep wells were generally lower than those of the other two alternatives. The proximity of injection wells to aquifer storage and recovery wells was a determining factor relative to injection well risk. Urban ecological risks were also indicated to be lower, though impacts of urban water use/reuse to the Everglades were not studied. Additional data collection and analysis were recommended to understand the effects of wastewater management on the cycling of water, nutrients and other constituents on southeast Florida. In particular, it was recommended that monitoring of effluents for nitrosamines and pharmaceutically active substances be implemented on a broad scale. PMID:16274082

  11. Comparative cytotoxicity assessments of some manufactured and anthropogenic nanoparticulate materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Karla Fabiola

    Due to increasing diversity of newly engineered nanoparticles, it is important to consider the hazards of these materials. Very little is known regarding the potential toxicity of relatively new nanomaterials. However, beginning with several historical accounts of nanomaterials applications---chrysotile asbestos and silver---it was assumed that these examples would provide some awareness and guidelines for future nanomaterial and nanotechnology applications, especially health effects. In this study in vitro assays were performed on a murine alveolar macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7), human alveolar macrophage cell line (THB-1), and human epithelial lung cell line (A549) to assess the comparative cytotoxicity of a wide range of manufactured (Ag, TiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3, ZrO2, black carbon, two different types of multiwall structures and chrysotile asbestos as the toxicity standard) and anthropogenic nanoparticulates. There are several parameters of nanoparticulates that are considered to trigger an inflammatory response (particularly respiratory) or cause toxicity. These parameters include: particle size, shape, specific surface area, transition metals in particulates, and organic compounds. Therefore, a wide variety of manufactured and anthropogenic nanoparticulates having different morphologies, sizes, specific surface area and chemistries as noted were tested. To determine the nanoparticulates' size and morphology, they were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, where it was observed that the commercial multiwall carbon nanotube aggregate had an identical morphology to chrysotile asbestos and combustion-formed carbon nanotubes, i.e.; those that form from natural gas combustion. Light optical microscopy was used to determine cell morphology upon exposure to nanoparticulates as an indication of cell death. Also, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of the collected nanoparticulates was analyzed and correlated with cytotoxic responses. For

  12. A Framework for Developing Comparable Multilingual Assessments for Minority Populations: Why Context Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveri, Maria Elena; Ercikan, Kadriye; Simon, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of linguistic minorities often involves using multiple language versions of assessments. In these assessments, comparability of scores across language groups is central to valid comparative interpretations. Various frameworks and guidelines describe factors that need to be considered when developing comparable assessments. These…

  13. The pathologist's view of silicosis in 1930 and in 2015. The Johannesburg Conference legacy.

    PubMed

    Kambouchner, Marianne; Bernaudin, Jean-François

    2015-11-01

    The 1930 International Labour Office Conference on silicosis in Johannesburg was a turning point in the history of silicosis and in the recognition of the associated pathologic patterns. Since 1930, pneumoconioses such as silicosis have become much rarer in developed countries and can now be diagnosed at an early stage based on clinical and radiologic criteria. However, in spite of these advances, pathologists must remember to look for silica in tissues, particularly when clinical and radiologic findings are more uncertain. Furthermore, nowadays pathologists essentially observe silicotic lesions as incidental findings adjacent to lung cancers. In addition to identifying the characteristic lesions, pathologists must also try to identify their causative agent, in the case of crystalline silica firstly by using polarized light examination, followed as appropriate by more sophisticated devices. Finally, pathologists and clinicians must always keep in mind the various implications of exposure to silica compounds in a wide range of diseases. PMID:26509753

  14. Speech-Language Pathologists and Primary Prevention: From Ideas to Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Pauline T.

    1983-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists can help prevent communication disorders by helping to promote disability awareness, focusing on good health, limiting noise pollution, and helping to prevent injuries due to vocal misuse. Suggested activities for each aspect are presented. (CL)

  15. A comparative assessment of endogenous water institutional change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Saket; Ersten, Maurits

    2013-04-01

    This paper builds the theory of endogenous institutional change, first proposed by Greif and Laitin (2004), for water scarce regions in context of water institutions. The current emphasis on environmental change, including hydrological change, largely ignores the adaptation of human societies to change. Humans have mostly been considered as boundary conditions or parameters of the dynamics of hydrological change and are not considered as conduits of feedbacks. Nonetheless, the dynamical representation of hydrological change with feedbacks between various components of a system is assuring since it is reminiscent of processual ecological anthropology(Orlove, 1980), except that individual decision making is absent. This paper proposes to consider selected dryland basins of the world, to conceptualize proxies of water relevant socio-economic organisation, such as spatial scales of upstream-downstream cooperation in water use, synthesized over time and then proposes a comparative assessment to test regularities predicted by an extension of river game theory (Ambec and Ehlers, 2008; van der Brink et al, 2012) to endogenous institutional change. References: Orlove, B. S. (1980). Ecological Anthropology. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 9 (1980), pp. 235-273. Greif. A. and D. D. Laitin (2004). A Theory of Endogenous Institutional Change. American Political Science Review, Vol. 98, No. 4 November 2004. Ambec, S. and L. Ehlers (2008). Sharing a river amongst satiable agents. Games and Economic Behavior, 64, 35-50. Van der Brink, G. van der Laan and N. Moes (2012). Fair agreements for sharing international rivers with multiple springs and externalities. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 63, 388-403.

  16. Voice problems of future speech-language pathologists.

    PubMed

    Gottliebson, Renee Ogle; Lee, Linda; Weinrich, Barbara; Sanders, Jessica

    2007-11-01

    Students training to be educators frequently exhibit voice disorders prior to employment. To date, there exist no similar studies of future speech-language pathologists (SLPs). The study is designed as a prospective, nonrandomized survey. The objective of this study is to determine the voice problems of first year graduate students training to be SLPs. Participants were 104 first year graduate students majoring in speech-language pathology at two universities. The Quick Screen for Voice was administered. Participants who failed completed a questionnaire regarding voice problems, medical history, daily habits, and voice use. When responses further indicated voice-related problems, endoscopic examination was completed. Fourteen percent (N=15) of the participants failed the screening by demonstrating two or more abnormal voice characteristics. These included persistent glottal fry (present in all who failed), low habitual pitch, juvenile resonance, hoarse, breathy, or strained phonation, abnormally low pitch on sustained vowels, and voice breaks during the frequency range. Twelve percent (N=12) failed both the screening and follow-up questionnaire. Responses included self-reported dysphonia, medical history with voice-related side effects, difficulty with excessive voice use, and voice problems occurring daily or weekly. Endoscopic evaluation showed one participant with bilateral vocal nodules. The results suggest that voice problems among future SLPs (12%) are more common than the 3-9% reported in the general population and similar to the 11% previously reported for teachers. However, future SLP voice problems are less frequent than those reported among education majors (21%) and all college students (17%). Faculty should identify students with voice problems and emphasize optimal voice use in classroom and clinical settings. PMID:16950599

  17. [The most important prospects and tasks in improving the postgraduate instruction of pathologists under perestroika].

    PubMed

    Avtandilov, G G; Khmel'nitskiĭ, O K; Kan'shina, N F; Tsarevskiĭ, L P

    1990-01-01

    It is suggested to reorganize the postgraduate training of pathologists by improving the technical basis of pathology chairs in accordance with modern achievements of medicine and state examinations requirements. The postgraduate training should be continuous and be realized by a self-education and pathologist participation in special courses and teaching cycles with subsequent qualification examination for the 2nd, 1st and highest category (after 5, 7 and 10 years, respectively). PMID:2222224

  18. Group Assessment: Comparing Group and Individual Undergraduate Module Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a small study that analysed module marks of one cohort of science undergraduates from one academic year. It explored how group summative assessment marking affected the overall marks in comparison with individual assessment. A tutor allocated students to mixed ability project groups. Individual marks for the group work…

  19. Comparative risk assessment: an international comparison of methodologies and results.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, R D; Shih, J; Sessions, S L

    2000-11-01

    Comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a systematic procedure for evaluating the environmental problems affecting a geographic area. This paper looks beyond the U.S. border and examines the experience with CRAs conducted in various developing countries and economies in transition, including Bangkok, Thailand, Cairo, Egypt and Quito, Ecuador, as well as other locations in Eastern Europe, Asia and Central and South America. A recent pilot CRA conducted in Taiwan is also considered. Comparisons are made of both the methodologies and the results across the relatively diverse international literature. The most robust finding is that conventional air pollutants (e.g., particulate matter and lead) consistently rank as high health risks across all of the CRAs examined. Given the varied nature of the settings studied in the CRAs, including level of economic development, urban-rural differences, and climate, this finding is particularly significant. Problems involving drinking water are also ranked as a high or medium health risk in almost all the countries studied. This is consistent with the results of analyses conducted by the World Bank suggesting contamination, limited coverage and erratic service by water supply systems. Beyond the major air pollutants and drinking water, the CRA results diverge significantly across countries. A number of problems involving toxic chemicals, e. g., hazardous air pollutants, rank as high health risks in the US but do not appear as consistent areas of concerns in the other countries studied. This likely reflects the so-called "risk transition" - the shift from sanitation and infection disease problems to those involving industry, vehicles and toxic substances - that often occurs with economic development. It may also reflect the greater information about sources of toxic pollutants in the U.S. For other problems, there are important differences across the developing countries and economies in transition. For example, hazardous and

  20. Parathyroid Lipoadenoma: a Clinicopathological Diagnosis and Possible Trap for the Unaware Pathologist.

    PubMed

    Hyrcza, Martin D; Sargın, Pınar; Mete, Ozgur

    2016-03-01

    The authors present clinicopathological features of parathyroid lipoadenoma in a 48-year-old woman who presented with symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism manifesting with pathological fractures and osteoporosis. Preoperative sestamibi scan failed to localize the source of her disease. Exploratory surgery identified an enlarged parathyroid gland with abundant fat tissue. The significant drop of intraoperative serum parathyroid hormone after the removal of this gland and postoperative biochemical cure justified the presence of a single gland disease presenting as parathyroid lipoadenoma. From an educational perspective, the presented case emphasizes why the historical approach to parathyroid proliferations by assessing alone the ratio of parenchymal cells to adipocytes is not a reliable method in the diagnostic evaluation of parathyroid disease. While the accurate size and weight of a parathyroid gland are defining parameters of an abnormal gland, intraoperative and postoperative biochemical workup distinguishes uniglandular disease (adenoma) from multiglandular disease (hyperplasia). The authors also provide a brief review of the previously published cases of parathyroid lipoadenomas to highlight their clinicopathological characteristics of relevance to surgical pathologists. PMID:26585863

  1. Assessment of Some Major Journals of International/Comparative Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooke, A.

    1983-01-01

    This bibliographic essay summarizes some of the outstanding problems of six major international librarianship journals--"Focus on International and Comparative Librarianship,""IFLA Journal,""International Library Review,""Journal of Library History, Philosophy and Comparative Librarianship,""Libri,""UNESCO Journal of Information Science,…

  2. COMPARATIVE STRATEGIES FOR USING CLUSTER ANALYSIS TO ASSESS DIETARY PATTERNS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize dietary patterns using two different cluster analysis strategies. In this cross-sectional study, diet information was assessed by five 24-hour recalls collected over 10 months. All foods were classified into 24 food subgroups. Demographic, health, and ...

  3. The Problem of Assessing Problem Solving: Can Comparative Judgement Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Inglis, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    School mathematics examination papers are typically dominated by short, structured items that fail to assess sustained reasoning or problem solving. A contributory factor to this situation is the need for student work to be marked reliably by a large number of markers of varied experience and competence. We report a study that tested an…

  4. Comparing Assessments within Junior Geography Textbooks Used in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Daihu

    2013-01-01

    The 2001 Geography Standards for Junior Secondary Schools are the first national standards for geographic education since the founding of Communist China. The standards heralded several new ideas for geographic education, and textbook assessments are one important way for understanding their impact. This study examines the changes in assessments…

  5. Efficiency of Forced Choice Preference Assessment: Comparing Multiple Presentation Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cheryl J.; Brock, Michele D.; McNulty, Kristin; Rosswurm, Mary L.; Bruneau, Benjamin; Zane, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Determining effective reinforcers for individuals with disabilities is imperative for skill acquisition and behavior reduction. Various methodologies exist to determine reinforcer preference, and past research has shown that results vary across different techniques. The purpose of the current study was to assess which presentation methods were…

  6. Quality of Education, Comparability, and Assessment Choice in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, international development agencies have begun to emphasize the improvement of the quality (rather than simply quantity) of education in developing countries. This new focus has been paralleled by a significant increase in the use of educational assessments as a way to measure gains and losses in quality. As this interest in…

  7. Peer Review of Assessment Network: Supporting Comparability of Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Sara; Beckett, Jeff; Saunders, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to test the need in the Australian higher education (HE) sector for a national network for the peer review of assessment in response to the proposed HE standards framework and propose a sector-wide framework for calibrating and assuring achievement standards, both within and across disciplines, through the establishment of…

  8. Comparative assessment of selected PWR auxiliary feedwater system reliability analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, R.; Fresco, A.; Papazoglou, I.A.; Tsao, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a sample of results obtained in reviewing utility submittals of Auxiliary Feedwater System reliability studies. These results are then used to illustrate a few general points regarding such studies. The submittals and reviews for operating license applications are quite significant in that they represent an application of probabilistic risk assessment techniques in the licensing process.

  9. COMPARATIVE TOXICOLOGY OF LABORATORY ORGANISMS FOR ASSESSING HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multi-media/multi-trophic level bioassays have been proposed to determine the extent and severity of environmental contamination at hazardous waste sites. Comparative toxicological profiles for algae, daphnia, earthworms, microbes, mixed sewage and plants; wheat 'Stephens', lettu...

  10. The ECVP/ESVP summer school in veterinary pathology: high-standard, structured training for young veterinary pathologists.

    PubMed

    Kipar, Anja; Aleksandersen, Mona; Benazzi, Cinzia; Hodge, Thomas; Sukura, Antti; Wyers, Monique

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the ECVP/ESVP Summer School in Veterinary Pathology, a new annual two-week European training facility established by the European College of Veterinary Pathologists (ECVP) in collaboration with the European Society of Veterinary Pathology (ESVP). The aim of the Summer Schools is to provide Europe-wide, harmonized, top-standard theoretical and practical post-graduate training for veterinarians specializing in veterinary pathology. In particular, it aims to support trainees in veterinary pathology in their individual preparation for the ECVP certifying examination. Ultimately, it aims to provide young pathologists with the skills and knowledge necessary to participate in international, high-quality research and the tools for applying international standards to their own research and for independent study for the ECVP certifying examination, even if they do not work in comparable academic environments and do not have the same level of local support and training. The ECVP/ESVP Summer Schools take place in European countries, with local organization from a university department of veterinary pathology. Each event comprises modules provided by internationally recognized specialists in their specific fields of expertise on different organ systems, diseases of specific species, specific techniques, and specific topics relevant to pathology, forming a cycle of four events to cover all major topics. Every two years a mock exam is organized as a tool to monitor individual progress in preparing for the ECVP certifying examination. PMID:18287477

  11. Comparative environmental assessment of biocides used in antifouling paints.

    PubMed

    Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Scrimshaw, Mark D; Lester, John N

    2002-05-01

    In response to increasing scientific evidence on the toxicity and persistence of organotin residues from antifouling paints in the aquatic environment, the use of triorganotin antifouling products was banned on boats of less than 25 m length in many countries during 1987. Alternatives to tributyltin (TBT) paint are mainly copper based coatings containing organic booster biocides to improve the efficacy of the formulation, and have been utilised on small boats for the last 10 years. With policies encouraging a total ban on TBT, it is expected that these biocides will be used to a greater extent in the future. Limited data and information are available on the environmental occurrence, fate, toxicity, and persistence of these biocides, and thus any decisions on policies regulating antifoulants cannot be fully informed. In this study, a multicriteria comparison of alternative biocides, based on a general assessment of available information in the literature, provided support for the use of the precautionary principle with respect to policies on antifouling products. This assessment was validated by a more detailed comparison of four selected biocides and TBT. Results indicate that TCMS pyridine and TCMTB demonstrate environmental characteristics similar to TBT and thus detail risk assessments are needed before their use is permitted. The widespread use of the other biocides should be allowed only after research to fill the gaps in knowledge with respect to their toxicity and persistence in aquatic environments. PMID:12079074

  12. Speech pathologists' perspectives on transitioning to telepractice: What factors promote acceptance?

    PubMed

    Hines, Monique; Lincoln, Michelle; Ramsden, Robyn; Martinovich, Julia; Fairweather, Craig

    2015-12-01

    Little is understood about factors that influence speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') acceptance of telepractice. The aim of this study was to investigate SLPs' perceptions and experiences of transitioning to a school-based telepractice service to identify factors that contributed to positive clinician attitudes. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 SLPs who recently commenced providing school-based telepractice services. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was used to interpret interviews, with themes compared and contrasted across the group. Results indicated that although SLPs reported initially having mixed feelings towards telepractice, they later evaluated telepractice positively and viewed it as a legitimate service delivery mode. The overarching theme was that positive beliefs about telepractice were associated with perceptions of its consistency with the underlying principles of face-to-face therapy. In evaluating telepractice, SLPs considered: (a) therapeutic relationships with children; (b) collaboration with parents and teachers; (c) adequacy of technology and resources; and (d) access to support for learning telepractice. Therapy assistants and specific clinician attributes emerged as key strategies used to manage threats to acceptability. Preparation of SLPs transitioning to telepractice should address factors that support positive experiences with, and attitudes towards, telepractice to ensure that training achieves the greatest, most sustained change. PMID:26377120

  13. [Analysis of on-call consultations with clinical pathologists--identification of customer's satisfaction].

    PubMed

    Yanai, M

    2000-09-01

    One aspect whereby effectiveness of clinical pathologists can be measured is customer service and satisfaction. Clinical pathologist should identify their customers, their processes and procedures to meet these needs to the customer's satisfaction. To identify customer's satisfaction, the records of on-call consultations with clinical pathologists were analyzed. Between January 1996 and December 1998, 1327 consultations were recorded, 40% of which were consultations from physicians, 50% from medical technologists. Physicians requested interpretation of laboratory data obtained, and clinical knowledge mainly concerning the microbiology and hematology during office hours. On holidays, physicians needed help performing emergency tests such as Gram stain and Wright-Giemsa stain. During office hours, medical technologists requested clinical information concerning patients in whom unreasonable data would be reported and the contact to the clinical side. Furthermore, technologists inquired about the methodology of laboratory tests during day duty on holidays. These results indicated that the clinical pathologist in our hospital could satisfy the customer(physicians and medical technologists), by providing 1) a wide range of clinical knowledge concerning not only the laboratory medicine but clinical medicine including therapeutics, 2) capability of performing emergency tests such as Gram stain and Wright-Giemsa stain, and 3) capability of interpreting the results obtained. Although these would not be adopted in every hospital, every clinical pathologist should examine his role in the hospital. PMID:11051798

  14. Demographic and Practice Characteristics of Pathologists Who Enjoy Breast Tissue Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Natalia V.; Geller, Berta; Carney, Patricia A.; Reisch, Lisa M.; Onega, Tracy; Weaver, Donald L.; Frederick, Paul; Elmore, Joann G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Physician attributes, job satisfaction and confidence in clinical skills are associated with enhanced performance and better patient outcomes. We surveyed 252 pathologists to evaluate associations between enjoyment of breast pathology, demographic/clinical characteristics and diagnostic performance. Diagnostic performance was determined by agreement with patient cases previously reviewed by a panel of experienced pathologists. Eighty-three percent of study participants reported enjoying breast pathology. Pathologists who enjoy breast interpretation were more likely to review ≥10 cases/week (p=0.003), report breast interpretation expertise (p=0.013), and high levels of confidence interpreting breast pathology (p<0.001). These pathologists were less likely to report that the field was challenging (p<0.001) and that breast cases make them more nervous than other types of pathology (p<0.001). Enjoyment was not associated with diagnostic performance. Millions of women undergo breast biopsy annually, thus it is reassuring that although nearly a fifth of practicing pathologists who interpret breast tissue report not enjoying the field, precision is not impacted. PMID:25554017

  15. The emerging context for advances in comparative effectiveness assessment.

    PubMed

    Rowe, John W; Cortese, Denis A; McGinnis, J Michael

    2006-01-01

    The call for an entity for independent assessment and guidance on alternative medical interventions is timely. The emergence of four developments underscores the importance and sets the stage for progress: an improving evidence base; growing recognition of the importance of variation in the effectiveness of treatments across patients; recent emphasis on transparency; and growing adoption of pay-for-performance initiatives. To advance progress on these issues, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) has convened a Roundtable on Evidence-based Medicine. The roundtable is exploring ways to improve the development of evidence, the thoroughness with which it is applied, and the mechanisms for increasing national capacity for the work. PMID:17090558

  16. Risk assessment methodologies for nuclear weapons compared to risk assessment methodologies for nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, A.S.

    1994-12-31

    There are major differences between the safety principles for nuclear weapons and for nuclear reactors. For example, a principal concern for nuclear weapons is to prevent electrical energy from reaching the nuclear package during accidents produced by crashes, fires, and other hazards, whereas the foremost concern for nuclear reactors is to maintain coolant around the core in the event of certain system failures. Not surprisingly, new methods have had to be developed to assess the risk from nuclear weapons. These include fault tree transformations that accommodate time dependencies, thermal and structural analysis techniques that are fast and unconditionally stable, and Monte-Carlo-based sampling methods that incorporate intelligent searching. This paper provides an overview of the new methods for nuclear weapons, compares them with existing methods for nuclear reactors, identifies some of their dual-use characteristics, and discusses ongoing developmental activities.

  17. Comparative Assessment of Advanced Gay Hydrate Production Methods

    SciTech Connect

    M. D. White; B. P. McGrail; S. K. Wurstner

    2009-06-30

    Displacing natural gas and petroleum with carbon dioxide is a proven technology for producing conventional geologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, and producing additional yields from abandoned or partially produced petroleum reservoirs. Extending this concept to natural gas hydrate production offers the potential to enhance gas hydrate recovery with concomitant permanent geologic sequestration. Numerical simulation was used to assess a suite of carbon dioxide injection techniques for producing gas hydrates from a variety of geologic deposit types. Secondary hydrate formation was found to inhibit contact of the injected CO{sub 2} regardless of injectate phase state, thus diminishing the exchange rate due to pore clogging and hydrate zone bypass of the injected fluids. Additional work is needed to develop methods of artificially introducing high-permeability pathways in gas hydrate zones if injection of CO{sub 2} in either gas, liquid, or micro-emulsion form is to be more effective in enhancing gas hydrate production rates.

  18. A Comparative Study on Emerging Electric Vehicle Technology Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Jonathan; Khowailed, Gannate; Blackburn, Julia; Sikes, Karen

    2011-03-01

    Numerous organizations have published reports in recent years that investigate the ever changing world of electric vehicle (EV) technologies and their potential effects on society. Specifically, projections have been made on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with these vehicles and how they compare to conventional vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Similar projections have been made on the volumes of oil that these vehicles can displace by consuming large amounts of grid electricity instead of petroleum-based fuels. Finally, the projected rate that these new vehicle fleets will enter the market varies significantly among organizations. New ideas, technologies, and possibilities are introduced often, and projected values are likely to be refined as industry announcements continue to be made. As a result, over time, a multitude of projections for GHG emissions, oil displacement, and market penetration associated with various EV technologies has resulted in a wide range of possible future outcomes. This leaves the reader with two key questions: (1) Why does such a collective range in projected values exist in these reports? (2) What assumptions have the greatest impact on the outcomes presented in these reports? Since it is impractical for an average reader to review and interpret all the various vehicle technology reports published to date, Sentech Inc. and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted a comparative study to make these interpretations. The primary objective of this comparative study is to present a snapshot of all major projections made on GHG emissions, oil displacement, or market penetration rates of EV technologies. From the extensive data found in relevant publications, the key assumptions that drive each report's analysis are identified and 'apples-to-apples' comparisons between all major report conclusions are attempted. The general approach that was taken in this comparative study is comprised of six primary steps: (1

  19. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, J.D.; Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Davies, P.A.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. • The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. • Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. • We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. • Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87–92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste

  20. Comparative safety assessment of surface versus submarine plutonium shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Knepper, D.S.; Feltus, M.A. )

    1993-01-01

    The recent shipment of plutonium from France to Japan aboard the freighter Akatsuki Maru touched off protests from environmental and antinuclear organizations. These protests arose from the fear of an accidental sinking of the vessel that would release its cargo to the sea, as well as the threat of a terrorist nation highjacking the ship for its cargo to produce atomic weapons. The sinking of a merchant ship is not uncommon, as illustrated by the famous losses of the tankers Amoco Cadiz and Exxon Valdez. The highjacking of a lightly armed freighter such as the Akatsuki Maru is possible and would not be unduly difficult for a well-equipped terrorist nation. The combined threats of weapons proliferation and environmental damage arising from the diversion or destruction of a sea vessel carrying plutonium will continue to abound as the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel increases. An alternate method for the transportation with reduced risks of both diversion and destruction needs to be developed. The shipment aboard the Akatsuki Maru was originally proposed to be flown from France to Japan over the continental United States. This proposal was rejected by the Reagan administration in 1988. A third alternative to the current ideas of air transport and surface transport is subsurface transport. This research project investigates the transportation of plutonium by submarine and compares it to the current method of transportation by freighter. This analysis involves a study of the military threat to a submarine by a terrorist nation and comparable threat to a surface vessel. To study the nonmilitary aspects of plutonium shipping, a fault-tree evaluation is performed for transportation by submarine and compared with the current risk analysis performed for surface vessels.

  1. Comparative Study of Child Assessment Practices in English and Korean Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nah, Kwi-Ok

    2014-01-01

    Child assessment practices in English and Korean preschools were compared by analysing data from interviews with educators, examples of child assessment, and official documents from each country. Child assessment in England was systematically implemented and characterised by several methodological and procedural strengths, whereas assessment in…

  2. Comparative toxicology of laboratory organisms for assessing hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.E.; Peterson, S.A.; Greene, J.C.; Callahan, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Multi-media/multi-trophic level bioassays have been proposed to determine the extent and severity of environmental contamination at hazardous waste sites. Comparative toxicological profiles for algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), daphnia (Daphnia magna), earthworms (Eisenia foetida), microbes (Photobacterium fisherii, mixed sewage microorganisms) and plants; wheat Stephens, (Triticum aestivum), lettuce, butter crunch, (Lactuca sativa L.) radish, Cherry Belle, (Raphanus sativa L.), red clover, Kenland, (Trifolium pratense L.) and cucumber, Spartan Valor, (Cucumis sativa L.) are presented for selected heavy metals, herbicides and insecticides. Specific chemical EC/sub 50/ values are presented for each test organism. Differences in standard deviations were compared between each individual test organism, as well as for the chemical subgroup assayed. Algae and daphnia are the most sensitive test organisms to heavy metals and insecticides followed in order of decreasing sensitivity by Microtox (Photobacterium fisherii), DO depletion rate, seed germination and earthworms. Higher plants were most sensitive to 2,4-D, (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) followed by algae, Microtox, daphnia and earthworms. Differences in toxicity of 2,4-D chemical formulations and commercial sources of insecticides were observed with algae and daphia tests.

  3. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK.

    PubMed

    Nixon, J D; Wright, D G; Dey, P K; Ghosh, S K; Davies, P A

    2013-11-01

    The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87-92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste management. PMID:23978558

  4. Assessing and Comparing Information Security in Swiss Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hirschel, Jürg; Schlienger, Thomas; Businger, Walter; Zbinden, Alex M

    2012-01-01

    Background Availability of information in hospitals is an important prerequisite for good service. Significant resources have been invested to improve the availability of information, but it is also vital that the security of this information can be guaranteed. Objective The goal of this study was to assess information security in hospitals through a questionnaire based on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard ISO/IEC 27002, evaluating Information technology – Security techniques – Code of practice for information-security management, with a special focus on the effect of the hospitals’ size and type. Methods The survey, set up as a cross-sectional study, was conducted in January 2011. The chief information officers (CIOs) of 112 hospitals in German-speaking Switzerland were invited to participate. The online questionnaire was designed to be fast and easy to complete to maximize participation. To group the analyzed controls of the ISO/IEC standard 27002 in a meaningful way, a factor analysis was performed. A linear score from 0 (not implemented) to 3 (fully implemented) was introduced. The scores of the hospitals were then analyzed for significant differences in any of the factors with respect to size and type of hospital. The participating hospitals were offered a benchmark report about their status. Results The 51 participating hospitals had an average score of 51.1% (range 30.6% - 81.9%) out of a possible 100% where all items in the questionnaire were fully implemented. Room for improvement could be identified, especially for the factors covering “process and quality management” (average score 1.3 ± 0.8 out of a maximum of 3) and “organization and risk management” (average score 1.3 ± 0.7 out of a maximum of 3). Private hospitals scored significantly higher than university hospitals in the implementation of “security zones” and “backup” (P = .008

  5. Comparative assessment of different drought indices across the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglioni, Michele; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Lombardo, Federico; Napolitano, Francesco; Russo, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Droughts have become one of the most challenging issues in hydrological sciences due to their major socio-economic impacts all over the world. In the context of the everyday water resources management practice, the identification and evaluation of droughts are mainly based on simplified indices, which are estimated through easily accessible information. In this work, we employ several meteorological indices, i.e. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI), Palmer Drought Z Index, and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), in order to evaluate the severity and duration of the observed drought events. The main purpose of this study is to underline the difference in the onset time of drought, the distance between events, and the discrepancies in the magnitude assessment for the same event. Various temporal aggregation scales, from one month to one year, have been considered in order to investigate the impacts of the adopted time scale on the drought characteristics. Our analysis focuses to the Mediterranean region, using data from Southern Italy and Greece.

  6. Pain assessment of the intratympanic injections: a prospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Belhassen, Sarah; Saliba, Issam

    2012-12-01

    The objective of the study is to compare the pain level of three methods of intratympanic (IT) injections using prospective, randomized clinical study in a tertiary care center. 39 patients with Ménière's disease and 30 patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss are included. Excluded were patients treated for a chronic pain or those who took any pain killer for the last 24 h. Each patient received one IT injection a week, for three consecutive weeks. Three methods of IT injections were compared, with the application of EMLA cream on the tympanic membrane filling the external auditory canal 60 min before the procedure, with subcutaneous injection of lidocaine 1% with 1:100,000 epinephrine in the external auditory canal, and finally with an IT injection without any previous anesthesia. The pain intensity was immediately measured at 5 min, and then 45 min after the procedure, each time using four pain rating scales (visual analogue scale, numerical rating scale, verbal rating scale and categorical rating scale). No difference in pain intensity between the three methods of IT injections was detected by the visual analogue scale and numerical rating scale (p > 0.05). 45.8% of patients preferred the IT injection without previous anesthesia. However, methylprednisolone has been associated with pain intensity greater than that of gentamicin 45 min after the injection (p < 0.05). The IT injection performed without any previous anesthesia is an interesting option since it has not been shown to be more painful than the other methods of injections, and spares the patient from disadvantages associated with the anesthesia. PMID:22203120

  7. How Effective Are Self- and Peer Assessment of Oral Presentation Skills Compared with Teachers' Assessments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Grez, Luc; Valcke, Martin; Roozen, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of oral presentation skills is an underexplored area. The study described here focuses on the agreement between professional assessment and self- and peer assessment of oral presentation skills and explores student perceptions about peer assessment. The study has the merit of paying attention to the inter-rater reliability of the…

  8. Assessment of cognition in mild cognitive impairment: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Peter J.; Jackson, Colleen E.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Khachaturian, Ara S.; Kaye, Jeffrey; Albert, Marilyn S.; Weintraub, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The demand for rapidly administered, sensitive, and reliable cognitive assessments that are specifically designed for identifying individuals in the earliest stages of cognitive decline (and to measure subtle change over time) has escalated as the emphasis in Alzheimer’s disease clinical research has shifted from clinical diagnosis and treatment toward the goal of developing presymptomatic neuroprotective therapies. To meet these changing clinical requirements, cognitive measures or tailored batteries of tests must be validated and determined to be fit-for-use for the discrimination between cognitively healthy individuals and persons who are experiencing very subtle cognitive changes that likely signal the emergence of early mild cognitive impairment. We sought to collect and review data systematically from a wide variety of (mostly computer-administered) cognitive measures, all of which are currently marketed or distributed with the claims that these instruments are sensitive and reliable for the early identification of disease or, if untested for this purpose, are promising tools based on other variables. The survey responses for 16 measures/batteries are presented in brief in this review; full survey responses and summary tables are archived and publicly available on the Campaign to Prevent Alzheimer’s Disease by 2020 Web site (http://pad2020.org). A decision tree diagram highlighting critical decision points for selecting measures to meet varying clinical trials requirements has also been provided. Ultimately, the survey questionnaire, framework, and decision guidelines provided in this review should remain as useful aids for the evaluation of any new or updated sets of instruments in the years to come. PMID:21575877

  9. Comparative assessment of regionalisation methods of monitored atmospheric deposition loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinstorf, Frido; Binder, Maja; Schirmer, Mario; Grimm-Strele, Jost; Walther, Wolfgang

    The objective of this investigation is to assess the suitability of well-known regionalisation methods of data from existing deposition monitoring networks for use in water resources management. For this purpose a comparison of the applicability and accuracy of various regionalisation methods was made. A crucial point is the data demand of the various methods. In this investigation the deterministic and geostatistical methods inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary kriging (OK) and external drift kriging (EDK) as well as the chemical transport models METRAS-MUSCAT, EMEP, EDACS and EUTREND have been characterised and evaluated. The methods IDW and OK have been applied to the investigation areas—the German Federal States of Lower Saxony and Saxony. An evaluation of these methods was carried out with a cross-validation procedure. The result was in most cases a higher accuracy for the OK method. The EDK method has been investigated in order to find suitable drift variables from the parameters precipitation amount, altitude and wind direction. With help of a correlation analysis a suitable drift variable could not be found. After the application of OK, verification was carried out by a comparison of the estimated data set with an independently determined data set. The result was a relatively smaller deviation of the estimated data set. The investigation considers data from routine monitoring networks as well as networks for special applications and has been carried out on the basis of monitoring networks of the two states. The investigated database was wet and bulk deposition of the substances NH 4+, SO 42-, NO 3-, Na +, Pb 2+, and Cd 2+ in Lower Saxony and SO 42- in Saxony. From this, a consistent database of bulk deposition data was built. From all applied methods OK proved to cope best with the data deficiencies that were found.

  10. Probabilistic risk assessment for comparative evaluation of security features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksena, Anshu; Lucarelli, Dennis

    2004-06-01

    A systematic approach for comparing the effectiveness of counterfeit deterrence features in banknotes, credit cards, digital media, etc. was previously presented. That approach built a probabilistic model around the expert identification of the most efficient process by which a counterfeiter can gain sufficient information to replicate a particular feature. We have extended the scope and functionality of that approach to encompass the entire counterfeiting process from the learning phase to the production of counterfeits. The extended approach makes determining the probabilities more straightforward by representing a more detailed model of the counterfeiting process, including many probable counterfeiting scenarios rather than just representing the least costly successful scenario. It uses the counterfeiter's probability of succeeding and level of effort as metrics to perform feature comparisons. As before, these metrics are evaluated for a security feature and presented in a way that facilitates comparison with other security features similarly evaluated. Based on this representation, the cost and laboratory procedures necessary for succeeding may be recovered by a dynamic programming technique. This information may be useful in forensic profiling of potential counterfeiters.

  11. A comparative toxicity assessment of materials used in aquatic construction.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William; Julien, Gary; Jackman, Paula; Doe, Ken; Schaefer, Rebecca

    2011-10-01

    Comparative toxicity testing was performed on selected materials that may be used in aquatic construction projects. The tests were conducted on the following materials: (1) untreated wood species (hemlock [Tsuga ssp], Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), red oak [Quercus rubra], Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii], red pine [Pinus resinosa], and tamarack [Larix ssp]); (2) plastic wood; (3) Ecothermo wood hemlock stakes treated with preservatives (e.g., chromated copper arsenate [CCA], creosote, alkaline copper quaternary [ACQ], zinc naphthenate, copper naphthenate, and Lifetime Wood Treatment); (4) epoxy-coated steel; (5) hot-rolled steel; (6) zinc-coated steel; and (7) concrete. Those materials were used in acute lethality tests with rainbow trout, Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and threespine stickleback. The results indicated the following general ranking of the materials (from the lowest to highest LC(50) values); ACQ > creosote > zinc naphthenate > copper naphthenate > CCA (treated at 22.4 kg/m(3)) > concrete > red pine > western red cedar > red oak > zinc-coated steel > epoxy-coated steel > CCA (6.4 kg/m(3)). Furthermore, the toxicity results indicated that plastic wood, certain untreated wood species (hemlock, tamarack, Douglas fir, and red oak), hot-rolled steel, Ecothermo wood, and wood treated with Lifetime Wood Treatment were generally nontoxic to the test species. PMID:21222116

  12. Comparative mutagenicity assessment of aerosols in emissions from biofuel combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherji, Suparna; Swain, Abhay Kumar; Venkataraman, Chandra

    This study was designed to determine the mutagenicity in extracts of aerosols generated from biofuel combustion in household cooking devices commonly used in India. Wood, dung cake and biofuel briquette were used as fuel in various stoves, including both traditional and improved stoves made of mud, fired clay and metal. The combustion aerosols of particle diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) were collected, and their organic extracts were tested for mutagenicity using the Ames Assay test with TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium and studies were performed both with and without metabolic activation to account for direct and indirect acting mutagens. The measured mutagenicity emission factors, i.e., number of revertants per kg of fuel burnt, indicate that wood demonstrates significantly lower mutagenicity compared to dung cake and briquette. No significant stove effect was observed across all the fuels studied. The contribution of direct-acting mutagens was found to be greater than 70% in all cases. Such a high relative contribution of direct-acting mutagenicity has not been previously reported for biomass combustion aerosols.

  13. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT IN SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C.E.; Oladeinde, F. O.; Kinyua, A.M.; Michelin, R.; Makinde, J.M.; Jaiyesimi, A.A.; Mbiti, W.N.; Kamau, G.N.; Kofi-Tsekpo, W.M.; Pramanik, S.; Williams, A.; Kennedy, A.; Bronner, Y.; Clarke, K.; Fofonoff, P.; Nemerson, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study was to compare the total phenolic (TP) content in extracts from eleven plant materials collected at different geographical locations in Kenya, Nigeria, and USA. These plants have been selected because the majority of them are highly pigmented, from yellow to purple, and would therefore have economic value in industries for producing antioxidants and surfactants. Two of them were collected from the industrial and domestic waste outlets. Each analysis was achieved using the Folin-Ciocalteau technique. The order of decreasing phenolic acid content as gallic acid concentration (mg/g dry weight) was Prunus africana (55.14) > Acacia tortilis (42.11) > Khaya grandifoliola (17.54) > Curcuma longa (17.23) > Vernonia amygdalina (14.9)> Russelia equisetiformis (14.03) > Calendula officinalis (7.96) >Phragmites australis (control) (7.09) > Rauwolfia vomitoria (6.69) > Phragmites australis (industrial) (6.21) > Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (5.6). The TP contents of Spartina alterniflora species were below the detection limit. PMID:20119491

  14. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT IN SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C E; Oladeinde, F O; Kinyua, A M; Michelin, R; Makinde, J M; Jaiyesimi, A A; Mbiti, W N; Kamau, G N; Kofi-Tsekpo, W M; Pramanik, S; Williams, A; Kennedy, A; Bronner, Y; Clarke, K; Fofonoff, P; Nemerson, D

    2008-01-01

    This study was to compare the total phenolic (TP) content in extracts from eleven plant materials collected at different geographical locations in Kenya, Nigeria, and USA. These plants have been selected because the majority of them are highly pigmented, from yellow to purple, and would therefore have economic value in industries for producing antioxidants and surfactants. Two of them were collected from the industrial and domestic waste outlets. Each analysis was achieved using the Folin-Ciocalteau technique. The order of decreasing phenolic acid content as gallic acid concentration (mg/g dry weight) was Prunus africana (55.14) > Acacia tortilis (42.11) > Khaya grandifoliola (17.54) > Curcuma longa (17.23) > Vernonia amygdalina (14.9)> Russelia equisetiformis (14.03) > Calendula officinalis (7.96) >Phragmites australis (control) (7.09) > Rauwolfia vomitoria (6.69) > Phragmites australis (industrial) (6.21) > Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (5.6). The TP contents of Spartina alterniflora species were below the detection limit. PMID:20119491

  15. Assessing The Anthropocene In The Context Of Comparative Planetology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinspoon, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    of the fourth kind": intentional change. We are arguably approaching a branching point, where we will either become masters of our world or victims of our own success. Most likely this is a common experience of intelligent life developing technologically elsewhere in the universe, because regardless of specific evolutionary, cultural and technological paths, life will evolve by Darwinian evolution and therefore will inherit a biological imperative to multiply and maximize survival. Planets are finite and thus analogous developments will lead to a collision between technological survival strategies that are successful on limited temporal and spatial scales, and unforeseen long-term global consequences. The nature and prevalence of intelligent life in the universe will be shaped by how civilizations respond to this challenge, and future observations of exoplanets may reveal the global signatures of proto-intelligent or intelligent life. In addition to comparing the current rapid transformations of the Earth system to changes in our planet's past, some context for the Anthropocene can be gained by comparison with catastrophic changes on other planets. I will compare the rate, magnitude and duration of the Anthropocene with known and hypothesized catastrophic changes on other planets, including the loss of oceans and global resurfacing on Venus, global desiccation and quasi-periodic climate change on Mars, and the end-Cretaceous impact catastrophe on Earth.

  16. Comparative assessment of water treatment using polymeric and inorganic coagulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manda, Innocent K. M.; Chidya, Russel C. G.; Saka, John D. K.; Biswick, Timothy T.

