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Sample records for patient aux antecedents

  1. Patient-centered care: antecedents, triggers, and mediators.

    PubMed

    Galland, Leo

    2006-01-01

    Functional medicine is essentially patient centered, rather than disease centered. A structure is presented for uniting a patient-centered approach to diagnosis and treatment with the fruits of modern clinical science (which evolved primarily to serve the prevailing model of disease-centered care). The core scientific concepts of disease pathogenesis are antecedents, triggers, and mediators. Antecedents are factors, genetic or acquired, that predispose to illness; triggers are factors that provoke the symptoms and signs of illness; and mediators are factors, biochemical or psychosocial, that contribute to pathological changes and dysfunctional responses. Understanding the antecedents, triggers, and mediators that underlie illness or dysfunction in each patient permits therapy to be targeted to the needs of the individual. The conventional diagnosis assigned to the patient may be of value in identifying plausible antecedents, triggers or mediators for each patient, but is not adequate by itself for the designing of patient-centered care. Applying the model of person-centered diagnosis to patients facilitates the recognition of disturbances that are common in people with chronic illness. Diet, nutrition, and exposure to environmental toxins play central roles in functional medicine because they may predispose to illness, provoke symptoms, and modulate the activity of biochemical mediators through a complex and diverse set of mechanisms. Explaining those mechanisms is a key objective of the Textbook of Functional Medicine (from which this article is excerpted). A patient's beliefs about health and illness are critically important for self-care and may influence both behavioral and physiological responses to illness. Perceived self-efficacy is an important mediator of health and healing. Enhancement of patients' self-efficacy through information, education, and the development of a collaborative relationship between patient and healer is a cardinal goal in all clinical

  2. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Following Sinus Floor Elevation in Patient with Antecedents of Vertigo.

    PubMed

    Akcay, Huseyin; Ulu, Murat; Kelebek, Seyfi; Aladag, Ibrahim

    2016-07-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is an unfamiliar and rare complication occurring following osteotome sinus floor elevation (OSFE) and simultaneous implant placement. Etiology of this disorder is commonly displacement of otoliths by vibratory forces transmitted by osteotomes and mallet along with the hyperextension of the head during the operation, causing them to float around in the endolymph. This report presents a case of protracted BPPV following OSFE and simultaneous implant placement. A 43-year-old female suffered intense vertigo and nausea immediately after implant placement using an OSFE procedure. Upon further questioning after the procedure she gave an account of two times vertigo history within the last 9 years. Despite nootropic drug medication and canalith repositioning procedure applied by a specialist at operation night, the condition did not improve. Patient did not totally recover and was admitted again after 1 month. After repeated maneuvers, nine dosage intravenous serous fluid and piracetam administration the patient recovered. Duration of these procedures took 10 days and the patient was successfully treated with no recurrence of dizziness. Prevention and management of OSFE related BPPV are reviewed especially in patients having prior vertigo history in this report. PMID:27408469

  3. Mortality in Medicare Patients Undergoing Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With or Without Antecedent Stress Testing

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Grace A.; Lucas, F.L.; Malenka, David J.; Skinner, Jonathan; Redberg, Rita F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Guidelines advise testing for ischemia – such as with stress testing – prior to elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, pre-PCI stress testing is not always done; the implications of this practice are not known. Our objective was to evaluate whether receipt of stress testing prior to elective PCI predicts mortality. Methods and Results Using claims data from a 20% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries, we identified patients who had elective PCI in 2004 and followed them for a median of 3.4 years (N=23,887). Cox proportional hazards models were used to test the relationship of pre-PCI stress testing to survival. Population-based rates of elective PCI and stress testing were calculated for 306 hospital referral regions (HRR) and categorized into four groups: high stress test rate/high PCI rate, low stress test/low PCI, low stress test/high PCI, and high stress/low PCI regions. Cox modeling was used to test if category of HRR related to survival. Patients who underwent pre-PCI stress testing had a 13% lower risk of mortality than those who did not (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.87, 95% CI 0.81–0.92) after median follow-up of 3.4 years. Patients in low stress test/high PCI regions had a 14% higher risk of mortality than those in high stress test/high PCI regions (adjusted HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03, 1.26). Conclusions Pre-PCI stress testing is associated with lower mortality in patients undergoing elective PCI. Greater adherence to guidelines with respect to documenting ischemia prior to elective PCI may result in improved outcomes for patients. PMID:23674314

  4. Antecedent Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: What Is Protecting Whom?

    PubMed Central

    Hollinger, Sabrina K.; Okosun, Ike S.; Mitchell, Cassie S.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown that antecedent diseases are less prevalent in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients than the general age-matched population, which suggests possible neuroprotection. Antecedent disease could be protective against ALS or, conversely, the asymptomatic early physiological underpinnings of ALS could be protective against other antecedent disease. Elucidating the impact of antecedent disease on ALS is critical for assessing diagnostic risk factors, prognostic outcomes, and intervention timing. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between antecedent conditions and ALS onset age and disease duration (i.e. survival). Medical history surveys for 1439 Emory ALS Clinic patients (Atlanta, GA, USA) were assessed for antecedent hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, asthma, arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), thyroid, kidney, liver, and other non-ALS neurological diseases. The ALS onset age and disease duration are compared between the antecedent and non-antecedent populations using chi square, Kaplan–Meier, and ordinal logistic regression. When controlled for confounders, antecedent hypertension (high blood pressure), hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol), arthritis, COPD, thyroid disease, and non-ALS neurological disease are found to be statistically associated with a delayed ALS onset age, whereas antecedent obesity [body mass index (BMI) > 30] was correlated to earlier ALS onset age. With the potential exceptions of liver disease and diabetes (the latter without other common comorbid conditions), antecedent disease is associated with overall shorter ALS disease duration. The unique potential relationship between antecedent liver disease and longer ALS disease duration warrants further investigation, especially given liver disease was found to be a factor of 4–7 times less prevalent in ALS. Notably, most conditions associated with delayed ALS onset are also associated with shorter

  5. Antecedent influences on behavior disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R G; Iwata, B A

    1997-01-01

    The influence of antecedent events on behavior disorders has been relatively understudied by applied behavior analysts. This lack of research may be due to a focus on consequences as determinants of behavior and a historical disagreement on a conceptual framework for describing and interpreting antecedent variables. We suggest that antecedent influences can be described using terms derived from basic behavioral principles and that their functional properties can be adequately interpreted as discriminative and establishing operations. A set of studies on assessment and treatment of behavior disorders was selected for review based on their relevance to the topic of antecedent events. These studies were categorized as focusing on assessment of antecedent events, antecedent treatments for behavior disorders maintained by either positive or negative reinforcement, and special cases of antecedent events in behavior disorders. Some directions for future research on antecedent influences in the analysis and treatment of behavior disorders are discussed. PMID:9210312

  6. Niveau socioéconomique et processus du recours aux soins par les familles de patients souffrant de troubles psychiques au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Yaogo, Ahmed; Sommer, Alain; Moulaï, Pierre; Chebili, Saïd; Abaoub-Germain, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le Burkina Faso a connu une amélioration constante depuis deux décennies de l'offre de soins en psychiatrie. De même, le taux d'alphabétisation sans cesse croissant s'accompagne d'une profonde modification des conceptions et des comportements. La présente étude visait à déterminer l′impact des déterminants socioéconomiques sur le processus du recours aux soins par les familles. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête transversale portant sur 200 familles, menée dans le service de psychiatrie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou. Variable à expliquer: premier recours aux soins par les familles (guérisseur traditionnel ou prières religieuses vs. consultations psychiatrique ou médicale). Variable explicative: catégorie socioprofessionnelle classée en suivant la nomenclature des professions et catégories socioprofessionnelles; niveau d’études. L'analyse statistique a été effectuée à l'aide du logiciel SAS version 9.2. Le test du Khi deux a été utilisé. Résultats Il existait une association entre le choix du premier recours et la Profession et la catégorie socioprofessionnelledu « décideur » (p = 0.0006) ainsi que leniveau d’études du « décideur » (p = 0.0001). Conclusion La Profession et Catégorie Sociale et le niveau d'instruction scolaire pourraient être un marqueur important dans les politiques visant à optimiser les processus de recours aux soins des patients dans le circuit de soins. PMID:25161751

  7. Qualitative Studies: Historiographical Antecedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rilla Dean

    This paper provides an overview of qualitative studies' antecedents among historiographers and of the positivist tide which nearly engulfed them. Humans live by interpretations. The task of social science--the basic task of qualitative studies--is to study these interpretations so that we can better understand the meanings which people use to…

  8. Maternal Gatekeeping: Antecedents and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaunt, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined maternal gatekeeping, its background and psychological antecedents, and its consequences for paternal and maternal involvement in child care. In sum, 209 couples with 6- to 36-month-old children completed extensive questionnaires. Analyses revealed that various dimensions of gate-keeping were differentially associated with the…

  9. Antecedents of Maternal Separation Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, Greta G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined antecedents of maternal separation anxiety in 83 Italian mothers prior to their infants or toddlers entering group care. Mothers' anxiety did not vary with the child's age. Anxious mothers were younger and less educated, received less support, had temperamentally negative infants, and provided less varied stimulation in the home. (MM)

  10. Antecedents of Medical Workplace Violence in South China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Wenzhi; Deng, Ling; Liu, Meng; Yu, Min

    2011-01-01

    It has been noted that workplace violence most frequently occurs in hospitals. The purpose of this study was to explore antecedents of workplace violence in south China. The authors conducted face-to-face, in-depth, semistructured interviews with 30 hospital staff who had experienced at least one incident of workplace violence from patients during…

