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Sample records for pathway controls cytoprotection

  1. Radioadaptive Cytoprotective Pathways in the Mouse Retina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanello, Susana B.; Wotring, V.; Theriot, C.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to cosmic radiation implies a risk of tissue degeneration. Radiation retinopathy is a complication of radiotherapy and exhibits common features with other retinopathies and neuropathies. Exposure to a low radiation dose elicits protective cellular events (radioadaptive response), reducing the stress of a subsequent higher dose. To assess the risk of radiation-induced retinal changes and the extent to which a small priming dose reduces this risk, we used a mouse model exposed to a source of Cs-137-gamma radiation. Gene expression profiling of retinas from non-irradiated control C57BL/6J mice (C) were compared to retinas from mice treated with a low 50 mGy dose (LD), a high 6 Gy dose (HD), and a combined treatment of 50 mGy (priming) and 6 Gy (challenge) doses (LHD). Whole retina RNA was isolated and expression analysis for selected genes performed by RTqPCR. Relevant target genes associated with cell death/survival, oxidative stress, cellular stress response and inflammation pathways, were analyzed. Cellular stress response genes were upregulated at 4 hr after the challenge dose in LHD retinas (Sirt1: 1.5 fold, Hsf1: 1.7 fold, Hspa1a: 2.5 fold; Hif1a: 1.8 fold, Bag1: 1.7). A similar trend was observed in LD animals. Most antioxidant enzymes (Hmox1, Sod2, Prdx1, Cygb, Cat1) and inflammatory mediators (NF B, Ptgs2 and Tgfb1) were upregulated in LHD and LD retinas. Expression of the pro-survival gene Bcl2 was upregulated in LD (6-fold) and LHD (4-fold) retinas. In conclusion, cytoprotective gene networks activation in the retina suggests a radioadaptive response to a priming irradiation dose, with mitigation of the deleterious effects of a subsequent high dose exposure. The enhancement of these cytoprotective mechanisms has potential value as a countermeasure to ocular alterations caused by radiation alone or in combination with other factors in spaceflight environments.

  2. Mitochondria and carbon monoxide: cytoprotection and control of cell metabolism - a role for Ca(2+) ?

    PubMed

    R Oliveira, Sara; Queiroga, Cláudia S F; Vieira, Helena L A

    2016-08-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenously produced gasotransmitter with important biological functions: anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, vasomodulation and cell metabolism modulation. The most recognized cellular target for CO is the mitochondria. Physiological concentrations of CO generate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are signalling molecules for CO-induced pathways. Indeed, small amounts of ROS promote cytoprotection by a preconditioning effect. Furthermore, CO prevents cell death by limiting mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, which inhibits the release of pro-apoptotic factors into the cytosol; both events are ROS dependent. CO also increases the ability of mitochondria to take up Ca(2+) . Mitochondrial metabolism is modulated by CO, namely by increasing TCA cycle rate, oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial biogenesis, which, in turn, increases ATP production. CO's modulation of metabolism might be important for cellular response to diseases, namely cancer and ischaemic diseases. Finally, another cytoprotective role of CO involves the control of Ca(2+) channels. By limiting the activity of T-type and L-type Ca(2+) channels, CO prevents excitotoxicity-induced cell death and modulates cell proliferation. Several questions concerning Ca(2+) signalling, mitochondria and CO can be asked, for instance whether CO modulation of cell metabolism would be dependent on the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake capacity, since small amounts of Ca(2+) can increase mitochondrial metabolism. Whether CO controls Ca(2+) communication between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum is another open field of research. In summary, CO emerges as a key gasotransmitter in the control of several cellular functions of mitochondria: metabolism, cell death and Ca(2+) signalling. PMID:26377343

  3. Yeast as a tool to study signaling pathways in mitochondrial stress response and cytoprotection.

    PubMed

    Zdralević, Maša; Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Antonacci, Lucia; Marra, Ersilia; Giannattasio, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Cell homeostasis results from the balance between cell capability to adapt or succumb to environmental stress. Mitochondria, in addition to supplying cellular energy, are involved in a range of processes deciding about cellular life or death. The crucial role of mitochondria in cell death is well recognized. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with the death process and the onset of numerous diseases. Yet, mitochondrial involvement in cellular adaptation to stress is still largely unexplored. Strong interest exists in pharmacological manipulation of mitochondrial metabolism and signaling. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven a valuable model organism in which several intracellular processes have been characterized in great detail, including the retrograde response to mitochondrial dysfunction and, more recently, programmed cell death. In this paper we review experimental evidences of mitochondrial involvement in cytoprotection and propose yeast as a model system to investigate the role of mitochondria in the cross-talk between prosurvival and prodeath pathways. PMID:22454613

  4. Yeast as a Tool to Study Signaling Pathways in Mitochondrial Stress Response and Cytoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Ždralević, Maša; Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Antonacci, Lucia; Marra, Ersilia; Giannattasio, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Cell homeostasis results from the balance between cell capability to adapt or succumb to environmental stress. Mitochondria, in addition to supplying cellular energy, are involved in a range of processes deciding about cellular life or death. The crucial role of mitochondria in cell death is well recognized. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with the death process and the onset of numerous diseases. Yet, mitochondrial involvement in cellular adaptation to stress is still largely unexplored. Strong interest exists in pharmacological manipulation of mitochondrial metabolism and signaling. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven a valuable model organism in which several intracellular processes have been characterized in great detail, including the retrograde response to mitochondrial dysfunction and, more recently, programmed cell death. In this paper we review experimental evidences of mitochondrial involvement in cytoprotection and propose yeast as a model system to investigate the role of mitochondria in the cross-talk between prosurvival and prodeath pathways. PMID:22454613

  5. The N. gonorrhoeae type IV pilus stimulates mechanosensitive pathways and cytoprotection through a pilT-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Howie, Heather L; Glogauer, Michael; So, Magdalene

    2005-04-01

    The Neisseria gonorrhoeae type IV pilus is a retractile appendage that can generate forces near 100 pN. We tested the hypothesis that type IV pilus retraction influences epithelial cell gene expression by exerting tension on the host membrane. Wild-type and retraction-defective bacteria altered the expression of an identical set of epithelial cell genes during attachment. Interestingly, pilus retraction, per se, did not regulate novel gene expression but, rather, enhanced the expression of a subset of the infection-regulated genes. This is accomplished through mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and at least one other undefined stress-activated pathway. These results can be reproduced by applying artificial force on the epithelial membrane, using a magnet and magnetic beads. Importantly, this retraction-mediated signaling increases the ability of the cell to withstand apoptotic signals triggered by infection. We conclude that pilus retraction stimulates mechanosensitive pathways that enhance the expression of stress-responsive genes and activate cytoprotective signaling. A model for the role of pilus retraction in influencing host cell survival is presented. PMID:15769184

  6. The N. gonorrhoeae Type IV Pilus Stimulates Mechanosensitive Pathways and Cytoprotection through a pilT-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The Neisseria gonorrhoeae type IV pilus is a retractile appendage that can generate forces near 100 pN. We tested the hypothesis that type IV pilus retraction influences epithelial cell gene expression by exerting tension on the host membrane. Wild-type and retraction-defective bacteria altered the expression of an identical set of epithelial cell genes during attachment. Interestingly, pilus retraction, per se, did not regulate novel gene expression but, rather, enhanced the expression of a subset of the infection-regulated genes. This is accomplished through mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and at least one other undefined stress-activated pathway. These results can be reproduced by applying artificial force on the epithelial membrane, using a magnet and magnetic beads. Importantly, this retraction-mediated signaling increases the ability of the cell to withstand apoptotic signals triggered by infection. We conclude that pilus retraction stimulates mechanosensitive pathways that enhance the expression of stress-responsive genes and activate cytoprotective signaling. A model for the role of pilus retraction in influencing host cell survival is presented. PMID:15769184

  7. Targeting TRAP1 as a downstream effector of BRAF cytoprotective pathway: A novel strategy for human BRAF-driven colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sisinni, Lorenza; Lettini, Giacomo; Matassa, Danilo Swann; Piscazzi, Annamaria; Palladino, Giuseppe; Amoroso, Maria Rosaria; Esposito, Franca; Landriscina, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    The HSP90 chaperone TRAP1 is translational regulator of BRAF synthesis/ubiquitination, since BRAF down-regulation, ERK signaling inhibition and delay of cell cycle progression occur upon TRAP1 silencing/inhibition. Since TRAP1 is upregulated in human colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) and involved in protection from apoptosis and as human BRAF-driven CRCs are poorly responsive to anticancer therapies, the relationship between TRAP1 regulation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and BRAF antiapoptotic signaling has been further evaluated. This study reports that BRAF cytoprotective signaling involves TRAP1-dependent inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. It is worth noting that BRAF and TRAP1 interact and that the activation of BRAF signaling results in enhanced TRAP1 serine-phosphorylation, a condition associated with resistance to apoptosis. Consistently, a BRAF dominant-negative mutant prevents TRAP1 serine phosphorylation and restores drug sensitivity in BRAFV600E CRC drug-resistant cells with high TRAP1 levels. In addition, TRAP1 targeting by the mitochondria-directed HSP90 chaperones inhibitor gamitrinib induces apoptosis and inhibits colony formation in BRAF-driven CRC cells. Thus, TRAP1 is a downstream effector of BRAF cytoprotective pathway in mitochondria and TRAP1 targeting may represent a novel strategy to improve the activity of proapoptotic agents in BRAF-driven CRC cells. PMID:26084290

  8. A novel shogaol analog suppresses cancer cell invasion and inflammation, and displays cytoprotective effects through modulation of NF-κB and Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Fei-Fei; Ling, Hui; Ang, Xiaohui; Reddy, Shridhivya A.; Lee, Stephanie S-H.; Yang, Hong; Tan, Sock-Hoon; Hayes, John D.; Chui, Wai-Keung; Chew, Eng-Hui

    2013-11-01

    Natural compounds containing vanilloid and Michael acceptor moieties appear to possess anti-cancer and chemopreventive properties. The ginger constituent shogaol represents one such compound. In this study, the anti-cancer potential of a synthetic novel shogaol analog 3-phenyl-3-shogaol (3-Ph-3-SG) was assessed by evaluating its effects on signaling pathways. At non-toxic concentrations, 3-Ph-3-SG suppressed cancer cell invasion in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells through inhibition of PMA-activated MMP-9 expression. At similar concentrations, 3-Ph-3-SG reduced expression of the inflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostanglandin-E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) in RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. Inhibition of cancer cell invasion and inflammation by 3-Ph-3-SG were mediated through suppression of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. The 3-Ph-3-SG also demonstrated cytoprotective effects by inducing the antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven genes NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Cytoprotection by 3-Ph-3-SG was achieved at least partly through modification of cysteine residues in the E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate adaptor Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), which resulted in accumulation of transcription factor NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The activities of 3-Ph-3-SG were comparable to those of 6-shogaol, the most abundant naturally-occurring shogaol, and stronger than those of 4-hydroxyl-null deshydroxy-3-phenyl-3-shogaol, which attested the importance of the 4-hydroxy substituent in the vanilloid moiety for bioactivity. In summary, 3-Ph-3-SG is shown to possess activities that modulate stress-associated pathways relevant to multiple steps in carcinogenesis. Therefore, it warrants further investigation of this compound as a promising candidate for use in chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive strategies. - Highlights:

  9. EXTENDED CYTOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF AUTOPHAGY IN THE LATE STAGES OF SEPSIS AND FLUCTUATIONS IN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS IN A RAT EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF KIDNEY INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannidis, Ioannis; Kataki, Agapi; Glustianou, Georgia; Memos, Nikolaos; Papalois, Apostolos; Alexakis, Nikolaos; Zografos, George C.; Konstadoulakis, Manoussos M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The impact of a potential autophagy (LC3a/b) deregulation in hyper and in hypo stages during sepsis-induced kidney injury and the temporal profile of phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase, P38 (pP38), Akt (pAKT), and 13-3-3β protein were investigated in the current study, using a rat cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model, by means of flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Cell viability was assessed by protein C zymogen concentrate (PC), 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) staining and inflammation by S100 protein immunostaining. The impact of reduced kidney inflammation in autophagy was assessed by PC administration, an anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective substance. Sepsis induction increased LC3a/b expression, which presented two peaks at 6 and 36 h after CLP, both in the percentage of positive cells (P = 0.024, P = 0.025, respectively) and in fluorescence intensity. At 6 h when inflammation was already apparent, LC3a/b increase was escorted by phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase stimulation and high cell viability (65%), designating autophagy as a cytoprotective mechanism against microbial infection. The phosphorylation of P38 was delayed to 12 h after CLP, when autophagy was reduced. pAkt and 14-3-3β expression was stimulated between 6 and 36 h after CLP, although a slight inhibition of pAkt within each cell was detected (lower MnIX value). During the second peak, inflammation was intensified, necrosis was significantly increased with LC3a/b+/7-AAD + cells to present a 1.5-fold increase. Protein C zymogen concentrate administration declined autophagy at 6 and 36 h after CLP and reduced necrosis, whereas double positive LC3a/b and 7-AAD cells were increased by 1.68 and 2.78-fold, respectively. These data open new prospectives in sepsis treatment, since they further support that autophagy represents a cytoprotective mechanism triggered by stress conditions, rather than an alternative cell death pathway. PMID

  10. Pirarubicin induces an autophagic cytoprotective response through suppression of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in human bladder cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kuiqing; Chen, Xu; Liu, Cheng; Gu, Peng; Li, Zhuohang; Wu, Shaoxu; Xu, Kewei; Lin, Tianxin; Huang, Jian

    2015-05-01

    Pirarubicin is widely used in intravesical chemotherapy for bladder cancer, but its efficacy is limited due to drug resistance; the mechanism has not been well studied. Emerging evidence shows that autophagy can be a novel target for cancer therapy. This study aimed to investigate the role of autophagy in pirarubicin-treated bladder cancer cells. Bladder cancer cells EJ and J82 were treated with pirarubicin, siRNA, 3-methyladenine or hydroxychloroquine. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were tested by cell survival assay and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Autophagy was evaluated by immunoblotting before and after the treatments. The phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin, serine/threonine kinase p70 S6 kinase, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 were also investigated by immunoblotting. We found that pirarubicin could induce autophagy in bladder cancer cells. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine, hydroxychloroquine or knockdown of autophagy related gene 3 significantly increased apoptosis in pirarubicin-treated bladder cancer cells. Pirarubicin-induced autophagy was mediated via the mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 signaling pathway. In conclusion, autophagy induced by pirarubicin plays a cytoprotective role in bladder cancer cells, suggesting that inhibition of autophagy may improve efficacy over traditional pirarubicin chemotherapy in bladder cancer patients. - Highlights: • Pirarubicin induced autophagy in bladder cancer cells. • Inhibition of autophagy enhanced pirarubicin-induced apoptosis. • Pirarubicin induced autophagy through inhibition of mTOR signaling pathway.

  11. Pirarubicin induces an autophagic cytoprotective response through suppression of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuiqing; Chen, Xu; Liu, Cheng; Gu, Peng; Li, Zhuohang; Wu, Shaoxu; Xu, Kewei; Lin, Tianxin; Huang, Jian

    2015-05-01

    Pirarubicin is widely used in intravesical chemotherapy for bladder cancer, but its efficacy is limited due to drug resistance; the mechanism has not been well studied. Emerging evidence shows that autophagy can be a novel target for cancer therapy. This study aimed to investigate the role of autophagy in pirarubicin-treated bladder cancer cells. Bladder cancer cells EJ and J82 were treated with pirarubicin, siRNA, 3-methyladenine or hydroxychloroquine. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were tested by cell survival assay and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Autophagy was evaluated by immunoblotting before and after the treatments. The phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin, serine/threonine kinase p70 S6 kinase, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 were also investigated by immunoblotting. We found that pirarubicin could induce autophagy in bladder cancer cells. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine, hydroxychloroquine or knockdown of autophagy related gene 3 significantly increased apoptosis in pirarubicin-treated bladder cancer cells. Pirarubicin-induced autophagy was mediated via the mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 signaling pathway. In conclusion, autophagy induced by pirarubicin plays a cytoprotective role in bladder cancer cells, suggesting that inhibition of autophagy may improve efficacy over traditional pirarubicin chemotherapy in bladder cancer patients. PMID:25791481

  12. SKF-96365 activates cytoprotective autophagy to delay apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells through inhibition of the calcium/CaMKIIγ/AKT-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Jing, Zhao; Sui, Xinbing; Yao, Junlin; Xie, Jiansheng; Jiang, Liming; Zhou, Yubin; Pan, Hongming; Han, Weidong

    2016-03-28

    Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) inhibitors are emerging as an attractive new generation of anti-cancer drugs. Here, we report that SKF-96365, an SOCE inhibitor, exhibits potent anti-neoplastic activity by inducing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. In the meantime, SKF-96365 also induces cytoprotective autophagy to delay apoptosis by preventing the release of cytochrome c (cyt c) from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm. Mechanistically, SKF-96365 treatment inhibited the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIγ (CaMKIIγ)/AKT signaling cascade in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of CaMKIIγ or AKT abolished the effects of SKF-96365 on cancer cells, suggesting a critical role of the CaMKIIγ/AKT signaling pathway in SFK-96365-induced biological effects. Moreover, Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), an FDA-approved drug used to inhibit autophagy, could significantly augment the anti-cancer effect of SFK-96365 in a mouse xenograft model. To our best knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that calcium/CaMKIIγ/AKT signaling can regulate apoptosis and autophagy simultaneously in cancer cells, and the combination of the SOCE inhibitor SKF-96365 with autophagy inhibitors represents a promising strategy for treating patients with colorectal cancer. PMID:26803057

  13. Epigenetics and cytoprotection with heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Michal

    2016-03-15

    Studying "phenotypic plasticity" involves comparison of traits expressed in response to environmental fluctuations and aims to understand tolerance and survival in new settings. Reversible phenotypic changes that enable individuals to match their phenotype to environmental demands throughout life can be artificially induced, i.e., acclimation or occur naturally, i.e., acclimatization. The onset and achievement of acclimatory homeostasis are determined by molecular programs that induce the acclimated transcriptome. In heat acclimation, much evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms are powerful players in these processes. Epigenetic mechanisms affect the accessibility of the DNA to transcription factors, thereby regulating gene expression and controlling the phenotype. The heat-acclimated phenotype confers cytoprotection against novel stressors via cross-tolerance mechanisms, by attenuation of the initial damage and/or by accelerating spontaneous recovery through the release of help signals. This indispensable acclimatory feature has a memory and can be rapidly reestablished after the loss of acclimation and the return to the physiological preacclimated phenotype. The transcriptional landscape of the deacclimated phenotype includes constitutive transcriptional activation of epigenetic bookmarks. Heat shock protein (HSP) 70/HSP90/heat shock factor 1 memory protocol demonstrated constitutive histone H4 acetylation on hsp70 and hsp90 promotors. Novel players in the heat acclimation setup are poly(ADP-ribose)ribose polymerase 1 affecting chromatin condensation, DNA linker histones from the histone H1 cluster, and transcription factors associated with the P38 pathway. We suggest that these orchestrated responses maintain euchromatin and proteostasis during deacclimation and predispose to rapid reacclimation and cytoprotection. These mechanisms represent within-life epigenetic adaptations and cytoprotective memory. PMID:26472869

  14. Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2–ARE pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many pathological conditions, including cancer. The major machinery that the cell employs to neutralize excess ROS is through the activation of the antioxidant-response element (ARE) that controls the activation of many phase II detoxification enzymes. The transcription factor that recognizes the ARE, Nrf2, can be activated by a variety of small molecules, most of which contain an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system. In the pursuit of chemopreventive agents from marine organisms, we built, fractionated, and screened a library of 30 field-collected eukaryotic algae from Florida. An edible green alga, Ulva lactuca, yielded multiple active fractions by ARE–luciferase reporter assay. We isolated three monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivatives as active components, including a new keto-type C18 fatty acid (1), the corresponding shorter chain C16 acid (2), and an amide derivative (3) of the C18 acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and mass spectrometry. All three contain the conjugated enone motif between C7 and C9, which is thought to be responsible for the ARE activity. Subsequent biological studies focused on 1, the most active and abundant ARE activator isolated. C18 acid 1 induced the expression of ARE-regulated cytoprotective genes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase 1, thioredoxin reductase 1, both subunits of the glutamate–cysteine ligase (catalytic subunit and modifier subunit), and the cystine/glutamate exchange transporter, in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Its cellular activity requires the presence of Nrf2 and PI3K function, based on RNA interference and pharmacological inhibitor studies, respectively. Treatment with 1 led only to Nrf2 activation, and not the increase in production of NRF2 mRNA. To test its ARE activity and cytoprotective potential in vivo, we treated mice with a single dose of a U. lactuca fraction that was enriched

  15. Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2-ARE pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Paul, Valerie J; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-04-01

    Increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many pathological conditions, including cancer. The major machinery that the cell employs to neutralize excess ROS is through the activation of the antioxidant-response element (ARE) that controls the activation of many phase II detoxification enzymes. The transcription factor that recognizes the ARE, Nrf2, can be activated by a variety of small molecules, most of which contain an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system. In the pursuit of chemopreventive agents from marine organisms, we built, fractionated, and screened a library of 30 field-collected eukaryotic algae from Florida. An edible green alga, Ulva lactuca, yielded multiple active fractions by ARE-luciferase reporter assay. We isolated three monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivatives as active components, including a new keto-type C18 fatty acid (1), the corresponding shorter chain C16 acid (2), and an amide derivative (3) of the C18 acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and mass spectrometry. All three contain the conjugated enone motif between C7 and C9, which is thought to be responsible for the ARE activity. Subsequent biological studies focused on 1, the most active and abundant ARE activator isolated. C18 acid 1 induced the expression of ARE-regulated cytoprotective genes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase 1, thioredoxin reductase 1, both subunits of the glutamate-cysteine ligase (catalytic subunit and modifier subunit), and the cystine/glutamate exchange transporter, in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Its cellular activity requires the presence of Nrf2 and PI3K function, based on RNA interference and pharmacological inhibitor studies, respectively. Treatment with 1 led only to Nrf2 activation, and not the increase in production of NRF2 mRNA. To test its ARE activity and cytoprotective potential in vivo, we treated mice with a single dose of a U. lactuca fraction that was enriched with

  16. [Role of membrane lipids in myocardial cytoprotection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grynberg, A.

    2000-01-01

    The cardiomyocyte capacity to regulate ATP production to face any change in energy demand is a major determinant of cardiac function. This process is based on a balanced fatty acid (FA) metabolism, because FA is the main fuel of the heart, although the most expensive one in oxygen. The pathway is, however, weakly controlled by the cardiac myocyte which can well regulate FA mitochondrial entry but not cell FA uptake. For this reason, several pathological situations often result from either harmful accumulation of FA and derivatives or excess FA-oxidation. Control of the FA/glucose balance by decreased energy production from FA would thus offer an alternative strategy in the treatment of ischaemia, providing the cardiomyocytes weak ability in handling the non-metabolised FA is controlled. The initiation and the regulation of cardiac contraction both result from membrane activity; the other major role of lipids in the heart is their contribution to membrane homeostasis through phospholipid synthesis pathways and phospholipases. The anti-anginal activity of Trimetazidine, reported as a cytoprotective effect without a haemo-dynamic component; is associated with reduced use of FA for energy. However, accumulation of FA and derivatives has never been observed. Trimetazidine is reported to increase significantly the synthesis of phospholipids without influencing the other lipid classes, thus increasing the incorporation of FA in membrane structures. This cytoprotection appears to be based on the redirection of the use of FA to phospholipid synthesis, which would decrease their availability for energy production. This class of compounds, with the same properties as Trimetazidine, offers a metabolic approach to the treatment of ischaemia.

  17. The Cytoprotective Effect of Hyperoside against Oxidative Stress Is Mediated by the Nrf2-ARE Signaling Pathway through GSK-3β Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Hai-Yan; Cai, Yong-Qing; Wang, Xian-Feng; Wang, Lin-Li; Li, Pan; Wang, Guan-Ying; Chen, Jian-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) acts as a negative regulator of NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) by inducing Nrf2 degradation and nuclear export. Our previous study demonstrated that the flavonoid hyperoside elicits cytoprotection against oxidative stress by activating the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway, thus increasing the expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. However, the role of GSK-3β in hyperoside-mediated Nrf2 activation is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that in a normal human hepatocyte cell line, (L02), hyperoside is capable of inducing the phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser9 without affecting the protein levels of GSK-3β and its phosphorylation at Thr390. Lithium chloride (LiCl) and short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated inhibition of GSK-3β significantly enhanced the ability of hyperoside to protect L02 liver cells from H2O2-induced oxidative damage, leading to increased cell survival shown by the maintenance of cell membrane integrity and elevated levels of glutathione (GSH), one of the endogenous antioxidant biomarkers. Further study showed that LiCl and siRNA-mediated inhibition of GSK-3β increased hyperoside-induced HO-1 expression, and the effect was dependent upon enhanced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and gene expression. These activities were followed by ARE-mediated transcriptional activation in the presence of hyperoside, which was abolished by the transfection of the cells with Nrf2 siRNA. Furthermore, the siRNA-mediated inhibition of Keap1 also enhanced hyperoside-induced Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and HO-1 expression, which was relatively smaller than the effects obtained from GSK-3β siRNA administration. Moreover, Keap1 siRNA administration alone had no significant effect on the phosphorylation and protein expression of GSK-3β. Collectively, our data provide evidence that hyperoside attenuates H2O2 -induced L02 cell damage by activating the Nrf2-ARE signaling

  18. Cytoprotective effect of eckol against oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction: involvement of the FoxO3a/AMPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Areum Daseul; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Piao, Mei Jing; Kim, Ki Cheon; Zheng, Jian; Yao, Cheng Wen; Cha, Ji Won; Hyun, Chang Lim; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Jin Won

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the cytoprotective effect of Ecklonia cava-derived eckol against H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in Chang liver cells. While H2O2 augmented levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), eckol decreased it. Eckol also attenuated high intracellular Ca(2+) levels stimulated by H2O2 and recovered H2O2-diminished ATP levels and succinate dehydrogenase activity. Eckol time-dependently increased the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD), a mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme with cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress. Eckol recovered Mn SOD expression and activity that were decreased by H2O2. Finally, eckol induced Mn SOD through phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a). Specific silencing RNAs (siRNAs) against FoxO3a and AMPK reduced eckol-stimulated Mn SOD expression, and diethyldithiocarbamate (Mn SOD inhibitor) and siRNA against Mn SOD reduced the cytoprotective effect of eckol against H2O2-provoked cell death. These results demonstrate that eckol protects cells from mitochondrial oxidative stress by activating AMPK/FoxO3a-mediated induction of Mn SOD. PMID:24700636

  19. A Cytoprotective Perspective on Longevity Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Shore, David E.; Ruvkun, Gary

    2014-01-01

    There are many mechanisms of lifespan extension, including the disruption of insulin/IGF-1 signaling, metabolism, translation, or feeding. Despite the disparate functions of these pathways, inhibition of each induces responses that buffer stress and damage. Here, emphasizing data from genetic analyses in C. elegans, we explore the effectors and upstream regulatory components of numerous cytoprotective mechanisms activated as major elements of longevity programs, including detoxification, innate immunity, proteostasis, and oxidative stress response. We show that their induction underpins longevity extension across functionally diverse triggers and across species. Intertwined with the evolution of longevity, cytoprotective pathways are coupled to the surveillance of core cellular components, with important implications in normal and aberrant responses to drugs, chemicals, and pathogens. PMID:23726168

  20. PDT: loss of autophagic cytoprotection after lysosomal photodamage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, David; Price, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy is known to evoke both autophagy and apoptosis. Apoptosis is an irreversible death pathway while autophagy can serve a cytoprotective function. In this study, we examined two photosensitizing agents that target lysosomes, although they differ in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed during irradiation. With both agents, the 'shoulder' on the PDT dose-response curve was substantially attenuated, consistent with loss of a cytoprotective pathway. In contrast, this 'shoulder' is commonly observed when PDT targets mitochondria or the ER. We propose that lysosomal targets may offer the possibility of promoting PDT efficacy by eliminating a potentially protective pathway.

  1. Neopterin as a potential cytoprotective brain molecule.

    PubMed

    Ghisoni, Karina; Martins, Roberta de Paula; Barbeito, Luis; Latini, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    Neopterin, a byproduct of the tetrahydrobiopterin de novo pathway, is found in increased levels in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma and significantly increases upon damage, infection or during immune system activation. The production of this compound seems almost restricted to the monocyte/macrophage linage cells, in response to interferon-γ stimulation. However, it is unclear whether and which nervous cells are able to synthesize neopterin, respond to any stressor applied extracellularly, or even the role of the compound in the central nervous system. Here we propose a potential cytoprotective role of neopterin in the brain, and show evidence that cultured rat astrocytes are responsive to the molecule; the pterin elicited increased hemeoxygenase-1 cellular content and decreased oxidative stress induced by mitochondrial dysfunction. Further studies are needed to clarify neopterin's cytoprotective effects in the central nervous system, and its potential role in different neuroinflammatory diseases. PMID:26476490

  2. The cytoprotective effects of ethanol extract of Ecklonia cava against oxidative stress are associated with upregulation of Nrf2-mediated HO-1 and NQO-1 expression through activation of the MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the cytoprotective effect of Ecklonia cava against oxidative stress in C2C12 myoblasts. The ethanol extract of E. cava (EEEC) prevented hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced inhibition of the growth of C2C12 myoblasts and exhibited scavenging activity against intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by H₂O₂. EEEC treatment attenuated H2O2-induced comet tail formation and phospho-histone γH2A.X expression. Furthermore, EEEC treatment enhanced the level of the phosphorylated form of nuclear factor erythroid 2- related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its nuclear translocation, which was associated with the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1). Zinc protoporphyrin IX, a HO-1 competitive inhibitor, significantly abolished the protective effects of EEEC against H₂O₂-induced ROS generation and growth inhibition in C2C12 myoblasts. Transient transfection with Nrf2-specific small interfering RNA restored the elevated HO-1 and NQO-1 expression and the phosphorylation of Nrf2 to near normal levels. The EEEC treatment also induced the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and specific inhibitors of MAPKs abolished upregulated HO-1 and NQO-1, as well as the phosphorylation of Nrf2. Taken together, these data suggest that EEEC attenuates oxidative stress by activating Nrf2-mediated HO-1 and inducing NQO-1 via the activation of MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:26492067

  3. Glycosyltransferase efficiently controls phenylpropanoid pathway

    PubMed Central

    Aksamit-Stachurska, Anna; Korobczak-Sosna, Alina; Kulma, Anna; Szopa, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Background In a previous study, anthocyanin levels in potato plants were increased by manipulating genes connected with the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. However, starch content and tuber yield were dramatically reduced in the transgenic plants, which over-expressed dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR). Results Transgenic plants over-expressing dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) were subsequently transformed with the cDNA coding for the glycosyltransferase (UGT) of Solanum sogarandinum in order to obtain plants with a high anthocyanin content without reducing tuber yield and quality. Based on enzyme studies, the recombinant UGT is a 7-O-glycosyltransferase whose natural substrates include both anthocyanidins and flavonols such as kaempferol and quercetin. In the super-transformed plants, tuber production was much higher than in the original transgenic plants bearing only the transgene coding for DFR, and was almost the same as in the control plants. The anthocyanin level was lower than in the initial plants, but still higher than in the control plants. Unexpectedly, the super-transformed plants also produced large amounts of kaempferol, chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid, sinapic acid and proanthocyanins. Conclusion In plants over-expressing both the transgene for DFR and the transgene for UGT, the synthesis of phenolic acids was diverted away from the anthocyanin branch. This represents a novel approach to manipulating phenolic acids synthesis in plants. PMID:18321380

  4. Antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of partridgeberry polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Khushwant S; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2015-02-01

    Partridgeberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) is a polyphenol-rich berry of the Ericaceous family, grown in Newfoundland and Labrador province of Canada. The aims of this study were to identify extraction solvents for the maximum recovery of polyphenols, to establish fractionation technique for isolation of major sub-classes of polyphenols, and to evaluate antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of the partridgeberry polyphenol preparations. The acidified 70% acetone was identified as the ideal solvent for the maximum recovery of polyphenols from partridgeberry. Further, aqueous two-phase extraction, column chromatography and UPLC-MS/MS were employed to produce three partridgeberry polyphenol fractions, rich in either, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols or flavonols. All the three PPF were potent antioxidants and displayed cytoprotective activity through the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway, scavenging of reactive oxygen species, and inhibition of cellular death. The current study suggests that partridgeberry has numerous potential health implications in both prevention and amelioration of various diseases involving oxidative stress. PMID:25172753

  5. Cytoprotective effect of selective small-molecule caspase inhibitors against staurosporine-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianghong; Wang, Yuren; Liang, Shuguang; Ma, Haiching

    2014-01-01

    Caspases are currently known as the central executioners of the apoptotic pathways. Inhibition of apoptosis and promotion of normal cell survival by caspase inhibitors would be a tremendous benefit for reducing the side effects of cancer therapy and for control of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s diseases. The objective of this study was to discover small-molecule caspase inhibitors with which to achieve cytoprotective effect. We completed the high-throughput screening of Bionet’s 37,500-compound library (Key Organics Limited, Camelford, Cornwall, UK) against caspase-1, -3, and -9 and successfully identified 43 initial hit compounds. The 43 hit compounds were further tested for cytoprotective activity against staurosporine-induced cell death in NIH3T3 cells. Nineteen compounds were found to have significant cytoprotective effects in cell viability assays. One of the compounds, RBC1023, was demonstrated to protect NIH3T3 cells from staurosporine-induced caspase-3 cleavage and activation. RBC1023 was also shown to protect against staurosporine-induced impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential. DNA microarray analysis demonstrated that staurosporine treatment induced broad global gene expression alterations, and RBC1023 co-treatment significantly restored these changes, especially of the genes that are related to cell growth and survival signaling such as Egr1, Cdc25c, cdkn3, Rhob, Nek2, and Taok1. Collectively, RBC1023 protects NIH3T3 cells against staurosporine-induced apoptosis via inhibiting caspase activity, restoring mitochondrial membrane potential, and possibly upregulating some cell survival-related gene expressions and pathways. PMID:24920883

  6. Radiobiologic Modeling of Cytoprotection Effects in Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Plataniotis, George A. . E-mail: gplatan@med.uth.gr; Dale, Roger G.

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential for mathematical modeling of the normal tissue-sparing effects of cytoprotective agents used in conjunction with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The linear quadratic model was modified to include a 'cytoprotection factor,' in two alternative ways. The published results on the incidence of treatment-related oral mucositis in patients treated for head-and-neck carcinoma using radiotherapy alone or combined with chemotherapy were assessed against the model to determine the likely values of the cytoprotection factor required to confer a reasonable degree of cytoprotection. Results: In both of the model alternatives considered, a cytoprotection factor value of {<=}0.85 was required for a clinically detectable degree of cytoprotection to be realized. A cytoprotection factor value of 0.85 would mean that the radiation sensitivity coefficients would be effectively reduced by 15% on account of the action of the cytoprotector. Conclusion: The incorporation of a cytoprotection factor into an existing linear quadratic method would allow a quantitative assessment of cytoprotection and could be useful in the design of future clinical studies.

  7. Genetic dissection of cardiac growth control pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLellan, W. R.; Schneider, M. D.

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac muscle cells exhibit two related but distinct modes of growth that are highly regulated during development and disease. Cardiac myocytes rapidly proliferate during fetal life but exit the cell cycle irreversibly soon after birth, following which the predominant form of growth shifts from hyperplastic to hypertrophic. Much research has focused on identifying the candidate mitogens, hypertrophic agonists, and signaling pathways that mediate these processes in isolated cells. What drives the proliferative growth of embryonic myocardium in vivo and the mechanisms by which adult cardiac myocytes hypertrophy in vivo are less clear. Efforts to answer these questions have benefited from rapid progress made in techniques to manipulate the murine genome. Complementary technologies for gain- and loss-of-function now permit a mutational analysis of these growth control pathways in vivo in the intact heart. These studies have confirmed the importance of suspected pathways, have implicated unexpected pathways as well, and have led to new paradigms for the control of cardiac growth.

  8. Cytoprotective dibenzoylmethane derivatives protect cells from oxidative stress-induced necrotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Hegedűs, Csaba; Lakatos, Petra; Kiss-Szikszai, Attila; Patonay, Tamás; Gergely, Szabolcs; Gregus, Andrea; Bai, Péter; Haskó, György; Szabó, Éva; Virág, László

    2013-06-01

    Screening of a small in-house library of 1863 compounds identified 29 compounds that protected Jurkat cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity. From the cytoprotective compounds eleven proved to possess antioxidant activity (ABTS radical scavenger effect) and two were found to inhibit poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), a cytotoxic pathway operating in severely injured cells. Four cytoprotective dibenzoylmethane (DBM) derivatives were investigated in more detail as they did not scavenge hydrogen peroxide nor did they inhibit PARylation. These compounds protected cells from necrotic cell death while caspase activation, a parameter of apoptotic cell death was not affected. Hydrogen peroxide activated extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and p38 MAP kinases but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The cytoprotective DBMs suppressed the activation of Erk1/2 but not that of p38. Cytoprotection was confirmed in another cell type (A549 lung epithelial cells), indicating that the cytoprotective effect is not cell type specific. In conclusion we identified DBM analogs as a novel class of cytoprotective compounds inhibiting ERK1/2 kinase and protecting from necrotic cell death by a mechanism independent of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition. PMID:23523665

  9. An evolutionarily conserved pathway controls proteasome homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Adrien; Bertolotti, Anne

    2016-08-11

    The proteasome is essential for the selective degradation of most cellular proteins, but how cells maintain adequate amounts of proteasome is unclear. Here we show that there is an evolutionarily conserved signalling pathway controlling proteasome homeostasis. Central to this pathway is TORC1, the inhibition of which induced all known yeast 19S regulatory particle assembly-chaperones (RACs), as well as proteasome subunits. Downstream of TORC1 inhibition, the yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase, Mpk1, acts to increase the supply of RACs and proteasome subunits under challenging conditions in order to maintain proteasomal degradation and cell viability. This adaptive pathway was evolutionarily conserved, with mTOR and ERK5 controlling the levels of the four mammalian RACs and proteasome abundance. Thus, the central growth and stress controllers, TORC1 and Mpk1/ERK5, endow cells with a rapid and vital adaptive response to adjust proteasome abundance in response to the rising needs of cells. Enhancing this pathway may be a useful therapeutic approach for diseases resulting from impaired proteasomal degradation. PMID:27462806

  10. New model of cytoprotection/adaptive cytoprotection in rats: endogenous small irritants, antiulcer agents and indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Sikirić, P; Seiwerth, S; Desković, S; Grabarević, Z; Marović, A; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Konjevoda, P; Jadrijević, S; Sosa, T; Perović, D; Aralica, G; Turković, B

    1999-01-01

    Adaptive cytoprotection in the stomach was originally defined by applying the exogenous irritants only. The contribution of endogenous irritants as inductors of initial lesions was not specially evaluated. No attempt was made to either focus antiulcer agent activity on adaptive cytoprotection, or split their 'cytoprotection' into complex adaptive cytoprotective activity and simple cytoprotective effects. Agents had so far not been applied simultaneously with the second challenge with ethanol (or irritant), when differences between cytoprotection and adaptive cytoprotection appear. Gastrojejunal anastomosis for 24 h in rats was introduced as new model for analyzing cytoprotection/adaptive cytoprotection. The contribution of the up-normal level of endogenous irritants and the endogenous small irritant-induced minor lesions during the adaptive cytoprotection were studied. The effect of late challenge with 96% ethanol in the presence of an up-normal level of endogenous irritants and endogenous small irritant-induced minor lesions was compared with results of classic studies of ethanol-induced gastric lesions in normal rats (1 ml/rat i.g.). Antiulcer agents or a prostaglandins-synthesis inhibitor, indomethacin, given once only in classic studies, were given at several points during injury induction: (i) surgery, (ii) mild ethanol, (iii) strong ethanol, (iv) strong ethanol applied after a suitable period following either mild ethanol or surgery). Their effects were compared in rats treated as follows: exogenous irritant studies (96% or 20% ethanol), exogenous/exogenous irritant studies (20% ethanol 1 h before 96% ethanol), endogenous irritant studies (gastrojejunal anastomosis for 24 h), and endogenous/exogenous irritant studies (gastrojejunal anastomosis for 24 h before 96% ethanol). Characteristic of the various irritants differed: the (preceding) small irritants (exogenous (i.e., mild ethanol in healthy intact rats) (exogenous irritant studies) vs. endogenous (e

  11. Gastric cytoprotection of bolivian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, E; Iglesias, I; Carretero, E; Villar, A

    2000-06-01

    Several extracts obtained from Bolivian medicinal plants have been evaluated for cytoprotective activity on ethanol-induced ulcer formation in rats. Preliminary results suggest, that the majority of the plants tested showed a significant activity, the aqueous extracts of Phoradendron crassifolium and Franseria artemisioides being the most active, exerting a cytoprotective activity comparable to atropine. The analysis of the chemical constituents of the extracts studied showed the presence of tanins, saponins, flavonoids and coumarins. PMID:10837995

  12. Optogenetic control of intracellular signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Cui, Bianxiao

    2014-01-01

    Cells employ a plethora of signaling pathways to make their life-and-death decisions. Extensive genetic, biochemical, and physiological studies have led to the accumulation of knowledge about signaling components and their interactions within signaling networks. These conventional approaches, though useful, lack the ability to control the spatial and temporal aspects of signaling processes. The recently emerged optogenetic tools open up exciting opportunities by enabling signaling regulation with superior temporal and spatial resolution, easy delivery, rapid reversibility, fewer off-target side effects, and the ability to dissect complex signaling networks. Here we review recent achievements in using light to control intracellular signaling pathways, and discuss future prospects for the field, including integration of new genetic approaches into optogenetics. PMID:25529484

  13. Clusterin/Akt Up-Regulation Is Critical for GATA-4 Mediated Cytoprotection of Mesenchymal Stem Cells against Ischemia Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bin; Yang, Yueting; Liu, Huan; Gong, Min; Millard, Ronald W.; Wang, Yi-Gang; Ashraf, Muhammad; Xu, Meifeng

    2016-01-01

    Background Clusterin (Clu) is a stress-responding protein with multiple biological functions. Our preliminary microarray studies show that clusterin was prominently upregulated in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) overexpressing GATA-4 (MSCGATA-4). We hypothesized that the upregulation of clusterin is involved in overexpression of GATA-4 mediated cytoprotection. Methods MSCs harvested from bone marrow of rats were transduced with GATA-4. The expression of clusterin in MSCs was further confirmed by real-time PCR and western blotting. Simulation of ischemia was achieved by exposure of MSCs to a hypoxic environment. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released from MSCs was served as a biomarker of cell injury and MTs uptake was used to estimate cell viability. Mitochondrial function was evaluated by measuring mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and caspase 3/7 activity. Results (1) Clusterin expression was up-regulated in MSCGATA-4 compared to control MSCs transfected with empty-vector (MSCNull). MSCGATA-4 were tolerant to 72 h hypoxia exposure as shown by reduced LDH release and higher MTs uptake. This protection was abrogated by transfecting Clu-siRNA into MSCGATA-4. (2) Exogenous clusterin significantly decreased LDH release and increased MSC survival in hypoxic environment. Moreover, ΔΨm was maintained and caspase 3/7 activity was reduced by clusterin in a concentration-dependent manner. (3) p-Akt expression in MSCs was upregulated following pre-treatment with clusterin, with no change in total Akt. Moreover, cytoprotection mediated by clusterin was partially abrogated by Akt inhibitor LY294002. Conclusions Clusterin/Akt signaling pathway is involved in GATA-4 mediated cytoprotection against hypoxia stress. It is suggested that clusterin may be therapeutically exploited in MSC based therapy for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26962868

  14. Induction of cytoprotective autophagy in PC-12 cells by cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qiwen; Zhu, Jiaqiao; Zhang, Kangbao; Jiang, Chenyang; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Yan; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong; Gu, Jianhong; Liu, Zongping

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •Cadmium can promote early upregulation of autophagy in PC-12 cells. •Autophagy precedes apoptosis in cadmium-treated PC-12 cells. •Cadmium-induced autophagy is cytoprotective in PC-12 cells. •Class III PI3K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathway plays a positive role in cadmium-triggered autophagy. -- Abstract: Laboratory data have demonstrated that cadmium (Cd) may induce neuronal apoptosis. However, little is known about the role of autophagy in neurons. In this study, cell viability decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in PC-12 cells. As cells were exposed to Cd, the levels of LC3-II proteins became elevated, specific punctate distribution of endogenous LC3-II increased, and numerous autophagosomes appeared, which suggest that Cd induced a high level of autophagy. In the late stages of autophagy, an increase in the apoptosis ratio was observed. Likewise, pre-treatment with chloroquine (an autophagic inhibitor) and rapamycin (an autophagic inducer) resulted in an increased and decreased percentage of apoptosis in contrast to other Cd-treated groups, respectively. The results indicate that autophagy delayed apoptosis in Cd-treated PC-12 cells. Furthermore, co-treatment of cells with chloroquine reduced autophagy and cell activity. However, rapamycin had an opposite effect on autophagy and cell activity. Moreover, class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways served a function in Cd-induced autophagy. The findings suggest that Cd can induce cytoprotective autophagy by activating class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways. In sum, this study strongly suggests that autophagy may serve a positive function in the reduction of Cd-induced cytotoxicity.