    2016-06-01

    Portable water plays a vital role in improving human life, particularly in controlling the spread of diseases. However, problems associated with lack of potable water are still common especially in developing countries including Malawi. Until now little information exists on the effectiveness of available commercial coagulants used by national water boards in Malawi. Therefore, this study was undertaken in Southern Region Water Board (SRWB) to investigate the efficiency of polymeric coagulants (sufdfloc 3850 and algaefloc 19s) in turbidity reduction comparative with inorganic coagulant (aluminium sulphate) at Zomba, Liwonde, Mangochi, Chikwawa and Mulanje Treatment plants. The jar test method was used to determine the effectiveness of the water coagulants. The results revealed that sudfloc 3850 was most effective in reducing turbidity at Mangochi (99.4 ± 0.06%) and Liwonde (97.2 ± 0.04%) using 0.4 mg L-1 flocculant dose. The Zomba, Mulanje and Chikwawa plants gave 19.56 ± 0.03%, 29.23 ± 0.02% and 9.43 ± 0.02% total reductions respectively. Algaefloc 19s afforded the highest turbidity reduction at Liwonde and Mangochi plants (98.66 ± 0.06 and 97.48 ± 0.05% at a dose of 0.4 and 0.6 mg L-1 respectively), while Chikwawa provided the lowest (9.52 ± 0.01%). At the Zomba and Mulanje plants 20.5 ± 0.03% and 28.4 ± 0.04% reductions were obtained respectively. The inorganic flocculant, alum provided a 99.0 ± 0.05% and 98.6 ± 0.04% reduction at a dose of 4.0 mg L-1 and 6.0 mg L-1 at Zomba and Liwonde plants respectively. The lowest reductions in turbidity were achieved at Chikwawa (7.50 ± 0.01%), Mangochi (12.97 ± 0.02%) and Mulanje (25.00 ± 0.02). The best and optimum pH ranges for polymeric and inorganic coagulants were 7.20-7.80 and 7.35 to 7.57 respectively. The results further revealed that sudfloc 3850 and algaefloc 19s achieved faster formation of heavy flocs than alum. At 0.4 mg L-1 flocculant dosage sudfloc 3850 and algaefloc 19s required ten times

  17. Diagnosis of Asbestos-Related Diseases: The Mineralogist and Pathologist's Role in Medicolegal Field.

    PubMed

    Capella, Silvana; Bellis, Donata; Belluso, Elena

    2016-03-01

    Because asbestos diseases represent a complex pattern of legal, social, and political issue, the involvement of the mineralogist and pathologist for a multidisciplinary assessment of its diagnosis helps investigate the relationship between mesothelioma or lung cancer and occupational or environmental asbestos exposure.In the present study, we consider the concentrations of asbestos bodies (ABs) detected by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the burden of different kinds of mineral fibers (among which is asbestos) identified by SEM combined with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), in 10 lung tissue samples of subjects with occupational and nonoccupational exposure to asbestos.In all subjects with occupational exposure to asbestos, more than 1000 ABs per gram of dry weight were detected both with OM and SEM; this concentration is internationally accepted as suggesting high probability of past occupational exposure to asbestos.In 9 lung samples of the 10 investigated by SEM-EDS different inorganic fibers were found. Asbestos fibers have been identified too, and more than 100,000 fibers per gram of dry weight were detected in subjects with occupational exposure; this concentration is internationally accepted as suggesting high probability of past occupational exposure to asbestos.Instead, when the ABs burden is low or moderate (such as in subjects with absent or probable asbestos exposure), the correlation between ABs concentration determined by OM and those determined by SEM is lost. Therefore, when the ABs value in OM is borderline, the SEM investigation became essential. Furthermore, the mineralogical analysis by SEM-EDS (identification and quantification of inorganic fibers in general and asbestos in particular) of the fibers detected in the lung tissues is very useful, if not necessary, to complete the pathological diagnosis of asbestos-related malignancies in medicolegal field. PMID:26566053

  18. 77 FR 45379 - Increasing the Supply of Forensic Pathologists in the United States: A Report and Recommendations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Increasing the Supply of Forensic Pathologists in the United States: A Report... Forensic Pathologists in the United States: A Report and Recommendations.'' The opportunity to...

  19. Ethical Perspective on Quality of Care: The Nature of Ethical Dilemmas Identified by New Graduate and Experienced Speech Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Belinda J.; Lincoln, Michelle; Blyth, Katrina; Balandin, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Speech pathologists are confronted by ethical issues when they need to make decisions about client care, address team conflict, and fulfil the range of duties and responsibilities required of health professionals. However, there has been little research into the specific nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by speech pathologists and…

  20. Training and Knowledge in Autism among Speech-Language Pathologists: A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Heatherann; Drager, Kathryn D. R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The current study was designed to answer the following questions: (a) What knowledge do school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have concerning autism? (b) What educational and clinical training do SLPs receive in autism? (c) Do SLPs have confidence in their ability to provide services to children with autism and their families?…

  1. Automated Detection of Heuristics and Biases among Pathologists in a Computer-Based System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Rebecca S.; Legowski, Elizabeth; Medvedeva, Olga; Reitmeyer, Kayse; Tseytlin, Eugene; Castine, Melissa; Jukic, Drazen; Mello-Thoms, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is threefold: (1) to develop an automated, computer-based method to detect heuristics and biases as pathologists examine virtual slide cases, (2) to measure the frequency and distribution of heuristics and errors across three levels of training, and (3) to examine relationships of heuristics to biases, and biases to…

  2. Speech-Language Pathologist Job Satisfaction in School versus Medical Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkhoff, Nicole L.; Collins, Dana R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine if job satisfaction differs between speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working in school settings and SLPs working in medical settings. Method: The Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) by Spector (1997) was sent via electronic mail to 250 SLPs in each of the 2 settings. Job satisfaction scores were…

  3. Experienced Speech-Language Pathologists' Responses to Ethical Dilemmas: An Integrated Approach to Ethical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Belinda; Lincoln, Michelle; Balandin, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the approaches of experienced speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to ethical reasoning and the processes they use to resolve ethical dilemmas. Method: Ten experienced SLPs participated in in-depth interviews. A narrative approach was used to guide participants' descriptions of how they resolved ethical dilemmas. Individual…

  4. International Recommendations for Training Future Toxicologic Pathologists Participating in Regulatory-Type, Nonclinical Toxicity Studies*

    PubMed Central

    Bolon, Brad; Barale-Thomas, Erio; Bradley, Alys; Ettlin, Robert A.; Franchi, Carla A.S.; George, Catherine; Giusti, Anna Maria; Hall, Robert; Jacobsen, Matthew; Konishi, Yoichi; Ledieu, David; Morton, Daniel; Park, Jae-Hak; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Vijayasarathi, S.K.; Wijnands, Marcel V.W.

    2010-01-01

    The International Federation of Societies of Toxicologic Pathologists (IFSTP) proposes a common global framework for training future toxicologic pathologists who will support regulatory-type nonclinical toxicology studies. Trainees optimally should undertake a scientific curriculum of at least 5 years at an accredited institution leading to a clinical degree (veterinary medicine or medicine). Trainees should then obtain 4 or more years of intensive pathology practice during a residency and/or on-the-job “apprenticeship,” at least 2 years of which must be focused on regulatory-type toxicologic pathology topics. Possession of a recognized pathology qualification (i.e., certification) is highly recommended. A non-clinical pathway (e.g., a graduate degree in medical biology or pathology) may be possible if medically trained pathologists are scarce, but this option is not optimal. Regular, lifelong continuing education (peer review of nonclinical studies, professional meetings, reading, short courses) will be necessary to maintain and enhance one’s understanding of current toxicologic pathology knowledge, skills, and tools. This framework should provide a rigorous yet flexible way to reliably train future toxicologic pathologists to generate, interpret, integrate, and communicate data in regulatory-type, nonclinical toxicology studies. PMID:22272030

  5. Identifying Culturally Competent Clinical Skills in Speech-Language Pathologists in the Central Valley of California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maul, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify specific clinical skills in speech-language pathologists (SLPs) that may constitute cultural competency, a term which currently lacks operational definition. Through qualitative interview methods, the following research questions were addressed: (1) What dominant themes, if any, can be found in SLPs'…

  6. 20 Ways for Classroom Teachers to Collaborate with Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Kellie L.; Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Boon, Richard T.; Fore, Cecil, III

    2010-01-01

    Students with disabilities are increasingly receiving services in the general education classroom, and as a result, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are using a variety of flexible models to meet the needs of these students. Although some schools continue to provide pullout service delivery models for speech-language therapy, many are…

  7. Speech-Language Pathologists' Comfort Levels in English Language Learner Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimble, Carlotta

    2013-01-01

    This study examined speech-language pathologists' (SLPs) comfort levels in providing service delivery to English language learners (ELLs) and limited English proficient (LEP) students. Participants included 192 SLPs from the United States and Guam. Participants completed a brief, six-item questionnaire that investigated their perceptions…

  8. Preparing Bilingual Speech-Language Pathologists: The Development of an Innovative Master's Degree Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright-Harp, Wilhelmina; Munoz, Emma

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the two-year master's degree program for speech-language pathologists with a specialization in bilingualism (Spanish/English) developed at the University of the District of Columbia. First, the article describes the program's curriculum, clinical practicum, recruitment, and retention activities. It then discusses the student…

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Experience, Training, and Confidence Levels of School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Allison M.; Plexico, Laura W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the graduate training experiences of school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Comparisons were made between recent graduates (post 2006) and pre-2006 graduates to determine if differences existed in their academic and clinical experiences or their…

  10. School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists' Knowledge and Perceptions of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofe, Erin E.; Plumb, Allison M.; Plexico, Laura W.; Haak, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the current investigation was to examine speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') knowledge and perceptions of bullying, with an emphasis on autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: A 46-item, web-based survey was used to address the purposes of this investigation. Participants were recruited through e-mail and electronic…

  11. Facilitating Emergent Literacy: Efficacy of a Model that Partners Speech-Language Pathologists and Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girolametto, Luigi; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the efficacy of a professional development program for early childhood educators that facilitated emergent literacy skills in preschoolers. The program, led by a speech-language pathologist, focused on teaching alphabet knowledge, print concepts, sound awareness, and decontextualized oral language within naturally…

  12. Speech-Language Pathologists' Perceptions of Integrated Service Delivery in School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elksnin, Linda K.; Capilouto, Gilson J.

    1994-01-01

    This survey of 31 speech-language pathologists who had adopted or were considering adopting integrated service delivery models examined their perceptions of their expertise; classroom teacher expertise; types of speech and language services provided in classrooms; characteristics of students served; and advantages and disadvantages of integrated…

  13. Bullying in Children Who Stutter: Speech-Language Pathologists' Perceptions and Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Gordon W.; Boyle, Michael P.; Blood, Ingrid M.; Nalesnik, Gina R.

    2010-01-01

    Bullying in school-age children is a global epidemic. School personnel play a critical role in eliminating this problem. The goals of this study were to examine speech-language pathologists' (SLPs) perceptions of bullying, endorsement of potential strategies for dealing with bullying, and associations among SLPs' responses and specific demographic…

  14. Familiarity Breeds Support: Speech-Language Pathologists' Perceptions of Bullying of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.; Coniglio, Amy D.; Finke, Erinn H.; Boyle, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are primary targets for bullies and victimization. Research shows school personnel may be uneducated about bullying and ways to intervene. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in schools often work with children with ASD and may have victims of bullying on their caseloads. These victims may feel most…

  15. Written Language Disorders: Speech-Language Pathologists' Training, Knowledge, and Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Gordon W.; Mamett, Callie; Gordon, Rebecca; Blood, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') perceptions of their (a) educational and clinical training in evaluating and treating written language disorders, (b) knowledge bases in this area, (c) sources of knowledge about written language disorders, (d) confidence levels, and (e) predictors of confidence in working with…

  16. Korean Speech-Language Pathologists' Attitudes toward Stuttering According to Clinical Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyungjae

    2014-01-01

    Background: Negative attitudes toward stuttering and people who stutter (PWS) are found in various groups of people in many regions. However the results of previous studies examining the influence of fluency coursework and clinical certification on the attitudes of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) toward PWS are equivocal. Furthermore, there…

  17. An Introduction to Item Response Theory and Rasch Models for Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Carolyn; Hula, William; Donovan, Neila J.; Doyle, Patrick J.; Kendall, Diane; Yorkston, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To present a primarily conceptual introduction to item response theory (IRT) and Rasch models for speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Method: This tutorial introduces SLPs to basic concepts and terminology related to IRT as well as the most common IRT models. The article then continues with an overview of how instruments are developed…

  18. Preparation and Perceptions of Speech-Language Pathologists Working with Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Mary V.; Tucker, Denise A.; Flynn, Perry F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the level of preparedness of North Carolina speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who serve school-aged children with cochlear implants (CIs). A survey distributed to 190 school-based SLPs in North Carolina revealed that 79% of the participants felt they had little to no confidence in managing CI technology or in providing…

  19. A Study of Job Satisfaction Correlates among Urban School Speech Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxie-Brown, Gwendolyn J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between the job satisfaction of speech language pathologists (SLPs) and self-efficacy, work relationships and two components of job performance: teacher judgments of student improvement and supervisor ratings of teacher efficiency. It was hypothesized that each of the variables would be…

  20. Communication and Behavior: Collaboration between Speech-Language Pathologists and Behavioral Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ylvisaker, Mark; Feeney, Timothy J.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents an intervention framework in which speech-language pathologists and behavioral psychologists view the challenging behaviors of individuals with traumatic brain injury from a communication perspective and address these problems in a way that is positive, integrated, functional, collaborative, and environmental. (Author/JDD)

  1. Society of Toxicologic Pathologists (STP) Annual Symposium General Session II: Modem Pathology Methods for Neural Investigations

    EPA Science Inventory

    This half-day session at the 20I0 Joint Symposium of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and the International Federation of Societies of Toxicologic Pathologists (IFSTP) explored many deceptively simple questions related to toxicologic neuropathology. What is the best met...

  2. Dysphagic Independent Feeders' Justifications for Noncompliance with Recommendations by a Speech-Language Pathologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colodny, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the various ways in which independent-feeding patients with dysphagia justified their noncompliance with swallowing recommendations suggested by a speech-language pathologist (SLP). Sixty-three independent-feeding dysphagia patients between the ages of 65 and 100 years who had been identified by the SLP or…

  3. School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists' Perspectives on Dysphagia Management in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Rita L.; Stoner, Julia B.; Angell, Maureen E.; Fetzer, Alycia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Although provision of dysphagia services is within the scope of practice of speech-language pathologists (SLPs), little is known about the perspectives of school-based SLPs in relation to these services. The purpose of this study was to examine SLPs' perspectives related to school-based management of students with dysphagia. Method: Focus…

  4. Knowledge of Autism Spectrum Disorders Among Connecticut School Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascella, Paul W.; Colella, Catherine S.

    2004-01-01

    This study utilized a rating scale and random sampling of Connecticut school speech-language pathologists about their preprofessional education and current knowledge of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The participants had a minimal amount of preprofessional academic or clinical preparation in ASD, and no differences were found in how…

  5. Pharmacotherapy and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Tutorial for Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, Trisha L.; Hale, LaDonna S.; Crumrine, Daiquirie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this tutorial is to provide speech-language pathologists (SLPs) with general information regarding the most commonly prescribed medications for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; e.g., central nervous system stimulants, noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors, alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, antipsychotics,…

  6. Comparing Sex Offender Risk Classification Using the Static-99 and LSI-R Assessment Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Amanda L.; Dulmus, Catherine N.; Theriot, Matthew T.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study compares sex offender risk classification using two popular actuarial risk assessment instruments--the Static-99 and the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R). Despite their extensive use, the two scales assess different types of risk factors and research has yet to compare them. Method: Static-99 and LSI-R risk…

  7. Comparing Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark Standard Setting Methods in the Context of English Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Mingchuan

    2013-01-01

    The Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark method for setting standards on educational assessment are currently two of the most popular standard-setting methods. However, there is no research into the comparability of these two methods in the context of language assessment. This study compared results from the Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark methods as applied to…

  8. Targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of metastatic melanoma patients: a guide and update for pathologists.

    PubMed

    Kakavand, Hojabr; Wilmott, James S; Long, Georgina V; Scolyer, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    The previously dismal prospects for patients with advanced stage metastatic melanoma have greatly improved in recent years. Enhanced understanding of both the pathogenesis of melanoma and its molecular drivers, as well as the importance and regulation of anti-tumour immune responses, have provided new therapeutic opportunities for melanoma patients. There are two major distinct categories of systemic treatments with activity for patients with metastatic melanoma: (1) targeted therapies, which act to inhibit the oncogenes that drive the aberrant growth and dissemination of the tumour; and (2) immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies, which act to enhance anti-tumour immune responses by blocking negative regulators of immunity. Pathologists play a critical and expanding role in the selection of the most appropriate treatment for individual metastatic melanoma patients in the modern era of personalised/precision medicine. The molecular pathology testing of melanoma tumour tissue for the presence of targetable oncogenic mutations is already part of routine practice in many institutions. In addition, other potential oncogenic therapeutic targets continue to be identified and pathology testing techniques must readily adapt to this rapidly changing field. Recent research findings suggest that pathological assessment of tumour associated immune cells and immunosuppressive ligand expression of the tumour are likely to be important in identifying patients most likely to benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors. Similarly, pathological and molecular observations of on-treatment tumour tissue biopsies taken from patients on targeted therapies have provided new insights into the mechanisms of action of targeted molecular therapies, have contributed to the identification of resistance mechanisms to these novel therapies and may be of higher value for selecting patients most likely to benefit from therapies. These data have already provided a rational biological basis for the

  9. Delineation of HER2 Gene Status in Breast Carcinoma by Silver in Situ Hybridization is Reproducible among Laboratories and Pathologists

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Antonino; Botti, Gerardo; Gloghini, Annunziata; Simone, Gianni; Truini, Mauro; Curcio, Maria Pia; Gasparini, Patrizia; Mangia, Anita; Perin, Tiziana; Salvi, Sandra; Testi, Adele; Verderio, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    An automated enzyme metallographic silver in situ hybridization method (SISH) has been reported to successfully determine human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene amplification. We evaluated the staining and interpretative reproducibility of the HER2 SISH assay at five laboratories and compared SISH results with other in situ hybridization (ISH) methods. The HER2 gene status of 89 breast carcinomas was analyzed in parallel using manual dual-color fluorescence ISH, manual chromogenic ISH, and bright-field automated SISH. A total of 1098 SISH-stained slides were evaluated. For comparison, all specimens were stained by 4B5 immunohistochemistry for HER2 protein expression. Interpretation was performed by pathologists at five different laboratories using the algorithms provided by the manufacturers and the guidelines of American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists. Staining and interpretative reproducibility were measured through the computation of weighted kappa statistics. Following the optimization of SISH staining, 1077/1098 (98%) of slides were evaluable. Excellent reproducibility and efficacy of HER2 SISH staining, and interobserver interpretation (Kw = 0.91), were observed among five sites. For the 89 invasive breast cancer cases, the overall rate of concordance between consensus 4B5 and consensus SISH, fluorescence ISH, and chromogenic ISH was 96.6% (86/89), 97.8% (87/89), and 96.6% (86/89), respectively. Overall concordance between positive and negative SISH and fluorescence ISH results, as well as between individual and consensus positive and negative SISH results, was excellent (P < 0.001). PMID:18832456

  10. Comparative assessment of transport risks--how it can contribute to health impact assessment of transport policies.

    PubMed Central

    Kjellstrom, Tord; van Kerkhoff, Lorrae; Bammer, Gabriele; McMichael, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) and comparative risk assessment (CRA) are important tools with which governments and communities can compare and integrate different sources of information about various health impacts into a single framework for policy-makers and planners. Both tools have strengths that may be combined usefully when conducting comprehensive assessments of decisions that affect complex health issues, such as the health risks and impacts of transport policy and planning activities. As yet, however, HIA and CRA have not been applied widely to the area of transport. We draw on the limited experience of the application of these tools in the context of road transport to explore how comparative assessment of transport risks can contribute to HIA of transport policies. PMID:12894331

  11. Influence of histologic criteria and confounding factors in staging equivocal cases for microscopic perivesical tissue invasion (pT3a): an interobserver study among genitourinary pathologists.

    PubMed

    Ananthanarayanan, Vijayalakshmi; Pan, Yi; Tretiakova, Maria; Amin, Mahul B; Cheng, Liang; Epstein, Jonathan I; Grignon, David J; Hansel, Donna E; Jimenez, Rafael E; McKenney, Jesse K; Montironi, Rodolfo; Oliva, Esther; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Rao, Priya; Reuter, Victor E; Ro, Jae Y; Shen, Steven S; Srigley, John R; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Yao, Jorge L; Antic, Tatjana; Haber, Michael; Taxy, Jerome B; Paner, Gladell P

    2014-02-01

    Current oncology guidelines and clinical trials consider giving adjuvant chemotherapy to bladder cancer patients with at least microscopic perivesical tissue invasion (MPVTI) (≥pT3a) on cystectomy. The boundary of muscularis propria (MP) and perivesical tissue is commonly ill defined, and hence, when the tumor involves the interface, interpretation of MPVTI is likely to be subjective. In this study, 20 sets of static images that included 1 nontumoral bladder wall for defining MP-perivesical tissue boundary and 19 bladder cancer cases equivocal for MPVTI with confounding factors were sent to 17 expert genitourinary pathologists for review. The confounding factors were "histoanatomic," as defined by the irregular MP-perivesical tissue boundary, and "tumor related," such as fibrosis, dense inflammation, tumor cells at the edge of the outermost MP muscle bundle, and lymphovascular invasion. These equivocal cases were divided into 3 categories according to the following factors: (1) histoanatomic only (7/19), (2) histoanatomic+tumor related (7/19), and (3) tumor related only (5/19). Participating genitourinary pathologists used different criteria to assess MPVTI: (A) drawing a straight horizontal line using the outermost MP muscle bundle edge as the MP-perivesical tissue boundary reference (3/17); (B) drawing multiple straight lines interconnecting the outermost MP muscle bundle edges (9/17); (C) following the curves of every outermost MP muscle bundle edge (4/17). In category 1 cases, most pathologists who used the A criterion called for absence (6/7), whereas those who used the C criterion called for presence (5/7) of MPVTI, which resulted in disparity in 4/7 cases. There was no circumstance in which criteria A and C agreed on the presence or absence of MPVTI but was opposed by the B criterion in category 1 cases. Median pairwise agreement among all pathologists (regardless of criteria) for all cases (regardless of category) was only "fair" (κ=0.281). However, when

  12. Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM): scenarios for comparing dose-assessment models. Vol. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Poeton, R.W.; Moeller, M.P.; Laughlin, G.J.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1983-05-01

    The Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM) is a micro-computer based program designed to provide rapid assessments of the radiological impact of accidents at nuclear power plants. The main body of this document consists of 28 examples of IRDAM input and output, representing various types of accidents and releases. These examples are intended to provide a basis for comparison with other models or for testing IRDAM itself. Figures are included which show dose rates calculated by IRDAM for each scenario. Figures are also included which show calculations made using the computer codes WRAITH (Scherpelz, Borst and Hoenes, 1980) and RADPUR (Dabbert, et. al., 1982). Two other companion volumes to this one provide additional information on IRDAM. The User's Guide (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 1) describes the setup and operation of equipment necessary to run IRDAM. Reactor Accident Assessment Methods (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 2) describes the technical bases for IRDAM including methods, models and assumptions used in calculations.

  13. The role of the pathologist in environmental medicine and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Higginson, J.

    1977-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the role of the morbid anatomist and clinical pathologist in environmental carcinogenesis. It points out that in the past he has contributed considerably to the identification of rare tumors and their etiology. He has an important role to play in the future in providing more accurate data on which epidemiology studies can be developed. The view is also expressed that it is highly important that modern pathologists have an understanding of toxicologic and pharmacologic techniques and their potential application to biologic material in order that they may be in a position to correlate and develop multidisciplinary approaches to the identification of environmental hazards. Some of these approaches are illustrated and their potential developments outlined. PMID:836677

  14. Advances in head and neck fine-needle aspiration and ultrasound technique for the pathologist.

    PubMed

    Jakowski, Joseph D; DiNardo, Laurence J

    2015-07-01

    The success of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy in the evaluation of head and neck (H&N) masses has already been established. Herein we outline the most recent advancement for the pathologist who performs traditional palpation-guided FNA (PGFNA) in the H&N while also incorporating ultrasound-guided FNA (UGFNA) into their practice. We provide an overview of the educational and training opportunities in H&N ultrasound and UGFNA with emphasis on the advantages and limitations for the pathologist. Throughout are useful clinical and technical pearls, many of which may also interest those who practice PGFNA, including local anesthesia use and FNA procedures in pediatric patients. PMID:25677264

  15. Peer Assessment in the Digital Age: A Meta-Analysis Comparing Peer and Teacher Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hongli; Xiong, Yao; Zang, Xiaojiao; Kornhaber, Mindy L.; Lyu, Youngsun; Chung, Kyung Sun; Suen, Hoi K.

    2016-01-01

    Given the wide use of peer assessment, especially in higher education, the relative accuracy of peer ratings compared to teacher ratings is a major concern for both educators and researchers. This concern has grown with the increase of peer assessment in digital platforms. In this meta-analysis, using a variance-known hierarchical linear modelling…

  16. A Comparative Study of Adolescent Risk Assessment Instruments: Predictive and Incremental Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Jennifer L.; Schmidt, Fred; McKinnon, Lauren; Chattha, H. K.; Meyers, Joanna R.

    2008-01-01

    Promising new adolescent risk assessment tools are being incorporated into clinical practice but currently possess limited evidence of predictive validity regarding their individual and/or combined use in risk assessments. The current study compares three structured adolescent risk instruments, Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory…

  17. Comparing Self and Expert Assessments of Counseling Skills before and after Skills Training, and upon Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepkowski, William J.; Packman, Jill; Smaby, Marlowe H.; Maddux, Cleborne

    2009-01-01

    Counselor ability to accurately self-assess their competence is important to ethical practice. However, research indicates that people in general are not reliable in judging their own competence. This study compared the self-assessments of skills of 69 counselors-in-training to the skill ratings of trained expert-raters at three points during…

  18. Balancing Autonomy and Comparability: State Approaches to Assessment Selection for Student Learning Objectives. Ask the Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Ellen; Meyer, Cassandra

    2014-01-01

    States take a wide range of approaches to Student Learning Objectives (SLO) assessment selection. This "Ask the Team" brief helps states consider the trade-offs between approaches that offer more teacher choice and those that offer better comparability across SLOs. The brief identifies four common approaches to selecting SLO assessments:…

  19. Composition Medium Comparability in a Direct Writing Assessment of Non-Native English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Edward W.; Manalo, Jonathan R.

    2004-01-01

    The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) contains a direct writing assessment, and examinees are given the option of composing their responses at a computer terminal using a keyboard or composing their responses in handwriting. This study sought to determine whether performance on a direct writing assessment is comparable for examinees…

  20. Group Assessment at First Year and Final Degree Level: A Comparative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plastow, N.; Spiliotopoulou, G.; Prior, S.

    2010-01-01

    Group projects are an established but debated pedagogical technique in higher education. The purpose of this study was to assess the appropriateness of combining individual and group marks in assessment. A mixed method design involving correlational and comparative elements was used. The sample included one cohort of students who completed a group…

  1. Research Assessment as an Instrument for Steering Higher Education--A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Dominic

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that research assessment is of increasing importance as an instrument of New Public Management and within the context of efforts to establish a European Research Area. Specifically, it compares the procedures of research assessment in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Ireland and Germany in an attempt to distil basic design…

  2. General pathologist-helper: The new medical app about general pathology

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Vega, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Smartphone applications (apps) have become increasingly prevalent in medicine. Due to most pathologists, pathology trainees, technicians, and medical students use smartphones; apps can be a different way for general pathology education. “General pathologist-helper (GP-HELPER)” is a novel app developed as a reference tool in general pathology and especially for general pathologists, developed for Android and iOS platforms. Materials and Methods: “GP-HELPER,” was created using Mobincube website platform. This tool also integrates “FORUM GP-HELPER,” an external website created using Miarroba website (http://forum-gp-helper.mboards.com) and “COMMUNITY GP-HELPER” a multichannel chat created using Chatango website platform. Results: The application was released in July 2015, and it is been periodically updated since then. The app has permanent information (offline data) about different pathology protocols (TNM latest edition, protocols regarding management of tumors of unknown primary origin, and flowcharts for some of the most difficult tumors to diagnose) and a database with more than 5000 immunohistochemistry results from different tumors. Online data have links to more than 1100 reference pathology video lectures, 250 antibodies information, more than 70 pathology association websites, 46 pathology providers, and 78 outstanding pathology journal websites. Besides this information, the app has two interactive places such as “FORUM GP-HELPER” and “COMMUNITY GP-HELPER” that let users to stay in touch everywhere and every time. Expert consult section is also available. Conclusions: “GP-HELPER” pretends to integrate offline and online data about pathology with two interactive external places in order to represent a reference tool for general pathologists and associate members. PMID:26730351

  3. Raising future forensic pathologists (first report): results of a preliminary questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Manabu; Matoba, Kotaro; Terazawa, Koichi

    2012-08-01

    The shortage of future forensic pathologists is a serious problem both in Japan and overseas. In Japan, however, factors such as government budget cuts and increasing the autopsy rates, make the condition even worse. In an attempt to improve this situation, we implemented a questionnaire survey to investigate the particular features necessary when selecting a career in forensic medicine. As a preliminary study, we sent the questionnaire along with an anonymous answer sheet to all forensic pathologists with a degree in medicine M.D., who were affiliated with universities in Hokkaido and the Tohoku district of Japan as of August 2011. Thirteen physicians in nine universities (response rate 77.8%) returned the answer sheet. Characteristics of participants are listed below: years of experience, board specialty and number of years as board certified specialists, percentage of work effort spent on autopsy practice, the time when they decided to work as a forensic pathologist, the time when to best recommend forensic pathologist as a career, and crucial factors in choosing the specialty of forensic medicine. As a result of this research, we've revealed the importance of undergraduate medical education or the effect on the role models. Furthermore, we've also extracted miscellaneous comments, such as standardization of minimum requirements. In our study, we' ve found some clues to increase future candidates in the field forensic medicine. However, we must collect further samples for our questionnaire survey to validate the study, and, as a future project, we must also address this problem at the congress of forensic medicine. PMID:23016267

  4. Applications of responsiveness to intervention and the speech-language pathologist in elementary school settings.

    PubMed

    Roth, Froma P; Troia, Gary A

    2009-05-01

    This article addresses ways in which speech-language pathologists can play a proactive and substantive part in school-wide language and reading disability prevention and intervention efforts within the responsiveness to intervention framework. Within a collaborative working paradigm, specific student-focused instructional targets are presented in the areas of oral language, metacognition, and reading comprehension. A discussion of professional development focuses on enhancing teacher-student communication interaction, a critical yet often undervalued component of teacher training. PMID:19399694

  5. Health impact assessment of global climate change: expanding on comparative risk assessment approaches for policy making.

    PubMed

    Patz, Jonathan; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Gibbs, Holly; Woodruff, Rosalie

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is projected to have adverse impacts on public health. Cobenefits may be possible from more upstream mitigation of greenhouse gases causing climate change. To help measure such cobenefits alongside averted disease-specific risks, a health impact assessment (HIA) framework can more comprehensively serve as a decision support tool. HIA also considers health equity, clearly part of the climate change problem. New choices for energy must be made carefully considering such effects as additional pressure on the world's forests through large-scale expansion of soybean and oil palm plantations, leading to forest clearing, biodiversity loss and disease emergence, expulsion of subsistence farmers, and potential increases in food prices and emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Investigators must consider the full range of policy options, supported by more comprehensive, flexible, and transparent assessment methods. PMID:18173382

  6. A Survey of Attitudes of Board-Certified Veterinary Pathologists to Forensic Veterinary Pathology.

    PubMed

    McEwen, B J; McDonough, S P

    2016-09-01

    An electronic survey was conducted to determine the attitudes of veterinary pathologists toward forensic pathology and the adequacy of their training in the discipline. The survey was sent to 1933 diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists and 311 completed responses were analyzed. Of respondents, 80% report receiving at least 1 type of medicolegal case, with cases from law enforcement received most frequently. Most (74%) of the respondents indicated that their previous training did not prepare them adequately to handle forensic cases and almost half of the respondents (48%) indicated that they needed more training on serving as an expert witness. Relative risk ratios (RRR) and odds ratios (OR) were generated to determine the strength of a statistically significant association. Responses from a free-text entry question determining additional training needs could be grouped into 3 main categories: (1) veterinary forensic pathology science and procedures, (2) documentation, evidence collection and handling, and (3) knowledge of the medicolegal system. Last, a field for additional comments or suggestions regarding veterinary forensic pathology was completed by 107 respondents and many reinforced the need for training in the categories previously described. The survey highlights that a significant proportion of diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists are currently engaged in veterinary forensic pathology but feel their training has not adequately prepared them for these cases. Hopefully, the survey results will inform the college and residency training coordinators as they address the training requirements for an important emerging discipline. PMID:26926083

  7. Research issues in forensic pathology: a survey of academic institutions employing forensic pathologists.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Kurt B

    2004-05-01

    In an effort to characterize research efforts in forensic pathology, a questionnaire was sent to a representative of each of the 14 academic medical centers that employ full-time faculty forensic pathologists. Responses were received from all 14 (100%) of the institutions queried, representing a total of 39 forensic pathology faculty positions; 21 positions were tenure track and 18 positions were clinical or other tracks. Of the 39 positions, 25 positions (64%) at 10 institutions required some degree of research or scholarly output. Of the 25 forensic pathologists with a research imperative, only 3 (12%) were principal investigators or co-investigators on funded forensic pathology-based projects. The major limitation cited by respondents on the performance of forensic pathology research was the lack of protected time from service responsibilities. Fellowship training in forensic pathology was available at 6 of the 14 respondent institutions. Of these institutions, 4 (67%) had a research requirement for trainees, and 4 (67%) provided research training. In conclusion, very few US medical schools currently employ full-time faculty forensic pathologists. Of these, only a small number of institutions prioritize research by these faculty members. Scant federal funds are available to support research in forensic pathology. Few forensic pathology fellowship programs provide research training. To achieve a robust research agenda in forensic pathology that is sufficient to support the needs of the criminal justice and public health systems will require a paradigm shift in the medicolegal death investigative system and investment by federal agencies. PMID:15138925

  8. A comparative study of objective and subjective assessment of occupational risk.

    PubMed

    Koradecka, Danuta; Pośniak, Małgorzata; Widerszal-Bazyl, Maria; Augusty Nska, Danuta; Radkiewicz, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of dangerous, harmful and annoying factors in the working environment are used to assess occupational risk. Surveys on workers' subjective perception of risk are used, too. This study aimed to compare subjective assessment of work-related factors with their objective measurements and a national database on occupational risk. Spearman's correlation analysis, stepwise regression analysis and structural modelling were used to determine the relationship between subjective and objective risk assessment and to acquire knowledge about the role of psychosocial job characteristics as predictors of subjective assessment. Subjective assessment of hazards was related not only to their objective measurements but also to psychosocial job characteristics, workers' individual characteristics and work load. Even though subjective and objective assessments of hazard are strongly related, they are distinct phenomena. Hence, risk assessment should be carried out with both objective and subjective methods. PMID:20331915

  9. Comparing Functional Analysis and Paired-choice Assessment Results in Classroom Settings

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Wendy K; Wacker, David P; Cigrand, Karla; Merkle, Steve; Wade, Jeanie; Henry, Kim; Wang, Yu-Chia

    2007-01-01

    The results of a functional analysis of problem behavior and a paired-choice assessment were compared to determine whether the same social reinforcers were identified for problem behavior and an appropriate response (time allocation). The two assessments were conducted in classroom settings with 4 adolescents with mental retardation who engaged in severe problem behavior. Each student's classroom teacher served as the therapist for all phases of assessment. The two assessment procedures identified the same social reinforcers for problem and appropriate behavior for 3 of 4 participants. PMID:17970268

  10. Do Different Approaches to Examining Construct Comparability in Multilanguage Assessments Lead to Similar Conclusions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveri, Maria E.; Ercikan, Kadriye

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examine the degree of construct comparability and possible sources of incomparability of the English and French versions of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 problem-solving measure administered in Canada. Several approaches were used to examine construct comparability at the test- (examination of…

  11. Protein comparability assessments and potential applicability of high throughput biophysical methods and data visualization tools to compare physical stability profiles

    PubMed Central

    Alsenaidy, Mohammad A.; Jain, Nishant K.; Kim, Jae H.; Middaugh, C. Russell; Volkin, David B.

    2014-01-01

    In this review, some of the challenges and opportunities encountered during protein comparability assessments are summarized with an emphasis on developing new analytical approaches to better monitor higher-order protein structures. Several case studies are presented using high throughput biophysical methods to collect protein physical stability data as function of temperature, agitation, ionic strength and/or solution pH. These large data sets were then used to construct empirical phase diagrams (EPDs), radar charts, and comparative signature diagrams (CSDs) for data visualization and structural comparisons between the different proteins. Protein samples with different sizes, post-translational modifications, and inherent stability are presented: acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) mutants, different glycoforms of an IgG1 mAb prepared by deglycosylation, as well as comparisons of different formulations of an IgG1 mAb and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF). Using this approach, differences in structural integrity and conformational stability profiles were detected under stress conditions that could not be resolved by using the same techniques under ambient conditions (i.e., no stress). Thus, an evaluation of conformational stability differences may serve as an effective surrogate to monitor differences in higher-order structure between protein samples. These case studies are discussed in the context of potential utility in protein comparability studies. PMID:24659968

  12. Using the Reliability Theory for Assessing the Decision Confidence Probability for Comparative Life Cycle Assessments.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Larrey-Lassalle, Pyrène; Faure, Thierry; Dumoulin, Nicolas; Roux, Philippe; Mathias, Jean-Denis

    2016-03-01

    Comparative decision making process is widely used to identify which option (system, product, service, etc.) has smaller environmental footprints and for providing recommendations that help stakeholders take future decisions. However, the uncertainty problem complicates the comparison and the decision making. Probability-based decision support in LCA is a way to help stakeholders in their decision-making process. It calculates the decision confidence probability which expresses the probability of a option to have a smaller environmental impact than the one of another option. Here we apply the reliability theory to approximate the decision confidence probability. We compare the traditional Monte Carlo method with a reliability method called FORM method. The Monte Carlo method needs high computational time to calculate the decision confidence probability. The FORM method enables us to approximate the decision confidence probability with fewer simulations than the Monte Carlo method by approximating the response surface. Moreover, the FORM method calculates the associated importance factors that correspond to a sensitivity analysis in relation to the probability. The importance factors allow stakeholders to determine which factors influence their decision. Our results clearly show that the reliability method provides additional useful information to stakeholders as well as it reduces the computational time. PMID:26815724

  13. Molecular profiling--a tool for addressing emerging gaps in the comparative risk assessment of GMOs.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Jack A; Kurenbach, Brigitta; Quist, David

    2011-10-01

    Assessing the risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is required by both international agreement and domestic legislation. Many view the use of the "omics" tools for profiling classes of molecules as useful in risk assessment, but no consensus has formed on the need or value of these techniques for assessing the risks of all GMOs. In this and many other cases, experts support case-by-case use of molecular profiling techniques for risk assessment. We review the latest research on the applicability and usefulness of molecular profiling techniques for GMO risk assessment. As more and more kinds of GMOs and traits are developed, broader use of molecular profiling in a risk assessment may be required to supplement the comparative approach to risk assessment. The literature-based discussions on the use of profiling appear to have settled on two findings: 1. profiling techniques are reliable and relevant, at least no less so than other techniques used in risk assessment; and 2. although not required routinely, regulators should be aware of when they are needed. The dismissal of routine molecular profiling may be confusing to regulators who then lack guidance on when molecular profiling might be worthwhile. Molecular profiling is an important way to increase confidence in risk assessments if the profiles are properly designed to address relevant risks and are applied at the correct stage of the assessment. PMID:21624662

  14. Comparative assessment of the environmental impact of wastes from electricity generation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, C. [Instituto de Medio Ambiente Smith, G.M.; Linsley, G.; Hossain, S.

    1994-12-31

    The paper describes an outline methodology for assessing and comparing the environmental impact arising from management of the wastes from nuclear and other electricity generation systems. The assessment framework is applicable to wastes from all generation systems, including nuclear, fossil and renewable fuel systems, and can also be applied to the management of mixed hazardous waste. The major energy technologies in terms of waste production can be classified according to three major categories of fuels: fossil, nuclear and renewable. The emphasis in this description is on nuclear utility low-level and mixed wastes and waste streams. The methodology may be used to support the project on Data Bases and Methodologies for Comparative Assessment of Different Energy Sources for Electricity Generation (DECADES project, (2)) which is being developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency in collaboration with other international agencies. The DECADES project has the overall objective to improve the abilities for comparative assessment of energy chains for electricity generation. The objective of a methodology such as that described here is to ensure that waste management aspects are included effectively in comparative assessments of energy systems. This paper discusses the waste strams arising from nuclear power plants.

  15. The expanding role of pathologists in the diagnosis and management of breast cancer: Worldwide Excellence in Breast Pathology Program.

    PubMed

    Masood, Shahla

    2003-01-01

    Pathology is the study of human illness and it involves the morphologic and biologic recognition of abnormalities that are associated with a disease. Breast pathology represents an excellent example of this discipline. By providing diagnostic information and by characterizing the biologic behavior of a breast lesion, a pathologist plays a critical role in a patient's life. Any mistake in this exercise is associated with serious consequences. In addition, there are many unresolved issues in breast pathology, which contribute to our limited understanding of the biology of breast cancer, variability in diagnostic criteria, and significant diversity in breast cancer management and therapy. Furthermore, breast pathology has remained an underrecognized discipline, and its importance in diagnosis and disease management is not fully realized. In order to better serve our patients, particularly medically underserved women and those living in countries with limited resources, we must place emphasis on effectively using the talent and expertise of pathologists around the globe. For example, to provide a cost-effective way to diagnose breast cancer, particularly at advanced stages, pathologists can sample lesions by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), stain the resulting smears, and provide an immediate bedside diagnosis. This is a valid contribution; however, this exercise requires the availability of a pathologist with experience in breast cytopathology. Alternatively the pathologist may seek consultations from more experienced pathologists. Developing strategies to better recognize the importance of high-quality breast pathology services and to train qualified and innovative breast pathologists is an ambitious task. The proposed Worldwide Excellence in Breast Pathology Program may provide such an opportunity. PMID:12713504

  16. The role of the toxicologic pathologist in the post-genomic era(#).

    PubMed

    Maronpot, Robert R

    2013-06-01

    An era can be defined as a period in time identified by distinctive character, events, or practices. We are now in the genomic era. The pre-genomic era: There was a pre-genomic era. It started many years ago with novel and seminal animal experiments, primarily directed at studying cancer. It is marked by the development of the two-year rodent cancer bioassay and the ultimate realization that alternative approaches and short-term animal models were needed to replace this resource-intensive and time-consuming method for predicting human health risk. Many alternatives approaches and short-term animal models were proposed and tried but, to date, none have completely replaced our dependence upon the two-year rodent bioassay. However, the alternative approaches and models themselves have made tangible contributions to basic research, clinical medicine and to our understanding of cancer and they remain useful tools to address hypothesis-driven research questions. The pre-genomic era was a time when toxicologic pathologists played a major role in drug development, evaluating the cancer bioassay and the associated dose-setting toxicity studies, and exploring the utility of proposed alternative animal models. It was a time when there was shortage of qualified toxicologic pathologists. The genomic era: We are in the genomic era. It is a time when the genetic underpinnings of normal biological and pathologic processes are being discovered and documented. It is a time for sequencing entire genomes and deliberately silencing relevant segments of the mouse genome to see what each segment controls and if that silencing leads to increased susceptibility to disease. What remains to be charted in this genomic era is the complex interaction of genes, gene segments, post-translational modifications of encoded proteins, and environmental factors that affect genomic expression. In this current genomic era, the toxicologic pathologist has had to make room for a growing population of

  17. Gender Differences in Structured Risk Assessment: Comparing the Accuracy of Five Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coid, Jeremy; Yang, Min; Ullrich, Simone; Zhang, Tianqiang; Sizmur, Steve; Roberts, Colin; Farrington, David P.; Rogers, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Structured risk assessment should guide clinical risk management, but it is uncertain which instrument has the highest predictive accuracy among men and women. In the present study, the authors compared the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991, 2003); the Historical, Clinical, Risk Management-20 (HCR-20; C. D. Webster, K. S.…

  18. Toward a Molecular Equivalent Dose: Use of the Medaka Model in Comparative Risk Assessment.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent challenges in risk assessment underscore the need to compare the results of toxicity and dose-response testing among a growing list of animal models and, possibly, an array of in vitro screening assays. Assays that quantify types of DNA damage that are directly relevant to...