  11. Antecedents and Consequences of Envy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Geir; Glasø, Lars; Martinsen, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual attributes and envy, and to determine how envy may impact personal response variables in the workplace. To address these issues we apply Vecchio's theory on antecedents and consequences of envy (1995) as a theoretical framework. The present study relied on a cross-sectional measurement design. A total of 135 leaders and 772 followers employed in business organizations participated. SEM analysis shows that span of supervision serves as an important antecedent of envy, where span of supervision is significantly associated to envy via supportive leadership. Furthermore, envy seems to be indirectly and negatively related to self-esteem via distress and directly related to social loafing. The implications of these findings are discussed, and suggestions for future research are outlined. PMID:25961743

  12. Antecedents and Consequences of Work Engagement Among Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Sayfouri, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Engaged nurses have high levels of energy and are enthusiastic about their work which impacts quality of health care services. However, in the context of Iran, due to observed burnout, work engagement among nurses necessitates immediate exploration. Objectives: This investigation aimed to identify a suitable work engagement model in nursing profession in hospitals according to the hypothesized model and to determine antecedents and consequences related to work engagement among nurses. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was given to 279 randomly-selected nurses working in two general teaching hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Iran) to measure antecedents and consequences of work engagement using the Saks’s (2005) model. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the model fitness. Results: Two paths were added using LISREL software. The resulting model showed good fitness indices (χ2 = 23.62, AGFI = 0.93, CFI = 0.97, RMSEA = 0.07) and all the coefficients of the paths were significant (t ≥ 2, t ≤ -2). A significant correlation was found between work engagement and model variables. Conclusions: Paying adequate attention to the antecedents of work engagement can enhance the quality of performance among nurses. Additionally, rewards, organizational and supervisory supports, and job characteristics should be taken into consideration to establish work engagement among nurses. Further researches are required to identify other probable antecedents and consequences of nursing work engagement, which might be related to specific cultural settings. PMID:25763212

  13. The Vancouver Lymphadenopathy-AIDS Study: 5. Antecedent behavioural, clinical and laboratory findings in patients with AIDS and HIV-seropositive controls.

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, W J; Schechter, M T; Craib, K J; Constance, P; Nitz, R; Fay, S; McLeod, A; O'Shaughnessy, M

    1986-01-01

    In a group of homosexual men in Vancouver studied prospectively since November 1982, 26 cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) have arisen. To identify behavioural, clinical and laboratory findings that might predict the development of AIDS in people with antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we compared data for 25 patients with AIDS with corresponding data for 80 controls serologically positive for HIV selected from the cohort. The clinical and laboratory data for the patients with AIDS preceded the diagnosis of the syndrome by a mean of 17.5 months. The controls had been both seropositive and AIDS-free for a mean of 16.7 months after acquisition of their data. We detected significant differences between the patients with AIDS and the controls in IgG and IgA levels, absolute number of helper T cells and ratio of helper to suppressor T cells but not in lifetime number of male sexual partners, frequency of receptive anal intercourse or receptive fisting, illicit drug use or history of infectious disease. We also detected an increased risk of AIDS among those who had an elevated number of sexual contacts in AIDS-endemic areas in the 5 years before enrollment. A history of increased early sexual contact in AIDS-endemic areas is likely to be associated with early infection and with an increased risk of AIDS among men with HIV infection of unknown duration. Thus, although our analysis had limited statistical power, we conclude that most lifestyle variables appear to act as exposure factors in HIV infection but not as cofactors in the development of AIDS. PMID:3463386

  14. The Vancouver Lymphadenopathy-AIDS Study: 5. Antecedent behavioural, clinical and laboratory findings in patients with AIDS and HIV-seropositive controls.

    PubMed

    Boyko, W J; Schechter, M T; Craib, K J; Constance, P; Nitz, R; Fay, S; McLeod, A; O'Shaughnessy, M

    1986-10-15

    In a group of homosexual men in Vancouver studied prospectively since November 1982, 26 cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) have arisen. To identify behavioural, clinical and laboratory findings that might predict the development of AIDS in people with antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we compared data for 25 patients with AIDS with corresponding data for 80 controls serologically positive for HIV selected from the cohort. The clinical and laboratory data for the patients with AIDS preceded the diagnosis of the syndrome by a mean of 17.5 months. The controls had been both seropositive and AIDS-free for a mean of 16.7 months after acquisition of their data. We detected significant differences between the patients with AIDS and the controls in IgG and IgA levels, absolute number of helper T cells and ratio of helper to suppressor T cells but not in lifetime number of male sexual partners, frequency of receptive anal intercourse or receptive fisting, illicit drug use or history of infectious disease. We also detected an increased risk of AIDS among those who had an elevated number of sexual contacts in AIDS-endemic areas in the 5 years before enrollment. A history of increased early sexual contact in AIDS-endemic areas is likely to be associated with early infection and with an increased risk of AIDS among men with HIV infection of unknown duration. Thus, although our analysis had limited statistical power, we conclude that most lifestyle variables appear to act as exposure factors in HIV infection but not as cofactors in the development of AIDS. PMID:3463386

  15. Antecedent Selection: Comparing Simplified and Typical Verbal Antecedents for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez-Brown, Mapy; Scott, Jack; Ross, Denise E.

    2005-01-01

    This study measured the differential effects of simplified and typical verbal antecedents on acquisition of picture discriminations for four preschool children with autism. During baseline probes, participants emitted no correct selection responses to pictures of common stimuli during either simplified or typical verbal antecedent conditions.…

  16. Non-Syntactic Antecedents and Frame Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gensler, Orin

    A polemic is made for frame semantics and the linguistic phenomenon of anaphoric reference without noun phrase (NP) antecedent is examined within this frame. Non-syntactic anaphora is that which does not point out into the real world but rather points back into the discourse in a frame which has been built up between the speaker and hearer in a…

  17. Antecedents of Norwegian Beginning Teachers' Turnover Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiplic, Dijana; Brandmo, Christian; Elstad, Eyvind

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at exploring several individual, organizational, and contextual factors that may affect beginning teachers' turnover intentions during their first years of practice. The sample consists of 227 beginning teachers (69% female and 31% male) from 133 schools in Norway. The results show four important antecedents of beginning teachers'…

  18. Antecedents and Outcomes of Career Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryee, Samuel; Tan, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    A model of antecedents and outcomes of career commitment was tested with data from 510 of 650 Singaporean teachers and nurses surveyed. The model did not fit the data: career satisfaction did not affect career commitment directly or indirectly through organizational commitment. Career commitment was not significantly related to work quality. (SK)

  19. Early Antecedents to Students' Expected Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garger, John; Thomas, Michael; Jacques, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to confirm the predictive validity of several antecedents to students' early perceptions of future performance in collegiate courses. Design/methodology/approach: A non-experimental design was used to test a proposed model based on a review of relevant literature. Students completed surveys capturing the…

  20. SOME DEVELOPMENTAL ANTECEDENTS OF LEVEL OF ASPIRATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROWNE, DOUGLAS P.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY REPORTS CHILDREARING PRACTICES AND CHILD BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH A SUBSEQUENT LEVEL OF ASPIRATION (LOA). ANTECEDENT MEASURES WERE CHILDREARING ATTITUDES REPORTED BY 379 MOTHERS OF FIVE-YEAR OLDS IN AN EARLIER STUDY. AT THE TIME OF THIS STUDY, THE 83 SUBJECTS WERE 18 YEARS OLD. THEY WERE ADMINISTERED TWO PERSONALITY SCALES AND THE…

  1. Antecedents and Consequences of Situational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Patall, Erika A.; Messersmith, Emily E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a growing body of research on situational interest (SI). Yet, we still know relatively little about how SI is supported in the classroom and the academic benefits of SI. Aim: The current study investigated (1) contextual antecedents of SI; (2) potential benefits of SI for academic outcomes; and (3) SI as a mediator of…

  2. Childhood antecedents of adult sense of belonging.

    PubMed

    Hagerty, Bonnie M; Williams, Reg Arthur; Oe, Hiroaki

    2002-07-01

    Sense of belonging has been proposed to be a basic human need, and deficits in sense of belonging have been linked to problems in social and psychological functioning. Yet, there is little evidence about what early life experiences contribute to sense of belonging. The purpose of this study was to examine potential childhood antecedents of adult sense of belonging. The sample consisted of 362 community college students ranging in age from 18 to 72 years, with a mean age of 26 years. Measures included the Sense of Belonging Instrument, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Childhood Adversity and Adolescent Deviance Instrument. Multiple regression analysis was used to correlate childhood antecedents with adult sense of belonging. The final reduced model included 12 variables, which accounted for 25% of the variance in sense of belonging. Significant positive antecedents with a relationship with sense of belonging were perceived caring by both mother and father while growing up, participation in high school athletic activity, and parental divorce. Significant negative variables with a relationship with sense of belonging included perceived overprotection of father, high school pregnancy, family financial problems while growing up, incest, and homosexuality. Knowledge of these factors should influence interventions with families regarding child-rearing and parenting practices, mediating the effects of crises during childhood such as divorce and teen pregnancy, and the interpersonal growth needs of teenagers. PMID:12205719