  15. Revised Robert's cytoprotection and adaptive cytoprotection and stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157. Possible significance and implications for novel mediator.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela

    2010-01-01

    The significance of cytoprotection and adaptive cytoprotection and the peptides importance remained to be not completely determined. BPC 157 is an anti-ulcer peptidergic agent, proven in clinical trials to be both safe in inflammatory bowel disease (PL-10, PLD-116, PL 14736) and wound healing, and stable in human gastric juice, with no toxicity being reported. It has a prominent effect on alcohol- lesions (i.e., induced acutely and chronically) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-lesions (while interestingly BPC 157 may both prevent and reverse adjuvant arthritis). To review the importance of BPC 157, this review focused on Robert's cytoprotection concept described in rat stomach, reviewing our evidence that may resolve whether the cytoprotection and adaptive cytoprotection is an uniform phenomenon or not; whether the phenomenon or phenomena are endogenous or not, depending on nature of the irritants (mild or strong); whether this may contribute to stomach mucosa defense either when threaten by various ulcerogens or afforded by various antiulcer agents; whether these phenomena are uniform in whole gastrointestinal tract or not; whether they are interrelated or not. Finally, the importance of the cytoprotection phenomena and cytoprotection activity for skin wound healing, and wound healing in general was challenged. Thereby, this review focused on BPC 157 role in cytoprotection and adaptative cytoprotection suggesting that it may be the essential endogenous mediator able to mediate both cytoprotective and adaptive cytoprotective response in stomach and the whole gastrointestinal tract with significant importance in wound healing as well. PMID:20166993

  16. Cytoprotection against neutrophil-delivered oxidant attack by antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Ottonello, L; Dallegri, F; Dapino, P; Pastorino, G; Sacchetti, C

    1991-11-27

    In the present study we have investigated the effect of six antibiotics (penicillin G, ceftazidime, cephotaxime, cephoperazon, ampicillin and piperacillin) on the neutrophil cytolytic activity by using a system constituted of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-triggered neutrophils and 51Cr-labelled lymphoblastoid Daudi target cells. The results demonstrate that five of these drugs (ceftazidime, cephotaxime, cephoperazon, ampicillin and piperacillin) are capable of inhibiting the neutrophil cytolytic activity by inactivating the hypochlorous acid (HOCl) generated extracellularly by the myeloperoxidase pathway and crucial to the target cell lysis. Penicillin G had no effect on neutrophil-mediated cytolysis. Thus, these data demonstrate that ceftazidime, cephotaxime, cephoperazon, ampicillin and piperacillin lower the neutrophil-mediated target cell damage by a HOCl-scavenging mechanism, suggesting a possible cytoprotective role for these drugs during infections. PMID:1662510

  17. Pathway Controlled Penetration (PcP)

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban; Zubelewicz, Aleksander

    2012-08-29

    The technical approach employs advanced computational simulation tools to demonstrate how current assets can destroy RWK-RFI-12-0001's HDBT, a tunnel complex with two portals built into the base of a granite mountain. The granite over layer is assumed to be 60 meters thick over both portals and 80 meters over the facility's mission space. Key S&T is the completed development of a highly innovative viscoplastic fracture material model, 3D parallel gas-fracture capabilities into FDEM, and a stochastic handling of the material properties. Phase I - Develop and validate code simulation tools: (1) develop, incorporate and validate AZ-Frac material model for granite; and (2) Develop and incorporate gas-driven-fracture modeling into LANL's FDEM MUNROU code; (3) Develop and incorporate stochastic features into FDEM modeling. Phase II - Conduct PcP analysis on above HDBT: (1) Acquire HDBT design data, develop simulation model; and (2) Evaluate and select most promising defeat alternative. Phase III - Deliver code, train Service target analysts, and conduct simulations against real world HDBTs. PcP uses advanced computer simulations to enhance HDBT functional defeat efforts. Newly developed material models that account for fractural energy coupled with the finite discrete element methodology (FDEM) will provide targeting packages that will create penetration avenues for current or future lethality options. This novel computational approach requires full 3D geologic and structure characterization as well as significant high performance computing capabilities. The goal is to distinctively alter the targeting paradigm by leveraging critical DoD assets along with insitu geologic strata. In other words, assets will utilize underground rock structure to their benefit by creating rubbilization zones that will allow pathway controlled penetration.

  18. Hydrogen Sulfide Is a Signaling Molecule and a Cytoprotectant

    PubMed Central

    Shibuya, Norihiro; Kimura, Yuka

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Accumulating evidence shows that hydrogen sulfide may function as a signaling molecule in processes such as neuromodulation in the brain and smooth muscle relaxation in the vascular system. It also has a cytoprotective effect, since it can protect neurons and cardiac muscle from oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion injury, respectively. Hydrogen sulfide can also modulate inflammation, insulin release, and angiogenesis. Recent Advances: The regulation of the activity of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase (3MST) along with cysteine aminotransferase (CAT), one of the H2S producing pathways, has been demonstrated. The production of H2S by the pathway, which is regulated by Ca2+ and facilitated by thioredoxin and dihydrolipoic acid, is also involved in H2S signaling as well as cytoprotection. Sulfur hydration of proteins by H2S has been proposed to modulate protein functions. H2S-sensitive fluorescent probes, which enable us to measure the localization of H2S in real time, have been developed. Critical Issues: The basal concentrations of H2S have recently been measured and found to be much lower than those initially reported. However, the concentration of H2S reached in stimulated cells, as well as the regulation of H2S producing enzymes is not well understood. It has been proposed that some of the effects of H2S on the regulation of enzymes and receptors might be explained through the properties of sulfane sulfur (S0), another form of active sulfur. Future Directions: The determination of H2S concentrations in activated cells using new methods including H2S-sensitive fluorescent probes, as well as the investigation of the effects of H2S using specific inhibitors, may provide better understanding of the physiological function of this molecule. Clarifying mechanisms of H2S activity may also facilitate the development of new therapeutic compounds. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 45–57. PMID:22229673

  19. Clinical Trials For Cytoprotection In Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Labiche, Lise A.; Grotta, James C.

    2004-01-01

    Summary: To date, many cytoprotective drugs have reached the stage of pivotal phase 3 efficacy trials in acute stroke patients. (Table 1) Unfortunately, throughout the neuroprotective literature, the phrase “failure to demonstrate efficacy” prevails as a common thread among the many neutral or negative trials, despite the largely encouraging results encountered in preclinical studies. The reasons for this discrepancy are multiple, and have been discussed by Dr. Zivin in his review. Many of the recent trials have addressed deficiencies of the previous ones with more rigorous trial design, including more specific patient selection criteria (ensure homogeneity of stroke location and severity), stratified randomization algorithms (time-to-treat), narrowed therapeutic time-window and pharmacokinetic monitoring. Current trials have also incorporated biologic surrogate markers of toxicity and outcome such as drug levels and neuroimaging. Lastly, multi-modal therapies and coupled cytoprotection/reperfusion strategies are being investigated to optimize tissue salvage. This review will focus on individual therapeutic strategies and we will emphasize what we have learned from these trials both in terms of trial design and the biologic effect (or lack thereof) of these agents. PMID:15717007

  20. Erythrocytosis: the HIF pathway in control.

    PubMed

    Franke, Kristin; Gassmann, Max; Wielockx, Ben

    2013-08-15

    Organisms living under aerobic conditions need oxygen for the metabolic conversion of nutrition into energy. With the appearance of increasingly complex animals, a specialized transport system (erythrocytes) arose during evolution to provide oxygen to virtually every single cell in the body. Moreover, in case of low environmental partial pressure of oxygen, the number of erythrocytes automatically increases to preserve sustained oxygen delivery. This process relies predominantly on the cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) and its transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), whereas the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) ubiquitin ligase as well as the oxygen-sensitive prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) represent essential regulators of this oxygen-sensing system. Deregulation of particular members of this pathway (eg, PHD2, HIF2α, VHL) lead to disorders in blood homeostasis as a result of insufficient (anemia) or excessive (erythrocytosis) red blood cell production. PMID:23733342

  1. Hsp27 binding to the 3′UTR of bim mRNA prevents neuronal death during oxidative stress–induced injury: a novel cytoprotective mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Dávila, David; Jiménez-Mateos, Eva M.; Mooney, Claire M.; Velasco, Guillermo; Henshall, David C.; Prehn, Jochen H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Neurons face a changeable microenvironment and therefore need mechanisms that allow rapid switch on/off of their cytoprotective and apoptosis-inducing signaling pathways. Cellular mechanisms that control apoptosis activation include the regulation of pro/antiapoptotic mRNAs through their 3′-untranslated region (UTR). This region holds binding elements for RNA-binding proteins, which can control mRNA translation. Here we demonstrate that heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) prevents oxidative stress–induced cell death in cerebellar granule neurons by specific regulation of the mRNA for the proapoptotic BH3-only protein, Bim. Hsp27 depletion induced by oxidative stress using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) correlated with bim gene activation and subsequent neuronal death, whereas enhanced Hsp27 expression prevented these. This effect could not be explained by proteasomal degradation of Bim or bim promoter inhibition; however, it was associated with a specific increase in the levels of bim mRNA and with its binding to Hsp27. Finally, we determined that enhanced Hsp27 expression in neurons exposed to H2O2 or glutamate prevented the translation of a reporter plasmid where bim-3′UTR mRNA sequence was cloned downstream of a luciferase gene. These results suggest that repression of bim mRNA translation through binding to the 3′UTR constitutes a novel cytoprotective mechanism of Hsp27 during stress in neurons. PMID:25187648

  2. Cytoprotective Effect of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin Produced in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    PubMed Central

    Kittur, Farooqahmed S.; Bah, Mamudou; Archer-Hartmann, Stephanie; Hung, Chiu-Yueh; Azadi, Parastoo; Ishihara, Mayumi; Sane, David C.; Xie, Jiahua

    2013-01-01

    Asialo-erythropoietin, a desialylated form of human erythropoietin (EPO) lacking hematopoietic activity, is receiving increased attention because of its broader protective effects in preclinical models of tissue injury. However, attempts to translate its protective effects into clinical practice is hampered by unavailability of suitable expression system and its costly and limit production from expensive mammalian cell-made EPO (rhuEPOM) by enzymatic desialylation. In the current study, we took advantage of a plant-based expression system lacking sialylating capacity but possessing an ability to synthesize complex N-glycans to produce cytoprotective recombinant human asialo-rhuEPO. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing asialo-rhuEPO were generated by stably co-expressing human EPO and β1,4-galactosyltransferase (GalT) genes under the control of double CaMV 35S and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate gene (GapC) promoters, respectively. Plant-produced asialo-rhuEPO (asialo-rhuEPOP) was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. Detailed N-glycan analysis using NSI-FTMS and MS/MS revealed that asialo-rhuEPOP bears paucimannosidic, high mannose-type and complex N-glycans. In vitro cytoprotection assays showed that the asialo-rhuEPOP (20 U/ml) provides 2-fold better cytoprotection (44%) to neuronal-like mouse neuroblastoma cells from staurosporine-induced cell death than rhuEPOM (21%). The cytoprotective effect of the asialo-rhuEPOP was found to be mediated by receptor-initiated phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and suppression of caspase 3 activation. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that plants are a suitable host for producing cytoprotective rhuEPO derivative. In addition, the general advantages of plant-based expression system can be exploited to address the cost and scalability issues related to its production. PMID:24124563

  3. Crosstalk between pathways enhances the controllability of signalling networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingjie; Jin, Suoqin; Zou, Xiufen

    2016-02-01

    The control of complex networks is one of the most challenging problems in the fields of biology and engineering. In this study, the authors explored the controllability and control energy of several signalling networks, which consisted of many interconnected pathways, including networks with a bow-tie architecture. On the basis of the theory of structure controllability, they revealed that biological mechanisms, such as cross-pathway interactions, compartmentalisation and so on make the networks easier to fully control. Furthermore, using numerical simulations for two realistic examples, they demonstrated that the control energy of normal networks with crosstalk is lower than in networks without crosstalk. These results indicate that the biological networks are optimally designed to achieve their normal functions from the viewpoint of the control theory. The authors' work provides a comprehensive understanding of the impact of network structures and properties on controllability. PMID:26816393

  4. Targeting Transmission Pathways for Emerging Zoonotic Disease Surveillance and Control.

    PubMed

    Loh, Elizabeth H; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Olival, Kevin J; Bogich, Tiffany L; Johnson, Christine K; Mazet, Jonna A K; Karesh, William; Daszak, Peter

    2015-07-01

    We used literature searches and a database of all reported emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) to analyze the most important transmission pathways (e.g., vector-borne, aerosol droplet transmitted) for emerging zoonoses. Our results suggest that at the broad scale, the likelihood of transmission occurring through any one pathway is approximately equal. However, the major transmission pathways for zoonoses differ widely according to the specific underlying drivers of EID events (e.g., land-use change, agricultural intensification). These results can be used to develop better targeting of surveillance for, and more effective control of newly emerged zoonoses in regions under different underlying pressures that drive disease emergence. PMID:26186515

  5. Control devices and steering strategies in pathway surgery.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chunman; Jelínek, Filip; Dodou, Dimitra; Breedveld, Paul

    2015-02-01

    For pathway surgery, that is, minimally invasive procedures carried out transluminally or through instrument-created pathways, handheld maneuverable instruments are being developed. As the accompanying control interfaces of such instruments have not been optimized for intuitive manipulation, we investigated the effect of control mode (1DoF or 2DoF), and control device (joystick or handgrip) on human performance in a navigation task. The experiments were conducted using the Endo-PaC (Endoscopic-Path Controller), a simulator that emulates the shaft and handle of a maneuverable instrument, combined with custom-developed software animating pathway surgical scenarios. Participants were asked to guide a virtual instrument without collisions toward a target located at the end of a virtual curved tunnel. The performance was assessed in terms of task completion time, path length traveled by the virtual instrument, motion smoothness, collision metrics, subjective workload, and personal preference. The results indicate that 2DoF control leads to faster task completion and fewer collisions with the tunnel wall combined with a strong subjective preference compared with 1DoF control. Handgrip control appeared to be more intuitive to master than joystick control. However, the participants experienced greater physical demand and had longer path lengths with handgrip than joystick control. PMID:25438958

  6. A controlled vocabulary for pathway entities and events.

    PubMed

    Jupe, Steve; Jassal, Bijay; Williams, Mark; Wu, Guanming

    2014-01-01

    Entities involved in pathways and the events they participate in require descriptive and unambiguous names that are often not available in the literature or elsewhere. Reactome is a manually curated open-source resource of human pathways. It is accessible via a website, available as downloads in standard reusable formats and via Representational State Transfer (REST)-ful and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) application programming interfaces (APIs). We have devised a controlled vocabulary (CV) that creates concise, unambiguous and unique names for reactions (pathway events) and all the molecular entities they involve. The CV could be reapplied in any situation where names are used for pathway entities and events. Adoption of this CV would significantly improve naming consistency and readability, with consequent benefits for searching and data mining within and between databases. Database URL: http://www.reactome.org. PMID:24951798

  7. Connexin 43 acts as a cytoprotective mediator of signal transduction by stimulating mitochondrial KATP channels in mouse cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rottlaender, Dennis; Boengler, Kerstin; Wolny, Martin; Michels, Guido; Endres-Becker, Jeannette; Motloch, Lukas J.; Schwaiger, Astrid; Buechert, Astrid; Schulz, Rainer; Heusch, Gerd; Hoppe, Uta C.

    2010-01-01

    Potassium (K+) channels in the inner mitochondrial membrane influence cell function and survival. Increasing evidence indicates that multiple signaling pathways and pharmacological actions converge on mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ (mitoKATP) channels and PKC to confer cytoprotection against necrotic and apoptotic cell injury. However, the molecular structure of mitoKATP channels remains unresolved, and the mitochondrial phosphoprotein(s) that mediate cytoprotection by PKC remain to be determined. As mice deficient in the main sarcolemmal gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) lack this cytoprotection, we set out to investigate a possible link among mitochondrial Cx43, mitoKATP channel function, and PKC activation. By patch-clamping the inner membrane of subsarcolemmal murine cardiac mitochondria, we found that genetic Cx43 deficiency, pharmacological connexin inhibition by carbenoxolone, and Cx43 blockade by the mimetic peptide 43GAP27 each substantially reduced diazoxide-mediated stimulation of mitoKATP channels. Suppression of mitochondrial Cx43 inhibited mitoKATP channel activation by PKC. MitoKATP channels of interfibrillar mitochondria, which do not contain any detectable Cx43, were insensitive to both PKC activation and diazoxide, further demonstrating the role of Cx43 in mitoKATP channel stimulation and the compartmentation of mitochondria in cell signaling. Our results define a role for mitochondrial Cx43 in protecting cardiac cells from death and provide a link between cytoprotective stimuli and mitoKATP channel opening, making Cx43 an attractive therapeutic target for protection against cell injury. PMID:20364086

  8. Control systems and coordination protocols of the secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Luini, Alberto; Mavelli, Gabriella; Jung, Juan; Cancino, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Like other cellular modules, the secretory pathway and the Golgi complex are likely to be supervised by control systems that support homeostasis and optimal functionality under all conditions, including external and internal perturbations. Moreover, the secretory apparatus must be functionally connected with other cellular modules, such as energy metabolism and protein degradation, via specific rules of interaction, or "coordination protocols". These regulatory devices are of fundamental importance for optimal function; however, they are generally "hidden" at steady state. The molecular components and the architecture of the control systems and coordination protocols of the secretory pathway are beginning to emerge through studies based on the use of controlled transport-specific perturbations aimed specifically at the detection and analysis of these internal regulatory devices. PMID:25374666

  9. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through themore » systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.« less

  10. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-01

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.

  11. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-01-01

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries. PMID:26686655

  12. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.

  13. Cell Size Checkpoint Control by the Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Su-Chiung; de los Reyes, Chris; Umen, James G

    2006-01-01

    Size control is essential for all proliferating cells, and is thought to be regulated by checkpoints that couple cell size to cell cycle progression. The aberrant cell-size phenotypes caused by mutations in the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor pathway are consistent with a role in size checkpoint control, but indirect effects on size caused by altered cell cycle kinetics are difficult to rule out. The multiple fission cell cycle of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii uncouples growth from division, allowing direct assessment of the relationship between size phenotypes and checkpoint function. Mutations in the C. reinhardtii RB homolog encoded by MAT3 cause supernumerous cell divisions and small cells, suggesting a role for MAT3 in size control. We identified suppressors of an mat3 null allele that had recessive mutations in DP1 or dominant mutations in E2F1, loci encoding homologs of a heterodimeric transcription factor that is targeted by RB-related proteins. Significantly, we determined that the dp1 and e2f1 phenotypes were caused by defects in size checkpoint control and were not due to a lengthened cell cycle. Despite their cell division defects, mat3, dp1, and e2f1 mutants showed almost no changes in periodic transcription of genes induced during S phase and mitosis, many of which are conserved targets of the RB pathway. Conversely, we found that regulation of cell size was unaffected when S phase and mitotic transcription were inhibited. Our data provide direct evidence that the RB pathway mediates cell size checkpoint control and suggest that such control is not directly coupled to the magnitude of periodic cell cycle transcription. PMID:17040130

  14. Organ Size Control by Hippo and TOR Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tumaneng, Karen; Russell, Ryan C.; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2013-01-01

    The determination of final organ size is a highly coordinated and complex process that relies on the precise regulation of cell number and/or cell size. Perturbation of organ size control contributes to many human diseases, including hypertrophy, degenerative diseases, and cancer. Hippo and TOR are among the key signaling pathways involved in the regulation of organ size through their respective functions in the regulation of cell number and cell size. Here, we review the general mechanisms that regulate organ growth, describe how Hippo and TOR control key aspects of growth, and discuss recent findings that highlight a possible coordination between Hippo and TOR in organ size regulation. PMID:22575479

  15. Control the kinetics and pathway of insulin fibril formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhongli; Jing, Benxin; Zhu, Y. Elaine

    2012-02-01

    Protein fibrils have been proposed as possible toxic agents for many amyloid related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, however the reaction pathway toward the amyloid fibrillation remain inadequately understood. In this work, we examine the conformational transition of human insulin as the model amyloid protein by single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging. By controlling the pH cycling, insulin monomer and oligomers are indentified at given pH variation condition. Furthermore, low frequency ac-electric fields are employed to control the insulin aggregation from its monomers in a microchannel. It is observed that lag time to induce insulin fibrillation can be significantly shortened, in compassion to the commonly used cooling and seeding methods, and exhibits a strong dependence on applied ac-field strength. Additionally, the structure of insulin aggregates under ac-electric fields is observed to be drastically different from that under the temperature control.

  16. Light-Mediated Remote Control of Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Priestman, Melanie A.; Lawrence, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Cell signaling networks display an extraordinary range of temporal and spatial plasticity. Our programmatic approach focuses on the construction of intracellular probes, including sensors, inhibitors, and functionally unique proteins that can be temporally and spatially controlled by the investigator even after they have entered the cell. We have designed and evaluated protein kinase sensors that furnish a fluorescent readout upon phosphorylation. In addition, since the sensors are inert (i.e. cannot be phosphorylated) until activated by light, they can be carried through the various stages of any given cell-based behavior without being consumed. Using this strategy, we have shown that PKCβ is essential for nuclear envelope breakdown and thus the transition from prophase to metaphase in actively dividing cells. Photoactivatable proteins furnish the means to initiate cellular signaling pathways with a high degree of spatial and temporal control. We have used this approach to demonstrate that cofilin serves as a component of the steering apparatus of the cell. Finally, inhibitors are commonly used to assess the participation of specific enzymes in signaling pathways that control cellular behavior. We have constructed a photo-deactivatable inhibitor, an inhibitory species that can be switched off with light. In the absence of light, the target enzyme is inactive due to the presence of the potent inhibitory molecule. Upon photolysis, the inhibitory molecule is destroyed and enzymatic activity is released. PMID:19765679

  17. Nanoparticle hardness controls the internalization pathway for drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ye; Zhang, Xianren; Cao, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle (NP)-based drug delivery systems offer fundamental advantages over current therapeutic agents that commonly display a longer circulation time, lower toxicity, specific targeted release, and greater bioavailability. For successful NP-based drug delivery it is essential that the drug-carrying nanocarriers can be internalized by the target cells and transported to specific sites, and the inefficient internalization of nanocarriers is often one of the major sources for drug resistance. In this work, we use the dissipative particle dynamics simulation to investigate the effect of NP hardness on their internalization efficiency. Three simplified models of NP platforms for drug delivery, including polymeric NP, liposome and solid NP, are designed here to represent increasing nanocarrier hardness. Simulation results indicate that NP hardness controls the internalization pathway for drug delivery. Rigid NPs can enter the cell by a pathway of endocytosis, whereas for soft NPs the endocytosis process can be inhibited or frustrated due to wrapping-induced shape deformation and non-uniform ligand distribution. Instead, soft NPs tend to find one of three penetration pathways to enter the cell membrane via rearranging their hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. Finally, we show that the interaction between nanocarriers and drug molecules is also essential for effective drug delivery.

  18. Metabolic control of YAP and TAZ by the mevalonate pathway.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Giovanni; Ruggeri, Naomi; Specchia, Valeria; Cordenonsi, Michelangelo; Mano, Miguel; Dupont, Sirio; Manfrin, Andrea; Ingallina, Eleonora; Sommaggio, Roberta; Piazza, Silvano; Rosato, Antonio; Piccolo, Stefano; Del Sal, Giannino

    2014-04-01

    The YAP and TAZ mediators of the Hippo pathway (hereafter called YAP/TAZ) promote tissue proliferation and organ growth. However, how their biological properties intersect with cellular metabolism remains unexplained. Here, we show that YAP/TAZ activity is controlled by the SREBP/mevalonate pathway. Inhibition of the rate-limiting enzyme of this pathway (HMG-CoA reductase) by statins opposes YAP/TAZ nuclear localization and transcriptional responses. Mechanistically, the geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate produced by the mevalonate cascade is required for activation of Rho GTPases that, in turn, activate YAP/TAZ by inhibiting their phosphorylation and promoting their nuclear accumulation. The mevalonate-YAP/TAZ axis is required for proliferation and self-renewal of breast cancer cells. In Drosophila melanogaster, inhibition of mevalonate biosynthesis and geranylgeranylation blunts the eye overgrowth induced by Yorkie, the YAP/TAZ orthologue. In tumour cells, YAP/TAZ activation is promoted by increased levels of mevalonic acid produced by SREBP transcriptional activity, which is induced by its oncogenic cofactor mutant p53. These findings reveal an additional layer of YAP/TAZ regulation by metabolic cues. PMID:24658687

  19. Molecular regulatory mechanisms of osteoclastogenesis through cytoprotective enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Fumiaki; Kanako, Itohiya; Yamaguchi, Yuuki; Fukaya, Sari; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Wada, Satoshi; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2016-08-01

    It has been reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, take part in osteoclast differentiation as intra-cellular signaling molecules. The current assumed signaling cascade from RANK to ROS production is RANK, TRAF6, Rac1, and then Nox. The target molecules of ROS in RANKL signaling remain unclear; however, several reports support the theory that NF-κB signaling could be the crucial downstream signaling molecule of RANKL-mediated ROS signaling. Furthermore, ROS exert cytotoxic effects such as peroxidation of lipids and phospholipids and oxidative damage to proteins and DNA. Therefore, cells have several protective mechanisms against oxidative stressors that mainly induce cytoprotective enzymes and ROS scavenging. Three well-known mechanisms regulate cytoprotective enzymes including Nrf2-, FOXO-, and sirtuin-dependent mechanisms. Several reports have indicated a crosslink between FOXO- and sirtuin-dependent regulatory mechanisms. The agonists against the regulatory mechanisms are reported to induce these cytoprotective enzymes successfully. Some of them inhibit osteoclast differentiation and bone destruction via attenuation of intracellular ROS signaling. In this review article, we discuss the above topics and summarize the current information available on the relationship between cytoprotective enzymes and osteoclastogenesis. PMID:26795736

  20. Molecular regulatory mechanisms of osteoclastogenesis through cytoprotective enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Fumiaki; Kanako, Itohiya; Yamaguchi, Yuuki; Fukaya, Sari; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Wada, Satoshi; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, take part in osteoclast differentiation as intra-cellular signaling molecules. The current assumed signaling cascade from RANK to ROS production is RANK, TRAF6, Rac1, and then Nox. The target molecules of ROS in RANKL signaling remain unclear; however, several reports support the theory that NF-κB signaling could be the crucial downstream signaling molecule of RANKL-mediated ROS signaling. Furthermore, ROS exert cytotoxic effects such as peroxidation of lipids and phospholipids and oxidative damage to proteins and DNA. Therefore, cells have several protective mechanisms against oxidative stressors that mainly induce cytoprotective enzymes and ROS scavenging. Three well-known mechanisms regulate cytoprotective enzymes including Nrf2-, FOXO-, and sirtuin-dependent mechanisms. Several reports have indicated a crosslink between FOXO- and sirtuin-dependent regulatory mechanisms. The agonists against the regulatory mechanisms are reported to induce these cytoprotective enzymes successfully. Some of them inhibit osteoclast differentiation and bone destruction via attenuation of intracellular ROS signaling. In this review article, we discuss the above topics and summarize the current information available on the relationship between cytoprotective enzymes and osteoclastogenesis. PMID:26795736

  1. Viral Evasion and Manipulation of Host RNA Quality Control Pathways.

    PubMed

    Hogg, J Robert

    2016-08-15

    Viruses have evolved diverse strategies to maximize the functional and coding capacities of their genetic material. Individual viral RNAs are often used as substrates for both replication and translation and can contain multiple, sometimes overlapping open reading frames. Further, viral RNAs engage in a wide variety of interactions with both host and viral proteins to modify the activities of important cellular factors and direct their own trafficking, packaging, localization, stability, and translation. However, adaptations increasing the information density of small viral genomes can have unintended consequences. In particular, viral RNAs have developed features that mark them as potential targets of host RNA quality control pathways. This minireview focuses on ways in which viral RNAs run afoul of the cellular mRNA quality control and decay machinery, as well as on strategies developed by viruses to circumvent or exploit cellular mRNA surveillance. PMID:27226372

  2. Inhibition of caspase-9 aggravates acute liver injury through suppression of cytoprotective autophagy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Lin, Bin; Pan, Jing Fei; Liong, Emily C; Xu, Ai Min; Youdim, Moussa; Fung, Man Lung; So, Kwok Fai; Tipoe, George L

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver disease is characterized by inflammation, oxidative stress and necrosis, which can greatly influence the long term clinical outcome and lead to liver failure or cancer. Here, we initially demonstrated the beneficial role of caspase-9-dependent autophagy in acute liver injury. Treatment with caspase-9 inhibitor z-LEHD-FMK in HepG2 cells, AML12 cells and C57BL/b6N mice exacerbated CCl4-induced acute hepatocellular damage, and also down-regulated autophagy markers expression levels, indicating that caspase-9 inhibition may aggravate acute liver damage by suppressing cytoprotective autophagy. CCl4 was used as an acute liver injury inducer which caused oxidative stress and apoptosis through up-regulation of HIF-1α, as well as triggered hepatic inflammation and necroptosis via TLR4/NF-κB pathway. Caspase-9 Thr125 site was firstly phosphorylated by ERK1/2 which subsequently activated the cytoprotective autophagy process to attenuate acute CCl4 injury. Caspase-9 inhibition further aggravated hepatic necroptosis through NF-κB expression, leading to increased pro-inflammatory mediators levels, suggesting a protective role of caspase-9-dependent autophagy in the inflammatory process as well as its possibility being a new therapeutic target for the treatment of acute liver injury. PMID:27580936

  3. Inhibition of caspase-9 aggravates acute liver injury through suppression of cytoprotective autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Lin, Bin; Pan, Jing Fei; Liong, Emily C.; Xu, Ai Min; Youdim, Moussa; Fung, Man Lung; So, Kwok Fai; Tipoe, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver disease is characterized by inflammation, oxidative stress and necrosis, which can greatly influence the long term clinical outcome and lead to liver failure or cancer. Here, we initially demonstrated the beneficial role of caspase-9-dependent autophagy in acute liver injury. Treatment with caspase-9 inhibitor z-LEHD-FMK in HepG2 cells, AML12 cells and C57BL/b6N mice exacerbated CCl4-induced acute hepatocellular damage, and also down-regulated autophagy markers expression levels, indicating that caspase-9 inhibition may aggravate acute liver damage by suppressing cytoprotective autophagy. CCl4 was used as an acute liver injury inducer which caused oxidative stress and apoptosis through up-regulation of HIF-1α, as well as triggered hepatic inflammation and necroptosis via TLR4/NF-κB pathway. Caspase-9 Thr125 site was firstly phosphorylated by ERK1/2 which subsequently activated the cytoprotective autophagy process to attenuate acute CCl4 injury. Caspase-9 inhibition further aggravated hepatic necroptosis through NF-κB expression, leading to increased pro-inflammatory mediators levels, suggesting a protective role of caspase-9-dependent autophagy in the inflammatory process as well as its possibility being a new therapeutic target for the treatment of acute liver injury. PMID:27580936

  4. Mechanisms of PECAM-1-mediated cytoprotection and implications for cancer cell survival.

    PubMed

    Bergom, Carmen; Gao, Cunji; Newman, Peter J

    2005-10-01

    Defects in apoptotic pathways can promote cancer development and cause cancers to become resistant to chemotherapy. The cell adhesion and signaling molecule PECAM-1 has been shown to potently suppress apoptosis in a variety of cellular systems. PECAM-1 expression has been reported on a variety of human malignancies-especially hematopoietic and vascular cell cancers-but the significance of this expression has not been fully explored. The ability of PECAM-1 to inhibit apoptosis makes it an attractive candidate as a molecule that may promote cancer development and/or confer resistance to chemotherapeutic treatment. The exact mechanisms by which PECAM-1 mediates its cytoprotection have not been fully defined, but its anti-apoptotic effects have been shown to require both homophilic binding and intracellular signaling via its immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) domains. In this review, we will discuss the data regarding PECAM-1's anti-apoptotic effects and ways in which this cytoprotection may be clinically relevant to the development and/or treatment of hematologic malignancies that express this vascular cell-specific surface molecule. PMID:16194886

  5. TGF-β2 treatment enhances cytoprotective factors released from embryonic stem cells and inhibits apoptosis in infarcted myocardium.

    PubMed

    Singla, Dinender K; Singla, Reetu D; Lamm, Stephanie; Glass, Carley

    2011-04-01

    We investigated whether factors released from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells primed with and without transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 inhibit iodoacetic acid (IAA)- and H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis in the cell culture system as well as after transplantation in the infarcted heart. We generated conditioned media (CMs) from ES cells primed with and without TGF-β2 and determined their effects on IAA- and H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells. We also transplanted both ES-CMs in the infarcted heart to determine the effects on apoptosis and cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI) at day (D)1 and D14. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, apoptotic ELISA, and cell viability data demonstrated significantly (P < 0.05) reduced apoptosis with ES-CM compared with controls in both cell culture models. Moreover, TGF-β2-primed ES-CM (T-ES-CM) demonstrated enhanced beneficial effects, with further reduced (P < 0.05) apoptosis compared with ES-CM, suggesting the a presence of additional cytoprotective released factors after TGF-β2 treatment. Next, our in vivo apoptosis data suggested significant decrease in apoptosis with both ES-CMs compared with MI alone at D1 and D14. Notably, T-ES-CM demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of apoptosis and fibrosis with improved cardiac function compared with ES-CM at D14, whereas no such effects were observed at D1. Next, we confirmed that apoptosis is mediated through a prosurvival Akt pathway. Moreover, we determined that after TGF-β2 treatment there was a two- to fivefold increase in cytoprotective released factors (interleukin-10, stem cell factor, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1, and VEGF) with T-ES-CM compared with ES-CM. In conclusion, we suggest that factors released from ES cells with and without TGF-β2 treatment contain antiapoptotic factors that inhibit apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. We also suggest that T-ES-CM demonstrates additional

  6. Controlling a spillover pathway with the molecular cork effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Jewell, April D.; Stamatakis, Michail; Boucher, Matthew B.; Lewis, Emily A.; Murphy, Colin J.; Kyriakou, Georgios; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2013-06-01

    Spillover of reactants from one active site to another is important in heterogeneous catalysis and has recently been shown to enhance hydrogen storage in a variety of materials. The spillover of hydrogen is notoriously hard to detect or control. We report herein that the hydrogen spillover pathway on a Pd/Cu alloy can be controlled by reversible adsorption of a spectator molecule. Pd atoms in the Cu surface serve as hydrogen dissociation sites from which H atoms can spillover onto surrounding Cu regions. Selective adsorption of CO at these atomic Pd sites is shown to either prevent the uptake of hydrogen on, or inhibit its desorption from, the surface. In this way, the hydrogen coverage on the whole surface can be controlled by molecular adsorption at a minority site, which we term a ‘molecular cork’ effect. We show that the molecular cork effect is present during a surface catalysed hydrogenation reaction and illustrate how it can be used as a method for controlling uptake and release of hydrogen in a model storage system.

  7. (Controls of the plant endomembrane-secretory pathway): Performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This project has been directed towards an understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which higher plants control the composition of the plasma membrane, through analysis of the biosynthesis, modification and targeting of plasma membrane proteins and glycoproteins. We have undertaken an identification of molecular markers both for the plasma membrane and for the biosynthetic processes, and the development of techniques for the isolation of conditional-lethal mutants defective at defined stages within the endomembrane-secretory pathway responsible for the biosynthesis, modification and targeting of plasma membrane proteins and glycoproteins. For the identification of molecular markers for the plasma membrane, monoclonal antibodies directed against epitopes present at the plant cell surface have been developed. Novel molecular markers for the plant plasma membrane and for the endomembrane-secretory pathway have been sought. Methods for the analysis of beta-glucuronidase in higher plants have been developed. These technologies have involved the use of flow cytometry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. In addition, we have been investigating the feasibility of expression of animal plasma membrane marker proteins in plants, specifically the VSV G-protein. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Neurophysiological Pathways to Obesity: Below Awareness and Beyond Individual Control

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah A.