  19. The Use of Illustrations in Large-Scale Science Assessment: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chao

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the complexity of test illustrations design across cultures. More specifically, it examines how the characteristics of illustrations used in science test items vary across content areas, assessment programs, and cultural origins. It compares a total of 416 Grade 8 illustrated items from the areas of earth science, life…

  20. An Assessment of Reading Programs in North Mississippi Elementary Schools: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluitt, Angela Delentheia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of reading programs of students who used the Reading Program One, Reading Program Two, and Reading Program Three reading programs and those students who were taught using no basal reading program in North Mississippi. The study also assessed teachers' perceptions of the various reading programs…

  1. Teaching Performance Assessment: A Comparative Study of Implementation and Impact amongst California State University Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guaglianone, Curtis L.; Payne, Maggie; Kinsey, Gary W.; Chiero, Robin

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on the perceptions of California State University administrators and provides a comparative study of the challenges and benefits resulting from the implementation of the teaching performance assessment requirement of SB 2042 standards 19-21 on the California State University (CSU) campuses. With 23 campuses and almost 450,000…

  2. The Reading First Program and Statewide-Mandated Assessments: A Three-Year Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Monica Wong; Powell, Sherlyn Ezell; Cage, Bob N.; Chen, Cheng C.

    2011-01-01

    This three-year comparative study investigated the impact of the Reading First (RF) Program on student performance as measured by statewide-mandated English Language Arts (ELA) assessment programs. A matching procedure was used where 3 RF schools and 3 non-RF schools from two rural school districts in north Louisiana were matched. The ELA test…

  3. Comparing Two Versions of Professional Development for Teachers Using Formative Assessment in Networked Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Yue; Olson, Judith; Olson, Melfried; Solvin, Hannah; Brandon, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared two versions of professional development (PD) designed for teachers using formative assessment (FA) in mathematics classrooms that were networked with Texas Instruments Navigator (NAV) technology. Thirty-two middle school mathematics teachers were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: FA-then-NAV group and FA-and-NAV…

  4. On Applications of Rasch Models in International Comparative Large-Scale Assessments: A Historical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Heike; Bos, Wilfried; Goy, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Several current international comparative large-scale assessments of educational achievement (ICLSA) make use of "Rasch models", to address functions essential for valid cross-cultural comparisons. From a historical perspective, ICLSA and Georg Rasch's "models for measurement" emerged at about the same time, half a century ago. However, the…

  5. Interactive Technologies for Teacher Training: Comparing Performance and Assessment in Second Life and simSchool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meritt, Julia; Gibson, David; Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Two alternative technologies forming the basis of computer-mediated teacher preparation systems are compared and contrasted regarding implementation, operation, and assessment considerations. The role-playing system in Second Life is shown to have the unique characteristic of developing a co-constructed pedagogical identity, while the flight…

  6. A Qualitative Assessment of the Learning Outcomes of Teaching Introductory American Politics in Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelbman, Shamira M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of an ethnographic content analysis of students' written reflections as a means for assessing the learning outcomes of teaching introductory American politics in comparative perspective. It focuses especially on determining whether and how this approach enhanced students' understanding and retention of knowledge…

  7. Assessing the Comparative Effectiveness of Teaching Undergraduate Intermediate Accounting in the Online Classroom Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Anne J.; Dereshiwsky, Mary I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study assessing the comparative effectiveness of teaching an undergraduate intermediate accounting course in the online classroom format. Students in a large state university were offered an opportunity to complete the first course in intermediate accounting either online or on-campus. Students were required to…

  8. Comparing Results from the Clinical Assessment of Behavior and Child Behavior Checklist with Referred Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.

    2013-01-01

    Behavior rating scales are popular assessment tools but more research is needed on the preschool versions of the instruments, particularly with referred samples of preschoolers. This study examined the comparability of results from parent ratings on the preschool versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5, Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000) and…

  9. Comparative life cycle assessments: The case of paper and digital media

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, Justin G. Kozak, Robert A.

    2014-02-15

    The consumption of the written word is changing, as media transitions from paper products to digital alternatives. We reviewed the life cycle assessment (LCA) research literature that compared the environmental footprint of digital and paper media. To validate the role of context in influencing LCA results, we assessed LCAs that did not compare paper and print, but focused on a product or component that is part of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector. Using a framework that identifies problems in LCA conduct, we assessed whether the comparative LCAs were accurate expressions of the environmental footprints of paper and print. We hypothesized that the differences between the product systems that produce paper and digital media weaken LCA's ability to compare environmental footprints. We also hypothesized that the characteristics of ICT as an industrial sector weaken LCA as an environmental assessment methodology. We found that existing comparative LCAs offered problematic comparisons of paper and digital media for two reasons — the stark material differences between ICT products and paper products, and the unique characteristics of the ICT sector. We suggested that the context of the ICT sector, best captured by the concept of “Moore's Law”, will continuously impede the ability of the LCA methodology to measure ICT products. -- Highlights: • We review the LCA research that compares paper and digital media. • We contrast the comparative LCAs with LCAs that examine only digital products. • Stark differences between paper and digital media weakens LCA findings. • Digital products in general challenge the LCA method's reliability. • Continuous innovation and global nature of digital products impedes LCA methodology.

  10. Impact of curricular change in an undergraduate program for speech pathologists on perceived preparedness for the workplace.

    PubMed

    Harris, L M; Adamson, B J; Reed, V; Hunt, A E

    1998-01-01

    Recently, educational policymakers have emphasized the need for undergraduate programs to develop in their graduates generic skills and attributes beyond discipline-specific skills and knowledge. The generic skills and attributes should mesh with the requirements of the workplaces where the graduates will find employment. The present study examined the impact of curricular revisions to a program of study for speech pathologists on the perceptions of the graduates regarding their preparation in appropriate skill and knowledge domains. The curricular revisions sought to develop independent learning, critical thinking, research and evaluation skills, written and oral communication skills, and skills for seeking and providing support to peers. Seventy-eight graduates of the earlier program and 21 graduates of the revised program offered by the School of Communication Disorders at The University of Sydney completed a 52-item questionnaire concerning the extent to which the program had equipped them for the workplace. Eleven scales were derived from the questionnaire responses, reflecting skills endorsed by university educators and workplace supervisors of allied health professionals as being necessary for success in the workplace. The relative levels of perceived preparation on the 11 dimensions were similar across graduates of the revised program and those of the earlier program. Graduates of the revised program were significantly more positive about their preparation on five of the 11 dimensions, compared with earlier graduates of approximately equivalent age and experience. The dimensions where differences were observed generally reflected those targeted by the curricular revisions. PMID:9879029

  11. Interobserver Variability by Pathologists in the Distinction Between Cellular Fibroadenomas and Phyllodes Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Thomas J.; Acs, Geza; Argani, Pedram; Farshid, Gelareh; Gilcrease, Michael; Goldstein, Neal; Koerner, Frederick; Rowe, J. Jordi; Sanders, Melinda; Shah, Sejal S.; Reynolds, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Fibroepithelial lesions with cellular stroma are frequently termed cellular fibroadenomas although criteria for distinguishing them from a phyllodes tumor are vague and subjective. However, the clinical implications and surgical management for these 2 lesions may be different. We randomly selected 21 cases of fibroepithelial lesions sent in consultation to the senior author that were challenging to classify as cellular fibroadenoma or phyllodes tumor. One to 2 representative slides of each case along with patient age were sent to 10 pathologists who specialize in breast pathology. The World Health Organization criteria for phyllodes tumors and a diagnosis form were included with the study set. For the purposes of data reporting, fibroadenoma and cellular fibroadenoma are considered together. In only 2 cases was there uniform agreement as to whether the tumor represented a fibroadenoma or phyllodes tumor. Of the remaining 19 cases, if the diagnoses of fibroadenoma and benign phyllodes tumor were combined and separated from borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors, there was 100% agreement in 53% of cases and 90% agreement in 79% of cases. This study highlights the difficulty that exists in distinguishing some cellular fibroadenomas from phyllodes tumors even for pathologists who specialize in breast pathology. However, there appears to be considerable agreement when cellular fibroadenomas and benign phyllodes tumors are distinguished from borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors. Further studies are needed to determine if there is a clinically significant difference between cellular fibroadenomas and benign phyllodes tumors and how to better distinguish them from borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors. PMID:25161205

  12. Molecular Testing and the Pathologist's Role in Clinical Trials of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyo Sook; Magliocco, Anthony M

    2016-06-01

    Molecular characterization of breast cancer is pivotal for identifying new molecular targets and determining the appropriate treatment choices. Advances in molecular profiling technology have given greater insight into this heterogeneous disease, over and above hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. Agents targeting recently characterized molecular biomarkers are under clinical development; the success of these targeted agents is likely to depend on identifying the patient population most likely to benefit. Therefore, clinical trials of breast cancer often require prescreening for, or stratification by, relevant molecular markers or exploratory analyses of biomarkers that can predict or monitor the response to treatment. Consequently, the role of the pathologist has become increasingly important. The key considerations for pathologists include tissue availability, ownership of archival tissue, type of diagnostic/biomarker test required, method of sample processing, concordance between different tests and testing centers, and tumor heterogeneity. In the present review, we explore how pathology is used in current clinical trials of breast cancer and describe the various technologies available for molecular testing. Furthermore, the factors required for the successful application of pathology in clinical trials of breast cancer and the issues that can arise and how these can be circumvented are discussed. PMID:27103546

  13. The impact of homicide trials on the forensic pathologist's time--the Fulton County experience.

    PubMed

    Hanzlick, R

    1997-05-01

    Subpoenas received for criminal trials related to homicides in Fulton County (Atlanta) Georgia were tracked in a computer database for an 18 month period in order to determine the proportion of forensic pathologist worktime required for testimony in homicide cases. The number of subpoenas received annually amounted to 64% of the average number of homicides occurring annually. Testimony was required in about 33% of cases in which a subpoena was received, and, therefore, the number of testimony appearances per year was about 21% of the average annual number of homicides. Assuming a 40 hour work week for 52 weeks per year and an average of 3 hours of time preparing for, traveling to, and testifying in court, the time required of the forensic pathologist to testify in homicide trials amounted to about 2% of a full-time-equivalent. Although the time required for testimony in homicide cases may vary among jurisdictions because of the nature of its homicides, distance and travel time to court, and other factors, the data presented here may be used to estimate the impact of homicide trial court time on forensic pathology practice. PMID:9144948

  14. Models of phonology in the education of speech-language pathologists.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Ryan; Ball, Martin J

    2003-01-01

    We discuss developments in theoretical phonology and, in particular, at the divide between theories aiming to be adequate accounts of the data, as opposed to those claiming psycholinguistic validity. It would seem that the latter might have greater utility for thye speech-language pathologist. However, we need to know the dominant models of clinical phonology, in both clinical education and practise, before we can promote other theoretical approaches. This article describes preliminary results from a questionnaire designed to discover what models of phonology are taught in institutions training speech-language pathologists in the United States. Results support anecdotal evidence that only a limited number of approaches (phonemic, distinctive features, and processes) are taught in many instances. They also demonstrate that some correspondents were unable to distinguish aspects of theoretical phonology from similar sounding (but radically different) models of intervention. This ties in with the results showing that some instructors of phonology courses have little or no background in the subject. PMID:12945616

  15. The Role of the Toxicologic Pathologist in the Post-Genomic Era#

    PubMed Central

    Maronpot, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    An era can be defined as a period in time identified by distinctive character, events, or practices. We are now in the genomic era. The pre-genomic era: There was a pre-genomic era. It started many years ago with novel and seminal animal experiments, primarily directed at studying cancer. It is marked by the development of the two-year rodent cancer bioassay and the ultimate realization that alternative approaches and short-term animal models were needed to replace this resource-intensive and time-consuming method for predicting human health risk. Many alternatives approaches and short-term animal models were proposed and tried but, to date, none have completely replaced our dependence upon the two-year rodent bioassay. However, the alternative approaches and models themselves have made tangible contributions to basic research, clinical medicine and to our understanding of cancer and they remain useful tools to address hypothesis-driven research questions. The pre-genomic era was a time when toxicologic pathologists played a major role in drug development, evaluating the cancer bioassay and the associated dose-setting toxicity studies, and exploring the utility of proposed alternative animal models. It was a time when there was shortage of qualified toxicologic pathologists. The genomic era: We are in the genomic era. It is a time when the genetic underpinnings of normal biological and pathologic processes are being discovered and documented. It is a time for sequencing entire genomes and deliberately silencing relevant segments of the mouse genome to see what each segment controls and if that silencing leads to increased susceptibility to disease. What remains to be charted in this genomic era is the complex interaction of genes, gene segments, post-translational modifications of encoded proteins, and environmental factors that affect genomic expression. In this current genomic era, the toxicologic pathologist has had to make room for a growing population of

  16. Two fatal cases of immersion pulmonary oedema - using dive accident investigation to assist the forensic pathologist.

    PubMed

    Smart, David R; Sage, Martin; Davis, F Michael

    2014-06-01

    Immersion pulmonary oedema (IPE) is being increasingly recognized in swimmers, snorkellers and scuba divers presenting with acute symptoms of respiratory distress following immersion, but fatal case reports are uncommon. We report two fatal cases of probable IPE in middle-aged women, one whilst snorkelling and the other associated with a scuba dive. In the snorkeller's case, an episode of exercise-related chest tightness and shortness of breath that occurred 10 months previously was investigated but this proved negative, and she was on no medications. However, at autopsy, moderate left ventricular hypertrophy was noted. The scuba diver had suffered several previous episodes of severe shortness of breath following dives, one being so severe it led to cyanosis and impaired consciousness. At inquest, the pathologist's diagnosis was given as drowning and IPE was not mentioned. Expert input from doctors trained in diving medicine should be compulsory in the investigation of diving deaths, and forensic pathologists should be properly trained in and have guidelines for the conduct of post-immersion and post-diving autopsies. PMID:24986728

  17. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik-Shukor, Ali R; Klazinga, Niek S; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2007-01-01

    Background Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support this cross-national learning, a study was undertaken to compare health system performance approaches in The Netherlands with Ontario, Canada. Methods We explored the performance assessment framework and system of each constituency, the embeddedness of performance data in management and policy processes, and the interrelationships between the frameworks. Methods used included analysing governmental strategic planning and policy documents, literature and internet searches, comparative descriptive tables, and schematics. Data collection and analysis took place in Ontario and The Netherlands. A workshop to validate and discuss the findings was conducted in Toronto, adding important insights to the study. Results Both Ontario and The Netherlands conceive health system performance within supportive frameworks. However they differ in their assessment approaches. Ontario's Scorecard links performance measurement with strategy, aimed at health system integration. The Dutch Health Care Performance Report (Zorgbalans) does not explicitly link performance with strategy, and focuses on the technical quality of healthcare by measuring dimensions of quality, access, and cost against healthcare needs. A backbone 'five diamond' framework maps both frameworks and articulates the interrelations and overlap between their goals, themes, dimensions and indicators. The workshop yielded more contextual insights and further validated the comparative values of each constituency's performance assessment system. Conclusion To compare the health system performance approaches between The Netherlands and Ontario, Canada, several important conceptual and contextual issues must be addressed, before even attempting any

  18. Early-stage comparative sustainability assessment of new bio-based processes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Akshay D; Meesters, Koen; den Uil, Herman; de Jong, Ed; Worrell, Ernst; Patel, Martin K

    2013-09-01

    Our increasing demand for materials and energy has put critical roadblocks on our path towards a sustainable society. To remove these roadblocks, it is important to engage in smart research and development (R&D). We present an early-stage sustainability assessment framework that is used to analyze eight new bio-based process alternatives developed within the CatchBio research consortium in the Netherlands. This assessment relies on a multi-criteria approach, integrating the performance of chemical conversions based on five indicators into an index value. These indicators encompass economics, environmental impact, hazards and risks thereby incorporating elements of green chemistry principles, and techno-economic and life cycle assessments. The analyzed bio-based options target the production of fuels and chemicals through chemical catalysis. For each bio-based process, two R&D stages (current laboratory and expected future) are assessed against a comparable conventional process. The multi-criteria assessment in combination with the uncertainty and scenario analysis shows that the chemical production processes using biomass as feedstock can provide potential sustainability benefits over conventional alternatives. However, further development is necessary to realize the potential benefits from biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes for fuel production. This early stage assessment is intended as an input for R&D decision making to support optimal allocation and utilization of resources to further develop promising bio-based processes. PMID:24078179

  19. What Makes the Finnish Different in Science? Assessing and Comparing Students' Science Learning in Three Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Cornelia; Neumann, Knut; Boone, William J.; Fischer, Hans E.

    2014-12-01

    This manuscript details our efforts to assess and compare students' learning about electricity in three countries. As our world is increasingly driven by technological advancements, the education of future citizens in science becomes one important resource for economic productivity. Not surprisingly international large-scale assessments are viewed as significant sources of information about the effectiveness of science education. However, these assessments do not provide information about the reasons for particular effectiveness-or more importantly a lack thereof-as these assessments are based on one-time measurements of student achievement. In order to identify reasons for the effectiveness of science education, it is necessary to investigate students' learning as a result of science instruction. In this manuscript we report about the development of an instrument to assess students' learning in the field of electricity and the use of this instrument to collect data from N = 2,193 middle school students in Finland, Germany and Switzerland prior to and after instruction on the topic of electricity. Our findings indicate that the differences in students' science achievement as observed in large-scale assessments are a result of differences in students' science learning. And our findings suggest that these differences are more likely to stem from differences in science instruction than from systemic differences: a result that needs to be further explored by analyzing instruction in the three countries and its effect on students' learning.

  20. Medicine in words and numbers: a cross-sectional survey comparing probability assessment scales

    PubMed Central

    Witteman, Cilia LM; Renooij, Silja; Koele, Pieter

    2007-01-01

    Background In the complex domain of medical decision making, reasoning under uncertainty can benefit from supporting tools. Automated decision support tools often build upon mathematical models, such as Bayesian networks. These networks require probabilities which often have to be assessed by experts in the domain of application. Probability response scales can be used to support the assessment process. We compare assessments obtained with different types of response scale. Methods General practitioners (GPs) gave assessments on and preferences for three different probability response scales: a numerical scale, a scale with only verbal labels, and a combined verbal-numerical scale we had designed ourselves. Standard analyses of variance were performed. Results No differences in assessments over the three response scales were found. Preferences for type of scale differed: the less experienced GPs preferred the verbal scale, the most experienced preferred the numerical scale, with the groups in between having a preference for the combined verbal-numerical scale. Conclusion We conclude that all three response scales are equally suitable for supporting probability assessment. The combined verbal-numerical scale is a good choice for aiding the process, since it offers numerical labels to those who prefer numbers and verbal labels to those who prefer words, and accommodates both more and less experienced professionals. PMID:17562000

  1. Validation of an electronic program for pathologist training in the interpretation of a complex companion diagnostic immunohistochemical assay.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Eslie; Banks, Peter; Murata, Lauren B; Sanchez, Stephanie A; Pennington, Christie; Hockersmith, Linda; Miller, Rachel; Lambe, Jess; Feng, Janine; Kapadia, Monesh; Clements, June; Loftin, Isabell; Singh, Shalini; Das-Gupta, Ashis; Lloyd, William; Bloom, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    Companion diagnostics assay interpretation can select patients with the greatest targeted therapy benefits. We present the results from a prospective study demonstrating that pathologists can effectively learn immunohistochemical assay-interpretation skills from digital image-based electronic training (e-training). In this study, e-training was used to train board-certified pathologists to evaluate non-small cell lung carcinoma for eligibility for treatment with onartuzumab, a MET-inhibiting agent. The training program mimicked the live training that was previously validated in clinical trials for onartuzumab. A digital interface was developed for pathologists to review high-resolution, static images of stained slides. Sixty-four pathologists practicing in the United States enrolled while blinded to the type of training. After training, both groups completed a mandatory final test using glass slides. The results indicated both training modalities to be effective. Overall, 80.6% of e-trainees and 72.7% of live trainees achieved passing scores (at least 85%) on the final test. All study participants reported that their training experience was "good" and that they had received sufficient information to determine the adequacy of case slide staining to score each case. This study established that an e-training program conducted under highly controlled conditions can provide pathologists with the skills necessary to interpret a complex assay and that these skills can be equivalent to those achieved with face-to-face training using conventional microscopy. Programs of this type are scalable for global distribution and offer pathologists the potential for readily accessible and robust training in new companion diagnostic assays linked to novel, targeted, adjuvant therapies for cancer patients. PMID:27349303

  2. Selection of alternative central-station technologies for the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samsa, M.

    1980-01-01

    An important effort is the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative Assessment is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies to be compared with the SPS concept. The ground rules, criteria, and screening procedure applied in the selection of those alternative technologies are summarized. The final set of central station alternatives selected for comparison with the SPS concept includes: (1) light water reactor with improved fuel utilization, (2) conventional coal combustion with improved environmental controls, (3) open cycle gas turbine with integral low Btu gasifier, (4) terrestrial photovoltaic, (5) liquid metal fast breeder reactor, and (6) magnetic confinement fusion.

  3. Assessment of atrial septal defects in adults comparing cardiovascular magnetic resonance with transoesophageal echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many adult patients with secundum-type atrial septal defects (ASDs) are able to have these defects fixed percutaneously. Traditionally, this has involved an assessment of ASD size, geometry and atrial septal margins by transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) prior to percutaneous closure. This is a semi-invasive technique, and all of the information obtained could potentially be obtained by non-invasive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). We compared the assessment of ASDs in consecutive patients being considered for percutaneous ASD closure using CMR and TOE. Methods Consecutive patients with ASDs diagnosed on transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) were invited to undergo both CMR and TOE. Assessment of atrial septal margins, maximal and minimal defect dimensions was performed with both techniques. Analyses between CMR and TOE were made using simple linear regression and Bland Altman Analyses. Results Total CMR scan time was 20 minutes, and comparable to the TOE examination time. A total of 20 patients (M:F = 5:15, mean age 42.8 years ± 15.7) were included in the analyses. There was an excellent agreement between CMR and TOE for estimation of maximum defect size (R = 0.87). The anterior inferior, anterior superior and posterior inferior margins could be assessed in all patients with CMR. The posterior superior margin could not be assessed in only one patient. Furthermore, in 1 patient in whom TOE was unable to be performed, CMR was used to successfully direct percutaneous ASD closure. Conclusions CMR agrees with TOE assessment of ASDs in the work-up for percutaneous closure. Potentially CMR could be used instead of TOE for this purpose. PMID:20663157

  4. Comparative Risk Assessment of the Burden of Disease from Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Woodruff, Rosalie

    2006-01-01

    The World Health Organization has developed standardized comparative risk assessment methods for estimating aggregate disease burdens attributable to different risk factors. These have been applied to existing and new models for a range of climate-sensitive diseases in order to estimate the effect of global climate change on current disease burdens and likely proportional changes in the future. The comparative risk assessment approach has been used to assess the health consequences of climate change worldwide, to inform decisions on mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, and in a regional assessment of the Oceania region in the Pacific Ocean to provide more location-specific information relevant to local mitigation and adaptation decisions. The approach places climate change within the same criteria for epidemiologic assessment as other health risks and accounts for the size of the burden of climate-sensitive diseases rather than just proportional change, which highlights the importance of small proportional changes in diseases such as diarrhea and malnutrition that cause a large burden. These exercises help clarify important knowledge gaps such as a relatively poor understanding of the role of nonclimatic factors (socioeconomic and other) that may modify future climatic influences and a lack of empiric evidence and methods for quantifying more complex climate–health relationships, which consequently are often excluded from consideration. These exercises highlight the need for risk assessment frameworks that make the best use of traditional epidemiologic methods and that also fully consider the specific characteristics of climate change. These include the long-term and uncertain nature of the exposure and the effects on multiple physical and biotic systems that have the potential for diverse and widespread effects, including high-impact events. PMID:17185288

  5. Comparative analysis of water quality and toxicity assessment methods for urban highway runoff.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui-Hong; Li, Fei-Peng; Zhang, Hai-Ping; Jiang, Yue; Mao, Ling-Chen; Wu, Ling-Ling; Chen, Ling

    2016-05-15

    In this study, comparative analyses of highway runoff samples obtained from seventeen storm events have been conducted between the traditional water quality assessment method and biotoxicity tests, using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and luminous bacteria (Vibrio qinghaiensis. Q67) to provide useful information for ecotoxicity assessment of urban highway runoff. The study results showed that the Nemerow pollution index based on US EPA recommended Criteria Maximum Concentrations (CMC) (as traditional water quality assessment method) had no significant correlation with luminous bacteria acute toxicity test results, while significant correlation has been observed with two indicators of 72hpf (hours post fertilization) hour hatching rate and 96hpf abnormality rate from the toxicity test with zebrafish embryos. It is therefore concluded that the level of mixture toxicity of highway runoff could not be adequately measured by the Nemerow assessment method. Moreover, the key pollutants identified from the water quality assessment and from the biotoxicity evaluation were not consistent. For biotoxic effect evaluation of highway runoff, three indexes were found to be sensitive, i.e. 24hpf lethality and 96hpf abnormality of zebrafish embryos, as well as the inhibition rate for luminous bacteria Q67. It is therefore recommended that these indexes could be incorporated into the traditional Nemerow method to provide a more reasonable evaluation of the highway runoff quality and ecotoxicity. PMID:26930322

  6. Visual and digital comparative tooth colour assessment methods and atomic force microscopy surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Grundlingh, A A; Grossman, E S; Shrivastava, S; Witcomb, M J

    2013-10-01

    This study compared digital and visual colour tooth colour assessment methods in a sample of 99 teeth consisting of incisors, canines and pre-molars. The teeth were equally divided between Control, Ozicure Oxygen Activator bleach and Opalescence Quick bleach and subjected to three treatments. Colour readings were recorded at nine intervals by two assessment methods, VITA Easyshade and VITAPAN 3D MASTER TOOTH GUIDE, giving a total of 1782 colour readings. Descriptive and statistical analysis was undertaken using a GLM test for Analysis of Variance for a Fractional Design set at a significance of P < 0.05. Atomic force micros copy was used to examine treated ename surfaces and establish surface roughness. Visual tooth colour assessment showed significance for the independent variables of treatment, number of treatments, tooth type and the combination tooth type and treatment. Digital colour assessment indicated treatment and tooth type to be of significance in tooth colour change. Poor agreement was found between visual and digital colour assessment methods for Control and Ozicure Oxygen Activator treatments. Surface roughness values increased two-fold for Opalescence Quick specimens over the two other treatments, implying that increased light scattering improved digital colour reading. Both digital and visual colour matching methods should be used in tooth bleaching studies to complement each other and to compensate for deficiencies. PMID:24660413

  7. Comparative assessment of absolute cardiovascular disease risk characterization from non-laboratory-based risk assessment in South African populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background All rigorous primary cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines recommend absolute CVD risk scores to identify high- and low-risk patients, but laboratory testing can be impractical in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to compare the ranking performance of a simple, non-laboratory-based risk score to laboratory-based scores in various South African populations. Methods We calculated and compared 10-year CVD (or coronary heart disease (CHD)) risk for 14,772 adults from thirteen cross-sectional South African populations (data collected from 1987 to 2009). Risk characterization performance for the non-laboratory-based score was assessed by comparing rankings of risk with six laboratory-based scores (three versions of Framingham risk, SCORE for high- and low-risk countries, and CUORE) using Spearman rank correlation and percent of population equivalently characterized as ‘high’ or ‘low’ risk. Total 10-year non-laboratory-based risk of CVD death was also calculated for a representative cross-section from the 1998 South African Demographic Health Survey (DHS, n = 9,379) to estimate the national burden of CVD mortality risk. Results Spearman correlation coefficients for the non-laboratory-based score with the laboratory-based scores ranged from 0.88 to 0.986. Using conventional thresholds for CVD risk (10% to 20% 10-year CVD risk), 90% to 92% of men and 94% to 97% of women were equivalently characterized as ‘high’ or ‘low’ risk using the non-laboratory-based and Framingham (2008) CVD risk score. These results were robust across the six risk scores evaluated and the thirteen cross-sectional datasets, with few exceptions (lower agreement between the non-laboratory-based and Framingham (1991) CHD risk scores). Approximately 18% of adults in the DHS population were characterized as ‘high CVD risk’ (10-year CVD death risk >20%) using the non-laboratory-based score. Conclusions We found a high level of

  8. Direct and indirect drift assessment means. Part 4: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Nuyttens, D; Baetens, K; De Schampheleire, M; Sonck, B

    2008-01-01

    Three contrasting drift risk assessment means were evaluated when predicting absolute losses of sedimenting pesticide drift from field crop sprayers namely PDPA laser measurements, wind tunnel measurements (both indirect drift risk assessment means) and field drift experiments (direct drift risk assessment means). In total, 90 PDPA laser measurements, 45 wind tunnel experiments and 61 field drift experiments were performed with 10 different spray nozzles at a pressure of 3.0 bar. The effect of nozzle size (ISO 02, 03 04 and 06) and nozzle type (standard flat fan, low-drift flat fan, air inclusion) on the amount of near-field sedimenting spray drift was studied. The reference spray application was defined as a Hardi ISO F 110 03 standard flat fan nozzle at a pressure of 3.0 bar with a nozzle or boom height of 0.50 m and a driving speed of 8 km.h(-1) for the field measurements; conditions that were always used for the comparative assessment of the different investigated nozzle-pressure combinations. A comparison is made between the results obtained with the indirect drift assessment means and the direct drift assessment method to evaluate the potential of these three different drift assessment means. Droplet size as well as droplet velocity characteristics are related with DRPt (field experiments) and DPRP (wind tunnel experiments). Because of the strong intercorrelation between droplet size and velocity characteristics for the nozzle-pressure combinations investigated in this study, simple first-order linear regressions with one of the droplet characteristics as a predictor variable, were the best choice to predict DRPt and DPRP. Results showed that with the indirect risk assessment means (wind tunnel and PDPA laser measurement), driftability experiments can be made with different spraying systems under directly comparable and repeatable conditions and both methods are suited to permit relative studies of drift risk. Moreover, based on these indirect drift

  9. A comparative risk assessment for the Russian V213 power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, T.D.; Hockenbury, R.W.; Honey, J.A.; Cadwallader, L.C.

    1996-04-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment methodology is applied to generate an evaluation of the relative likelihood of safe recovery following selected pressurized water reactor (PWR) design basis accidents for a Russian V213 nuclear power reactor. US-designed PWRs similar to the V213 are used for reference and comparison. This V213 risk assessment is based on comparison analyses of the following aspects: accident progression event tree success paths for typical PWR accident initiating events, safety aspects in reactor design, and perceived performance of reactor safety systems. The four initiating events considered here are: loss of offsite power with station blackout, large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), medium-break LOCA, and small-break LOCA. The success probabilities for the V213 reaching a non-core-damage state after the onset of the selected initiating events are calculated for two scenarios: (a) using actual component reliability data from US PWRs and (b) assuming common component reliability data. US PWR component reliability data are used based of the unavailability of such data for the V213 at the time of the analyses. While the use of US PWR data in this risk assessment of the V213 does strongly infer V213 comparability to US plants, the risk assessment using common component reliability does not have such a stringent limitation and is thus a separate scoping assessment of the V213 engineered safety systems. The results of the analyses suggest that the V213 has certain design features that significantly improve the reactor`s safety margin for the selected initiating events and that the V213 design has a relative risk of core damage for selected initiating events that is at least comparable to US PWRs. It is important to realize that these analyses are of a scoping nature and may be significantly influenced by important risk factors such as V213 operator training, quality control, and maintenance procedures.

  10. Comparative assessment of thematic accuracy of GLC maps for specific applications using existing reference data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsendbazar, N. E.; de Bruin, S.; Mora, B.; Schouten, L.; Herold, M.

    2016-02-01

    Inputs to various applications and models, current global land cover (GLC) maps are based on different data sources and methods. Therefore, comparing GLC maps is challenging. Statistical comparison of GLC maps is further complicated by the lack of a reference dataset that is suitable for validating multiple maps. This study utilizes the existing Globcover-2005 reference dataset to compare thematic accuracies of three GLC maps for the year 2005 (Globcover, LC-CCI and MODIS). We translated and reinterpreted the LCCS (land cover classification system) classifier information of the reference dataset into the different map legends. The three maps were evaluated for a variety of applications, i.e., general circulation models, dynamic global vegetation models, agriculture assessments, carbon estimation and biodiversity assessments, using weighted accuracy assessment. Based on the impact of land cover confusions on the overall weighted accuracy of the GLC maps, we identified map improvement priorities. Overall accuracies were 70.8 ± 1.4%, 71.4 ± 1.3%, and 61.3 ± 1.5% for LC-CCI, MODIS, and Globcover, respectively. Weighted accuracy assessments produced increased overall accuracies (80-93%) since not all class confusion errors are important for specific applications. As a common denominator for all applications, the classes mixed trees, shrubs, grasses, and cropland were identified as improvement priorities. The results demonstrate the necessity of accounting for dissimilarities in the importance of map classification errors for different user application. To determine the fitness of use of GLC maps, accuracy of GLC maps should be assessed per application; there is no single-figure accuracy estimate expressing map fitness for all purposes.

  11. Response to intervention in secondary settings: speech-language pathologists' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Snow, Pamela C; Sanger, Dixie D; Childers, Carrie; Pankonin, Celeste; Wright, Shelly

    2013-10-01

    This study explored the reactions of 44 speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to Response to Intervention (RTI) in secondary settings. Respondents were part of a random sample of SLPs from across the US. A mixed-methods approach included quantitative data from a questionnaire containing 47 Likert-type items and qualitative findings from responses to an open-ended question. Results revealed participants value the model but recognize educators face challenges in implementation. Qualitative findings revealed four themes: (a) challenges and concerns, (b) support for the model, (c) implementation considerations, and (d) role of SLPs. Findings suggest that administrators and educators need to collaborate more closely in order to effectively implement RTI in secondary settings. PMID:23547661

  12. Pharmacological dosage concepts: how useful are they for educators and speech-language pathologists?

    PubMed

    Kamhi, Alan G

    2012-10-01

    The first part of this response to Baker (2012) examines studies that have attempted to determine the optimum treatment intensity of reading interventions associated with a Response to Intervention (RTI) model of service delivery. In general, the findings indicated that differences in broad measures of intensity (duration and scheduling) did not result in differences in reading outcomes. These non-significant findings and Baker's excellent discussion of all of the factors that impact treatment outcomes led me to question how useful pharmacological dosage concepts are for educators and speech-language pathologists (SLPs). This commentary concludes by acknowledging that the more information available about the active ingredients of treatment episodes, the better able one will be to design effective and efficient interventions to improve speech, language, and literacy. PMID:22646314

  13. Perspectives of Speech-Language Pathologists on the Use of Telepractice in Schools: The Qualitative View

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Janice K.

    2012-01-01

    Telepractice in speech-language pathology shows the potential to mitigate the current shortage of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) available to serve a growing number of persons with communication disorders. Since a majority of American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) certified SLPs work in schools and the population of communicatively impaired clients in schools continues to grow, research into the use of telepractice in the educational setting is warranted. This article reports upon the perspectives of SLPs regarding the use of telepractice in school settings. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with five SLPs experienced in the delivery of telepractice. Four major themes emerged: barriers, benefits, reasons for acceptance and use of telepractice, and suggestions to resolve telepractice professional issues. PMID:25945203

  14. Pathologists are from Mercury, clinicians are from Uranus: the perverted prospects for perceptual pathology.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Dennis K

    2008-08-01

    Clinicians and pathologists do their work, of course, in quite different ways. Because both groups are trained as physicians, however, this training commonality makes all involved seem basically to be on the same "medical team." There are, nevertheless, some fundamental differences between the 2 groups that can on occasion cause significant difficulties in mutual understanding; there are reasons to believe that such differences are becoming more pronounced. Although the differences in viewpoints are often subtle and, therefore, seemingly not very important, these differences have very profound causes and can be profound in their effects. This narrative examines the underlying broad historical-sociological-philosophical bases for these differences with the aim of illuminating their importance to medicine and their prospective importance to pathology in particular. PMID:18621002

  15. Comparative study of upper limb load assessment and occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders at repetitive task workstations.