  3. Antecedents of Intimate Partner Violence Among Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Finneran, Catherine; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Examinations of gay and bisexual men’s (GBM) perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV), including their perceptions of events likely to precipitate IPV, are lacking. Focus group discussions with GBM (n = 83) yielded 24 unique antecedents, or triggers, of IPV in male–male relationships. Venue-recruited survey participants (n = 700) identified antecedents that were likely to cause partner violence in male–male relationships, including antecedents GBM-specific currently absent from the literature. Chi-square tests found significant variations in antecedent endorsement when tested against recent receipt of IPV. Linear regression confirmed that men reporting recent IPV endorsed significantly more IPV antecedents than men without recent IPV (β = 1.8155, p < .012). A better understanding of the IPV event itself in male–male couples versus heterosexual couples, including its antecedents, can inform and strengthen IPV prevention efforts. PMID:25069147

  4. Soins Aux Brules Apres Un Accident Nucleaire

    PubMed Central

    Bargues, L.; Donat, N.; Jault, P.; Leclerc, T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Les lésions radiques sont dues le plus souvent à des radio-isotopes utilisés dans l’industrie. L’explosion d’un réacteur nucléaire, les armes nucléaires ou une attaque terroriste constituent un risque d’afflux massif de victimes brûlées. Les radiations ionisantes occasionnent des brûlures thermiques, des syndromes d’irradiation aiguë avec pancytopénie et des signes cutanés retardés. Après une période de latence, des symptômes cutanés apparaissent et leur profondeur est proportionnelle à la dose reçue. Les protocoles habituels de réanimation des brûlés s’appliquent ici. Les soins aux irradiés nécessitent aussi une mesure de l’irradiation et une décontamination par des personnels entraînés. En cas de catastrophe nucléaire, la priorité est d’optimiser les structures existantes et de préserver les moyens pour les patients ayant la plus forte probabilité de survie. Après un accident nucléaire isolé, les difficultés dans les centres de brûlés sont l’évaluation de la profondeur et les techniques chirurgicales de couverture cutanée. La préparation des moyens médicaux et des centres de brûlés est nécessaire pour faire face à la prise en charge de ces brûlures différentes et complexes. PMID:21991218

  5. Antecedents of Adolescent Initiation of Sex, Contraceptive Use, and Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the literature to identify the most important antecedents associated with adolescent initiation of sex, contraception use, and pregnancy. Results indicate that over 100 antecedents create a complex, detailed picture of the correlates of adolescent sexual behaviors. They describe characteristics of adolescents themselves, their partners,…

  6. Life Course Antecedents of Premarital Conception in Great Britain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Stephen T.

    1994-01-01

    Examined possible antecedents of premarital and marital conceptions early in lives of young women (n=5,167) and men (n=5,585). Found that significant antecedents of premarital conception for both sexes were low socioeconomic status; low adolescent social adjustment; and family environment characterized by parent-child arguing, parental divorce or…

  7. Antecedents of ICT Attitudes of Distance Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Rugayah; Ahmad, Hashim; Abdullah, Che Zainab

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the antecedents of ICT attitudes of distance education (e-PJJ) students at the Institute of Education Development (InED), UiTM. The antecedents studied were computer anxiety, confidence, liking, and usefulness. The findings are important to strengthen InED's policy for using ICT and other technologies to…

  8. Antecedents of Low Vocational Identity in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterowd, Carrie L.; Krieshok, Thomas S.

    This study examined antecedents related to low vocational identity in college freshmen. College students (N=360) completed the 35-item Low Vocational Identity Antecedents Scale (LVIAS) developed for this study, the Vocational Identity Scale (VIS), and other measures. Based on results from this sample, a 15-item LVIAS was developed that…

  9. Exploring the Relevant Antecedents of Superintendent Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    Understanding antecedents to superintendent leadership development is crucial for the continued improvement of schools. This qualitative study seeks to identify skills superintendents consider critical to their position, antecedents that developed those skills, and provide an increased understanding of the methods needed for developing current and…

  10. Wh-filler-gap dependency formation guides reflexive antecedent search

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Michael; Ackerman, Lauren; Baumann, Peter; Potter, David; Yoshida, Masaya

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies on online sentence processing have shown that the parser can resolve non-local dependencies rapidly and accurately. This study investigates the interaction between the processing of two such non-local dependencies: wh-filler-gap dependencies (WhFGD) and reflexive-antecedent dependencies. We show that reflexive-antecedent dependency resolution is sensitive to the presence of a WhFGD, and argue that the filler-gap dependency established by WhFGD resolution is selected online as the antecedent of a reflexive dependency. We investigate the processing of constructions like (1), where two NPs might be possible antecedents for the reflexive, namely which cowgirl and Mary. Even though Mary is linearly closer to the reflexive, the only grammatically licit antecedent for the reflexive is the more distant wh-NP, which cowgirl. (1). Which cowgirl did Mary expect to have injured herself due to negligence? Four eye-tracking text-reading experiments were conducted on examples like (1), differing in whether the embedded clause was non-finite (1 and 3) or finite (2 and 4), and in whether the tail of the wh-dependency intervened between the reflexive and its closest overt antecedent (1 and 2) or the wh-dependency was associated with a position earlier in the sentence (3 and 4). The results of Experiments 1 and 2 indicate the parser accesses the result of WhFGD formation during reflexive antecedent search. The resolution of a wh-dependency alters the representation that reflexive antecedent search operates over, allowing the grammatical but linearly distant antecedent to be accessed rapidly. In the absence of a long-distance WhFGD (Experiments 3 and 4), wh-NPs were not found to impact reading times of the reflexive, indicating that the parser's ability to select distant wh-NPs as reflexive antecedents crucially involves syntactic structure. PMID:26500579

  11. Antecedents of students' achievement in statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaludin, Izyan Syazana; Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Harris, Hezlin; Selamat, Zarehan

    2015-02-01

    The applications of statistics in most fields have been vast. Many degree programmes at local universities require students to enroll in at least one statistics course. The standard of these courses varies across different degree programmes. This is because of students' diverse academic backgrounds in which some comes far from the field of statistics. The high failure rate in statistics courses for non-science stream students had been concerning every year. The purpose of this research is to investigate the antecedents of students' achievement in statistics. A total of 272 students participated in the survey. Multiple linear regression was applied to examine the relationship between the factors and achievement. We found that statistics anxiety was a significant predictor of students' achievement. We also found that students' age has significant effect to achievement. Older students are more likely to achieve lowers scores in statistics. Student's level of study also has a significant impact on their achievement in statistics.

  12. Proximal antecedents to violent events in adolescent dating relationships.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Pamela S; Martsolf, Donna S; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence affects 25-60% of adolescents. This study developed a typology of proximal antecedents to violent events in adolescent dating relationships. Descriptions of 307 dating violence events were extracted from transcribed interviews with 87 young adults who experienced dating violence as adolescents. Verbatim text preceding the description of each violent event was identified as a proximal antecedent. Cross-case analysis was used to develop a typology of five antecedent categories: "pulling away,"  "demanding obedience," "discovering involvement with a rival," "defining the relationship," "demonstrating disrespect." Practitioners can use this typology to engage teens in discussions of factors that precede dating violence events. PMID:21992258

  13. L'Anse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    L'Anse aux Meadows is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, located in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Viking village were discovered in 1960 by the Norwegians Helge and Anne Ingstad. The only authenticated Viking settlement in North America outside Greenland, it was the site of a multi-year archaeological dig that found dwellings, tools and implements that verified its time frame. The settlement, dating more than five hundred years before Christopher Columbus, contains the earliest European structures in North America. Named a World Heritage site by UNESCO, it is thought by many to be the semi-legendary 'Vinland' settlement of explorer Leif Ericson around AD 1000. The settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows consisted of at least eight buildings, including a forge and smelter, and a lumber yard that supported a shipyard. The largest house measured 28.8 by 15.6 m and consisted of several rooms. Sewing and knitting tools found at the site indicate women were present at L'Anse aux Meadows

    The image was acquired on September 14, 2007, covers an area of 14.2 x 14.6 km, and is located at 51.5 degrees north latitude, 55.6 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  14. When Children Learn Programming: Antecedents, Concepts and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneiderman, Ben

    1985-01-01

    Discusses components of an educational plan which supports acquisition of computer programing skills by elementary school children, including antecedent knowledge required (sequencing, similarity, character recognition, part/whole relationships, conditional forms, repetition, and incrementation); initial programing concepts; and outcomes valuable…

  15. Active search for antecedents in cataphoric pronoun resolution

    PubMed Central

    Pablos, Leticia; Doetjes, Jenny; Ruijgrok, Bobby; Cheng, Lisa L.-S.

    2015-01-01

    Cataphoric dependencies where a pronoun precedes its antecedent appear to call on different mechanisms in language comprehension from forward dependencies where the antecedent precedes the pronoun. Previous research has shown that the resolution of cataphoric dependencies involves predictive processes such as the active search mechanism, which hypothesizes the automatic search for an antecedent immediately after encountering a cataphoric pronoun. The current study employs gender mismatch to investigate whether the active search for an antecedent of a cataphoric pronoun is restricted only to grammatically licit positions. We present results from an event-related potential experiment on the reading comprehension of cataphoric dependencies in Dutch. Results show that gender mismatch gives rise to an anterior negativity at grammatically licit antecedent positions only. We hypothesize that this negativity reflects the prediction failure for an antecedent after encountering a pronoun, rather than a gender mismatch. We discuss the timing, topography and functionality of this negativity with respect to previous studies and how this relates to the ERPs elicited in the processing of structural constraints on pronoun resolution. PMID:26579023

  16. The role of antecedent moisture conditions on flood response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yu; Westra, Seth; Lambert, Michael; Lambert, Martin

    2016-04-01

    A catchment's antecedent moisture conditions (AMC) represent the relative wetness of a catchment prior to a flood event. The catchment's moisture content prior to an extreme precipitation event can have a significant influence on overall flood response. This study derives an 'antecedent effect ratio' (AER) metric to describe the importance of a catchment's antecedent moisture content on overall runoff volume. The metric was applied to 211 catchments in Australia using hourly precipitation and streamflow data to identify the difference in flood response between dry and wet AMC. Regional calibration of the antecedent period length was used to estimate the effect ratio for all catchments. The AER was found to vary substantially, with the difference in flood response during wet and dry antecedent conditions up to three times that under median conditions for some sites. Higher AER values were found at latitudes closer to the equator and for catchments with highly seasonal precipitation regimes. Other climatic characteristics (e.g. mean annual precipitation, aridity index) and physical catchment characteristics (e.g. vegetation ratio, soil depth) had lesser influence. To improve the assessment of flood models it is important to have metrics, such as the AER, that can evaluate the contribution of antecedent moisture towards a flood response.