    2008-01-01

    A global obesity epidemic is occurring simultaneously with ongoing increases in the availability and salience of food in the environment. Obesity is increasing across all socioeconomic groups and educational levels and occurs even among individuals with the highest levels of education and expertise in nutrition and related fields. Given these circumstances, it is plausible that excessive food consumption occurs in ways that defy personal insight or are below individual awareness. The current food environment stimulates automatic reflexive responses that enhance the desire to eat and increase caloric intake, making it exceedingly difficult for individuals to resist, especially because they may not be aware of these influences. This article identifies 10 neurophysiological pathways that can lead people to make food choices subconsciously or, in some cases, automatically. These pathways include reflexive and uncontrollable neurohormonal responses to food images, cues, and smells; mirror neurons that cause people to imitate the eating behavior of others without awareness; and limited cognitive capacity to make informed decisions about food. Given that people have limited ability to shape the food environment individually and no ability to control automatic responses to food-related cues that are unconsciously perceived, it is incumbent upon society as a whole to regulate the food environment, including the number and types of food-related cues, portion sizes, food availability, and food advertising. PMID:18586908

  9. Paradoxical control properties of enzymes within pathways: can activation cause an enzyme to have increased control?

    PubMed Central

    Kholodenko, B N; Brown, G C

    1996-01-01

    It is widely assumed that within a metabolic pathway inhibition of an enzyme causes the control exerted by that enzyme over the flux through its own reaction to increase, whereas activation causes its control to decrease. This assumption forms the basis of a number of experimental methods. For a pathway conceptually divided into two enzyme groups connected via a single metabolite we have derived a general condition under which this assumption is false, and thus the pathway shows paradoxical control behaviour, i.e. increased control with activation and decreased control with inhibition of an enzyme or group of enzymes. Paradoxical control behaviour occurs widely when enzyme activity is altered by changing Km (if an enzyme is already close to saturation by its substrate), but may also occur with changes in Vmax. when the elasticity to the linking metabolite increases with its concentration (as in some cases of sigmoidal and exponential kinetics or for reactions catalysed by isoenzymes). These findings suggest that enzymes with sigmoidal kinetics may have low control in the absence of activation, but may gain control with activation, and thus have beneficial regulatory properties. PMID:8615766

  10. Fault-controlled hydrocarbon pathways in the Monterey Formation, California

    SciTech Connect

    Dholkakia, S.K.; Aydin, A.; Pollard, D.D.; Zoback, M.D.

    1998-08-01

    Field studies of low-permeability siliceous shale units of the Monterey Formation in the southern San Joaquin Valley and coastal California show evidence for fault control on hydrocarbon transport important for both migration and production. Shearing along preexisting discontinuities, such as bedding planes and joints, locally increases permeability in the sheared zone and surrounding fractured rock. As the rock is subjected to shear, it begins to systematically fragment and subsequently to brecciate, thereby creating interconnected voids for hydrocarbon transport. A outcrop-based conceptual model for the development of hydrocarbon pathways in the Monterey Formation is applied to the subsurface using formation microscanner (FMS) data and core. Bed-parallel breccia zones are identified in the Antelope Shale at Buena Vista Hills oil field.

  11. A Central Neural Pathway Controlling Odor Tracking in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Gemma; Levy, Peter; Chan, K.L. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Chemotaxis is important for the survival of most animals. How the brain translates sensory input into motor output beyond higher olfactory processing centers is largely unknown. We describe a group of excitatory neurons, termed Odd neurons, which are important for Drosophila larval chemotaxis. Odd neurons receive synaptic input from projection neurons in the calyx of the mushroom body and project axons to the central brain. Functional imaging shows that some of the Odd neurons respond to odor. Larvae in which Odd neurons are silenced are less efficient at odor tracking than controls and sample the odor space more frequently. Larvae in which the excitability of Odd neurons is increased are better at odor intensity discrimination and odor tracking. Thus, the Odd neurons represent a distinct pathway that regulates the sensitivity of the olfactory system to odor concentrations, demonstrating that efficient chemotaxis depends on processing of odor strength downstream of higher olfactory centers. PMID:25653345

  12. Metabolite Valves: Dynamic Control of Metabolic Flux for Pathway Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Kristala

    2015-03-01

    Microbial strains have been successfully engineered to produce a wide variety of chemical compounds, several of which have been commercialized. As new products are targeted for biological synthesis, yield is frequently considered a primary driver towards determining feasibility. Theoretical yields can be calculated, establishing an upper limit on the potential conversion of starting substrates to target compounds. Such yields typically ignore loss of substrate to byproducts, with the assumption that competing reactions can be eliminated, usually by deleting the genes encoding the corresponding enzymes. However, when an enzyme encodes an essential gene, especially one involved in primary metabolism, deletion is not a viable option. Reducing gene expression in a static fashion is possible, but this solution ignores the metabolic demand needed for synthesis of the enzymes required for the desired pathway. We have developed Metabolite valves to address this challenge. The valves are designed to allow high flux through the essential enzyme during an initial period where growth is favored. Following an external perturbation, enzyme activity is then reduced, enabling a higher precursor pool to be diverted towards the pathway of interest. We have designed valves with control at both the transcriptional and post-translational levels. In both cases, key enzymes in glucose metabolism are regulated, and two different compounds are targeted for heterologous production. We have measured increased concentrations of intracellular metabolites once the valve is closed, and have demonstrated that these increased pools lead to increased product yields. These metabolite valves should prove broadly useful for dynamic control of metabolic flux, resulting in improvements in product yields.

  13. The cytoprotective capacity of processed human cardiac extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Kappler, Benjamin; Anic, Petra; Becker, Matthias; Bader, Andreas; Klose, Kristin; Klein, Oliver; Oberwallner, Barbara; Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Falk, Volkmar; Stamm, Christof

    2016-07-01

    Freshly isolated human cardiac extracellular matrix sheets (cECM) have been shown to support stem cell proliferation and tissue-specific lineage commitment. We now developed a protocol for standardized production of durable, bio-functional hcECM microparticles and corresponding hydrogel, and tested its cytoprotective effects on contractile cells subjected to ischemia-like conditions. Human ventricular myocardium was decellularized by a 3-step protocol, including Tris/EDTA, SDS and serum incubation (cECM). Following snap-freezing and lyophilization, microparticles were created and characterized by laser diffraction, dynamic image analysis (DIA), and mass spectrometry. Moreover, cECM hydrogel was produced by pepsin digestion. Baseline cell-support characteristics were determined using murine HL-1 cardiomyocytes, and the cytoprotective effects of ECM products were tested under hypoxia and glucose/serum deprivation. In cECM, glycoproteins (thrombospondin 1, fibronectin, collagens and nidogen-1) and proteoglycans (dermatopontin, lumican and mimecan) were preserved, but residual intracellular and blood-borne proteins were also detected. The median particle feret diameter was 66 μm (15-157 μm) by laser diffraction, and 57 μm (20-182 μm) by DIA with crystal violet staining. HL-1 cells displayed enhanced metabolic activity (39 ± 12 %, P < 0.05) and proliferation (16 ± 3 %, P < 0.05) when grown on cECM microparticles in normoxia. During simulated ischemia, cECM microparticles exerted distinct cytoprotective effects (MTS conversion, 240 ± 32 %; BrdU uptake, 45 ± 14 %; LDH release, -72 ± 7 %; P < 0.01, each). When cECM microparticles were solubilized to form a hydrogel, the cytoprotective effect was initially abolished. However, modifying the preparation process (pepsin digestion at pH 2 and 25 °C, 1 mg/ml final cECM concentration) restored the cytoprotective cECM activity. Extracellular matrix from human myocardium can be processed to

  14. Thrombomodulin exerts cytoprotective effect on low-dose UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iwata, Masahiro; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Kawabata, Hisashi; Ito, Takashi; Mera, Kentaro; Biswas, Kamal Krishna; Tancharoen, Salunya; Higashi, Yuko; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Hashiguchi, Teruto

    2008-12-12

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an endothelial cell surface anticoagulant glycoprotein that performs antimetastatic, angiogenic, adhesive, and anti-inflammatory functions in various tissues. It is also expressed in epidermal keratinocytes. We found that a physiological dose (10 mJ/cm{sup 2}) of mid-wavelength ultraviolet irradiation (UVB) significantly induced TM expression via the p38mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/cyclic AMP response element (CRE) signaling pathway in the epidermal keratinocyte cell line HaCaT; this shows that TM regulates the survival of HaCaT cells. SB203580, a p38MAPK inhibitor, significantly decreased TM expression and the viability of cells exposed to UVB. Furthermore, overexpression of TM markedly increased cell viability, and it was abrogated by TM small interfering RNA (siRNA), suggesting that TM may play an important role in exerting cytoprotective effect on epidermal keratinocytes against low-dose UVB.

  15. Cytochrome P450 2A5 and bilirubin: Mechanisms of gene regulation and cytoprotection

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sangsoo Daniel; Antenos, Monica; Squires, E. James; Kirby, Gordon M.

    2013-07-15

    Bilirubin (BR) has recently been identified as the first endogenous substrate for cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5) and it has been suggested that CYP2A5 plays a major role in BR clearance as an alternative mechanism to BR conjugation by uridine-diphosphate glucuronyltransferase 1A1. This study investigated the mechanisms of Cyp2a5 gene regulation by BR and the cytoprotective role of CYP2A5 in BR hepatotoxicity. BR induced CYP2A5 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner in primary mouse hepatocytes. BR treatment also caused nuclear translocation of Nuclear factor-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in hepatocytes. In reporter assays, BR treatment of primary hepatocytes transfected with a Cyp2a5 promoter-luciferase reporter construct resulted in a 2-fold induction of Cyp2a5 reporter activity. Furthermore, cotransfection of the hepatocytes with a Nrf2 expression vector without BR treatment resulted in an increase in Cyp2a5 reporter activity of approximately 2-fold and BR treatment of Nrf2 cotransfectants further increased reporter activity by 4-fold. In addition, site-directed mutation of the ARE in the reporter construct completely abolished both the BR- and Nrf2-mediated increases in reporter activity. The cytoprotective role of CYP2A5 against BR-mediated apoptosis was also examined in Hepa 1–6 cells that lack endogenous CYP2A5. Transient overexpression of CYP2A5 partially blocked BR-induced caspase-3 cleavage in Hepa 1–6 cells. Furthermore, in vitro degradation of BR was increased by microsomes from Hepa 1–6 cells overexpressing CYP2A5 compared to control cells transfected with an empty vector. Collectively, these results suggest that Nrf2-mediated CYP2A5 transactivation in response to BR may provide an additional mechanism for adaptive cytoprotection against BR hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • The mechanism of Cyp2a5 gene regulation by BR was investigated. • The cytoprotective role of CYP2A5 in BR hepatotoxicity was determined. • BR

  16. Cyclic Dinucleotide-Controlled Regulatory Pathways in Streptomyces Species

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The cyclic dinucleotides cyclic 3′,5′-diguanylate (c-di-GMP) and cyclic 3′,5′-diadenylate (c-di-AMP) have emerged as key components of bacterial signal transduction networks. These closely related second messengers follow the classical general principles of nucleotide signaling by integrating diverse signals into regulatory pathways that control cellular responses to changing environments. They impact distinct cellular processes, with c-di-GMP having an established role in promoting bacterial adhesion and inhibiting motility and c-di-AMP being involved in cell wall metabolism, potassium homeostasis, and DNA repair. The involvement of c-dinucleotides in the physiology of the filamentous, nonmotile streptomycetes remained obscure until recent discoveries showed that c-di-GMP controls the activity of the developmental master regulator BldD and that c-di-AMP determines the level of the resuscitation-promoting factor A(RpfA) cell wall-remodelling enzyme. Here, I summarize our current knowledge of c-dinucleotide signaling in Streptomyces species and highlight the important roles of c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP in the biology of these antibiotic-producing, multicellular bacteria. PMID:26216850

  17. Cytoprotective effect of 20S-Rg3 on benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Poon, Po Ying; Kwok, Hoi Hin; Yue, Patrick Y K; Yang, Mildred S M; Mak, Nai Ki; Wong, Chris K C; Wong, Ricky N S

    2012-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ubiquitously existing in the environment. Its metabolites have been shown to cause DNA damage and cellular dysfunction in humans. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a Chinese medicinal herb, and ginsenosides are the main active constituent of ginseng. Accumulating evidence had indicated that ginseng extract and ginsenosides possess cytoprotective effects. In this study, the protective effect of ginsenosides on BaP-induced DNA damage in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and HepG2 cells was investigated. The genotoxic effect of BaP was measured by the comet assay. Results showed that tail moment was increased in BaP-treated cells, but cotreatment of ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 can significantly decrease BaP-induced DNA damage. A downstream mechanistic study revealed that 20(S)-Rg3 increased the gene expression of an important phase II detoxifying enzyme NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase 1. The effect was also associated with the activation of protein kinase B (Akt) and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). These results indicated that 20(S)-Rg3 might protect HDFs from BaP-induced DNA damage through the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/Nrf2 pathway. Our results also demonstrated that 20(S)-Rg3 is a functional ligand of pregnane X receptor (PXR), a nuclear receptor that mediates the induction of drug clearance pathways. Subsequent knockdown of PXR expression by small interfering RNA confirmed the involvement of PXR on the protective effects of 20(S)-Rg3 against BaP-induced DNA damage. In summary, ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 can protect against BaP-induced genotoxicity in human cells, suggesting that ginseng may serve as a natural cytoprotective agent against environmental carcinogens. PMID:21956953

  18. Adaptive cytoprotection in the small intestine: role of mucus.

    PubMed

    Cepinskas, G; Specian, R D; Kvietys, P R

    1993-05-01

    Gastric mucosal injury induced by strong irritants can be dramatically reduced by pretreating the mucosa with mild forms of the same irritant. This phenomenon has been termed "adaptive cytoprotection." The aim of the present study was to use in vivo and in vitro approaches to study adaptive cytoprotection in the small intestine using physiologically relevant concentrations of oleic acid. Anesthetized rats were instrumented for perfusion of the proximal jejunum with 10 or 40 mM oleic acid (in 20 mM sodium taurocholate). Mucosal epithelial integrity was continuously monitored by measuring the blood-to-lumen clearance of 51Cr-labeled EDTA. Perfusion of the lumen with 40 mM oleic acid produced a 10-fold increase in 51Cr-EDTA clearance, which was not affected by a previous perfusion with 10 mM oleic acid, i.e., no adaptive cytoprotection. In another series of experiments, oleic acid was placed in the lumen rather than perfused, and mucosal epithelial integrity was assessed histologically. Intraluminal placement of 10 mM oleic acid resulted in the generation of a mucus layer over the epithelium. Subsequent placement of 40 mM oleic acid did not produce significant epithelial cell injury, i.e., adaptive cytoprotection. In in vitro studies, mucin (1, 5, and 10 mg/ml) was layered over confluent monolayers of Caco-2 cells prior to addition of 2 mM oleic acid in 4 mM sodium taurocholate. The epithelial cell injury induced by oleic acid was inhibited by mucin in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies indicate that mucin does not prevent, but simply delays, the onset of cell injury.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8498518

  19. [Cytoprotective Effects of Phytoestrogen Genistein against Cancer Cells].

    PubMed

    Fedotcheva, T A; Shirokih, K E; Matyushin, A I; Rzheznikov, V M; Kovtun, V Y; Shimanovskii, N L

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the effect of synthetic isoflavonoid genistein against cancer HeLa cells, which contain estrogen receptors alpha but not beta, with the aim to determine the cytotoxic or cytoprotective effect of genistein. It is shown that the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of genistein (0.2 mM) for the growth inhibition of HeLa cells is at least ten times higher than that one of tamoxifen and cisplatin--drugs, used in cervical cancer treatment. In micromolar concentrations (0.1-10 μM) genistein decreased the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin and tamoxifen. The decreased Bax mRNA expression and increased Bcl-2 mRNA expression after incubation .of the cells with genistein also demonstrate the cytoprotective, anti-apoptotic effect of genistein. Genistein, even in high concentrations, had no effect on membrane potential and calcium capacity of isolated mitochondria, without activating the opening of Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial pore. Thus, these data demonstrate a cytoprotective effect of isoflavonoid genistein against this type of cancer cells. PMID:26841510

  20. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157, cimetidine, ranitidine, bromocriptine, and atropine effect in cysteamine lesions in totally gastrectromized rats: a model for cytoprotective studies.

    PubMed

    Sikirić, P; Mikus, D; Seiwerth, S; Grabarević, Z; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Jagić, V; Turković, B; Rotkvić, I; Mise, S; Zoricić, I; Perić, J; Konjevoda, P; Perović, D; Jurina, L; Hanzevacki, M; Separović, J; Gjurasin, M; Jadrijević, S; Jelovac, N; Miklić, P; Buljat, G; Marović, A

    1997-05-01

    A superior effectiveness in various lesion assays was noted for the novel pentadecapeptide BPC 157, originated from human gastric juice protein (BPC) and claimed to be a cytoprotective agent. From this viewpoint, as a previously untreated experimental improvement to create an acid-free environmental for cytoprotection studies, total gastrectomy was done 24 hr before the ulcerogenic procedure. In the absence of stomach and gastric acid, the damaging effects of cysteamine (400 mg/kg subcutaneously, death 24 hr thereafter), to date thought to be an acid-related duodenal ulcerogen, and the BPC 157 cytoprotective effect (10 microg or 10 ng/kg intraperitoneally) were further challenged. BPC 157 was compared with reference agents [cimetidine (50), ranitidine (10), omeprazole (10), bromocriptine (10) and atropine (10) (mg/kg intraperitoneally, 1 hr before cysteamine] known to be also cytoprotective. In naive rats, with intact stomach, all of them showed a strong beneficial effect. Interestingly, in gastrectomized animals, the application of BPC 157 or the reference agents before cysteamine significantly prevented the otherwise severe duodenal lesion development noted in the control gastrectomized cysteamine rats. In groups without cysteamine, no lesions were noted (laparotomy, gastrectomy only, 24 or 48 hr postsurgical period), nor was lesion potentiation seen in cysteamine-treated laparotomized animals. In summary, these findings--equal damaging effect of cysteamine and equal protection of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and reference agents in gastrectomized and rats with intact stomach--seem to be particularly relevant for a cytoprotective viewpoint. Without a stomach, the cysteamine damaging effect was convincingly defined as an essential gastric acid-independent injury (analogous to ethanol gastric lesions). Likewise, a high "cytoprotective capacity," apparently acid independent, common for all tested agents (novel pentadecapeptide BPC 157, cimetidine, ranitidine, omeprazole

  1. Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Effects of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Leaves Phenolic Fraction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Bin; Kim, Do-Hyung; Je, Jae-Young

    2015-03-01

    Phenolic rich ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from lotus leaves was prepared and its bioactive components, antioxidant and cytoprotective effects were investigated. EAF showed high total phenolic content and flavonoid content and contained rutin (11,331.3±4.5 mg/100 g EAF), catechin (10,853.8±5.8 mg/100 g EAF), sinapic acid (1,961.3±5.6 mg/100 g EAF), chlorogenic acid (631.9±2.3 mg/100 g EAF), syringic acid (512.3±2.5 mg/100 g EAF), and quercetin (415.0±2.1 mg/100 g EAF). EAF exerted the IC50 of 4.46 μg/mL and 5.35 μg/mL toward DPPH and ABTS cation radicals, respectively, and showed strong reducing power, which was better than that of ascorbic acid, a positive control. Additionally, EAF protected hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage indicated by the conversion of supercoiled pBR322 plasmid DNA to the open circular form and inhibited lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acid in a linoleic acid emulsion. In cultured hepatocytes, EAF exerted a cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress by inhibiting intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and membrane lipid peroxidation. In addition, depletion of glutathione under oxidative stress was remarkably restored by treatment with EAF. The results suggest that EAF have great potential to be used against oxidative stress-induced health conditions. PMID:25866746

  2. Cereblon is recruited to aggresome and shows cytoprotective effect against ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sawamura, Naoya; Wakabayashi, Satoru; Matsumoto, Kodai; Yamada, Haruka; Asahi, Toru

    2015-09-01

    Cereblon (CRBN) is encoded by a candidate gene for autosomal recessive nonsyndromic intellectual disability (ID). The nonsense mutation, R419X, causes deletion of 24 amino acids at the C-terminus of CRBN, leading to mild ID. Although abnormal CRBN function may be associated with ID disease onset, its cellular mechanism is still unclear. Here, we examine the role of CRBN in aggresome formation and cytoprotection. In the presence of a proteasome inhibitor, exogenous CRBN formed perinuclear inclusions and co-localized with aggresome markers. Endogenous CRBN also formed perinuclear inclusions under the same condition. Treatment with a microtubule destabilizer or an inhibitor of the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of CRBN blocked formation of CRBN inclusions. Biochemical analysis showed CRBN containing inclusions were high-molecular weight, ubiquitin-positive. CRBN overexpression in cultured cells suppressed cell death induced by proteasome inhibitor. Furthermore, knockdown of endogenous CRBN in cultured cells increased cell death induced by proteasome inhibitor, compared with control cells. Our results show CRBN is recruited to aggresome and has functional roles in cytoprotection against ubiquitin-proteasome system impaired condition. PMID:26188093

  3. Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Effects of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Leaves Phenolic Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da-Bin; Kim, Do-Hyung; Je, Jae-Young

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic rich ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from lotus leaves was prepared and its bioactive components, antioxidant and cytoprotective effects were investigated. EAF showed high total phenolic content and flavonoid content and contained rutin (11,331.3±4.5 mg/100 g EAF), catechin (10,853.8±5.8 mg/100 g EAF), sinapic acid (1,961.3±5.6 mg/100 g EAF), chlorogenic acid (631.9±2.3 mg/100 g EAF), syringic acid (512.3±2.5 mg/100 g EAF), and quercetin (415.0±2.1 mg/100 g EAF). EAF exerted the IC50 of 4.46 μg/mL and 5.35 μg/mL toward DPPH and ABTS cation radicals, respectively, and showed strong reducing power, which was better than that of ascorbic acid, a positive control. Additionally, EAF protected hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage indicated by the conversion of supercoiled pBR322 plasmid DNA to the open circular form and inhibited lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acid in a linoleic acid emulsion. In cultured hepatocytes, EAF exerted a cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress by inhibiting intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and membrane lipid peroxidation. In addition, depletion of glutathione under oxidative stress was remarkably restored by treatment with EAF. The results suggest that EAF have great potential to be used against oxidative stress-induced health conditions. PMID:25866746

  4. Antioxidant's cytoprotective effects on rotator cuff tenofibroblasts exposed to aminoamide local anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ra Jeong; Hah, Young-Sool; Kang, Jae-Ran; Park, Hyung Bin

    2015-07-01

    Local anesthetics (LA) are among the drugs most frequently used for musculoskeletal problems, in procedures ranging from diagnosis to postoperative pain control. The cytotoxicity of LA is an emerging area of concern. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cyanidin, an antioxidant, exerts cytoprotective effects against tenofibroblast death induced by LA. Primary cultured human rotator cuff tenofibroblasts were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of these LA: Ropivacaine (0.075%), Bupivacaine (0.05%), and Lidocaine (0.2%). The effects of cyanidin (100 μg/ml) on the cytotoxicity induced by these LA were investigated. Cell viability, ROS production, caspase-3/7 activity, and expressions of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), phospho-p38, phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and cleaved PARP-1 were evaluated. Exposure to LA significantly induced cell death (p < 0.001), ROS production (p ≤ 0.04), the activation of caspase-3/7 (p < 0.001), and the increased expressions of phospho-ERK, phospho-p38, phospho-JNK, and cleaved PARP-1. These LA-induced cytotoxic effects were reduced by cyanidin. These data indicate that cyanidin, an antioxidant, has cytoprotective effects against LA-induced cytotoxicity to rotator cuff tenofibroblasts. PMID:25639557

  5. Novel cytoprotective mechanism of anti-parkinsonian drug deprenyl: PI3K and Nrf2-derived induction of antioxidative proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaso, Kazuhiro . E-mail: kazuhiro@grape.med.tottori-u.ac.jp; Nakamura, Chiharu; Sato, Hiromi; Imamura, Keiko; Takeshima, Takao; Nakashima, Kenji

    2006-01-20

    Neuroprotection has received considerable attention as a strategy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Deprenyl (Selegiline) is a promising candidate for neuroprotection; however, its cytoprotective mechanism has not been fully clarified. Here, we report a novel cytoprotective mechanism of deprenyl involving PI3K and Nrf2-mediated induction of oxidative stress-related proteins. Deprenyl increased the expression of HO-1, PrxI, TrxI, TrxRxI, {gamma}GCS, and p62/A170 in SH-SY5Y cells. Deprenyl also induced the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and increased the binding activity of Nrf2 to the enhancer region of human genomic HO-1. The Nrf2-mediated induction of antioxidative molecules was controlled by PI3K. Indeed, furthermore, neurotrophin receptor TrkB was identified as an upstream signal for PI3K-Nrf2 activation by deprenyl. These results suggest that the cytoprotective effect of deprenyl is, in part, dependent on Nrf2-mediated induction of antioxidative proteins, suggesting that activation of the PI3K-Nrf2 system may be a useful therapeutic strategy for PD.

  6. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, M. R.; Haves, P.; McDonald, S. C.; Torcellini, P.; Hansen, D.; Holmberg, D. R.; Roth, K. W.

    2005-04-01

    This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies.

  7. Mechanism of phytoestrogen puerarin-mediated cytoprotection following oxidative injury: Estrogen receptor-dependent up-regulation of PI3K/Akt and HO-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2008-12-15

    Phytoestrogens are polyphenolic non-steroidal plant compounds with estrogen-like biological activity. The phytoestrogen puerarin, the main isoflavone glycoside found in the root of Pueraria lobata, has been used for various medicinal purposes in traditional Chinese medicines for thousands of years. Recent studies have indicated that the estrogen receptor (ER), through interaction with p85, regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, revealing a physiologic, non-nuclear function of ER that may be relevant in cytoprotection. In this study, we demonstrate that the phytoestrogen puerarin inhibits tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative injury via an ER-dependent G{beta}1/PI3K/Akt and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway. Pretreatment of Hepa1c1c7 and HepG2 cells with puerarin significantly reduced t-BHP-induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent cell death. Also, puerarin up-regulated HO-1 expression and this expression conferred cytoprotection against oxidative injury induced by t-BHP. Moreover, puerarin induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, which is upstream of puerarin-induced HO-1 expression, and PI3K activation, a pathway that is involved in induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, HO-1 expression and cytoprotection. Puerarin-induced up-regulation of HO-1 and cytoprotection against t-BHP were abolished by silencing Nrf2 expression with specific siRNA. Also, puerarin-mediated increases in PI3K activation and HO-1 induction were reversed by co-treatment with ICI 182,780 and pertussis toxin. Taken together, these results suggest that puerarin augments cellular antioxidant defense capacity through ER-dependent HO-1 induction via the G{beta}1/PI3K/Akt-Nrf2 signaling pathway, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress.

  8. Control of Proliferation and Cancer Growth by the Hippo Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Ehmer, Ursula; Sage, Julien

    2016-02-01

    The control of cell division is essential for normal development and the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Abnormal cell proliferation is associated with multiple pathological states, including cancer. Although the Hippo/YAP signaling pathway was initially thought to control organ size and growth, increasing evidence indicates that this pathway also plays a major role in the control of proliferation independent of organ size control. In particular, accumulating evidence indicates that the Hippo/YAP signaling pathway functionally interacts with multiple other cellular pathways and serves as a central node in the regulation of cell division, especially in cancer cells. Here, recent observations are highlighted that connect Hippo/YAP signaling to transcription, the basic cell-cycle machinery, and the control of cell division. Furthermore, the oncogenic and tumor-suppressive attributes of YAP/TAZ are reviewed, which emphasizes the relevance of the Hippo pathway in cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 14(2); 127-40. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26432795

  9. [Tanakan as a multimodal cytoprotective factor in general medicine].

    PubMed

    Naprienko, M V; Esin, R G; Mukhametova, E R; Esin, O R; Smekalkina, L V

    2015-01-01

    The first section of the review provides recent results regarding the mechanism of the action of a standardized extract of ginkgo biloba leaves EGb761 (tanakan), its effects on apoptosis, neuroplasticity, hemorheology, inhibition of the amyloid genesis and inflammatory response it cause, activation of proteasomes in conformational diseases. Current experimental and clinical results suggest that EGb761 (tanakan) is a high-effective cytoprotective agent in cognitive disorders of various genesis, cardiovascular diseases (in the process of rehabilitation and as a medicine capable to reduce the volume of brain damage in stroke). The effect of tanakan on anxiety and depression in patients with cognitive impairment should be considered as clinically significant. PMID:27030838

  10. Molecular Evolution of Multiple-Level Control of Heme Biosynthesis Pathway in Animal Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Chu, Ying; Lin, Tzung-Yi; Hu, Chin-Hwa; Pai, Tun-Wen; Liu, Hsin-Fu; Lin, Han-Jia; Cases, Ildeofonso; Rojas, Ana; Sanchez, Mayka; You, Zong-Ye; Hsu, Ming-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of enzymes in a metabolic pathway can occur not only through changes in amino acid sequences but also through variations in transcriptional activation, mRNA splicing and mRNA translation. The heme biosynthesis pathway, a linear pathway comprised of eight consecutive enzymes in animals, provides researchers with ample information for multiple types of evolutionary analyses performed with respect to the position of each enzyme in the pathway. Through bioinformatics analysis, we found that the protein-coding sequences of all enzymes in this pathway are under strong purifying selection, from cnidarians to mammals. However, loose evolutionary constraints are observed for enzymes in which self-catalysis occurs. Through comparative genomics, we found that in animals, the first intron of the enzyme-encoding genes has been co-opted for transcriptional activation of the genes in this pathway. Organisms sense the cellular content of iron, and through iron-responsive elements in the 5′ untranslated regions of mRNAs and the intron-exon boundary regions of pathway genes, translational inhibition and exon choice in enzymes may be enabled, respectively. Pathway product (heme)-mediated negative feedback control can affect the transport of pathway enzymes into the mitochondria as well as the ubiquitin-mediated stability of enzymes. Remarkably, the positions of these controls on pathway activity are not ubiquitous but are biased towards the enzymes in the upstream portion of the pathway. We revealed that multiple-level controls on the activity of the heme biosynthesis pathway depend on the linear depth of the enzymes in the pathway, indicating a new strategy for discovering the molecular constraints that shape the evolution of a metabolic pathway. PMID:24489775

  11. Transdominant genetic analysis of a growth control pathway

    PubMed Central

    Caponigro, Giordano; Abedi, Majid R.; Hurlburt, Anthony P.; Maxfield, Andrew; Judd, Weston; Kamb, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    Genetic selections that use proteinaceous transdominant inhibitors encoded by DNA libraries to cause mutant phenocopies may facilitate genetic analysis in traditionally nongenetic organisms. We performed a selection for random short peptides and larger protein fragments (collectively termed “perturbagens”) that inhibit the yeast pheromone response pathway. Peptide and protein fragment perturbagens that permit cell division in the presence of pheromone were recovered. Two perturbagens were derived from proteins required for pheromone response, and an additional two were derived from proteins that may negatively influence the pheromone response pathway. Furthermore, three known components of the pathway were identified as probable perturbagen targets based on physical interaction assays. Thus, by selection for transdominant inhibitors of pheromone response, multiple pathway components were identified either directly as gene fragments or indirectly as the likely targets of specific perturbagens. These results, combined with the results of previous work [Holzmayer, T. A., Pestov, D. G. & Roninson, I. B. (1992) Nucl. Acids. Res. 20, 711–717; Whiteway, M., Dignard, D. & Thomas, D. Y. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 9410–9414; and Gudkov, A. V., Kazarov, A. R., Thimmapaya, R., Axenovich, S. A., Mazo, I. A. & Roninson, I. B. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 3744–3748], suggest that transdominant genetic analysis of the type described here will be broadly applicable. PMID:9636180

  12. Beyond microarrays: Finding key transcription factors controlling signal transduction pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kel, Alexdander; Voss, Nico; Jauregui, Ruy; Kel-Margoulis, Olga; Wingender, Edgar

    2006-01-01

    Background Massive gene expression changes in different cellular states measured by microarrays, in fact, reflect just an "echo" of real molecular processes in the cells. Transcription factors constitute a class of the regulatory molecules that typically require posttranscriptional modifications or ligand binding in order to exert their function. Therefore, such important functional changes of transcription factors are not directly visible in the microarray experiments. Results We developed a novel approach to find key transcription factors that may explain concerted expression changes of specific components of the signal transduction network. The approach aims at revealing evidence of positive feedback loops in the signal transduction circuits through activation of pathway-specific transcription factors. We demonstrate that promoters of genes encoding components of many known signal transduction pathways are enriched by binding sites of those transcription factors that are endpoints of the considered pathways. Application of the approach to the microarray gene expression data on TNF-alpha stimulated primary human endothelial cells helped to reveal novel key transcription factors potentially involved in the regulation of the signal transduction pathways of the cells. Conclusion We developed a novel computational approach for revealing key transcription factors by knowledge-based analysis of gene expression data with the help of databases on gene regulatory networks (TRANSFAC® and TRANSPATH®). The corresponding software and databases are available at . PMID:17118134

  13. 3D co-cultures of keratinocytes and melanocytes and cytoprotective effects on keratinocytes against reactive oxygen species by insect virus-derived protein microcrystals.

    PubMed

    Shimabukuro, Junji; Yamaoka, Ayako; Murata, Ken-Ichi; Kotani, Eiji; Hirano, Tomoko; Nakajima, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Goichi; Mori, Hajime

    2014-09-01

    Stable protein microcrystals called polyhedra are produced by certain insect viruses. Cytokines, such as fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), can be immobilized within polyhedra. Here, we investigated three-dimensional (3D) co-cultures of keratinocytes and melanocytes on collagen gel containing FGF-2 and FGF-7 polyhedra. Melanocytes were observed to reside at the base of the 3D cell culture and melanin was also typically observed in the lower layer. The 3D cell culture model with FGF-2 and FGF-7 polyhedra was a useful in vitro model of the epidermis due to effective melanogenesis, proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. FGF-7 polyhedra showed a potent cytoprotective effect when keratinocytes were treated with menadione, which is a generator of reactive oxygen species. The cytoprotective effect was activated by the inositol triphosphate kinase-Akt pathway leading to upregulation of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and peroxiredoxin 6. PMID:25063093

  14. Cytoprotective effect of prostaglandin E2 in irradiated rat ileum

    SciTech Connect

    Tomas-de la Vega, J.E.; Banner, B.F.; Hubbard, M.; Boston, D.L.; Thomas, C.W.; Straus, A.K.; Roseman, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation injury to the gastrointestinal tract is an infrequent but major clinical problem. Results of previous studies have shown that prostaglandins provide cytoprotection of the gastrointestinal mucosa against a variety of noxious agents, although, prior to this study, the protection against radiation exposure had not been documented. Exteriorized segment of Sprague-Dawley rat ileum was radiated with 10 and 15 Gy (/sup 137/Cs). One group of rats was pretreated with prostaglandin E2 one hour before and 24 hours after radiation injury. The rats were sacrificed three and five days following radiation injury. Morphometric measurement of mucosal thickness, villous height, crypt of Lieberkuehn height and number of mitoses per square millimeter swath of tissue were analyzed. Also, /sup 125/IUdR and /sup 3/HTdR were injected in a group of rats radiated with 15 Gy (/sup 137/Cs). /sup 125/IUdR counts per minute per milligram of dry weight and /sup 3/HTdR labeled cells were counted and analyzed. The morphometric measurements and radioactive labeled tissue counts suggest that prostaglandin E2 has a cytoprotective effect upon irradiated rat ileum. Speculations about the possible mechanism and usefulness of this observation are included.

  15. Implication of Mitochondrial Cytoprotection in Human Islet Isolation and Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Mendoza-Elias, Joshua E.; Qi, Meirigeng; Harvat, Tricia A.; Ahn, Sang Joon; Lee, Dongyoung; Gutierrez, Diana; Jeon, Hyojin; Paushter, Daniel; Oberholzer, José

    2012-01-01

    Islet transplantation is a promising therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus; however, success rates in achieving both short- and long-term insulin independence are not consistent, due in part to inconsistent islet quality and quantity caused by the complex nature and multistep process of islet isolation and transplantation. Since the introduction of the Edmonton Protocol in 2000, more attention has been placed on preserving mitochondrial function as increasing evidences suggest that impaired mitochondrial integrity can adversely affect clinical outcomes. Some recent studies have demonstrated that it is possible to achieve islet cytoprotection by maintaining mitochondrial function and subsequently to improve islet transplantation outcomes. However, the benefits of mitoprotection in many cases are controversial and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This article summarizes the recent progress associated with mitochondrial cytoprotection in each step of the islet isolation and transplantation process, as well as islet potency and viability assays based on the measurement of mitochondrial integrity. In addition, we briefly discuss immunosuppression side effects on islet graft function and how transplant site selection affects islet engraftment and clinical outcomes. PMID:22611495

  16. Flavonolignan 2,3-dehydroderivatives: Preparation, antiradical and cytoprotective activity.

    PubMed

    Pyszková, Michaela; Biler, Michal; Biedermann, David; Valentová, Kateřina; Kuzma, Marek; Vrba, Jiří; Ulrichová, Jitka; Sokolová, Romana; Mojović, Miloš; Popović-Bijelić, Ana; Kubala, Martin; Trouillas, Patrick; Křen, Vladimír; Vacek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The protective constituents of silymarin, an extract from Silybum marianum fruits, have been extensively studied in terms of their antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we explore the electron-donor properties of the major silymarin flavonolignans. Silybin (SB), silychristin (SCH), silydianin (SD) and their respective 2,3-dehydroderivatives (DHSB, DHSCH and DHSD) were oxidized electrochemically and their antiradical/antioxidant properties were investigated. Namely, Folin-Ciocalteau reduction, DPPH and ABTS(+) radical scavenging, inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation and cytoprotective effects against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced damage to a human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line were evaluated. Due to the presence of the highly reactive C3-OH group and the C-2,3 double bond (ring C) allowing electron delocalization across the whole structure in the 2,3-dehydroderivatives, these compounds are much more easily oxidized than the corresponding flavonolignans SB, SCH and SD. This finding was unequivocally confirmed not only by experimental approaches, but also by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The hierarchy in terms of ability to undergo electrochemical oxidation (DHSCH~DHSD>DHSB>SCH/SD>SB) was consistent with their antiradical activities, mainly DPPH scavenging, as well as in vitro cytoprotection of HepG2 cells. The results are discussed in the context of the antioxidant vs. prooxidant activities of flavonolignans and molecular interactions in complex biological systems. PMID:26582372

  17. Cytoprotective effects of graphene oxide for mammalian cells against internalization of exogenous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Mi-Hee; Lee, Jieon; Kim, Young-Kwan; Jang, Hongje; Lee, Kyung Eun; Park, Hyerim; Do Heo, Won; Jeon, Hyesung; Choi, Insung S.; Lee, Younghoon; Min, Dal-Hee

    2013-01-01

    To date, graphene oxide (GO), an oxidized version of graphene, has been utilized in many research areas including bioapplications such as drug delivery and bioanalysis. Unlike other spherical or polygonal nanomaterials, GO exhibits a sheet-like structure, which in itself suggests interesting applications based on its shape. Here we show that GO can protect cells from internalization of toxic hydrophobic molecules, nanoparticles, and nucleic acids such as siRNA and plasmid DNA by interacting with cell surface lipid bilayers without noticeably reducing cell viability. Furthermore, the cytoprotective effect of GO against the internalization of extracellular materials enabled spatial control over gene transfection through region-selective gene delivery only into GO-untreated cells, and not into the GO-treated cells.To date, graphene oxide (GO), an oxidized version of graphene, has been utilized in many research areas including bioapplications such as drug delivery and bioanalysis. Unlike other spherical or polygonal nanomaterials, GO exhibits a sheet-like structure, which in itself suggests interesting applications based on its shape. Here we show that GO can protect cells from internalization of toxic hydrophobic molecules, nanoparticles, and nucleic acids such as siRNA and plasmid DNA by interacting with cell surface lipid bilayers without noticeably reducing cell viability. Furthermore, the cytoprotective effect of GO against the internalization of extracellular materials enabled spatial control over gene transfection through region-selective gene delivery only into GO-untreated cells, and not into the GO-treated cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr33800a

  18. Signaling Pathways That Control mRNA Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Roopa; Denmon, Andria P.

    2013-01-01

    Cells regulate their genomes mainly at the level of transcription and at the level of mRNA decay. While regulation at the level of transcription is clearly important, the regulation of mRNA turnover by signaling networks is essential for a rapid response to external stimuli. Signaling pathways result in posttranslational modification of RNA binding proteins by phosphorylation, ubiquitination, methylation, acetylation etc. These modifications are important for rapid remodeling of dynamic ribonucleoprotein complexes and triggering mRNA decay. Understanding how these posttranslational modifications alter gene expression is therefore a fundamental question in biology. In this review we highlight recent findings on how signaling pathways and cell cycle checkpoints involving phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and arginine methylation affect mRNA turnover. PMID:23602935

  19. Trophic Status Controls Mercury Methylation Pathways in Northern Peats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, M. E.; Zhang, L.; Barkay, T.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Schaefer, J.; Hu, H.; Sidelinger, W.; Liu, X.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) can be produced by a variety of microbes including syntrophs, methanogens, acetogens, and fermenters, besides sulfate (SO42-, SRB) and iron- reducing bacteria. Many freshwater wetlands are deficient in electron acceptors that support the traditional respiratory pathways of methylation, yet they accumulate high levels of MeHg. To investigate methylation in these wetlands and to connect these pathways with vegetation and microbial communities, incubation experiments were conducted using peats from 26 sites in Alaska. The sites were clustered using multiple factor analysis based on pH, temp, CH4 and volatile fatty acids production rates, and surface vegetation composition. Three clusters were generated and corresponded to three trophic levels that were manifested by three pH levels (3.5, 4.5, and 5). Hg methylation activity in laboratory incubations was determined using the short-lived radioisotope 197Hg. In the low pH, Sphagnum-dominated cluster, methylation rates were less than 1% day-1 and likely conducted by primary fermenters. Conversely, the high pH trophic cluster dominated by Carex aquatilis and active syntrophy exhibited Hg methylation rates as high as 12% day-1. In intermediate sites, rich in Sphagnum magellanicum with less Carex, a gradient in syntrophy and Hg methylation paths was observed. Amendments with process-stimulators and inhibitors revealed no evidence of SO42- reduction, but suggested that SRB, metabolizing either syntrophically with methanogens and/or by fermentation, likely methylated Hg. While on going metatranscriptomics studies are required to verify the role of syntrophs, fermenters, and methanogens as methylators, these results revealed that Hg methylation pathways change greatly along trophic gradients with a dominance of respiratory pathways in mineral-rich sites, syntrophy dominance in intermediate sites, and fermentation dominance in nutrient-poor sites.