    PubMed

    Roman-Liu, Danuta; Bugajska, Joanna; Tokarski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between subjectively assessed complaints of pain in the arm, forearm and hand, and musculoskeletal load caused by repetitive tasks. Workers (n=942) were divided into 22 subgroups, according to the type of their workstations. They answered questions on perceived musculoskeletal pain of upper limbs. Basic and aggregate indices from a questionnaire on the prevalence, intensity and frequency of pain were compared with an upper limb load indicator (repetitive task index, RTI) calculated with the recently developed Upper Limb Risk Assessment (ULRA). There was relatively strong correlation of RTI and general intensity and frequency of pain in the arm, and general intensity and frequency of pain in the arm and forearm or prevalence of pain in the arm. Frequency and intensity of pain in the arm were weakly correlated. An aggregate indicator of evaluation of MSDs, which was calculated on the basis of the prevalence, intensity and frequency of pain, was to a higher degree associated with the musculoskeletal load of a task than basic evaluative parameters. Thus, such an aggregate indicator can be an alternative in comparing subjectively assessed MSDs with task-related musculoskeletal load and in establishing limit levels for that load. PMID:24975106

  16. Comparative Study of Upper Limb Load Assessment and Occurrence of Musculoskeletal Disorders at Repetitive Task Workstations

    PubMed Central

    ROMAN-LIU, Danuta; BUGAJSKA, Joanna; TOKARSKI, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between subjectively assessed complaints of pain in the arm, forearm and hand, and musculoskeletal load caused by repetitive tasks. Workers (n=942) were divided into 22 subgroups, according to the type of their workstations. They answered questions on perceived musculoskeletal pain of upper limbs. Basic and aggregate indices from a questionnaire on the prevalence, intensity and frequency of pain were compared with an upper limb load indicator (repetitive task index, RTI) calculated with the recently developed Upper Limb Risk Assessment (ULRA). There was relatively strong correlation of RTI and general intensity and frequency of pain in the arm, and general intensity and frequency of pain in the arm and forearm or prevalence of pain in the arm. Frequency and intensity of pain in the arm were weakly correlated. An aggregate indicator of evaluation of MSDs, which was calculated on the basis of the prevalence, intensity and frequency of pain, was to a higher degree associated with the musculoskeletal load of a task than basic evaluative parameters. Thus, such an aggregate indicator can be an alternative in comparing subjectively assessed MSDs with task-related musculoskeletal load and in establishing limit levels for that load. PMID:24975106

  17. Effect of Employing Different Typodonts When Using E4D Compare for Dental Student Assessment.

    PubMed

    Callan, Richard S; Cooper, Jeril R; Young, Nancy B; Mollica, Anthony G; Furness, Alan R; Looney, Stephen W

    2015-06-01

    The use of computers to aid in instruction and help decrease the subjective component of assessment is steadily increasing. One of the potential barriers to the effective utilization of CAD/CAM technology for assessment purposes is the efficient scanning of the teeth being used for comparison. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if the use of different typodonts, of the same make and model, has any significant effect on the percent comparison results when using E4D Compare. Tooth #30 was prepared by a faculty member to represent what dental students at Georgia Regents University are taught as the ideal preparation for a full gold crown. Ten typodonts of the same make and model were selected for comparison. Three different examples of students' preparations were scanned and compared to the ideal preparation. Each of the three student preparations was subjected to ten trials (occasions), one for each typodont, at five tolerance levels: 0.1 mm, 0.2 mm, 0.3 mm, 0.4 mm, and 0.5 mm. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to measure the intrarater agreement among the typodonts at the various tolerance levels. The agreement coefficients (0.971-0.984) indicated very little variability attributable to the use of a different typodont. The high agreement coefficients achieved using different typodonts of the same make and model provide evidence for the interchangeability of typodonts when assessing a student's performance in the preclinical simulation environment. PMID:26034036

  18. Update on the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System: What the Pathologist Needs to Know.

    PubMed

    Tang, An; Valasek, Mark A; Sirlin, Claude B

    2015-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is frequently diagnosed noninvasively with imaging techniques. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging play critical roles in the detection, diagnosis, and staging of HCC. Standardization in the interpretation and reporting of imaging modalities has not existed until recently. In 2008, the American College of Radiology supported the development of the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) for standardized terminology, interpretation, and reporting of imaging examinations for the diagnosis of HCC inpatients at risk for HCC. This article reviews the basic concepts of LI-RADS, emphasizing aspects that are most relevant to pathologists, including the categories, diagnostic algorithm, major features, and ancillary features for the diagnosis of HCC. The similarities and differences between LI-RADS and other major radiology-based diagnostic systems in terms of target population, intended users, categorization of observations, and imaging methods are addressed. Importantly, LI-RADS and other systems are designed to diagnose progressed HCC with high specificity and modest sensitivity. LI-RADS and other systems are not designed to detect early HCC and so have limited sensitivity for such lesions. Moreover, despite continuous advances in imaging technology, imaging detection and characterization of small (<1 cm) nodules remains limited; in addition, colocalization of small nodules and pathology is difficult. For these reasons LI-RADS and most other systems require lesions to be 1 cm or greater for the noninvasive diagnosis of HCC. As LI-RADS evolves, it is critical that stakeholders, including pathologists, provide expert input to help standardize and enhance reporting of radiologic findings. PMID:26262514

  19. Telepathology and continuous education: important tools for pathologists of developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Góngora Jará, Hugo; Barcelo, Héctor A

    2008-01-01

    Education shows that active participation allows the best development of skills to acquire, and the results are better when the information is well documented. Now, with digital images and the Internet, in the case of the Static Telepathology (ST), it is easy to share macroscopic and microscopic photographs. The progress of the technologies enabled a form of Dynamic Telepathology (DT) named "virtual slides", with navigation tools, and can be moved around changing powers as desired, making any personal computer into a digital microscope. The use of these tools in continuous education leads to optimal development of knowledge. We reported the experience of a Latin-American Pathologist from La Rioja, a small Province of Argentina, and we also mentioned the electronic publications in Virtual Hispano-American Congresses of Pathology (VHACP) since 1997(18 reports in the case of ST) and in two Virtual Slide Congress (VSC). In the 1st (2005) and 2nd (2007) Internet VSCs two of our cases were digitized in Spain (case 1 and 3 respectively). In these Virtual Slides, the microscopic images can be moved remotely from any computer connected to the Internet, we should recognize that it will become a valuable continuing Medical Education tool in microscopy, probably related to the phrase "a picture is worth more than a thousand words", then we might add; "what about thousands of images?" Similarly, the autoevaluation test is very important. ST and DT, in support of Virtual Congresses allows learning, teaching and sharing of diseases in scientific presentations and the exchange of views in the forums, these are the optimum material for distance education. In addition we received CDs or DVDs and certificates as authors, recognized by European Institutions. The active participation and the autoevaluation test are the best tools for continuous medical education in telepathology, not only for pathologists in developing countries but for the entire world. PMID:18673513

  20. Pocket pathologist: A mobile application for rapid diagnostic surgical pathology consultation

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Douglas J.; Parwani, Anil V.; Cable, Bill; Cucoranu, Ioan C.; McHugh, Jeff S.; Kolowitz, Brian J.; Yousem, Samuel A.; Palat, Vijaykumar; Reden, Anna Von; Sloka, Stephen; Lauro, Gonzalo Romero; Ahmed, Ishtiaque; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Telepathology allows the digital transmission of images for rapid access to pathology experts. Recent technologic advances in smartphones have allowed them to be used to acquire and transmit digital images of the glass slide, representing cost savings and efficiency gains over traditional forms of telepathology. We report our experience with developing an iPhone application (App - Pocket Pathologist) to facilitate rapid diagnostic pathology teleconsultation utilizing a smartphone. Materials and Methods: A secure, web-based portal (http://pathconsult.upmc.com/) was created to facilitate remote transmission of digital images for teleconsultation. The App augments functionality of the web-based portal and allows the user to quickly and easily upload digital images for teleconsultation. Image quality of smartphone cameras was evaluated by capturing images using different adapters that directly attach phones to a microscope ocular lens. Results: The App was launched in August 2013. The App facilitated easy submission of cases for teleconsultation by limiting the number of data entry fields for users and enabling uploading of images from their smartphone's gallery wirelessly. Smartphone cameras properly attached to a microscope create static digital images of similar quality to a commercial digital microscope camera. Conclusion: Smartphones have great potential to support telepathology because they are portable, provide ubiquitous internet connectivity, contain excellent digital cameras, and can be easily attached to a microscope. The Pocket Pathologist App represents a significant reduction in the cost of creating digital images and submitting them for teleconsultation. The iPhone App provides an easy solution for global users to submit digital pathology images to pathology experts for consultation. PMID:24843822

  1. Communication-based Services for Persons with Severe Disabilities: A Survey of Speech-Language Pathologists Working in North Carolina Residential Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Billy T.; Sportsman, J. Scott; VanGiesen, Todd; Siegel, Ellin

    2000-01-01

    A study examined the opinions and practices of 28 speech-language pathologists specific to best practice communication-based service delivery for persons with severe disabilities. Pathologists reported to value highly and, to a lesser degree, to practice indicators of quality communication-based service delivery. Significant differences between…

  2. Life cycle assessments of urban water systems: a comparative analysis of selected peer-reviewed literature.

    PubMed

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Loiseau, Eleonore; Bellon-Maurel, Veronique

    2014-12-15

    Water is a growing concern in cities, and its sustainable management is very complex. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used to assess the environmental impacts of water technologies during the last 20 years. This review aims at compiling all LCA papers related to water technologies, out of which 18 LCA studies deals with whole urban water systems (UWS). A focus is carried out on these 18 case studies which are analyzed according to criteria derived from the four phases of LCA international standards. The results show that whereas the case studies share a common goal, i.e., providing quantitative information to policy makers on the environmental impacts of urban water systems and their forecasting scenarios, they are based on different scopes, resulting in the selection of different functional units and system boundaries. A quantitative comparison of life cycle inventory and life cycle impact assessment data is provided, and the results are discussed. It shows the superiority of information offered by multi-criteria approaches for decision making compared to that derived from mono-criterion. From this review, recommendations on the way to conduct the environmental assessment of urban water systems are given, e.g., the need to provide consistent mass balances in terms of emissions and water flows. Remaining challenges for urban water system LCAs are identified, such as a better consideration of water users and resources and the inclusion of recent LCA developments (territorial approaches and water-related impacts). PMID:25282088

  3. Dental students' opinions of preparation assessment with E4D compare software versus traditional methods.

    PubMed

    Hamil, Lindsey M; Mennito, Anthony S; Renné, Walter G; Vuthiganon, Jompobe

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate dental students' opinions regarding the utilization of a new grading software program for student self-assessment and a faculty-grading tool in a preclinical course. Using surface mapping technology, this program, called E4D Compare, yields a digital model of a student's preparation that is color-coded to show deficient areas. The program has now been used for two years at the James B. Edwards College of Dental Medicine at the Medical University of South Carolina, and the students previously assessed with E4D Compare have now entered into the dental clinics. For this study, students were asked to complete an anonymous survey for the investigators to evaluate students' attitudes and opinions on the effectiveness of this software in their preclinical courses to determine if this type of feedback helped them develop clinical skills. The survey also sought to collect students' opinions on the traditional objective criteria-based grading system. The survey was distributed to all members of the Classes of 2014 and 2015; it yielded a 59 percent response rate for the two classes, with a total of eighty-one students responding. Overall, the majority of students preferred the E4D Compare grading system over traditional hand-grading methods. The grading system provided instant, objective, and visual feedback that allowed students to easily see where their deficiencies were and encouraged them to work towards an ideal final product. PMID:25281676

  4. Considerations for comparative tobacco product assessments based on smoke constituent yields.

    PubMed

    Belushkin, M; Jaccard, G; Kondylis, A

    2015-10-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of more than 8000 smoke constituents. The quantification of selected mainstream smoke constituent yields is one of the methods to evaluating and comparing the performance of different products. Numerous regulatory and scientific advisory bodies have used cigarette smoke constituent yield data for reporting and product comparison purposes. For more than a decade limitations of the indiscriminate application of traditional statistical methods such as the t-test for differences in comparative smoke constituent yield assessments lacking a specific study design, have been highlighted. In the present study, the variability of smoke constituent yields is demonstrated with data obtained under the ISO smoking regime for the Kentucky reference cigarette 3R4F and one commercial brand, analyzed on several occasions between 2007 and 2014. Specifically it is shown that statistically significant differences in the yields of selected smoke constituents do not readily translate to differences between products, and that tolerances need to be defined. To this end, two approaches have been proposed in the literature--minimal detectable differences, and the statistical equivalence. It is illustrated how both approaches provide more meaningful comparison outcomes than the statistical t-test for differences. The present study provides considerations relevant for comparative tobacco product assessments both in the scientific and regulatory contexts. PMID:26140819

  5. Comparative analysis of the life cycle impact assessment of available cement inventories in the EU

    SciTech Connect

    Josa, Alejandro; Byars, Ewan

    2007-05-15

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is one of basic steps in life cycle assessment methodology (LCA). This paper presents a comparative study of the LCIA of different life cycle inventories (LCI) for EU cements. The analysis unit used is the manufacture of 1 kg of cement, from 'cradle to gate'. The impact categories considered are those resulting from the manufacture of cement and include greenhouse effects, acidification, eutrophication and summer and winter smog, amongst others. The results of the study highlighted some inconsistencies in existing inventories. As for the LCIA, the main environmental interventions related to cement manufacture were classified and characterised and their effect on different impact categories analysed. Differences observed in evaluation of the impact of cement type were essentially related to their clinker content.

  6. Methodology for the comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wolsko, T.; Buehring, W.; Cirillo, R.; Gasper, J.; Habegger, L.; Hub, K.; Newsom, D.; Samsa, M.; Stenehjem, E.; Whitfield, R.

    1980-01-01

    A description of the initial methodology for the Comparative Assessment of the Satellite Power System Concept Development and Evaluation Program of NASA and DOE is presented. Included are study objectives, issue identification, units of measurement, methods, and data bases. The energy systems concerned are the satellite power system, several coal technologies, geothermal energy, fission, fusion, terrestrial solar systems, and ocean thermal energy conversion. Guidelines are suggested for the characterization of these systems, side-by-side analysis, alternative futures analysis, and integration and aggregation of data. The bulk of this report is a description of the methods for assessing the technical, economic, environmental, societal, and institutional issues surrounding the development of the selected energy technologies.

  7. Comparative assessment of five potential sites for hydrothermal-magma systems: summary

    SciTech Connect

    Luth, W.C.; Hardee, H.C.

    1980-11-01

    A comparative assessment of five potential hydrothermal-magma sites for this facet of the Thermal Regimes part of the CSDP has been prepared for the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The five sites are: The Geysers-Clear Lake, CA, Long Valley, CA, Rio Grande Rift, NM, Roosevelt Hot Springs, UT, and Salton Trough, CA. This site assessment study has drawn together background information (geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and energy transport) on the five sites as a preliminary stage to site selection. Criteria for site selection are that potential sites have identifiable, or likely, hydrothermal systems and associated magma sources, and the important scientific questions can be identified and answered by deep scientific holes. Recommendations were made.

  8. Comparative Accuracy Assessment of Global Land Cover Datasets Using Existing Reference Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsendbazar, N. E.; de Bruin, S.; Mora, B.; Herold, M.

    2014-12-01

    Land cover is a key variable to monitor the impact of human and natural processes on the biosphere. As one of the Essential Climate Variables, land cover observations are used for climate models and several other applications. Remote sensing technologies have enabled the generation of several global land cover (GLC) products that are based on different data sources and methods (e.g. legends). Moreover, the reported map accuracies result from varying validation strategies. Such differences make the comparison of the GLC products challenging and create confusion on selecting suitable datasets for different applications. This study aims to conduct comparative accuracy assessment of GLC datasets (LC-CCI 2005, MODIS 2005, and Globcover 2005) using the Globcover 2005 reference data which can represent the thematic differences of these GLC maps. This GLC reference dataset provides LCCS classifier information for 3 main land cover types for each sample plot. The LCCS classifier information was translated according to the legends of the GLC maps analysed. The preliminary analysis showed some challenges in LCCS classifier translation arising from missing important classifier information, differences in class definition between the legends and absence of class proportion of main land cover types. To overcome these issues, we consolidated the entire reference data (i.e. 3857 samples distributed at global scale). Then the GLC maps and the reference dataset were harmonized into 13 general classes to perform the comparative accuracy assessments. To help users on selecting suitable GLC dataset(s) for their application, we conducted the map accuracy assessments considering different users' perspectives: climate modelling, bio-diversity assessments, agriculture monitoring, and map producers. This communication will present the method and the results of this study and provide a set of recommendations to the GLC map producers and users with the aim to facilitate the use of GLC maps.

  9. How do swine practitioners and veterinary pathologists arrive at a diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens type A enteritis in neonatal piglets?

    PubMed

    Chan, Gloria; Farzan, Abdolvahab; Prescott, John F; Friendship, Robert

    2013-05-01

    A questionnaire was administered to 22 veterinary practitioners and 17 veterinary pathologists to investigate the methods used for diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens type A enteritis in neonatal pigs. Practitioners generally diagnosed C. perfringens type A associated enteritis by age of onset of diarrhea (between 1 to 7 days of age). Most practitioners (95%) were moderately to very confident in their diagnosis. Pathologists generally diagnosed C. perfringens type A associated enteritis by combinations of isolation of the organism, genotyping or detecting the toxins of the organism, and ruling out other pathogens through histopathology. Almost half (41%) of the pathologists were not confident of their diagnosis. This study reports that the current diagnostic method for C. perfringens type A enteritis is not specific, and although many pathologists expressed reservations about making a diagnosis of C. perfringens type A enteritis, most practitioners were confident in their diagnosis, even though reported clinical signs of clostridial diarrhea are similar to those of a number of other enteric diseases. PMID:24155437

  10. Day as a Pathologist: Utilization of Technology to Guide Students in Exploring Careers in Breast Cancer Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Jacob J.; Judd, Mariah V.; Bringman, Lauren R.; Wells, Clark D.; Marrs, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an interactive laboratory that allows students to identify and grade tissue samples from human breast biopsies, using techniques similar to those used by actual pathologists. This unique lab develops a practical and intellectual understanding of basic tissue structures that make up living systems, utilizing technology to bring…

  11. Prevalence of Vocal Problems: Speech-Language Pathologists' Evaluation of Music and Non-Music Teacher Recordings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.

    2013-01-01

    The current study, a preliminary examination of whether music teachers are more susceptible to vocal problems than teachers of other subjects, asked for expert evaluation of audio recordings from licensed speech-language pathologists. Participants (N = 41) taught music (n = 23) or another subject (n = 18) in either elementary (n = 21), middle (n =…

  12. Training and Self-Reported Confidence for Dysphagia Management among Speech-Language Pathologists in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donoghue, Cynthia R.; Dean-Claytor, Ashli

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The number of children requiring dysphagia management in the schools is increasing. This article reports survey findings relative to speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') training and self-rated confidence to treat children with swallowing and feeding disorders in the schools. Method: Surveys were completed by 222 SLPs representing…

  13. The Levels of Speech Usage Rating Scale: Comparison of Client Self-Ratings with Speech Pathologist Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Christina; Baylor, Carolyn; Eadie, Tanya; Kendall, Diane; Yorkston, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Background: The term "speech usage" refers to what people want or need to do with their speech to fulfil the communication demands in their life roles. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) need to know about clients' speech usage to plan appropriate interventions to meet their life participation goals. The Levels of Speech Usage is a categorical…

  14. Preparation, Clinical Support, and Confidence of Speech-Language Pathologists Managing Clients with a Tracheostomy in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Elizabeth; Agius, Emma; Solley, Maura; Cornwell, Petrea; Jones, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the preparation and training, clinical support, and confidence of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in relation to tracheostomy client care in Australia. Method: A survey was sent to 90 SLPs involved in tracheostomy management across Australia. The survey contained questions relating to preparation and training, clinical…

  15. Reliability of an Automated High-Resolution Manometry Analysis Program across Expert Users, Novice Users, and Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Corinne A.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Geng, Zhixian; Abdelhalim, Suzan M.; Jiang, Jack J.; McCulloch, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate inter- and intrarater reliability among expert users, novice users, and speech-language pathologists with a semiautomated high-resolution manometry analysis program. We hypothesized that all users would have high intrarater reliability and high interrater reliability. Method: Three expert…

  16. Feeding Tube Placement in Patients with Advanced Dementia: The Beliefs and Practice Patterns of Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Helen M.; Shega, Joseph W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the beliefs and practices of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) about the use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) among patients with advanced dementia and dysphagia. Method: A survey was mailed to a geographically stratified random sample of 1,050 medical SLPs. Results: The response rate was 57%, and 326 surveys met…

  17. Responsiveness to Intervention Roles for Speech-Language Pathologists in the Prevention and Identification of Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troia, Gary A.

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses ways in which speech-language pathologists can play a proactive and substantive part in schoolwide reading disability prevention and intervention efforts within the responsiveness to intervention framework. First, the driving forces that led Congress to alter how schools may operationalize learning disabilities are…

  18. Principals' Opinions on the Role of Speech-Language Pathologists Serving Students with Communication Disorders Involved in Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritzman, Mitzi J.; Sanger, Dixie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to survey the opinions of principals concerning the role of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) serving students with communication disorders who have been involved in violence. Method: A mixed methods design involving 678 questionnaires was mailed to elementary, middle, and high school principals in a…

  19. The Role of the School-based Speech-Language Pathologist Serving Preschool Children with Dysphagia: A Personal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurjan, Randy Moskowitz

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the role of speech-language pathologists in serving preschool children with dysphagia. Current approaches to feeding and swallowing intervention, etiologies and programs, transdisciplinary teaming, developmental and feeding evaluation, and types of service delivery models (home-based and center-based) for preschool children…

  20. Characteristics of Children Who Struggle with Reading: Teachers and Speech-Language Pathologists Collaborate to Support Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Katie E.; Gillam, Sandra L.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2013-01-01

    Speech language pathologists (SLPs) have developed specialized knowledge about oral language and its relationship to early literacy development that can be particularly useful to early childhood educators. The purpose of this article is to highlight ways in which an SLP can support early childhood teachers in a Response to Intervention role by…

  1. Speech-Language Pathologists' Knowledge of Genetics: Perceived Confidence, Attitudes, Knowledge Acquisition and Practice-Based Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramontana, G. Michael; Blood, Ingrid M.; Blood, Gordon W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the general knowledge bases demonstrated by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the area of genetics, (b) the confidence levels of SLPs in providing services to children and their families with genetic disorders/syndromes, (c) the attitudes of SLPs regarding genetics and communication…

  2. Understanding Why Speech-Language Pathologists Rarely Pursue a PhD in Communication Sciences and Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myotte, Theodore; Hutchins, Tiffany L.; Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Belin, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Masters-level speech-language pathologists in communication sciences and disorders (n = 122) completed a survey soliciting their reasons for not pursuing doctoral study. Factor analysis revealed a four-factor solution including one reflecting a lack of interest in doctoral study (Factor 2) and one reflecting practical financial concerns (Factor…

  3. Comparative assessment of different treatment modalities in miners with vibration- and noise-induced disease

    SciTech Connect

    Velskaya, M.L.; Nekhorosheva, M.A.; Konovalova, S.I.; Kukhtina, G.V.; Gonchar, I.G.; Terentyeva, D.P.; Grishchenko, L.A.; Soboleva, N.P.; Kharitonov, S.A.; Priklonskiy, I.V.

    1985-02-01

    A group of 71 miners with vibration sickness and noise-induced pathology were managed either by standard methods, or in combination with acupuncture and/or hyperbaric oxygenation for a comparative assessment of the effectiveness of the different therapeutic approaches. Analysis of subjective factors as well as standard physiological parameters (EKG, rheoencephalography, peripheral rheography, EEG, neuropsychological tests) demonstrate that both acupuncture and hyperbaric oxygenation are effective modalities in the majority of the subjects. Nevertheless, the lack of improvement in certain criteria, or even what could be regarded as adverse sequelae, suggest that the use of hyperbaric oxygenation in the management of such disorders be approached with considerable care.

  4. Comparing and assessing different measurement techniques for mercury in coal systhesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, D.P.; Richardson, C.F.

    1995-11-01

    Three mercury measurement techniques were performed on synthesis gas streams before and after an amine-based sulfur removal system. The syngas was sampled using (1) gas impingers containing a nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide solution, (2) coconut-based charcoal sorbent, and (3) an on-line atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with a gold amalgamation trap and cold vapor cell. Various impinger solutions were applied upstream of the gold amalgamation trap to remove hydrogen sulfide and isolate oxidized and elemental species of mercury. The results from these three techniques are compared to provide an assessment of these measurement techniques in reducing gas atmospheres.

  5. Comparative assessment of five potential sites for magma: hydrothermal systems - geophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Kasameyer, P.

    1980-09-02

    As part of a comparative assessment for the Continental Scientific Drilling Program, geophysical data were used, to characterize and evaluate potential magma-hydrothermal targets at five drill sites in the western United States. The sites include Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah, the Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico, and The Geysers-Clear Lake, Long Valley, and Salton Trough areas, California. This summary discusses the size, depth, temperature, and setting of each potential target, as well as relvant scientific questions about their natures and the certainty of their existence.

  6. Objective, comparative assessment of the penetration depth of temporal-focusing microscopy for imaging various organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, Christopher J.; Bruns, Oliver T.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; So, Peter T. C.

    2015-06-01

    Temporal focusing is a technique for performing axially resolved widefield multiphoton microscopy with a large field of view. Despite significant advantages over conventional point-scanning multiphoton microscopy in terms of imaging speed, the need to collect the whole image simultaneously means that it is expected to achieve a lower penetration depth in common biological samples compared to point-scanning. We assess the penetration depth using a rigorous objective criterion based on the modulation transfer function, comparing it to point-scanning multiphoton microscopy. Measurements are performed in a variety of mouse organs in order to provide practical guidance as to the achievable penetration depth for both imaging techniques. It is found that two-photon scanning microscopy has approximately twice the penetration depth of temporal-focusing microscopy, and that penetration depth is organ-specific; the heart has the lowest penetration depth, followed by the liver, lungs, and kidneys, then the spleen, and finally white adipose tissue.

  7. Comparative application of different risk assessment models and implications on resulting remediation options.

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, Andrea; Callegari, Arianna; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The issue of contaminated soils and their productive recovery is a quite controversial environmental and economic problem with important consequences for its social, public health and sustainability aspects. The sheer number and characteristics of the polluted sites are so large and varied, and the definition of priorities related to their remediation interventions so site-dependent, that proper characterization and final environmental quality goals reflect a strategic importance. One of the possible approaches to site specific approach and site priority ranking can be that of carrying out, respectively, absolute and comparative analysis procedures. An important aspect to be solved is represented by the necessity to consider not only the potential risk to public health, but also the best possible financial return from the investments for remediation, especially when carried out with public money. In this paper, different contaminated sites' risk assessment approaches are considered, compared and their applicability to support sustainable policies discussed using a case study. PMID:24645457

  8. Objective, comparative assessment of the penetration depth of temporal-focusing microscopy for imaging various organs

    PubMed Central

    Rowlands, Christopher J.; Bruns, Oliver T.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; So, Peter T. C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Temporal focusing is a technique for performing axially resolved widefield multiphoton microscopy with a large field of view. Despite significant advantages over conventional point-scanning multiphoton microscopy in terms of imaging speed, the need to collect the whole image simultaneously means that it is expected to achieve a lower penetration depth in common biological samples compared to point-scanning. We assess the penetration depth using a rigorous objective criterion based on the modulation transfer function, comparing it to point-scanning multiphoton microscopy. Measurements are performed in a variety of mouse organs in order to provide practical guidance as to the achievable penetration depth for both imaging techniques. It is found that two-photon scanning microscopy has approximately twice the penetration depth of temporal-focusing microscopy, and that penetration depth is organ-specific; the heart has the lowest penetration depth, followed by the liver, lungs, and kidneys, then the spleen, and finally white adipose tissue. PMID:25844509

  9. Comparative Assessment and Decision Support System for Strategic Military Airlift Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salmon, John; Iwata, Curtis; Mavris, Dimitri; Weston, Neil; Fahringer, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company has been awarded several programs to modernize the aging C-5 military transport fleet. In order to ensure its continuation amidst budget cuts, it was important to engage the decision makers by providing an environment to analyze the benefits of the modernization program. This paper describes an interface that allows the user to change inputs such as the scenario airfields, take-off conditions, and reliability characteristics. The underlying logistics surrogate model was generated using data from a discrete-event simulation. Various visualizations such as intercontinental flight paths illustrated in 3D, have been created to aid the user in analyzing scenarios and performing comparative assessments for various output logistics metrics. The capability to rapidly and dynamically evaluate and compare scenarios was developed enabling real time strategy exploration and trade-offs.

  10. Health: IT leader or laggard? A comparative assessment of IT maturity.

    PubMed

    England, Ian; Stewart, Don

    2003-01-01

    The health industry has acquired a reputation as lagging in the use of IT. This reputation is usually based upon the relatively narrow measure of comparative IT expenditure, often examined as a proportion of total revenue. This study has been undertaken to assess health's use of IT using a broader frame of reference. The health industry was compared to the banking industry, on the basis that the banking industry is widely perceived as a leading IT user. The research confirmed that in these two 'knowledge' industries, health is slower to adopt IT with an apparent lower maturity level. This was the case across a range of best practice management, procedural and cultural topics as well as in the level of resources applied to IT. PMID:15368843

  11. Life cycle assessment of segregating fattening pig urine and feces compared to conventional liquid manure management.

    PubMed

    De Vries, Jerke W; Aarnink, André J A; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; De Boer, Imke J M

    2013-02-01

    Gaseous emissions from in-house storage of liquid animal manure remain a major contributor to the environmental impact of manure management. Our aim was to assess the life cycle environmental consequences and reduction potential of segregating fattening pig urine and feces with an innovative V-belt system and to compare it to conventional liquid manure management, that is, the reference. Moreover, we aimed at analyzing the uncertainty of the outcomes related to applied emission factors. We compared a reference with two scenarios: segregation with solid, aerobically, stored feces and with liquid, anaerobically, stored feces. Results showed that, compared to the reference, segregation reduced climate change (CC) up to 82%, due to lower methane emission, reduced terrestrial acidification (TA) and particulate matter formation (PMF) up to 49%, through lower ammonia emission, but increased marine eutrophication up to 11% through nitrogen oxide emission from storage and nitrate leaching after field application. Fossil fuel depletion did not change. Segregation with liquid feces revealed lower environmental impact than segregation with solid feces. Uncertainty analysis supported the conclusion that segregating fattening pig urine and feces significantly reduced CC and additionally segregation with liquid feces significantly reduced TA and PMF compared to the reference. PMID:23268735

  12. Comparing Student Learning Experiences of In-Text Commentary and Rubric-Articulated Feedback: Strategies for Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordrum, Lene; Evans, Katherine; Gustafsson, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    This study compares students' experiences of two types of criteria-based assessment: in-text commentary and rubric-articulated feedback, in an assessment design combining the two feedback channels. The main aim is to use students' responses to shed light on how feedback strategies for formative assessment can be optimised. Following…

  13. Comparative Assessment of Particulate Air Pollution Exposure from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Ashworth, Danielle C.; Fuller, Gary W.; Toledano, Mireille B.; Font, Anna; Elliott, Paul; Hansell, Anna L.; de Hoogh, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Background. Research to date on health effects associated with incineration has found limited evidence of health risks, but many previous studies have been constrained by poor exposure assessment. This paper provides a comparative assessment of atmospheric dispersion modelling and distance from source (a commonly used proxy for exposure) as exposure assessment methods for pollutants released from incinerators. Methods. Distance from source and the atmospheric dispersion model ADMS-Urban were used to characterise ambient exposures to particulates from two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in the UK. Additionally an exploration of the sensitivity of the dispersion model simulations to input parameters was performed. Results. The model output indicated extremely low ground level concentrations of PM10, with maximum concentrations of <0.01 μg/m3. Proximity and modelled PM10 concentrations for both MSWIs at postcode level were highly correlated when using continuous measures (Spearman correlation coefficients ~ 0.7) but showed poor agreement for categorical measures (deciles or quintiles, Cohen's kappa coefficients ≤ 0.5). Conclusion. To provide the most appropriate estimate of ambient exposure from MSWIs, it is essential that incinerator characteristics, magnitude of emissions, and surrounding meteorological and topographical conditions are considered. Reducing exposure misclassification is particularly important in environmental epidemiology to aid detection of low-level risks. PMID:23935644

  14. A comparative assessment of tools for ecosystem services quantification and valuation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Semmens, Darius; Waage, Sissel; Winthrop, Robert

    2013-01-01

    To enter widespread use, ecosystem service assessments need to be quantifiable, replicable, credible, flexible, and affordable. With recent growth in the field of ecosystem services, a variety of decision-support tools has emerged to support more systematic ecosystem services assessment. Despite the growing complexity of the tool landscape, thorough reviews of tools for identifying, assessing, modeling and in some cases monetarily valuing ecosystem services have generally been lacking. In this study, we describe 17 ecosystem services tools and rate their performance against eight evaluative criteria that gauge their readiness for widespread application in public- and private-sector decision making. We describe each of the tools′ intended uses, services modeled, analytical approaches, data requirements, and outputs, as well time requirements to run seven tools in a first comparative concurrent application of multiple tools to a common location – the San Pedro River watershed in southeast Arizona, USA, and northern Sonora, Mexico. Based on this work, we offer conclusions about these tools′ current ‘readiness’ for widespread application within both public- and private-sector decision making processes. Finally, we describe potential pathways forward to reduce the resource requirements for running ecosystem services models, which are essential to facilitate their more widespread use in environmental decision making.

  15. Comparing Personality Disorder Models: Cross-Method Assessment of the FFM and DSM-IV-TR

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Douglas B.; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    The current edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) defines personality disorders as categorical entities that are distinct from each other and from normal personality traits. However, many scientists now believe that personality disorders are best conceptualized using a dimensional model of traits that span normal and abnormal personality, such as the Five-Factor Model (FFM). However, if the FFM or any dimensional model is to be considered as a credible alternative to the current model, it must first demonstrate an increment in the validity of the assessment offered within a clinical setting. Thus, the current study extended previous research by comparing the convergent and discriminant validity of the current DSM-IV-TR model to the FFM across four assessment methodologies. Eighty-eight individuals receiving ongoing psychotherapy were assessed for the FFM and the DSM-IV-TR personality disorders using self-report, informant report, structured interview, and therapist ratings. The results indicated that the FFM had an appreciable advantage over the DSM-IV-TR in terms of discriminant validity and, at the domain level, convergent validity. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21158596

  16. Comparative analysis of two weight-of-evidence methodologies for integrated sediment quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Khosrovyan, A; Rodríguez-Romero, A; Antequera Ramos, M; DelValls, T A; Riba, I

    2015-02-01

    The results of sediment quality assessment by two different weight-of-evidence methodologies were compared. Both methodologies used the same dataset but as criteria and procedures were different, the results emphasized different aspects of sediment contamination. One of the methodologies integrated the data by means of a multivariate analysis and suggested bioavailability of contaminants and their spatial distribution. The other methodology, used in the dredged material management framework recently proposed in Spain, evaluated sediment toxicity in general by assigning categories. Despite the differences in the interpretation and presentation of results, the methodologies evaluated sediment risk similarly, taking into account chemical concentrations and toxicological effects. Comparison of the results of different approaches is important to define their limitations and thereby avoid implications of potential environmental impacts from different management options, as in the case of dredged material risk assessment. Consistent results of these two methodologies emphasized validity and robustness of the integrated, weight-of-evidence, approach to sediment quality assessment. Limitations of the methodologies were discussed. PMID:25016337

  17. Comparing two tools for ecosystem service assessments regarding water resources decisions.

    PubMed

    Dennedy-Frank, P James; Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Ziv, Guy

    2016-07-15

    We present a comparison of two ecohydrologic models commonly used for planning land management to assess the production of hydrologic ecosystem services: the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) annual water yield model. We compare these two models at two distinct sites in the US: the Wildcat Creek Watershed in Indiana and the Upper Upatoi Creek Watershed in Georgia. The InVEST and SWAT models provide similar estimates of the spatial distribution of water yield in Wildcat Creek, but very different estimates of the spatial distribution of water yield in Upper Upatoi Creek. The InVEST model may do a poor job estimating the spatial distribution of water yield in the Upper Upatoi Creek Watershed because baseflow provides a significant portion of the site's total water yield, which means that storage dynamics which are not modeled by InVEST may be important. We also compare the ability of these two models, as well as one newly developed set of ecosystem service indices, to deliver useful guidance for land management decisions focused on providing hydrologic ecosystem services in three particular decision contexts: environmental flow ecosystem services, ecosystem services for potable water supply, and ecosystem services for rainfed irrigation. We present a simple framework for selecting models or indices to evaluate hydrologic ecosystem services as a way to formalize where models deliver useful guidance. PMID:27111651

  18. Nerve damage assessment following implant placement in human cadaver jaws: an ex vivo comparative study.

    PubMed

    Murat, Sema; Kamburoğlu, Kıvanç; Kılıç, Cenk; Ozen, Tuncer; Gurbuz, Ayhan

    2014-02-01

    The present study compared the use of cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) images and intra-oral radiographs in the placement of final implant drills in terms of nerve damage to cadaver mandibles. Twelve cadaver hemimandibles obtained from 6 cadavers were used. Right hemimandibles were imaged using peri-apical radiography and left hemimandibles using CBCT, and the images obtained were used in treatment planning for the placement of implant drills (22 for each modality, for a total of 44 final drills). Specimens were dissected, and the distances between the apex of the final implant drill and the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle and incisive nerve were measured using a digital calliper. Nerves were assessed as damaged or not damaged, and the Chi-square test was used to compare nerve damage between modalities (P < 0.05). Nerve damage occurred with 7 final drills placed based on peri-apical radiography (31.8%) and 1 final drill placed using CBCT images (4.5%). The difference in nerve damage between imaging modalities was statistically significant (P = 0.023), with CBCT outperforming intraoral film in the placement of final implant drills ex vivo. In order to prevent nerve damage, CBCT is recommended as the principal imaging modality for pre-implant assessment. PMID:22150347

  19. Comparative life cycle assessment of battery storage systems for stationary applications.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Mitavachan; Derendorf, Karen; Vogt, Thomas

    2015-04-21

    This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment of cumulative energy demand (CED) and global warming potential (GWP) of four stationary battery technologies: lithium-ion, lead-acid, sodium-sulfur, and vanadium-redox-flow. The analyses were carried out for a complete utilization of their cycle life and for six different stationary applications. Due to its lower CED and GWP impacts, a qualitative analysis of lithium-ion was carried out to assess the impacts of its process chains on 17 midpoint impact categories using ReCiPe-2008 methodology. It was found that in general the use stage of batteries dominates their life cycle impacts significantly. It is therefore misleading to compare the environmental performance of batteries only on a mass or capacity basis at the manufacturing outlet ("cradle-to-gate analyses") while neglecting their use stage impacts, especially when they have different characteristic parameters. Furthermore, the relative ranking of batteries does not show a significant dependency on the investigated stationary application scenarios in most cases. Based on the results obtained, the authors go on to recommend the deployment of batteries with higher round-trip efficiency, such as lithium-ion, for stationary grid operation in the first instance. PMID:25798660

  20. Community Prevention Coalition Context and Capacity Assessment: Comparing the United States and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louis D; Chilenski, Sarah M; Ramos, Rebeca; Gallegos, Nora; Feinberg, Mark E

    2016-04-01

    Effective planning for community health partnerships requires understanding how initial readiness-that is, contextual factors and capacity-influences implementation of activities and programs. This study compares the context and capacity of drug and violence prevention coalitions in Mexico to those in the United States. Measures of coalition context include community problems, community leadership style, and sense of community. Measures of coalition capacity include the existence of collaborative partnerships and coalition champions. The assessment was completed by 195 members of 9 coalitions in Mexico and 139 members of 7 coalitions in the United States. Psychometric analyses indicate the measures have moderate to strong internal consistency, along with good convergent and discriminant validity in both settings. Results indicate that members of Mexican coalitions perceive substantially more serious community problems, especially with respect to education, law enforcement, and access to alcohol and drugs. Compared to respondents in the United States, Mexican respondents perceive sense of community to be weaker and that prevention efforts are not as valued by the population where the coalitions are located. The Mexican coalitions appear to be operating in a substantially more challenging environment for the prevention of violence and substance use. Their ability to manage these challenges will likely play a large role in determining whether they are successful in their prevention efforts. The context and capacity assessment is a valuable tool that coalitions can use in order to identify and address initial barriers to success. PMID:26205249

  1. Glycemic penalty index for adequately assessing and comparing different blood glucose control algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Van Herpe, Tom; De Brabanter, Jos; Beullens, Martine; De Moor, Bart; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Blood glucose (BG) control performed by intensive care unit (ICU) nurses is becoming standard practice for critically ill patients. New (semi-automated) 'BG control' algorithms (or 'insulin titration' algorithms) are under development, but these require stringent validation before they can replace the currently used algorithms. Existing methods for objectively comparing different insulin titration algorithms show weaknesses. In the current study, a new approach for appropriately assessing the adequacy of different algorithms is proposed. Methods Two ICU patient populations (with different baseline characteristics) were studied, both treated with a similar 'nurse-driven' insulin titration algorithm targeting BG levels of 80 to 110 mg/dl. A new method for objectively evaluating BG deviations from normoglycemia was founded on a smooth penalty function. Next, the performance of this new evaluation tool was compared with the current standard assessment methods, on an individual as well as a population basis. Finally, the impact of four selected parameters (the average BG sampling frequency, the duration of algorithm application, the severity of disease, and the type of illness) on the performance of an insulin titration algorithm was determined by multiple regression analysis. Results The glycemic penalty index (GPI) was proposed as a tool for assessing the overall glycemic control behavior in ICU patients. The GPI of a patient is the average of all penalties that are individually assigned to each measured BG value based on the optimized smooth penalty function. The computation of this index returns a number between 0 (no penalty) and 100 (the highest penalty). For some patients, the assessment of the BG control behavior using the traditional standard evaluation methods was different from the evaluation with GPI. Two parameters were found to have a significant impact on GPI: the BG sampling frequency and the duration of algorithm application. A higher BG

  2. Comparing Quality of Public Primary Care between Hong Kong and Shanghai Using Validated Patient Assessment Tools

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaolin; Li, Haitao; Yang, Nan; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Owolabi, Onikepe; Xu, Jianguang; Shi, Leiyu; Tang, Jinling; Li, Donald; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Primary care is the key element of health reform in China. The objective of this study was to compare patient assessed quality of public primary care between Hong Kong, a city with established primary care environment influenced by its colonial history, and Shanghai, a city leading primary care reform in Mainland China; and to measure the equity of care in the two cities. Methods Cross sectional stratified random sampling surveys were conducted in 2011. Data were collected from 1,994 respondents in Hong Kong and 811 respondents in Shanghai. A validated Chinese version of the primary care assessment tool was employed to assess perceived quality of primary care with respect to socioeconomic characteristics and health status. Results We analyzed 391 and 725 respondents in Hong Kong and Shanghai, respectively, who were regular public primary care users. Respondents in Hong Kong reported significant lower scores in first contact accessibility (1.59 vs. 2.15), continuity of care (2.33 vs. 3.10), coordination of information (2.84 vs. 3.64), comprehensiveness service availability (2.43 vs. 3.31), comprehensiveness service provided (2.11 vs. 2.40), and the total score (23.40 vs. 27.40), but higher scores in first contact utilization (3.15 vs. 2.54) and coordination of services (2.67 vs. 2.40) when compared with those in Shanghai. Respondents with higher income reported a significantly higher total primary care score in Hong Kong, but not in Shanghai. Conclusions Respondents in Shanghai reported better quality of public primary care than those in Hong Kong, while quality of public primary care tended to be more equitable in Shanghai. PMID:25826616

  3. Mercury analysis in hair: Comparability and quality assessment within the transnational COPHES/DEMOCOPHES project.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Jiménez, José Antonio; Koch, Holger Martin; Angerer, Jürgen; Rosado, Montserrat; Gómez, Silvia; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Becker, Kerstin; Bloemen, Louis; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Anke; Joas, Reinhard; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Borošová, Daniela; Davidson, Fred; Dumitrascu, Irina; Fischer, Marc E; Grander, Margaretha; Janasik, Beata; Jones, Kate; Kašparová, Lucie; Larssen, Thorjørn; Naray, Miklos; Nielsen, Flemming; Hohenblum, Philipp; Pinto, Rui; Pirard, Catherine; Plateel, Gregory; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Castaño, Argelia

    2015-08-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical procedures has often limited the comparison of data at national and international level. The European-funded projects COPHES and DEMOCOPHES developed and tested a harmonized European approach to Human Biomonitoring in response to the European Environment and Health Action Plan. Herein we describe the quality assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating laboratories. Training sessions were organized for field workers and four external quality-assessment exercises (ICI/EQUAS), followed by the corresponding web conferences, were organized between March 2011 and February 2012. ICI/EQUAS used native hair samples at two mercury concentration ranges (0.20-0.71 and 0.80-1.63) per exercise. The results revealed relative standard deviations of 7.87-13.55% and 4.04-11.31% for the low and high mercury concentration ranges, respectively. A total of 16 out of 18 participating laboratories the QAP requirements and were allowed to analyze samples from the DEMOCOPHES pilot study. Web conferences after each ICI/EQUAS revealed this to be a new and effective tool for improving analytical performance and increasing capacity building. The procedure developed and tested in COPHES/DEMOCOPHES would be optimal for application on a global scale as regards implementation of the Minamata Convention on Mercury. PMID:25483984

  4. Comparing the Temporal Stability of Self-Report and Interview Assessed Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Douglas B.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Ansell, Emily B.; Morey, Leslie C.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Markowitz, John C.; Yen, Shirley; Shea, M. Tracie; Skodol, Andrew E.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Findings from several large-scale, longitudinal studies over the last decade have challenged the long held assumption that personality disorders (PDs) are stable and enduring. However, the findings, including those from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS; Gunderson et al., 2000), rely primarily upon results from semistructured interviews. As a result, less is known about the stability of PD scores from self-report questionnaires, which differ from interviews in important ways (e.g., source of the ratings, item development, and instrument length) that might increase temporal stability. The current study directly compared the stability of the DSM-IV PD constructs assessed via the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP – 2; Clark, Simms, Wu, & Casillas, in press) with those from the Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (DIPD-IV; Zanarini, Frankenburg, Sickel & Yong, 1996) over two years in a sample of 529 CLPS participants. Specifically, we compared dimensional and categorical representations from both measures in terms of rank-order and mean-level stability. Results indicated that the dimensional scores from the self-report questionnaire had significantly greater rank order (mean r = .69 versus .59) and mean-level (mean d = .21 versus .30) stability. In contrast, categorical diagnoses from the two measures evinced comparable rank-order (mean kappa = .38 versus .37) and mean-level stability (median prevalence rate decrease of 3.5% versus 5.6%). These findings suggest the stability of PD constructs depends at least partially on the method of assessment and are discussed in the context of previous research and future conceptualizations of personality pathology. PMID:21443287

  5. Measuring the Gap: A Health Assessment of Rural Chinese Children Compared to Urban Children.

    PubMed

    She, Xinshu; Zhao, Deqing; Scholnick, Jenna

    2016-01-01

    China is a large country where rapid development is accompanied by growing inequalities. How economic inequalities translate to health inequalities is unknown. Baseline health assessment is lacking among rural Chinese children. We aimed at assessing baseline student health of rural Chinese children and comparing them with those of urban children of similar ages. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the 2003 Global School-Based Student Health Survey among 100 students Grade 4 to 6 from rural Guizhou, China. Results were summarized and compared with public data from urban Beijing using multivariate logistic regression models. Rural children are more likely to not wash their hands before a meal (odds ratio [OR] = 5.71, P < .01) and after using the toilet (OR = 5.41, P < .01). They are more likely to feel sick or to get into trouble after drinking (OR = 7.28, P < .01). They are more likely to have used drugs (OR = 8.54, P < .01) and to have no close friends (OR = 8.23, P < .01). An alarming percentage of rural (8.22%) and urban (14.22%) children have had suicidal ideation in the past year (OR = 0.68, P > .05). Rural parents are more likely to not know their children's whereabouts (OR = 1.81, P < .05). Rural children are more than 4 times likely to have serious injuries (OR = 4.64, P < .01) and to be bullied (OR = 4.01, P < .01). In conclusion, school-age rural Chinese children exhibit more health risk behaviors and fewer protective factors at baseline compared to their urban counterparts. Any intervention aimed at improving child health should take this distributive gap into consideration. PMID:27335999

  6. Physiological responses to temperature and humidity compared to the assessment by UTCI, WGBT and PHS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampmann, Bernhard; Bröde, Peter; Fiala, Dusan

    2012-05-01

    In COST Action 730, a multi-segmental thermophysiological model was used to describe physiological strain reactions for different climatic conditions in order to develop a 'Universal Thermal Climate Index' (UTCI). UTCI predictions for warm climates were compared with empirical data from the laboratory tests. The comparison was performed by means of equivalence lines within a psychrometric chart so that the combined influence of air temperature and humidity on physiological strain may be assessed. Within a reasonable regime of air temperatures and relative humidities (RH), the differences between simulated and measured values were as follows: for rectal temperatures below 0.3°C, for skin temperatures below 1.5°C, for sweat rates below 200 g/h and for heart rates (estimated from relative cardiac output) below 30 min-1. This characterises the validity of the model with respect to the description of the influence of heat and humidity on physiological strain. The same comparison to physiological data was also conducted for the equivalent temperature calculated for UTCI. In order to compare UTCI with other thermal indices used in occupational health, the physiological data have also been compared to equivalence lines of WBGT (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature) and PHS (Predicted Heat Strain) indices.