  17. Missing Drivers with Dementia: Antecedents and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Meredeth A.; Greenblum, Catherine A.; Boltz, Marie; Galvin, James E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the circumstance in which persons with dementia become lost while driving, how missing drivers are found, and how Silver Alert notificationsare instrumental in those discoveries. DESIGN A retrospective, descriptive study. SETTING Retrospective record review. PARTICIPANTS Conducted using 156 records from the Florida Silver Alert program for the time period October, 2008 through May 2010. These alerts were issued in Florida for a missing driver with dementia. MEASUREMENTS Information derived from the reports on characteristics of the missing driver, antecedents to missing event and discovery of a missing driver. RESULTS and CONCLUSION The majority of missing drivers were males, with ages ranging from 58’94, who were being cared for by a spouse. Most drivers became lost on routine, caregiver-sanctioned trips to usual locations. Only 15% were in the act of driving when found with most being found in or near a parked car and the large majority were found by law enforcement officers. Only 40% were found in the county they went missing and 10% were found in a different state. Silver Alert notifications were most effective for law enforcement; citizen alerts resulted in a few discoveries. There was a 5% mortality rate in the study population with those living alone more likely to be found dead than alive. An additional 15% were found in dangerous situations such as stopped on railroad tracks. Thirty-two percent had documented driving or dangerous errors such as, driving thewrong way or into secluded areas, or walking in or near roadways. PMID:23134069

  18. Lactate preserves neuronal metabolism and function following antecedent recurrent hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Raimund I.; Jiang, Lihong; Herman, Peter; Zhao, Chen; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Mason, Graeme F.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Rothman, Douglas L.; Sherwin, Robert S.; Behar, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoglycemia occurs frequently during intensive insulin therapy in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and remains the single most important obstacle in achieving tight glycemic control. Using a rodent model of hypoglycemia, we demonstrated that exposure to antecedent recurrent hypoglycemia leads to adaptations of brain metabolism so that modest increments in circulating lactate allow the brain to function normally under acute hypoglycemic conditions. We characterized 3 major factors underlying this effect. First, we measured enhanced transport of lactate both into as well as out of the brain that resulted in only a small increase of its contribution to total brain oxidative capacity, suggesting that it was not the major fuel. Second, we observed a doubling of the glucose contribution to brain metabolism under hypoglycemic conditions that restored metabolic activity to levels otherwise only observed at euglycemia. Third, we determined that elevated lactate is critical for maintaining glucose metabolism under hypoglycemia, which preserves neuronal function. These unexpected findings suggest that while lactate uptake was enhanced, it is insufficient to support metabolism as an alternate substrate to replace glucose. Lactate is, however, able to modulate metabolic and neuronal activity, serving as a “metabolic regulator” instead. PMID:23543056

  19. Effects of Intensive Therapy and Antecedent Hypoglycemia on Counterregulatory Responses to Hypoglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Stephen N.; Mann, Stephanie; Briscoe, Vanessa J.; Ertl, Andrew C.; Tate, Donna B.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The physiology of counterregulatory responses during hypoglycemia in intensively treated type 2 diabetic subjects is largely unknown. Therefore, the specific aims of the study tested the hypothesis that 1) 6 months of intensive therapy to lower A1C <7.0% would blunt autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to hypoglycemia, and 2) antecedent hypoglycemia will result in counterregulatory failure during subsequent hypoglycemia in patients with suboptimal and good glycemic control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Fifteen type 2 diabetic patients (8 men/7 women) underwent 6-month combination therapy of metformin, glipizide XL, and acarbose to lower A1C to 6.7% and 2-day repeated hypoglycemic clamp studies before and after intensive therapy. A control group of eight nondiabetic subjects participated in a single 2-day repeated hypoglycemic clamp study. RESULTS—Six-month therapy reduced A1C from 10.2 ± 0.5 to 6.7 ± 0.3%. Rates of hypoglycemia increased to 3.2 episodes per patient/month by study end. Hypoglycemia (3.3 ± 0.1 mmol/l) and insulinemia (1,722 ± 198 pmol/l) were similar during all clamp studies. Intensive therapy reduced (P < 0.05) ANS and metabolic counterregulatory responses during hypoglycemia. Antecedent hypoglycemia produced widespread blunting (P < 0.05) of neuroendocrine, ANS, and metabolic counterregulatory responses during subsequent hypoglycemia before and after intensive therapy in type 2 diabetic patients and in nondiabetic control subjects. CONCLUSIONS—Intensive oral combination therapy and antecedent hypoglycemia both blunt physiological defenses against subsequent hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes. Prior hypoglycemia of only 3.3 ± 0.1 mmol/l can result in counterregulatory failure in type 2 diabetic patients with suboptimal control and can further impair physiological defenses against hypoglycemia in intensively treated type 2 diabetes. PMID:19073776

  20. Maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret; Takaro, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les facteurs de risque, la prise en charge et la prévention des maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques en pratique familiale. Sources des données Des articles originaux et de synthèse entre janvier 1998 et février 2012 ont été identifiés à l’aide de PubMed et des expressions de recherche en anglais water-related illness, recreational water illness et swimmer illness. Message principal Il y a un risque de 3 % à 8 % de maladies gastrointestinales (MGI) après la baignade. Les groupes à risque élevé de MGI sont les enfants de moins de 5 ans, surtout s’ils n’ont pas été vaccinés contre le rotavirus, les personnes âgées et les patients immunodéficients. Les enfants sont à plus grand risque parce qu’ils avalent plus d’eau quand ils nagent, restent dans l’eau plus longtemps et jouent dans l’eau peu profonde et le sable qui sont plus contaminés. Les adeptes des sports dans lesquels le contact avec l’eau est abondant comme le triathlon et le surf cerf-volant sont aussi à risque élevé et même ceux qui s’adonnent à des activités impliquant un contact partiel avec l’eau comme la navigation de plaisance et la pêche ont un risque de 40 % à 50 % fois plus grand de MGI par rapport à ceux qui ne pratiquent pas de sports aquatiques. Il y a lieu de faire une culture des selles quand on soupçonne une maladie reliée aux loisirs aquatiques et l’échelle clinique de la déshydratation est utile pour l’évaluation des besoins de traitement chez les enfants affectés. Conclusion Les maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques est la principale cause de MGI durant la saison des baignades. La reconnaissance que la baignade est une source importante de maladies peut aider à prévenir les cas récurrents et secondaires. On recommande fortement le vaccin contre le rotavirus chez les enfants qui se baignent souvent.

  1. Collaborateurs aux lignes directrices en soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Allan, G. Michael; Kraut, Roni; Crawshay, Aven; Korownyk, Christina; Vandermeer, Ben; Kolber, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Déterminer la profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices, les variables associées aux différences de participation des collaborateurs et si oui ou non les lignes directrices en soins primaires fournissent un énoncé sur les conflits d’intérêts. Type d’étude Analyse rétrospective des lignes directrices en soins primaires affichées sur le site web de l’Association médicale canadienne. Deux extracteurs de données indépendants ont examiné les lignes directrices et ont extrait les données pertinentes. Contexte Canada Principaux paramètres à l’étude Commanditaires des lignes directrices, territoire (national ou provincial) visé par les lignes directrices, profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices et énoncés de conflits d’intérêts rapportés dans les lignes directrices. Résultats Sur les 296 lignes directrices de pratique clinique trouvées dans la section de la médecine familiale de l’Infobanque AMC, 65 apparaissaient en double et 35 se rapportaient de façon limitée à la médecine familiale. Vingt ne fournissaient aucune information sur les collaborateurs scientifiques, ce qui laissait 176 lignes directrices propices à l’analyse. Au total, il y avait 2495 collaborateurs (auteurs et membres de comité) : 1343 (53,8 %) spécialistes autres que des médecins de famille, 423 (17,0 %) médecins de famille, 141 (5,7 %) infirmières, 75 (3,0 %) pharmaciens, 269 (10,8 %) autres cliniciens, 203 (8,1 %) scientifiques non cliniciens et 41 (1,6 %) collaborateurs de profession inconnue. La proportion des collaborateurs de ces professions différait significativement entre les lignes directrices nationales et provinciales, de même qu’entre les lignes directrices financées par l’industrie et celles qui ne l’étaient pas (p < 0,001 dans les 2 cas). Dans le cas des lignes directrices de pratique clinique provinciales, 30,8 % des collaborateurs étaient des médecins de

  2. Antecedent versus consequent events as predictors of problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Camp, Erin M; Iwata, Brian A; Hammond, Jennifer L; Bloom, Sarah E