  20. The Aedes aegypti Toll Pathway Controls Dengue Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Zhiyong; Ramirez, Jose L.; Dimopoulos, George

    2008-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue viruses, utilizes its innate immune system to ward off a variety of pathogens, some of which can cause disease in humans. To date, the features of insects' innate immune defenses against viruses have mainly been studied in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which appears to utilize different immune pathways against different types of viruses, in addition to an RNA interference–based defense system. We have used the recently released whole-genome sequence of the Ae. aegypti mosquito, in combination with high-throughput gene expression and RNA interference (RNAi)-based reverse genetic analyses, to characterize its response to dengue virus infection in different body compartments. We have further addressed the impact of the mosquito's endogenous microbial flora on virus infection. Our findings indicate a significant role for the Toll pathway in regulating resistance to dengue virus, as indicated by an infection-responsive regulation and functional assessment of several Toll pathway–associated genes. We have also shown that the mosquito's natural microbiota play a role in modulating the dengue virus infection, possibly through basal-level stimulation of the Toll immune pathway. PMID:18604274

  1. Sensitive cells: enabling tools for static and dynamic control of microbial metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Cress, Brady F; Trantas, Emmanouil A; Ververidis, Filippos; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos Ag

    2015-12-01

    Natural metabolic pathways are dynamically regulated at the transcriptional, translational, and protein levels. Despite this, traditional pathway engineering has relied on static control strategies to engender changes in metabolism, most likely due to ease of implementation and perceived predictability of design outcome. Increasingly in recent years, however, metabolic engineers have drawn inspiration from natural systems and have begun to harness dynamically controlled regulatory machinery to improve design of engineered microorganisms for production of specialty and commodity chemicals. Here, we review recent enabling technologies for engineering static control over pathway expression levels, and we discuss state-of-the-art dynamic control strategies that have yielded improved outcomes in the field of microbial metabolic engineering. Furthermore, we emphasize design of a novel class of genetically encoded controllers that will facilitate automatic, transient tuning of synthetic and endogenous pathways. PMID:26453934

  2. The evolution of control and distribution of adaptive mutations in a metabolic pathway.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kevin M; Rausher, Mark D

    2010-02-01

    In an attempt to understand whether it should be expected that some genes tend to be used disproportionately often by natural selection, we investigated two related phenomena: the evolution of flux control among enzymes in a metabolic pathway and properties of adaptive substitutions in pathway enzymes. These two phenomena are related by the principle that adaptive substitutions should occur more frequently in enzymes with greater flux control. Predicting which enzymes will be preferentially involved in adaptive evolution thus requires an evolutionary theory of flux control. We investigated the evolution of enzyme control in metabolic pathways with two models of enzyme kinetics: metabolic control theory (MCT) and Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics (SK). Our models generate two main predictions for pathways in which reactions are moderately to highly irreversible: (1) flux control will evolve to be highly unequal among enzymes in a pathway and (2) upstream enzymes evolve a greater control coefficient then those downstream. This results in upstream enzymes fixing the majority of beneficial mutations during adaptive evolution. Once the population has reached high fitness, the trend is reversed, with the majority of neutral/slightly deleterious mutations occurring in downstream enzymes. These patterns are the result of three factors (the first of these is unique to the MCT simulations while the other two seem to be general properties of the metabolic pathways): (1) the majority of randomly selected, starting combinations of enzyme kinetic rates generate pathways that possess greater control for the upstream enzymes compared to downstream enzymes; (2) selection against large pools of intermediate substrates tends to prevent majority control by downstream enzymes; and (3) equivalent mutations in enzyme kinetic rates have the greatest effect on flux for enzymes with high levels of flux control, and these enzymes will accumulate adaptive substitutions, strengthening their

  3. Metabolic Control Analysis: A Tool for Designing Strategies to Manipulate Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma; Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Olín-Sandoval, Viridiana

    2008-01-01

    The traditional experimental approaches used for changing the flux or the concentration of a particular metabolite of a metabolic pathway have been mostly based on the inhibition or over-expression of the presumed rate-limiting step. However, the attempts to manipulate a metabolic pathway by following such approach have proved to be unsuccessful. Metabolic Control Analysis (MCA) establishes how to determine, quantitatively, the degree of control that a given enzyme exerts on flux and on the concentration of metabolites, thus substituting the intuitive, qualitative concept of rate limiting step. Moreover, MCA helps to understand (i) the underlying mechanisms by which a given enzyme exerts high or low control and (ii) why the control of the pathway is shared by several pathway enzymes and transporters. By applying MCA it is possible to identify the steps that should be modified to achieve a successful alteration of flux or metabolite concentration in pathways of biotechnological (e.g., large scale metabolite production) or clinical relevance (e.g., drug therapy). The different MCA experimental approaches developed for the determination of the flux-control distribution in several pathways are described. Full understanding of the pathway properties when is working under a variety of conditions can help to attain a successful manipulation of flux and metabolite concentration. PMID:18629230

  4. Induction of cyto-protective autophagy by paramontroseite VO2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Miao, Yanyan; Zhang, Yunjiao; Liu, Liang; Lin, Jun; Yang, James Y.; Xie, Yi; Wen, Longping

    2013-04-01

    A variety of inorganic nanomaterials have been shown to induce autophagy, a cellular degradation process critical for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. The overwhelming majority of autophagic responses elicited by nanomaterials were detrimental to cell fate and contributed to increased cell death. A widely held view is that the inorganic nanoparticles, when encapsulated and trapped by autophagosomes, may compromise the normal autophagic process due to the inability of the cells to degrade these materials and thus they manifest a detrimental effect on the well-being of a cell. Here we show that, contrary to this notion, nano-sized paramontroseite VO2 nanocrystals (P-VO2) induced cyto-protective, rather than death-promoting, autophagy in cultured HeLa cells. P-VO2 also caused up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cellular protein with a demonstrated role in protecting cells against death under stress situations. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine significantly inhibited HO-1 up-regulation and increased the rate of cell death in cells treated with P-VO2, while the HO-1 inhibitor protoporphyrin IX zinc (II) (ZnPP) enhanced the occurrence of cell death in the P-VO2-treated cells while having no effect on the autophagic response induced by P-VO2. On the other hand, Y2O3 nanocrystals, a control nanomaterial, induced death-promoting autophagy without affecting the level of expression of HO-1, and the pro-death effect of the autophagy induced by Y2O3. Our results represent the first report on a novel nanomaterial-induced cyto-protective autophagy, probably through up-regulation of HO-1, and may point to new possibilities for exploiting nanomaterial-induced autophagy for therapeutic applications.

  5. Direct corticospinal pathways contribute to neuromuscular control of perturbed stance.

    PubMed

    Taube, Wolfgang; Schubert, Martin; Gruber, Markus; Beck, Sandra; Faist, Michael; Gollhofer, Albert

    2006-08-01

    The antigravity soleus muscle (Sol) is crucial for compensation of stance perturbation. A corticospinal contribution to the compensatory response of the Sol is under debate. The present study assessed spinal, corticospinal, and cortical excitability at the peaks of short- (SLR), medium- (MLR), and long-latency responses (LLR) after posterior translation of the feet. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and peripheral nerve stimulation were individually adjusted so that the peaks of either motor evoked potential (MEP) or H reflex coincided with peaks of SLR, MLR, and LLR, respectively. The influence of specific, presumably direct, corticospinal pathways was investigated by H-reflex conditioning. When TMS was triggered so that the MEP arrived in the Sol at the same time as the peaks of SLR and MLR, EMG remained unaffected. Enhanced EMG was observed when the MEP coincided with the LLR peak (P < 0.001). Similarly, conditioning of the H reflex by subthreshold TMS facilitated H reflexes only at LLR (P < 0.001). The earliest facilitation after perturbation occurred after 86 ms. The TMS-induced H-reflex facilitation at LLR suggests that increased cortical excitability contributes to the augmentation of the LLR peaks. This provides evidence that the LLR in the Sol muscle is at least partly transcortical, involving direct corticospinal pathways. Additionally, these results demonstrate that approximately 86 ms after perturbation, postural compensatory responses are cortically mediated. PMID:16601305

  6. Control of the innate immune response by the mevalonate pathway.

    PubMed

    Akula, Murali K; Shi, Man; Jiang, Zhaozhao; Foster, Celia E; Miao, David; Li, Annie S; Zhang, Xiaoman; Gavin, Ruth M; Forde, Sorcha D; Germain, Gail; Carpenter, Susan; Rosadini, Charles V; Gritsman, Kira; Chae, Jae Jin; Hampton, Randolph; Silverman, Neal; Gravallese, Ellen M; Kagan, Jonathan C; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Kastner, Daniel L; Golenbock, Douglas T; Bergo, Martin O; Wang, Donghai

    2016-08-01

    Deficiency in mevalonate kinase (MVK) causes systemic inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms linking the mevalonate pathway to inflammation remain obscure. Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, a non-sterol intermediate of the mevalonate pathway, is the substrate for protein geranylgeranylation, a protein post-translational modification that is catalyzed by protein geranylgeranyl transferase I (GGTase I). Pyrin is an innate immune sensor that forms an active inflammasome in response to bacterial toxins. Mutations in MEFV (encoding human PYRIN) result in autoinflammatory familial Mediterranean fever syndrome. We found that protein geranylgeranylation enabled Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) by promoting the interaction between the small GTPase Kras and the PI(3)K catalytic subunit p110δ. Macrophages that were deficient in GGTase I or p110δ exhibited constitutive release of interleukin 1β that was dependent on MEFV but independent of the NLRP3, AIM2 and NLRC4 inflammasomes. In the absence of protein geranylgeranylation, compromised PI(3)K activity allows an unchecked TLR-induced inflammatory responses and constitutive activation of the Pyrin inflammasome. PMID:27270400

  7. Long-lasting cytoprotection after pentadecapeptide BPC 157, ranitidine, sucralfate or cholestyramine application in reflux oesophagitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Jadrijevic, S; Seiwerth, S; Sosa, T; Deskovic, S; Perovic, D; Aralica, G; Grabarevic, Z; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Jagic, V; Turkovic, B; Ziger, T; Rotkvic, I; Mise, S; Zoricic, I; Sebecic, B; Patrlj, L; Kocman, B; Sarlija, M; Mikus, D; Separovic, J; Hanzevacki, M; Gjurasin, M; Miklic, P

    1999-12-01

    Recently, the effectiveness of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and other anti-ulcer agents, called 'direct cytoprotection', was evidenced in totally gastrectomized rats duodenum challenged with cysteamine 24 h after surgery, and sacrificed 24 h after ulcerogen application. The further focus was on the possibility that this effect could be seen over a more prolonged period (1, 2, 4 weeks), and in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract (i.e. oesophagus). After the removal of the stomach, the oesophagus and jejunum were joined by a termino-lateral anastomosis. The animals were euthanized 7, 14 or 28 d after surgery, when oesophagitis was blindly assessed both macroscopically (percentage of ulcerations areas) and microscopically (percentage of areas of ulcers, regeneration and hyperplasia; number of inflammatory cells - polymorphonuclear and mononuclear). Starting 24 h after surgery, the medication was continuously given in the drinking water, in a volume of 12.5 mL/rat daily, until euthanasia at the end of the observation period, i.e. 7, 14, 28 d following surgery. Based on previous experiments, the doses of agents were daily calculated per kg b.w. as follows: BPC 157 125 mg or 125 ng, cholestyramine 2.5 mg, ranitidine 125 mg, sucralfate 725 mg, whereas controls received 72.5 mL x kg(-1) water. In support of these initial findings, and considering gastrectomized acid-free rats as an ideal model for long-term cytoprotective studies as well, pentadecapeptide BPC 157 markedly attenuated termino-lateral oesophagojejunal anastomosis-reflux oesophagitis also over a quite prolonged period. This efficacy was only partly shared by other anti-ulcer agents. After 1-week-old oesophagitis (microscopical assessment), but not after 2 or 4 weeks, less damaged mucosa was noted in rats drinking ranitidine or sucralfate compared to controls. Similar effectiveness was noted for cholestyramine. The obtained results were supported also by inflammatory cell assessment. Compared with control

  8. Chemical sporulation and germination: cytoprotective nanocoating of individual mammalian cells with a degradable tannic acid-FeIII complex.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juno; Cho, Hyeoncheol; Choi, Jinsu; Kim, Doyeon; Hong, Daewha; Park, Ji Hun; Yang, Sung Ho; Choi, Insung S

    2015-12-01

    Individual mammalian cells were coated with cytoprotective and degradable films by cytocompatible processes maintaining the cell viability. Three types of mammalian cells (HeLa, NIH 3T3, and Jurkat cells) were coated with a metal-organic complex of tannic acid (TA) and ferric ion, and the TA-Fe(III) nanocoat effectively protected the coated mammalian cells against UV-C irradiation and a toxic compound. More importantly, the cell proliferation was controlled by programmed formation and degradation of the TA-Fe(III) nanocoat, mimicking the sporulation and germination processes found in nature. PMID:26528931

  9. Mitochondrial fission - a drug target for cytoprotection or cytodestruction?

    PubMed

    Rosdah, Ayeshah A; K Holien, Jessica; Delbridge, Lea M D; Dusting, Gregory J; Lim, Shiang Y

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria are morphologically dynamic organelles constantly undergoing processes of fission and fusion that maintain integrity and bioenergetics of the organelle: these processes are vital for cell survival. Disruption in the balance of mitochondrial fusion and fission is thought to play a role in several pathological conditions including ischemic heart disease. Proteins involved in regulating the processes of mitochondrial fusion and fission are therefore potential targets for pharmacological therapies. Mdivi-1 is a small molecule inhibitor of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1. Inhibiting mitochondrial fission with Mdivi-1 has proven cytoprotective benefits in several cell types involved in a wide array of cardiovascular injury models. On the other hand, Mdivi-1 can also exert antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects, particularly in hyperproliferative cells. In this review, we discuss these divergent effects of Mdivi-1 on cell survival, as well as the potential and limitations of Mdivi-1 as a therapeutic agent. PMID:27433345

  10. Pathways controlling dNTP pools to maintain genome stability.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Sean G; Valerie, Nicholas C K; Helleday, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Artificially modified nucleotides, in the form of nucleoside analogues, are widely used in the treatment of cancers and various other diseases, and have become important tools in the laboratory to characterise DNA repair pathways. In contrast, the role of endogenously occurring nucleotide modifications in genome stability is little understood. This is despite the demonstration over three decades ago that the cellular DNA precursor pool is orders of magnitude more susceptible to modification than the DNA molecule itself. More recently, underscoring the importance of this topic, oxidation of the cellular nucleotide pool achieved through targeting the sanitation enzyme MTH1, appears to be a promising anti-cancer strategy. This article reviews our current understanding of modified DNA precursors in genome stability, with a particular focus upon oxidised nucleotides, and outlines some important outstanding questions. PMID:27311542

  11. Applications of Genetically-Encoded Biosensors for the Construction and Control of Biosynthetic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Michener, Josh K.; Thodey, Kate; Liang, Joe C.; Smolke, Christina D.

    2011-01-01

    Cells are filled with biosensors, molecular systems that measure the state of the cell and respond by regulating host processes. In much the same way that an engineer would monitor a chemical reactor, the cell uses these sensors to monitor changing intracellular environments and produce consistent behavior despite the variable environment. While natural systems derive a clear benefit from pathway regulation, past research efforts in engineering cellular metabolism have focused on introducing new pathways and removing existing pathway regulation. Synthetic biology is a rapidly growing field that focuses on the development of new tools that support the design, construction, and optimization of biological systems. Recent advances have been made in the design of genetically-encoded biosensors and the application of this class of molecular tools for optimizing and regulating heterologous pathways. Biosensors to cellular metabolites can be taken directly from natural systems, engineered from natural sensors, or constructed entirely in vitro. When linked to reporters, such as antibiotic resistance markers, these metabolite sensors can be used to report on pathway productivity, allowing high-throughput screening for pathway optimization. Future directions will focus on the application of biosensors to introduce feedback control into metabolic pathways, providing dynamic control strategies to increase the efficient use of cellular resources and pathway reliability. PMID:21946159

  12. Cytoprotective nanoparticles by conjugation of a polyhis tagged annexin V to a nanoparticle drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Howard H.; Yuan, Hushan; Cho, Hoonsung; Sosnovik, David E.; Josephson, Lee

    2015-01-01

    We synthesized a cytoprotective magnetic nanoparticle by reacting a maleimide functionalized Feraheme (FH) with a disulfide linked dimer of a polyhis tagged annexin V. Following reductive cleavage of disulfide, the resulting annexin-nanoparticle (diameter = 28.0 +/- 2.0 nm by laser light scattering, 7.6 annexin's/nanoparticle) was cytoprotective to cells subjected to plasma membrane disrupting chemotherapeutic or mechanical stresses, and significantly more protective than the starting annexin V. Annexin-nanoparticles provide an approach to the design of nanomaterials which antagonize the plasma membrane permeability characteristic of necrosis and which may have applications as cytoprotective agents.

  13. Critical Roles of the Direct GABAergic Pallido-cortical Pathway in Controlling Absence Seizures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingming; Guo, Daqing; Li, Min; Ma, Tao; Wu, Shengdun; Ma, Jingling; Cui, Yan; Xia, Yang; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-10-01

    The basal ganglia (BG), serving as an intermediate bridge between the cerebral cortex and thalamus, are believed to play crucial roles in controlling absence seizure activities generated by the pathological corticothalamic system. Inspired by recent experiments, here we systematically investigate the contribution of a novel identified GABAergic pallido-cortical pathway, projecting from the globus pallidus externa (GPe) in the BG to the cerebral cortex, to the control of absence seizures. By computational modelling, we find that both increasing the activation of GPe neurons and enhancing the coupling strength of the inhibitory pallido-cortical pathway can suppress the bilaterally synchronous 2-4 Hz spike and wave discharges (SWDs) during absence seizures. Appropriate tuning of several GPe-related pathways may also trigger the SWD suppression, through modulating the activation level of GPe neurons. Furthermore, we show that the previously discovered bidirectional control of absence seizures due to the competition between other two BG output pathways also exists in our established model. Importantly, such bidirectional control is shaped by the coupling strength of this direct GABAergic pallido-cortical pathway. Our work suggests that the novel identified pallido-cortical pathway has a functional role in controlling absence seizures and the presented results might provide testable hypotheses for future experimental studies. PMID:26496656

  14. Critical Roles of the Direct GABAergic Pallido-cortical Pathway in Controlling Absence Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Ma, Tao; Wu, Shengdun; Ma, Jingling; Cui, Yan; Xia, Yang; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG), serving as an intermediate bridge between the cerebral cortex and thalamus, are believed to play crucial roles in controlling absence seizure activities generated by the pathological corticothalamic system. Inspired by recent experiments, here we systematically investigate the contribution of a novel identified GABAergic pallido-cortical pathway, projecting from the globus pallidus externa (GPe) in the BG to the cerebral cortex, to the control of absence seizures. By computational modelling, we find that both increasing the activation of GPe neurons and enhancing the coupling strength of the inhibitory pallido-cortical pathway can suppress the bilaterally synchronous 2–4 Hz spike and wave discharges (SWDs) during absence seizures. Appropriate tuning of several GPe-related pathways may also trigger the SWD suppression, through modulating the activation level of GPe neurons. Furthermore, we show that the previously discovered bidirectional control of absence seizures due to the competition between other two BG output pathways also exists in our established model. Importantly, such bidirectional control is shaped by the coupling strength of this direct GABAergic pallido-cortical pathway. Our work suggests that the novel identified pallido-cortical pathway has a functional role in controlling absence seizures and the presented results might provide testable hypotheses for future experimental studies. PMID:26496656

  15. LKB1 and Notch Pathways Interact and Control Biliary Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Just, Pierre-Alexandre; Poncy, Alexis; Charawi, Sara; Dahmani, Rajae; Traore, Massiré; Dumontet, Typhanie; Drouet, Valérie; Dumont, Florent; Gilgenkrantz, Hélène; Colnot, Sabine; Terris, Benoit; Coulouarn, Cédric; Lemaigre, Frédéric; Perret, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background LKB1 is an evolutionary conserved kinase implicated in a wide range of cellular functions including inhibition of cell proliferation, regulation of cell polarity and metabolism. When Lkb1 is inactivated in the liver, glucose homeostasis is perturbed, cellular polarity is affected and cholestasis develops. Cholestasis occurs as a result from deficient bile duct development, yet how LKB1 impacts on biliary morphogenesis is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized the phenotype of mice in which deletion of the Lkb1 gene has been specifically targeted to the hepatoblasts. Our results confirmed that lack of LKB1 in the liver results in bile duct paucity leading to cholestasis. Immunostaining analysis at a prenatal stage showed that LKB1 is not required for differentiation of hepatoblasts to cholangiocyte precursors but promotes maturation of the primitive ductal structures to mature bile ducts. This phenotype is similar to that obtained upon inactivation of Notch signaling in the liver. We tested the hypothesis of a functional overlap between the LKB1 and Notch pathways by gene expression profiling of livers deficient in Lkb1 or in the Notch mediator RbpJκ and identified a mutual cross-talk between LKB1 and Notch signaling. In vitro experiments confirmed that Notch activity was deficient upon LKB1 loss. Conclusion LKB1 and Notch share a common genetic program in the liver, and regulate bile duct morphogenesis. PMID:26689699

  16. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor control of a disease tolerance defense pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bessede, Alban; Gargaro, Marco; Pallotta, Maria T; Matino, Davide; Servillo, Giuseppe; Brunacci, Cinzia; Bicciato, Silvio; Mazza, Emilia MC; Macchiarulo, Antonio; Vacca, Carmine; Iannitti, Rossana; Tissi, Luciana; Volpi, Claudia; Belladonna, Maria L; Orabona, Ciriana; Bianchi, Roberta; Lanz, Tobias; Platten, Michael; Fazia, Maria A Della; Piobbico, Danilo; Zelante, Teresa; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Gilot, David; Denison, Michael S; Guillemin, Gilles J; DuHadaway, James B; Prendergast, George C; Metz, Richard; Geffard, Michel; Boon, Louis; Pirro, Matteo; Iorio, Alfonso; Veyret, Bernard; Romani, Luigina; Grohmann, Ursula; Fallarino, Francesca; Puccetti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Disease tolerance is the ability of the host to reduce the impact of infection on host fitness. Analysis of disease tolerance pathways could provide new approaches for treating infections and other inflammatory diseases. Typically, an initial exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a state of refractoriness to further LPS challenge (“endotoxin tolerance”). We found that a first exposure to LPS activated the ligand-operated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the hepatic enzyme tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase 2, which provided an activating ligand to the former, to downregulate early inflammatory gene expression. However, on LPS rechallenge, AhR engaged in long-term regulation of systemic inflammation only in the presence of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1). AhR complex-associated Src kinase activity promoted IDO1 phosphorylation and signaling ability. The resulting endotoxin-tolerant state was found to protect mice against immunopathology in gram-negative and gram-positive infections, pointing to a role for AhR in contributing to host fitness. PMID:24930766

  17. Dual Genetic Pathways Controlling Nodule Number in Medicago truncatula1

    PubMed Central

    Penmetsa, R. Varma; Frugoli, Julia A.; Smith, Lucinda S.; Long, Sharon R.; Cook, Douglas R.

    2003-01-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of a new Medicago truncatula hyper-nodulation mutant, designated sunn (super numeric nodules). Similar to the previously described ethylene-insensitive mutant sickle, sunn exhibits a 10-fold increase in the number of nodules within the primary nodulation zone. Despite this general similarity, these two mutants are readily distinguished based on anatomical, genetic, physiological, and molecular criteria. In contrast to sickle, where insensitivity to ethylene is thought to be causal to the hyper-nodulation phenotype (R.V. Penmetsa, D.R. Cook [1997] Science 275: 527–530), nodulation in sunn is normally sensitive to ethylene. Nevertheless, sunn exhibits seedling root growth that is insensitive to ethylene, although other aspects of the ethylene triple response are normal; these observations suggest that hormonal responses might condition the sunn phenotype in a manner distinct from sickle. The two mutants also differ in the anatomy of the nodulation zone: Successful infection and nodule development in sunn occur predominantly opposite xylem poles, similar to wild type. In sickle, however, both infection and nodulation occur randomly throughout the circumference of the developing root. Genetic analysis indicates that sunn and sickle correspond to separate and unlinked loci, whereas the sunn/skl double mutant exhibits a novel and additive super-nodulation phenotype. Taken together, these results suggest a working hypothesis wherein sunn and sickle define distinct genetic pathways, with skl regulating the number and distribution of successful infection events, and sunn regulating nodule organogenesis. PMID:12644652

  18. Asparaginase induces apoptosis and cytoprotective autophagy in chronic myeloid leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jiajun; Li, Yubin; Zeng, Xian; Wang, Ziyu; Wang, Shaofei; Zhang, Guoping; Yang, Ping; Cao, Zhonglian; Ju, Dianwen

    2015-01-01

    The antitumor enzyme asparaginase, which targets essential amino acid L-asparagine and catalyzes it to L-aspartic acid and ammonia, has been used for years in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), subtypes of myeloid leukemia and T-cell lymphomas, whereas the anti-chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) effect of asparaginase and its underlying mechanism has not been completely elucidated. We have shown here that asparaginase induced significant growth inhibition and apoptosis in K562 and KU812 cells. Apart from induction of apoptosis, we reported for the first time that asparaginase induced autophagic response in K562 and KU812 cells as evidenced by the formation of autophagosome, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-positive autophagy-like vacuoles, and the upregulation of LC3-II. Further study suggested that the Akt/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and Erk (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) signaling pathway were involved in asparaginase-induced autophagy in K562 cells. Moreover, blocking autophagy using pharmacological inhibitors LY294002, chloroquine (CQ) and quinacrine (QN) enhanced asparaginase-induced cell death and apoptosis, indicating the cytoprotective role of autophagy in asparaginase-treated K562 and KU812 cells. Together, these findings provide a rationale that combination of asparaginase anticancer activity and autophagic inhibition might be a promising new therapeutic strategy for CML. PMID:25738356

  19. Cytoprotective effect of imatinib mesylate in non-BCR-ABL-expressing cells along with autophagosome formation

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtomo, Tadashi; Miyazawa, Keisuke; Naito, Munekazu; Moriya, Shota; Kuroda, Masahiko; Itoh, Masahiro; Tomoda, Akio

    2010-01-01

    Treatment with imatinib mesylate (IM) results in an increased viable cell number of non-BCR-ABL-expressing cell lines by inhibiting spontaneous apoptosis. Electron microscopy revealed an increase of autophagosomes in response to IM. IM attenuated the cytotoxic effect of cytosine arabinoside, as well as inhibiting cell death with serum-deprived culture. Cytoprotection with autophagosome formation by IM was observed in various leukemia and cancer cell lines as well as normal murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Complete inhibition of autophagy by knockdown of atg5 in the Tet-off atg5{sup -/-} MEF system attenuated the cytoprotective effect of IM, indicating that the effect is partially dependent on autophagy. However, cytoprotection by IM was not mediated through suppression of ROS production via mitophagy, ER stress via ribophagy, or proapoptotic function of ABL kinase. Although the target tyrosine kinase(s) of IM remains unclear, our data provide novel therapeutic possibilities of using IM for cytoprotection.

  20. Influenza A virus targets a cGAS-independent STING pathway that controls enveloped RNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Christian K.; Rahbek, Stine H.; Gad, Hans Henrik; Bak, Rasmus O.; Jakobsen, Martin R.; Jiang, Zhaozaho; Hansen, Anne Louise; Jensen, Simon K.; Sun, Chenglong; Thomsen, Martin K.; Laustsen, Anders; Nielsen, Camilla G.; Severinsen, Kasper; Xiong, Yingluo; Burdette, Dara L.; Hornung, Veit; Lebbink, Robert Jan; Duch, Mogens; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Bahrami, Shervin; Mikkelsen, Jakob Giehm; Hartmann, Rune; Paludan, Søren R.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is known be involved in control of DNA viruses but has an unexplored role in control of RNA viruses. During infection with DNA viruses STING is activated downstream of cGAMP synthase (cGAS) to induce type I interferon. Here we identify a STING-dependent, cGAS-independent pathway important for full interferon production and antiviral control of enveloped RNA viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV). Further, IAV interacts with STING through its conserved hemagglutinin fusion peptide (FP). Interestingly, FP antagonizes interferon production induced by membrane fusion or IAV but not by cGAMP or DNA. Similar to the enveloped RNA viruses, membrane fusion stimulates interferon production in a STING-dependent but cGAS-independent manner. Abolishment of this pathway led to reduced interferon production and impaired control of enveloped RNA viruses. Thus, enveloped RNA viruses stimulate a cGAS-independent STING pathway, which is targeted by IAV. PMID:26893169

  1. Chemical sporulation and germination: cytoprotective nanocoating of individual mammalian cells with a degradable tannic acid-FeIII complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Juno; Cho, Hyeoncheol; Choi, Jinsu; Kim, Doyeon; Hong, Daewha; Park, Ji Hun; Yang, Sung Ho; Choi, Insung S.

    2015-11-01

    Individual mammalian cells were coated with cytoprotective and degradable films by cytocompatible processes maintaining the cell viability. Three types of mammalian cells (HeLa, NIH 3T3, and Jurkat cells) were coated with a metal-organic complex of tannic acid (TA) and ferric ion, and the TA-FeIII nanocoat effectively protected the coated mammalian cells against UV-C irradiation and a toxic compound. More importantly, the cell proliferation was controlled by programmed formation and degradation of the TA-FeIII nanocoat, mimicking the sporulation and germination processes found in nature.Individual mammalian cells were coated with cytoprotective and degradable films by cytocompatible processes maintaining the cell viability. Three types of mammalian cells (HeLa, NIH 3T3, and Jurkat cells) were coated with a metal-organic complex of tannic acid (TA) and ferric ion, and the TA-FeIII nanocoat effectively protected the coated mammalian cells against UV-C irradiation and a toxic compound. More importantly, the cell proliferation was controlled by programmed formation and degradation of the TA-FeIII nanocoat, mimicking the sporulation and germination processes found in nature. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, LSCM images, and SEM and TEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05573c

  2. (Controls of the plant endomembrane-secretory pathway)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    These studies are focused on elucidating the molecular structure of plant cell membranes with special reference to cell surface glycoproteins. The studies reported herein include use of monoclonal antibodies to characterize cell surface epitopes, construction of cDNA libraries of cell surface proteins, isolation of plant cell mutants by flow cytometry, detection of beta-glucouronidase marker enzyme systems in plants, expression go VSVG (the major envelope glycoprotein of Vesicular Stomatis Virus) in plant cells, and control of gene expression of cell membrane glycoproteins.(DT)

  3. [Controls of the plant endomembrane-secretory pathway]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    These studies are focused on elucidating the molecular structure of plant cell membranes with special reference to cell surface glycoproteins. The studies reported herein include use of monoclonal antibodies to characterize cell surface epitopes, construction of cDNA libraries of cell surface proteins, isolation of plant cell mutants by flow cytometry, detection of beta-glucouronidase marker enzyme systems in plants, expression go VSVG (the major envelope glycoprotein of Vesicular Stomatis Virus) in plant cells, and control of gene expression of cell membrane glycoproteins.(DT)

  4. A cotranslational ubiquitination pathway for quality control of misfolded proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Durfee, Larissa A; Huibregtse, Jon M

    2013-05-01

    Previous studies have indicated that 6%-30% of newly synthesized proteins are rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system; however, the relationship of ubiquitination to translation for these proteins has been unclear. We report that cotranslational ubiquitination (CTU) is a robust process, with 12%-15% of nascent polypeptides being ubiquitinated in human cells. CTU products contained primarily K48-linked polyubiquitin chains, consistent with a proteasomal targeting function. While nascent chains have been shown previously to be ubiquitinated within stalled complexes (CTU(S)), the majority of nascent chain ubiquitination occurred within active translation complexes (CTU(A)). CTU(A) was increased in response to agents that induce protein misfolding, while CTU(S) was increased in response to agents that lead to translational errors or stalling. These results indicate that ubiquitination of nascent polypeptides occurs in two contexts and define CTU(A) as a component of a quality control system that marks proteins for destruction while they are being synthesized. PMID:23583076

  5. Cytoprotective small molecule modulators of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Soumyabrata; Dahl, Russell

    2016-06-01

    Cellular health depends on the normal function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to fold, assemble, and modify critical proteins to maintain viability. When the ER cannot process proteins effectively, a condition known as ER stress ensues. When this stress is excessive or prolonged, cell death via apoptotic pathways is triggered. Interestingly, most major diseases have been shown to be intimately linked to ER stress, including diabetes, stroke, neurodegeneration, and many cancers. Thus, controlling ER stress presents a significant strategy for drug development for these diseases. The goal of this review is to present various small molecules that alleviate ER stress with the intention that they may serve as useful starting points for therapeutic agent development. PMID:27091069

  6. Directional Regulation of Enzyme Pathways through the Control of Substrate Channeling on a DNA Origami Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Ke, Guoliang; Liu, Minghui; Jiang, Shuoxing; Qi, Xiaodong; Yang, Yuhe Renee; Wootten, Shaun; Zhang, Fei; Zhu, Zhi; Liu, Yan; Yang, Chaoyong James; Yan, Hao

    2016-06-20

    Artificial multi-enzyme systems with precise and dynamic control over the enzyme pathway activity are of great significance in bionanotechnology and synthetic biology. Herein, we exploit a spatially addressable DNA nanoplatform for the directional regulation of two enzyme pathways (G6pDH-MDH and G6pDH-LDH) through the control of NAD(+) substrate channeling by specifically shifting NAD(+) between the two enzyme pairs. We believe that this concept will be useful for the design of regulatory biological circuits for synthetic biology and biomedicine. PMID:27159899

  7. Controlling pathway dynamics of a four-level quantum system with pulse shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dewen; Yang, Ling; Wang, Yaoxiong; Shuang, Feng; Gao, Fang

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of two two-photon absorption (TPA) pathways in a four-level quantum system driven by a laser pulse is investigated in this work. An analytical solution for pulse shaping is proposed to be globally optimal for constructive interference between the two pathways, and accurate spectral boundaries for phase modulation are obtained. The TPA rate can be enhanced by a factor of 8.33 with the optimal pulse instead of the transform limited pulse (TL pulse). Simple control strategies modulating both amplitudes and phases are also designed to increase the TPA amplitude along one pathway while decreasing that along the other simultaneously. The strategies are intuitive and the two pathway amplitudes can differ by two orders of magnitude.