  7. [Comparative hygienic assessment of potential risk to workers under application of fungicides of different classes].

    PubMed

    Vavrinevych, O P; Omel'chuk, S T; Bardov, V H

    2014-01-01

    The comparative hygienic evaluation of working conditions in various application technologies of triazole fungicides (tebuconazole, dyfenoconazole, penconazole) strobilurine fungicides (azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin), ethylene-bis-dytiocarbamate fungicides (metiram, mancozeb), cianopyrrole fungicide (fludioxonil), anilide fungicides (benalaxyl-M, boscalid), anilinopirymidyne fungicides (cyprodynil, valifenal, pirymetanil). Potential complex risk of possible harmful effects of the investigated compounds on workers by inhalation and percutaneous admission, as well as a comparative analysis of received values was assessed. Determination of active substances in the samples was carried out by gas-liquid and high performance liquid chromatography. In the air of the working area were found triazoles 0.005-0.01 mg/m3, ethylene-bis-dytiokarbamates--0.01-0.02 mg/m3 at fan plants processing, anilinopirymidynes--0.19 mg/m3 at backpack plants processing. Listed values do not exceed the established hygienic standards in the air of the working area. Steam plants processing had not accompanied by the arrival of investigated compounds in the air of the working area. For all the studied crops processing technologies magnitude of the potential risk of possible harmful effects of study classes fungicides influence at the complex admission does not exceed the permissible level (was less than 1). Comparative analysis of complex risks for workers allowed to distribute fungicides according this criterion in the following order: cianopyrrole < strobilurynes < triazoles < anilides < anilinopirymidynes < ethylene-bis-dytiokarbamates. PMID:25286613

  8. Outcomes in peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis--a comparative assessment of survival and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Gokal, R; Figueras, M; Ollé, A; Rovira, J; Badia, X

    1999-01-01

    Ever since the introduction of peritoneal dialysis (PD) as a therapy for managing patients with end-stage renal disease, there has been considerable debate about how it compares with outcomes on haemodialysis (HD) especially in terms of survival and quality of life. Whilst earlier results in the 1980s were certainly not comparable, data now emerging show that survival on PD is equivalent to that on HD. Recent registry data from the Canadian Organ Replacement Register show that survival of patients on PD is equivalent to that on HD and may well be better in the first few years of therapy. There have been numerous quality of life studies in patients on PD and HD. Health-related quality of life has been assessed using health profile measurements (both generic and disease-specific instruments) or preference-based measurements. The former approach has been used to analyse 14 different comparative studies. These studies suggest that patients on home HD and CAPD show better quality of life than patients on centre HD. Only a few studies found statistical differences between groups, and only in seven studies were results adjusted for patient differences. There is a need for longitudinal studies with more accurate information on health. Similar data are available for preference-based measurements and studies. Overall, the analysis suggests that PD and HD are equivalent therapies. On this basis, it is hard to explain the wide variation seen in the use of the two therapies. PMID:10528709

  9. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Illicit Drug Use Compared to Biological and Self-Reported Methods

    PubMed Central

    Genz, Andrew; Westergaard, Ryan P; Chang, Larry W; Bollinger, Robert C; Latkin, Carl; Kirk, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of mHealth methods for capturing illicit drug use and associated behaviors have become more widely used in research settings, yet there is little research as to how valid these methods are compared to known measures of capturing and quantifying drug use. Objective We examined the concordance of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of drug use to previously validated biological and audio-computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) methods. Methods The Exposure Assessment in Current Time (EXACT) study utilized EMA methods to assess drug use in real-time in participants’ natural environments. Utilizing mobile devices, participants self-reported each time they used heroin or cocaine over a 4-week period. Each week, PharmChek sweat patch samples were collected for measurement of heroin and cocaine and participants answered an ACASI-based questionnaire to report behaviors and drug using events during the prior week. Reports of cocaine and heroin use captured through EMA were compared to weekly biological or self-report measures through percent agreement and concordance correlation coefficients to account for repeated measures. Correlates of discordance were obtained from logistic regression models. Results A total of 109 participants were a median of 48.5 years old, 90% African American, and 52% male. During 436 person-weeks of observation, we recorded 212 (49%) cocaine and 103 (24%) heroin sweat patches, 192 (44%) cocaine and 161 (37%) heroin ACASI surveys, and 163 (37%) cocaine and 145 (33%) heroin EMA reports. The percent agreement between EMA and sweat patch methods was 70% for cocaine use and 72% for heroin use, while the percent agreement between EMA and ACASI methods was 77% for cocaine use and 79% for heroin use. Misreporting of drug use by EMA compared to sweat patch and ACASI methods were different by illicit drug type. Conclusions Our work demonstrates moderate to good agreement of EMA to biological and standard self-report methods in

  10. Comparative study of airborne viable particles assessment methods in microbiological environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Temprano, G; Garrido, D; Daquino, M

    2004-01-01

    A comparative study was done among available assessment methods to measure airborne viable particles in controlled rooms. Active methods were compared (sieve/nozzle impactor, slit-to-agar, centrifugal, filtration, and impinger). The comparative study was carried out by means of a two-way (factors: day and method) analysis of variance, after to logarithmical transformation of experimental results in order to fulfill the normality test of the variables. Statistically significant differences were found among the results of the five methods (P < 0.0001). In a post hoc study, by means of Tukey's test, no differences were found among centrifugal, filtration, and impinger methods. Differences were found among all the other methods (P < 0.05). It is concluded that centrifugal, filtration, and impinger methods (in which numerical results were higher than in the others) may be the most suitable methods for microbiological monitoring of a clean room. The mean results among the three selected active methods were compared with results on the settle plate (SP) (the passive method). A relationship was established between results of the passive method (CFU/h/plate 90 mmø) and the results of active methods (CFU/m3 air). By means of a lineal regression study, it was obtained a relation factor of 22.7; (95% CI: 19.7, 25.7). This factor is only valid for values between 3 and 16 in CFU/h/plate 90 mmø, and it is put on record that the experimental study took place in a room that fulfills Class D clean room specifications (WHO standards) in microbiological terms. PMID:15368991

  11. Comparing Forests across Climates and Biomes: Qualitative Assessments, Reference Forests and Regional Intercomparisons

    PubMed Central

    Salk, Carl F.; Frey, Ulrich; Rusch, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Communities, policy actors and conservationists benefit from understanding what institutions and land management regimes promote ecosystem services like carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation. However, the definition of success depends on local conditions. Forests' potential carbon stock, biodiversity and rate of recovery following disturbance are known to vary with a broad suite of factors including temperature, precipitation, seasonality, species' traits and land use history. Methods like tracking over-time changes within forests, or comparison with “pristine” reference forests have been proposed as means to compare the structure and biodiversity of forests in the face of underlying differences. However, data from previous visits or reference forests may be unavailable or costly to obtain. Here, we introduce a new metric of locally weighted forest intercomparison to mitigate the above shortcomings. This method is applied to an international database of nearly 300 community forests and compared with previously published techniques. It is particularly suited to large databases where forests may be compared among one another. Further, it avoids problematic comparisons with old-growth forests which may not resemble the goal of forest management. In most cases, the different methods produce broadly congruent results, suggesting that researchers have the flexibility to compare forest conditions using whatever type of data is available. Forest structure and biodiversity are shown to be independently measurable axes of forest condition, although users' and foresters' estimations of seemingly unrelated attributes are highly correlated, perhaps reflecting an underlying sentiment about forest condition. These findings contribute new tools for large-scale analysis of ecosystem condition and natural resource policy assessment. Although applied here to forestry, these techniques have broader applications to classification and evaluation problems using

  12. Comparing forests across climates and biomes: qualitative assessments, reference forests and regional intercomparisons.

    PubMed

    Salk, Carl F; Frey, Ulrich; Rusch, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Communities, policy actors and conservationists benefit from understanding what institutions and land management regimes promote ecosystem services like carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation. However, the definition of success depends on local conditions. Forests' potential carbon stock, biodiversity and rate of recovery following disturbance are known to vary with a broad suite of factors including temperature, precipitation, seasonality, species' traits and land use history. Methods like tracking over-time changes within forests, or comparison with "pristine" reference forests have been proposed as means to compare the structure and biodiversity of forests in the face of underlying differences. However, data from previous visits or reference forests may be unavailable or costly to obtain. Here, we introduce a new metric of locally weighted forest intercomparison to mitigate the above shortcomings. This method is applied to an international database of nearly 300 community forests and compared with previously published techniques. It is particularly suited to large databases where forests may be compared among one another. Further, it avoids problematic comparisons with old-growth forests which may not resemble the goal of forest management. In most cases, the different methods produce broadly congruent results, suggesting that researchers have the flexibility to compare forest conditions using whatever type of data is available. Forest structure and biodiversity are shown to be independently measurable axes of forest condition, although users' and foresters' estimations of seemingly unrelated attributes are highly correlated, perhaps reflecting an underlying sentiment about forest condition. These findings contribute new tools for large-scale analysis of ecosystem condition and natural resource policy assessment. Although applied here to forestry, these techniques have broader applications to classification and evaluation problems using crowdsourced

  13. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Merino, Luis; Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; de la Losa, Almudena; Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements - including metals and metalloids - , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index - the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) - was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3-53% for silver oxide batteries, 4-39% for alkaline, 20-28% for zinc-air and 12-26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells. PMID:25933290

  14. Assessment and Challenges of Ligand Docking into Comparative Models of G-Protein Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Frimurer, Thomas M.; Meiler, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly increasing number of high-resolution X-ray structures of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) creates a unique opportunity to employ comparative modeling and docking to provide valuable insight into the function and ligand binding determinants of novel receptors, to assist in virtual screening and to design and optimize drug candidates. However, low sequence identity between receptors, conformational flexibility, and chemical diversity of ligands present an enormous challenge to molecular modeling approaches. It is our hypothesis that rapid Monte-Carlo sampling of protein backbone and side-chain conformational space with Rosetta can be leveraged to meet this challenge. This study performs unbiased comparative modeling and docking methodologies using 14 distinct high-resolution GPCRs and proposes knowledge-based filtering methods for improvement of sampling performance and identification of correct ligand-receptor interactions. On average, top ranked receptor models built on template structures over 50% sequence identity are within 2.9 Å of the experimental structure, with an average root mean square deviation (RMSD) of 2.2 Å for the transmembrane region and 5 Å for the second extracellular loop. Furthermore, these models are consistently correlated with low Rosetta energy score. To predict their binding modes, ligand conformers of the 14 ligands co-crystalized with the GPCRs were docked against the top ranked comparative models. In contrast to the comparative models themselves, however, it remains difficult to unambiguously identify correct binding modes by score alone. On average, sampling performance was improved by 103 fold over random using knowledge-based and energy-based filters. In assessing the applicability of experimental constraints, we found that sampling performance is increased by one order of magnitude for every 10 residues known to contact the ligand. Additionally, in the case of DOR, knowledge of a single specific ligand

  15. Comparing Pulsed Doppler LIDAR with SODAR and Direct Measurements for Wind Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, N. D.; Jonkman, B. J.; Scott, G. N.; Pichugina, Y. L.

    2007-07-01

    There is a pressing need for good wind-speed measurements at greater and greater heights to assess the availability of the resource in terms of power production and to identify any frequently occurring atmospheric structural characteristics that may create turbulence that impacts the operational reliability and lifetime of wind turbines and their components. In this paper, we summarize the results of a short study that compares the relative accuracies of wind speeds derived from a high-resolution pulsed Doppler LIDAR operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and a midrange Doppler SODAR with wind speeds measured by four levels of tower-based sonic anemometry up to a height of 116 m.

  16. Neo-Deterministic and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessments: a Comparative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peresan, Antonella; Magrin, Andrea; Nekrasova, Anastasia; Kossobokov, Vladimir; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2016-04-01

    Objective testing is the key issue towards any reliable seismic hazard assessment (SHA). Different earthquake hazard maps must demonstrate their capability in anticipating ground shaking from future strong earthquakes before an appropriate use for different purposes - such as engineering design, insurance, and emergency management. Quantitative assessment of maps performances is an essential step also in scientific process of their revision and possible improvement. Cross-checking of probabilistic models with available observations and independent physics based models is recognized as major validation procedure. The existing maps from the classical probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), as well as those from the neo-deterministic analysis (NDSHA), which have been already developed for several regions worldwide (including Italy, India and North Africa), are considered to exemplify the possibilities of the cross-comparative analysis in spotting out limits and advantages of different methods. Where the data permit, a comparative analysis versus the documented seismic activity observed in reality is carried out, showing how available observations about past earthquakes can contribute to assess performances of the different methods. Neo-deterministic refers to a scenario-based approach, which allows for consideration of a wide range of possible earthquake sources as the starting point for scenarios constructed via full waveforms modeling. The method does not make use of empirical attenuation models (i.e. Ground Motion Prediction Equations, GMPE) and naturally supplies realistic time series of ground shaking (i.e. complete synthetic seismograms), readily applicable to complete engineering analysis and other mitigation actions. The standard NDSHA maps provide reliable envelope estimates of maximum seismic ground motion from a wide set of possible scenario earthquakes, including the largest deterministically or historically defined credible earthquake. In addition

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Bio-diesel Production—A Comparative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, R.; Sharma, V.; Mukherjee, S.; Kumar, S.

    2014-04-01

    This work deals with the comparative analysis of environmental impacts of bio-diesel produced from Jatropha curcas, Rapeseed and Palm oil by applying the life cycle assessment and eco-efficiency concepts. The environmental impact indicators considered in the present paper include global warming potential (GWP, CO2 equivalent), acidification potential (AP, SO2 equivalent) and eutrophication potential (EP, NO3 equivalent). Different weighting techniques have been used to present and evaluate the environmental characteristics of bio-diesel. With the assistance of normalization values, the eco-efficiency was demonstrated in this work. The results indicate that the energy consumption of bio-diesel production is lowest in Jatropha while AP and EP are more in case of Jatropha than that of Rapeseed and Palm oil.

  18. A comparative study of the MATRICS and IntegNeuro cognitive assessment batteries.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Steven M; Jaeger, Judith; Donovan-Lepore, Anne-Marie; Wilkniss, Sandra M; Savitz, Adam; Malinovsky, Igor; Hawthorne, Danielle; Raines, Shane; Carson, Sarah; Marcello, Stephanie; Zukin, Stephen R; Furlong, Stephen; Dent, Gersham

    2010-11-01

    Cognitive impairment is prevalent in schizophrenia and is related to poorer functional and treatment outcomes. Cognitive assessment is therefore now a routine component of clinical trials of new treatments for schizophrenia. The current gold-standard for cognitive assessment in clinical trials for schizophrenia is the MATRICS (Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia) Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), which was developed based on expert consensus and incorporates paper-and-pencil tests (and one computerized measure) with an established history in the field of neuropsychology. Recently, however, interest has increased in using computerized batteries for clinical trials. In this study, we tested 155 people with schizophrenia and 75 healthy control participants on both the MCCB and IntegNeuro, a touch-screen-based computerized battery with previously demonstrated high levels of reliability and validity, to determine comparability between test scores. In addition, we assessed test-retest reliability and practice effects over a one-month interval for both batteries and determined correlations between cognitive test scores and scores on functional outcome measures. High levels of agreement were observed between total battery composite scores (r > .80) and, in a canonical correlation analysis, between all critical single test scores from each battery (r(c) > .90). The batteries demonstrated essentially equivalent sensitivity in discriminating between patients and controls and equivalent levels of test-retest reliability and practice effects. Correlations between cognitive test scores and functional outcome measures were equivalent between the two batteries and low in nearly all cases. The number of missing data points was greater with IntegNeuro, highlighting the requirements for test administrator involvement even with computerized batteries. PMID:20455131

  19. Total hip arthroplasty outcomes assessment using functional and radiographic scores to compare canine systems.

    PubMed

    Iwata, D; Broun, H C; Black, A P; Preston, C A; Anderson, G I

    2008-01-01

    A retrospective multi-centre study was carried out in order to compare outcomes between cemented and uncemented total hip arthoplasties (THA). A quantitative orthopaedic outcome assessment scoring system was devised in order to relate functional outcome to a numerical score, to allow comparison between treatments and amongst centres. The system combined a radiographic score and a clinical score. Lower scores reflect better outcomes than higher scores. Consecutive cases of THA were included from two specialist practices between July 2002 and December 2005. The study included 46 THA patients (22 uncemented THA followed for 8.3 +/- 4.7M and 24 cemented THA for 26.0 +/- 15.7M) with a mean age of 4.4 +/- 3.3 years at surgery. Multi-variable linear and logistical regression analyses were performed with adjustments for age at surgery, surgeon, follow-up time, uni- versus bilateral disease, gender and body weight. The differences between treatment groups in terms of functional scores or total scores were not significant (p > 0.05). Radiographic scores were different between treatment groups. However, these scores were usually assessed within two months of surgery and proved unreliable predictors of functional outcome (p > 0.05). The findings reflect relatively short-term follow-up, especially for the uncemented group, and do not include clinician-derived measures, such as goniometry and thigh circumference. Longer-term follow-up for the radiographic assessments is essential. A prospective study including the clinician-derived outcomes needs to be performed in order to validate the outcome instrument in its modified form. PMID:18536848

  20. Critical assessment of intramodality 3D ultrasound imaging for prostate IGRT compared to fiducial markers

    SciTech Connect

    Meer, Skadi van der; Bloemen-van Gurp, Esther; Hermans, Jolanda; Voncken, Robert; Heuvelmans, Denys; Gubbels, Carol; Fontanarosa, Davide; Visser, Peter; Lutgens, Ludy; Gils, Francis van; Verhaegen, Frank

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: A quantitative 3D intramodality ultrasound (US) imaging system was verified for daily in-room prostate localization, and compared to prostate localization based on implanted fiducial markers (FMs).Methods: Thirteen prostate patients underwent multiple US scans during treatment. A total of 376 US-scans and 817 matches were used to determine the intra- and interoperator variability. Additionally, eight other patients underwent daily prostate localization using both US and electronic portal imaging (EPI) with FMs resulting in 244 combined US-EPI scans. Scanning was performed with minimal probe pressure and a correction for the speed of sound aberration was performed. Uncertainties of both US and FM methods were assessed. User variability of the US method was assessed.Results: The overall US user variability is 2.6 mm. The mean differences between US and FM are: 2.5 {+-} 4.0 mm (LR), 0.6 {+-} 4.9 mm (SI), and -2.3 {+-} 3.6 mm (AP). The intramodality character of this US system mitigates potential errors due to transducer pressure and speed of sound aberrations.Conclusions: The overall accuracy of US (3.0 mm) is comparable to our FM workflow (2.2 mm). Since neither US nor FM can be considered a gold standard no conclusions can be drawn on the superiority of either method. Because US imaging captures the prostate itself instead of surrogates no invasive procedure is required. It requires more effort to standardize US imaging than FM detection. Since US imaging does not involve a radiation burden, US prostate imaging offers an alternative for FM EPI positioning.

  1. Radiological investigation in laparoscopic compared with conventional cholecystectomy--an early assessment.

    PubMed

    McLoughlin, R F; Gibney, R G; Mealy, K; Hyland, J

    1992-04-01

    The implications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for radiology were assessed by comparing imaging investigations in 48 LC and 48 conventional cholecystectomy (CC) patients. In addition, we attempted to identify findings on pre-operative ultrasound (US) which predicted operative difficulties at LC. There were no per-operative or T-tube cholangiograms in the LC patients, but otherwise the pattern of investigation was similar in both groups. Forty of the 48 CC patients underwent cholangiography (per-operative cholangiography in 36, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in two, and both in two) demonstrating calculi in eight (16.7%) cases. Only four LC patients had cholangiography (ERCP in all cases) demonstrating common bile duct (CBD) calculi in one (2.1%) case. Ultrasound failed to identify the gall-bladder with certainty in three of the five failed LC cases. Neither gall-bladder wall thickness, contraction nor calculus size on pre-operative US served as predictors of other per-operative difficulties. Our results indicate that there may be some patients with retained CBD calculi in the LC group. The role of pre-operative US in predicting operative difficulties needs further assessment in a prospective study. PMID:1395385

  2. In vitro assessment of solvent evaporation from commercial adhesive systems compared to experimental systems.

    PubMed

    Nihi, Fabio Mitugui; Fabre, Hebert Samuel Carafa; Garcia, Georges; Fernandes, Karen Barros Parron; Ferreira, Flaviana Bombarda de Andrade; Wang, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Solvents should be properly evaporated after application to dental substrates. The aim of this study was to assess the evaporation of commercial, experimental and neat solvents. The tested null hypotheses were that there are no differences in solvent evaporation regardless of its formulation and over time. Evaporation from commercial adhesive systems (Scotchbond Multipurpose Primer, Scotchbond Multipurpose Adhesive, Prime & Bond NT, Multi Bond, Excite, Single Bond 2, Adhese Primer, Adhese Bond, Xeno III A and Xeno III B) and experimental primers (35% HEMA plus 65% acetone or ethanol or water v/v) were compared to neat solvents (acetone, ethanol and water). Samples (10 microL) of these products were dripped into glass containers placed on a digital precision balance. Evaporation was assessed at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120, 300 and 600 s times to calculate mass loss. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Bonferroni's correction (a=0.05). Acetone-based products exhibited a remarkable capacity to evaporate spontaneously over time. Neat acetone evaporated significantly more than the HEMA-mixtures and the commercial formulations (p<0.05). The incorporation of monomers and other ingredients in the commercial formulations seem to reduce the evaporation capacity. Solvent evaporation was time and material-dependent. PMID:20126908

  3. Comparative assessment of two indices of drug induced permeability changes in the perfused rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Lane, Majella E; Levis, Karl; McDonald, George S A; Corrigan, Owen I

    2006-04-01

    In the present study, two indices of acute intestinal permeability changes were investigated as measurements of drug induced intestinal damage. The first method was based on 14C-polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 permeability assessment and the second was based on histological evaluation of the intestine. The test compounds were ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen and the alanine, glycine and phenylalanine amide derivatives of ibuprofen. Perfusion studies were carried out using a rat model. Post-perfusion, the gut was fixed and tissue changes were assessed and scored. Ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen altered the barrier properties of the intestine to PEG 4000 with significantly higher scores (p<0.05) for gastrointestinal toxicity relative to blank buffer. For ketoprofen, PEG 4000 permeability and intestinal damage scores increased with increasing ketoprofen concentration. Ibuprofen amide derivatives did not induce significant histological damage or PEG 4000 permeability when compared with ibuprofen. A correlation coefficient of 0.91 is obtained when intestinal damage scores are plotted against PEG 4000 permeability for all compounds. Both indices are proposed as rapid and useful measures of drug induced acute intestinal damage. PMID:16476530

  4. The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI compared to ergonomics standards for assessing the thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Bröde, Peter; Błazejczyk, Krzysztof; Fiala, Dusan; Havenith, George; Holmér, Ingvar; Jendritzky, Gerd; Kuklane, Kalev; Kampmann, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The growing need for valid assessment procedures of the outdoor thermal environment in the fields of public weather services, public health systems, urban planning, tourism & recreation and climate impact research raised the idea to develop the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI based on the most recent scientific progress both in thermo-physiology and in heat exchange theory. Following extensive validation of accessible models of human thermoregulation, the advanced multi-node 'Fiala' model was selected to form the basis of UTCI. This model was coupled with an adaptive clothing model which considers clothing habits by the general urban population and behavioral changes in clothing insulation related to actual environmental temperature. UTCI was developed conceptually as an equivalent temperature. Thus, for any combination of air temperature, wind, radiation, and humidity, UTCI is defined as the air temperature in the reference condition which would elicit the same dynamic response of the physiological model. This review analyses the sensitivity of UTCI to humidity and radiation in the heat and to wind in the cold and compares the results with observational studies and internationally standardized assessment procedures. The capabilities, restrictions and potential future extensions of UTCI are discussed. PMID:23411753

  5. Speech-language pathologists as primary contributors to response to intervention at the secondary level.

    PubMed

    Ehren, Barbara J; Whitmire, Kathleen

    2009-05-01

    Response to intervention (RTI) is currently receiving attention at the middle and high school levels. Although many academic and behavioral needs in secondary schools may warrant an RTI initiative, lack of literacy skills in adolescents is among the most important because language and literacy are foundational to curriculum learning. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have much to offer secondary RTI initiatives, given their expertise in language and literacy. Therefore, they need to become primary contributors. This article addresses several important conditions necessary to bring SLPs into the forefront with RTI at the secondary level by discussing (1) having a common understanding of RTI that is being implemented differently across the country; (2) understanding the rationale for adopting RTI at the secondary level; (3) defining unique contributions of SLPs that add value to RTI initiatives in middle and high schools; (4) exploring what it takes for SLPs to become involved, including attention to curriculum and literacy, changing the perceptions of others regarding the roles of SLPs, restructuring of delivery models, and replacing a caseload approach to service delivery with a workload approach; (5) establishing productive working relationships among professionals in secondary schools; and (6) exerting leadership to move forward in RTI involvement. PMID:19399695

  6. Speech-language pathologists' reactions to response to intervention: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sanger, Dixie; Snow, Pamela C; Colburn, Chelsey; Gergen, Michelle; Ruf, Michelle

    2012-02-01

    Qualitative methods were used to explore reactions of 300 speech-language pathologists (SLPs) on Response to Intervention (RTI). RTI is a system approach to serving struggling learners. This study was part of a larger research project that surveyed 2000 SLPs across the U.S. on their opinions about RTI. From 583 questionnaires returned, 300 (51.46%) responded to one open-ended question. Participants were asked, "What are your primary comments and/or concerns regarding RTI services for children and adolescents who struggle to learn?" Qualitative data analysis yielded 657 meaning units/codes and four themes emerged: (a) challenges and concerns, (b) support for the model, (c) implementation issues, and (d) role of SLPs. Challenges reflected in their reactions included: (a) the need for sufficient training, (b) SLPs' already heavy workloads, (c) concerns over students who may be "stuck in the tiers of RTI instruction" and the delay in timely referrals of students who need language services, and (d) having educational leaders that support RTI as well as the need for everyone to be "on board". RTI findings provide helpful considerations for SLPs and educators planning to implement the model. PMID:22111708

  7. Clinical Applications of 4-Factor Prothrombin Complex Concentrate: A Practical Pathologist's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Unold, David; Tormey, Christopher A

    2015-12-01

    A 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC), containing therapeutic doses of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors, was recently licensed in the United States for reversal of vitamin K antagonist therapy. However, given the emergence of several oral anticoagulants for which there are no specific reversal agents, and the existence of many other complex bleeding disorders, it is likely that clinicians will seek to use 4F-PCCs for any number of off-label indications. Thus, the goal of this review is to explore practical issues regarding 4F-PCC, with an emphasis on issues relevant to blood bankers and pathologists. Specifically, our aims are to (1) examine the role of 4F-PCC in vitamin K antagonist reversal, (2) review its potential use in the treatment of hemorrhage due to novel oral anticoagulants, and (3) explore potential uses in liver disease, trauma-associated bleeding, and rare coagulopathies. Safety and other practical considerations of 4F-PCCs will also be discussed. PMID:26619030

  8. Significance of Crime Scene Visit by Forensic Pathologist in Cases of Atypical Firearm Injuries.

    PubMed

    Thejaswi, H T; Kumar, A; Krishna, K

    2015-01-01

    Deaths due to firearms are some of the interesting and contentious cases that a forensic pathologist/autopsy surgeon encounters in his practice. Whenever there is 'ambiguity' regarding the nature or sequence of events any unnatural deaths including those caused by firearms the practice of visiting crime scene should be encouraged especially in a country like India where autopsy surgeons often neglect it. Here we present a case report in which there were inconsistencies in the autopsy findings with the alleged history. The witnesses heard about four to six gunshot sounds, whereas only two spent cartridge cases were retrieved from the crime scene. Authors identified the atypical nature of firearm injuries sustained by the victims that were possible by just two bullets. Crime scene visit was undertaken where we discovered the possibility of the echo effect behind the production of four to six sounds. Further by using computer software program, positions of the gunman, victims and the bullet trajectory of the two bullets was created. PMID:27180378

  9. Forensic Pathologist Consensus in the Interpretation of Photographs of Patterned Injuries of the Skin.

    PubMed

    Oliver, William R; Fang, Xianming

    2016-07-01

    Forensic pathologists are commonly asked to evaluate injuries on the basis of photographs. Members of the National Association of Medical Examiners were asked to participate in an online survey in which they were presented with 68 patterned injuries of the skin and asked to make a diagnosis ranging from very general (e.g., "blunt" vs. "sharp") to specific (e.g., "baton blow"). This was not the case. Consensus for general diagnosis averaged 0.77 and 0.72 for specific diagnosis. While there was a strong correlation between consensus and confidence in aggregate, individual correlations were poor. Consensus diagnosis was inversely correlated with age, and positively correlated with jurisdictional size, medical degree, and whether or not the respondent was actively performing autopsies as a job function. A subsequent survey is exploring possible reasons for lack of consensus in low-consensus questions. The high correlation between confidence and consensus at the aggregate level and low correlation at the individual level may have implications for quality assurance protocols. PMID:27364275

  10. Ordering accuracy. A College of American Pathologists Q-Probes study of 577 institutions.

    PubMed

    Valenstein, P N; Howanitz, P J

    1995-02-01

    Five hundred seventy-seven institutions examined how accurately physicians' test orders on inpatients were transmitted to the laboratory. Written orders could be found on laboratory requisitions or the medical record for 97.5% of 224,431 completed tests (median institution = 99.3%). Participants indicated that entry of extra tests into a hospital computer was the most common reason for completing unordered tests. In a multivariate analysis, factors associated with completing unordered tests were the lack of a policy requiring nursing staff to recheck computer orders against the medical record, average census of 301-450 patients, College of American Pathologists accreditation, and the use of preprinted "checkoff" order forms. Overall, 97.1% of 225,457 test orders were completed by the laboratories (median institution = 98.1%). Factors associated with not completing ordered tests were the lack of a policy requiring staff to check computer orders, teaching hospital status, and urban hospital location. Several interventions commonly thought to improve communication of orders were not found to affect performance. These results indicate that many institutions have a problem accurately transmitting test orders to their clinical laboratories. PMID:7848057

  11. Review of Medical Advisory Services by the Korean Society of Pathologists from 2003 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Min Hye; Lee, Geon Kook; Kim, Han Seong; Kim, Wan Seop

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since 2003, the Korean Society of Pathologists (KSP) has been officially providing medical advisory services (MAS). We reviewed the cases submitted to the KSP between 2003 and 2014. Methods: In total, 1,950 cases were submitted, most by private health insurance companies. The main purposes of the consultations were to clarify the initial diagnoses and to assign a proper disease classification code. We comprehensively reviewed 1,803 consultation cases with detailed information. Results: In spite of some fluctuations, the number of submitted cases has been significantly increasing over the 12 study years. The colon and rectum (40.3%), urinary bladder (14.2%), and stomach (6.9%) were the three most common tissues of origin. The most common diagnoses for each of the three tissues of origin were neuroendocrine tumor (50.7%), non-invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma (70.7%), and adenocarcinoma (36.2%). Regardless of the tissue of origin, neuroendocrine tumor of the digestive system was the most common diagnosis (419 of 1,803). Conclusions: In the current study, we found that pathologic consultations associated with private health insurance accounted for a large proportion of the MAS. Coding of the biologic behavior of diseases was the main issue of the consultations. In spite of the effort of the KSP to set proper guidelines for coding and classification of tumors, this review revealed that problems still exist and will continue to be an important issue. PMID:26581208

  12. How experienced speech-language pathologists learn to work on teams.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Susan C; Lincoln, Michelle A; Reed, Vicki A

    2011-08-01

    This study sought to understand how 10 speech-language pathologists (SLPs) learned to work on teams with other disciplines. Team-work skills are cited by universities as a generic skill their graduate possess and by professional speech-language pathology organizations as an important skill for clinicians. Few allied health curriculums, including speech-language pathology, teach explicit team-work skills. Which leads to the question: Where have experienced SLPs learned these skills? Interviews from 10 practicing SLPs determined where and how they learned to work on teams as well as team-skills that entry-level SLPs should possess. Only two of the 10 participants had any formal team training during university study and nine out of 10 participants described learning "on the job" during their first professional job with assistance from a workplace mentor. All participants believed that training in team-work with other disciplines is important to learn during university study. The needed attitudes, knowledge, and skills described for entry-level SLPs reflects similar characteristics listed by the World Health Organization's 2010 recommendation for inter-professional education. These findings support the inclusion of inter-professional education learning opportunities in the speech-language pathology curriculum. PMID:21542725

  13. Mortality Attributable to Excess Body Mass Index in Iran: Implementation of the Comparative Risk Assessment Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi; Peykari, Niloofar; Kasaeian, Amir; Sheidaei, Ali; Mansouri, Anita; Mohammadi, Younes; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Mehdipour, Parinaz; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity continues to rise worldwide with alarming rates in most of the world countries. Our aim was to compare the mortality of fatal disease attributable to excess body mass index (BMI) in Iran in 2005 and 2011. Methods: Using standards implementation comparative risk assessment methodology, we estimated mortality attributable to excess BMI in Iranian adults of 25–65 years old, at the national and sub-national levels for 9 attributable outcomes including; ischemic heart diseases (IHDs), stroke, hypertensive heart diseases, diabetes mellitus (DM), colon cancer, cancer of the body of the uterus, breast cancer, kidney cancer, and pancreatic cancer. Results: In 2011, in adults of 25–65 years old, at the national level, excess BMI was responsible for 39.5% of total deaths that were attributed to 9 BMI paired outcomes. From them, 55.0% were males. The highest mortality was attributed to IHD (55.7%) which was followed by stroke (19.3%), and DM (12.0%). Based on the population attributed fractions estimations of 2011, except for colon cancer, the remaining 6 common outcomes were higher for women than men. Conclusions: Despite the priority of the problem, there is currently no comprehensive program to prevention or control obesity in Iran. The present results show a growing need to comprehensive implications for national and sub-national health policies and interventional programs in Iran. PMID:26644906

  14. 'What About Swallowing?' Diagnostic Performance of Daily Clinical Practice Compared with the Eating Assessment Tool-10.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Bas Joris; Speyer, Renée; Bülow, Margareta; Kuijpers, Laura Mf

    2016-04-01

    In daily clinical practice, patients are frequently asked about their swallowing as part of the patient-clinician interview. This study compares the diagnostic performance of a single open question 'What about swallowing?' (usual care) with the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) as reference test in screening for oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD). 303 outpatients at risk of OD were recruited at three university hospitals: 162 men and 141 women with a mean age of 70 years. All data were retrieved by phone. To identify patients at risk of dysphagia, two different cut-off scores for the EAT-10 total score were retrieved from the literature. The diagnostic performance of the single question was determined by comparing dichotomized answers to the single question (no problems versus difficulties in swallowing) with the EAT-10 as reference test. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values ranged between 0.75-0.76, 0.75-0.84, 0.93-0.97 and 0.38-0.43, respectively. Mostly, the results of this exploratory study indicate a sufficient diagnostic performance of the single question in identifying patients who are at risk of dysphagia when using the EAT-10 questionnaire as a reference test. Further research, is, however, necessary to provide additional psychometric data on Functional Health Status (FHS) questionnaires including the single question using either FEES or VFS as gold standard or reference test. PMID:26753926

  15. A comparative echocardiographic assessment of ventricular function in five species of sharks.

    PubMed

    Chin Lai, N; Dalton, Nancy; Lai, Yin Yin; Kwong, Christopher; Rasmussen, Randy; Holts, David; Graham, Jeffrey B

    2004-03-01

    A comparative echocardiographic study was carried out on five shark species that differ in heart morphology and in aspects of their behavior and natural history. The study contrasted the ventricular function in the highly active mako shark (heart type IV) and four other sharks (heart type III) that differ in activity levels (i.e. the sedentary horn and swell sharks vs. the moderately active blue and smooth-hound sharks). All five species exhibited biphasic ventricular filling characterized by an early (conduit) and late (atrial systole) phase. In the mako shark, early filling was dominant as indicated by a higher early flow peak velocity, a greater early:late velocity ratio, and a greater early velocity time integral. In contrast, the late filling phase was the more important filling agent in the other species. Indices of systolic function such as ventricular ejection fraction and ventricular fractional shortening also reflect a more efficient cardiac pumping capacity in mako shark relative to the other four sharks. The comparative echocardiographic assessment of in vivo ventricular function integrates structural and functional features with shark activity level to arrive at a new perspective blending the occurrence of biphasic filling with functional concepts based on heart morphological typology and changing views regarding the role of factors such as central filling pressure and pericardial pressure on end-diastolic ventricular volume. PMID:15123188

  16. Methods for microbiological quality assessment in drinking water: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Helmi, K; Barthod, F; Méheut, G; Henry, A; Poty, F; Laurent, F; Charni-Ben-Tabassi, N

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to compare several methods for quantifying and discriminating between the different physiological states of a bacterial population present in drinking water. Flow cytometry (FCM), solid-phase cytometry (SPC), epifluorescence microscopy (MSP) and culture method performances were assessed by comparing the results obtained for different water samples. These samples, including chlorinated and non-chlorinated water, were collected in a drinking water treatment plant. Total bacteria were quantified by using SYBR Green II (for FCM) and 4',6'-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) (for MSP), viable and non-viable bacteria were distinguished by using SYBR Green II and propidium iodide dual staining (for FCM), and active cells were distinguished by using CTC (for MSP) and Chemchrome V6 (for FCM and SPC). In our conditions, counts using microscopy and FCM were significantly correlated regarding total bacteria and active cells. Conversely, counts were not significantly similar using solid-phase and FCM for active bacteria. Moreover, the R2A medium showed that bacterial culturability could be recovered after chlorination. This study highlights that FCM appears to be a useful and powerful technique for drinking water production monitoring. PMID:25719463

  17. Comparative assessment of techniques for initial pose estimation using monocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sumant; D`Amico, Simone

    2016-06-01

    This work addresses the comparative assessment of initial pose estimation techniques for monocular navigation to enable formation-flying and on-orbit servicing missions. Monocular navigation relies on finding an initial pose, i.e., a coarse estimate of the attitude and position of the space resident object with respect to the camera, based on a minimum number of features from a three dimensional computer model and a single two dimensional image. The initial pose is estimated without the use of fiducial markers, without any range measurements or any apriori relative motion information. Prior work has been done to compare different pose estimators for terrestrial applications, but there is a lack of functional and performance characterization of such algorithms in the context of missions involving rendezvous operations in the space environment. Use of state-of-the-art pose estimation algorithms designed for terrestrial applications is challenging in space due to factors such as limited on-board processing power, low carrier to noise ratio, and high image contrasts. This paper focuses on performance characterization of three initial pose estimation algorithms in the context of such missions and suggests improvements.

  18. Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production.