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of results from descriptive and functional analyses of problem behavior generally have shown poor correspondence. Most descriptive analyses have focused on relations between consequent events and behavior, and it has been noted that attention is a common consequence for problem behavior even though it may not be a functional reinforcer. Because attention may be prescribed simply as a means of stopping serious problem behavior, it is possible that naturally occurring antecedent events (establishing operations) might be better predictors of problem behavior than consequences. We conducted descriptive and functional analyses of the problem behaviors of 7 participants. Conditional probabilities based on combined antecedent and consequent events showed correspondence with the functional analysis data for 4 of the 7 participants, but antecedent events were no better than consequent events in identifying the function of problem behavior. PMID:19949538

  3. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia without evidence of antecedent viral upper respiratory infection

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Cristina Moran; Janvier, Jack; Zhang, Kunyan; Fonseca, Kevin; Gregson, Dan; Church, Deirdre; Laupland, Kevin; Rabin, Harvey; Elsayed, Sameer; Conly, John

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: USA300 community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains causing necrotizing pneumonia have been reported in association with antecedent viral upper respiratory tract infections (URI). METHODS: A case series of necrotizing pneumonia presenting as a primary or coprimary infection, secondary to CA-MRSA without evidence of antecedent viral URI, is presented. Cases were identified through the infectious diseases consultation service records. Clinical and radiographic data were collected by chart review and electronic records. MRSA strains were isolated from sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, pleural fluid or blood cultures and confirmed using standard laboratory procedures. MRSA strains were characterized by susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, spa typing, agr typing and multilocus sequence typing. Testing for respiratory viruses was performed by appropriate serological testing of banked sera, or nucleic acid testing of nasopharyngeal or bronchoalveloar lavage specimens. RESULTS: Ten patients who presented or copresented with CA necrotizing pneumonia secondary to CA-MRSA from April 2004 to October 2011 were identified. The median length of stay was 22.5 days. Mortality was 20.0%. Classical risk factors for CA-MRSA were identified in seven of 10 (70.0%) cases. Chest tube placement occurred in seven of 10 patients with empyema. None of the patients had historical evidence of antecedent URI. In eight of 10 patients, serological or nucleic acid testing testing revealed no evidence of acute viral coinfection. Eight strains were CMRSA-10 (USA300). The remaining two strains were a USA300 genetically related strain and a USA1100 strain. CONCLUSION: Pneumonia secondary to CA-MRSA can occur in the absence of an antecedent URI. Infections due to CA-MRSA are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Clinicians need to have an awareness of this clinical entity, particularly in patients who are in risk

  4. Statistics Anxiety: Nature, Etiology, Antecedents, Effects, and Treatments--A Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Wilson, Vicki A.

    2003-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive summary of the literature on statistics anxiety, focusing on its nature, etiology, and prevalence. Identifies antecedents of statistics anxiety and the effects of these antecedents on statistics achievement. (SLD)

  5. Environmental Stress and Biobehavioral Antecedents of Coronary Heart Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, David S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of research on the biobehavioral antecedents of coronary heart disease, including stressful occupational settings characterized by high demands and little control over the job, and the Type A pattern, particularly hostility and mode of anger expression (anger-in). Discusses research on physiologic responsiveness (reactivity)…

  6. Developmental Trajectories and Antecedents of Distal Parental Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; Criss, Michael M.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Groups of adolescents were identified on the basis of developmental trajectories of their families' rules and their parents' knowledge of their activities. Characteristics of the adolescent, peer antisociality, and family context were tested as antecedents. In sum, 404 parent-adolescent dyads provided data for adolescents aged 10-16. Most…

  7. Antecedents and Consequences of Residential Choice and School Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni; Glover, Robert W.; Holcombe, W. Lee; Stokes, S. Lynne

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the antecedents and consequences of residential choice and school transfers within one of the eight largest urban school districts in Texas. This study is based on survey data from a representative sample of parents of K-12 students enrolled in this district. In addition to demographic characteristics of the family, the…

  8. Trajectories of Physical Discipline: Early Childhood Antecedents and Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from ages 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from ages 5 to 15. Analyses indicated…

  9. Further Analysis of Antecedent Interventions on Preschoolers' Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, David A.; Zonneveld, Kimberly; Harris, Carelle; Marcus, Alonna; Reagan, Renee

    2007-01-01

    Functional analyses were conducted to identify reinforcers for noncompliance exhibited by 3 young children. Next, the effects of three antecedent-based interventions--noncontingent access to a preferred item, a warning, and a high-probability instructional sequence--were examined. The high-probability instructional sequence was effective for 1…

  10. Further Evaluation of Antecedent Social Events during Functional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, David E.; Hardesty, Samantha L.; Luczynski, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The value of a reinforcer may change based on antecedent events, specifically the behavior of others (Bruzek & Thompson, 2007). In the current study, we examined the effects of manipulating the behavior of the therapist on problem behavior while all dimensions of reinforcement were held constant. Both participants' levels of problem behaviors…

  11. Attendance At Activities With a Geriatric Population: Antecedents and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Dennis B.

    The effectiveness of various procedures in maintaining attendance at activities of residents at a geriatric facility was examined. A special, intermittently programmed or delayed consequence for attendance was added to regularly scheduled activities. Attendance at activities with and without the consequence was compared. Later, antecedent events…

  12. The Antecedents and Correlates of Parental Perceptions of Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom

    Examined were antecedents and behavioral correlates of parental perceptions of efficacy, using data from a national survey of 3,000 parents and a study of 65 mother-infant dyads. Survey data were used to determine what factors are predictive of parental perceptions of efficacy. Dyadic data were used primarily to examine the relation between…

  13. Childhood Antecedents to Adult Coronary Artery Diseases. Special Reference Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the childhood antecedents to atherosclerosis and hypertension. While diet is related to the development of coronary artery diseases, there is some disagreement about what dietary changes are necessary or desirable in children to prevent their development, and at what age such changes should be made. Fifty-five…

  14. Contextual Antecedents of Informal Feedback in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Rijt, Janine; van de Wiel, Margje W. J.; Van den Bossche, Piet; Segers, Mien S. R.; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2012-01-01

    This study brings together findings from different research angles on informal feedback in the workplace. We explore the individual and joint influences of three contextual antecedents of seeking feedback: support for learning, psychological safety, and work pressure. Based on our survey of 138 employees from various organizations, hierarchical…

  15. Positive Antecedent and Consequent Components in Child Compliance Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dannell Speights; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Olmi, D. Joe; Bellipanni, Kimberly D.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of positive antecedent (effective instruction delivery and time-in) and consequent components (contingent praise) on the compliance of 4 children in a clinic setting. Results suggest that the use of effective instruction delivery alone increased compliance above baseline levels for the 4 children and that the…

  16. Gender Specific Differences in the Perceived Antecedents of Academic Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Russell W.

    This document consists of the report of a study undertaken to establish the existence of any gender specific differences in the perceived antecedents of academic stress. The definition of stress as a negative emotion strongly associated with doubt about coping is suggested to be particularly relevant to the academic arena where students…

  17. Student Trust and Its Antecedents in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Amit K.; Whipple, Thomas W.; Bryan, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    Based on the belief that long-term marketing costs for colleges can be reduced by focusing on building trust, studied the antecedents to trust in students and alumni. Data collected from 250 students and alumni indicated that strategic plans that improve perceived sincerity, expertise, and congeniality of a college can be successfully used to…

  18. Modeling Antecedents of Student Loyalty in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perin, Marcelo Gattermann; Sampaio, Claudio Hoffmann; Simoes, Claudia; de Polvora, Rosiane Polvora

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to understand the antecedents of student loyalty in the Brazilian context. In particular we address the impact of student trust, commitment and quality perception on loyalty. A quantitative study was conducted among business management student majors from two private Brazilian Higher Education Institutions…

  19. Young Children's Social Information Processing: Family Antecedents and Behavioral Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runions, Kevin C.; Keating, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    Little research has examined whether social information processing (SIP) measures from early childhood predict externalizing problems beyond the shared association with familial risk markers. In the present study, family antecedents and first-grade externalizing behaviors were studied in relation to preschool and 1st-grade SIP using data from…

  20. Workplace Incivility: Worker and Organizational Antecedents and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, James E., II; Bartlett, Michelle E.; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Unresolved workplace conflicts represent the largest reducible costs to an organization (Keenan & Newton, 1985). As incivility increases (Buhler, 2003; Pearson, Andersson, & Wegner, 2001; Pearson & Porath, 2005) more research is being conducted (Tepper, Duffy, Henle, & Lambert, 2006; Vickers, 2006). This review examined antecedents (variables that…

  1. Reported causal antecedents of discrete emotions in late life.

    PubMed

    Chipperfield, Judith G; Perry, Raymond P; Weiner, Bernard; Newall, Nancy E

    2009-01-01

    Valuable insights about emotional well-being can be learned from studying older adults who have wrestled with differentiating and regulating their emotions while they navigate through the many joys and traumas of a lifetime. Our objective was to document the underlying reasons for older adults' (n = 353, ages 72 -99) emotional experiences. Using a phenomenological approach, we identified participants' reported reasons (i.e., antecedents) for a broad variety of positive and negative emotions, classifying them into thematic categories through a content analysis. The array of thematic categories that emerged for some emotions was more differentiated than for others. For example, 14 antecedent categories were required to account for the emotion of happiness; whereas, only 4 categories were needed to capture all antecedents for anger. Our analysis provided a rich description of what older adults report as the causes of their emotions, showing that later life is characterized as a time when the loss of love ones elicits sadness, self-limitations elicit frustration, and others' transgressions elicit anger. Yet, our data show that old age can be portrayed even more so as a time when a variety of positive emotions are elicited by social factors (interactions and relationships), achievements, and personal attributes. Finally, in an analysis of the most common antecedents for pride (accomplishments) and anger (other's transgression), we suggest that pride over accomplishments is most likely elicited by internal attributions to skill and effort; whereas, anger over others' transgressions is most likely elicited by controllable attributions to the transgressor's inconsiderate or offensive behavior. Overall, this shows the utility of applying Weiner's attributional framework (Weiner, 1985) to an analysis of emotion antecedents in late life. PMID:19522180