  8. Redox Controls and Reaction Pathways during Serpentinization of Abyssal Peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Frieder; Bach, Wolfgang; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Humphris, Susan

    2013-04-01

    The aqueous alteration of ultramafic rocks liberates substantial amounts of hydrogen via the oxidation of ferrous iron in primary minerals to ferric iron in secondary minerals; however, the underlying mechanisms of this process remain poorly understood. We examined partly to completely serpentinized peridotites from continental rifted margins, mid-ocean ridges, and fore-arc settings of subduction zones recovered during DSDP/ODP Legs 82, 107, 125, 147, 149, 153, 173, 195, 209, 210, and 304/305 using a variety of microscopic and spectroscopic methods. We merged petrographic observations and chemical analyses with thermodynamic reaction path models and hydrothermal experiments to establish basic conceptual mechanisms of peridotite-seawater interactions. In principle, the complex variations in temperature, host-rock composition, water-to-rock ratio, and reaction kinetics are recorded by the secondary mineralogy. Our results suggest that high temperature (>250°C) serpentinization of olivine at low water-to-rock ratios leads to the formation of magnetite and serpentine together with relatively Fe-poor brucite in mesh texture, and thus to strongly reducing conditions (e.g., at Leg 153). If serpentinization of peridotite proceeds at low temperatures, production of magnetite is limited and brucite generally Fe-richer (e.g., Leg 173), which results in somewhat less reducing conditions. Serpentinization of orthopyroxene-rich lithologies does not generate significant amounts of magnetite (unless it undergoes post-serpentinization oxidation), while serpentine in bastite texture is Fe-rich. In addition to protolith composition, the relative dissolution kinetics of olivine and orthopyroxene can influence the silica activity during serpentinization of peridotite and thus control whether the assemblage brucite-serpentine-clinopyroxene-magnetite or serpentine-talc-tremolite-chlorite is stable. The former assemblage is associated with strongly reducing, high pH, silica poor and Ca

  9. [Various mechanisms of cytoprotective effect of omeprazole and low intensity laser radiation on the gastroduodenal mucosa in the treatment of patients with duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Akhmadkhodzhaev, A M

    2002-01-01

    Clinical studies were made in 130 patients with duodenal ulcer in the phase of exacerbation of the disease. There were 98 men and 32 women who ranged from 17 to 50 years old. Results of examination of 7 essentially healthy subjects were regarded as control. The patients were divided into three groups. Group I patients (n = 48) received a conventional therapy; in group II patients, the adopted therapy was supplemented by omeprazol, 20 mg twice daily, group III patients (n = 43) were (in addition to the above therapeutic regimen) exposed to a session of endoscopic low-intensity laser irradiation (LILI) for 5 min (overall 6 to 8 LILI procedures). It has been ascertained that omeprazol exerts a cytoprotective effect on the mucozal barrier of the gastroduodenal zone brought about by increase in the synthesis of glucoproteins in the mucous membrane, improvement of the water-and-elastic properties, and enhancement of resistance of the mucosal barrier to the action of the aggressive factors. Administration of endoscopic LILI treatments in DU patients has also been found out to have a cytoprotective effect but superior to omeprazol. A protective action of LILI is believed to be caused by stimulation of synthesis of the most important components of glycoproteins. A cytoprotective effect of omeprazol and endoscopic LILI is ccompanied by a significant shortening of time for the clinical symptoms to get dispelled, the ulcer cicatrization frequency increased. PMID:11944382

  10. Adaptive Control Model Reveals Systematic Feedback and Key Molecules in Metabolic Pathway Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Richard A.; Merrill, Alfred H.; Wang, May D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Robust behavior in metabolic pathways resembles stabilized performance in systems under autonomous control. This suggests we can apply control theory to study existing regulation in these cellular networks. Here, we use model-reference adaptive control (MRAC) to investigate the dynamics of de novo sphingolipid synthesis regulation in a combined theoretical and experimental case study. The effects of serine palmitoyltransferase over-expression on this pathway are studied in vitro using human embryonic kidney cells. We report two key results from comparing numerical simulations with observed data. First, MRAC simulations of pathway dynamics are comparable to simulations from a standard model using mass action kinetics. The root-sum-square (RSS) between data and simulations in both cases differ by less than 5%. Second, MRAC simulations suggest systematic pathway regulation in terms of adaptive feedback from individual molecules. In response to increased metabolite levels available for de novo sphingolipid synthesis, feedback from molecules along the main artery of the pathway is regulated more frequently and with greater amplitude than from other molecules along the branches. These biological insights are consistent with current knowledge while being new that they may guide future research in sphingolipid biology. In summary, we report a novel approach to study regulation in cellular networks by applying control theory in the context of robust metabolic pathways. We do this to uncover potential insight into the dynamics of regulation and the reverse engineering of cellular networks for systems biology. This new modeling approach and the implementation routines designed for this case study may be extended to other systems. Supplementary Material is available at www.liebertonline.com/cmb. PMID:21314456

  11. Prostaglandin D2 pathway upregulation: Relation to asthma severity, control, and TH2 inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Fajt, Merritt L.; Gelhaus, Stacy L.; Freeman, Bruce; Uvalle, Crystal E.; Trudeau, John B.; Holguin, Fernando; Wenzel, Sally E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) levels are increased in patients with severe, poorly controlled asthma in association with epithelial mast cells (MCs). PGD2, which is generated by hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (HPGDS), acts on 3 G protein–coupled receptors, including chemoattractant receptor–homologous molecule expressed on TH2 lymphocytes (CRTH2) and PGD2 receptor 1 (DP1). However, much remains to be understood regarding the presence and activation of these pathway elements in asthmatic patients. Objective We sought to compare the expression and activation of PGD2 pathway elements in bronchoscopically obtained samples from healthy control subjects and asthmatic patients across a range of disease severity and control, as well as in relation to TH2 pathway elements. Methods Epithelial cells and BAL fluid were evaluated for HPGDS (quantitative real-time PCR/immunohistochemistry [IHC]) and PGD2 (ELISA/liquid chromatography mass spectrometry) in relation to levels of MC proteases. Expression of the 2 inflammatory cell receptors DP1 and CRTH2 was evaluated on luminal cells. These PGD2 pathway markers were then compared with asthma severity, level of control, and markers of TH2 inflammation (blood eosinophils and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide). Results Confirming previous results, BAL fluid PGD2 levels were highest in patients with severe asthma (overall P = .0001). Epithelial cell compartment HPGDS mRNA and IHC values differed among groups (P = .008 and P < .0001, respectively) and correlated with MC protease mRNA. CRTH2 mRNA and IHC values were highest in patients with severe asthma (P = .001 and P = .0001, respectively). Asthma exacerbations, poor asthma control, and TH2 inflammatory markers were associated with higher PGD2, HPGDS, and CRTH2 levels. Conclusion The current study identifies coordinated upregulation of the PGD2 pathway in patients with severe, poorly controlled, TH2-high asthma despite corticosteroid

  12. Major Autonomic Neuroregulatory Pathways Underlying Short- and Long-Term Control of Cardiovascular Function.

    PubMed

    Salman, Ibrahim M

    2016-03-01

    Short-term and long-term blood pressure (BP) regulation and its maintenance at levels adequate to perfuse tissue organs involve an integrated action of multiple neural, cardiovascular, renal, endocrine and local tissue control systems. In the recent year, there has been a growing interest in the understanding of neural pathways key to BP control. For instance, through major advances in studies using both anesthetized and conscious animals, our knowledge of the essential neural mechanisms that subserve the baroreceptor, cardiopulmonary and chemoreceptor reflexes, and those evoked by the activation of stress pathways has dramatically increased. While the importance of these neural pathways in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis is well established, the recognition of the central processing nuclei that integrate various afferent inputs to produce synchronous adjustments of autonomic outflows is still progressively expanding. Based on the literature provided thus far, the present review provides an overview in relation to the important neural determinants of BP control and later offers a concise description of major neuronal pathways that control autonomic outflows to the cardiovascular system in the short and long term. PMID:26838031

  13. Noncanonical Wnt signaling pathways in C. elegans converge on POP-1/TCF and control cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Herman, Michael A; Wu, Mingfu

    2004-05-01

    In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a canonical Wnt signaling pathway controls a cell migration whereas noncanonical Wnt pathways control the polarities of individual cells. Despite the differences in the identities and interactions among canonical and noncanonical Wnt pathway components, as well as the processes they regulate, almost all C. elegans Wnt pathways involve the sole Tcf homolog, POP-1. Intriguingly, POP-1 is asymmetrically distributed between the daughters of an asymmetric cell division, with the anterior sister cell usually having a higher level of nuclear POP-1 than its posterior sister. At some divisions, asymmetric distribution of POP-1 is controlled by noncanonical Wnt signaling, but at others the asymmetry is generated independently. Recent experiments suggest that despite this elaborate anterior-posterior POP-1 asymmetry, the quantity of POP-1 protein may have less to do with the subsequent determination of fate than does the quality of the POP-1 protein in the cell. In this review, we will embark on a quest to understand Quality (1), at least from the standpoint of the effect POP/Tcf quality has on the control of cell polarity in C. elegans. PMID:14977564

  14. Controlled sumoylation of the mevalonate pathway enzyme HMGS-1 regulates metabolism during aging

    PubMed Central

    Sapir, Amir; Tsur, Assaf; Koorman, Thijs; Ching, Kaitlin; Mishra, Prashant; Bardenheier, Annabelle; Podolsky, Lisa; Bening-Abu-Shach, Ulrike; Boxem, Mike; Chou, Tsui-Fen; Broday, Limor; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Many metabolic pathways are critically regulated during development and aging but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. One key metabolic cascade in eukaryotes is the mevalonate pathway. It catalyzes the synthesis of sterol and nonsterol isoprenoids, such as cholesterol and ubiquinone, as well as other metabolites. In humans, an age-dependent decrease in ubiquinone levels and changes in cholesterol homeostasis suggest that mevalonate pathway activity changes with age. However, our knowledge of the mechanistic basis of these changes remains rudimentary. We have identified a regulatory circuit controlling the sumoylation state of Caenorhabditis elegans HMG-CoA synthase (HMGS-1). This protein is the ortholog of human HMGCS1 enzyme, which mediates the first committed step of the mevalonate pathway. In vivo, HMGS-1 undergoes an age-dependent sumoylation that is balanced by the activity of ULP-4 small ubiquitin-like modifier protease. ULP-4 exhibits an age-regulated expression pattern and a dynamic cytoplasm-to-mitochondria translocation. Thus, spatiotemporal ULP-4 activity controls the HMGS-1 sumoylation state in a mechanism that orchestrates mevalonate pathway activity with the age of the organism. To expand the HMGS-1 regulatory network, we combined proteomic analyses with knockout studies and found that the HMGS-1 level is also governed by the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. We propose that these conserved molecular circuits have evolved to govern the level of mevalonate pathway flux during aging, a flux whose dysregulation is associated with numerous age-dependent cardiovascular and cancer pathologies. PMID:25187565

  15. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Haves, Philip; McDonald, Sean C.; Torcellini, Paul; Hansen, David G.; Holmberg, David; Roth, Kurt

    2005-04-13

    Significant energy savings can be achieved in commercial building operation, along with increased comfort and control for occupants, through the implementation of advanced technologies. This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies. This paper is actually a synthesis of five other white papers: the first describes the market assessment including estimates of market potential and energy savings for sensors and control strategies currently on the market as well as a discussion of market barriers to these technologies. The other four cover technology pathways: (1) current applications and strategies for new applications, (2) sensors and controls, (3) networking, security, and protocols and standards, and (4) automated diagnostics, performance monitoring, commissioning, optimal control and tools. Each technology pathway chapter gives an overview of the technology or application. This is followed by a discussion of needs and the current status of the technology. Finally, a series of research topics is proposed.

  16. Cytoprotective effect of chlorogenic acid against α-synuclein-related toxicity in catecholaminergic PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Teraoka, Mari; Nakaso, Kazuhiro; Kusumoto, Chiaki; Katano, Satoshi; Tajima, Naoko; Yamashita, Atsushi; Zushi, Teppei; Ito, Satoru; Matsura, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is a major neurodegenerative disease involving the selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and α-synuclein containing Lewy bodies formation in the substantia nigra. Although α-synuclein is a key molecule for both dopaminergic neuron death and the formation of inclusion bodies, the mechanism of α-synuclein induction of Parkinson’s disease-related pathogenesis is not understood. In the present study, we found that the interaction between dopamine and α-synuclein requires the oxidation of dopamine. Furthermore, we examined the protective effect of chlorogenic acid, a major polyphenol contained in coffee, against α-syn and dopamine-related toxicity. Chlorogenic acid inhibits several DA/α-synuclein-related phenomenon, including the oxidation of dopamine, the interaction of oxidized dopamine with α-synuclein, and the oligomerization of α-synuclein under dopamine existing conditions in vitro. Finally, we showed that the cytoprotective effect against α-synuclein-related toxicity in PC12 cells that can be controlled by the Tet-Off system. Although the induction of α-synuclein in catecholaminergic PC12 cells causes a decrease in cell viability, chlorogenic acid rescued this cytotoxicity significantly in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that the interaction of oxidized DA with α-synuclein may be a novel therapeutic target for Parkinson’s disease, and polyphenols, including chlorogenic acid, are candidates as protective and preventive agents for Parkinson’s disease onset. PMID:22962530

  17. Role of the anion nitrite in ischemia-reperfusion cytoprotection and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Dezfulian, Cameron; Raat, Nicolaas; Shiva, Sruti; Gladwin, Mark T

    2007-07-15

    The anion nitrite (NO(2)(-)) constitutes a biochemical reservoir for nitric oxide (NO). Nitrite reduction to NO may be catalyzed by hemoglobin, myoglobin or other metal-containing enzymes and occurs at increasing rates under conditions of physiologic hypoxia or ischemia. A number of laboratories have now demonstrated in animal models the ability of nitrite to provide potent cytoprotection following focal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of the heart, liver, brain, and kidney. While the mechanism of nitrite-mediated cytoprotection remains to be fully characterized, the release of nitrite-derived NO following IR appears to be central to this mechanism. The evidence of nitrite-mediated cytoprotection against IR injury in multiple animal models opens the door to potential therapeutic opportunities in human disease. Here we review the mechanisms for nitrite formation in blood and tissue, its metabolic equilibrium with NO, nitrate, and NO-modified proteins, the evidence supporting nitrite-mediated cytoprotection, and the potential mechanisms driving cytoprotection, and we explore the opportunities for the therapeutic application of nitrite for human disease. PMID:17568573

  18. Suicide by people in a community justice pathway: population-based nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    King, Carlene; Senior, Jane; Webb, Roger T; Millar, Tim; Piper, Mary; Pearsall, Alison; Humber, Naomi; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-08-01

    The elevated risk of suicide in prison and after release is a well-recognised and serious problem. Despite this, evidence concerning community-based offenders' suicide risk is sparse. We conducted a population-based nested case-control study of all people in a community justice pathway in England and Wales. Our data show 13% of general population suicides were in community justice pathways before death. Suicide risks were highest among individuals receiving police cautions, and those having recent, or impending prosecution for sexual offences. Findings have implications for the training and practice of clinicians identifying and assessing suicidality, and offering support to those at elevated risk. PMID:26159602

  19. The LKB1-AMPK pathway: metabolism and growth control in tumor suppression

    PubMed Central

    Shackelford, David B.; Shaw, Reuben J.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, studies of the human tumor suppressor LKB1 have uncovered a novel signaling pathway that links cell metabolism to growth control and cell polarity. LKB1 encodes a serine/threonine kinase that directly phosphorylates and activates AMPK, a central metabolic sensor. AMPK regulates lipid, cholesterol and glucose metabolism in specialized metabolic tissues such as liver, muscle, and adipose, a function that has made it a key therapeutic target in patients with diabetes. The connection of AMPK with several tumor suppressors suggests that therapeutic manipulation of this pathway with established diabetes drugs warrants further investigation in patients with cancer. PMID:19629071

  20. Cardiomyocytes undergo apoptosis in human immunodeficiency virus cardiomyopathy through mitochondrion- and death receptor-controlled pathways

    PubMed Central

    Twu, Cheryl; Liu, Nancy Q.; Popik, Waldemar; Bukrinsky, Michael; Sayre, James; Roberts, Jaclyn; Rania, Shammas; Bramhandam, Vishnu; Roos, Kenneth P.; MacLellan, W. Robb; Fiala, Milan

    2002-01-01

    We investigated 18 AIDS hearts (5 with and 13 without cardiomyopathy) by using immunocytochemistry and computerized image analysis regarding the roles of HIV-1 proteins and tumor necrosis factor ligands in HIV cardiomyopathy (HIVCM). HIVCM and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were significantly related to each other and to the expression by inflammatory cells of gp120 and tumor necrosis factor-α. In HIVCM heart, active caspase 9, a component of the mitochondrion-controlled apoptotic pathway, and the elements of the death receptor-mediated pathway, tumor necrosis factor-α and Fas ligand, were expressed strongly on macrophages and weakly on cardiomyocytes. HIVCM showed significantly greater macrophage infiltration and cardiomyocyte apoptosis rate compared with non-HIVCM. HIV-1 entered cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes by macropinocytosis but did not replicate. HIV-1- or gp120-induced apoptosis of rat myocytes through a mitochondrion-controlled pathway, which was inhibited by heparin, AOP-RANTES, or pertussis toxin, suggesting that cardiomyocyte apoptosis is induced by signaling through chemokine receptors. In conclusion, in patients with HIVCM, cardiomyocytes die through both mitochondrion- and death receptor-controlled apoptotic pathways. PMID:12379743

  1. Improving fatty acids production by engineering dynamic pathway regulation and metabolic control

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peng; Li, Lingyun; Zhang, Fuming; Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Koffas, Mattheos

    2014-01-01

    Global energy demand and environmental concerns have stimulated increasing efforts to produce carbon-neutral fuels directly from renewable resources. Microbially derived aliphatic hydrocarbons, the petroleum-replica fuels, have emerged as promising alternatives to meet this goal. However, engineering metabolic pathways with high productivity and yield requires dynamic redistribution of cellular resources and optimal control of pathway expression. Here we report a genetically encoded metabolic switch that enables dynamic regulation of fatty acids (FA) biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. The engineered strains were able to dynamically compensate the critical enzymes involved in the supply and consumption of malonyl-CoA and efficiently redirect carbon flux toward FA biosynthesis. Implementation of this metabolic control resulted in an oscillatory malonyl-CoA pattern and a balanced metabolism between cell growth and product formation, yielding 15.7- and 2.1-fold improvement in FA titer compared with the wild-type strain and the strain carrying the uncontrolled metabolic pathway. This study provides a new paradigm in metabolic engineering to control and optimize metabolic pathways facilitating the high-yield production of other malonyl-CoA–derived compounds. PMID:25049420

  2. Cellular Metabolomics Revealed the Cytoprotection of Amentoflavone, a Natural Compound, in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Injury of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Weifeng; Li, Hui; Liu, Qinan; Gao, Ye; Dai, Jin; Bao, Beihua; Zhang, Li; Ding, Anwei

    2016-01-01

    Amentoflavone is one of the important bioactive flavonoids in the ethylacetate extract of "Cebaiye", which is a blood cooling and hematostatic herb in traditional Chinese medicine. The previous work in our group has demonstrated that the ethylacetate extract of Cebaiye has a notable antagonistic effect on the injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The present investigation was designed to assess the effects and possible mechanism of cytoprotection of amentoflavone via metabolomics. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS) coupled with multivariate data analysis was used to characterize the variations in the metabolites of HUVECs in response to exposure to LPS and amentoflavone treatment. Seven putative metabolites (glycine, argininosuccinic acid, putrescine, ornithine, spermidine, 5-oxoproline and dihydrouracil) were discovered in cells incubated with LPS and/or amentoflavone. Functional pathway analysis uncovered that the changes of these metabolites related to various significant metabolic pathways (glutathione metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, β-alanine metabolism and glycine, serine and threonine metabolism), which may explain the potential cytoprotection function of amentoflavone. These findings also demonstrate that cellular metabolomics through UPLC/QTOF-MS is a powerful tool for detecting variations in a range of intracellular compounds upon toxin and/or drug exposure. PMID:27618027

  3. [Aging and the control of the insulin-FOXO signaling pathway].

    PubMed

    Brunet, Anne

    2012-03-01

    Aging is a complex process that is accompanied by the onset of a series of age-related diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Aging is controlled by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among the genes that regulate aging, the insulin-FOXO signaling pathway plays a central role, as this pathway regulates lifespan in multiple species, such as worms, flies, and mice. In humans, exceptional longevity - being a centenarian - is also associated with genetic variation in this insulin-FOXO pathway. Recent evidence indicates that the FOXO family of transcription factors plays a key role in the self-renewal of adult and embryonic stem cells, which could contribute to tissue regeneration. Understanding the mechanisms underlying aging should help better prevent and treat age-dependent diseases. PMID:22480657

  4. Dysferlin Mediates the Cytoprotective Effects of TRAF2 Following Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Huei‐Ping; Evans, Sarah; Gao, Feng; Chambers, Kari; Topkara, Veli K.; Sivasubramanian, Natarajan; Barger, Philip M.; Mann, Douglas L.

    2014-01-01

    Background We have demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor‐associated factor 2 (TRAF2), a scaffolding protein common to TNF receptors 1 and 2, confers cytoprotection in the heart. However, the mechanisms for the cytoprotective effects of TRAF2 are not known. Methods/Results Mice with cardiac‐restricted overexpression of low levels of TRAF2 (MHC‐TRAF2LC) and a dominant negative TRAF2 (MHC‐TRAF2DN) were subjected to ischemia (30‐minute) reperfusion (60‐minute) injury (I/R), using a Langendorff apparatus. MHC‐TRAF2LC mice were protected against I/R injury as shown by a significant ≈27% greater left ventricular (LV) developed pressure after I/R, whereas mice with impaired TRAF2 signaling had a significantly ≈38% lower LV developed pressure, a ≈41% greater creatine kinase (CK) release, and ≈52% greater Evans blue dye uptake after I/R, compared to LM. Transcriptional profiling of MHC‐TRAF2LC and MHC‐TRAF2DN mice identified a calcium‐triggered exocytotic membrane repair protein, dysferlin, as a potential cytoprotective gene responsible for the cytoprotective effects of TRAF2. Mice lacking dysferlin had a significant ≈39% lower LV developed pressure, a ≈20% greater CK release, and ≈29% greater Evans blue dye uptake after I/R, compared to wild‐type mice, thus phenocopying the response to tissue injury in the MHC‐TRAF2DN mice. Moreover, breeding MHC‐TRAF2LC onto a dysferlin‐null background significantly attenuated the cytoprotective effects of TRAF2 after I/R injury. Conclusion The study shows that dysferlin, a calcium‐triggered exocytotic membrane repair protein, is required for the cytoprotective effects of TRAF2‐mediated signaling after I/R injury. PMID:24572254

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Autophagy Provides Cytoprotection from Chemical Hypoxia and Oxidant Injury and Ameliorates Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chandrika, Bhavya B.; Yang, Cheng; Ou, Yang; Feng, Xiaoke; Muhoza, Djamali; Holmes, Alexandrea F.; Theus, Sue; Deshmukh, Sarika; Haun, Randy S.; Kaushal, Gur P.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced autophagy provides cytoprotection from renal tubular epithelial cell injury due to oxidants and chemical hypoxia in vitro, as well as from ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in vivo. We demonstrate that the ER stress inducer tunicamycin triggers an unfolded protein response, upregulates ER chaperone Grp78, and activates the autophagy pathway in renal tubular epithelial cells in culture. Inhibition of ER stress-induced autophagy accelerated caspase–3 activation and cell death suggesting a pro-survival role of ER stress-induced autophagy. Compared to wild-type cells, autophagy-deficient MEFs subjected to ER stress had enhanced caspase–3 activation and cell death, a finding that further supports the cytoprotective role of ER stress-induced autophagy. Induction of autophagy by ER stress markedly afforded cytoprotection from oxidants H2O2 and tert-Butyl hydroperoxide and from chemical hypoxia induced by antimycin A. In contrast, inhibition of ER stress-induced autophagy or autophagy-deficient cells markedly enhanced cell death in response to oxidant injury and chemical hypoxia. In mouse kidney, similarly to renal epithelial cells in culture, tunicamycin triggered ER stress, markedly upregulated Grp78, and activated autophagy without impairing the autophagic flux. In addition, ER stress-induced autophagy markedly ameliorated renal IR injury as evident from significant improvement in renal function and histology. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine markedly increased renal IR injury. These studies highlight beneficial impact of ER stress-induced autophagy in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26444017

  6. Paravascular pathways contribute to vasculitis and neuroinflammation after subarachnoid hemorrhage independently of glymphatic control

    PubMed Central

    Luo, C; Yao, X; Li, J; He, B; Liu, Q; Ren, H; Liang, F; Li, M; Lin, H; Peng, J; Yuan, T F; Pei, Z; Su, H

    2016-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease with high mortality. The mechanisms underlying its pathological complications have not been fully identified. Here, we investigate the potential involvement of the glymphatic system in the neuropathology of SAH. We demonstrate that blood components rapidly enter the paravascular space following SAH and penetrate into the perivascular parenchyma throughout the brain, causing disastrous events such as cerebral vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, microcirculation dysfunction and widespread perivascular neuroinflammation. Clearance of the paravascular pathway with tissue-type plasminogen activator ameliorates the behavioral deficits and alleviates histological injury of SAH. Interestingly, AQP4−/− mice showed no improvements in neurological deficits and neuroinflammation at day 7 after SAH compared with WT control mice. In conclusion, our study proves that the paravascular pathway dynamically mediates the pathological complications following acute SAH independently of glymphatic control. PMID:27031957

  7. Metabolic Pathway Signatures Associated with Urinary Metabolite Biomarkers Differentiate Bladder Cancer Patients from Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Tae; Yun, Seok Joong; Yan, Chunri; Jeong, Pildu; Kim, Ye Hwan; Lee, Il-Seok; Kang, Ho-Won; Park, Sunghyouk; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Choi, Young Deuk; Kim, Isaac Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Our previous high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry study identified bladder cancer (BCA)-specific urine metabolites, including carnitine, acylcarnitines, and melatonin. The objective of the current study was to determine which metabolic pathways are perturbed in BCA, based on our previously identified urinary metabolome. Materials and Methods A total of 135 primary BCA samples and 26 control tissue samples from healthy volunteers were analyzed. The association between specific urinary metabolites and their related encoding genes was analyzed. Results Significant alterations in the carnitine-acylcarnitine and tryptophan metabolic pathways were detected in urine specimens from BCA patients compared to those of healthy controls. The expression of eight genes involved in the carnitine-acylcarnitine metabolic pathway (CPT1A, CPT1B, CPT1C, CPT2, SLC25A20, and CRAT) or tryptophan metabolism (TPH1 and IDO1) was assessed by RT-PCR in our BCA cohort (n=135). CPT1B, CPT1C, SLC25A20, CRAT, TPH1, and IOD1 were significantly downregulated in tumor tissues compared to normal bladder tissues (p<0.05 all) of patients with non-muscle invasive BCA, whereas CPT1B, CPT1C, CRAT, and TPH1 were downregulated in those with muscle invasive BCA (p<0.05), with no changes in IDO1 expression. Conclusion Alterations in the expression of genes associated with the carnitine-acylcarnitine and tryptophan metabolic pathways, which were the most perturbed pathways in BCA, were determined. PMID:27189278

  8. Gradual implementation of the meiotic recombination program via checkpoint pathways controlled by global DSB levels.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Neeraj; Brown, M Scott; Bishop, Douglas K; Börner, G Valentin

    2015-03-01

    During meiosis, Spo11-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) are processed into crossovers, ensuring segregation of homologous chromosomes (homologs). Meiotic DSB processing entails 5' end resection and preferred strand exchange with the homolog rather than the sister chromatid (homolog bias). In many organisms, DSBs appear gradually along the genome. Here we report unexpected effects of global DSB levels on local recombination events. Early-occurring, low-abundance "scout" DSBs lack homolog bias. Their resection and interhomolog processing are controlled by the conserved checkpoint proteins Tel1(ATM) kinase and Pch2(TRIP13) ATPase. Processing pathways controlled by Mec1(ATR) kinase take over these functions only above a distinct DSB threshold, resulting in progressive strengthening of the homolog bias. We conclude that Tel1(ATM)/Pch2 and Mec1(ATR) DNA damage response pathways are sequentially activated during wild-type meiosis because of their distinct sensitivities to global DSB levels. Moreover, relative DSB order controls the DSB repair pathway choice and, ultimately, recombination outcome. PMID:25661491

  9. Observing and Controlling the Folding Pathway of DNA Origami at the Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Lee Tin Wah, Jonathan; David, Christophe; Rudiuk, Sergii; Baigl, Damien; Estevez-Torres, André

    2016-02-23

    DNA origami is a powerful method to fold DNA into rationally designed nanostructures that holds great promise for bionanotechnology. However, the folding mechanism has yet to be fully resolved, principally due to a lack of data with single molecule resolution. To address this issue, we have investigated in detail, using atomic force microscopy, the morphological evolution of hundreds of individual rectangular origamis in solution as a function of temperature. Significant structural changes were observed between 65 and 55 °C both for folding and melting, and six structural intermediates were identified. Under standard conditions, folding was initiated at the edges of the rectangle and progressed toward the center. Melting occurred through the reverse pathway until the structures were significantly disrupted but ended through a different pathway involving out-of-equilibrium chainlike structures. Increasing the relative concentration of center to edge staples dramatically modified the folding pathway to a mechanism progressing from the center toward the edges. These results indicate that the folding pathway is determined by thermodynamics and suggest a way of controlling it. PMID:26795025

  10. Primary Care Pathway for Childhood Asthma: Protocol for a Randomized Cluster-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Heather; Anselmo, Mark; Befus, A Dean; Currie, Gillian; Davey, Christina; Drummond, Neil; Graham, Jim; Green, Lee A; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Kam, Karen; Manca, Donna P; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Potestio, Melissa L; Rowe, Brian H; Scott, Shannon D; Williamson, Tyler; Johnson, David W

    2016-01-01

    Background Asthma is the most common chronic condition in children. For many, the disease is inadequately controlled, which can burden the lives of children and their families as well as the health care system. Improved use of the best available scientific evidence by primary care practitioners could reduce the need for hospital care and improve quality of life and asthma control, thereby reducing overall costs to society and families. Objective The Primary Care Pathway for Childhood Asthma aims to improve the management of children with asthma by (1) providing primary care practitioners with an electronic guide (a clinical pathway) incorporated into the patient’s electronic medical record, and (2) providing train-the-trainer education to chronic disease management health professionals to promote the provision of asthma education in primary care. Methods The research will utilize a pragmatic cluster-controlled design, quantitative and qualitative research methodologies, and economic evaluation to assess the implementation of a pathway and education intervention in primary care. The intervention will be analyzed for effectiveness, and if the results are positive, a strategy will be developed to implement delivery to all primary care practices in Alberta. Results The research has been successfully funded and ethics approvals have been obtained. Practice recruitment began fall 2015, and we expect all study-related activities to be concluded by March 2018. Conclusions The proposed pathway and education intervention has the potential to improve pediatric asthma management in Alberta. The intervention is anticipated to result in better quality of care for equal or lesser cost. ClinicalTrial ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02481037; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02481037 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6fPIQ02Ma). PMID:26955763

  11. Roles of Hippo signaling pathway in size control of organ regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shinichi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Tamura, Koji

    2015-05-01

    Animals have an intrinsic regeneration ability for injured tissues and organs. Species that have high regeneration ability such as newts can regenerate an organ with exactly the same size and shape as those of the original one. It has been unclear how a regenerating organ grows and ceases growth at an appropriate size. Organ size control in regeneration is seen in various organs of various species that have high regeneration ability. In animal species that do not have sufficient regeneration ability, a wound heals (the injury is closed, but lost parts are not regenerated), but an organ cannot be restored to its original size. On the other hand, perturbation of regeneration sometimes results in oversized or extra structures. In this sense, organ size control plays essential roles in proper regeneration. In this article, we introduce the concept of size control in organ regeneration regulated by the Hippo signaling pathway. We focused on the transcriptional regulator Yap, which shuttles between the nuclei and cytoplasm to exert a regulatory function in a context-dependent manner. The Yap-mediated Hippo pathway is thought to sense cell density, extracellular matrix (ECM) contact and cell position and to regulate gene expression for control of organ size. This mechanism can reasonably explain size control of organ regeneration. PMID:25867864

  12. Salivary Cytoprotective Proteins in Inflammation and Resolution during Experimental Gingivitis—A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Aboodi, Guy M.; Sima, Corneliu; Moffa, Eduardo B.; Crosara, Karla T. B.; Xiao, Yizhi; Siqueira, Walter L.; Glogauer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The protective mechanisms that maintain periodontal homeostasis in gingivitis and prevent periodontal tissue destruction are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify changes in the salivary proteome during experimental gingivitis. Study design: We used oral neutrophil quantification and whole saliva (WS) proteomics to assess changes that occur in the inflammatory and resolution phases of gingivitis in healthy individuals. Oral neutrophils and WS samples were collected and clinical parameters measured on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. Results: Increased oral neutrophil recruitment and salivary cytoprotective proteins increased progressively during inflammation and decreased in resolution. Oral neutrophil numbers in gingival inflammation and resolution correlated moderately with salivary β-globin, thioredoxin, and albumin and strongly with collagen alpha-1 and G-protein coupled receptor 98. Conclusions: Our results indicate that changes in salivary cytoprotective proteins in gingivitis are associated with a similar trend in oral neutrophil recruitment and clinical parameters. Clinical relevance: We found moderate to strong correlations between oral neutrophil numbers and levels of several salivary cytoprotective proteins both in the development of the inflammation and in the resolution of gingivitis. Our proteomics approach identified and relatively quantified specific cytoprotective proteins in this pilot study of experimental gingivitis; however, future and more comprehensive studies are needed to clearly identify and validate those protein biomarkers when gingivitis is active. PMID:26779447

  13. Drosophila ATM and ATR checkpoint kinases control partially redundant pathways for telomere maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Xiaolin; Srikanta, Deepa; Fanti, Laura; Pimpinelli, Sergio; Badugu, RamaKrishna; Kellum, Rebecca; Rong, Yikang S.

    2005-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) checkpoint kinases play distinct, but partially overlapping, roles in DNA damage response. Yet their interrelated function has not been defined for telomere maintenance. We discover in Drosophila that the two proteins control partially redundant pathways for telomere protection: the loss of ATM leads to the fusion of some telomeres, whereas the loss of both ATM and ATR renders all telomeres susceptible to fusion. The ATM-controlled pathway includes the Mre11 and Nijmegen breakage syndrome complex but not the Chk2 kinase, whereas the ATR-regulated pathway includes its partner ATR-interacting protein but not the Chk1 kinase. This finding suggests that ATM and ATR regulate different molecular events at the telomeres compared with the sites of DNA damage. This compensatory relationship between ATM and ATR is remarkably similar to that observed in yeast despite the fact that the biochemistry of telomere elongation is completely different in the two model systems. We provide evidence suggesting that both the loading of telomere capping proteins and normal telomeric silencing requires ATM and ATR in Drosophila and propose that ATM and ATR protect telomere integrity by safeguarding chromatin architecture that favors the loading of telomere-elongating, capping, and silencing proteins. PMID:16203987

  14. Coordinate Control of Muscle Cell Survival by Distinct Insulin-like Growth Factor Activated Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Margaret A.; Rotwein, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Peptide growth factors control diverse cellular functions by regulating distinct signal transduction pathways. In cultured myoblasts, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) stimulate differentiation and promote hypertrophy. IGFs also maintain muscle cell viability. We previously described C2 skeletal muscle lines lacking expression of IGF-II. These cells did not differentiate, but underwent progressive apoptotic death when incubated in differentiation medium. Viability could be sustained and differentiation enabled by IGF analogues that activated the IGF-I receptor; survival was dependent on stimulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase). We now find that IGF action promotes myoblast survival through two distinguishable PI3-kinase–regulated pathways that culminate in expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21. Incubation with IGF-I or transfection with active PI3-kinase led to rapid induction of MyoD and p21, and forced expression of either protein maintained viability in the absence of growth factors. Ectopic expression of MyoD induced p21, and inhibition of p21 blocked MyoD-mediated survival, thus defining one PI3-kinase–dependent pathway as leading first to MyoD, and then to p21 and survival. Unexpectedly, loss of MyoD expression did not impede IGF-mediated survival, revealing a second pathway involving activation by PI3-kinase of Akt, and subsequent induction of p21. Since inhibition of p21 caused death even in the presence of IGF-I, these results establish a central role for p21 as a survival factor for muscle cells. Our observations also define a MyoD-independent pathway for regulating p21 in muscle, and demonstrate that distinct mechanisms help ensure appropriate expression of this key protein during differentiation. PMID:11121430

  15. Hypofractionated and Accelerated Radiotherapy With Subcutaneous Amifostine Cytoprotection as Short Adjuvant Regimen After Breast-Conserving Surgery: Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Koukourakis, Michael I.

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: Short radiotherapy schedules might be more convenient for patients and overloaded radiotherapy departments, provided late toxicity is not increased. We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of a hypofractionated and highly accelerated radiotherapy regimen supported with cytoprotection provided by amifostine in breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving surgery. Methods and Materials: A total of 92 patients received 12 consecutive fractions of radiotherapy (3.5 Gy/fraction for 10 fractions) to the breast and/or axillary/supraclavicular area and 4 Gy/fraction for 2 fractions to the tumor bed). Amifostine at a dose of 1,000 mg/d was administered subcutaneously. The follow-up of patients was 30-60 months (median, 39). Results: Using a dose individualization algorithm, 77.1% of patients received 1,000 mg and 16.3% received 750 mg of amifostine daily. Of the 92 patients, 13% interrupted amifostine because of fever/rash symptoms. Acute Grade 2 breast toxicity developed in 6.5% of patients receiving 1,000 mg of amifostine compared with 46.6% of the rest of the patients (p < .0001). The incidence of Grade 2 late sequelae was less frequent in the high amifostine dose group (3.2% vs. 6.6%; p = NS). Grade 1 lung fibrosis was infrequent (3.3%). The in-field relapse rate was 3.3%, and an additional 2.2% of patients developed a relapse in the nonirradiated supraclavicular area. c-erbB-2 overexpression was linked to local control failure (p = .01). Distant metastasis appeared in 13% of patients, and this was marginally related to more advanced T/N stage (p = .06). Conclusion: Within a minimal follow-up of 2.5 years after therapy, hypofractionated and accelerated radiotherapy with subcutaneous amifostine cytoprotection has proved a well-tolerated and effective regimen. Longer follow-up is required to assess the long-term late sequelae.

  16. Characterizing the cytoprotective activity of Sarracenia purpurea L., a medicinal plant that inhibits glucotoxicity in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purple pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea L., is a widely distributed species in North America with a history of use as both a marketed pain therapy and a traditional medicine in many aboriginal communities. Among the Cree of Eeyou Istchee in northern Québec, the plant is employed to treat symptoms of diabetes and the leaf extract demonstrates multiple anti-diabetic activities including cytoprotection in an in vitro model of diabetic neuropathy. The current study aimed to further investigate this activity by identifying the plant parts and secondary metabolites that contribute to these cytoprotective effects. Methods Ethanolic extracts of S. purpurea leaves and roots were separately administered to PC12 cells exposed to glucose toxicity with subsequent assessment by two cell viability assays. Assay-guided fractionation of the active extract and fractions was then conducted to identify active principles. Using high pressure liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, the presence of identified actives in both leaf and root extracts were determined. Results The leaf extract, but not that of the root, prevented glucose-mediated cell loss in a concentration-dependent manner. Several fractions elicited protective effects, indicative of multiple active metabolites, and, following subfractionation of the polar fraction, hyperoside (quercetin-3-O-galactoside) and morroniside were isolated as active constituents. Phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of hyperoside in the leaf but not root extract and, although morroniside was detected in both organs, its concentration was seven times higher in the leaf. Conclusion Our results not only support further study into the therapeutic potential and safety of S. purpurea as an alternative and complementary treatment for diabetic complications associated with glucose toxicity but also identify active principles that can be used for purposes of standardization and quality control. PMID:23216659

  17. Optical switching of electric charge transfer pathways in porphyrin: a light-controlled nanoscale current router.

    PubMed

    Thanopulos, Ioannis; Paspalakis, Emmanuel; Yannopapas, Vassilios

    2008-11-01

    We introduce a novel molecular junction based on a thiol-functionalized porphyrin derivative with two almost energetically degenerate equilibrium configurations. We show that each equilibrium structure defines a pathway of maximal electric charge transfer through the molecular junction and that these two conduction pathways are spatially orthogonal. We further demonstrate computationally how to switch between the two equilibrium structures of the compound by coherent light. The optical switching mechanism is presented in the relevant configuration subspace of the compound, and the corresponding potential and electric dipole surfaces are obtained by ab initio methods. The laser-induced isomerization takes place in two steps in tandem, while each step is induced by a two-photon process. The effect of metallic electrodes on the electromagnetic irradiation driving the optical switching is also investigated. Our study demonstrates the potential for using thiol-functionalized porphyrin derivatives for the development of a light-controlled nanoscale current router. PMID:21832723

  18. Parkin and PINK1 function in a vesicular trafficking pathway regulating mitochondrial quality control

    PubMed Central

    McLelland, Gian-Luca; Soubannier, Vincent; Chen, Carol X; McBride, Heidi M; Fon, Edward A

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has long been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkin and PINK1, two genes associated with familial PD, have been implicated in the degradation of depolarized mitochondria via autophagy (mitophagy). Here, we describe the involvement of parkin and PINK1 in a vesicular pathway regulating mitochondrial quality control. This pathway is distinct from canonical mitophagy and is triggered by the generation of oxidative stress from within mitochondria. Wild-type but not PD-linked mutant parkin supports the biogenesis of a population of mitochondria-derived vesicles (MDVs), which bud off mitochondria and contain a specific repertoire of cargo proteins. These MDVs require PINK1 expression and ultimately target to lysosomes for degradation. We hypothesize that loss of this parkin- and PINK1-dependent trafficking mechanism impairs the ability of mitochondria to selectively degrade oxidized and damaged proteins leading, over time, to the mitochondrial dysfunction noted in PD. PMID:24446486

  19. Transcriptional regulators in the Hippo signaling pathway control organ growth in Xenopus tadpole tail regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shinichi; Ochi, Haruki; Ogino, Hajime; Kawasumi, Aiko; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Koji; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

    2014-12-01

    The size and shape of tissues are tightly controlled by synchronized processes among cells and tissues to produce an integrated organ. The Hippo signaling pathway controls both cell proliferation and apoptosis by dual signal-transduction states regulated through a repressive kinase cascade. Yap1 and Tead, transcriptional regulators that act downstream of the Hippo signaling kinase cascade, have essential roles in regulating cell proliferation. In amphibian limb or tail regeneration, the local tissue outgrowth terminates when the correct size is reached, suggesting that organ size is strictly controlled during epimorphic organ-level regeneration. We recently demonstrated that Yap1 is required for the regeneration of Xenopus tadpole limb buds (Hayashi et al., 2014, Dev. Biol. 388, 57-67), but the molecular link between the Hippo pathway and organ size control in vertebrate epimorphic regeneration is not fully understood. To examine the requirement of Hippo pathway transcriptional regulators in epimorphic regeneration, including organ size control, we inhibited these regulators during Xenopus tadpole tail regeneration by overexpressing a dominant-negative form of Yap (dnYap) or Tead4 (dnTead4) under a heat-shock promoter in transgenic animal lines. Each inhibition resulted in regeneration defects accompanied by reduced cell mitosis and increased apoptosis. Single-cell gene manipulation experiments indicated that Tead4 cell-autonomously regulates the survival of neural progenitor cells in the regenerating tail. In amphibians, amputation at the proximal level of the tail (deep amputation) results in faster regeneration than that at the distal level (shallow amputation), to restore the original-sized tail with similar timing. However, dnTead4 overexpression abolished the position-dependent differential growth rate of tail regeneration. These results suggest that the transcriptional regulators in the Hippo pathway, Tead4 and Yap1, are required for general vertebrate

  20. PP2ARts1 is a master regulator of pathways that control cell size

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Jessica; Dephoure, Noah; MacDonough, Tracy; Yu, Yaxin; Parnell, Emily J.; Mooring, Meghan; Gygi, Steven P.; Stillman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Cell size checkpoints ensure that passage through G1 and mitosis occurs only when sufficient growth has occurred. The mechanisms by which these checkpoints work are largely unknown. PP2A associated with the Rts1 regulatory subunit (PP2ARts1) is required for cell size control in budding yeast, but the relevant targets are unknown. In this paper, we used quantitative proteome-wide mass spectrometry to identify proteins controlled by PP2ARts1. This revealed that PP2ARts1 controls the two key checkpoint pathways thought to regulate the cell cycle in response to cell growth. To investigate the role of PP2ARts1 in these pathways, we focused on the Ace2 transcription factor, which is thought to delay cell cycle entry by repressing transcription of the G1 cyclin CLN3. Diverse experiments suggest that PP2ARts1 promotes cell cycle entry by inhibiting the repressor functions of Ace2. We hypothesize that control of Ace2 by PP2ARts1 plays a role in mechanisms that link G1 cyclin accumulation to cell growth. PMID:24493588

  1. Dual Control of Muscle Cell Survival by Distinct Growth Factor-Regulated Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Margaret A.; Feng, Xiuhong; Everding, Daniel R.; Sieger, Kerry; Stewart, Claire E. H.; Rotwein, Peter