    PubMed

    Arafat, Hassan A; Jijakli, Kenan

    2013-08-01

    Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H(2)) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify(®)) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration. PMID:23726119

  19. Dynamic Assessment of Language Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports a study of a narrative-based Dynamic Assessment (DA) procedure developed in the USA that is used in the UK with children with developmental language disabilities. Three monolingual English children with language disabilities are assessed by a speech/language pathologist/therapist who is learning to work with DA in collaboration…

  20. Comparative assessment of onabotulinumtoxinA and mirabegron for overactive bladder: an indirect treatment comparison

    PubMed Central

    Freemantle, Nick; Ginsberg, David A; McCool, Rachael; Fleetwood, Kelly; Arber, Mick; Khalaf, Kristin; Loveman, Clara; Ni, Quanhong; Glanville, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Context OnabotulinumtoxinA and mirabegron have recently gained marketing authorisation to treat symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB). Objective To evaluate the relative efficacy of mirabegron and onabotulinumtoxinA in patients with idiopathic OAB. Design Network meta-analysis. Data sources A search of 9 electronic databases, review documents, guidelines and websites. Methods Randomised trials comparing any licensed dose of onabotulinumtoxinA or mirabegron with each other, anticholinergic drugs or placebo were eligible (19 randomised trials were identified). 1 reviewer extracted data from the studies and a second reviewer checked the data. Candidate trials were assessed for similarity and networks were developed for each outcome. Bayesian network meta-analysis was conducted using both fixed-effects and random-effects models. When there were differences in mean baseline values between mirabegron and onabotulinumtoxinA trials they were adjusted for using network meta-regression (NMR). Results No studies directly comparing onabotulinumtoxinA to mirabegron were identified. A network was created for each of the 7 outcomes, with 3–9 studies included in each individual network. The trials included in the networks were broadly similar. Patients in the onabotulinumtoxinA trials had more urinary incontinence and urgency episodes at baseline than patients in the mirabegron trials and these differences were adjusted for using NMR. Both onabotulinumtoxinA and mirabegron were more efficacious than placebo at reducing the frequency of urinary incontinence, urgency, urination and nocturia. OnabotulinumtoxinA was more efficacious than mirabegron (50 and 25 mg) in completely resolving daily episodes of urinary incontinence and urgency and in reducing the frequency of urinary incontinence, urgency and urination. NMR supported the results of the network meta-analysis. Conclusions In the absence of head-to-head trials comparing onabotulinumtoxinA to mirabegron, this indirect

  1. Comparative study between two techniques for alveolar bone loss assessment: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Lira-Júnior, Ronaldo; Freires, Irlan de Almeida; de Oliveira, Isabelle LinsMacêdo; da Silva, Ennyo Sobral Crispim; da Silva, SeverinoCelestino; de Brito, Roberto Lira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a comparative study between two techniques for assessment of alveolar bone loss. Materials and Methods: Absolute and relative techniques were evaluated. The sample consisted of 16 radiographs supposed to meet a single criterion: The reference points applied (Cementum-enamel junction (CEJ) alveolar bone crest and root apex) should be visible. Bone height was measured in the selected radiographs as the percentage of root length through both techniques. Data were submitted to the Statistical Package for Social Science software. Results obtained by both methods were converted into bone loss index values and then categorized. Sensitivity and specificity of the relative technique, compared to the absolute technique, were calculated. Wilcoxon test and the Bland and Altman's method were employed for comparisons. Significance level was set at 5%. Results: For the absolute and relative techniques, means of bone loss index were respectively of 4.81 (±2.25) and 4.75 (±1.80). Bone loss index ≥6 (alveolar bone loss ≥50%) was found in 5 (31.2%) teeth, in the absolute technique, and in 4 (25%) teeth, according to the relative technique. There was no statistically significant difference between both methods (P>0.05). According to the Bland and Altman's method, it was verified a bias of 0.06, and limits of upper and lower agreement of, respectively, 1.58 and –1.45. Sensitivity of 0.8 and specificity of 1 were found for the relative technique compared to the absolute one. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between the techniques evaluated, and the relative technique was found to be reliable for measuring alveolar bone loss. PMID:23633780

  2. A comparative assessment of Kalpana-1 and MISR cloud tracked winds over the Indian Ocean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, S. K.; Kaur, Inderpreet; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.

    2015-08-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to advance the error characteristic of atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) derived from the infrared and water vapour channels of Kalpana-1 very high resolution radiometer by comparing against stereo motion vectors (SMVs) retrieved by tracking clouds from the multi-angle imaging spectro-radiometer (MISR) for a period of 9 months. Two different versions of the MISR SMVs with horizontal resolutions 70.4 and 17.6 km, respectively, are used for the inter-comparison. It is found that the Kalpana-1 AMV has stronger westerlies and southerlies than the MISR SMV at all latitudes and levels in majority of times. The performances of Kalpana-1 AMVs against MISR SMVs are assessed by doing a similar analysis where Meteosat-7 AMVs (infrared and water vapour AMVs) are also evaluated against the MISR SMVs for the same region. It is found that results of both AMVs (Kalpana-1 and Meteosat-7) with both sets of MISR SMVs are comparable with few exceptions. The zonal wind components of the MISR SMVs showed smaller mean wind difference and root mean square difference (RMSD) compared to the meridional wind components. The SMVs are typically assigned to higher altitudes than AMVs. Analysis related to the height discrepancies between MISR SMVs and AMVs shows that in the multi-layer cloud AMVs are tracked in upper level cloud targets, while SMVs are skewed more towards lower level. The accuracy is better for the low level where collocations are highly dense and gradually decreases towards the higher levels. Because of improvement in the MISR SMV retrieval algorithm, the errors in the meridional component of SMVs have improved in the recently released version with horizontal resolution of 17.6 km.

  3. Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Arafat, Hassan A. Jijakli, Kenan

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Study developed a methodology for the evaluation of gasification for MSW treatment. • Study was conducted comparatively for USA, UAE, and Thailand. • Study applies a thermodynamic model (Gibbs free energy minimization) using the Gasify software. • The energy efficiency of the process and the compatibility with different waste streams was studied. - Abstract: Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H{sub 2}) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify®) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration.

  4. Demystifying the Courtroom: Everything the Veterinary Pathologist Needs to Know About Testifying in an Animal Cruelty Case.

    PubMed

    Frederickson, Reese

    2016-09-01

    When veterinary pathologists testify as expert witnesses in animal cruelty trials, they may find themselves in an intimidating and unfamiliar environment. The legal rules are clouded in mystery, the lawyers dwell on mundane details, and the witness's words are extracted with precision by a verbal scalpel. An unprepared expert witness can feel ungrounded and stripped of confidence. The goal of this article is to lift the veil of mystery and give the veterinary pathologist the tools to be a knowledgeable and confident expert witness before and during testimony. This article discusses the types of expert witnesses, disclosure requirements and the importance of a good report, the legal basics of expert testimony, and how to be an effective expert witness. The article references Minnesota law; however, the laws are similar in most jurisdictions and based on the same constitutional requirements, and the concepts presented are applicable in nearly every courtroom.(1). PMID:27185534

  5. Histopathological changes in the gastrointestinal tract due to medications: an update for the surgical pathologist (part II of II).

    PubMed

    De Petris, Giovanni; Caldero, Sonia Gatius; Chen, Longwen; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Dhungel, Bal M; Spizcka, Amy J Wendel; Lam-Himlin, Dora

    2014-05-01

    In keeping with the stated goal of providing the surgical pathologist with tools to recognize abnormalities of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract due to drugs (AGIDS), in part II of this review we embark in a more organ-based description of AGIDS. Adequate space is given to the numerous adverse gastrointestinal effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Pill esophagitis, esophagitis dissecans, proton pump inhibitors' effects, diaphragm disease, and the recently described effects of drugs such as olmesartan, mycophenolate, and of compounds such as yttrium-90 are highlighted among several others. The inclusion of drug effects in the differential diagnosis of "conventional" diseases (such as gastric antral vascular ectasia, graft-versus-host disease, ischemic colitis, acute colitis, collagenous enteritis, inflammatory bowel disease) is underscored to avoid sometimes significant diagnostic pitfalls. We reiterate the message of the necessary collaboration between pathologist and clinician in the recognition of these entities to provide the best patient care. PMID:24021900

  6. Histopathological changes in the gastrointestinal tract due to drugs: an update for the surgical pathologist (part I of II).

    PubMed

    De Petris, Giovanni; Gatius Caldero, Sonia; Chen, Longwen; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Dhungel, Bal M; Wendel Spizcka, Amy J; Lam-Himlin, Dora

    2014-04-01

    Abnormalities of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract due to drugs (AGIDs) are numerous and have significant impact. The aim of this narrative review is to help the practicing surgical pathologist recognize selected AGIDs. The adverse drug effects presented were chosen with an emphasis on recent and significant pathological and clinical contributions. The selection was based on a thorough review of the PUBMED-based literature and on the authors' opinions and experience. In the first part of the review, diagnostic abnormalities due to crystals (eg, iron, biphosphonates, nonsystemic drugs), mitosis arresting drugs (colchicine, taxanes), and biological agents, especially ipilimumab, are discussed. Some AGIDs' histopathologic features can be easily recognized. It is however the clinical correlation that in many cases of AGIDs will provide the necessary support for a drug effect diagnosis. The identification of AGIDs requires heightened awareness of the medical team in which close collaboration of pathologists and clinicians cannot be overemphasized. PMID:24021899

  7. Are Histological Findings of Thulium Laser Vapo-Enucleation Versus Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Comparable?

    PubMed

    Carmignani, Luca; Macchi, Alberto; Ratti, Dario; Finkelberg, Elisabetta; Casellato, Stefano; Bozzini, Giorgio; Maruccia, Serena; Marenghi, Carlo; Picozzi, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    We investigated if an adequate histological diagnosis can be made from tissue after Thulium laser vapo-enucleation of the prostate (ThuVEP) and whether it is comparable to transurethral prostate resection (TURP) tissue findings in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. We analyzed 350 ThuLEP and 100 matched TURP tissue specimens from patients who underwent one of the two procedures between January 2009 and June 2014. Thulium Laser Enucleation of Prostate (ThuVEP) was combined with mechanical morcellation of the resected lobe. Each histological specimen was reviewed by two pathologists. Preoperative prostate ultrasound volume, total serum prostatic specific antigen and postoperative tissue weight were evaluated. Microscopic histological diagnosis was assessed by standard histological techniques and immunohistochemical evaluation. Patients were comparable in terms of age and preoperative total serum prostate specific antigen. Incidental adenocarcinoma and high grade PIN of the prostate were diagnosed in a comparable percent of specimens in the 2 groups (2.5 % in the ThuVEP group versus 3 % in the TURP group). Tissue thermal artifacts induced by the Thulium laser are mostly due to coagulation as that of the conventional monopolar diathermy in TURP. Tissue quality was maintained in the ThuVEP histological specimens. Tissue maintain histological characteristics and proprieties without modification for successive immunoistochemical analysis. The pathologist ability to detect incidental prostate cancer and PIN was maintained even if there is a quoted of vaporized tissue. PMID:25862670

  8. How diverse are diversity assessment methods? A comparative analysis and benchmarking of molecular descriptor space.

    PubMed

    Koutsoukas, Alexios; Paricharak, Shardul; Galloway, Warren R J D; Spring, David R; Ijzerman, Adriaan P; Glen, Robert C; Marcus, David; Bender, Andreas

    2014-01-27

    Chemical diversity is a widely applied approach to select structurally diverse subsets of molecules, often with the objective of maximizing the number of hits in biological screening. While many methods exist in the area, few systematic comparisons using current descriptors in particular with the objective of assessing diversity in bioactivity space have been published, and this shortage is what the current study is aiming to address. In this work, 13 widely used molecular descriptors were compared, including fingerprint-based descriptors (ECFP4, FCFP4, MACCS keys), pharmacophore-based descriptors (TAT, TAD, TGT, TGD, GpiDAPH3), shape-based descriptors (rapid overlay of chemical structures (ROCS) and principal moments of inertia (PMI)), a connectivity-matrix-based descriptor (BCUT), physicochemical-property-based descriptors (prop2D), and a more recently introduced molecular descriptor type (namely, "Bayes Affinity Fingerprints"). We assessed both the similar behavior of the descriptors in assessing the diversity of chemical libraries, and their ability to select compounds from libraries that are diverse in bioactivity space, which is a property of much practical relevance in screening library design. This is particularly evident, given that many future targets to be screened are not known in advance, but that the library should still maximize the likelihood of containing bioactive matter also for future screening campaigns. Overall, our results showed that descriptors based on atom topology (i.e., fingerprint-based descriptors and pharmacophore-based descriptors) correlate well in rank-ordering compounds, both within and between descriptor types. On the other hand, shape-based descriptors such as ROCS and PMI showed weak correlation with the other descriptors utilized in this study, demonstrating significantly different behavior. We then applied eight of the molecular descriptors compared in this study to sample a diverse subset of sample compounds (4%) from an

  9. [Comparative life cycle environmental assessment between electric taxi and gasoline taxi in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Qing; Sun, Zhao-Xin; Li, Xiao-Nuo; Li, Jin-Xiang; Yang, Jian-Xin

    2015-03-01

    Tailpipe emission of internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) is one of the main sources leading to atmospheric environmental problems such as haze. Substituting electric vehicles for conventional gasoline vehicles is an important solution for reducing urban air pollution. In 2011, as a pilot city of electric vehicle, Beijing launched a promotion plan of electric vehicle. In order to compare the environmental impacts between Midi electric vehicle (Midi EV) and Hyundai gasoline taxi (ICEV), this study created an inventory with local data and well-reasoned assumptions, and contributed a life cycle assessment (LCA) model with GaBi4.4 software and comparative life cycle environmental assessment by Life cycle impact analysis models of CML2001(Problem oriented) and EI99 (Damage oriented), which included the environmental impacts of full life cycle, manufacture phase, use phase and end of life. The sensitivity analysis of lifetime mileage and power structure was also provided. The results indicated that the full life cycle environmental impact of Midi EV was smaller than Hyundai ICEV, which was mainly due to the lower fossil fuel consumption. On the contrary, Midi EV exhibited the potential of increasing the environmental impacts of ecosystem quality influence and Human health influence. By CML2001 model, the results indicated that Midi EV might decrease the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Global Warming Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential and so on. However, in the production phase, the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Global Warming Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential, Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Terrestric Ecotoxicity Potential, Human Toxicity Potential of Midi EV were increased relative to Hyundai ICEV because of emissions impacts from its power system especially the battery production. Besides, in the use phase, electricity production was

  10. Mitochondrial comparative genomics and phylogenetic signal assessment of mtDNA among arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Nadimi, Maryam; Daubois, Laurence; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) genes, such as cytochrome C oxidase genes (cox), have been widely used for barcoding in many groups of organisms, although this approach has been less powerful in the fungal kingdom due to the rapid evolution of their mt genomes. The use of mt genes in phylogenetic studies of Dikarya has been met with success, while early diverging fungal lineages remain less studied, particularly the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Advances in next-generation sequencing have substantially increased the number of publically available mtDNA sequences for the Glomeromycota. As a result, comparison of mtDNA across key AMF taxa can now be applied to assess the phylogenetic signal of individual mt coding genes, as well as concatenated subsets of coding genes. Here we show comparative analyses of publically available mt genomes of Glomeromycota, augmented with two mtDNA genomes that were newly sequenced for this study (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM240159 and Glomus aggregatum DAOM240163), resulting in 16 complete mtDNA datasets. R. irregularis isolate DAOM240159 and G. aggregatum isolate DAOM240163 showed mt genomes measuring 72,293bp and 69,505bp with G+C contents of 37.1% and 37.3%, respectively. We assessed the phylogenies inferred from single mt genes and complete sets of coding genes, which are referred to as "supergenes" (16 concatenated coding genes), using Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests, in order to identify genes that best described AMF phylogeny. We found that rnl, nad5, cox1, and nad2 genes, as well as concatenated subset of these genes, provided phylogenies that were similar to the supergene set. This mitochondrial genomic analysis was also combined with principal coordinate and partitioning analyses, which helped to unravel certain evolutionary relationships in the Rhizophagus genus and for G. aggregatum within the Glomeromycota. We showed evidence to support the position of G. aggregatum within the R. irregularis 'species complex'. PMID:26868331

  11. Comparative Capabilities of Clinical Assessment, Diagnostic Criteria, and Polysomnography in Detecting Sleep Bruxism

    PubMed Central

    Palinkas, Marcelo; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Rodrigues, Laíse Angélica Mendes; Bataglion, César; Siéssere, Selma; Semprini, Marisa; Regalo, Simone Cecilio Hallak

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic capability of signs and symptoms of sleep bruxism (SB) as per the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) criteria and a diagnostic grading system proposed by international experts for assessing SB. Methods: The study was conducted in three phases (interview, physical examination, and sleep studies). Subjects were asked about self-reported tooth grinding sounds occurring during sleep, muscle fatigue, temporal headaches, jaw muscle pain, and jaw locking. A visual examination was conducted to check for presence of abnormal tooth wear. A full-night polysomnography (PSG) was performed. After three phases, the subjects were divided into two groups matched by age and gender: Case Group, 45 SB subjects, and Control Group, 45 non-SB subjects. Diagnostic accuracy measurements were calculated for each sign or symptom individually and for the two diagnostic criteria analyzed. Results: Muscle fatigue, temporal headaches, and AASM criteria were associated with highest sensitivity (78%, 67%, 58%, respectively) and also with highest diagnostic odds ratio (OR = 9.63, 9.25, 6.33, respectively). Jaw locking, muscle pain, and the criterion of “probable SB” were associated with the worst sensitivity (16%, 18%, 22%, respectively). Conclusions: Presence of muscle fatigue and temporal headaches can be considered good tools to screen SB patients. None of the diagnostic criteria evaluated was able to accurately identify patients with SB. AASM criteria had the strongest diagnostic capabilities and—although they do not attain diagnostic values high enough to replace the current gold standard (PSG)—should be used as a screening tool to identify SB. Citation: Palinkas M, De Luca Canto G, Rodrigues LA, Bataglion C, Siéssere S, Semprini M, Regalo SC. Comparative capabilities of clinical assessment, diagnostic criteria, and polysomnography in detecting sleep bruxism. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(11):1319–1325. PMID:26235152

  12. Comparative assessment of scoring functions on an updated benchmark: 1. Compilation of the test set.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Liu, Zhihai; Li, Jie; Han, Li; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Zhixiong; Wang, Renxiao

    2014-06-23

    Scoring functions are often applied in combination with molecular docking methods to predict ligand binding poses and ligand binding affinities or to identify active compounds through virtual screening. An objective benchmark for assessing the performance of current scoring functions is expected to provide practical guidance for the users to make smart choices among available methods. It can also elucidate the common weakness in current methods for future improvements. The primary goal of our comparative assessment of scoring functions (CASF) project is to provide a high-standard, publicly accessible benchmark of this type. Our latest study, i.e., CASF-2013, evaluated 20 popular scoring functions on an updated set of protein-ligand complexes. This data set was selected out of 8302 protein-ligand complexes recorded in the PDBbind database (version 2013) through a fairly complicated process. Sample selection was made by considering the quality of complex structures as well as binding data. Finally, qualified complexes were clustered by 90% similarity in protein sequences. Three representative complexes were chosen from each cluster to control sample redundancy. The final outcome, namely, the PDBbind core set (version 2013), consists of 195 protein-ligand complexes in 65 clusters with binding constants spanning nearly 10 orders of magnitude. In this data set, 82% of the ligand molecules are "druglike" and 78% of the protein molecules are validated or potential drug targets. Correlation between binding constants and several key properties of ligands are discussed. Methods and results of the scoring function evaluation will be described in a companion work in this issue (doi: 10.1021/ci500081m ). PMID:24716849

  13. Guidelines from the Canadian Association of Pathologists for establishing a telepathology service for anatomic pathology using whole-slide imaging.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Chantal; Chandrakanth, S A; Cornell, Ian Scott; Dalton, James; Evans, Andrew; Garcia, Bertha M; Godin, Chris; Godlewski, Marek; Jansen, Gerard H; Kabani, Amin; Louahlia, Said; Manning, Lisa; Maung, Raymond; Moore, Lisa; Philley, Joanne; Slatnik, Jack; Srigley, John; Thibault, Alain; Picard, Donald Daniel; Cracower, Hanah; Tetu, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The use of telepathology for clinical applications in Canada has steadily become more attractive over the last 10 years, driven largely by its potential to provide rapid pathology consulting services throughout the country regardless of the location of a particular institution. Based on this trend, the president of the Canadian Association of Pathologists asked a working group consisting of pathologists, technologists, and healthcare administrators from across Canada to oversee the development of guidelines to provide Canadian pathologists with basic information on how to implement and use this technology. The guidelines were systematically developed, based on available medical literature and the clinical experience of early adopters of telepathology in Canada. While there are many different modalities and applications of telepathology, this document focuses specifically on whole-slide imaging as applied to intraoperative pathology consultation (frozen section), primary diagnosis, expert or second opinions and quality assurance activities. Applications such as hematopathology, microbiology, tumour boards, education, research and technical and/or standard-related issues are not covered. PMID:24843826

  14. A comparative assessment of fluoride concentration available in saliva using daily prescribed topical fluoride agents

    PubMed Central

    Talwar, Manjit; Tewari, Amrit; Chawla, H. S.; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the availability of fluoride concentration in saliva following the use of fluoride mouthrinse and dentifrice. Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out in 7–15 year-old school children of Chandigarh (n = 90). The children were nonfluoride users. Baseline saliva samples were collected. The subjects were exposed to two test agents, i.e., fluoride mouthrinse (0.05%, 225 ppm F) and dentifrice (1000 ppm F) for 7 days and on the day 8, saliva samples were collected over a 20 hrs period. Wash out period of 31/2 months was there before the subjects were exposed to the second test agent. Fluoride in saliva was estimated using fluoride ion-specific electrode. Written informed consent was taken. Statistical Analysis: Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was applied to test the normality of the variables. Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare the fluoride concentration available in saliva at respective time intervals subsequent to use of the two test agents. Results: Fluoride concentration was elevated in saliva compared to baseline for both the test agents. Fluoride mouthrinse (0.05% sodium fluoride [NaF]) and dentifrice (1000 ppm monofluorophosphate [MFP]) showed a biphasic clearance. Peak in saliva occurred at 15 mins postuse. Night-time use resulted in higher concentration of fluoride in saliva compared to baseline. There was statistically significantly higher fluoride concentration available in saliva for the dentifrice at 5 hrs, 10 hrs, and 20 hrs postuse (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Subsequent to the use of NaF (0.05%) daily mouthrinse and MFP dentifrice (1000 ppm) the fluoride concentration in saliva remained elevated to a level of 0.12 ppm for mouthrinse and 0.14 ppm for dentifrice compared to baseline (0.03 ppm) up to 20 hrs postuse. The therapeutic window though not yet established but suggested is 0.1–1 ppm for prevention of demineralization, indicating that daily use of fluoride mouthrinse and dentifrice provides fluoride concentration in

  15. Investigating the Comparability of School Scores across Test Forms that Are Not Parallel. Technical Guidelines for Performance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Anne R.

    This study, one of a series designed to answer practical questions about performance based assessment, examined the comparability of school scores on short, nonparallel test forms. The data were obtained from mathematics tests with both multiple choice (MC) and performance assessment (PA) items. The tests were administered in a statewide testing…

  16. What Makes the Finnish Different in Science? Assessing and Comparing Students' Science Learning in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Cornelia; Neumann, Knut; Boone, William J.; Fischer, Hans E.

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript details our efforts to assess and compare students' learning about electricity in three countries. As our world is increasingly driven by technological advancements, the education of future citizens in science becomes one important resource for economic productivity. Not surprisingly international large-scale assessments are…

  17. Comparing the Use of Global Rating Scale with Checklists for the Assessment of Central Venous Catheterization Skills Using Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Irene W. Y.; Zalunardo, Nadia; Pachev, George; Beran, Tanya; Brown, Melanie; Hatala, Rose; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The use of checklists is recommended for the assessment of competency in central venous catheterization (CVC) insertion. To explore the use of a global rating scale in the assessment of CVC skills, this study seeks to compare its use with two checklists, within the context of a formative examination using simulation. Video-recorded performances of…

  18. Quantity and quality of obesity-related research in Arab countries: assessment and comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a serious worldwide medical condition, considered by some researchers as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. The main objective of this study was to assess the quantity and quality of obesity-related research from Arab countries and compare it with that from non-Arab Middle Eastern countries. Methods Original scientific articles or reviews published by Arab countries about obesity up until 2011 were screened using the ISI Web of Science database. Research activity was assessed by analyzing the annual research productivity, journals names, citations, top 10 active institutions, and the contribution of each Arab country to obesity research. Results The total number of original and review research articles published globally about obesity was 110,167. The leading country in obesity research was United States of America (42.47%). Turkey, Israel, and Iran were in the top 30 countries while Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), Egypt, and Kuwait ranked 39th, 43rd, and 47th, respectively. A total of 1,121 documents about “obesity” were published by Arab countries, representing 1.0% of the global research output, with 13,343 citations (average citation of 11.9 per document) and an h-index of 44. The Arab countries’ research output was very low until the mid-1990s and then increased steadily. Of the 1,121 documents, 107 (9.55%) were published in the Saudi Medical Journal. KSA, with a total of 318 publications ranked first among Arab countries in research quantity while Kuwait ranked first after adjustment based on population size. King Saud University in KSA was the most productive institution with a total of 140 documents. Compared with other non-Arab Middle Eastern countries, the research productivity from Arab countries was lower than that from Turkey, higher than that from Iran, and close to that from Israel. However, the h-index of documents about obesity published from Arab countries was lower than that of Turkey

  19. Assessment of MRI as a Modality for Evaluation of Soft Tissue Injuries of the Spine as Compared to Intraoperative Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Vasu, Chembumkara; Kanthila, Mahesha; Ravichandra, Gopalakrishna; Acharya, Koteshwar Devadasa; Hussain, Mohamed Musheer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Traumatic injuries of the spine and spinal cord are potentially devastating as they may lead to significant neurological damage as the clinical and prognostic spectrum of the effects of spinal injuries is vast. Timely imaging studies can help mitigate these possibly life threatening complications. There is a dearth of studies that directly compare MR imaging findings to surgical findings. Aim Hence, this study was undertaken to assess the sensitivity of MRI in identifying injuries to the soft tissue structures of the spine. Materials and Methods MRI scans were performed on 31 cases of acute spinal injuries that presented within 72 hours of the trauma and underwent surgical fixation by either an anterior or posterior approach. The non-osseous structures namely; Anterior Longitudinal Ligament (ALL), Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (PLL), Intervertebral Disc, Ligamentum Flavum, Interspinous Ligament (ISP) and the Spinal Cord were evaluated. They were classified as ‘True Positive’ if an injury was found to correlate with intraoperative findings and as ‘False Negative’ when diagnosed falsely as normal. The statistical sensitivity of MRI in diagnosing injuries to the non-osseous structures of the spine were thus calculated. Results Of the 31 patients, in 51.6% of patients the site of injury was to the cervical spine (n=16), thoracic spine was the next highest in occurrence of 39% (n=12) and lumbar spine accounted for the least. In correlating the imaging findings to the intraoperative findings, MRI was highly sensitive in detecting injuries to the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (94.4%) and the Spinal cord (93%) and fairly high in detecting injuries to the Intervertebral disc. However coming to the ligamentum flavum and interspinous ligaments, the sensitivity of the MRI dropped to 62.5% and 63.6% respectively. Conclusion MRI was found to be highly sensitive in detecting injuries to the spinal cord and the posterior longitudinal ligament and

  20. Comparative assessment of forces generated during simulated alignment with self-ligating and conventional brackets.

    PubMed

    Pandis, Nikolaos; Eliades, Theodore; Bourauel, Christoph

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to comparatively assess the magnitude and direction of forces and moments generated from different bracket systems, during the initial levelling and alignment stage of orthodontic treatment. Three types of brackets were used: Orthos2 (Ormco), Damon2 (Ormco), and In-Ovation R (GAC). The brackets were bonded on resin replicas models of a patient's crowded mandibular arch, and a 0.014 inch Damon archform CuNiTi (Ormco) wire was inserted. The model was mounted on the Orthodontic Measurement and Simulation System (OMSS) and six static measurements were taken at the initial crowded state per bracket for the lateral incisor, canine, and first premolar. A total of 10 repetitions were performed for each measurement, with new brackets and archwires used for each trial. The forces and moments generated were registered directly on the OMSS software and were statistically analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance separately for each dental arch location and force component. Group differences were further analyzed with Tukey's post hoc comparisons test at the 0.05 significance level. The lingually inclined, crowded lateral incisor presented an extrusive and buccal movement and showed the lowest force in the vertical direction, whereas the self-ligating group of brackets generated the highest force in the buccolingual direction. The moments applied by the three bracket systems followed the general trend shown for forces; in the vertical axis, the self-ligating brackets exerted lower forces than their conventional counterpart. This was modified in the buccolingual direction where, in most instances, the self-ligating appliances applied higher moments compared with the conventional bracket. In most cases, the magnitude of forces and moments ranged between 30-70 cN and 2-6 N mm, respectively. However, maximum forces and moments developed at the lateral incisor were almost four times higher than the average. PMID:19349418

  1. Comparative studies of two dimensional and three dimensional ultrasonic nuchal translucency in trisomy assessments.

    PubMed

    Wee, Lai K; Chai, Hum Y; Samsury, Sharul R Bin; Mujamil, Naizaithull F Binti; Supriyanto, Eko

    2012-12-01

    Current two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonic marker measurements are inherent with intra- and inter-observer variability limitations. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of conventional 2D ultrasonic marker measurements and proposed programmable interactive three-dimensional (3D) marker evaluation. This is essentially important to analyze that the measurement on 3D volumetric measurement possesses higher impact and reproducibility vis-à-vis 2D measurement. Twenty three cases of prenatal ultrasound examination were obtained from collaborating hospital after Ethical Committee's approval. The measured 2D ultrasonic marker is Nuchal Translucency or commonly abbreviated as NT. Descriptive analysis of both 2D and 3D ultrasound measurement were calculated. Three trial measurements were taken for each method. Both data were tested with One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test and results indicate that markers measurements were distributed normally with significant parametric values at 0.621 and 0.596 respectively. Computed mean and standard deviation for both measurement methods are 1.4495 ± 0.46490 (2D) and 1.3561 ± 0.50994 (3D). ANOVA test shows that computerized 3D measurements were found to be insignificantly different from the mean of conventional 2D at the significance level of 0.05. With Pearson's correlation coefficient value or R = 0.861, the result proves strong positive linear correlation between 2D and 3D ultrasonic measurements. Reproducibility and accuracy of 3D ultrasound in NT measurement was significantly increased compared with 2D B-mode ultrasound prenatal assessment. 3D reconstructed imaging has higher clinical values compare to 2D ultrasound images with less diagnostics information. PMID:23207710

  2. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Lignocellulosic Ethanol Production: Biochemical Versus Thermochemical Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Dongyan; Seager, Thomas; Rao, P. Suresh; Zhao, Fu

    2010-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted into ethanol through either biochemical or thermochemical conversion processes. Biochemical conversion involves hydrolysis and fermentation while thermochemical conversion involves gasification and catalytic synthesis. Even though these routes produce comparable amounts of ethanol and have similar energy efficiency at the plant level, little is known about their relative environmental performance from a life cycle perspective. Especially, the indirect impacts, i.e. emissions and resource consumption associated with the production of various process inputs, are largely neglected in previous studies. This article compiles material and energy flow data from process simulation models to develop life cycle inventory and compares the fossil fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and water consumption of both biomass-to-ethanol production processes. The results are presented in terms of contributions from feedstock, direct, indirect, and co-product credits for four representative biomass feedstocks i.e., wood chips, corn stover, waste paper, and wheat straw. To explore the potentials of the two conversion pathways, different technological scenarios are modeled, including current, 2012 and 2020 technology targets, as well as different production/co-production configurations. The modeling results suggest that biochemical conversion has slightly better performance on greenhouse gas emission and fossil fuel consumption, but that thermochemical conversion has significantly less direct, indirect, and life cycle water consumption. Also, if the thermochemical plant operates as a biorefinery with mixed alcohol co-products separated for chemicals, it has the potential to achieve better performance than biochemical pathway across all environmental impact categories considered due to higher co-product credits associated with chemicals being displaced. The results from this work serve as a starting point for developing full life cycle

  3. Comparative Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality in Sri Lanka's Tank-Cascade and Mahaweli Irrigation Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Two distinct irrigation systems dominate the landscape in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The tank-cascade system, which originates from third century BC, is a small-scale system that has been the traditional method for communities to meet their farming water needs. The Mahaweli reservoir system, in contrast, is a large-scale irrigation scheme initiated in the 1970s that diverts water across hundreds of kilometers from the headwaters of the Mahaweli River to farmers. Although approximately equal amounts of paddy land are irrigated under these two systems, very little comparative analysis has been conducted on the spatial variation of irrigation water quality in Sri Lanka. An exploratory study was conducted in June 2013 in Anuradhapura district, an area that experiences the highest level of paddy production instability and has had long-standing irrigation water quality issues. A total of 30 water samples from both cascade systems and Mahaweli system H-7 were analyzed for pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, and chromatic dissolved organic matter using field instruments. A subset of these samples was further analyzed for nitrate and ammonia using colorimetric methods. While the sparse data from our study revealed some interesting trends, it is difficult to extrapolate in detail. Therefore, we compare inferences drawn about the Sri Lanka data to a more detailed analysis of chromatic dissolved organic matter in a Tennessee watershed. This comparison will provide insight into possible interpretations relative to the water quality data collected in Sri Lanka. As Sri Lanka continues to develop its irrigation resources, water quality assessments such as this one are critical for identifying factors limiting paddy production in the country.

  4. Optical Coherence Tomography Compared With Colposcopy for Assessment of Vaginal Epithelial Damage: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Kathleen L.; Stanberry, Lawrence R.; Moench, Thomas R.; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Loza, Melissa L.; Wei, Jingna; Grady, James; Paull, Jeremy; Motamedi, Massoud; Rosenthal, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Colposcopy has been used to detect epithelial damage with vaginal microbicides. In animal models, optical coherence tomography (OCT) provided increased sensitivity over colposcopy in detecting epithelial injury. This randomized double-blinded clinical study compared OCT to colposcopy for the evaluation of epithelial injury in women using placebo or nonoxynol-9. Methods Thirty women aged 18–45 were randomized to use hydroxyethyl cellulose placebo or nonoxynol-9 vaginal gel twice daily for 5.5 days. Imaging with colposcopy and OCT was performed prior to product use, after the last dose, and 1 week later. Colposcopy was graded using standard criteria. OCT images were scored for epithelial integrity based on a published scoring system and measured for epithelial thickness. Results Colposcopy findings and OCT scores and epithelial thicknesses were similar between treatment groups at baseline. After treatment, there were significant differences between the nonoxynol-9 (1.37) and control group (1.15) OCT scores (p<0.001, indicating epithelial injury, and there was epithelial thinning in the nonoxynol-9 group (237μm) compared to the control group (292μm) (p=0.008). There were no significant posttreatment colposcopic differences in epithelial disruption between treatment groups, with only increased erythema noted after nonoxynol-9 use (p=0.02). Conclusion OCT detected epithelial disruption and thinning not identified by colposcopy. Vaginal epithelial thickness, a measure previously available only through biopsy, decreased after nonoxynol-9 use, a finding that may contribute to increased susceptibility to HIV after frequent use. OCT shows promise for the noninvasive clinical assessment of vaginal epithelial damage. Clinical Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm, R000006186. PMID:22105265

  5. QUANTITATIVE CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY USING SHORT-TERM GENETIC BIOASSAYS: THE COMPARATIVE POTENCY METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative risk assessment is fraught with many uncertainties. The validity of the assumptions underlying the methods employed are often difficult to test or validate. Cancer risk assessment has generally employed either human epidemiological data from relatively high occupatio...

  6. Comparative assessment of feature extraction methods for visual odometry in wireless capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Iakovidis, Dimitris K; Niafas, Stavros; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios

    2015-10-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) enables the non-invasive examination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by a swallowable device equipped with a miniature camera. Accurate localization of the capsule in the GI tract enables accurate localization of abnormalities for medical interventions such as biopsy and polyp resection; therefore, the optimization of the localization outcome is important. Current approaches to endoscopic capsule localization are mainly based on external sensors and transit time estimations. Recently, we demonstrated the feasibility of capsule localization based-entirely-on visual features, without the use of external sensors. This technique relies on a motion estimation algorithm that enables measurements of the distance and the rotation of the capsule from the acquired video frames. Towards the determination of an optimal visual feature extraction technique for capsule motion estimation, an extensive comparative assessment of several state-of-the-art techniques, using a publicly available dataset, is presented. The results show that the minimization of the localization error is possible at the cost of computational efficiency. A localization error of approximately one order of magnitude higher than the minimal one can be considered as compromise for the use of current computationally efficient feature extraction techniques. PMID:26073184

  7. Comparative assessment of five potential sites for hydrothermal-magma systems: energy transport

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, H.C.

    1980-09-01

    A comparative assessment of five sites is being prepared as part of a Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) review of thermal regimes for the purpose of scoping areas for future research and drilling activities. This background report: discusses the various energy transport processes likely to be encountered in a hydrothermal-magma system, reviews related literature, discusses research and field data needs, and reviews the sites from an energy transport viewpoint. At least three major zones exist in the magma-hydrothermal transport system: the magma zone, the hydrothermal zone, and the transition zone between the two. Major energy transport questions relate to the nature and existence of these zones and their evolution with time. Additional energy transport questions are concerned with the possible existence of critical state and super-critical state permeable convection in deep geothermal systems. A review of thermal transport models emphasizes the fact that present transport models and computational techniques far outweigh the scarcity and quality of deep field data.

  8. Comparative assessment of methods for the fusion transcripts detection from RNA-Seq data

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shailesh; Vo, Angie Duy; Qin, Fujun; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    RNA-Seq made possible the global identification of fusion transcripts, i.e. “chimeric RNAs”. Even though various software packages have been developed to serve this purpose, they behave differently in different datasets provided by different developers. It is important for both users, and developers to have an unbiased assessment of the performance of existing fusion detection tools. Toward this goal, we compared the performance of 12 well-known fusion detection software packages. We evaluated the sensitivity, false discovery rate, computing time, and memory usage of these tools in four different datasets (positive, negative, mixed, and test). We conclude that some tools are better than others in terms of sensitivity, positive prediction value, time consumption and memory usage. We also observed small overlaps of the fusions detected by different tools in the real dataset (test dataset). This could be due to false discoveries by various tools, but could also be due to the reason that none of the tools are inclusive. We have found that the performance of the tools depends on the quality, read length, and number of reads of the RNA-Seq data. We recommend that users choose the proper tools for their purpose based on the properties of their RNA-Seq data. PMID:26862001

  9. Comparative assessment of bacterial diversity associated with co-occurring eukaryotic hosts of Palk Bay origin.

    PubMed

    Viszwapriya, Dharmaprakash; Aravindraja, Chairmandurai; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2015-06-01

    Epibacterial communities of co-occurring eukaryotic hosts of Palk Bay origin (five seaweed species (Gracilaria sp, Padina sp, Enteromorpha sp, Sargassum sp, and Turbinaria sp) and one seagrass [Cymodaceae sp]) were analyzed for diversity and compared using 16S rRNA based Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis analysis. Diversity index revealed that Turbinaria sp hosts highest bacterial diversity while it was least in Gracilaria sp. The DGGE band profile showed that the epibacterial community differed considerably among the studied species. Statistical assessment using cluster analysis and Non-metric multidimensional scale analysis also authenticated the observed variability. Despite huge overlap, the composition of bacterial community structure differed significantly among the three closely related species namely Sargassum, Turbinaria and Padina. In addition, Enteromorpha and Sargassum, one being chlorophyta and the other phaeophyta showed about 80% similarity in bacterial composition. This differs from the general notion that epibacterial community composition will vary widely depending on the host phyla. The results extended the phenomenon of host specific epibacterial community irrespective of phylogeny and similarity in geographical location. PMID:26155683

  10. Life Cycle Assessment Comparing the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in the Indian Road and Rail Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

    2010-05-01

    This life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel production and use evaluates the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission (not considering land-use change), net energy value (NEV), and net petroleum consumption impacts of substituting Jatropha biodiesel for conventional petroleum diesel in India. Several blends of biodiesel with petroleum diesel are evaluated for the rail freight, rail passenger, road freight, and road-passenger transport sectors that currently rely heavily on petroleum diesel. For the base case, Jatropha cultivation, processing, and use conditions that were analyzed, the use of B20 results in a net reduction in GHG emissions and petroleum consumption of 14% and 17%, respectively, and a NEV increase of 58% compared with the use of 100% petroleum diesel. While the road-passenger transport sector provides the greatest sustainability benefits per 1000 gross tonne kilometers, the road freight sector eventually provides the greatest absolute benefits owing to substantially higher projected utilization by year 2020. Nevertheless, introduction of biodiesel to the rail sector might present the fewest logistic and capital expenditure challenges in the near term. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that the sustainability benefits are maintained under multiple plausible cultivation, processing, and distribution scenarios. However, the sustainability of any individual Jatropha plantation will depend on site-specific conditions.

  11. Assessment of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae-induced Pneumonia using Different Lung Lesion Scoring Systems: a Comparative Review.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Morante, B; Segalés, J; Fraile, L; Pérez de Rozas, A; Maiti, H; Coll, T; Sibila, M

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the primary aetiological agent of swine enzootic pneumonia (EP) and one of the major contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Gross lung lesions in pigs affected by EP consist of cranioventral pulmonary consolidation (CVPC), usually distributed bilaterally in the apical, intermediate, accessory and cranial parts of the diaphragmatic lobes. Several lung scoring methods are currently in place for the evaluation of CVPC. The aims of this study were (1) to review the lung lesion scoring systems used to assess pneumonia associated with M. hyopneumoniae infection, and (2) to evaluate eight of these scoring systems by applying them to the lungs of 76 pigs with experimentally-induced M. hyopneumoniae pneumonia. A significant correlation between all lung lesion scoring systems was observed and the coefficients of determination in a regression analysis were very high between each pair-wise comparison, except for a unique scoring system based on image analysis. A formula of equivalence between lung scoring methods was developed in order to compare the results obtained with these methods. The present review provides a basis for comparison (even retrospectively) of lesions evaluated using different lung scoring systems. PMID:26774274

  12. Assessing evapotranspiration variability in contiguous United States: Comparing the various remote-sensed observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.; Zeng, R.

    2015-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) couples the water cycle and energy budget of hydrological processes. Understanding the components of ET variability and their spatial distribution is essential for improving hydrological simulations, quantifying ET observation uncertainties and supporting water resources management under climate change. Although advances in monitoring hydrological components have been made, how to use various existing observations to obtain a better knowledge about ET variability remains a challenging task. This study adopts a system approach to analyze ET variability in contiguous United States, considering the factors of climatic forcing fluctuations and catchment storage dynamics. We apply an ET variance decomposition framework (Zeng and Cai, 2015) to calculate monthly ET variance based on climatic forcing (i.e., precipitation and potential ET) and GRACE terrestrial storage change data. We quantify the various sources of ET variance, in terms of variances of precipitation, potential ET and terrestrial storage and their covariances, and obtain a spatial map of its primary and secondary controlling factors in the in contiguous United States. Furthermore, the estimated ET variance is compared to two existing ET products (e.g., MODIS-based remote sensing and FLUEXNET-based interpolation). It is found that FLUXNET-based interpolation is systematically smaller than the estimated ET variance with less deviation; while the MODIS-based ET agrees with estimated ET variance with larger uncertainty. The decomposition framework provides not only an independent estimation of ET variance but also a method to assess the uncertainty of existing ET products.