  2. A relational framework for understanding bullying: Developmental antecedents and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rodkin, Philip C; Espelage, Dorothy L; Hanish, Laura D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews current research on the relational processes involved in peer bullying, considering developmental antecedents and long-term consequences. The following themes are highlighted: (a) aggression can be both adaptive and maladaptive, and this distinction has implications for bullies' functioning within peer social ecologies; (b) developmental antecedents and long-term consequences of bullying have not been well-distinguished from the extant research on aggressive behavior; (c) bullying is aggression that operates within relationships of power and abuse. Power asymmetry and repetition elements of traditional bullying definitions have been hard to operationalize, but without these specifications and more dyadic measurement approaches there may be little rationale for a distinct literature on bullying--separate from aggression. Applications of a relational approach to bullying are provided using gender as an example. Implications for future research are drawn from the study of relationships and interpersonal theories of developmental psychopathology. PMID:25961312

  3. Modeling the antecedents of proactive behavior at work.

    PubMed

    Parker, Sharon K; Williams, Helen M; Turner, Nick

    2006-05-01

    Using a sample of U.K. wire makers (N = 282), the authors tested a model in which personality and work environment antecedents affect proactive work behavior via cognitive-motivational mechanisms. Self-reported proactive work behaviors (proactive idea implementation and proactive problem solving) were validated against rater assessments for a subsample (n = 60) of wire makers. With the exception of supportive supervision, each antecedent was important, albeit through different processes. Proactive personality was significantly associated with proactive work behavior via role breadth self-efficacy and flexible role orientation, job autonomy was also linked to proactive behavior via these processes, as well as directly; and coworker trust was associated with proactive behavior via flexible role orientation. In further support of the model, the cognitive-motivational processes for proactive work behavior differed from those for the more passive outcome of generalized compliance. PMID:16737360

  4. The antecedents of buyers' perceived justice in online markets.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Shun-Po; Chou, Huey-Wen; Chiu, Chao-Min

    2013-07-01

    The success of a business largely depends upon customers' intentions to continue to purchase, but this can be a challenge for vendors in online markets. This study proposes a model which identifies an initial set of justice antecedents and evaluates their relation to perceived justice, trust, and repurchase intention in online markets. The theoretical model is tested by using structural equation modeling on a data set of 424 buyers in Yahoo! Kimo online auction market. The results demonstrate that three dimensions of justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional) are positively and significantly related to trust, which in turn affects buyers' intention to repurchase. Moreover, among the three dimensions of justice judgments, distributive justice and interactional justice are relatively more important than procedural justice in predicting buyers' trust in sellers. In terms of the antecedents of justice, this study provides evidence that product quality and delivery performance are significantly related to distributive justice, while information quality and contact channel are important antecedents of procedural justice. This study also finds that responsiveness is important in enhancing buyers' judgments of interactional justice. PMID:23465031

  5. Long-Term Antecedents and Outcomes of Perceived Control

    PubMed Central

    Infurna, Frank J.; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Schupp, Jürgen; Wagner, Gert G.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived control plays an important role in shaping development throughout adulthood and old age. Using data from the adult lifespan sample of the national German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP; N > 10,000, covering 25 years of measurement), we explored long-term antecedents, correlates, and outcomes of perceived control and examined if associations differ with age. Targeting correlates and antecedents of control, findings indicated that higher concurrent levels of social participation, life satisfaction, and self-rated health as well as more positive changes in social participation over the preceding 11 years were each predictive of between-person differences in perceived control. Targeting health outcomes of control, survival analyses revealed that perceived control predicted 14-year hazard rates for disability (n = 996 became disabled) and mortality (n = 1,382 died). The effect for mortality, but not for disability, was independent of socio-demographic and psychosocial factors. Overall, we found very limited support for age-differential associations. Our results provide further impetus to thoroughly examine processes involved in antecedent-consequent relations among perceived control, facets of social life, well-being, and health. PMID:21517184

  6. Antecedent Frequency Effects on Anaphoric Pronoun Resolution: Evidence from Spanish.

    PubMed

    Egusquiza, Nerea; Navarrete, Eduardo; Zawiszewski, Adam

    2016-02-01

    High-frequency words are usually understood and produced faster than low-frequency words. Although the effect of word frequency is a reliable phenomenon in many domains of language processing, it remains unclear whether and how frequency affects pronominal anaphoric resolution. We evaluated this issue by means of two self-paced reading experiments. Native speakers of Spanish read sentences containing the anaphoric noun or pronoun at the subject syntactic position (Experiment 1) or at the object syntactic position (Experiment 2) while the antecedent of the anaphor was either a high-frequency or a low-frequency word. Results showed that nominal anaphors were read faster when referring to high-frequency than to low-frequency antecedents, and faster when referring to subjects than to objects. Critically, pronoun reading times were unaffected by the frequency and by the syntactic position of the antecedent. These results are congruent with theories assuming that syntactic information of the words is not frequency sensitive. PMID:25300350

  7. Intentions to work during terminal illness: an exploratory study of antecedent conditions.

    PubMed

    Westaby, James D; Versenyi, Andrea; Hausmann, Robert C

    2005-11-01

    Facing a terminal illness is an unimaginably difficult experience, yet many individuals intend to work despite their prognosis. However, research has not systematically examined the potential antecedents underlying such intentions. Using behavioral intention theory as an underlying framework, this study hypothesized that reasons for working (intrinsic and extrinsic), the will to live, disability severity, accessibility of travel, and age would predict intentions to work during terminal illness. A representative sample of medically diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (a.k.a. Lou Gehrig's disease) patients with a mean life expectancy of approximately 3 years participated (mean age=57.8 years). Controlling for length of diagnosis, employment status, and demographic variables, results indicated that intrinsic reasons were particularly strong predictors of intentions, followed by age, disability severity, and accessibility of travel. Exploratory findings also indicated that behavioral intentions were positively related to future employment status, consistent with past theory. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:16316283

  8. The antecedents and belief-polarized effects of thought confidence.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsuan-Yi; Lien, Nai-Hwa; Liang, Kuan-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates 2 possible antecedents of thought confidence and explores the effects of confidence induced before or during ad exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that both consumers' dispositional optimism and spokesperson attractiveness have significant effects on consumers' confidence in thoughts that are generated after viewing the advertisement. Higher levels of thought confidence will influence the quality of the thoughts that people generate, lead to either positively or negatively polarized message processing, and therefore induce better or worse advertising effectiveness, depending on the valence of thoughts. The authors posit the belief-polarization hypothesis to explain these findings. PMID:21902013

  9. Antecedents and Consequences of the Frequency of Upward and Downward Social Comparisons at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Douglas J.; Ferris, D. Lance; Heller, Daniel; Keeping, Lisa M.

    2007-01-01

    The current paper examines the dispositional and situational antecedents, as well as the attitudinal and behavioral consequences, of the frequency of upward and downward social comparisons. We predicted social comparison frequency would be influenced by uncertainty-related antecedents, and that social comparisons in organizations would be…

  10. Pre-Service Teacher Beliefs on the Antecedents to Bullying: A Concept Mapping Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopata, Joel A.; Nowicki, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, researchers gathered Canadian pre-service teachers' beliefs on the antecedents to bullying. Concept mapping (Kane & Trochim, 2007) was used to analyze the data. This study's findings identified pre-service teachers to have accurate beliefs, inaccurate beliefs, and a lack of knowledge about the antecedents to bullying. Concept…

  11. Antecedents and Consequences of Retirement Planning and Decision-Making: A Meta-Analysis and Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topa, Gabriela; Moriano, Juan Antonio; Depolo, Marco; Alcover, Carlos-Maria; Morales, J. Francisco

    2009-01-01

    In this study, meta-analytic procedures were used to examine the relationships between retirement planning, retirement decision and their antecedent and consequences. Our review of the literature generated 341 independent samples obtained from 99 primary studies with 188,222 participants. A small effect size (ES) for antecedents of retirement…

  12. Emotional Antecedents and Consequences of Deliberate Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Alexander L.; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.

    2007-01-01

    Emotional experiences immediately prior to (emotional antecedents) and following (emotional consequences) deliberate self-harm and suicide attempts in female inmates (N = 63) were examined. Anger was the antecedent emotion reported by the largest proportion of individuals who had engaged in deliberate self-harm (45.16%), suicide attempts (40.9%),…

  13. Effect of a Visual Prompt on Changes in Antecedents and Consequents of Teaching Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David E.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a visual prompt placed within an actual music teaching situation to effect changes in the frequency of teacher antecedents (spoken questions and statements), the quality of those antecedents (appropriate and inappropriate questions), and the frequency of teacher consequents (spoken approvals).…

  14. Antecedent Classroom Factors and Disruptive Behaviors of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Maureen A.; Asmus, Jennifer M.; Boyd, Brian A.; Ladwig, Crystal N.; Sellers, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships between antecedent classroom factors and the disruptive behaviors of five elementary-aged students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A descriptive analysis was conducted to determine the influence of four types of molar antecedent classroom factors (i.e., instructional setting, instructional activity,…

  15. Antecedents of Absorptive Capacity: A New Model for Developing Learning Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaei-Zadeh, Mohammad; Darwish, Tamer K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrated framework to indicate which antecedents of absorptive capacity (AC) influence its learning processes, and to propose testing of this model in future work. Design/methodology/approach Relevant literature into the antecedents of AC was critically reviewed and analysed with the objective…

  16. Antecedents and Consequences of Psychiatric Disorders in African-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Run; Ge, Xiaojia; Brody, Gene H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2008-01-01

    This study included three waves of data, collected from approximately 890 African-American children and their families. Antecedents and consequences of psychiatric disorders among this population were examined. Children's temperament, pubertal timing, and experience of stressful life events were tested as antecedents of psychiatric disorders.…

  17. Antecedent-Based Interventions for Young Children at Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kristy L.; Scott, Terrance M.