    2000-01-01

    In addition to their ability to stimulate cell proliferation, polypeptide growth factors are able to maintain cell survival under conditions that otherwise lead to apoptotic death. Growth factors control cell viability through regulation of critical intracellular signal transduction pathways. We previously characterized C2 muscle cell lines that lacked endogenous expression of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). These cells did not differentiate but underwent apoptotic death in low-serum differentiation medium. Death could be prevented by IGF analogues that activated the IGF-I receptor or by unrelated growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB). Here we analyze the signaling pathways involved in growth factor-mediated myoblast survival. PDGF treatment caused sustained activation of extracellular-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1 and -2), while IGF-I only transiently induced these enzymes. Transient transfection of a constitutively active Mek1, a specific upstream activator of ERKs, maintained myoblast viability in the absence of growth factors, while inhibition of Mek1 by the drug UO126 blocked PDGF-mediated but not IGF-stimulated survival. Although both growth factors activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) to similar extents, only IGF-I treatment led to sustained stimulation of its downstream kinase, Akt. Transient transfection of a constitutively active PI3-kinase or an inducible Akt promoted myoblast viability in the absence of growth factors, while inhibition of PI3-kinase activity by the drug LY294002 selectively blocked IGF- but not PDGF-mediated muscle cell survival. In aggregate, these observations demonstrate that distinct growth factor-regulated signaling pathways independently control myoblast survival. Since IGF action also stimulates muscle differentiation, these results suggest a means to regulate myogenesis through selective manipulation of different signal transduction pathways. PMID:10757809

  2. Selective cytoprotective effect of histamine on doxorubicin-induced hepatic and cardiac toxicity in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Lamas, DJMartinel; Nicoud, MB; Sterle, HA; Carabajal, E; Tesan, F; Perazzo, JC; Cremaschi, GA; Rivera, ES; Medina, VA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the potential protective effect of histamine on Doxorubicin (Dox)-induced hepatic and cardiac toxicity in different rodent species and in a triple-negative breast tumor-bearing mice model. Male Sprague Dawley rats and Balb/c mice were divided into four groups: control (received saline), histamine (5 mg/kg for rats and 1 mg/kg for mice, daily subcutaneous injection starting 24 h before treatment with Dox), Dox (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally injected three times a week for 2 weeks) and Dox+histamine (received both treatments). Tissue toxicity was evaluated by histopathological studies and oxidative stress and biochemical parameters. The combined effect of histamine and Dox was also investigated in vitro and in vivo in human MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer model. Heart and liver of Dox-treated animals displayed severe histological damage, loss of tissue weight, increased TBARS levels and DNA damage along with an augment in serum creatine kinase-myocardial band. Pretreatment with histamine prevented Dox-induced tissue events producing a significant preservation of the integrity of both rat and mouse myocardium and liver, through the reduction of Dox-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Histamine treatment preserved anti-tumor activity of Dox, exhibiting differential cytotoxicity and increasing the Dox-induced inhibition of breast tumor growth. Findings provide preclinical evidence indicating that histamine could be a promising candidate as a selective cytoprotective agent for the treatment of Dox-induced cardiac and hepatic toxicity, and encourage the translation to clinical practice. PMID:27551485

  3. The mevalonate pathway as a metabolic requirement for autophagy-implications for growth control, proteostasis, and disease.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Teemu P; Björklund, Mikael

    2016-05-01

    Autophagy is responsible for the degradation and recycling of cellular proteins and organelles. Our recent work shows that the mevalonate pathway influences cell size, growth, and proteostasis by regulating basal autophagic flux through geranylgeranylation of the small GTPase RAB11. The control of autophagy by the mevalonate/cholesterol pathway has potential implications for statin toxicity, inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27314093

  4. Keap1/Nrf2 pathway activation leads to a repressed hepatic gluconeogenic and lipogenic program in mice on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Slocum, Stephen L; Skoko, John J; Wakabayashi, Nobunao; Aja, Susan; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Kensler, Thomas W; Chartoumpekis, Dionysios V

    2016-02-01

    The Keap1/Nrf2 pathway, known to regulate the expression of a series of cytoprotective and antioxidant genes, has been studied in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes; diseases that are characterized by chronic oxidative stress. There is increasing evidence, however, that the transcription factor Nrf2 can crosstalk with pathways not directly related to cytoprotection. Our present work focuses on the effect of Nrf2 on hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis, two metabolic processes which are dysregulated in the obese/diabetic state. To this end, a genetic mouse model of Nrf2 pathway activation was used (Keap1-hypo; both Keap1 alleles are hypomorphic) and was exposed to a 3-month high-fat diet along with the relevant control wild-type mice. The Keap1-hypo mice were partially protected from obesity, had lower fasting glucose and insulin levels and developed less liver steatosis compared to the wild-type. Key gluconeogenic and lipogenic enzymes were repressed in the Keap1-hypo livers with concomitant activated Ampk signaling. Primary Keap1-hypo hepatocyte cultures also show increased Ampk signaling and repressed glucose production. In conclusion, increased Keap1/Nrf2 signaling in the liver is accompanied by repressed gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis that can, at least partially, explain the ameliorated diabetic phenotype in the Keap1-hypo mice. PMID:26701603

  5. The cytoprotective effects of oleoylethanolamide in insulin-secreting cells do not require activation of GPR119

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Virginia M; Dhayal, Shalinee; Smith, David M; Lenaghan, Carol; Brocklehurst, Katy J; Morgan, Noel G

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE β-cells express a range of fatty acid-responsive G protein-coupled receptors, including GPR119, which regulates insulin secretion and is seen as a potential therapeutic target in type 2 diabetes. The long-chain unsaturated fatty acid derivative oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an endogenous agonist of GPR119 and, under certain conditions, some long-chain unsaturated fatty acids can promote β-cell cytoprotection. It is not known, however, if OEA is cytoprotective in β-cells. The present study has examined this and determined whether GPR119 is involved. METHODS Clonal rat insulin-secreting cell lines, BRIN-BD11 or INS-1E, were exposed to fatty acids complexed with BSA. cAMP levels, insulin release and cell viability were measured. Protein expression was studied by Western blotting and receptor expression by RT-PCR. KEY RESULTS GPR119 was expressed in both BRIN-BD11 and INS-1E cells and OEA was cytoprotective in these cells. However, cytoprotection was not reproduced by any of a range of selective, synthetic ligands of GPR119. The cytoprotective response to OEA was lost during exposure to inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) suggesting that OEA per se is not the cytoprotective species but that release of free oleate is required. Similar data were obtained with anandamide, which was cytoprotective only under conditions favouring release of free arachidonate. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Activation of GPR119 is not required to mediate the cytoprotective actions of OEA in BRIN-BD11 or INS-1E cells. Rather, OEA is internalised and subjected to hydrolysis by FAAH to release free oleate, which then mediates the cytoprotection. PMID:22029844

  6. Controlling the intracellular fate of nano-bioconjugates: pathways for realizing nanoparticle-mediated theranostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delehanty, James B.; Blanco-Canosa, Juan B.; Bradburne, Christopher E.; Susumu, Kimihiro; Stewart, Michael H.; Prasuhn, Duane E.; Dawson, Philip E.; Medintz, Igor L.

    2014-08-01

    For nanomaterials to realize their full potential in disease diagnosis and drug delivery applications, one must be able to exert fine control over their cellular delivery, localization and long-term fate in biological systems. Our laboratory has been active in developing methodologies for the controlled and site-specific delivery of a range of nanomaterials (e.g., quantum dots, colloidal gold, nematic liquid crystals) for cellular labeling, imaging and sensing. This talk will highlight several examples from these efforts and will demonstrate the use of peptide- and protein-mediated facilitated delivery of nanomaterials to discrete cellular locations including the endocytic pathway, the plasma membrane and the cellular cytosol. The implications of the ability to exert fine control over nanomaterial constructs in biological settings will be discussed with a particular focus on their use in nanoparticle-based theranostics.

  7. Design, implementation, and quality control in the Pathways American-Indian multicenter trial

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Elaine J.; Norman, James E.; Davis, Sally M.; Stewart, Dawn; Clay, Theresa E.; Caballero, Ben; Lohman, Timothy G.; Murray, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pathways was the first multicenter American-Indian school-based study to test the effectiveness of an obesity prevention program promoting healthy eating and physical activity. Methods Pathways employed a nested cohort design in which 41 schools were randomized to intervention or control conditions and students within these schools were followed as a cohort (1,704 third graders at baseline). The study’s primary endpoint was percent body fat. Secondary endpoints were levels of fat in school lunches; time spent in physical activity; and knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding diet and exercise. Quality control (QC) included design of data management systems which provided standardization and quality assurance of data collection and processing. Data QC procedures at study centers included manuals of operation, training and certification, and monitoring of performance. Process evaluation was conducted to monitor dose and fidelity of the interventions. Registration and tracking systems were used for students and schools. Results No difference in mean percent body fat at fifth grade was found between the intervention and control schools. Percent of calories from fat and saturated fat in school lunches was significantly reduced in the intervention schools as was total energy intake from 24-hour recalls. Significant increases in self-reported physical activity levels and knowledge of healthy behaviors were found for the intervention school students. Conclusions The Pathways study results provide evidence demonstrating the role schools can play in public health promotion. Its study design and QC systems and procedures provide useful models for other similar school based multi- or single-site studies. PMID:14636805

  8. Kinetics of nucleation-controlled polymerization. A perturbation treatment for use with a secondary pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, M F; Ferrone, F A

    1984-01-01

    We present a perturbation method for analyzing nucleation-controlled polymerization augmented by a secondary pathway for polymer growth. With this method, the solution to the kinetic equations assumes a simple analytic closed form that can easily be used in fitting data. So long as the formation of polymers by the secondary pathway depends linearly on the concentration of monomers polymerized, the form of the solutions is the same. This permits the analysis of augmented growth models with a minimum number of modeling assumptions, and thus makes it readily possible to distinguish between a variety of secondary processes (heterogeneous nucleation, lateral growth, and fragmentation). In addition, the parameters of the homogeneous process, such as the homogeneous nucleus size, can be determined independent of the nature of the secondary mechanism. We describe applications of this method to the polymerization of actin, collagen, and sickle hemoglobin. We present an extensive analysis of data on actin polymerization (Wegner, A., and P. Savko, 1982, Biochemistry, 21:1909-1913) to illustrate the use of the method. Although our conclusions generally agree with theirs, we find that lateral growth describes the secondary pathway better than the fragmentation model originally proposed. We also show how this method can be used to study the degree of polymerization, the parentage of polymers, and the behavior of polymers in cycling experiments. PMID:6498276

  9. Impact of Alkyl Spacer Length on Aggregation Pathways in Kinetically Controlled Supramolecular Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Ogi, Soichiro; Stepanenko, Vladimir; Thein, Johannes; Würthner, Frank

    2016-01-20

    We have investigated the kinetic and thermodynamic supramolecular polymerizations of a series of amide-functionalized perylene bisimide (PBI) organogelator molecules bearing alkyl spacers of varied lengths (ethylene to pentylene chains, PBI-1-C2 to PBI-1-C5) between the amide and PBI imide groups. These amide-functionalized PBIs form one-dimensional fibrous nanostructures as the thermodynamically favored states in solvents of low polarity. Our in-depth studies revealed, however, that the kinetic behavior of their supramolecular polymerization is dependent on the spacer length. Propylene- and pentylene-tethered PBIs follow a similar polymerization process as previously observed for the ethylene-tethered PBI. Thus, the monomers of these PBIs are kinetically trapped in conformationally restricted states through intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the amide and imide groups. In contrast, the intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded monomers of butylene-tethered PBI spontaneously self-assemble into nanoparticles, which constitute an off-pathway aggregate state with regard to the thermodynamically stable fibrous supramolecular polymers obtained. Thus, for this class of π-conjugated system, an unprecedented off-pathway aggregate with high kinetic stability could be realized for the first time by introducing an alkyl linker of optimum length (C4 chain) between the amide and imide groups. Our current system with an energy landscape of two competing nucleated aggregation pathways is applicable to the kinetic control over the supramolecular polymerization by the seeding approach. PMID:26699283

  10. The ribosome quality control pathway can access nascent polypeptides stalled at the Sec61 translocon.

    PubMed

    von der Malsburg, Karina; Shao, Sichen; Hegde, Ramanujan S

    2015-06-15

    Cytosolic ribosomes that stall during translation are split into subunits, and nascent polypeptides trapped in the 60S subunit are ubiquitinated by the ribosome quality control (RQC) pathway. Whether the RQC pathway can also target stalls during cotranslational translocation into the ER is not known. Here we report that listerin and NEMF, core RQC components, are bound to translocon-engaged 60S subunits on native ER membranes. RQC recruitment to the ER in cultured cells is stimulated by translation stalling. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that translocon-targeted nascent polypeptides that subsequently stall are polyubiquitinated in 60S complexes. Ubiquitination at the translocon requires cytosolic exposure of the polypeptide at the ribosome-Sec61 junction. This exposure can result from either failed insertion into the Sec61 channel or partial backsliding of translocating nascent chains. Only Sec61-engaged nascent chains early in their biogenesis were relatively refractory to ubiquitination. Modeling based on recent 60S-RQC and 80S-Sec61 structures suggests that the E3 ligase listerin accesses nascent polypeptides via a gap in the ribosome-translocon junction near the Sec61 lateral gate. Thus the RQC pathway can target stalled translocation intermediates for degradation from the Sec61 channel. PMID:25877867

  11. Conserved genetic pathways controlling the development of the diffuse endocrine system in vertebrates and Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hartenstein, Volker; Takashima, Shigeo; Adams, Katrina L

    2010-05-01

    The midgut epithelium is formed by absorptive enterocytes, secretory cells and endocrine cells. Each of these lineages is derived from the pluripotent progenitors that constitute the embryonic endoderm; the mature midgut retains pools of self-renewing stem cells that continue to produce all lineages. Recent findings in vertebrates and Drosophila shed light on the genetic mechanism that specifies the fate of the different lineages. A pivotal role is played by the Notch signaling pathway that, in a manner that appears to be very similar to the way in which Notch signaling selects neural progenitors within the neurectoderm, distinguishes the fate of secretory/endocrine cells and enterocytes. Proneural genes encoding bHLH transcription factors are expressed and required in prospective endocrine cells; activation of the Notch pathways restricts the number of these cells and promotes enterocyte development. In this review we compare the development of the intestinal endocrine cells in vertebrates and insects and summarize recent findings dealing with genetic pathways controlling this cell type. PMID:20005229

  12. Conserved Genetic Pathways Controlling the Development of the Diffuse Endocrine System in Vertebrates and Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hartenstein, Volker; Takashima, Shigeo; Adams, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    The midgut epithelium is formed by absorptive enterocytes, secretory cells and endocrine cells. Each of these lineages is derived from the pluripotent progenitors that constitute the embryonic endoderm; the mature midgut retains pools of self-renewing stem cells that continue to produce all lineages. Recent findings in vertebrates and Drosophila shed light on the genetic mechanism that specifies the fate of the different lineages. A pivotal role is played by the Notch signaling pathway that, in a manner that appears to be very similar to the way in which Notch signaling selects neural progenitors within the neurectoderm, distinguishes the fate of secretory/endocrine cells and enterocytes. Proneural genes encoding bHLH transcription factors are expressed and required in prospective endocrine cells; activation of the Notch pathways restricts the number of these cells and promotes enterocyte development. In this review we compare the development of the intestinal endocrine cells in vertebrates and insects and summarize recent findings dealing with genetic pathways controlling this cell type. PMID:20005229

  13. A pharmaco-epistasis strategy reveals a new cell size controlling pathway in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, Fabien; Sagot, Isabelle; Daignan-Fornier, Bertrand; Pinson, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Cell size is a complex quantitative trait resulting from interactions between intricate genetic networks and environmental conditions. Here, taking advantage of previous studies that uncovered hundreds of genes affecting budding yeast cell size homeostasis, we performed a wide pharmaco-epistasis analysis using drugs mimicking cell size mutations. Simple epistasis relationship emerging from this approach allowed us to characterize a new cell size homeostasis pathway comprising the sirtuin Sir2, downstream effectors including the large ribosomal subunit (60S) and the transcriptional regulators Swi4 and Swi6. We showed that this Sir2/60S signaling route acts independently of other previously described cell size controlling pathways and may integrate the metabolic status of the cell through NAD+ intracellular concentration. Finally, although Sir2 and the 60S subunits regulate both cell size and replicative aging, we found that there is no clear causal relationship between these two complex traits. This study sheds light on a pathway of >50 genes and illustrates how pharmaco-epistasis applied to yeast offers a potent experimental framework to explore complex genotype/phenotype relationships. PMID:24217298

  14. Dse1 may control cross talk between the pheromone and filamentation pathways in yeast.

    PubMed

    Draper, Edward; Dubrovskyi, Oleksii; Bar, Eli E; Stone, David E

    2009-12-01

    The filamentous/invasive growth pathway is activated by nutrient limitation in the haploid form of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas exposure to mating-pheromone causes cells to differentiate into gametes. Although these two pathways respond to very different stimuli and generate very different responses, they utilize many of the same signaling components. This implies the need for robust mechanisms to maintain signal fidelity. Dse1 was identified in an allele-specific suppressor screen for proteins that interact with the pheromone-responsive Gbetagamma, and found to bind both to a Gbetagamma-affinity column, and to the shared MEKK, Ste11. Although overexpression of Dse1 stimulated invasive growth and transcription of both filamentation and mating-specific transcriptional reporters, deletion of DSE1 had no effect on these outputs. In contrast, pheromone hyper-induced transcription of the filamentation reporter in cells lacking Dse1 and in cells expressing a mutant form of Gbeta that exhibits diminished interaction with Dse1. Thus, the interaction of Dse1 with both Gbeta and Ste11 may be designed to control cross talk between the pheromone and filamentation pathways. PMID:19820940

  15. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor: a molecular pathway for the environmental control of the immune response.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Francisco J

    2013-03-01

    Environmental factors have significant effects on the development of autoimmune diseases. The ligand-activated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is controlled by endogenous and environmental small molecules. Hence, AHR provides a molecular pathway by which endogenous and environmental signals can influence the immune response and the development of autoimmune diseases. AHR also provides a target for therapeutic intervention in immune-mediated disorders. In this review, we discuss the role of AHR in the regulation of T-cell differentiation and autoimmunity. PMID:23190340

  16. Comparative Study on the Cytoprotective Effects of Activated Protein C Treatment in Nonsteatotic and Steatotic Livers under Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Akitoshi; Kuriyama, Naohisa; Kato, Hiroyuki; Tanemura, Akihiro; Murata, Yasuhiro; Azumi, Yoshinori; Kishiwada, Masashi; Mizuno, Shugo; Usui, Masanobu; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Isaji, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Activated protein C (APC) has cytoprotective effects on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). However, it is unclear whether APC is beneficial in steatotic liver IRI. We compared the cytoprotective effects of APC in nonsteatotic and steatotic liver IRI. Methods. Mice fed either normal diets (ND mice) or high fat diets (HF mice), were treated with APC or saline (control) and were performed 60 min partial IRI. Moreover, primary steatotic hepatocytes were either untreated or treated with APC and then incubated with H2O2. Results. APC significantly reduced serum transaminase levels and the inflammatory cells infiltration compared with control at 4 h in ND mice and at 24 h in HF mice. APC inhibited sinusoidal endothelial injury in ND mice, but not in HF mice. In contrast, APC activated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in HF mice, but not in ND mice. In the in vitro study, APC significantly increased AMPK phosphorylation, ATP concentration, and survival rates of hepatocytes compared with control. Conclusion. During IRI in normal liver, APC attenuated initial damage by inhibiting inflammatory cell infiltration and sinusoidal endothelial injury, but not in steatotic liver. However, in steatotic liver, APC might attenuate late damage via activation of AMPK. PMID:26539519

  17. Improvement of anti-tumor activity of photodynamic therapy through inhibition of cytoprotective mechanism in tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowis, Dominika; Szokalska, Angelika; Makowski, Marcin; Winiarska, Magdalena; Golab, Jakub

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) leads to oxidative damage of cellular macromolecules, including numerous proteins that undergo multiple modifications such as fragmentation, cross-linking and carbonylation that result in protein unfolding and aggregation. Several mechanisms are involved in the protective responses to PDT that include activation of transcription factors, heat shock proteins, antioxidant enzymes and antiapoptotic pathways. Identification of these cytoprotective mechanisms might result in the design of more effective combination strategies to improve the antitumor efficacy of PDT. By using various molecular biology approaches, including microarray-based technologies we have identified genes that are up-regulated following PDT. Subsequent experiments revealed that some of these gene products can become targets for the combined therapeutic regimens encompassing PDT and selective small-molecule inhibitors. These include superoxide dismutase (SOD-2), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), and proteins engaged in signaling endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR). Since a major mechanism for elimination of carbonylated proteins is their degradation by proteasomes, we hypothesized that a combination of PDT with proteasome inhibitors might lead to accumulation of carbonylated proteins in ER, aggravated ER stress and potentiated cytotoxicity towards tumor cells. Indeed, we observed that incubation of tumor cells with three different proteasome inhibitors, including bortezomib, MG132 and PSI gave increased accumulation of carbonylated and ubiquitinated proteins in PDT-treated cells. Proteasome inhibitors effectively sensitized tumor cells to PDT-mediated cytotoxicity and augmented antitumor effects of PDT in vivo.

  18. IRE1-RACK1 axis orchestrates ER stress preconditioning-elicited cytoprotection from ischemia/reperfusion injury in liver.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Liu, Xing; Zhou, Ti; Yao, William; Zhao, Jun; Zheng, Zhigang; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Fengsong; Aikhionbare, Felix O; Hill, Donald L; Emmett, Nerimah; Guo, Zhen; Wang, Dongmei; Yao, Xuebiao; Chen, Yong

    2016-04-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in ischemic preconditioning that protects various organs from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We established an in vivo ER stress preconditioning model in which tunicamycin was injected into rats before hepatic I/R. The hepatic I/R injury, demonstrated by serum aminotransferase level and the ultra-structure of the liver, was alleviated by administration of tunicamycin, which induced ER stress in rat liver by activating inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) and upregulating 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78). The proteomic identification for IRE1 binders revealed interaction and cooperation among receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), phosphorylated AMPK, and IRE1 under ER stress conditions in a spatiotemporal manner. Furthermore, in vitro ER stress preconditioning was induced by thapsigargin and tunicamycin in L02 and HepG2 cells. Surprisingly, BCL2 was found to be phosphorylated by IRE1 under ER stress conditions to prevent apoptotic process by activation of autophagy. In conclusion, ER stress preconditioning protects against hepatic I/R injury, which is orchestrated by IRE1-RACK1 axis through the activation of BCL2. Our findings provide novel insights into the molecular pathways underlying ER stress preconditioning-elicited cytoprotective effect against hepatic I/R injury. PMID:26711306

  19. Cytoprotection against Hypoxic and/or MPP⁺ Injury: Effect of δ-Opioid Receptor Activation on Caspase 3.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Zhi, Feng; Shao, Naiyuan; Wang, Rong; Yang, Yilin; Xia, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The pathological changes of Parkinson's disease (PD) are, at least partially, associated with the dysregulation of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and caspase 3. Since hypoxic and neurotoxic insults are underlying causes of PD, and since δ-opioid receptor (DOR) is neuroprotective against hypoxic/ischemic insults, we sought to determine whether DOR activation could protect the cells from damage induced by hypoxia and/or MPP⁺ by regulating PINK1 and caspase 3 expressions. We exposed PC12 cells to either severe hypoxia (0.5%-1% O₂) for 24-48 h or to MPP⁺ at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2 mM) and then detected the levels of PINK1 and cleaved caspase 3. Both hypoxia and MPP⁺ reduced cell viability, progressively suppressed the expression of PINK1 and increased the cleaved caspase 3. DOR activation using UFP-512, effectively protected the cells from hypoxia and/or MPP⁺ induced injury, reversed the reduction in PINK1 protein and significantly attenuated the increase in the cleaved caspase 3. On the other hand, the application of DOR antagonist, naltrindole, greatly decreased cell viability and increased cleaved caspase 3. These findings suggest that DOR is cytoprotective against both hypoxia and MPP⁺ through the regulation of PINK1 and caspase 3 pathways. PMID:27517901

  20. Thermosensitive Polypeptide Hydrogels as a Platform for ROS-Triggered Cargo Release with Innate Cytoprotective Ability under Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qinghua; He, Chaoliang; Ren, Kaixuan; Xiao, Chunsheng; Chen, Xuesi

    2016-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in cell signaling pathways, while increased production of ROS may disrupt cellular homeostasis, giving rise to a series of diseases. Therefore, materials responding to ROS at physiological levels are of great significance. In this work, a novel ROS-responsive thermogelling hydrogel based on methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-methionine) diblock copolymers is designed and synthesized. The mechanism for solution-to-hydrogel (sol-gel) phase transitions of the copolymer aqueous solutions is studied. Incubation of the hydrogels in the presence of peroxide hydrogen (H2 O2 ) displays a H2 O2 -responsive degradation process. The hydrogels containing Rhodamine 6G exhibit sustained release profiles that are accelerated in response to H2 O2 . An innate cytoprotective ability of the hydrogels is revealed by incubation of L929 cells with the hydrogels under oxidative stress, which reduces H2 O2 -mediated cell death. ROS produced by activated macrophages can accelerate the erosion of the hydrogel, suggesting that the hydrogel is also responsive to pathological level of H2 O2 . Meanwhile, the poly(l-methionine)-based hydrogels degrade within 6 weeks after subcutaneous injection into rats, with a good biocompatibility in vivo. Overall, the injectable, ROS-responsive hydrogels may serve as promising platforms for sustained drug delivery and cell-based therapies in treatment of diseases with local oxidative stress. PMID:27283999

  1. Cytoprotection against Hypoxic and/or MPP+ Injury: Effect of δ–Opioid Receptor Activation on Caspase 3

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuan; Zhi, Feng; Shao, Naiyuan; Wang, Rong; Yang, Yilin; Xia, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The pathological changes of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are, at least partially, associated with the dysregulation of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and caspase 3. Since hypoxic and neurotoxic insults are underlying causes of PD, and since δ-opioid receptor (DOR) is neuroprotective against hypoxic/ischemic insults, we sought to determine whether DOR activation could protect the cells from damage induced by hypoxia and/or MPP+ by regulating PINK1 and caspase 3 expressions. We exposed PC12 cells to either severe hypoxia (0.5%–1% O2) for 24–48 h or to MPP+ at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2 mM) and then detected the levels of PINK1 and cleaved caspase 3. Both hypoxia and MPP+ reduced cell viability, progressively suppressed the expression of PINK1 and increased the cleaved caspase 3. DOR activation using UFP-512, effectively protected the cells from hypoxia and/or MPP+ induced injury, reversed the reduction in PINK1 protein and significantly attenuated the increase in the cleaved caspase 3. On the other hand, the application of DOR antagonist, naltrindole, greatly decreased cell viability and increased cleaved caspase 3. These findings suggest that DOR is cytoprotective against both hypoxia and MPP+ through the regulation of PINK1 and caspase 3 pathways. PMID:27517901

  2. The Prefrontal Cortex Achieves Inhibitory Control by Facilitating Subcortical Motor Pathway Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Laura E.; Anderson, Michael C.; Rowe, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Communication between the prefrontal cortex and subcortical nuclei underpins the control and inhibition of behavior. However, the interactions in such pathways remain controversial. Using a stop-signal response inhibition task and functional imaging with analysis of effective connectivity, we show that the lateral prefrontal cortex influences the strength of communication between regions in the frontostriatal motor system. We compared 20 generative models that represented alternative interactions between the inferior frontal gyrus, presupplementary motor area (preSMA), subthalamic nucleus (STN), and primary motor cortex during response inhibition. Bayesian model selection revealed that during successful response inhibition, the inferior frontal gyrus modulates an excitatory influence of the preSMA on the STN, thereby amplifying the downstream polysynaptic inhibition from the STN to the motor cortex. Critically, the strength of the interaction between preSMA and STN, and the degree of modulation by the inferior frontal gyrus, predicted individual differences in participants' stopping performance (stop-signal reaction time). We then used diffusion-weighted imaging with tractography to assess white matter structure in the pathways connecting these three regions. The mean diffusivity in tracts between preSMA and the STN, and between the inferior frontal gyrus and STN, also predicted individual differences in stopping efficiency. Finally, we found that white matter structure in the tract between preSMA and STN correlated with effective connectivity of the same pathway, providing important cross-modal validation of the effective connectivity measures. Together, the results demonstrate the network dynamics and modulatory role of the prefrontal cortex that underpin individual differences in inhibitory control. PMID:25589771

  3. The JAK-STAT Pathway Controls Plasmodium vivax Load in Early Stages of Anopheles aquasalis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bahia, Ana C.; Kubota, Marina S.; Tempone, Antonio J.; Araújo, Helena R. C.; Guedes, Bruno A. M.; Orfanó, Alessandra S.; Tadei, Wanderli P.; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia M.; Han, Yeon S.; Secundino, Nágila F. C.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Malaria affects 300 million people worldwide every year and 450,000 in Brazil. In coastal areas of Brazil, the main malaria vector is Anopheles aquasalis, and Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malaria cases in the Americas. Insects possess a powerful immune system to combat infections. Three pathways control the insect immune response: Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT. Here we analyze the immune role of the A. aquasalis JAK-STAT pathway after P. vivax infection. Three genes, the transcription factor Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT), the regulatory Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT (PIAS) and the Nitric Oxide Synthase enzyme (NOS) were characterized. Expression of STAT and PIAS was higher in males than females and in eggs and first instar larvae when compared to larvae and pupae. RNA levels for STAT and PIAS increased 24 and 36 hours (h) after P. vivax challenge. NOS transcription increased 36 h post infection (hpi) while this protein was already detected in some midgut epithelial cells 24 hpi. Imunocytochemistry experiments using specific antibodies showed that in non-infected insects STAT and PIAS were found mostly in the fat body, while in infected mosquitoes the proteins were found in other body tissues. The knockdown of STAT by RNAi increased the number of oocysts in the midgut of A. aquasalis. This is the first clear evidence for the involvement of a specific immune pathway in the interaction of the Brazilian malaria vector A. aquasalis with P. vivax, delineating a potential target for the future development of disease controlling strategies. PMID:22069502

  4. The JAK-STAT pathway controls Plasmodium vivax load in early stages of Anopheles aquasalis infection.

    PubMed

    Bahia, Ana C; Kubota, Marina S; Tempone, Antonio J; Araújo, Helena R C; Guedes, Bruno A M; Orfanó, Alessandra S; Tadei, Wanderli P; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia M; Han, Yeon S; Secundino, Nágila F C; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Pimenta, Paulo F P; Traub-Csekö, Yara M

    2011-11-01

    Malaria affects 300 million people worldwide every year and 450,000 in Brazil. In coastal areas of Brazil, the main malaria vector is Anopheles aquasalis, and Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malaria cases in the Americas. Insects possess a powerful immune system to combat infections. Three pathways control the insect immune response: Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT. Here we analyze the immune role of the A. aquasalis JAK-STAT pathway after P. vivax infection. Three genes, the transcription factor Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT), the regulatory Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT (PIAS) and the Nitric Oxide Synthase enzyme (NOS) were characterized. Expression of STAT and PIAS was higher in males than females and in eggs and first instar larvae when compared to larvae and pupae. RNA levels for STAT and PIAS increased 24 and 36 hours (h) after P. vivax challenge. NOS transcription increased 36 h post infection (hpi) while this protein was already detected in some midgut epithelial cells 24 hpi. Imunocytochemistry experiments using specific antibodies showed that in non-infected insects STAT and PIAS were found mostly in the fat body, while in infected mosquitoes the proteins were found in other body tissues. The knockdown of STAT by RNAi increased the number of oocysts in the midgut of A. aquasalis. This is the first clear evidence for the involvement of a specific immune pathway in the interaction of the Brazilian malaria vector A. aquasalis with P. vivax, delineating a potential target for the future development of disease controlling strategies. PMID:22069502

  5. A novel Drosophila Girdin-like protein is involved in Akt pathway control of cell size

    SciTech Connect

    Puseenam, Aekkachai; Yoshioka, Yasuhide; Nagai, Rika; Hashimoto, Reina; Suyari, Osamu; Itoh, Masanobu; Enomoto, Atsushi; Takahashi, Masahide; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2009-11-15

    The Akt signaling pathway is well known to regulate cell proliferation and growth. Girdin, a novel substrate of Akt, plays a crucial role in organization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell motility under the control of Akt. We here identified a novel Girdin-like protein in Drosophila (dGirdin), which has two isoforms, dGirdin PA and dGirdin PB. dGirdin shows high homology with human Girdin in the N-terminal and coiled-coil domains, while diverging at the C-terminal domain. On establishment of transgenic fly lines, featuring knockdown or overexpression of dGirdin in vivo, overexpression in the wing disc cells induced ectopic apoptosis, implying a role in directing apoptosis. Knockdown of dGirdin in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc cells resulted in reduction of cell size. Furthermore, this was enhanced by half reduction of the Akt gene dose, suggesting that Akt positively regulates dGirdin. In the wing disc, cells in which dGirdin was knocked down exhibited disruption of actin filaments. From these in vivo analyses, we conclude that dGirdin is required for actin organization and regulation of appropriate cell size under control of the Akt signaling pathway.

  6. Inositol phosphate pathway controls transcription of telomeric expression sites in trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Cestari, Igor; Stuart, Ken

    2015-05-26

    African trypanosomes evade clearance by host antibodies by periodically changing their variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat. They transcribe only one VSG gene at a time from 1 of about 20 telomeric expression sites (ESs). They undergo antigenic variation by switching transcription between telomeric ESs or by recombination of the VSG gene expressed. We show that the inositol phosphate (IP) pathway controls transcription of telomeric ESs and VSG antigenic switching in Trypanosoma brucei. Conditional knockdown of phosphatidylinositol 5-kinase (TbPIP5K) or phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphatase (TbPIP5Pase) or overexpression of phospholipase C (TbPLC) derepresses numerous silent ESs in T. brucei bloodstream forms. The derepression is specific to telomeric ESs, and it coincides with an increase in the number of colocalizing telomeric and RNA polymerase I foci in the nucleus. Monoallelic VSG transcription resumes after reexpression of TbPIP5K; however, most of the resultant cells switched the VSG gene expressed. TbPIP5K, TbPLC, their substrates, and products localize to the plasma membrane, whereas TbPIP5Pase localizes to the nucleus proximal to telomeres. TbPIP5Pase associates with repressor/activator protein 1 (TbRAP1), and their telomeric silencing function is altered by TbPIP5K knockdown. These results show that specific steps in the IP pathway control ES transcription and antigenic switching in T. brucei by epigenetic regulation of telomere silencing. PMID:25964327

  7. Distinct protease pathways control cell shape and apoptosis in v-src-transformed quail neuroretina cells

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, Benjamin D.; Gillet, Germain . E-mail: g.gillet@ibcp.fr

    2005-11-15

    Intracellular proteases play key roles in cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. In nerve cells, little is known about their relative contribution to the pathways which control cell physiology, including cell death. Neoplastic transformation of avian neuroretina cells by p60 {sup v-src} tyrosine kinase results in dramatic morphological changes and deregulation of apoptosis. To identify the proteases involved in the cellular response to p60 {sup v-src}, we evaluated the effect of specific inhibitors of caspases, calpains and the proteasome on cell shape changes and apoptosis induced by p60 {sup v-src} inactivation in quail neuroretina cells transformed by tsNY68, a thermosensitive strain of Rous sarcoma virus. We found that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is recruited early after p60 {sup v-src} inactivation and is critical for morphological changes, whereas caspases are essential for cell death. This study provides evidence that distinct intracellular proteases are involved in the control of the morphology and fate of v-src-transformed cells.

  8. Synapses with inhibitory neurons differentiate anterior cingulate from dorsolateral prefrontal pathways associated with cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Medalla, M.; Barbas, H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) focus attention on relevant signals and suppress noise in cognitive tasks. However, their synaptic interactions and unique roles in cognitive control are unknown. We report that two distinct pathways to DLPFC area 9, one from the neighboring area 46 and the other from the functionally distinct ACC, similarly innervate excitatory neurons associated with selecting relevant stimuli. However, ACC has more prevalent and larger synapses with inhibitory neurons and preferentially innervates calbindin inhibitory neurons, which reduce noise by inhibiting excitatory neurons. In contrast, area 46 mostly innervates calretinin inhibitory neurons, which disinhibit excitatory neurons. These synaptic specializations suggest that ACC has a greater impact in reducing noise in dorsolateral areas during challenging cognitive tasks involving conflict, error, or reversing decisions, mechanisms that are disrupted in schizophrenia. These observations highlight the unique roles of the DLPFC and ACC in cognitive control. PMID:19249280

  9. Modeling effective transmission pathways and control of the world's most successful parasite.

    PubMed

    Turner, Matthew; Lenhart, Suzanne; Rosenthal, Benjamin; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2013-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii(T. gondii) is a single-celled, intracellular protozoan responsible for the disease toxoplasmosis. The parasite is prevalent worldwide, and it infects all warm-blooded vertebrates. Consumption of meats in which this parasite has encysted confers risk of infection to people and other animals, as does ingestion of water or foods contaminated with environmentally resistant oocysts excreted by cats. Vertical transmission (from mother to offspring) is also possible, leading to disease risk and contributing additional means of ensuring perpetuation of transmission. In this work, we adopt a differential equation model to investigate the effective transmission pathways of T. gondii, as well as potential control mechanisms. Detailed analyses are carried out to examine the significance of transmission routes, virulence, vertical transmission, parasite-induced changes in host behavior, and controls based on vaccination and harvesting. Modeling and analysis efforts may shed insights into understanding the complex life cycle of T. gondii. PMID:23624067

  10. [Engineering MEP pathway in Escherichia coli for amorphadiene production and optimizing the bioprocess through glucose feeding control].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianfeng; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Siliang; Wang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The pathway of 2-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) is the exclusive isoprenoid precursor biosynthetic pathway in Escherichia coli, with a higher theoretical yield than mevalonate (MVA) pathway. However, due to lack of information about the regulation of MEP pathway, only engineering MEP pathway in E. coli achieved limited improvement of heterologous isoprenoid production. We used exogenous MEP pathway genes to improve MEP pathway in E. coli and optimized the glucose feeding to release the potential of MEP pathway. The results demonstrate that co-expression of dxs2 from Streptomyces avermitilis and idi from Bacillus subtilis can increase amorphadiene production with 12.2-fold compared with the wild-type strain in shake flask fermentation. Then we established a high-cell density fermentation process for the engineered strain, and found that the phase from 24 to 72 h is important for product biosynthesis. The optimization of glucose feeding rate during 24 to 72 h significantly improved product accumulation, which was improved from 2.5 to 4.85 g/L, within the same process time. Considering the attenuation of strain metabolism after 72 h, this study further modulated the glucose feeding rate during exponential phase to control strain growth and the amorphadiene yield eventually reached to 6.1 g/L. These results provided useful information to develop engineered E. coli for isoprenoid production through MEP pathway engineering. PMID:24818480

  11. Complexity of contrasting flow controls on phosphorus flux and transfer pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellander, Per-Erik; Jordan, Phil; Shore, Mairead; Melland, Alice R.; Shortle, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Insights on hydrological processes from 'rain to stream' are important when interpreting the effectiveness of measures for reducing phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural sources to water bodies. A general understanding is that measures for management of P transfers along surface pathways will be consistently effective when applied on a whole territory approach. It is, however, necessary for policies to incorporate an understanding of spatial and temporal variation in hydrological flow controls, associated nutrient transfer pathways and chemical processes along the pathways. This variation is associated with variability in soil drainage, geology, climate and land management between hillslopes and catchments. In this study, four years of hourly stream P flux data from two Irish agricultural catchments were analysed on an annual and event flow basis. The analysis was related to hydrological flow paths in order to help develop a catchment scale (ca. 10 km2) theory of P export and associated processes that could help with specific P mitigation policies in heterogeneous river basin planning zones. A grassland catchment with mostly poorly drained soils and a 'flashy hydrology' had three times higher annual P flux than an arable catchment with mostly well-drained soils and a more buffered hydrology (1.04 kg total P ha-1 compared to 0.34 kg total P ha-1), despite the arable catchment having larger areas with high soil P status and more discharge. Neither of the catchments indicated P supply limitations. The magnitude of the P fluxes from the two catchments were not defined by land use, source pressure or discharge volume, but rather by a more basic rainfall-to-runoff partitioning which influenced the proportions of quickflow and slowflow. Despite the catchments having contrasting flow controls and P transfer pathways, there were larger differences in P loss between the years than between the catchments and the P loss from the arable catchment appeared to be more sensitive

  12. Approaches to gastrointestinal cytoprotection: from isolated cells, via animal experiments to healthy human subjects and patients with different gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Mózsik, Gyula; Szabó, Imre L; Czimmer, József

    2011-01-01

    Our clinical observations proved that the the duodenal ulcer in patients healed without any inhibition of gastric acid secretion (1965), and the healing rates of atropine vs cimetidine vs Carbenoxolone were equal and superior to that of placebo in randomized, prospective and multiclinical study of DU patients (1978). The phenomenon of gastric cytoprotection was defined by André Robert in rats (1979). The essential point of this phenomenon is that the prostaglandins prevent the chemical-induced gastric mucosal damage without affecting gastric acid secretion, this being originally suggested as a reaction specific to prostaglandins. Since then gastrointestinal cytoprotection has been shown with various agents (anticholinergic agents, H(2)RA, growth factors, body protecting compound, BPC) and retinoids in animals; the latter differing from the actions of vitamin A. In examining the various components of gastrointestinal cytoprotection , different studies have performed in isolated cells, stable cell lines, animal experiments, healthy human subjects, in patients chronic gastric and duodenal ulcers, and with different gastrointestinal disorders. Our attention has focused on the effects of cytoprotective agents on cellular viability, mitochondrial and DNA damage, oxygen free radicals, natural antioxidant systems, mucosal biochemistry, vascular events, gastrointestinal mucosal protection as well as in their prevention of different human diseases. This paper gives an overview on the different approaches for the exploring gastrointestinal cytoprotection (at the level of isolated cells, animal experiments, healthy human beings and patients with different gastrointestinal disorders). It has been indicated that the gastric cytoprotection exists in animals, human healthy subjects, patients with different gastrointestinal disorders. The our human observation in patients with duodenal ulcer healed without any changes of gastric acid secretion, there were no significant

  13. Spray-dried Eudragit® L100 microparticles containing ferulic acid: Formulation, in vitro cytoprotection and in vivo anti-platelet effect.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Jessica Mendes; Gomes, Mona Lisa Simionatto; Borsato, Débora Maria; Almeida, Martinha Antunes; Barboza, Fernanda Malaquias; Zawadzki, Sônia Faria; Kanunfre, Carla Cristine; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Zanin, Sandra Maria Warumby

    2016-07-01

    This paper aimed to obtain new spray-dried microparticles containing ferulic acid (FA) prepared by using a methacrylic polymer (Eudragit® L100). Microparticles were intended for oral use in order to provide a controlled release, and improved in vitro and in vivo biological effects. FA-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles were obtained by spray-drying. Physicochemical properties, in vitro cell-based effects, and in vivo platelet aggregation were investigated. FA-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles were successfully prepared by spray-drying. Formulations showed suitable encapsulation efficiency, i.e. close to 100%. Microparticles were of spherical and almost-spherical shape with a smooth surface and a mean diameter between 2 and 3μm. Fourier-transformed infrared spectra demonstrated no chemical bond between FA and polymer. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analyses indicated that microencapsulation led to drug amorphization. FA-loaded microparticles showed a slower dissolution rate than pure drug. The chosen formulation demonstrated higher in vitro cytoprotection, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory potential and also improved in vivo anti-platelet effect. These results support an experimental basis for the use of FA spray-dried microparticles as a feasible oral drug delivery carrier for the controlled release of FA and improved cytoprotective and anti-platelet effects. PMID:27127059

  14. The role of natural polyphenols in cell signaling and cytoprotection against cancer development.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Hanna; Kalinowska, Monika; Lewandowski, Włodzimierz; Stępkowski, Tomasz M; Brzóska, Kamil

    2016-06-01

    The cytoprotective and anticancer action of dietary in-taken natural polyphenols has for long been attributed only to their direct radical scavenging activities. Currently it is well supported that those compounds display a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological outcomes mediated by their complex metabolism, interaction with gut microbiota as well as direct interactions of their metabolites with key cellular signaling proteins. The beneficial effects of natural polyphenols and their synthetic derivatives are extensively studied in context of cancer prophylaxis and therapy. Herein we focus on cell signaling to explain the beneficial role of polyphenols at the three stages of cancer development: we review the recent proceedings about the impact of polyphenols on the cytoprotective antioxidant response and their proapoptotic action at the premalignant stage, and finally we present data showing how phenolic acids (e.g., caffeic, chlorogenic acids) and flavonols (e.g., quercetin) hamper the development of metastatic cancer. PMID:27142731

  15. Antiradical and cytoprotective activities of several C-geranyl-substituted flavanones from Paulownia tomentosa fruit.