  13. Assessment of hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls as potential xenoestrogens: a QSAR comparative analysis∗.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, P; Myshkin, E; Quigley, P; Faroon, O; Wheeler, J S; Mumtaz, M M; Brennan, R J

    2013-01-01

    Alternative methods, including quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR), are being used increasingly when appropriate data for toxicity evaluation of chemicals are not available. Approximately 40 mono-hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) have been identified in humans. They represent a health and environmental concern because some of them have been shown to have agonist or antagonist interactions with human hormone receptors. This could lead to modulation of steroid hormone receptor pathways and endocrine system disruption. We performed QSAR analyses using available estrogenic activity (human estrogen receptor ER alpha) data for 71 OH-PCBs. The modelling was performed using multiple molecular descriptors including electronic, molecular, constitutional, topological, and geometrical endpoints. Multiple linear regressions and recursive partitioning were used to best fit descriptors. The results show that the position of the hydroxyl substitution, polarizability, and meta adjacent un-substituted carbon pairs at the phenolic ring contribute towards greater estrogenic activity for these chemicals. These comparative QSAR models may be used for predictive toxicity, and identification of health consequences of PCB metabolites that lack empirical data. Such information will help prioritize such molecules for additional testing, guide future basic laboratory research studies, and help the health/risk assessment community understand the complex nature of chemical mixtures. PMID:23557136

  14. A statin a day keeps the doctor away: comparative proverb assessment modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Mizdrak, Anja; Scarborough, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective To model the effect on UK vascular mortality of all adults over 50 years old being prescribed either a statin or an apple a day. Design Comparative proverb assessment modelling study. Setting United Kingdom. Population Adults aged over 50 years. Intervention Either a statin a day for people not already taking a statin or an apple a day for everyone, assuming 70% compliance and no change in calorie consumption. The modelling used routinely available UK population datasets; parameters describing the relations between statins, apples, and health were derived from meta-analyses. Main outcome measure Mortality due to vascular disease. Results The estimated annual reduction in deaths from vascular disease of a statin a day, assuming 70% compliance and a reduction in vascular mortality of 12% (95% confidence interval 9% to 16%) per 1.0 mmol/L reduction in low density lipoprotein cholesterol, is 9400 (7000 to 12 500). The equivalent reduction from an apple a day, modelled using the PRIME model (assuming an apple weighs 100 g and that overall calorie consumption remains constant) is 8500 (95% credible interval 6200 to 10 800). Conclusions Both nutritional and pharmaceutical approaches to the prevention of vascular disease may have the potential to reduce UK mortality significantly. With similar reductions in mortality, a 150 year old health promotion message is able to match modern medicine and is likely to have fewer side effects.

  15. Comparative Assessment of Public Opinion on the Landscape Quality of Two Biosphere Reserves in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowińska-Świerkosz, Barbara; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J.

    2014-09-01

    The European Landscape Convention (2000) obligates European Union countries to identify and implement landscape quality objectives (LQOs) understood as the specification of public expectations and preferences concerning the landscape of a given area, expressed by competent public authorities. The convention emphasizes the important role of local community representatives in this field. In Poland, the implementation of the LQO concept was first undertaken in two regions with radically different landscape characteristics: (1) the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve and (2) the selected protected areas of the Roztocze-Solska Forest, nominated to the rank of a biosphere reserve. The first stage of the presented study was the recognition of public opinion on the quality of key features of landscape, based on a questionnaire ( n = 470). The primary objective of the study was to provide an answer to the following questions: (1) Whether similar social expectations regarding landscape quality exist in spite of radically different landscape characteristics of the regions investigated (landscape quality is understood as spatial arrangement, scenic beauty, and lack of environmental pollution); (2) which landscape features are considered to be most preservation worthy by the representatives of both local communities; and (3) What processes or development impacts pose the greatest threat to the landscape quality of both regions according to the public opinion? The conducted comparative assessment revealed that it is possible to define a set of features fundamental to the quality of both areas and that representatives of local communities pointed out the same threats to the natural and cultural values of both regions investigated.

  16. Comparative toxicology for risk assessment of marine fishes and crustaceans. [Cyprinodon variegatus

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II; Rosen, A.E. )

    1988-05-01

    The goal of this study was to collect data on the effects of chemicals on marine fishes and crustaceans and to evaluate the predictive power of the data for assessing risks to marine resources. The data sets consisted of acute median lethal concentrations (LC{sub 50s}) and chronic maximum acceptable toxicant concentrations (MATCs). They were analyzed with regression models and simple comparisons. The conclusions include the following: (1) the variability found in the marine data was comparable to that found in freshwater data; (2) the standard marine test fish Cyprinodon variegatus appears to be representative of marine fishes; (3) the responses of marine crustaceans are so highly diverse that the concept of a representative crustacean is questionable; (4) mysid and penaeid shrimp appear to be particularly sensitive to toxic chemicals. These conclusions are subject to the constraints of the existing limited data base and should be confirmed by a systematic study of the relative sensitivity of marine organisms to chemicals with diverse modes of action.

  17. [Comparative analysis of two different methods for risk assessment of groundwater pollution: a case study in Beijing plain].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-na; He, Jiang-tao; Ma, Wen-jie; Xu, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater contamination risk assessment has important meaning to groundwater contamination prevention planning and groundwater exploitation potentiality. Recently, UN assessment system and WP assessment system have become the focuses of international research. In both systems, the assessment framework and indices were drawn from five aspects: intrinsic vulnerability, aquifer storage, groundwater quality, groundwater resource protection zone and contamination load. But, the five factors were built up in different ways. In order to expound the difference between the UN and WP assessment systems, and explain the main reasons, the UN and WP assessment systems were applied to Beijing Plain, China. The maps constructed from the UN and WP risk assessment systems were compared. The results showed that both kinds of groundwater contamination risk assessment maps were in accordance with the actual conditions and were similar in spatial distribution trends. However, there was quite significant different in the coverage area at the same level. It also revealed that during the system construction process, the structural hierarchy, relevant overlaying principles and classification method might have effects on the groundwater contamination risk assessment map. UN assessment system and WP assessment system were both suitable for groundwater contamination risk assessment of the plain, however, their emphasis was different. PMID:25898663

  18. A Comparative Analysis between the Assessment Criteria Used to Assess Graduating Teachers at Rustaq College (Oman) and Griffith University (Australia) during the Teaching Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Malki, Moza Abdullah; Weir, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings from a study that compares the assessment criteria used to measure pre-service teachers' professional competencies at Rustaq College of Applied Sciences in Oman, and at Griffith University in Queensland, Australia. The study adopts a discourse analytic approach to deconstruct and critically compare the…

  19. Comparing Assessment Methods as Predictors of Student Learning in an Undergraduate Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorter, Nichole A.; Young, Cynthia Y.

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was designed to determine which assessment method: continuous assessment (in the form of daily in-class quizzes), cumulative assessment (in the form of online homework), or project-based learning, best predicted student learning (dependent upon post-test grades) in an undergraduate mathematics course. Participants included 117…

  20. The Influence of Disciplinary Assessment Patterns on Student Learning: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessop, Tansy; Maleckar, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores disciplinary patterns of assessment and feedback, using data from the Transforming the Experience of Students through Assessment project. Its central research question concerns the effect of disciplinary assessment patterns on student learning. Audit data from 18 degree programmes at 8 UK universities showed variations in…

  1. A Comparative Study on the Practice of Continuous Assessment between Addis Ababa and Unity Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeleke, Aytaged Sisay

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the practice of continuous assessment at Unity University College and Addis Ababa University. It has also investigated constraints instructors say they have been facing in implementing continuous assessment. Students' attitudes about the practice of this assessment mode towards their course achievements were…

  2. Comparing Panelists' Understanding of Standard Setting across Multiple Levels of an Alternate Science Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Mary A.; Lyon, Steven R.; Heh, Peter; Zigmond, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale assessment programs, including alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS), must provide evidence of technical quality and validity. This study provides information about the technical quality of one AA-AAS by evaluating the standard setting for the science component. The assessment was designed to have…

  3. Methodological Challenges in International Comparative Post-Secondary Assessment Programs: Lessons Learned and the Road Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Raffaela; Zahner, Doris; Benjamin, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of student learning outcomes in the tertiary school sector has seen an increase in global popularity in recent years. Measurement instruments that target higher order skills are on the rise, whereas assessments that foster the recall of factual knowledge are declining. The Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes (AHELO)…

  4. In Vitro Comparative Assessment of Mechanical Blood Damage Induced by Different Hemodialysis Treatments.

    PubMed

    Sakota, Ranko; Lodi, Carlo Alberto; Sconziano, Sara Antonia; Beck, Werner; Bosch, Juan P

    2015-12-01

    routinely used dialysis treatments, bloodlines and machines. Although the in vitro measurement of the fHb increase in bovine blood does not allow a prediction of the absolute level of blood mechanical damage or the possible effects in humans, such measurements are valuable for assessing hemolytic harm by performing tests comparing the proposed treatment with existing devices. PMID:25981394

  5. A pathologist-designed imaging system for anatomic pathology signout, teaching, and research.

    PubMed

    Schubert, E; Gross, W; Siderits, R H; Deckenbaugh, L; He, F; Becich, M J

    1994-11-01

    Pathology images are derived from gross surgical specimens, light microscopy, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, molecular diagnostic gels, flow cytometry, image analysis data, and clinical laboratory data in graphic form. We have implemented a network of desktop personal computers (PCs) that allow us to easily capture, store, and retrieve gross and microscopic, anatomic, and research pathology images. System architecture involves multiple image acquisition and retrieval sites and a central file server for storage. The digitized images are conveyed via a local area network to and from image capture or display stations. Acquisition sites consist of a high-resolution camera connected to a frame grabber card in a 486-type personal computer, equipped with 16 MB (Table 1) RAM, a 1.05-gigabyte hard drive, and a 32-bit ethernet card for access to our anatomic pathology reporting system. We have designed a push-button workstation for acquiring and indexing images that does not significantly interfere with surgical pathology sign-out. Advantages of the system include the following: (1) Improving patient care: the availability of gross images at time of microscopic sign-out, verification of recurrence of malignancy from archived images, monitoring of bone marrow engraftment and immunosuppressive intervention after bone marrow/solid organ transplantation on repeat biopsies, and ability to seek instantaneous consultation with any pathologist on the network; (2) enhancing the teaching environment: building a digital surgical pathology atlas, improving the availability of images for conference support, and sharing cases across the network; (3) enhancing research: case study compilation, metastudy analysis, and availability of digitized images for quantitative analysis and permanent/reusable image records for archival study; and (4) other practical and economic considerations: storing case requisition images and hand-drawn diagrams deters the spread of gross room

  6. Alternative and traditional assessments: Their comparative impact on students' attitudes and science learning outcomes. An exploratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Century, Daisy Nelson

    This probing study focused on alternative and traditional assessments, their comparative impacts on students' attitudes and science learning outcomes. Four basic questions were asked: What type of science learning stemming from the instruction can best be assessed by the use of traditional paper-and pencil test? What type of science learning stemming from the instruction can best be assessed by the use of alternative assessment? What are the differences in the types of learning outcomes that can be assessed by the use of paper-pencil test and alternative assessment test? Is there a difference in students' attitude towards learning science when assessment of outcomes is by alternative assessment means compared to traditional means compared to traditional means? A mixed methodology involving quantitative and qualitative techniques was utilized. However, the study was essentially a case study. Quantitative data analysis included content achievement and attitude results, to which non-parametric statistics were applied. Analysis of qualitative data was done as a case study utilizing pre-set protocols resulting in a narrative summary style of report. These outcomes were combined in order to produce conclusions. This study revealed that the traditional method yielded more concrete cognitive content learning than did the alternative assessment. The alternative assessment yielded more psychomotor, cooperative learning and critical thinking skills. In both the alternative and the traditional methods the student's attitudes toward science were positive. There was no significant differences favoring either group. The quantitative findings of no statistically significant differences suggest that at a minimum there is no loss in the use of alternative assessment methods, in this instance, performance testing. Adding the results from the qualitative analysis to this suggests (1) that class groups were more satisfied when alternative methods were employed, and (2) that the two

  7. A Review of the Uses of the Kelly's Repertory Grid Method in Educational Assessment and Comparability Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Martin; Nadas, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Comparability between different educational qualifications is an important issue within policy discourse in the UK. In this context, the comparability of qualification demands has been explored through the use of expert human judgement. The involvement of human judgement in estimating assessment demands has consequences for methodology. This…

  8. A Multimethod Assessment of Juvenile Psychopathy: Comparing the Predictive Utility of the PCL:YV, YPI, and NEO PRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Kimonis, Eva R.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study compares 3 distinct approaches for measuring juvenile psychopathy and their utility for predicting short- and long-term recidivism among a sample of 1,170 serious male juvenile offenders. The assessment approaches compared a clinical interview method (the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version [PCL:YV]; Forth, Kosson, & Hare,…

  9. Assessment of Breast, Brain and Skin Pathological Tissue Using Full Field OCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalimier, Eugénie; Assayag, Osnath; Harms, Fabrice; Boccara, A. Claude

    The aim of this chapter is to assess whether the images of the breast, brain, and skin tissue obtained by FFOCM contain sufficient detail to allow pathologists to make a diagnosis of cancer and other pathologies comparable to what was obtained by conventional histological techniques. More precisely, it is necessary to verify on FFOCM images if it is possible to differentiate a healthy area from a pathological area. The reader interested in other organs or in animal studies may find a large number of 2D or 3D images in the atlas [2].

  10. Observer reliability in assessing placental maturity by histology.

    PubMed Central

    Khong, T Y; Staples, A; Bendon, R W; Chambers, H M; Gould, S J; Knowles, S; Shen-Schwarz, S

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To evaluate the ability of five experienced perinatal pathologists to assess placental maturity reliably by histology. METHODS--Twenty four haematoxylin and eosin slides, six each from placentas of 27, 31, 35, and 39 weeks' gestation, were circulated to five pathologists on three separate occasions. The slides were labelled with the correct or incorrect gestational ages. RESULTS--The mean absolute error over all 360 readings was 2.72 weeks. Only 54% of the slides were assessed within two weeks of the correct gestation. Pathologist tended to overestimate younger gestations and underestimate older gestations. Two, and possibly three, pathologist were influenced by the gestational age state on the label. One pathologist, who did not appear to be influenced by the label, was more accurate in diagnosing gestation of the placentas than other colleagues. CONCLUSIONS--Experienced pathologists can have difficulty in assessing the villous maturity of placentas by histology. They can also be influenced by clinical information provided, such as gestational age. Other observer reliability studies must address the issue of the influence of labelled information on observer variation. A difference in maturation would have to be of a six week magnitude to have a chance of being detected by current methods. This may limit the value of the histological diagnosis of placental dysmaturity as a surrogate marker for uteroplacental ischaemia. PMID:7629287

  11. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Marras, Roberto; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO2 emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in Biganzoli et al. (2014) and from the dolomitic sorbent production plant. The results of the LCA show minor changes in the potential impacts between the two operational modes of the plants. These differences are for 8 impact categories in favour of the new operational mode based on the addition of the dolomitic sorbent, and for 7 impact categories in favour of the traditional operation. A final evaluation was conducted on the potential

  12. Validity assessment of self-reported medication use by comparing to pharmacy insurance claims

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Misuzu; Sato, Yasunori; Nagashima, Kengo; Takahashi, Sho; Hata, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In Japan, an annual health check-up and health promotion guidance programme was established in 2008 in accordance with the Act on Assurance of Medical Care for the Elderly. A self-reported questionnaire on medication use is a required item in this programme and has been used widely, but its validity has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of this questionnaire by comparing self-reported usage to pharmacy insurance claims. Setting This is a population-based validation study. Self-reported medication use for hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemia is the evaluated measurement. Data on pharmacy insurance claims are used as a reference standard. Participants Participants were 54 712 beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance of Chiba City. Primary and secondary outcome measures Sensitivity, specificity and κ statistics of the self-reported medication-use questionnaire for predicting actual prescriptions during 1 month (that of the check-up) and 3 months (that of the check-up and the previous 2 months) were calculated. Results Sensitivity and specificity scores of questionnaire data for predicting insurance claims covering 3 months were, respectively, 92.4% (95% CI 91.9 to 92.8) and 86.4% (95% CI 86.0 to 86.7) for hypertension, 82.6% (95% CI 81.1 to 84.0) and 98.5% (95% CI 98.4 to 98.6) for diabetes, and 86.2% (95% CI 85.5 to 86.8) and 91.0% (95% CI 90.8 to 91.3) for dyslipidaemia. Corresponding κ statistics were 70.9% (95% CI 70.1 to 71.7), 77.1% (95% CI 76.2 to 77.9) and 69.8% (95% CI 68.9 to 70.6). The specificity was significantly higher for questionnaire data covering 3 months compared with data covering 1 month for all 3 conditions. Conclusions Self-reported questionnaire data on medication use had sufficiently high validity for further analyses. Item responses showed close agreement with actual prescriptions, particularly those covering 3 months. PMID:26553839

  13. Analysis of spectra from portable handheld gamma-ray spectrometry for terrain comparative assessment.

    PubMed

    Dias, Flávio; Lima, Marco; Sanjurjo-Sánchez, Jorge; Alves, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Geological characteristics can have impacts on societal development by, e.g., geotechnical issues and radiological hazard levels. Due to urban sprawl, there is an increasing need for detailed geological assessment. In this work are analysed data from portable handheld gamma-ray spectra (K, eU and eTh) obtained in granitic and Silurian metaclastic outcrops as well as in an profile, roughly N-S, on soil covered terrains transecting a mapped contact between these rock types (the profile's northern extremity is at locations mapped as granite). Estimations from gamma-ray spectra were studied by univariate and multivariate analyses. K, eU and eTh values were higher on granite in relation to Silurian metaclastic rocks. The northern extremity of the profile showed clearly higher contents of eTh and this contrast was supported by univariate statistical tools (normality plot and Wilk-Shapiro test; boxplots). A ternary plot with the contribution of the elements to gamma-ray absorbed dose showed the separation of granite from Silurian metaclastic rocks with the former being nearer the eTh vertex. The points in the northern extremity of the profile are nearer the eTh vertex than the other points on the profile. These visual suggestions were supported by hierarchical cluster analysis, which was able to differentiate between granite and metaclastic outcrops and separate portions of the profile located on different terrains. Portable gamma-ray spectrometry showed, hence, the potential to distinguish granite and metaclastic terrains at a scale useful for engineering works. These results can also be useful for a first comparative zoning of radiological hazards (which are higher for granite). PMID:26867098

  14. Comparative assessment of growth and biodegradation potential of soil isolate in the presence of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jilani, Seema

    2013-07-01

    In Pakistan, to increase agricultural production, higher amounts of fertilizers and pesticides are being used. The residues of the applied pesticides stay in the environment and therefore causing contamination of air, water and land. Moreover, agricultural industries are also contributing relatively high quantities of toxic pesticides into the environment. Since most of them have no treatment facilities. These pesticides may be toxic, mutagenic or carcinogenic. They may be bioaccumulated or biomagnified by the biota. Therefore its removal from environmental systems needs special attention. In this study, bacterial isolate, Pseudomonas, designated as IES-Ps-1, was used to assess its potential for pesticide removal from industrial wastewater using the biosimulator (activated sludge process). During experimental studies conducted in the flask as well as in biosimulator, it was observed that IES-Ps-1 grows normally at low concentrations of added insecticides when compared with the control test (without pesticide). However, at high concentrations the microbial count decreased but no death occurred and the culture remained in lag phase. In many cases, the growth of organisms in the presence of the particular substrate serves as an indication about its metabolic potential. However, to confirm these results, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and HPLC analysis were performed. Under aerobic culture conditions using mechanical aerators in biosimulator, almost complete removal of Cypermethrin at 20 mg/L dose occurred during 48 h. The study findings indicate that IES-Ps-1 strain, can be used for the treatment of the pesticide contaminated environment. Such study may be valuable to scientist and engineers, who are trying to develop methods for the treatment of toxic organic waste using the biological treatment process. PMID:23961243

  15. Comparative assessment of growth and biodegradation potential of soil isolate in the presence of pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Jilani, Seema

    2013-01-01

    In Pakistan, to increase agricultural production, higher amounts of fertilizers and pesticides are being used. The residues of the applied pesticides stay in the environment and therefore causing contamination of air, water and land. Moreover, agricultural industries are also contributing relatively high quantities of toxic pesticides into the environment. Since most of them have no treatment facilities. These pesticides may be toxic, mutagenic or carcinogenic. They may be bioaccumulated or biomagnified by the biota. Therefore its removal from environmental systems needs special attention. In this study, bacterial isolate, Pseudomonas, designated as IES-Ps-1, was used to assess its potential for pesticide removal from industrial wastewater using the biosimulator (activated sludge process). During experimental studies conducted in the flask as well as in biosimulator, it was observed that IES-Ps-1 grows normally at low concentrations of added insecticides when compared with the control test (without pesticide). However, at high concentrations the microbial count decreased but no death occurred and the culture remained in lag phase. In many cases, the growth of organisms in the presence of the particular substrate serves as an indication about its metabolic potential. However, to confirm these results, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and HPLC analysis were performed. Under aerobic culture conditions using mechanical aerators in biosimulator, almost complete removal of Cypermethrin at 20 mg/L dose occurred during 48 h. The study findings indicate that IES-Ps-1 strain, can be used for the treatment of the pesticide contaminated environment. Such study may be valuable to scientist and engineers, who are trying to develop methods for the treatment of toxic organic waste using the biological treatment process. PMID:23961243

  16. A preliminary comparative assessment of the meiofaunal communities of Maltese pocket sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotwicki, Lech; Deidun, Alan; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Gianni, Fabrizio

    2014-10-01

    Whilst the macrofaunal communities of Maltese pocket sandy beaches have been extensively studied, the meiofaunal communities of the same beaches are virtually unknown. The main aims of the current study include the acquisition of preliminary data on the occurrence of meiofaunal higher taxa on Maltese pocket sandy beaches, the comparison between the Maltese beach meiofaunal communities with those on other Mediterranean sandy beaches and the assessment of the influence of a selected number of beach physical parameters on the same communities. Seven sandy beaches in the Maltese Islands were sampled during spring 2012, with sediment samples being collected at the Mean Sea Level (mediolittoral zone). Median grain size and sediment organic and water content were measured for each beach. A total of 13 higher meiofaunal taxa were recorded from the Maltese sandy beaches. The meiofaunal abundance ranged between 50 and 1392 individuals/10 cm2, whilst the number of meiofaunal higher taxa recorded at a single sampling station ranged between 5 and 10. Mean grain size and sorting coefficient appeared to have the highest influence on variations in Maltese meiofaunal communities. Based on conducted analysis it is suggested that inter-beach dispersal of meiofaunal propagules for Maltese beaches is restricted to short distances and does not operate over distances exceeding 5-10 km. This in turn results in some degree of compartmentalisation of the same assemblages. The meiofaunal assemblages recorded from the Maltese beaches exhibited comparable densities to those recorded on other Central Mediterranean sandy beaches and no significant differences in community structure at higher taxa level were observed.

  17. A comparative assessment of R. M. Young and tipping bucket rain gauges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Gebo, Norman E.

    1992-01-01

    Rain rates as derived from standard tipping bucket rain gauges have variable integration times corresponding to the interval between bucket tips. For example, the integration time for the Weathertronics rain gauge is given by delta(T) = 15.24/R (min), where R is the rain rate expressed in mm/h and delta(T) is the time between tips expressed in minutes. It is apparent that a rain rate of 1 mm/h has an integration time in excess of 15 minutes. Rain rates larger than 15.24 mm/h will have integration times smaller than 1 minute. The integration time is dictated by the time it takes to fill a small tipping bucket where each tip gives rise to 0.254 mm of rainfall. Hence, a uniform rain rate of 1 mm/h over a 15 minute period will give rise to the same rain rate as 0 mm/h rainfall over the first 14 minutes and 15 mm/h between 14 to 15 minutes from the reference tip. Hence, the rain intensity fluctuations may not be captured with the tipping bucket rain gauge for highly variable rates encompassing lower and higher values over a given integration time. The objective of this effort is to provide an assessment of the features of the R. M. Young capacitive gauge and to compare these features with those of the standard tipping bucket rain gauge. A number of rain rate-time series derived from measurements with approximately co-located gauges are examined.

  18. Thiol-Based Selective Extraction Assay to Comparatively Assess Bioavailable Mercury in Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Ticknor, Jonathan L.; Kucharzyk, Katarzyna H.; Porter, Kaitlyn A.; Deshusses, Marc A.; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bioaccumulation of methylmercury in the aquatic food web is governed in part by the methylation of inorganic divalent mercury (Hg(II)) by anaerobic microorganisms. In sulfidic settings, a small fraction of total Hg(II) is typically bioavailable to methylating microorganisms. Quantification of this fraction is difficult due to uncertainties in the speciation of Hg(II) and the mechanisms of uptake by methylating microbes. However, recent studies have shown that the bioavailable fraction is likely to include a portion of Hg(II) associated with solid phases, that is, nanostructured mercuric sulfides. Moreover, addition of thiols to suspensions of methylating cultures coincides with increased uptake into cells and methylmercury production. Here, we present a thiol-based selective extraction assay to provide information on the bioavailable Hg fraction in sediments. In the procedure, sediment samples were exposed to a nitrogen-purged solution of glutathione (GSH) for 30 min and the amount of GSH-leachable mercury was quantified. In nine sediment samples from a marine location, the relative GSH-leachable mercury concentration was strongly correlated to the relative amount of methylmercury in the sediments (r2=0.91, p<0.0001) across an order of magnitude of methylmercury concentration values. The approach was further applied to anaerobic sediment slurry microcosm experiments in which sediments were cultured under the same microbial growth conditions but were amended with multiple forms of Hg with a known spectrum of bioavailability. GSH-leachable Hg concentrations increased with observed methylmercury concentrations in the microcosms, matching the trend of species bioavailability in our previous work. Results suggest that a thiol-based selective leaching approach is an improvement compared with other proposed methods to assess Hg bioavailability in sediment and that this approach could provide a basis for comparison of sites where Hg methylation is a concern

  19. Assessment of subjective intensity of pain during ultrasonic supragingival calculus removal: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Malagi, Sachin; Pattanshetti, Kirti; Bharmappa, Radhika; Reddy, Annaji Sreedhara; Pai, Jagadish; Joseph, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background: The background of the following study is to measure the subjective intensity of pain using the verbal rating scale (VRS) during supragingival scaling in relation to mandibular anteriors, with an ultrasonic scaler, with 2 different inserts (Slimline and Focus spray)- split mouth study. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 subjects with a combination of 17 males and 13 females with the chronic generalized gingivitis with a minimum calculus score of 1 (CSSI – Ennever J 1961) who reported to Department of Periodontics, Yenepoya Dental College, Mangalore were chosen for the study. Ultrasonic magnetostrictive scaler unit CAVITRON BOBCAT PRO®– (DENTSPLY) with maximum power setting at 130A and 25kHZ frequency with 2 different inserts i.e., Slim line insert and Focus spray (DENTSPLY) were used for supragingival scaling in the study. A VRS was used to assess the subjective intensity of pain. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in pain perception when the scores were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank test. VRS rating scores with slimline inserts showed a pain intensity of 2 in 43.3%, 1 in 53.3% and 0 in 3.3%, whereas the focus spray insert showed a pain intensity of 1 in 23.3% and 0 in 76.7%. Statistical analysis showed a P = 0.251 and a z - 1.147a. Conclusions: The use of both Slim line insert and Focus spray inserts when used at same settings of the scaling unit, showed no statistical significant difference in the intensity of pain perceived and it showed no correlation between patient acceptance and their pain perception. PMID:25210262

  20. Health impact assessment of Roma housing policies in Central and Eastern Europe: A comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, Agnes; Adam, Balazs; Antova, Temenujka; Bosak, Lubos; Dimitrov, Plamen; Mileva, Hristina; Pekarcikova, Jarmila; Zurlyte, Ingrida; Gulis, Gabriel; Adany, Roza; Kosa, Karolina

    2012-02-15

    Marginalised Roma communities in European countries live in substandard housing conditions the improvement of which has been one of the major issues of the Decade of Roma Inclusion, the ongoing intergovernmental European Roma programme. The paper presents EU-funded health impact assessments of national Roma housing policies and programmes in 3 Central and Eastern European countries in light of the evaluation of a completed local project in a fourth CEE country so as to compare predicted effects to observed ones. Housing was predicted to have beneficial health effects by improving indoor and outdoor conditions, access to services, and socioeconomic conditions. Negative impacts were predicted only in terms of maintenance expenses and housing tenure. However, observed impacts of the completed local project did not fully support predictions especially in terms of social networks, satisfaction with housing and neighbourhood, and inhabitant safety. In order to improve the predictive value of HIA, more evidence should be produced by the careful evaluation of locally implemented housing projects. In addition, current evidence is in favour of planning Roma housing projects at the local rather than at the national level in alignment with the principle of subsidiarity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Predictive validity of HIA of national Roma housing policies - in light of current evidence - is low. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implemented housing projects should be comprehensively evaluated to improve reliability of HIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Roma housing projects should be planned at the local rather than at the national level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HIA should be used to plan Roma housing projects at the local level.

  1. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study

    SciTech Connect

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Marras, Roberto; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Two scenarios of acid gases removal in WTE plants were compared in an LCA study. • A detailed inventory based on primary data has been reported for the production of the new dolomitic sorbent. • Results show that the comparison between the two scenarios does not show systematic differences. • The potential impacts are reduced only if there is an increase in the energy efficiency of the WTE plant. - Abstract: The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO{sub 2} emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in

  2. Clinical Assessment of Affective Instability: Comparing EMA Indices, Questionnaire Reports, and Retrospective Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solhan, Marika B.; Trull, Timothy J.; Jahng, Seungmin; Wood, Phillip K.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional self-report measures of psychopathology may be influenced by a variety of recall biases. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reduces these biases by assessing individuals' experiences as they occur in their natural environments. This study examines the discrepancy between trait questionnaire, retrospective report, and EMA measures of…

  3. Using Assessments to Investigate and Compare the Nature of Learning in Undergraduate Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momsen, Jennifer; Offerdahl, Erika; Kryjevskaia, Mila; Montplaisir, Lisa; Anderson, Elizabeth; Grosz, Nate

    2013-01-01

    Assessments and student expectations can drive learning: students selectively study and learn the content and skills they believe critical to passing an exam in a given subject. Evaluating the nature of assessments in undergraduate science education can, therefore, provide substantial insight into student learning. We characterized and compared…

  4. Comparing State High School Assessments to Standards for Success in Entry-Level University Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Richard S.; Conley, David T.

    2007-01-01

    States have moved rapidly over the past 20 years to institute systems of standards and assessments. State assessments in particular take on added importance at the high school level as they are required for graduation by an increasing number of states. Federal legislation mandating testing in high school also serves to increase the stakes and…

  5. Critical Emergency Medicine Procedural Skills: A Comparative Study of Methods for Teaching and Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Dane M.; And Others

    Three critical procedural skills in emergency medicine were evaluated using three assessment modalities--written, computer, and animal model. The effects of computer practice and previous procedure experience on skill competence were also examined in an experimental sequential assessment design. Subjects were six medical students, six residents,…

  6. Assessment Experiences in the Workplace: A Comparative Study between Clinical Educators' and Their Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trede, Franziska; Mischo-Kelling, Maria; Gasser, Eva Maria; Pulcini, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    With this paper, we contribute to the complex field of assessment of student learning in work placements. The complexity includes the dual role of clinical educators as mentors and assessors, students as pre-accredited practitioners and the diverse purposes of assessment. A philosophical hermeneutic approach was adopted to explore the perceptions…

  7. Social impact assessment in mining projects in Northern Finland: Comparing practice to theory

    SciTech Connect

    Suopajärvi, Leena

    2013-09-15

    The paper discusses social impact assessments (SIA) for mining projects in light of the international principles and guidelines for such assessments and the academic literature in the field. The data consist of environmental impact assessment (EIA) programmes and reports for six mining projects that have started up in northern Finland in the 2000s. A first observation is that the role of the SIAs in the EIA programmes and reports studied was quite minor: measured in number of pages, the assessments account for three or four percent of the total. This study analyses the data collection, research methodology and conceptual premises used in the SIAs. It concludes that the assessments do not fully meet the high standards of the international principles and guidelines set out for them: for example, elderly men are over-represented in the data and no efforts were made to identify and bring to the fore vulnerable groups. Moreover, the reliability of the assessments is difficult to gauge, because the qualitative methods are not described and where quantitative methods were used, details such as non-response rates to questionnaires are not discussed. At the end of the paper, the SIAs are discussed in terms of Jürgen Habermas' theory of knowledge interests, with the conclusion that the assessments continue the empirical analytical tradition of the social sciences and exhibit a technical knowledge interest. -- Highlights: • Paper investigates social impact assessments in Finnish mining projects. • Role of social impact assessment is minor in whole EIA-process. • Mining SIAs give the voice for elderly men, vulnerable groups are not identified. • Assessment of SIAs is difficult because of lacking transparency in reporting. • SIAs belong to empirical analytical tradition with technical knowledge interest.

  8. Preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative electric energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsom, D. E.; Wolsko, T.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the satellite power system (SPS), other solar technologies, and alternative electric energy technologies was conducted. The alternative technologies are coal gasification/combined-cycle, coal fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), light water reactor (LWR), liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), terrestrial photovoltaics (TPV), solar thermal electric (STE), and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The major issues of a land use assessment are the quantity, purpose, duration, location, and costs of the required land use. The phased methodology described treats the first four issues, but not the costs. Several past efforts are comparative or single technology assessment are reviewed briefly. The current state of knowledge about land use is described for each technology. Conclusions are drawn regarding deficiencies in the data on comparative land use and needs for further research.

  9. Preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative electric energy technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, D. E.; Wolsko, T.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the satellite power system (SPS), other solar technologies, and alternative electric energy technologies was conducted. The alternative technologies are coal gasification/combined-cycle, coal fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), light water reactor (LWR), liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), terrestrial photovoltaics (TPV), solar thermal electric (STE), and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The major issues of a land use assessment are the quantity, purpose, duration, location, and costs of the required land use. The phased methodology described treats the first four issues, but not the costs. Several past efforts are comparative or single technology assessment are reviewed briefly. The current state of knowledge about land use is described for each technology. Conclusions are drawn regarding deficiencies in the data on comparative land use and needs for further research.

  10. COMPARATIVE POTENCY OF COMPLEX MIXTURES: USE OF SHORT-TERM GENETIC BIOASSAYS IN CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary problem regarding the introduction of new energy sources is whether they will alter the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and potential human cancer risk from combustion emissions. New risk assessment methodologies utilizing data from short-term bioassays, therefore, are ...

  11. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TWO DISTRIBUTED WATERSHED MODELS WITH APPLICATION TO A SMALL WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distributed watershed models are beneficial tools for assessment of management practices on runoff and water-induced erosion. This paper evaluates, by application to an experimental watershed, two promising distributed watershed-scale sediment models in detail: The Kinematic Runo...

  12. Universal Design for Learning: speech-language pathologists and their teams making the common core curriculum accessible.

    PubMed

    Staskowski, Maureen; Hardin, Susan; Klein, Mike; Wozniak, Carrie

    2012-05-01

    The Universal Design for Learning (UDL) framework was named in the supporting documents for the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) as a means of helping all students, especially those with disabilities, to meet and exceed the rigorous expectations. This article will describe the principles of UDL, show how educational teams use the framework to design instruction to teach the CCSS with examples from science and English language arts, and finally explore how the implementation of UDL provides an opportunity for speech-language pathologists to play a critical role in school improvement and instructional design and support. PMID:22538708

  13. Programmed Death Ligand-1 Immunohistochemistry--A New Challenge for Pathologists: A Perspective From Members of the Pulmonary Pathology Society.

    PubMed

    Sholl, Lynette M; Aisner, Dara L; Allen, Timothy Craig; Beasley, Mary Beth; Borczuk, Alain C; Cagle, Philip T; Capelozzi, Vera; Dacic, Sanja; Hariri, Lida; Kerr, Keith M; Lantuejoul, Sylvie; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Raparia, Kirtee; Rekhtman, Natasha; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Thunnissen, Eric; Tsao, Ming Sound; Yatabe, Yasushi

    2016-04-01

    The binding of programmed death ligand-1 and ligand-2 (PD-L1 and PD-L2) to PD-1 blocks T-cell-mediated immune response to tumor. Antibodies that target programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) will block the ligand-receptor interface, thereby allowing T cells to attack the tumor and increase antitumor immune response. In clinical trials, PD-1 inhibitors have been associated with an approximately 20% overall response rate in unselected patients with non-small cell lung cancer, with sustained tumor response in a subset of patients treated by these immune checkpoint inhibitors. Facing a proliferation of PD-L1 immunohistochemistry clones, staining platforms, and scoring criteria, the pathologist must decide on the feasibility of introducing a newly approved companion diagnostic assay that may require purchase not only of a specific antibody kit but of a particular staining platform. Given the likely reality that clinical practice may, in the near future, demand access to 4 different PD-L1 antibodies coupled with different immunohistochemistry platforms, laboratories will be challenged with deciding among this variety of testing methods, each with its own potential benefits. Another immediate challenge to PD-L1 testing in lung cancer patients is that of access to adequate tumor tissue, given that non-small cell lung cancer samples are often extremely limited in size. With PD-L1 testing it has become clear that the historically used US regulatory approach of one assay-one drug will not be sustainable. One evolving concept is that of complementary diagnostics, a novel regulatory pathway initiated by the US Food and Drug Administration, which is distinct from companion diagnostics in that it may present additional flexibility. Although pathologists need to face the practical reality that oncologists will be asking regularly for the PD-L1 immunohistochemistry status of their patients' tumors, we should also keep in mind that there may be room for improvement of biomarkers for

  14. Overview of the Common Core State Standard initiative and educational reform movement from the vantage of speech-language pathologists.

    PubMed

    Staskowski, Maureen

    2012-05-01

    Educational reform is sweeping the country. The adoption and the implementation of the Common Core State Standards in almost every state are meant to transform education. It is intended to update the way schools educate, the way students learn, and to ultimately prepare the nation's next generation for the global workplace. This article will describe the Common Core State Standard initiative and the underlying concerns about the quality of education in the United States as well as the opportunities this reform initiative affords speech-language pathologists. PMID:22538706

  15. The Best and Worst Times of Life: Narratives and Assessments of Subjective Well-Being by Anamnestic Comparative Self Assessment (ACSA) in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Valerie; Theuns, Peter; Erstad, Ida; Bernheim, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The Anamnestic Comparative Self Assessment (ACSA) measure of subjective well-being (SWB) aims to reduce the problems of cultural bias and relativity to external standards by allowing people to define the endpoints or "anchors" of the measurement scale. In medical terminology anamnestic denotes "based on memory". The ACSA uses subjects' memories of…

  16. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Dorne, J.L.C.M.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ► Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ► Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ► Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ► Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

  17. Data supporting the comparative life cycle assessment of different municipal solid waste management scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Ali Rajaeifar, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Ghanavati, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Environmental assessment of municipal solid waste (MSW) management scenarios would help to select eco-friendly scenarios. In this study, the inventory data in support of life cycle assessment of different MSW are presented. The scenarios were defined as: anaerobic digestion (AD, Sc-0), landfilling combined with composting (Sc-1), incineration (Sc-2), incineration combined with composting (Sc-3), and AD combined with incineration (Sc-4). The current article contains flowcharts of the different scenarios. Additionally, six supplementary files including inventory data on the different scenarios, data on the different damage assessment categories, normalization, and single scores are presented (Supplementary files 1–6). The analysis of the different scenarios revealed that the most eco-friendly scenario to be implemented in the future would be the combination of AD and incineration (Sc-4). PMID:26217743

  18. International Comparative Studies in Education: Descriptions of Selected Large-Scale Assessments and Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.

    Since its inception in 1988, the Board on International Comparative Studies in Education (BICSE) has monitored U.S. participation in those cross national comparative studies in education that are funded by its sponsors, the National Science Foundation and the National Center for Education Statistics. This set of international study descriptions…

  19. Interdependency between Risk Assessments for Self and Other in the Field of Comparative Optimism: The Contribution of Response Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzenstetter, Florence; Schimchowitsch, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    By introducing a response-time measure in the field of comparative optimism, this study was designed to explore how people estimate risk to self and others depending on the evaluation order (self/other or other/self). Our results show the interdependency between self and other answers. Indeed, while response time for risk assessment for the self…

  20. Assessing Traumatic Event Exposure: Comparing the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire to the Structured Clinical Interview for "DSM-IV"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peirce, Jessica M.; Burke, Christopher K.; Stoller, Kenneth B.; Neufeld, Karin J.; Brooner, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis requires first identifying a traumatic event, but very few studies have evaluated methods of potential traumatic event assessment and their impact on PTSD diagnosis. The authors compared a behaviorally specific comprehensive multiple-item traumatic event measure with a single-item measure to…

  1. Does Time Matter? Comparing Trajectory Concordance and Covariate Association Using Time-Based and Age-Based Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquero, Alex R.; Monahan, Kathryn C.; Glasheen, Cristie; Schubert, Carol A.; Mulvey, Edward P.

    2013-01-01

    Much criminological research has used longitudinal data to assess change in offending over time. An important feature of some data sources is that they contain cross-sections of different aged individuals followed over successive time periods, thereby potentially conflating age and time. This article compares the substantive conclusions about the…

  2. Measurement Comparability of Paper-and-Pencil and Multimedia Vocational Assessments. ACT Research Report Series 99-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Jane G.; Luzzo, Darrell Anthony

    The purpose of this study was to determine the measurement comparability of paper-and-pencil and multimedia versions of two career assessment components in the DISCOVER multimedia career and education planning system. Students in grade 9 (N=606) and 11 (N=416) completed paper-and-pencil and Compact Disc-interactive (CD-i) versions of the Unisex…

  3. Program Outcomes Assessment in Higher Education Hospitality Management Programs: A Qualitative Comparative Case Study of Learning Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, John George

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, comparative case study was to determine the extent to which learning and improvement cultures were perceived to be linked to the traditional and non-traditional accreditation and Program Outcomes Assessment paradigms in use in two university hospitality programs. The findings of this study revealed that the…

  4. A Comparative Assessment of Computer Literacy of Private and Public Secondary School Students in Lagos State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osunwusi, Adeyinka Olumuyiwa; Abifarin, Michael Segun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative assessment of computer literacy of private and public secondary school students. Although the definition of computer literacy varies widely, this study treated computer literacy in terms of access to, and use of, computers and the internet, basic knowledge and skills required to use computers and…

  5. Developing Instruments to Assess and Compare the Quality of Engineering Education: The Case of China and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kardanova, Elena; Loyalka, Prashant; Chirikov, Igor; Liu, Lydia; Li, Guirong; Wang, Huan; Enchikova, Ekaterina; Shi, Henry; Johnson, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little is known about differences in the quality of engineering education within and across countries because of the lack of valid instruments that allow for the assessment and comparison of engineering students' skill gains. The purpose of our study is to develop and validate instruments that can be used to compare student skill gains…

  6. COMPARABILITY OF A REGIONAL AND STATE SURVEY: EFFECTS ON FISH IBI ASSESSMENT FOR WEST VIRGINIA, U.S.A.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The comparability of different survey designs needs to be established to facilitate integration of data across scales and interpretation of trends over time. Probability-based survey designs are now being investigated to allow condition to be assessed at the watershed scale, an...