    2009-01-01

    Following descriptive functional assessment procedures, a brief structural analysis was used to confirm the hypothesized antecedent conditions that preceded problem behavior across three children enrolled in Head Start classrooms. A withdrawal design investigated the effectiveness of antecedent-based interventions to reduce disruptive behaviors…

  18. Antecedents of clinical information technology sophistication in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Jaana, Mirou; Ward, Marcia M; Paré, Guy; Sicotte, Claude

    2006-01-01

    Grounded in the resource-based theory and the innovation diffusion theory, this article develops and tests a research model for assessing the antecedents of hospital innovativeness with regard to clinical information technology (IT) applications. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample of U.S. hospitals (n = 74) to assess three dimensions of clinical IT sophistication. Secondary data were used to measure the antecedents, namely, four groups of organizational capacity variables. Bivariate and regression analyses were conducted to identify significant associations. A significant percentage (45-61%) of the variance in clinical IT sophistication was explained, mostly by leadership and knowledge sharing capacities. In particular, IT tenure and technical knowledge resources were significantly related to clinical IT sophistication. Surprisingly, managerial tenure and hospital's belonging to a network showed significant negative associations with two dimensions of the clinical IT sophistication construct. To address the challenges they face, hospitals should consider encouraging career development for current individuals in charge of IT activities, and attracting professionals with an IT background who have the knowledge and ability to trigger new ideas and favor the adoption and use of clinical IT applications in these settings. PMID:17077703

  19. Is reasoning from counterfactual antecedents evidence for counterfactual reasoning?

    PubMed Central

    Rafetseder, Eva; Perner, Josef

    2011-01-01

    In most developmental studies the only error children could make on counterfactual tasks was to answer with the current state of affairs. It was concluded that children who did not show this error are able to reason counterfactually. However, children might have avoided this error by using basic conditional reasoning (Rafetseder, Cristi-Vargas, & Perner, 2010). Basic conditional reasoning takes an antecedent, which like in counterfactual reasoning can be counter to fact, and combines it with a conditional (or set of conditionals reflecting knowledge of how the world works) to draw a likely conclusion. A critical feature of counterfactual reasoning then is that these additional assumptions be modelled after the actual events to which the counterfactual is taken to be counterfactual. In contrast in basic conditional reasoning one enriches the given antecedent with any plausible assumptions. In our tasks basic conditional reasoning leads to different answers than counterfactual reasoning. For instance, a doctor, sitting in the park with the intention to read a paper, is called to an emergency at the swimming pool. The question, “if there had been no emergency, where would the doctor be?” should counterfactually be answered “in the park”. But ignoring the doctor’s intentions and just reasoning on plausible grounds one might answer: “in the hospital”. Only by 6 years, did children give mostly correct answers. PMID:22187537

  20. Evaluation of Combined-Antecedent Variables on Functional Analysis Results and Treatment of Problem Behavior in a School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolezal, Danielle N.; Kurtz, Patricia F.

    2010-01-01

    Call, Wacker, Ringdahl, and Boelter (2005) conducted an analysis in which a single-antecedent condition was compared to a multiple-antecedent condition. The present study extended Call et al. by conducting a structured descriptive assessment (SDA) to identify the antecedent variables most associated with problem behavior in a student with…

  1. Event-Level Analysis of Antecedents for Youth Violence: Comparison of Dating Violence with Non-Dating Violence

    PubMed Central

    Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M.; Walton, Maureen A.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Blow, Frederic C.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dating violence (DV) has emerged as a major concern among youth with links to substance use, injuries, and death. The Emergency Department (ED) provides an opportunity for violence screening and prevention interventions. Additional data are needed regarding antecedents of DV versus non-dating violence (NDV; e.g., acquaintance, stranger) to develop ED-based violence interventions for youth. Methods Participants were 575 patients screening positive for past 6-month drug use in an urban ED who completed timeline follow-back aggression modules at Baseline, 6-, and 12-months, indicating event-specific antecedents of violence. Multi-level logistic regressions using event-level data, nested by individual and time (i.e. Baseline, 6- and 12-month assessment intervals) to examine antecedents of DV vs. NDV. Post-hoc analyses examined substance use × reasons and gender interactions. Results Prescription sedative/opioid misuse was more likely to be reported prior to DV whereas alcohol only, and co-ingested alcohol and marijuana only, were more likely to be reported prior to NDV. Reasons for DV included: “personal belongings, “angry/bad mood,” “jealousy,” “drunk/high on drugs” and “arguing about sex”. Reasons for NDV included: “rumors,” “retaliation,” “personal space” and “aid (someone) due to physical attack”. Substance use before/during conflicts and reasons for conflicts were both uniquely associated with DV versus NDV. Two gender interactions were found. Conclusions ED based interventions for urban youth need to be tailored by gender, substance use (alcohol, cocaine, sedatives), reasons for violence, and type of violence (DV vs. NDV). PMID:24182751

  2. Psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Wayne W; Sagarin, Brad J

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gays is characterized by a focus on negative attitudes and minimal use of behavioral dependent variables. In an attempt to rectify this situation, the present study explored the psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior in an undergraduate sample using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Findings suggest that intentions predict activism behavior (in the form of signing an online petition supporting the construction of a new lesbian, gay, and bisexual resource center on their campus). In addition, attitudes toward the possible outcomes of the behavior, attitudes toward the behavior itself, and self-identity were found to predict intentions. Directions for future research on pro-gay activism are discussed. PMID:20665329

  3. Historical antecedents to the philosophy of Paul Feyerabend.

    PubMed

    Munévar, Gonzalo

    2016-06-01

    Paul Feyerabend has been considered a very radical philosopher of science for proposing that we may advance hypotheses contrary to well-confirmed experimental results, that observations make theoretical assumptions, that all methodological rules have exceptions, that ordinary citizens may challenge the judgment of experts, and that human happiness should be a key value for science. As radical as these theses may sound, they all have historical antecedents. In defending the Copernican view, Galileo exemplified the first two; Mill, Aristotle and Machiavelli all argued for pluralism; Aristotle gave commonsense reasons for why ordinary citizens may be able to judge the work of experts; and a combination of Plato's and Aristotle's views can offer strong support for the connection between science and happiness. PMID:27269259

  4. Explaining potential antecedents of workplace social support: reciprocity or attractiveness?

    PubMed

    Bowling, Nathan A; Beehr, Terry A; Johnson, Adam L; Semmer, Norbert K; Hendricks, Elizabeth A; Webster, Heather A

    2004-10-01

    Effects of social support are an important topic in occupational stress theories and research, yet little is known about support's potential antecedents. Based on reciprocity theory, the authors hypothesized that the social support received is related to the extent the employee performs organizational citizenship behaviors directed at individuals and to one's social competence; based on the notion of personal attraction, the authors hypothesized that employees' physical attractiveness and sense of humor would be associated with the amount of social support received. In a survey of 123 high school employees and separate ratings of their attractiveness, reciprocity variables were related but attraction variables were not related to social support availability. Further research should examine reciprocity in predicting social support. PMID:15506850

  5. The neural antecedents to voluntary action: Response to commentaries.

    PubMed

    Nachev, Parashkev; Hacker, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience must attend to the conceptual coherence of its hypotheses as well as to their empirical support. Examining the most influential studies of the neural antecedents to voluntary action, our Discussion Paper sought to identify the real-world consequences of neglecting the former in what we argued has been too narrow a pursuit of the latter. Though conceptual in form, our analysis is sharply empirical in its conclusions, revealing what have long been thought to be momentous experimental observations--such as the readiness potential--as the outcome of previously unidentified confounds that rob them of significance. Conversely, we suggested that experimental studies of two-way control, amongst other defining features of the voluntary, have been given less emphasis than the subject demands. Here, we ramify our analysis down the paths identified by others in the commentaries we received. PMID:26001157

  6. Isolation and characterization of bovine factor XI (plasma thromboplastin antecedent).

    PubMed

    Koide, T; Kato, H; Davie, E W

    1977-05-17

    Factor XI (plasma thromboplastic antecedent) has been purified approximately 28 000-fold from bovine plasma with an overall yield of about 30%. The isolation procedure involves barium sulfate adsorption of contaminants, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and chromatography on heparin-agarose, CM-Sephadex, and DEAE-Sephadex. The final product was homogeneous when examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis. A minimal mol wt of 124 000 was determined by sedimentation equilibrium. Factor XI is composed of two similar or identical polypeptide chain (mol wt of approximately 55 000), and these two chains are held together by a disulfide bond(s). Factor XI is a glycoprotein which contains approximately 11% carbohydrate including 5.4% heose, 4.7% N-acetylhexosamine, and 1.0% N-acetylneuraminic acid. Other properties of this coagulation factor including its amino acid composition and inhibition by antibodies prepared in rabbits are also reported. PMID:861211