    PubMed

    Zima, Ales; Hosek, Jan; Treml, Jakub; Muselík, Jan; Suchý, Pavel; Prazanová, Gabriela; Lopes, Ana; Zemlicka, Milan

    2010-09-01

    Antiradical and cytoprotective activities of several flavanones isolated from Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud. (Scrophulariaceae) have been evaluated using different in vitro and in vivo methods. The capacity of flavanones to scavenge radicals was measured in vitro by means of DPPH and ABTS assays, the inhibition of hydroxyl radicals produced in Fenton reactions, FRAP, scavenging superoxide radicals using enzymatic and nonenzymatic assays and the inhibition of peroxynitrite-induced nitration of tyrosine. The in vivo testing involved measuring the cytoprotective effect of chosen flavanones against alloxan-induced diabetes in mice. The activity of tested compounds was expressed either as a Trolox® equivalent or was compared with rutin or morine as known antioxidant compounds. The highest activity in most tests was observed for diplacone and 3´-O-methyl-5´-hydroxydiplacone, and the structure vs. the antioxidant activity relationship of geranyl or prenyl-substituted flavonoids with different substitutions at the B and C ring was discussed. PMID:20877208

  16. Reversal of HO-1 related cytoprotection with increased expression is due to reactive iron.

    PubMed

    Suttner, D M; Dennery, P A

    1999-10-01

    It is often postulated that the cytoprotective nature of heme oxygenase (HO-1) explains the inducible nature of this enzyme. However, the mechanisms by which protection occurs are not verified by systematic evaluation of the physiological effects of HO. To explain how induction of HO-1 results in protection against oxygen toxicity, hamster fibroblasts (HA-1) were stably transfected with a tetracycline response plasmid containing the full-length rat HO-1 cDNA construct to allow for regulation of gene expression by varying concentrations of doxycycline (Dox). Transfected cells were exposed to hyperoxia (95% O(2)/5% CO2) for 24 h and several markers of oxidative injury were measured. With varying concentrations of Dox, HO activity was regulated between 3- and 17-fold. Despite cytoprotection with low (less than fivefold) HO activity, high levels of HO-1 expression (greater than 15-fold) were associated with significant oxygen cytotoxicity. Levels of non-heme reactive iron correlated with cellular injury in hyperoxia whereas lower levels of heme were associated with cytoprotection. Cellular levels of cyclic GMP and bilirubin were not significantly altered by modification of HO activity, precluding a substantial role for activation of guanylate cyclase by carbon monoxide or for accumulation of bile pigments in the physiological consequences of HO-1 overexpression. Inhibition of HO activity or chelation of cellular iron prior to hyperoxic exposure decreased reactive iron levels in the samples and significantly reduced oxygen toxicity. We conclude that there is a beneficial threshold of HO-1 overexpression related to the accumulation of reactive iron released in the degradation of heme. Therefore, despite the ready induction of HO-1 in oxidant stress, accumulation of reactive iron formed makes it unlikely that exaggerated expression of HO-1 is a cytoprotective response. PMID:10506583

  17. Radioprotective and cytoprotective activity of Tinospora cordifolia stem enriched extract containing cordifolioside-A

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Arti; Bigoniya, Papiya; Singh, Chandra Shekhar; Patel, Narayan Singh

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the radioprotective and cytoprotective potential of cordifolioside-A, a primary active constituent of n-butanol fraction of Tinospora Cordifolia (NBTC) against 4 Gy-γ radiation in mice and cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Presence of cordifolioside-A in NBTC stem ethanolic extract was confirmed by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis. Radioprotective activity was evaluated at 80 and 120 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of NBTC administered 15 days prior to whole body radiation exposure by observing survival rate, change in body weight, hematology, spleen colony forming unit (CFU), and micronucleus (MN) expression. Cytoprotective activity of NBTC was evaluated at 5, 10, and 15 mg/ml concentrations on Allium cepa root meristem growth against cyclophosphamide. Results: HPTLC analysis of standard cordifolioside A, and NBTC confirmed the presence of cordifolioside-A in NBTC with the retention factor value of 0.86. Administration of NBTC (120 mg/kg, i.p.) produced significant protection against radiation in terms of increased survival rate, body weight retention, hematological parameters, spleen CFU assay (P < 0.01), and decreased MN expression (P < 0.01). Cytoprotectivity was observed maximally at 10 mg/ml NBTC concentration with significant increase in root growth (P < 0.01), non-toxic mitotic index (MI) (65.9%) and lesser chromosomal aberrations (15.4%). NBTC at 10 mg/ml concentration showed very few C-anaphase compared to aberrations like fragmentation, C-anaphase, multipolarity and sticky chromosome in cyclophosphamide alone. Conclusion: The results suggest that enriched NBTC containing cordifolioside-A has a potential in vivo radioprotective effect as well as in vitro cytoprotective activity. PMID:23833365

  18. Cytoprotection of human endothelial cells from menadione cytotoxicity by caffeic acid phenethyl ester: the role of heme oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinyu; Stavchansky, Salomon; Zhao, Baiteng; Bynum, James A; Kerwin, Sean M; Bowman, Phillip D

    2008-09-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), derived from various plant sources, has been shown to ameliorate ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo, and this has been attributed to its ability to reduce oxidative stress. Here we investigated the cytoprotection of CAPE against menadione-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to evaluate potential gene expression involvement. CAPE exhibited dose-dependent cytoprotection of HUVEC. A gene screen with microarrays was performed to identify the potential cytoprotective gene(s) induced by CAPE. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was highly upregulated by CAPE and this was confirmed with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. Inhibition of HO-1 activity using the HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPPIX), resulted in loss of cytoprotection. Carbon monoxide, one of HO-1 catabolic products appeared to play a small role in CAPE protection. Caffeic acid, a potential metabolite of CAPE with similar free radical scavenging ability, however, didn't show any cytoprotective effect nor induce HO-1. These findings suggest an important role of HO-1 induction in CAPE cytoprotection against oxidant stress, which may not relate to CAPE structural antioxidant activity nor to its traditional enzymatic activity in decomposing heme but to a yet to be determined activity. PMID:18573251

  19. Cytoprotection by Achyrocline satureioides (Lam) D.C. and some of its main flavonoids against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, M F; Blasina, F; Echeverry, C; Morquio, A; Ferreira, M; Abin-Carriquiry, J A; Lafon, L; Dajas, F

    2004-03-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that dietary antioxidants can influence the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases. Among them flavonoids have been proposed to be effective cytoprotectors. Consequently, herbs with a high concentration of these compounds such as Achyrocline satureioides, Ginkgo biloba and Epilobium parviflorum are of special interest. In this context a comparative study of the cytoprotective capacity of infusions from the three plants against an oxidative insult was performed. Hence, the cytoprotective activity of each infusion against H2O2 injury to PC12 cells was tested and the antioxidant capacity was assessed by the ABTS*+ radical bleaching assay. Free and glycosylated flavonoids contained in the infusions were identified by HPLC and the cytoprotective effect of some of these individual flavonoids was tested. The analysis of the flavonoid content of the infusions revealed different profiles. Epilobium parviflorum infusion showed the highest antioxidant capacity but only Achyrocline satureioides infusion proved to be cytoprotective. Moreover, the free flavonoids quercetin and luteolin contained in this infusion were also cytoprotective. In conclusion, the free radical scavenger capacity did not correlate with the cytoprotective profile of the infusions. The special mixture of unglycosylated Achyrocline satureioides flavonoids could be a clue to explain the unique effect of this plant. PMID:15036461

  20. The GTPase regulatory proteins Pix and Git control tissue growth via the Hippo pathway.

    PubMed

    Dent, Lucas G; Poon, Carole L C; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Degoutin, Joffrey L; Tipping, Marla; Veraksa, Alexey; Harvey, Kieran F

    2015-01-01

    The Salvador-Warts-Hippo (Hippo) pathway is a conserved regulator of organ size and is deregulated in human cancers. In epithelial tissues, the Hippo pathway is regulated by fundamental cell biological properties, such as polarity and adhesion, and coordinates these with tissue growth. Despite its importance in disease, development, and regeneration, the complete set of proteins that regulate Hippo signaling remain undefined. To address this, we used proteomics to identify proteins that bind to the Hippo (Hpo) kinase. Prominent among these were PAK-interacting exchange factor (known as Pix or RtGEF) and G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein (Git). Pix is a conserved Rho-type guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Rho-GEF) homologous to Beta-PIX and Alpha-PIX in mammals. Git is the single Drosophila melanogaster homolog of the mammalian GIT1 and GIT2 proteins, which were originally identified in the search for molecules that interact with G-protein-coupled receptor kinases. Pix and Git form an oligomeric scaffold to facilitate sterile 20-like kinase activation and have also been linked to GTPase regulation. We show that Pix and Git regulate Hippo-pathway-dependent tissue growth in D. melanogaster and that they do this in parallel to the known upstream regulator Fat cadherin. Pix and Git influence activity of the Hpo kinase by acting as a scaffold complex, rather than enzymes, and promote Hpo dimerization and autophosphorylation of Hpo's activation loop. Therefore, we provide important new insights into an ancient signaling network that controls the growth of metazoan tissues. PMID:25484297

  1. The mammalian molecular clockwork controls rhythmic expression of its own input pathway components.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Martina; Müller, Christian M; Mordel, Jérôme; Meissl, Hilmar; Ansari, Nariman; Deller, Thomas; Korf, Horst-Werner; von Gall, Charlotte

    2009-05-13

    The core molecular clockwork in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is based on autoregulatory feedback loops of transcriptional activators (CLOCK/NPAS2 and BMAL1) and inhibitors (mPER1-2 and mCRY1-2). To synchronize the phase of the molecular clockwork to the environmental day and night condition, light at dusk and dawn increases mPer expression. However, the signal transduction pathways differ remarkably between the day/night and the night/day transition. Light during early night leads to intracellular Ca(2+) release by neuronal ryanodine receptors (RyRs), resulting in phase delays. Light during late night triggers an increase in guanylyl cyclase activity, resulting in phase advances. To date, it is still unknown how the core molecular clockwork regulates the availability of the respective input pathway components. Therefore, we examined light resetting mechanisms in mice with an impaired molecular clockwork (BMAL1(-/-)) and the corresponding wild type (BMAL1(+/+)) using in situ hybridization, real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and a luciferase reporter system. In addition, intracellular calcium concentrations (Ca(2+)(i)) were measured in SCN slices using two-photon microscopy. In the SCN of BMAL1(-/-) mice Ryr mRNA and RyR protein levels were reduced, and light-induced mPer expression was selectively impaired during early night. Transcription assays with NIH3T3 fibroblasts showed that Ryr expression was activated by CLOCK::BMAL1 and inhibited by mCRY1. The Ca(2+)(i) response of SCN cells to the RyR agonist caffeine was reduced in BMAL1(-/-) compared with BMAL1(+/+) mice. Our findings provide the first evidence that the mammalian molecular clockwork influences Ryr expression and thus controls its own photic input pathway components. PMID:19439589

  2. Oncostatic-Cytoprotective Effect of Melatonin and Other Bioactive Molecules: A Common Target in Mitochondrial Respiration.

    PubMed

    Pacini, Nicola; Borziani, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    For several years, oncostatic and antiproliferative properties, as well as thoses of cell death induction through 5-methoxy-N-acetiltryptamine or melatonin treatment, have been known. Paradoxically, its remarkable scavenger, cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic characteristics in neurodegeneration models, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease are known too. Analogous results have been confirmed by a large literature to be associated to the use of many other bioactive molecules such as resveratrol, tocopherol derivatives or vitamin E and others. It is interesting to note that the two opposite situations, namely the neoplastic pathology and the neurodegeneration, are characterized by deep alterations of the metabolome, of mitochondrial function and of oxygen consumption, so that the oncostatic and cytoprotective action can find a potential rationalization because of the different metabolic and mitochondrial situations, and in the effect that these molecules exercise on the mitochondrial function. In this review we discuss historical and general aspects of melatonin, relations between cancers and the metabolome and between neurodegeneration and the metabolome, and the possible effects of melatonin and of other bioactive molecules on metabolic and mitochondrial dynamics. Finally, we suggest a common general mechanism as responsible for the oncostatic/cytoprotective effect of melatonin and of other molecules examined. PMID:26959015

  3. Synthesis of novel tetrahydrobenzazepine derivatives and their cytoprotective effect on human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Simic, Milena R; Stankovic, Miroslava; Mandic, Boris M; Tesevic, Vele V; Savic, Vladimir M

    2015-02-01

    Cytoprotective compounds such as amifostine play an important role in chemo- and radiotherapy due to their ability to reduce the side effects of these treatments. Our work was initiated with the intention to design, synthesise and test a new class of heterocyclic compounds that would have an antioxidative profile with the potential to be further developed as cytoprotective agents. The design was based on the privileged tetrahydrobenzazepine scaffold found in many natural products with a wide range of biological properties. This structure was further functionalised with moieties known to possess antioxidative features such as tertiary amine and styrene double bond. A series of eight tetrahydrobenzazepine derivatives of isoquinoline, 3,4-dihydro-β-carboline and pyridine were synthesised employing the Heck reaction as a key transformation. Some of the prepared compounds were tested for their in vitro effects on chromosome aberrations in peripheral human lymphocytes using the cytochalasin-B blocked micronucleus (MN) assay. Three tetrahydrobenzoazepine derivatives showed significant cytoprotective properties, comparable or even better to those of the radioprotective agent amifostine. PMID:25664628

  4. Spin Trapping and Cytoprotective Properties of Fluorinated Amphiphilic Carrier Conjugates of Cyclic versus Linear Nitrones

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Grégory; Prosak, Robert A.; Han, Yongbin; Ortial, Stéphanie; Rockenbauer, Antal; Pucci, Bernard; Villamena, Frederick A.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrone spin traps have been employed as pharmacological agent against neurodegenerative diseases and ischemia-reperfusion induced injury. The structure-activity relationship was explored for the two types of nitrones, i.e., cyclic (DMPO) and linear (PBN), which are conjugated to a fluorinated amphiphilic carrier (FAC) for their cytoprotective properties against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 3-morpholinosynonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) induced cell death on bovine aortic endothelial cells. The compound FAMPO was synthesized and characterized, and its physical-chemical and spin trapping properties were explored. Cytotoxicity and cytoprotective properties of various nitrones either conjugated and non-conjugated to FAC (i.e., AMPO, FAMPO, PBN and FAPBN) were assessed using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) reduction assay. Results show that of all the nitrones tested, FAPBN is the most protective against H2O2, but FAMPO and to a lesser extent its unconjugated form, AMPO, are more protective against SIN-1 induced cytotoxicity. However, none of the nitrones used protect the cells from HNE-induced cell death. The difference in the cytoprotective properties observed between the cyclic and linear nitrones may arise from the differences in their intrinsic antioxidant properties and localization in the cell. PMID:19678661

  5. Oncostatic-Cytoprotective Effect of Melatonin and Other Bioactive Molecules: A Common Target in Mitochondrial Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Pacini, Nicola; Borziani, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    For several years, oncostatic and antiproliferative properties, as well as thoses of cell death induction through 5-methoxy-N-acetiltryptamine or melatonin treatment, have been known. Paradoxically, its remarkable scavenger, cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic characteristics in neurodegeneration models, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease are known too. Analogous results have been confirmed by a large literature to be associated to the use of many other bioactive molecules such as resveratrol, tocopherol derivatives or vitamin E and others. It is interesting to note that the two opposite situations, namely the neoplastic pathology and the neurodegeneration, are characterized by deep alterations of the metabolome, of mitochondrial function and of oxygen consumption, so that the oncostatic and cytoprotective action can find a potential rationalization because of the different metabolic and mitochondrial situations, and in the effect that these molecules exercise on the mitochondrial function. In this review we discuss historical and general aspects of melatonin, relations between cancers and the metabolome and between neurodegeneration and the metabolome, and the possible effects of melatonin and of other bioactive molecules on metabolic and mitochondrial dynamics. Finally, we suggest a common general mechanism as responsible for the oncostatic/cytoprotective effect of melatonin and of other molecules examined. PMID:26959015

  6. Cytoprotective Effects of Grape Seed Extract on Human Gingival Fibroblasts in Relation to Its Antioxidant Potential

    PubMed Central

    Katsuda, Yusuke; Niwano, Yoshimi; Nakashima, Takuji; Mokudai, Takayuki; Nakamura, Keisuke; Oizumi, Satomi; Kanno, Taro; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Cytoprotective effects of short-term treatment with grape seed extract (GSE) upon human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) were evaluated in relation to its antioxidant properties and compared with those of a water-soluble analog of vitamin E: trolox (Tx). GSE and Tx showed comparable antioxidant potential in vitro against di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium (DPPH; a stable radical), hydroxyl radical (•OH), singlet oxygen (1O2), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Pretreatment or concomitant treatment with GSE for 1 min protected hGFs from oxidative stressors, including H2O2, acid-electrolyzed water (AEW), and 1O2, and attenuated the intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species induced by H2O2 and AEW. Tx also reduced the H2O2- and AEW-induced intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species, but showed no cytoprotective effects on hGFs exposed to H2O2, AEW, or 1O2. These results suggest that the cytoprotective effects of GSE are likely exerted independently of its antioxidant potential. PMID:26258747

  7. Spin trapping and cytoprotective properties of fluorinated amphiphilic carrier conjugates of cyclic versus linear nitrones.

    PubMed

    Durand, Grégory; Prosak, Robert A; Han, Yongbin; Ortial, Stéphanie; Rockenbauer, Antal; Pucci, Bernard; Villamena, Frederick A

    2009-09-01

    Nitrones have been employed as spin trapping reagent as well as pharmacological agent against neurodegenerative diseases and ischemia-reperfusion induced injury. The structure-activity relationship was explored for the two types of nitrones, i.e., cyclic (DMPO) and linear (PBN), which are conjugated to a fluorinated amphiphilic carrier (FAC) for their cytoprotective properties against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), 3-morpholinosynonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1), and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) induced cell death on bovine aortic endothelial cells. The compound FAMPO was synthesized and characterized, and its physical-chemical and spin trapping properties were explored. Cytotoxicity and cytoprotective properties of various nitrones either conjugated and nonconjugated to FAC (i.e., AMPO, FAMPO, PBN, and FAPBN) were assessed using a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) reduction assay. Results show that of all the nitrones tested, FAPBN is the most protective against H(2)O(2), but FAMPO and to a lesser extent its unconjugated form, AMPO, are more protective against SIN-1 induced cytotoxicity. However, none of the nitrones used protect the cells from HNE-induced cell death. The difference in the cytoprotective properties observed between the cyclic and linear nitrones may arise from the differences in their intrinsic antioxidant properties and localization in the cell. PMID:19678661

  8. Dynamic control over supramolecular handedness by selecting chiral induction pathways at the solution-solid interface.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Ghijsens, Elke; Ivasenko, Oleksandr; Cao, Hai; Noguchi, Aya; Mali, Kunal S; Tahara, Kazukuni; Tobe, Yoshito; De Feyter, Steven

    2016-07-01

    A dominant theme within the research on two-dimensional chirality is the sergeant-soldiers principle, wherein a small fraction of chiral molecules (sergeants) is used to skew the handedness of achiral molecules (soldiers) to generate a homochiral surface. Here, we have combined the sergeant-soldiers principle with temperature-dependent molecular self-assembly to unravel a peculiar chiral amplification mechanism at the solution-solid interface in which, depending on the concentration of a sergeant-soldiers solution, the majority handedness of the system can either be amplified or entirely reversed after an annealing step, furnishing a homochiral surface. Two discrete pathways that affect different stages of two-dimensional crystal growth are invoked for rationalizing this phenomenon and we present a set of experiments where the access to each pathway can be precisely controlled. These results demonstrate that a detailed understanding of subtle intermolecular and interfacial interactions can be used to induce drastic changes in the handedness of a supramolecular network. PMID:27325099

  9. Controlling anoxic tolerance in adult Drosophila via the cGMP–PKG pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dawson-Scully, K.; Bukvic, D.; Chakaborty-Chatterjee, M.; Ferreira, R.; Milton, S. L.; Sokolowski, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we identify a cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) cascade as a biochemical pathway critical for controlling low-oxygen tolerance in the adult fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Even though adult Drosophila can survive in 0% oxygen (anoxia) environments for hours, air with less than 2% oxygen rapidly induces locomotory failure resulting in an anoxic coma. We use natural genetic variation and an induced mutation in the foraging (for) gene, which encodes a Drosophila PKG, to demonstrate that the onset of anoxic coma is correlated with PKG activity. Flies that have lower PKG activity demonstrate a significant increase in time to the onset of anoxic coma. Further, in vivo pharmacological manipulations reveal that reducing either PKG or protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity increases tolerance of behavior to acute hypoxic conditions. Alternatively, PKG activation and phosphodiesterase (PDE5/6) inhibition significantly reduce the time to the onset of anoxic coma. By manipulating these targets in paired combinations, we characterized a specific PKG cascade, with upstream and downstream components. Further, using genetic variants of PKG expression/activity subjected to chronic anoxia over 6 h, ~50% of animals with higher PKG activity survive, while only ~25% of those with lower PKG activity survive after a 24 h recovery. Therefore, in this report we describe the PKG pathway and the differential protection of function vs survival in a critically low oxygen environment. PMID:20581270

  10. Deoxyxylulose 5-Phosphate Synthase Controls Flux through the Methylerythritol 4-Phosphate Pathway in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Louwrance P.; Rohwer, Johann M.; Ghirardo, Andrea; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Ortiz-Alcaide, Miriam; Raguschke, Bettina; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Phillips, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The 2-C-methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway supplies precursors for plastidial isoprenoid biosynthesis including carotenoids, redox cofactor side chains, and biogenic volatile organic compounds. We examined the first enzyme of this pathway, 1-deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS), using metabolic control analysis. Multiple Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lines presenting a range of DXS activities were dynamically labeled with 13CO2 in an illuminated, climate-controlled, gas exchange cuvette. Carbon was rapidly assimilated into MEP pathway intermediates, but not into the mevalonate pathway. A flux control coefficient of 0.82 was calculated for DXS by correlating absolute flux to enzyme activity under photosynthetic steady-state conditions, indicating that DXS is the major controlling enzyme of the MEP pathway. DXS manipulation also revealed a second pool of a downstream metabolite, 2-C-methylerythritol-2,4-cyclodiphosphate (MEcDP), metabolically isolated from the MEP pathway. DXS overexpression led to a 3- to 4-fold increase in MEcDP pool size but to a 2-fold drop in maximal labeling. The existence of this pool was supported by residual MEcDP levels detected in dark-adapted transgenic plants. Both pools of MEcDP are closely modulated by DXS activity, as shown by the fact that the concentration control coefficient of DXS was twice as high for MEcDP (0.74) as for 1-deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate (0.35) or dimethylallyl diphosphate (0.34). Despite the high flux control coefficient for DXS, its overexpression led to only modest increases in isoprenoid end products and in the photosynthetic rate. Diversion of flux via MEcDP may partly explain these findings and suggests new opportunities to engineer the MEP pathway. PMID:24987018

  11. OXIDATIVE STRESS, INFLAMMATION AND CARCINOGENESIS ARE CONTROLLED THROUGH THE PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY BY TRANSALDOLASE

    PubMed Central

    Perl, Andras; Hanczko, Robert; Telarico, Tiffany; Oaks, Zachary; Landas, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Metabolism of glucose through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) influences the development of diverse pathologies. Hemolytic anemia due to deficiency of PPP enzyme glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase is the most common genetic disease in humans. Recently, inactivation of another PPP enzyme, transaldolase (TAL), has been implicated in male infertility and fatty liver progressing to steatohepatitis and cancer. Hepatocarcinogenesis was associated with activation of aldose reductase and redox-sensitive transcription factors and prevented by N-acetylcysteine. Here, we discuss how alternative formulations of the PPP with and without TAL reflect cell type-specific metabolic control of oxidative stress, a critical source of inflammation and carcinogenesis. Ongoing studies of TAL deficiency will identify new molecular targets for diagnosis and treatment in clinical practice. PMID:21376665

  12. Controlling the pathways in molecular decomposition: The vibrationally mediated photodissociation of water

    SciTech Connect

    Vander Wal, R.L.; Crim, F.F. )

    1989-07-13

    Vibrationally mediated photodissociation, in which vibrational overtone excitation prepares a single rovibrational state of water that an ultraviolet photon subsequently dissociates, permits a fully state resolved study of the photodissociation of water. Dissociating water from six different initial rotational states and detecting the OH products by laser-induced fluorescence shows that the distribution of the products among their rotational states depends strongly on the state initially selected in the vibrational overtone excitation step. These measurements also demonstrate the control of the dissociation pathway by selection of different intermediate states. Dissociating water molecules from one vibrational state ({vert bar}04>4{sup {minus}}) produces almost no vibrationally excited OH products, but dissociating another state ({vert bar}13>{sup {minus}}) that corresponds to a different nuclear motion produces roughly comparable amounts of OH(v = 1) and OH(v = O).

  13. Rac1 controls epithelial tube length through the apical secretion and polarity pathways.

    PubMed

    Sollier, Kévin; Gaudé, Helori-Mael; Chartier, François J-M; Laprise, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The morphometric parameters of epithelial tubes are critical to the physiology and homeostasis of most organs. In addition, many human diseases are associated with tube-size defects. Here, we show that Rac1 limits epithelial tube elongation in the developing fly trachea by promoting Rab5-dependent endocytosis of the apical determinant Crumbs. Rac1 is also involved in a positive feedback loop with the septate junction protein Coracle. Thereby, Rac1 precludes paracellular diffusion and contributes to the septate junction-dependent secretion of the chitin-modifying enzymes Vermiform and Serpentine, which restrict epithelial tube length independently of Crumbs. Thus, Rac1 is a critical component of two important pathways controlling epithelial tube morphogenesis. PMID:26700724

  14. Rac1 controls epithelial tube length through the apical secretion and polarity pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sollier, Kévin; Gaudé, Helori-Mael; Chartier, François J.-M.; Laprise, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The morphometric parameters of epithelial tubes are critical to the physiology and homeostasis of most organs. In addition, many human diseases are associated with tube-size defects. Here, we show that Rac1 limits epithelial tube elongation in the developing fly trachea by promoting Rab5-dependent endocytosis of the apical determinant Crumbs. Rac1 is also involved in a positive feedback loop with the septate junction protein Coracle. Thereby, Rac1 precludes paracellular diffusion and contributes to the septate junction-dependent secretion of the chitin-modifying enzymes Vermiform and Serpentine, which restrict epithelial tube length independently of Crumbs. Thus, Rac1 is a critical component of two important pathways controlling epithelial tube morphogenesis. PMID:26700724

  15. A Protein Turnover Signaling Motif Controls the Stimulus-Sensitivity of Stress Response Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Loriaux, Paul Michael; Hoffmann, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Stimulus-induced perturbations from the steady state are a hallmark of signal transduction. In some signaling modules, the steady state is characterized by rapid synthesis and degradation of signaling proteins. Conspicuous among these are the p53 tumor suppressor, its negative regulator Mdm2, and the negative feedback regulator of NFκB, IκBα. We investigated the physiological importance of this turnover, or flux, using a computational method that allows flux to be systematically altered independently of the steady state protein abundances. Applying our method to a prototypical signaling module, we show that flux can precisely control the dynamic response to perturbation. Next, we applied our method to experimentally validated models of p53 and NFκB signaling. We find that high p53 flux is required for oscillations in response to a saturating dose of ionizing radiation (IR). In contrast, high flux of Mdm2 is not required for oscillations but preserves p53 sensitivity to sub-saturating doses of IR. In the NFκB system, degradation of NFκB-bound IκB by the IκB kinase (IKK) is required for activation in response to TNF, while high IKK-independent degradation prevents spurious activation in response to metabolic stress or low doses of TNF. Our work identifies flux pairs with opposing functional effects as a signaling motif that controls the stimulus-sensitivity of the p53 and NFκB stress-response pathways, and may constitute a general design principle in signaling pathways. PMID:23468615

  16. Signal transduction pathways induced by GM-CSF in microglia: significance in the control of proliferation.

    PubMed

    Liva, S M; Kahn, M A; Dopp, J M; de Vellis, J

    1999-06-01

    Communication between cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and of the immune system is accomplished by a network of cytokines and growth factors. Certain cytokines and growth factors cause activation of microglia, contributing to inflammatory states in the CNS. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has numerous effects on microglia, ranging from induction of proliferation to changes in morphology. GM-CSF is also a growth factor for cells of the myeloid lineage, and the signal tranduction induced by GM-CSF in these cells has been extensively studied. Most notably, the importance of the Jak/STAT and MAP kinase pathways in mitogenesis has been shown in many different systems. We show here that primary microglia and a microglia cell line, BV-2, have a Jak/STAT expression pattern and GM-CSF inducibility similar to that of monocytes and macrophages. Primary microglia and BV-2 cells expressed identical Jak/STATs: Jakl, Jak2, Jak3, Tyk2, STAT1alpha/beta, STAT3, STAT5A, STAT5B, and STAT6. In addition, GM-CSF induced Jak2, STAT5A, and STAT5B in BV-2 cells, as it does in monocytes and macrophages. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that STAT5 translocates to the nucleus following GM-CSF stimulation of microglia. We also found the MAP kinases, ERK1 and ERK2, to be phosphorylated in microglia and BV-2 cells following induction by GM-CSF. Jak2, STAT5A, STAT5B, and ERKs are known to be important in controlling cellular proliferation. Drugs that block these pathways may become tools to control inflammation in the CNS by limiting microglial proliferation. PMID:10383053

  17. Alterations in leukocyte transcriptional control pathway activity associated with major depressive disorder and antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Mellon, S H; Wolkowitz, O M; Schonemann, M D; Epel, E S; Rosser, R; Burke, H B; Mahan, L; Reus, V I; Stamatiou, D; Liew, C-C; Cole, S W

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with a significantly elevated risk of developing serious medical illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, immune impairments, infection, dementia and premature death. Previous work has demonstrated immune dysregulation in subjects with MDD. Using genome-wide transcriptional profiling and promoter-based bioinformatic strategies, we assessed leukocyte transcription factor (TF) activity in leukocytes from 20 unmedicated MDD subjects versus 20 age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched healthy controls, before initiation of antidepressant therapy, and in 17 of the MDD subjects after 8 weeks of sertraline treatment. In leukocytes from unmedicated MDD subjects, bioinformatic analysis of transcription control pathway activity indicated an increased transcriptional activity of cAMP response element-binding/activating TF (CREB/ATF) and increased activity of TFs associated with cellular responses to oxidative stress (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2, NFE2l2 or NRF2). Eight weeks of antidepressant therapy was associated with significant reductions in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores and reduced activity of NRF2, but not in CREB/ATF activity. Several other transcriptional regulation pathways, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-κB), early growth response proteins 1-4 (EGR1-4) and interferon-responsive TFs, showed either no significant differences as a function of disease or treatment, or activities that were opposite to those previously hypothesized to be involved in the etiology of MDD or effective treatment. Our results suggest that CREB/ATF and NRF2 signaling may contribute to MDD by activating immune cell transcriptome dynamics that ultimately influence central nervous system (CNS) motivational and affective processes via circulating mediators. PMID:27219347

  18. PAR1 participates in the ability of multidrug resistance and tumorigenesis by controlling Hippo-YAP pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Daisuke; Ueda, Yuki; Hirono, Yasuo; Goi, Takanori; Yamaguchi, Akio

    2015-01-01

    The Hippo pathway significantly correlates with organ size control and tumorigenesis. The activity of YAP/TAZ, a transducer of the Hippo pathway, is required to sustain self-renewal and tumor-initiation capacities in cancer stem cells (CSCs). But, upstream signals that control the mammalian Hippo pathway have not been well understood. Here, we reveal a connection between the Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling pathway and the Hippo-YAP pathway in gastric cancer stem-like cells. The selective PAR1 agonist TFLLR-NH2 induces an increase in the fraction of side population cells which is enriched in CSCs, and promotes tumorigenesis, multi cancer drug resistance, cell morphological change, and cell invasion which are characteristics of CSCs. In addition, PAR1 activation inhibits the Hippo-YAP pathway kinase Lats via Rho GTPase. Lats kinase inhibition in turn results in increased nuclear localization of dephosphorylated YAP. Furthermore, PAR1 activation confers CSCs related traits via the Hippo-YAP pathway, and the Hippo-YAP pathway correlates with epithelial mesenchymal transition which is induced by PAR1 activation. Our research suggests that the PAR1 signaling deeply participates in the ability of multi drug resistance and tumorigenesis through interactions with the Hippo-YAP pathway signaling in gastric cancer stem-like cells. We presume that inhibited YAP is a new therapeutic target in the treatment human gastric cancer invasion and metastasis by dysregulated PAR1 or its agonists. The Hippo pathway significantly correlates with organ size control and tumorigenesis. The activity of YAP/TAZ, a transducer of the Hippo pathway, is required to sustain self-renewal and tumor-initiation capacities in cancer stem cells (CSCs). But, upstream signals that control the mammalian Hippo pathway have not been well understood. Here, we reveal a connection between the Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling pathway and the Hippo-YAP pathway in gastric cancer stem

  19. Quantum optimal control pathways of ozone isomerization dynamics subject to competing dissociation: A two-state one-dimensional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosaki, Yuzuru; Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel

    2014-02-01

    We construct a two-state one-dimensional reaction-path model for ozone open → cyclic isomerization dynamics. The model is based on the intrinsic reaction coordinate connecting the cyclic and open isomers with the O2 + O asymptote on the ground-state 1A' potential energy surface obtained with the high-level ab initio method. Using this two-state model time-dependent wave packet optimal control simulations are carried out. Two possible pathways are identified along with their respective band-limited optimal control fields; for pathway 1 the wave packet initially associated with the open isomer is first pumped into a shallow well on the excited electronic state potential curve and then driven back to the ground electronic state to form the cyclic isomer, whereas for pathway 2 the corresponding wave packet is excited directly to the primary well of the excited state potential curve. The simulations reveal that the optimal field for pathway 1 produces a final yield of nearly 100% with substantially smaller intensity than that obtained in a previous study [Y. Kurosaki, M. Artamonov, T.-S. Ho, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 044306 (2009)] using a single-state one-dimensional model. Pathway 2, due to its strong coupling to the dissociation channel, is less effective than pathway 1. The simulations also show that nonlinear field effects due to molecular polarizability and hyperpolarizability are small for pathway 1 but could become significant for pathway 2 because much higher field intensity is involved in the latter. The results suggest that a practical control may be feasible with the aid of a few lowly excited electronic states for ozone isomerization.

  20. Quantum optimal control pathways of ozone isomerization dynamics subject to competing dissociation: A two-state one-dimensional model

    SciTech Connect

    Kurosaki, Yuzuru; Ho, Tak-San Rabitz, Herschel

    2014-02-28

    We construct a two-state one-dimensional reaction-path model for ozone open → cyclic isomerization dynamics. The model is based on the intrinsic reaction coordinate connecting the cyclic and open isomers with the O{sub 2} + O asymptote on the ground-state {sup 1}A{sup ′} potential energy surface obtained with the high-level ab initio method. Using this two-state model time-dependent wave packet optimal control simulations are carried out. Two possible pathways are identified along with their respective band-limited optimal control fields; for pathway 1 the wave packet initially associated with the open isomer is first pumped into a shallow well on the excited electronic state potential curve and then driven back to the ground electronic state to form the cyclic isomer, whereas for pathway 2 the corresponding wave packet is excited directly to the primary well of the excited state potential curve. The simulations reveal that the optimal field for pathway 1 produces a final yield of nearly 100% with substantially smaller intensity than that obtained in a previous study [Y. Kurosaki, M. Artamonov, T.-S. Ho, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 044306 (2009)] using a single-state one-dimensional model. Pathway 2, due to its strong coupling to the dissociation channel, is less effective than pathway 1. The simulations also show that nonlinear field effects due to molecular polarizability and hyperpolarizability are small for pathway 1 but could become significant for pathway 2 because much higher field intensity is involved in the latter. The results suggest that a practical control may be feasible with the aid of a few lowly excited electronic states for ozone isomerization.