  7. Comparative assessment of the metal load in the bays and inlets of Murmansk coast by the metal pollution index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obluchinskaya, E. D.; Aleshina, E. G.; Matishov, D. G.

    2013-02-01

    Comparative assessment of pollution by metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe, and As) was performed for the first time for the bays and inlets of the Murmansk coast of the Barents Sea; the international Metal Pollution Index (MPI) was applied for the fucoids. The background pollution was assessed for each studied element by MPI in the fucoids taking into account the seawater salinity. It was found that the MPI index calculated for fucoids might be recommended for the qualitative assessment of the metal pollution level with regard to the water salinity for both the studied sampling sites and the natural environment. The comparative monitoring of Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe, and As concentrations in the bays and inlets of the Murmansk coast of the Barents Sea using MPI evidenced that Pechenga Inlet was the most polluted area; Korabel'naya Inlet was the least polluted, which reflected the existing level of the anthropogenic load.

  8. Comparing Assessments of Students' Knowledge by Computerized Open-Ended and Multiple-Choice Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anbar, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Interactive computerized tests accepting unrestricted natural-language input were used to assess knowledge of clinical biophysics at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Comparison of responses to open-ended sequential questions and multiple-choice questions on the same material found the two formats test different aspects of competence.…

  9. Comparing Direct and Semi-Direct Modes for Speaking Assessment: Affective Effects on Test Takers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, David D.

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades, with an increasing application of computer technology to the delivery of oral language proficiency assessment, there have been renewed debates over the appropriateness of two different testing modes, namely, (a) face-to-face, or direct, testing, and (b) person-to-machine, or semi-direct, testing. Previous research conducted in…

  10. Fatigue Life Assessment of 65Si7 Leaf Springs: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Vinkel Kumar; Bhushan, Gian; Aggarwal, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    The experimental fatigue life prediction of leaf springs is a time consuming process. The engineers working in the field of leaf springs always face a challenge to formulate alternate methods of fatigue life assessment. The work presented in this paper provides alternate methods for fatigue life assessment of leaf springs. A 65Si7 light commercial vehicle leaf spring is chosen for this study. The experimental fatigue life and load rate are determined on a full scale leaf spring testing machine. Four alternate methods of fatigue life assessment have been depicted. Firstly by SAE spring design manual approach the fatigue test stroke is established and by the intersection of maximum and initial stress the fatigue life is predicted. The second method constitutes a graphical method based on modified Goodman's criteria. In the third method codes are written in FORTRAN for fatigue life assessment based on analytical technique. The fourth method consists of computer aided engineering tools. The CAD model of the leaf spring has been prepared in solid works and analyzed using ANSYS. Using CAE tools, ideal type of contact and meshing elements have been proposed. The method which provides fatigue life closer to experimental value and consumes less time is suggested. PMID:27379327

  11. Fatigue Life Assessment of 65Si7 Leaf Springs: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Arora, Vinkel Kumar; Bhushan, Gian; Aggarwal, M L

    2014-01-01

    The experimental fatigue life prediction of leaf springs is a time consuming process. The engineers working in the field of leaf springs always face a challenge to formulate alternate methods of fatigue life assessment. The work presented in this paper provides alternate methods for fatigue life assessment of leaf springs. A 65Si7 light commercial vehicle leaf spring is chosen for this study. The experimental fatigue life and load rate are determined on a full scale leaf spring testing machine. Four alternate methods of fatigue life assessment have been depicted. Firstly by SAE spring design manual approach the fatigue test stroke is established and by the intersection of maximum and initial stress the fatigue life is predicted. The second method constitutes a graphical method based on modified Goodman's criteria. In the third method codes are written in FORTRAN for fatigue life assessment based on analytical technique. The fourth method consists of computer aided engineering tools. The CAD model of the leaf spring has been prepared in solid works and analyzed using ANSYS. Using CAE tools, ideal type of contact and meshing elements have been proposed. The method which provides fatigue life closer to experimental value and consumes less time is suggested. PMID:27379327

  12. Performance-Based Assessment in an Online Course: Comparing Different Types of Information Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mery, Yvonne; Newby, Jill; Peng, Ke

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether the type of instruction (a single face-to-face librarian-led instruction, instructor-led instruction, or an online IL course--the Online Research Lab) has an impact on student information literacy gains in a Freshman English Composition program. A performance-based assessment was carried out by analyzing…

  13. A Comparative Assessment of Higher Education Financing in Six Arab Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Araby, Ashraf

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the policies for financing higher education in six Arab countries: Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, and Tunisia. It assesses the adequacy of spending on higher education, the efficiency with which resources are utilized, and the equity implications of resource allocations. Based on six detailed case studies, this…

  14. The Validity and Value of Peer Assessment Using Adaptive Comparative Judgement in Design Driven Practical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seery, Niall; Canty, Donal; Phelan, Pat

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the response of the technology teacher education programmes at the University of Limerick to the assessment challenge created by the shift in philosophy of the Irish national curriculum from a craft-based focus to design-driven education. This study observes two first year modules of the undergraduate programmes that focused on…

  15. Returns to Education in the Economic Transition: A Systematic Assessment Using Comparable Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flabbi, Luca; Paternostro, Stefano; Tiongson, Erwin R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies a sample of economies in transition to verify the assertion that returns to schooling increase as an economy transitions to a market environment. This claim has been difficult to assess in the past as the empirical evidence so far has covered only a few countries over short time periods. A number of studies find that returns to…

  16. Does Participation in Citizen Science Improve Scientific Literacy? A Study to Compare Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronje, Ruth; Rohlinger, Spencer; Crall, Alycia; Newman, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of a contextually sensitive instrument to assess the effect of invasive species monitoring training on the scientific literacy of citizen volunteers. The authors measured scientific literacy scores before and after 57 citizens participated in a 2-day event to learn to monitor invasive species with an instrument…

  17. Assessment of Higher Education Personnel: Comparative Study of France and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    The requirement to assess public employees is increasing within European public services. Dictated by budgetary imperatives and performance improvement concerns, it is becoming the norm in all administrations. One of the most sensitive areas of application is undoubtedly higher education. The traditional independence and autonomy of the academic…

  18. Validity of electronic assessment methods compared to RD analysis of diet records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment of dietary intake by diet records (DR) is a standard research and practice tool. However, manual entry and analysis of DR is time-consuming. New electronic tools for diet entry by clients and research participants may reduce the RD effort spent in diet entry. In order to determine the ...

  19. ASSESSING THE RISK ASSOCIATED WITH MERCURY: USING REVA'S WEBTOOL TO COMPARE DATA, ASSUMPTIONS, AND MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The problem of assessing risk from mercury across the nation is extremely complex involving integration of I) our understanding of the methylation process in ecosystems, 2) the identification and spatial distribution of sensitive populations, and 3) the spatial pattern of mercury...

  20. Phosphorus Concentrations in Stream-Water and Reference Samples - An Assessment of Laboratory Comparability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHale, Michael R.; McChesney, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, a study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and precision of 10 laboratories that analyze water-quality samples for phosphorus concentrations in the Catskill Mountain region of New York State. Many environmental studies in this region rely on data from these different laboratories for water-quality analyses, and the data may be used in watershed modeling and management decisions. Therefore, it is important to determine whether the data reported by these laboratories are of comparable accuracy and precision. Each laboratory was sent 12 samples for triplicate analysis for total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus, and soluble reactive phosphorus. Eight of these laboratories reported results that met comparability criteria for all samples; the remaining two laboratories met comparability criteria for only about half of the analyses. Neither the analytical method used nor the sample concentration ranges appeared to affect the comparability of results. The laboratories whose results were comparable gave consistently comparable results throughout the concentration range analyzed, and the differences among methods did not diminish comparability. All laboratories had high data precision as indicated by sample triplicate results. In addition, the laboratories consistently reported total phosphorus values greater than total dissolved phosphorus values, and total dissolved phosphorus values greater than soluble reactive phosphorus values, as would be expected. The results of this study emphasize the importance of regular laboratory participation in sample-exchange programs.

  1. Update for the practicing pathologist: The International Consultation On Urologic Disease-European association of urology consultation on bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Amin, Mahul B; Smith, Steven C; Reuter, Victor E; Epstein, Jonathan I; Grignon, David J; Hansel, Donna E; Lin, Oscar; McKenney, Jesse K; Montironi, Rodolfo; Paner, Gladell P; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A; Algaba, Ferran; Ali, Syed; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Bubendorf, Lukas; Cheng, Liang; Cheville, John C; Kristiansen, Glen; Cote, Richard J; Delahunt, Brett; Eble, John N; Genega, Elizabeth M; Gulmann, Christian; Hartmann, Arndt; Langner, Cord; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Merce, Jorda; Netto, George J; Oliva, Esther; Rao, Priya; Ro, Jae Y; Srigley, John R; Tickoo, Satish K; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Umar, Saleem A; Van der Kwast, Theo; Young, Robert H; Soloway, Mark S

    2015-05-01

    The International Consultations on Urological Diseases are international consensus meetings, supported by the World Health Organization and the Union Internationale Contre le Cancer, which have occurred since 1981. Each consultation has the goal of convening experts to review data and provide evidence-based recommendations to improve practice. In 2012, the selected subject was bladder cancer, a disease which remains a major public health problem with little improvement in many years. The proceedings of the 2nd International Consultation on Bladder Cancer, which included a 'Pathology of Bladder Cancer Work Group,' have recently been published; herein, we provide a summary of developments and consensus relevant to the practicing pathologist. Although the published proceedings have tackled a comprehensive set of issues regarding the pathology of bladder cancer, this update summarizes the recommendations regarding selected issues for the practicing pathologist. These include guidelines for classification and grading of urothelial neoplasia, with particular emphasis on the approach to inverted lesions, the handling of incipient papillary lesions frequently seen during surveillance of bladder cancer patients, descriptions of newer variants, and terminology for urine cytology reporting. PMID:25412849

  2. Rudolf Virchow, not just a pathologist: a re-examination of the report on the typhus epidemic in Upper Silesia.

    PubMed

    Azar, H A

    1997-10-01

    Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) is mainly remembered as the "father" of cellular pathology; however, he was not just a pathologist. His contributions to anthropology, archeology, ethnography, and history, as well as his involvement in epidemiology, public health, and politics, portray a man with multiple interests, deeply engaged in the controversies of his time. In his Report on the Typhus Epidemics of Upper Silesia of 1848, the young Virchow reveals himself to be a self-assured pathologist, although his postmortem examinations failed to shed much light on typhus. Despite of his shortcomings and biases, Virchow's genius is revealed in his deep appreciation of the importance of the total physical, socio-cultural, economic, and political background of epidemic diseases. One can discern in the Report the making of Virchow, the politician and statesman who will contribute to the modernization of Germany's public health, and of the physician-scholar and physician-citizen who, despite of his shortcomings and militancy, continues to inspire and challenge us today. PMID:9869827

  3. Array Comparative Genomic Hybridizations: Assessing the ability to recapture evolutionary relationships using an in silico approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) with DNA microarrays has many biological applications including surveys of copy number changes in tumorigenesis, species detection and identification, and functional genomics studies among related organisms. Array CGH has also been used to infer phylogenetic r...

  4. A Comparative Study of Risk Appraisal: A New Look at Risk Assessment in Different Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Laurence; Worthley, Reginald

    1999-01-01

    Examines perceived risk data from the United States, China, Japan, and South Korea. Compares similar results collected from previous studies. Analyzes psychometric scaling scores from Burkina Faso, France, Norway, and Hungary. (Author/CCM)

  5. ASSESSMENT OF THE REPRODUCTIVE AXIS: COMPARING CRITICAL PERIODS OF HORMONE SENSITIVITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) have been developed as a model species to compare the effects of endocrine active chemicals at critical life-stage periods of hormonal sensitivity, specifically as reproductively active adults, during the developmental period of differentiation, ...

  6. Methodology for the comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolsko, T.; Buehring, W.; Cirillo, R.; Gasper, J.; Habegger, L.; Hub, K.; Newsom, D.; Samsa, M.; Stenehjem, E.; Whitfield, R.

    1980-01-01

    The energy systems concerned are the satellite power system, several coal technologies, geothermal energy, fission, fusion, terrestrial solar systems, and ocean thermal energy conversion. Guidelines are suggested for the characterization of these systems, side-by-side analysis, alternative futures analysis, and integration and aggregation of data. A description of the methods for assessing the technical, economic, environmental, societal, and institutional issues surrounding the development of the selected energy technologies is presented.

  7. [Comparative assessment of inhalation anesthesia with sevofluran and intravenous anesthesia with propofol for carotid endarterectomy].

    PubMed

    Neĭmark, M I; Shmelev, V V; Simagin, V Iu

    2009-01-01

    Total intravenous anesthesia with propofol and inhalation sevofluran was assessed in 130 patients with carotid endarterectomy. The parameters of brain blood circulation, brain damage markers were studied. It was shown that sevofluran anesthesia caused less depression of the hemodynamic parameters, supported more optimum level of brain blood flow that limited ischemic and reperfusion damage of the brain and was accompanied by a fewer number of postoperative complications. PMID:20209996

  8. Comparing food intake using the Dietary Risk Assessment with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls and the 7-Day Dietary Recall.

    PubMed

    Olendzki, B; Hurley, T G; Hebert, J R; Ellis, S; Merriam, P A; Luippold, R; Rider, L; Ockene, I S

    1999-11-01

    The Dietary Risk Assessment (DRA) is a brief dietary assessment tool used to identify dietary behaviors associated with cardiovascular disease. Intended for use by physicians and other nondietitians, the DRA identifies healthful and problematic dietary behaviors and alerts the physician to patients who require further nutrition counseling. To determine the relative validity of this tool, we compared it to the 7-Day Dietary Recall (an instrument developed to assess intake of dietary fat) and to the average of 7 telephone-administered 24-hour dietary recalls. Forty-two free-living subjects were recruited into the study. The 7-Day Dietary Recall and DRA were administered to each subject twice, at the beginning and the end of the study period, and the 24-hour recalls were conducted during the intervening time period. Correlation coefficients were computed to compare the food scores derived from the 3 assessment methods. Correlations between the DRA and 7-Day Dietary Recall data were moderate (r = .47, on average, for postmeasures); correlations between the DRA and 24-hour recalls were lower. The ability of the DRA to assess dietary fat consumption and ease of administration make it a clinically useful screening instrument for the physician when counseling patients about dietary fat reduction. PMID:10570682

  9. An initial comparative assessment of orbital and terrestrial central power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caputo, R.

    1977-01-01

    Orbital solar power plants, which beam power to earth by microwave, are compared with ground-based solar and conventional baseload power plants. Candidate systems were identified for three types of plants and the selected plant designs were then compared on the basis of economic and social costs. The representative types of plant selected for the comparison are: light water nuclear reactor; turbines using low BTU gas from coal; central receiver with steam turbo-electric conversion and thermal storage; silicon photovoltaic power plant without tracking and including solar concentration and redox battery storage; and silicon photovoltaics.

  10. Characterization of alternative electric generation technologies for the SPS comparative assessment: volume 2, central-station technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program includes a comparative assessment. An early first step in the assessment process is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies. This document describes the cost and performance (i.e., technical and environmental) characteristics of six central station energy alternatives: (1) conventional coal-fired powerplant; (2) conventional light water reactor (LWR); (3) combined cycle powerplant with low-Btu gasifiers; (4) liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR); (5) photovoltaic system without storage; and (6) fusion reactor.

  11. Psychological Distress in Out-Patients Assessed for Chronic Pain Compared to Those with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rice, D; Mehta, S; Shapiro, A; Pope, J; Harth, M; Morley-Forster, P; Sequeira, K; Teasell, R

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients diagnosed with chronic pain (CP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) represent two samples with overlapping symptoms, such as experiencing significant pain. Objectives. To compare the level of psychological distress among patients diagnosed CP attending a specialist pain clinic with those attending a specialist RA clinic. Measures. A cross-sectional study was conducted at an academic specialist chronic pain and rheumatology clinic. Participants. 330 participants included a CP group (n = 167) and a RA group (n = 163) completed a booklet of questionnaires regarding demographic characteristics, duration, and severity of their pain. Psychological and personality variables were compared between the CP and RA participants using a Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA). Results. Level of psychological distress based on the subscales of the DASS (depression, anxiety, and stress), PASS (escape avoidance, cognitive anxiety, fear of pain, and physiological anxiety), and PCS (rumination, magnification, and helplessness) was significantly higher in the CP group compared to the RA group. Categorization of individuals based on DASS severity resulted in significant differences in rates of depression and anxiety symptoms between groups, with a greater number of CP participants displaying more severe depressive and anxiety symptoms. Discussion and Conclusions. This study found greater levels of psychological distress among CP individuals referred to an academic pain clinic when compared to RA patients referred to an academic rheumatology clinic. PMID:27445623

  12. The Development of Community-Based Health Information Exchanges: A Comparative Assessment of Organizational Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation research was to critically examine the development of community-based health information exchanges (HIEs) and to comparatively analyze the various models of exchanges in operation today nationally. Specifically this research sought to better understand several aspects of HIE: policy influences, organizational…

  13. Psychological Distress in Out-Patients Assessed for Chronic Pain Compared to Those with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rice, D.; Mehta, S.; Shapiro, A.; Pope, J.; Harth, M.; Morley-Forster, P.; Sequeira, K.; Teasell, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients diagnosed with chronic pain (CP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) represent two samples with overlapping symptoms, such as experiencing significant pain. Objectives. To compare the level of psychological distress among patients diagnosed CP attending a specialist pain clinic with those attending a specialist RA clinic. Measures. A cross-sectional study was conducted at an academic specialist chronic pain and rheumatology clinic. Participants. 330 participants included a CP group (n = 167) and a RA group (n = 163) completed a booklet of questionnaires regarding demographic characteristics, duration, and severity of their pain. Psychological and personality variables were compared between the CP and RA participants using a Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA). Results. Level of psychological distress based on the subscales of the DASS (depression, anxiety, and stress), PASS (escape avoidance, cognitive anxiety, fear of pain, and physiological anxiety), and PCS (rumination, magnification, and helplessness) was significantly higher in the CP group compared to the RA group. Categorization of individuals based on DASS severity resulted in significant differences in rates of depression and anxiety symptoms between groups, with a greater number of CP participants displaying more severe depressive and anxiety symptoms. Discussion and Conclusions. This study found greater levels of psychological distress among CP individuals referred to an academic pain clinic when compared to RA patients referred to an academic rheumatology clinic.

  14. A Two-Step Model for Assessing Relative Interest in E-Books Compared to Print

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Librarians often wish to know whether readers in a particular discipline favor e-books or print books. Because print circulation and e-book usage statistics are not directly comparable, it can be hard to determine the relative interest of readers in the two types of books. This study demonstrates a two-step method by which librarians can assess…

  15. Assessing Intellectual Functioning in Young Adolescents: How Do the WISC-IV and SB5 Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kimberley; Gilmore, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and the Stanford-Binet--Fifth Edition (SB5) are two of the most commonly used intelligence tests for children and adolescents. No comparative studies of the WISC-IV and SB5 have yet been published. In the current study the WISC-IV and SB5 were administered in counterbalanced…

  16. A SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOR EVALUATING COMPARATIVE RISK IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are significant scientific and technological challenges to managing natural resources. Data needs are cited as an obvious limitation, but there exist more fundamental scientific issues. What is still needed is a method of comparing management strategies based on projected i...

  17. COMPARATIVE POTENCY METHOD FOR CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT: APPLICATION TO DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An estimation of the human lung cancer 'unit risk' from diesel engine particulate emissions has been made using a comparative potency approach. This approach involves evaluating the tumorigenic and mutagenic potencies of the particlates from four diesel and one gasoline engine in...

  18. TRANSPORTATION FUEL FROM CELLULOSIC BIOMASS: A COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF ETHANOL AND METHANOL OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Future sources of renewable fuel energy will be needed to supplement or displace petroleum. Biomass can be converted to ethanol or methanol, either having good properties as motor fuel, but distinctly different production technology. Those technologies are compared in terms of ...

  19. Assessing and Enhancing Visualization Skills of Engineering Students in Africa: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Holly K.; John, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Visualization skills are believed to be a strong indicator of success in engineering, science, and a variety of other careers. Previous studies have compared the visualization skills of first year engineering students in the US with their cohorts in Europe and Brazil, but to date there have been no data reported for developing countries in Africa.…

  20. Stress Levels of Agricultural Science Cooperating Teachers and Student Teachers: A Repeated Measures Comparative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Billy R.; Rayfield, John; Harlin, Julie; Adams, Andy

    2013-01-01

    This study compared job stress levels of Texas agricultural science cooperating teachers and Texas agricultural science student teachers across a semester. The research objectives included describing secondary agricultural science cooperating teachers and student teachers perceptions of stressors, by time of semester (beginning, middle, and end),…

  1. Comparing the MMPI-2 Scale Scores of Parents Involved in Parental Competency and Child Custody Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resendes, John; Lecci, Len

    2012-01-01

    MMPI-2 scores from a parent competency sample (N = 136 parents) are compared with a previously published data set of MMPI-2 scores for child custody litigants (N = 508 parents; Bathurst et al., 1997). Independent samples t tests yielded significant and in some cases substantial differences on the standard MMPI-2 clinical scales (especially Scales…

  2. Community Prevention Coalition Context and Capacity Assessment: Comparing the United States and Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Louis D.; Chilenski, Sarah M.; Ramos, Rebeca; Gallegos, Nora; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Effective planning for community health partnerships requires understanding how initial readiness--that is, contextual factors and capacity--influences implementation of activities and programs. This study compares the context and capacity of drug and violence prevention coalitions in Mexico to those in the United States. Measures of coalition…

  3. CSM-lig: a web server for assessing and comparing protein-small molecule affinities.

    PubMed

    Pires, Douglas E V; Ascher, David B

    2016-07-01

    Determining the affinity of a ligand for a given protein is a crucial component of drug development and understanding their biological effects. Predicting binding affinities is a challenging and difficult task, and despite being regarded as poorly predictive, scoring functions play an important role in the analysis of molecular docking results. Here, we present CSM-Lig (http://structure.bioc.cam.ac.uk/csm_lig), a web server tailored to predict the binding affinity of a protein-small molecule complex, encompassing both protein and small-molecule complementarity in terms of shape and chemistry via graph-based structural signatures. CSM-Lig was trained and evaluated on different releases of the PDBbind databases, achieving a correlation of up to 0.86 on 10-fold cross validation and 0.80 in blind tests, performing as well as or better than other widely used methods. The web server allows users to rapidly and automatically predict binding affinities of collections of structures and assess the interactions made. We believe CSM-lig would be an invaluable tool for helping assess docking poses, the effects of multiple mutations, including insertions, deletions and alternative splicing events, in protein-small molecule affinity, unraveling important aspects that drive protein-compound recognition. PMID:27151202

  4. A Method to Quantify and Compare Clinicians’ Assessments of Patient Understanding during Counseling of Standardized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Michael H.; Kuruvilla, Pramita; Eskra, Kerry L.; Christopher, Stephanie A.; Brienza, Rebecca S.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES to introduce a method for quantifying clinicians’ use of assessment of understanding (AU) questions, and to examine medicine residents’ AU usage during counseling of standardized patients about prostate or breast cancer screening. METHODS Explicit-criteria abstraction was done on 86 transcripts, using a data dictionary for 4 AU types. We also developed a procedure for estimating the “load” of informational content for which the clinician has not yet assessed understanding. RESULTS Duplicate abstraction revealed reliability κ=0.96. Definite criteria for at least one AU were found in 68/86 transcripts (79%). Of these, 2 transcripts contained a request for a teach-back (“what is your understanding of this?”), 2 contained an open-ended AU, 46 (54%) contained only a close-ended AU, and 18 (21%) only contained an “OK?” question. The load calculation identified long stretches of conversation without an AU. CONCLUSION Many residents’ transcripts lacked AUs, and included AUs were often ineffectively phrased or inefficiently timed. Many patients may not understand clinicians, and many clinicians may be unaware of patients’ confusion. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS Effective AU usage is important enough to be encouraged by training programs and targeted by population-scale quality improvement programs. This quantitative method should be useful in population-scale measurement of AU usage. PMID:19380210

  5. Biodiversity Monitoring at the Tonle Sap Lake of Cambodia: A Comparative Assessment of Local Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seak, Sophat; Schmidt-Vogt, Dietrich; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2012-10-01

    This paper assesses local biodiversity monitoring methods practiced in the Tonle Sap Lake of Cambodia. For the assessment we used the following criteria: methodological rigor, perceived cost, ease of use (user friendliness), compatibility with existing activities, and effectiveness of intervention. Constraints and opportunities for execution of the methods were also considered. Information was collected by use of: (1) key informant interview, (2) focus group discussion, and (3) researcher's observation. The monitoring methods for fish, birds, reptiles, mammals and vegetation practiced in the research area have their unique characteristics of generating data on biodiversity and biological resources. Most of the methods, however, serve the purpose of monitoring biological resources rather than biodiversity. There is potential that the information gained through local monitoring methods can provide input for long-term management and strategic planning. In order to realize this potential, the local monitoring methods should be better integrated with each other, adjusted to existing norms and regulations, and institutionalized within community-based organization structures.

  6. Comparative assessment of water quality parameters of mariculture for fish production in Hong Kong Waters.

    PubMed

    Leung, H M; Leung, S K S; Au, C K; Cheung, K C; Wong, Y K; Leung, A O W; Yung, K K L

    2015-05-15

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of fish cultivation on water quality in fish culture zone (FCZ) and analysed by Principle Component Analysis (PCA). 120 surface water samples were collected from Hong Kong Waters (60 samples in Victoria Harbour and another 60 in Ma Wan FCZ). Significant difference was found in dissolved oxygen (MW: 59.6%; VH: 81.3%), and Escherichia coli (MW: 465 CFU/100 ml; VH: 162.5 CFU/100 ml). Three principle components are responsible for water quality variations in the studying sites. The first component included E. coli (0.625) and dissolved oxygen (0.701). The second included E. coli (0.387) and ammonical-nitrogen (0.571). The third included E. coli (0.194) and ammonical-nitrogen (0.287). This framework provides information to assess the relative contribution of eco-aquaculture to nutrient loads and the subsequent risk of eutrophication. To conclude, a rigorous monitoring of water quality is necessary to assess point and nonpoint source pollution. Besides, appropriate remediation techniques should be used to combat water pollution and achieve sustainability. PMID:25697818

  7. Comparative assessment of vaccine vectors encoding ten malaria antigens identifies two protective liver-stage candidates

    PubMed Central

    Longley, Rhea J.; Salman, Ahmed M.; Cottingham, Matthew G.; Ewer, Katie; Janse, Chris J.; Khan, Shahid M.; Spencer, Alexandra J.; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2015-01-01

    The development of an efficacious Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccine remains a top priority for global health. Vaccination with irradiated sporozoites is able to provide complete sterile protection through the action of CD8+ T cells at the liver-stage of infection. However, this method is currently unsuitable for large-scale deployment and focus has instead turned to the development of sub-unit vaccines. Sub-unit vaccine efforts have traditionally focused on two well-known pre-erythrocytic antigens, CSP and TRAP, yet thousands of genes are expressed in the liver-stage. We sought to assess the ability of eight alternative P. falciparum pre-erythrocytic antigens to induce a high proportion of CD8+ T cells. We show that all antigens, when expressed individually in the non-replicating viral vectors ChAd63 and MVA, are capable of inducing an immune response in mice. Furthermore, we also developed chimeric P. berghei parasites expressing the cognate P. falciparum antigen to enable assessment of efficacy in mice. Our preliminary results indicate that vectors encoding either PfLSA1 or PfLSAP2 are capable of inducing sterile protection dependent on the presence of CD8+ T cells. This work has identified two promising P. falciparum liver-stage candidate antigens that will now undergo further testing in humans. PMID:26139288

  8. Comparing and using assessments of the value of information to clinical decision-making.

    PubMed Central

    Urquhart, C J; Hepworth, J B

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the Value project, which assessed the value to clinical decision-making of information supplied by National Health Service (NHS) library and information services. The project not only showed how health libraries in the United Kingdom help clinicians in decision-making but also provided quality assurance guidelines for these libraries to help make their information services more effective. The paper reviews methods and results used in previous studies of the value of health libraries, noting that methodological differences appear to affect the results. The paper also discusses aspects of user involvement, categories of clinical decision-making, the value of information to present and future clinical decisions, and the combination of quantitative and qualitative assessments of value, as applied to the Value project and the studies reviewed. The Value project also demonstrated that the value placed on information depends in part on the career stage of the physician. The paper outlines the structure of the quality assurance tool kit, which is based on the findings and methods used in the Value project. PMID:8913550

  9. Comparative toxicology of laboratory organisms for assessing hazardous-waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.E.; Peterson, S.A.; Greene, J.C.; Callahan, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Multi-media/multi-trophic level bioassays have been proposed to determine the extent and severity of environmental contamination at hazardous waste sites. Comparative toxicological profiles for algae, daphnia, earthworms, microbes, mixed sewage and plants; wheat Stephens, lettuce, butter crunch, radish, Cherry Belle, red clover, Kenland, and cucumber, Spartan Valor are presented for selected heavy metals, herbicides and insecticides. Specific chemical EC50 values are presented for each test organism. Differences in standard deviations were compared between each individual test organism, as well as for the chemical subgroup assayed. Algae and daphnia are the most sensitive test organisms to heavy metals and insecticides followed in order of decreasing sensitivity by Microtox, DO depletion rate, seed germination and earthworms. Differences in toxicity of 2,4-D chemical formulations and commercial sources of insecticides were observed with algae and daphnia tests.

  10. Comparative assessment of environmental welfare issues associated with the satellite power system (SPS) and alternative technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, E.P.; Senew, M.J.; Cirillo, R.R.

    1980-04-01

    Environmental deterioration can affect an individual's health, safety, and welfare (examples of welfare effects include reduced crop yield, loss of property, and interference with other activities). This study identifies sources of environmental deterioration and associated welfare effects from two mature electric power generation systems (combustion of coal and light water nuclear reactors) and compares these with those expected from a conceptual satellite power system. Each activity within the energy pathway for each power system is examined to determine the potential welfare effects it imposes on a community. The severities of these effects are compared. On the basis of this comparison and the state of knowledge concerning specific environmental impacts and welfare effects, key environmental issues are identified for subsequent, in-depth analyses.

  11. Comparative assessment of the polypeptide profiles from lateral and primary roots of Phaseolus vulgaris L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westberg, J.; Odom, W. R.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    In Phaseolus vulgaris, primary roots show gravitational sensitivity soon after emerging from the seed. In contrast, lateral roots are agravitropic during early development, and become gravitropic after several cm growth. Primary and lateral root tissues were examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, coupled with western blotting techniques, to compare proteins which may contribute to the acquisition of gravitational sensitivity. Root tips and zones of cell elongation were compared for each root type, using immunological probes for calmodulin, alpha-actin, alpha-tubulin, and proteins of the plastid envelope. Lateral roots contained qualitatively less calmodulin, and showed a slightly different pattern of actin-related epitope proteins, than did primary root tissues, suggesting that polypeptide differences may contribute to the gravitational sensitivity which these root types express.

  12. A Comparative Approach for Ranking Contaminated Sites Based on the Risk Assessment Paradigm Using Fuzzy PROMETHEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kejiang; Kluck, Cheryl; Achari, Gopal

    2009-11-01

    A ranking system for contaminated sites based on comparative risk methodology using fuzzy Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) was developed in this article. It combines the concepts of fuzzy sets to represent uncertain site information with the PROMETHEE, a subgroup of Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods. Criteria are identified based on a combination of the attributes (toxicity, exposure, and receptors) associated with the potential human health and ecological risks posed by contaminated sites, chemical properties, site geology and hydrogeology and contaminant transport phenomena. Original site data are directly used avoiding the subjective assignment of scores to site attributes. When the input data are numeric and crisp the PROMETHEE method can be used. The Fuzzy PROMETHEE method is preferred when substantial uncertainties and subjectivities exist in site information. The PROMETHEE and fuzzy PROMETHEE methods are both used in this research to compare the sites. The case study shows that this methodology provides reasonable results.

  13. Toward Reliable Estimates of Abundance: Comparing Index Methods to Assess the Abundance of a Mammalian Predator

    PubMed Central

    Güthlin, Denise; Storch, Ilse; Küchenhoff, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Due to time and financial constraints indices are often used to obtain landscape-scale estimates of relative species abundance. Using two different field methods and comparing the results can help to detect possible bias or a non monotonic relationship between the index and the true abundance, providing more reliable results. We used data obtained from camera traps and feces counts to independently estimate relative abundance of red foxes in the Black Forest, a forested landscape in southern Germany. Applying negative binomial regression models, we identified landscape parameters that influence red fox abundance, which we then used to predict relative red fox abundance. We compared the estimated regression coefficients of the landscape parameters and the predicted abundance of the two methods. Further, we compared the costs and the precision of the two field methods. The predicted relative abundances were similar between the two methods, suggesting that the two indices were closely related to the true abundance of red foxes. For both methods, landscape diversity and edge density best described differences in the indices and had positive estimated effects on the relative fox abundance. In our study the costs of each method were of similar magnitude, but the sample size obtained from the feces counts (262 transects) was larger than the camera trap sample size (88 camera locations). The precision of the camera traps was lower than the precision of the feces counts. The approach we applied can be used as a framework to compare and combine the results of two or more different field methods to estimate abundance and by this enhance the reliability of the result. PMID:24743565

  14. Lateral Comparative Investigation of Stromatolites: Astrobiological Implications and Assessment of Scales of Control.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Yadira; Corsetti, Frank A

    2016-04-01

    The processes that govern the formation of stromatolites--structures that may represent macroscopic manifestation of microbial processes and a clear target for astrobiological investigation--occur at various scales (local versus regional), yet determining their relative importance remains a challenge, particularly for ancient deposits and/or if similar deposits are discovered elsewhere in the Solar System. We build upon the traditional multiscale level approach of investigation (micro-, meso-, macro-, mega-) by including a lateral comparative investigational component of fine- to large-scale features to determine the relative significance of local and/or nonlocal controls on stromatolite morphology, and in the process, help constrain the dominant influences on microbialite formation. In one example of lateral comparative investigation, lacustrine microbialites from the Miocene Barstow Formation (California) display two main mesofabrics: (1) micritic bands that drastically change in thickness and cannot directly be traced between adjacent decimeter-scale subunits and (2) sparry fibrous layers that are strikingly consistent across subunits, suggesting the formation of sparry fibrous layers was influenced by a process larger than the length scale between the subunits (likely lake chemistry). Microbialites from the uppermost Triassic Cotham Member, United Kingdom, occur as meter-scale mounds and contain a characteristic succession of laminated and dendrolitic mesofabrics. The same succession of laminated/dendrolitic couplets can be traced, not only from mound to mound, but over 100 km, indicating a regional-scale influence on very small structures (microns to centimeters) that would otherwise not be apparent without the lateral comparative approach, and demonstrating that the scale of the feature does not necessarily scale with the scope of the process. Thus, the combination of lateral comparative investigations and multiscale analyses can provide an effective

  15. An initial comparative assessment of orbital and terrestrial central power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caputo, R.

    1977-01-01

    A silicon photovoltaic orbital power system, which is constructed from an earth source of materials, is compared to likely terrestrial (fossil, nuclear, and solar) approaches to central power generation around the year 2000. A total social framework is used that considers not only the projection of commercial economics (direct or in internal costs), but also considers external impacts such as research and development investment, health impacts, resource requirements, environment effects, and other social costs.

  16. Assessing the Value of Team Science A Study Comparing Center- and Investigator-Initiated Grants

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kara L.; Stokols, Daniel; Stipelman, Brooke A.; Vogel, Amanda L.; Feng, Annie; Masimore, Beth; Morgan, Glen; Moser, Richard P.; Marcus, Stephen E.; Berrigan, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Large cross-disciplinary scientific teams are becoming increasingly prominent in the conduct of research. Purpose This paper reports on a quasi-experimental longitudinal study conducted to compare bibliometric indicators of scientific collaboration, productivity, and impact of center-based transdisciplinary team science initiatives and traditional investigator-initiated grants in the same field. Methods All grants began between 1994 and 2004 and up to 10 years of publication data were collected for each grant. Publication information was compiled and analyzed during the spring and summer of 2010. Results Following an initial lag period, the transdisciplinary research center grants had higher overall publication rates than the investigator-initiated R01 (NIH Research Project Grant Program) grants. There were relatively uniform publication rates across the research center grants compared to dramatically dispersed publication rates among the R01 grants. On average, publications produced by the research center grants had greater numbers of coauthors but similar journal impact factors compared with publications produced by the R01 grants. Conclusions The lag in productivity among the transdisciplinary center grants was offset by their overall higher publication rates and average number of coauthors per publication, relative to investigator-initiated grants, over the 10-year comparison period. The findings suggest that transdisciplinary center grants create benefits for both scientific productivity and collaboration. (Am J Prev Med 2012;42(2):157–163) Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of American Journal of Preventive Medicine PMID:22261212

  17. Comparative environmental impact and efficiency assessment of selected hydrogen production methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ozbilen, Ahmet Dincer, Ibrahim Rosen, Marc A.

    2013-09-15

    The environmental impacts of various hydrogen production processes are evaluated and compared, considering several energy sources and using life cycle analysis. The results indicate that hydrogen produced by thermochemical water decomposition cycles are more environmentally benign options compared to conventional steam reforming of natural gas. The nuclear based four-step Cu–Cl cycle has the lowest global warming potential (0.559 kg CO{sub 2}-eq per kg hydrogen production), mainly because it requires the lowest quantity of energy of the considered processes. The acidification potential results show that biomass gasification has the highest impact on environment, while wind based electrolysis has the lowest. The relation is also investigated between efficiency and environmental impacts. -- Highlights: • Environmental performance of nuclear-based hydrogen production is investigated. • The GWP and AP results are compared with various hydrogen production processes. • Nuclear based 4-step Cu–Cl cycle is found to be an environmentally benign process. • Wind-based electrolysis has the lowest AP value.

  18. Needs and workflow assessment prior to implementation of a digital pathology infrastructure for the US Air Force Medical Service

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jonhan; Aridor, Orly; Glinski, David W.; Saylor, Christopher D.; Pelletier, Joseph P.; Selby, Dale M.; Davis, Steven W.; Lancia, Nicholas; Gerlach, Christopher B.; Newberry, Jonathan; Anthony, Leslie; Pantanowitz, Liron; Parwani, Anil V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Advances in digital pathology are accelerating integration of this technology into anatomic pathology (AP). To optimize implementation and adoption of digital pathology systems within a large healthcare organization, initial assessment of both end user (pathologist) needs and organizational infrastructure are required. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered tool for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating such detailed data about work practices that can be employed to help identify specific needs and requirements. Aim: Using contextual inquiry, the objective of this study was to identify the unique work practices and requirements in AP for the United States (US) Air Force Medical Service (AFMS) that had to be targeted in order to support their transition to digital pathology. Subjects and Methods: A pathology-centered observer team conducted 1.5 h interviews with a total of 24 AFMS pathologists and histology lab personnel at three large regional centers and one smaller peripheral AFMS pathology center using contextual inquiry guidelines. Findings were documented as notes and arranged into a hierarchal organization of common themes based on user-provided data, defined as an affinity diagram. These data were also organized into consolidated graphic models that characterized AFMS pathology work practices, structure, and requirements. Results: Over 1,200 recorded notes were grouped into an affinity diagram composed of 27 third-level, 10 second-level, and five main-level (workflow and workload distribution, quality, communication, military culture, and technology) categories. When combined with workflow and cultural models, the findings revealed that AFMS pathologists had needs that were unique to their military setting, when compared to civilian pathologists. These unique needs included having to serve a globally distributed patient population, transient staff, but a uniform information technology (IT) structure. Conclusions: The contextual

  19. Comparative study of approaches to assess damage in thermally fatigued Cusbnd Crsbnd Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Arya; Mitra, R.; Chakraborty, A. K.; Rotti, C.; Ray, K. K.

    2016-06-01

    For the first time the nature of response of thermal fatigue damage (TFD) in Cusbnd Crsbnd Zr alloys, considered for the High Heat Flux components of Tokamak and its subsystems in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor application has been studied. Temperature cycling between 290 °C and 30 °C, similar to the service condition, has been carried out on two differently aged Cusbnd Crsbnd Zr alloys. The TFD has been assessed by damage mechanics approach using damage parameters, and by surface characteristics. The damage parameters increase exponentially during initial fatigue cycles and saturates, whilst surface characteristics shows continuous increase with increase in thermal fatigue cycles. Damages are different in the aged alloys depending upon the aging conditions.

  20. A comparative and critical evaluation of odour assessment methods on a landfill site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Del Rosso, Renato; Céntola, Paolo; Il Grande, Massimiliano

    This paper discusses the application of three different odour characterization techniques, i.e. chemical analyses, dynamic olfactometry and electronic noses, for the assessment of odour emissions from a landfill site. The results of the chemical analyses, which are useful to determine the chemical composition of odours, show no correlation with the odour concentration values measured by dynamic olfactometry. Olfactometric analyses enabled to measure odour concentration and thereby to quantify the sensory impact of odours. Finally, the continuous ambient air monitoring by electronic noses allowed to quantify the time percentage in which odours are detected at the landfill boundaries and at a receptor, which always turned out to be lower than 15%. This study represents a critical review of employing three different odour characterization methods for differing reasons on the same site, showing that, whilst the results don't necessarily correlate, they do have an intrinsic value, and therefore demonstrating the complexity of environmental odour measurement.