  1. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent stanniocalcin 2 induction by cinnabarinic acid provides cytoprotection against endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Aditya D; Carter, Dwayne E; Harper, Tod A; Elferink, Cornelis J

    2015-04-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a cytosolic ligand-activated transcription factor historically known for its role in xenobiotic metabolism. Although AhR activity has previously been shown to play a cytoprotective role against intrinsic apoptotic stimuli, the underlying mechanism by which AhR confers cytoprotection against apoptosis is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that activation of AhR by the tryptophan catabolite cinnabarinic acid (CA) directly upregulates expression of stanniocalcin 2 (Stc2) to elicit cytoprotection against apoptosis induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that CA treatment induces direct AhR binding to a region of the Stc2 promoter containing multiple xenobiotic response elements. Using isolated primary hepatocytes from AhR wild-type (AhR floxed) and liver-specific AhR conditional knockout mice, we showed that pretreatment with CA conferred cytoprotection against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-, thapsigargin-, and ethanol-induced apoptosis in an AhR-dependent manner. Furthermore, suppressing Stc2 expression using RNA interference confirmed that the cytoprotective properties of CA against H(2)O(2), thapsigargin, and ethanol injury were absolutely dependent on Stc2. Immunochemistry revealed the presence of Stc2 in the endoplasmic reticulum and on the cell surface, consistent with Stc2 secretion and autocrine and/or paracrine signaling. Finally, in vivo data using a mouse model of acute alcohol hepatotoxicity demonstrated that CA provided cytoprotection against ethanol-induced apoptosis, hepatic microvesicular steatosis, and liver injury. Collectively, our data uncovered a novel mechanism for AhR-mediated cytoprotection in the liver that is dependent on CA-induced Stc2 activity. PMID:25672339

  2. Best strategies to implement clinical pathways in an emergency department setting: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinical pathway is a tool that operationalizes best evidence recommendations and clinical practice guidelines in an accessible format for ‘point of care’ management by multidisciplinary health teams in hospital settings. While high-quality, expert-developed clinical pathways have many potential benefits, their impact has been limited by variable implementation strategies and suboptimal research designs. Best strategies for implementing pathways into hospital settings remain unknown. This study will seek to develop and comprehensively evaluate best strategies for effective local implementation of externally developed expert clinical pathways. Design/methods We will develop a theory-based and knowledge user-informed intervention strategy to implement two pediatric clinical pathways: asthma and gastroenteritis. Using a balanced incomplete block design, we will randomize 16 community emergency departments to receive the intervention for one clinical pathway and serve as control for the alternate clinical pathway, thus conducting two cluster randomized controlled trials to evaluate this implementation intervention. A minimization procedure will be used to randomize sites. Intervention sites will receive a tailored strategy to support full clinical pathway implementation. We will evaluate implementation strategy effectiveness through measurement of relevant process and clinical outcomes. The primary process outcome will be the presence of an appropriately completed clinical pathway on the chart for relevant patients. Primary clinical outcomes for each clinical pathway include the following: Asthma—the proportion of asthmatic patients treated appropriately with corticosteroids in the emergency department and at discharge; and Gastroenteritis—the proportion of relevant patients appropriately treated with oral rehydration therapy. Data sources include chart audits, administrative databases, environmental scans, and qualitative interviews. We will

  3. Multiple independent regulatory pathways control UBI4 expression after heat shock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Simon, J R; Treger, J M; McEntee, K

    1999-02-01

    Transcription of the polyubiquitin gene UBI4 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is strongly induced by a variety of environmental stresses, such as heat shock, nutrient depletion and exposure to DNA-damaging agents. This transcriptional response of UBI4 is likely to be the primary mechanism for increasing the pool of ubiquitin for degradation of stress-damaged proteins. Deletion and promoter fusion studies of the 5' regulatory sequences indicated that two different elements, heat shock elements (HSEs) and stress response element (STREs), contributed independently to heat shock regulation of the UBI4 gene. In the absence of HSEs, STRE sequences localized to the intervals -264 to -238 and -215 to -183 were needed for stress control of transcription after heat shock. Site-directed mutagenesis of the STRE (AG4) at -252 to -248 abolished heat shock induction of UBI4 transcription. Northern analysis demonstrated that cells containing either a temperature-sensitive HSF or non-functional Msn2p/Msn4p transcription factors induced high levels of UBI4 transcripts after heat shock. In cells deficient in both heat stress pathways, heat-induced UBI4 transcript levels were considerably lower but not abolished, suggesting a role for another factor(s) in stress control of its expression. PMID:10048026

  4. Final Technical Report: Genetic and Molecular Analysis of a new control pathway in assimilate partitioning.

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, Daniel, R.

    2009-03-10

    Assimilate partitioning refers to the systemic distribution of photoassimilate from sites of primary assimilation (source tissue) to import-dependent tissues and organs (sinks). One of the defining questions in this area is how plants balance source productivity with sink demand. We discovered a sucrose-sensing signal transduction pathway that controls the activity of BvSUT1, a proton-sucrose symporter in sugar beet leaf tissue. Sucrose symporters are responsible for sucrose accumulation in the phloem of many plants and, therefore, they mediate the pivotal step in the long-distance transport of photoassimilate to non-photosynthetic tissues, such as roots and seed. We previously showed that sucrose transport activity is directly proportional to the transcription rate of BvSUT1 and that symporter mRNA and protein have high rates of turnover with half-lives on the order of 2 h. We further demonstrated that symporter transcription is regulated by sucrose levels in the leaf and that sucrose-dependent regulation of BvSUT1 transcription is mediated, at least in part, by a protein phosphorylation relay pathway. The goal of the experiments during this current grant were to use genetic and molecular approaches to identify essential components of this vital regulatory system. The initial objectives were to: (1) to characterize Arabidopsis mutants we've isolated that are resistant to growth inhibition by sucrose analogues that are recognized by the sucrose-sensor, (2) to screen for loss of function mutants in BvSUT1-promoter:luciferase transgenic plants that no longer respond to sucrose accumulation in the leaf using non-destructive visualization of luciferase activity, (3) to use gel mobility-shift assays and nuclease protection experiments to identify cis elements in the symporter promoter and DNA-binding proteins that are involved in sucrose regulation of symporter expression.

  5. Autocrine and exogenous transforming growth factor beta control cell cycle inhibition through pathways with different sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Sergina, Natalia; Ko, Tien C; Gong, Jiangeng; Brattain, Michael G

    2004-09-17

    Human colon carcinoma cells HCT116 that lack transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) type II receptor (RII) demonstrated restoration of autocrine TGF-beta activity upon reexpression of RII without restoring inhibitory responses to exogenous TGF-beta treatment. RII transfectants (designated RII Cl 37) had a longer lag phase relative to NEO-transfected control cells (designated NEO pool) before entering exponential growth in tissue culture. The prolonged growth arrest of RII Cl 37 cells was associated with markedly reduced cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2 activity. Our results demonstrate that p21 induction by autocrine TGF-beta is responsible for reduced CDK2 activity, which at least partially contributes to prolonged growth arrest and reduced cell proliferation in RII Cl 37 cells. In contrast to RII transfectants, HCT116 cells transfected with chromosome 3 (designated HCT116Ch3), which bears the RII gene, restored the response to exogenous TGF-beta as well as autocrine TGF-beta activity. Autocrine TGF-beta activity in HCT116Ch3 cells induced p21 expression as seen in RII Cl 37 cells; however, in addition to autocrine activity, HCT116Ch3 cells responded to exogenous TGF-beta as decreased CDK4 expression and reduced pRb phosphorylation mediated a TGF-beta inhibitory response in these cells. These results indicate that autocrine TGF-beta regulates the cell cycle through a pathway different from exogenous TGF-beta in the sense that p21 is a more sensitive effector of the TGF-beta signaling pathway, which can be induced and saturated by autocrine TGF-beta, whereas CDK4 inhibition is a less sensitive effector, which can only be activated by high levels of exogenous TGF-beta PMID:15271980

  6. Signaling Pathways That Control Rho Kinase Activity Maintain the Embryonic Epicardial Progenitor State

    PubMed Central

    Artamonov, Mykhaylo V.; Jin, Li; Franke, Aaron S.; Momotani, Ko; Ho, Ruoya; Dong, Xiu Rong; Majesky, Mark W.; Somlyo, Avril V.

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies signaling pathways that play key roles in the formation and maintenance of epicardial cells, a source of progenitors for coronary smooth muscle cells (SMCs). After epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), mesenchymal cells invade the myocardium to form coronary SMCs. RhoA/Rho kinase activity is required for EMT and for differentiation into coronary SMCs, whereas cAMP activity is known to inhibit EMT in epithelial cells by an unknown mechanism. We use outgrowth of epicardial cells from E9.5 isolated mouse proepicardium (PE) explants, wild type and Epac1 null E12.5 mouse heart explants, adult rat epicardial cells, and immortalized mouse embryonic epicardial cells as model systems to identify signaling pathways that regulate RhoA activity to maintain the epicardial progenitor state. We demonstrate that RhoA activity is suppressed in the epicardial progenitor state, that the cAMP-dependent Rap1 GTP exchange factor (GEF), Epac, known to down-regulate RhoA activity through activation of Rap1 GTPase activity increased, that Rap1 activity increased, and that expression of the RhoA antagonistic Rnd proteins known to activate p190RhoGAP increased and associated with p190RhoGAP. Finally, EMT is associated with increased p63RhoGEF and RhoGEF-H1 protein expression, increased GEF-H1 activity, with a trend in increased p63RhoGEF activity. EMT is suppressed by partial silencing of p63RhoGEF and GEF-H1. In conclusion, we have identified new signaling molecules that act together to control RhoA activity and play critical roles in the maintenance of coronary smooth muscle progenitor cells in the embryonic epicardium. We suggest that their eventual manipulation could promote revascularization after myocardial injury. PMID:25733666

  7. Clionosterol and ethyl cholestan-22-enol isolated from the rhizome of Polygala tenuifolia inhibit phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Le, Thi Kim Van; Jeong, Jin Ju; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt inhibitors were isolated from the rhizome of Polygala tenuifolia WILLD (PT, Polygalaceae), which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for inflammation, dementia, amnesia, neurasthenia and cancer, by activity-guided fractionation. For the assay of PI3K/Akt pathway, cytoprotective Tat-transduced CHME5 cells, which are the cytoprotective phenotype against lypopolysaccharide (LPS)/cycloheximide (CHX), were used. We isolated 4 anti-cytoprotective compounds, clionasterol (1), ethyl cholestan-22-enol (2), 3-O-β-D-glucosyl ethyl cholestan-22-enol (3), and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl clionasterol (4) from EtOAc fraction of PT against Tat-transduced CHME5 cells. Of them, (1) and (2) most potently abolished cytoprotective effect of Tat-transduced CHME5 cells. These constituents (1) and (2) inhibited the activation of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) and its downstream molecules, Akt/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3β, in PI3K/Akt cell survival signaling pathway, but did not suppress the activation of PI3K. Based on these finding, (1) and (2) may abolish the cytoprotective phenotype of Tat-transduced CHME5 cells by inhibiting PDK1 phosphorylation in PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:22863942

  8. Hippo pathway genes developed varied exon numbers and coevolved functional domains in metazoans for species specific growth control

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Hippo pathway controls growth by mediating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Dysregulation of Hippo signaling causes abnormal proliferation in both healthy and cancerous cells. The Hippo pathway receives inputs from multiple developmental pathways and interacts with many tissue-specific transcription factors, but how genes in the pathway have evolved remains inadequately revealed. Results To explore the origin and evolution of Hippo pathway, we have extensively examined 16 Hippo pathway genes, including upstream regulators and downstream targets, in 24 organisms covering major metazoan phyla. From simple to complex organisms, these genes are varied in the length and number of exons but encode conserved domains with similar higher-order organization. The core of the pathway is more conserved than its upstream regulators and downstream targets. Several components, despite existing in the most basal metazoan sponges, cannot be convincingly identified in other species. Potential recombination breakpoints were identified in some genes. Coevolutionary analysis reveals that most functional domains in Hippo genes have coevolved with interacting functional domains in other genes. Conclusions The two essential upstream regulators cadherins fat and dachsous may have originated in the unicellular organism Monosiga brevicollis and evolved more significantly than the core of the pathway. Genes having varied numbers of exons in different species, recombination events, and the gain and loss of some genes indicate alternative splicing and species-specific evolution. Coevolution signals explain some species-specific loss of functional domains. These results significantly unveil the structure and evolution of the Hippo pathway in distant phyla and provide valuable clues for further examination of Hippo signaling. PMID:23547742

  9. IL-6 cytoprotection in hyperoxic acute lung injury occurs via PI3K/Akt-mediated Bax phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kolliputi, Narasaiah; Waxman, Aaron B.

    2009-01-01

    IL-6 overexpression protects mice from hyperoxic acute lung injury in vivo, and treatment with IL-6 protects cells from oxidant-mediated death in vitro. The mechanisms of protection, however, are not clear. We characterized the expression, localization, and regulation of Bax, a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, in wild-type (WT) and IL-6 lung-specific transgenic (Tg+) mice exposed to 100% O2 and in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) treated with H2O2 and IL-6. In control HUVEC treated with H2O2 or in WT mice exposed to 100% O2, a marked induction of Bax translocation and dimerization was associated with increased JNK and p38 kinase activity. In contrast, specific JNK or p38 kinase inhibitors or treatment with IL-6 inhibited Bax mitochondrial translocation and apoptosis of HUVEC. IL-6 Tg+ mice exposed to 100% O2 exhibited enhanced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt kinase and increased serine phosphorylation of Bax at Ser184 compared with WT mice. The PI3K-specific inhibitor LY-2940002 blocked this IL-6-induced Bax phosphorylation and promoted cell death. Furthermore, IL-6 potently blocked hyperoxia- or oxidant-induced Bax insertion into mitochondrial membranes. Thus IL-6 functions in a cytoprotective manner, in part, by suppressing Bax translocation and dimerization through PI3K/Akt-mediated Bax phosphorylation. PMID:19376889

  10. Cytoprotective Effects of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Extracts of Pistacia vera against Oxidative Versus Carbonyl Stress in Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Jafar; Zareh, Mona; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the cytoprotection of various extracts and bioactive compounds found in Pistacia vera againts cytotoxicity, ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, mitochondrial and lysosomal membrane damages in cell toxicity models of diabetes related carbonyl (glyoxal) and oxidative stress (hydroperoxide). Methanol, water and ethyl acetate were used to prepare crude pistachios extracts, which were then used to screen for in-vitro cytoprotection of freshly isolated rat hepatocytes against these toxins. The order of protection by Pistacia vera extracts against both hydroperoxide induced oxidative stress (ROS formation) and glyoxal induced protein carbonylation was: pistachio methanolic extract >pistachio water extract, gallic acid, catechin> α-tochoferol and pistachio ethyl acetate extract. Finally due to higher protection achieved by methanolic extract even compared to sole pretreatment of gallic acid, catechin or α-tochoferol, we suggest that cytoprotection depends on the variety of polar and non-polar compounds found in methanolic extract, it is likely that multiple cytoprotective mechanisms are acting against oxidative and carbonyl induced cytotoxicity. To our knowledge, we are the first to report the cytoprotective activity of Pistacia vera extracts against oxidative and carbonyl stress seen in type 2 diabetes hepatocytes model. PMID:25587316

  11. Cytoprotective Effects of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Extracts of Pistacia vera against Oxidative Versus Carbonyl Stress in Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Jafar; Zareh, Mona; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the cytoprotection of various extracts and bioactive compounds found in Pistacia vera againts cytotoxicity, ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, mitochondrial and lysosomal membrane damages in cell toxicity models of diabetes related carbonyl (glyoxal) and oxidative stress (hydroperoxide). Methanol, water and ethyl acetate were used to prepare crude pistachios extracts, which were then used to screen for in-vitro cytoprotection of freshly isolated rat hepatocytes against these toxins. The order of protection by Pistacia vera extracts against both hydroperoxide induced oxidative stress (ROS formation) and glyoxal induced protein carbonylation was: pistachio methanolic extract >pistachio water extract, gallic acid, catechin> α-tochoferol and pistachio ethyl acetate extract. Finally due to higher protection achieved by methanolic extract even compared to sole pretreatment of gallic acid, catechin or α-tochoferol, we suggest that cytoprotection depends on the variety of polar and non-polar compounds found in methanolic extract, it is likely that multiple cytoprotective mechanisms are acting against oxidative and carbonyl induced cytotoxicity. To our knowledge, we are the first to report the cytoprotective activity of Pistacia vera extracts against oxidative and carbonyl stress seen in type 2 diabetes hepatocytes model. PMID:25587316

  12. Novel mechanisms for activated protein C cytoprotective activities involving noncanonical activation of protease-activated receptor 3

    PubMed Central

    Burnier, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The direct cytoprotective activities of activated protein C (APC) on cells convey therapeutic, relevant, beneficial effects in injury and disease models in vivo and require the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1). Thrombin also activates PAR1, but its effects on cells contrast APC’s cytoprotective effects. To gain insights into mechanisms for these contrasting cellular effects, protease activated receptor 3 (PAR3) activation by APC and thrombin was studied. APC cleaved PAR3 on transfected and endothelial cells in the presence of EPCR. Remarkably, APC cleaved a synthetic PAR3 N-terminal peptide at Arg41, whereas thrombin cleaved at Lys38. On cells, APC failed to cleave R41Q-PAR3, whereas K38Q-PAR3 was still cleaved by APC but not by thrombin. PAR3 tethered-ligand peptides beginning at amino acid 42, but not those beginning at amino acid 39, conveyed endothelial barrier-protective effects. In vivo, the APC-derived PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide, but not the thrombin-derived PAR3 peptide, blunted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced vascular permeability. These data indicate that PAR3 cleavage by APC at Arg41 can initiate distinctive APC-like cytoprotective effects. These novel insights help explain the differentiation of APC’s cytoprotective versus thrombin’s proinflammatory effects on cells and suggest a unique contributory role for PAR3 in the complex mechanisms underlying APC cytoprotective effects. PMID:23788139

  13. PTEN Tumor Suppressor Network in PI3K-Akt Pathway Control.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena

    2010-12-01

    The PI3K-Akt pathway is a major survival pathway activated in cancer. Efforts to develop targeted therapies have not been fully successful, mainly because of extensive internal intrapathway or external interpathway negative feedback loops or because of networking between pathway suppressors. The PTEN tumor suppressor is the major brake of the pathway and a common target for inactivation in somatic cancers. This review will highlight the networking of PTEN with other inhibitors of the pathway, relevant to cancer progression. PTEN constitutes the main node of the inhibitory network, and a series of convergences at different levels in the PI3K-Akt pathway, starting from those with growth factor receptors, will be described. As PTEN exerts enzymatic activity as a phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)) phosphatase, thus opposing the activity of PI3K, the concerted actions to increase the availability of PIP(3) in cancer cells, relying either on other phosphoinositide enzymes or on the intrinsic regulation of PTEN activity by other molecules, will be discussed. In particular, the synergy between PTEN and the circle of its direct interacting proteins will be brought forth in an attempt to understand both the activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway and the connections with other parallel oncogenic pathways. The understanding of the interplay between the modulators of the PI3K-Akt pathway in cancer should eventually lead to the design of therapeutic approaches with increased efficacy in the clinic. PMID:21779440

  14. Gastric anti-ulcer and cytoprotective effect of selenium in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Parmar, N.S.; Tariq, M.; Ageel, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Selenium, a trace element, in the form of sodium selenite has been studied for its ability to protect the gastric mucosa against the injuries caused by hypothermic restraint stress, aspirin, indomethacin, reserpine, dimaprit, and various other gastric mucosal-damaging (necrotizing) agents in rats. The results demonstrate that oral administration of sodium selenite produces a significant inhibition of the gastric mucosal damage induced by all the procedures used in this study. Selenium, in a nonantisecretory dose, produced a marked cytoprotective effect against all the necrotizing agents. The cytoprotective effect of selenium against the effects of 80% ethanol and 0.6 M HCl was significantly reversed by prior treatment with a dose of indomethacin that inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis. These data indicate that sodium selenite inhibits the formation of these lesions by the mucosal generation of prostaglandins. The concentrations of nonprotein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) were significantly decreased in the gastric mucosa following the administration of necrotizing agents--80% ethanol and 0.6 M HCl. Treatment with sodium selenite, which significantly reduced the intensity of gastric lesions, did not replenish the reduced levels of gastric mucosal NP-SH, thus ruling out the mediation of its protective effect through sulfhydryls. The antisecretory effect of sodium selenite, which becomes evident only in the high dose of 20 mumol/kg, may be responsible for the inhibition of gastric lesions induced by aspirin, indomethacin, reserpine, and dimaprit. Our findings show that selenium possesses significant anti-ulcer and adaptive cytoprotective effects. However, further detailed studies are required to confirm these effects, to establish its mechanism(s) of action, and to determine its role in the prophylaxis and treatment of peptic ulcer disease.

  15. Frequency Modulated Translocational Oscillations of Nrf2 Mediate the Antioxidant Response Element Cytoprotective Transcriptional Response

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Mingzhan; Momiji, Hiroshi; Rabbani, Naila; Barker, Guy; Bretschneider, Till; Shmygol, Anatoly; Rand, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Stress responsive signaling coordinated by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) provides an adaptive response for protection of cells against toxic insults, oxidative stress and metabolic dysfunction. Nrf2 regulates a battery of protective genes by binding to regulatory antioxidant response elements (AREs). The aim of this study was to examine how Nrf2 signals cell stress status and regulates transcription to maintain homeostasis. Results: In live cell microscopy we observed that Nrf2 undergoes autonomous translocational frequency-modulated oscillations between cytoplasm and nucleus. Oscillations occurred in quiescence and when cells were stimulated at physiological levels of activators, they decrease in period and amplitude and then evoke a cytoprotective transcriptional response. We propose a mechanism whereby oscillations are produced by negative feedback involving successive de-phosphorylation and phosphorylation steps. Nrf2 was inactivated in the nucleus and reactivated on return to the cytoplasm. Increased frequency of Nrf2 on return to the cytoplasm with increased reactivation or refresh-rate under stress conditions activated the transcriptional response mediating cytoprotective effects. The serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PGAM5, member of the Nrf2 interactome, was a key regulatory component. Innovation: We found that Nrf2 is activated in cells without change in total cellular Nrf2 protein concentration. Regulation of ARE-linked protective gene transcription occurs rather through translocational oscillations of Nrf2. We discovered cytoplasmic refresh rate of Nrf2 is important in maintaining and regulating the transcriptional response and links stress challenge to increased cytoplasmic surveillance. We found silencing and inhibition of PGAM5 provides potent activation of Nrf2. Conclusion: Frequency modulated translocational oscillations of Nrf2 mediate the ARE-linked cytoprotective transcriptional response. Antioxid. Redox

  16. Gastric cytoprotection by prostaglandin E₂ and prostacyclin: relationship to EP1 and IP receptors.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, K

    2014-02-01

    Endogenous prostaglandins (PGs) play a role in modulating mucosal integrity and have various functions in the stomach, with E type PGs being the most effective. PGE₂ provides gastric cytoprotection against damage induced in rats by HCl/ethanol, indomethacin, or acid back-diffusion after barrier disruption. These effects were mimicked by EP1 agonists and/or attenuated by an EP1 antagonist, and disappeared in EP1 (-/-) mice. Furthermore, the adaptive cytoprotection induced by a mild irritant was attenuated by the EP1 antagonist and indomethacin. Capsaicin also provides gastric protection against HCl/ethanol, and its action was mitigated by indomethacin and sensory deafferentation, but not by the EP1 antagonist. Similar results were obtained using mice lacking various EP receptor subtypes; i.e., PGE₂ failed to provide both direct and adaptive cytoprotection in EP1 (-/-) mice, while capsaicin-induced protection was observed in EP1 (-/-) mice, but disappeared in IP (-/-) mice. The effects of PGE₂ on various gastric functions are mediated by different EP receptor subtypes; inhibition of acid secretion (EP3) and motility (EP1), stimulation of mucus secretion (EP4) and HCO₃⁻ secretion (EP1), and an increase in mucosal blood flow (EP2/EP4). In conclusion, the presence of EP1 receptors is essential to the protective action of PGE₂, either generated endogenously or administered exogenously, against HCl/ ethanol or indomethacin, and this action is functionally associated with the inhibition of gastric motility. Endogenous PGs also contribute to maintaining mucosal integrity after barrier disruption through an increase in mucosal blood flow, which occurs via sensory neurons influenced by activation of the EP1 receptor. PMID:24622825

  17. The general amino acid control pathway regulates mTOR and autophagy during serum/glutamine starvation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Zou, Yilong; Mao, Dongxue; Sun, Daxiao; Gao, Guanguang; Shi, Jingwen; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhu, Chen; Yang, Mingyu; Ye, Wanlu; Hao, Qianqian

    2014-01-01

    Organisms have evolved elaborate mechanisms to adjust intracellular nutrient levels in response to fluctuating availability of exogenous nutrients. During starvation, cells can enhance amino acid uptake and synthesis through the general amino acid control (GAAC) pathway, whereas nonessential cellular contents are recycled by autophagy. How these two pathways are coordinated in response to starvation is currently unknown. Here we show that the GAAC pathway couples exogenous amino acid availability with autophagy. Starvation caused deactivation of mTOR, which then activated autophagy. In parallel, serum/glutamine starvation activated the GAAC pathway, which up-regulated amino acid transporters, leading to increased amino acid uptake. This elevated the intracellular amino acid level, which in turn reactivated mTOR and suppressed autophagy. Knockdown of activating transcription factor 4, the major transcription factor in the GAAC pathway, or of SLC7A5, a leucine transporter, caused impaired mTOR reactivation and much higher levels of autophagy. Thus, the GAAC pathway modulates autophagy by regulating amino acid uptake and mTOR reactivation during serum/glutamine starvation. PMID:25049270

  18. Single-Amino Acid Modifications Reveal Additional Controls on the Proton Pathway of [FeFe]-Hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Adam J; Ginovska, Bojana; Thelen, Adam; da Silva, Julio C S; Soares, Thereza A; Raugei, Simone; Dupuis, Michel; Shaw, Wendy J; Hegg, Eric L

    2016-06-01

    The proton pathway of [FeFe]-hydrogenase is essential for enzymatic H2 production and oxidation and is composed of four residues and a water molecule. A computational analysis of this pathway in the [FeFe]-hydrogenase from Clostridium pasteurianum revealed that the solvent-exposed residue of the pathway (Glu282) forms hydrogen bonds to two residues outside of the pathway (Arg286 and Ser320), implying that these residues could function in regulating proton transfer. In this study, we show that substituting Arg286 with leucine eliminates hydrogen bonding with Glu282 and results in an ∼3-fold enhancement of H2 production activity when methyl viologen is used as an electron donor, suggesting that Arg286 may help control the rate of proton delivery. In contrast, substitution of Ser320 with alanine reduces the rate ∼5-fold, implying that it either acts as a member of the pathway or influences Glu282 to permit proton transfer. Interestingly, quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics calculations indicate that Ser320 does not play a structural role or indirectly influence the barrier for proton movement at the entrance of the channel. Rather, it may act as an additional proton acceptor for the pathway or serve in a regulatory role. While further studies are needed to elucidate the role of Ser320, collectively these data provide insights into the complex proton transport process. PMID:27186945

  19. [Unsolved problems of cytoprotective therapy in patients with coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Statsenko, M E; Turkina, S V; Ermolenko, A A

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives data on the proven efficiency of myocardial cytoprotection with the pFOX inhibitors trimetazidine and meldonium for coronary heart disease. However, no algorithm has been defined for their differentiated use at different ischemic remodeling stages in these patients in terms of the mechanism of metabolic effects. Sequential use of meldonium and trimetazidine in different periods of acute and chronic myocardial ischemia may become one of the possible ways to increase the efficacy of the pFOX inhibitors. PMID:27022658

  20. Regulation of renin processing and secretion: chemiosmotic control and novel secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    King, J A; Lush, D J; Fray, J C

    1993-08-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in cardiovascular and electrolyte regulation in health and disease. Juxtaglomerular cells in the kidney regulate endocrine RAAS by physiologically controlling conversion of prorenin and secretion of renin. The classical baroceptor, neurogenic, and macula densa mechanisms regulate renin expression at the cellular level by Ca2+, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), and chemiosmotic forces (K+, Cl-, and water flux coupled to H+ movement). The baroceptor mechanism (through Ca2+) activates K+ and Cl- channels in the surface membrane and deactivates a KCl-H+ exchange chemiosmotic transporter in the secretory granular membrane. The neurogenic mechanism (through cAMP) promotes prorenin processing to renin. The macula densa mechanism (through K+ and Cl-) involves the processing of prorenin to renin. Ca2+, by inhibiting the KCl-H+ exchange transporter, prevents secretory granules from engaging in chemiosmotically mediated exocytosis. cAMP, on the other hand, by stimulating H+ influx, provides the acidic granular environment for prorenin processing to renin. It is concluded that, in the presence of a favorable chemiosmotic environment, prorenin is processed to renin, which may then be secreted by regulative degranulation or divergence translocation, a novel secretory pathway used by several secretory proteins, including renin. PMID:7690183

  1. Prep1 directly regulates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by controlling Bcl-XL levels.

    PubMed

    Micali, Nicola; Ferrai, Carmelo; Fernandez-Diaz, Luis C; Blasi, Francesco; Crippa, Massimo P

    2009-03-01

    The Prep1 homeodomain transcription factor is essential in embryonic development. Prep1 hypomorphic mutant mouse (Prep1(i/i)) embryos (embryonic day 9.5) display an increased terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling reaction compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. Prep1(i/i) mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) show an increased basal level of annexin V binding activity, reduction of the mitochondrial-membrane potential, and increased caspase 9 and 3 activation, indicating increased apoptosis. Prep1(i/i) MEFs also respond faster than WT MEFs to genotoxic stress, indicating increased activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathways. We did not observe an increase in p53 or an abnormal p53 response to apoptotic stimuli. However, hypomorphic MEFs have decreased endogenous levels of antiapoptotic Bcl-X(L) mRNA and protein, and Bcl-x overexpression rescues the defect of Prep1(i/i) MEFs. Using transient transfections and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we identified the Bcl-x promoter as a novel target of Prep1. Thus, Prep1 directly controls mitochondrial homeostasis (and the apoptotic potential) by modulating Bcl-x gene expression. PMID:19103748

  2. Dis3l2-Mediated Decay Is a Quality Control Pathway for Noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Pirouz, Mehdi; Du, Peng; Munafò, Marzia; Gregory, Richard I

    2016-08-16

    Mutations in the 3'-5' exonuclease DIS3L2 are associated with Perlman syndrome and hypersusceptibility to Wilms tumorigenesis. Previously, we found that Dis3l2 specifically recognizes and degrades uridylated pre-let-7 microRNA. However, the widespread relevance of Dis3l2-mediated decay of uridylated substrates remains unknown. Here, we applied an unbiased RNA immunoprecipitation strategy to identify Dis3l2 targets in mouse embryonic stem cells. The disease-associated long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) Rmrp, 7SL, as well as several other Pol III-transcribed noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) were among the most highly enriched Dis3l2-bound RNAs. 3'-Uridylated Rmrp, 7SL, and small nuclear RNA (snRNA) species were highly stabilized in the cytoplasm of Dis3l2-depleted cells. Deep sequencing analysis of Rmrp 3' ends revealed extensive oligouridylation mainly on transcripts with imprecise ends. We implicate the terminal uridylyl transferases (TUTases) Zcchc6/11 in the uridylation of these ncRNAs, and biochemical reconstitution assays demonstrate the sufficiency of TUTase-Dis3l2 for Rmrp decay. This establishes Dis3l2-mediated decay (DMD) as a quality-control pathway that eliminates aberrant ncRNAs. PMID:27498873

  3. Atypical PKC-iota Controls Stem Cell Expansion via Regulation of the Notch Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mah, In Kyoung; Soloff, Rachel; Hedrick, Stephen M.; Mariani, Francesca V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The number of stem/progenitor cells available can profoundly impact tissue homeostasis and the response to injury or disease. Here, we propose that an atypical PKC, Prkci, is a key player in regulating the switch from an expansion to a differentiation/maintenance phase via regulation of Notch, thus linking the polarity pathway with the control of stem cell self-renewal. Prkci is known to influence symmetric cell division in invertebrates; however a definitive role in mammals has not yet emerged. Using a genetic approach, we find that loss of Prkci results in a marked increase in the number of various stem/progenitor cells. The mechanism used likely involves inactivation and symmetric localization of NUMB, leading to the activation of NOTCH1 and its downstream effectors. Inhibition of atypical PKCs may be useful for boosting the production of pluripotent stem cells, multipotent stem cells, or possibly even primordial germ cells by promoting the stem cell/progenitor fate. PMID:26527382

  4. Cooperative control of Drosophila immune responses by the JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Joseph R; Stöven, Svenja; Uvell, Hanna; Anderson, Kathryn V; Engström, Ylva; Mlodzik, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling is a highly conserved pathway that controls both cytoskeletal remodeling and transcriptional regulation in response to a wide variety of signals. Despite the importance of JNK in the mammalian immune response, and various suggestions of its importance in Drosophila immunity, the actual contribution of JNK signaling in the Drosophila immune response has been unclear. Drosophila TAK1 has been implicated in the NF-κB/Relish-mediated activation of antimicrobial peptide genes. However, we demonstrate that Relish activation is intact in dTAK1 mutant animals, and that the immune response in these mutant animals was rescued by overexpression of a downstream JNKK. The expression of a JNK inhibitor and induction of JNK loss-of-function clones in immune responsive tissue revealed a general requirement for JNK signaling in the expression of antimicrobial peptides. Our data indicate that dTAK1 is not required for Relish activation, but instead is required in JNK signaling for antimicrobial peptide gene expression. PMID:16763552

  5. A photoactivable multi-inhibitor nanoliposome for tumour control and simultaneous inhibition of treatment escape pathways

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Bryan Q.; Sears, R. Bryan; Zheng, Lei Zak; Mai, Zhiming; Watanabe, Reika; Sherwood, Margaret E.; Schoenfeld, David A.; Pogue, Brian W.; Pereira, Stephen P.; Villa, Elizabeth; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale drug delivery vehicles can facilitate multimodal therapies of cancer by promoting tumour-selective drug release. However, few are effective because cancer cells develop ways to resist and evade treatment. Here, we introduce a photoactivatable multi-inhibitor nanoliposome (PMIL) that imparts light-induced cytotoxicity in synchrony with photo-initiated and sustained release of inhibitors that suppress tumour regrowth and treatment escape signalling pathways. The PMIL consists of a nanoliposome doped with a photoactivatable chromophore (benzoporphyrin derivative, BPD) in the lipid bilayer, and a nanoparticle containing cabozantinib (XL184)—a multikinase inhibitor—encapsulated inside. Near infrared tumour irradiation, following intravenous PMIL administration, triggers photodynamic damage of tumour cells and microvessels, and simultaneously initiates release of XL184 inside the tumour. A single PMIL treatment achieves prolonged tumour reduction in two mouse models and suppresses metastatic escape in an orthotopic pancreatic tumour model. The PMIL offers new prospects for cancer therapy by enabling spatiotemporal control of drug release whilst reducing systemic drug exposure and associated toxicities. PMID:26780659

  6. The Diversity of the Pollen Tube Pathway in Plants: Toward an Increasing Control by the Sporophyte

    PubMed Central

    Lora, Jorge; Hormaza, José I.; Herrero, María

    2016-01-01

    Plants, unlike animals, alternate multicellular diploid, and haploid generations in their life cycle. While this is widespread all along the plant kingdom, the size and autonomy of the diploid sporophyte and the haploid gametophyte generations vary along evolution. Vascular plants show an evolutionary trend toward a reduction of the gametophyte, reflected both in size and lifespan, together with an increasing dependence from the sporophyte. This has resulted in an overlooking of the importance of the gametophytic phase in the evolution of higher plants. This reliance on the sporophyte is most notorious along the pollen tube journey, where the male gametophytes have to travel a long way inside the sporophyte to reach the female gametophyte. Along evolution, there is a change in the scenery of the pollen tube pathway that favors pollen competition and selection. This trend, toward apparently making complicated what could be simple, appears to be related to an increasing control of the sporophyte over the gametophyte with implications for understanding plant evolution. PMID:26904071

  7. Targeting pleiotropic signaling pathways to control adult cardiac stem cell fate and function

    PubMed Central

    Pagliari, Stefania; Jelinek, Jakub; Grassi, Gabriele; Forte, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The identification of different pools of cardiac progenitor cells resident in the adult mammalian heart opened a new era in heart regeneration as a means to restore the loss of functional cardiac tissue and overcome the limited availability of donor organs. Indeed, resident stem cells are believed to participate to tissue homeostasis and renewal in healthy and damaged myocardium although their actual contribution to these processes remain unclear. The poor outcome in terms of cardiac regeneration following tissue damage point out at the need for a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling CPC behavior and fate determination before new therapeutic strategies can be developed. The regulation of cardiac resident stem cell fate and function is likely to result from the interplay between pleiotropic signaling pathways as well as tissue- and cell-specific regulators. Such a modular interaction—which has already been described in the nucleus of a number of different cells where transcriptional complexes form to activate specific gene programs—would account for the unique responses of cardiac progenitors to general and tissue-specific stimuli. The study of the molecular determinants involved in cardiac stem/progenitor cell regulatory mechanisms may shed light on the processes of cardiac homeostasis in health and disease and thus provide clues on the actual feasibility of cardiac cell therapy through tissue-specific progenitors. PMID:25071583

  8. A photoactivable multi-inhibitor nanoliposome for tumour control and simultaneous inhibition of treatment escape pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spring, Bryan Q.; Bryan Sears, R.; Zheng, Lei Zak; Mai, Zhiming; Watanabe, Reika; Sherwood, Margaret E.; Schoenfeld, David A.; Pogue, Brian W.; Pereira, Stephen P.; Villa, Elizabeth; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-04-01

    Nanoscale drug delivery vehicles can facilitate multimodal therapies of cancer by promoting tumour-selective drug release. However, few are effective because cancer cells develop ways to resist and evade treatment. Here, we introduce a photoactivable multi-inhibitor nanoliposome (PMIL) that imparts light-induced cytotoxicity in synchrony with a photoinitiated and sustained release of inhibitors that suppress tumour regrowth and treatment escape signalling pathways. The PMIL consists of a nanoliposome doped with a photoactivable chromophore (benzoporphyrin derivative, BPD) in the lipid bilayer, and a nanoparticle containing cabozantinib (XL184)—a multikinase inhibitor—encapsulated inside. Near-infrared tumour irradiation, following intravenous PMIL administration, triggers photodynamic damage of tumour cells and microvessels, and simultaneously initiates release of XL184 inside the tumour. A single PMIL treatment achieves prolonged tumour reduction in two mouse models and suppresses metastatic escape in an orthotopic pancreatic tumour model. The PMIL offers new prospects for cancer therapy by enabling spatiotemporal control of drug release while reducing systemic drug exposure and associated toxicities.

  9. Pathway-Based Genome-Wide Association Studies for Plasma Triglycerides in Obese Females and Normal-Weight Controls

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Struan F. A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Price, R. Arlen; Li, Wei-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Pathway-based analysis as an alternative approach can provide complementary information to single-marker genome-wide association studies (GWASs), which always ignore the epistasis and does not have sufficient power to find rare variants. In this study, using genotypes from a genome-wide association study (GWAS), pathway-based association studies were carried out by a modified Gene Set Enrichment Algorithm (GSEA) method (GenGen) for triglyceride in 1028 unrelated European-American extremely obese females (BMI≥35kg/m2) and normal-weight controls (BMI<25kg/m2), and another pathway association analysis (ICSNPathway) was also used to verify the GenGen result in the same data. The GO0009110 pathway (vitamin anabolism) was among the strongest associations with triglyceride (empirical P<0.001); the result remained significant after FDR correction (P = 0.022). MMAB, an obesity-related locus, included in this pathway. The ABCG1 and BCL6 gene was found in several triglyceride-related pathways (empirical P<0.05), which were also replicated by ICSNPathway (empirical P<0.05, FDR<0.05). We also performed single-marked GWAS using PLINK for TG levels (log-transformed). Significant associations were found between ASTN2 gene SNPs and plasma triglyceride levels (rs7035794, P = 2.24×10−10). Our study suggested that vitamin anabolism pathway, BCL6 gene pathways and ASTN2 gene may contribute to the genetic variation of plasma triglyceride concentrations. PMID:26308950

  10. The Drosophila Toll pathway controls but does not clear Candida glabrata infections.

    PubMed

    Quintin, Jessica; Asmar, Joelle; Matskevich, Alexey A; Lafarge, Marie-Céline; Ferrandon, Dominique

    2013-03-15

    The pathogenicity of Candida glabrata to patients remains poorly understood for lack of convenient animal models to screen large numbers of mutants for altered virulence. In this study, we explore the minihost model Drosophila melanogaster from the dual perspective of host and pathogen. As in vertebrates, wild-type flies contain C. glabrata systemic infections yet are unable to kill the injected yeasts. As for other fungal infections in Drosophila, the Toll pathway restrains C. glabrata proliferation. Persistent C. glabrata yeasts in wild-type flies do not appear to be able to take shelter in hemocytes from the action of the Toll pathway, the effectors of which remain to be identified. Toll pathway mutant flies succumb to injected C. glabrata. In this immunosuppressed background, cellular defenses provide a residual level of protection. Although both the Gram-negative binding protein 3 pattern recognition receptor and the Persephone protease-dependent detection pathway are required for Toll pathway activation by C. glabrata, only GNBP3, and not psh mutants, are susceptible to the infection. Both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are restrained by the Toll pathway, yet the comparative study of phenoloxidase activation reveals a differential activity of the Toll pathway against these two fungal pathogens. Finally, we establish that the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway and yapsins are required for virulence of C. glabrata in this model. Unexpectedly, yapsins do not appear to be required to counteract the cellular immune response but are needed for the colonization of the wild-type host. PMID:23401590