  7. Internal marketing and the antecedents of nurse satisfaction and loyalty.

    PubMed

    Peltier, James W; Pointer, Lucille; Schibrowsky, John A

    2008-01-01

    Employee satisfaction and retention are critical issues that influence the success of any organization. Yet, one of the most critical problems facing the worldwide health care industry is the shortage of qualified nurses. Recent calls have been made within the traditional nursing literature for research that utilizes marketing and business models to better understand nurse satisfaction and retention. The purpose of this study is to develop scales that can be used to empirically test a model of the proposed antecedents of nurse job satisfaction and loyalty which have been used widely in the internal marketing and the relationship-marketing literature. Specifically, the study will investigate the degree to which structural bonding, social bonding, financial bonding activities, and quality of care impact how well nurses are satisfied with their job and their commitment to the organization. The results show that quality of care most impacted nurse satisfaction and loyalty, followed by structural, social, and financial bonds. PMID:19042513

  8. Bicultural identity integration (BII): components and psychosocial antecedents.

    PubMed

    Benet-Martínez, Verónica; Haritatos, Jana

    2005-08-01

    The present study examines the underresearched topic of bicultural identity; specifically, we: (1) unpack the construct of Bicultural Identity Integration (BII), or the degree to which a bicultural individual perceives his/her two cultural identities as "compatible" versus "oppositional," and (2) identify the personality (Big Five) and acculturation (acculturation stress, acculturation attitudes, bicultural competence) predictors of BII. Differences in BII, acculturation stress, and bicultural competence were measured with new instruments developed for the purposes of the study. Using a sample of Chinese American biculturals, we found that variations in BII do not define a uniform phenomenon, as commonly implied in the literature, but instead encompass two separate independent constructs: perceptions of distance (vs. overlap) and perceptions of conflict (vs. harmony) between one's two cultural identities or orientations. Results also indicated that cultural conflict and cultural distance have distinct personality, acculturation, and sociodemographic antecedents. PMID:15958143

  9. Trajectories of Physical Discipline: Early Childhood Antecedents and Developmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from age 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from age 5 to 15. Analyses indicated distinct physical discipline trajectory groups that varied in frequency of physical discipline and rate of change. In both samples, family ecological disadvantage differentiated the trajectory groups; in the first sample, early child externalizing also differentiated the groups. Controlling for early childhood externalizing, the minimal/ceasing trajectory groups were associated with the lowest levels of subsequent adolescent antisocial behavior in both samples and with parent-adolescent positive relationship quality in the second sample. PMID:19765007

  10. Personality traits and developmental experiences as antecedents of childbearing motivation.

    PubMed

    Miller, W B

    1992-05-01

    Childbearing motivation may be conceptualized as based upon psychological traits and shaped by experiences during childhood, adolescence, and early adult life. This paper explores what those traits and developmental experiences are. Two measures of childbearing motivation, one positive and the other negative, are described. Using a sample of 362 married men and 354 married women, the paper systematically examines the factors associated with these measures. In addition to a set of basic personality traits, these factors include parental characteristics, teenage experiences, and a number of variables from young adult behavior domains such as marriage, education, work, religion, and parental relationships. Stepwise multiple regression analyses lead to two final constrained, simultaneous-equation regression models. These models indicate the importance of both personality traits and diverse life-cycle experiences in the development of childbearing motivation, the differential gender distribution of predictors, and the different experiential antecedents of positive and negative motivation. PMID:1607052

  11. The neural antecedents to voluntary action: Response to commentaries

    PubMed Central

    Nachev, Parashkev; Hacker, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience must attend to the conceptual coherence of its hypotheses as well as to their empirical support. Examining the most influential studies of the neural antecedents to voluntary action, our Discussion Paper sought to identify the real-world consequences of neglecting the former in what we argued has been too narrow a pursuit of the latter. Though conceptual in form, our analysis is sharply empirical in its conclusions, revealing what have long been thought to be momentous experimental observations—such as the readiness potential—as the outcome of previously unidentified confounds that rob them of significance. Conversely, we suggested that experimental studies of two-way control, amongst other defining features of the voluntary, have been given less emphasis than the subject demands. Here, we ramify our analysis down the paths identified by others in the commentaries we received. PMID:26001157

  12. Maternal anxiety: course and antecedents during the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Britton, John R

    2008-01-01

    The early course and antecedents of postpartum anxiety are unknown. This study sought to determine the course and antecedents of maternal anxiety during the first month postpartum and to develop a model to predict 1-month anxiety using information obtainable before perinatal hospital discharge. Two hundred and ninety-six mothers were screened before discharge with the State (SS) and Trait (TS) Scales of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Demographic characteristics were assessed by questionnaire and medical record review, and psychiatric history, measures of perinatal stress, and resilient factors were determined by focused questions and formal instruments. At 1-month postpartum, the SS was repeated. Scores on the SS were significantly higher at 1 month than immediately postpartum (35.30+/-0.68 versus 33.38+/-0.60, mean+/-standard error, P=.004), but only 58.6% of mothers with high pre-discharge anxiety had high anxiety at 1 month. One-month anxiety correlated with pre-discharge SS and TS scores, a history of psychiatric problems including depressed mood, medical and negative social life events, lack of pregnancy planning and prenatal class attendance, perceived peripartum stress, and duration of postpartum hospital stay. Inverse correlations were observed with education, household income, and resiliency factors. In multivariate modeling, anxiety trait, education, history >or=2 years of depression, and perception of peripartum stress accounted for 50% of the variance in the 1-month SS score. Maternal anxiety increases during the first postpartum month. Women with high trait anxiety, low education, a history of depressed mood, and a perception of high peripartum stress are at risk for experiencing anxiety at this time. PMID:17397041

  13. A model of global citizenship: antecedents and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Reysen, Stephen; Katzarska-Miller, Iva

    2013-01-01

    As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, exposure to global cultures affords individuals opportunities to develop global identities. In two studies, we examine the antecedents and outcomes of identifying with a superordinate identity--global citizen. Global citizenship is defined as awareness, caring, and embracing cultural diversity while promoting social justice and sustainability, coupled with a sense of responsibility to act. Prior theory and research suggest that being aware of one's connection with others in the world (global awareness) and embedded in settings that value global citizenship (normative environment) lead to greater identification with global citizens. Furthermore, theory and research suggest that when global citizen identity is salient, greater identification is related to adherence to the group's content (i.e., prosocial values and behaviors). Results of the present set of studies showed that global awareness (knowledge and interconnectedness with others) and one's normative environment (friends and family support global citizenship) predicted identification with global citizens, and global citizenship predicted prosocial values of intergroup empathy, valuing diversity, social justice, environmental sustainability, intergroup helping, and a felt responsibility to act for the betterment of the world. The relationship between antecedents (normative environment and global awareness) and outcomes (prosocial values) was mediated by identification with global citizens. We discuss the relationship between the present results and other research findings in psychology, the implications of global citizenship for other academic domains, and future avenues of research. Global citizenship highlights the unique effect of taking a global perspective on a multitude of topics relevant to the psychology of everyday actions, environments, and identity. PMID:22804560

  14. Antecedent Predictors of Children's Initiation of Sipping/Tasting Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, John E; Molina, Brooke S G

    2014-01-01

    Background Sipping or tasting alcohol is one of the earliest alcohol-use behaviors in which young children engage, yet there is relatively little research on this behavior. Previous cross-sectional analyses determined that child sipping or tasting is associated with the child's attitude toward sipping and with a family environment supportive of alcohol use, but not with variables reflecting psychosocial proneness for problem behavior as formulated in Problem Behavior Theory (Jessor and Jessor, Problem Behavior and Psychosocial Development: A Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1977, Academic Press, New York). This study extended these analyses longitudinally to identify antecedent predictors of the childhood initiation of sipping or tasting alcohol in a multiwave study. Methods A sample of 452 children (238 girls) aged 8 or 10 and their families was drawn from Allegheny County, PA, using targeted-age directory sampling and random digit dialing procedures. Children were interviewed using computer-assisted interviews. Antecedent variables collected at baseline (Wave 1) were examined as predictors of the initiation of sipping/tasting alcohol in childhood (before age 12) among Wave 1 abstainers (n = 286). Results Ninety-four children initiated sipping/tasting alcohol in a nonreligious context between baseline and turning age 12. Initiation of sipping/tasting did not generally relate to baseline variables reflecting psychosocial proneness for problem behavior. Instead, as found in the previous cross-sectional analyses, the variables most predictive of initiating sipping/tasting were perceived parents' approval for child sipping, parents' reported approval for child sipping, parents' current drinking status, and children's attitudes toward sipping/tasting alcohol. Conclusions These longitudinal analyses replicate the earlier cross-sectional results. Young children's sipping/tasting of alcohol reflects parental modeling of drinking and parental approval of child sipping and

  15. Brief antecedent assessment and treatment of tics in the general education classroom: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Watson, T Steuart; Dufrene, Brad; Weaver, Adam; Butler, Tonya; Meeks, Caroline

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if specific classroom antecedents were associated with motor and vocal tics in two males diagnosed with Tourette's syndrome. A functional assessment consisting of teacher and student interviews, direct observations, brief functional analysis, and confirmatory naturalistic observations indicated that specific antecedents could be identified for each participant. Simplified habit reversal was then implemented only under the antecedent condition that resulted in the highest rate of tics. The rate of tics decreased under the specific antecedent condition as well as at other times as validated by behavioral observations conducted at random times. The discussion focuses on the utility of conducting such assessments, the methodological and applied limitations of the current study, and avenues for further research. PMID:16204419

  16. Des furoncles résistants aux antibiotiques: penser à la myiase !!

    PubMed Central

    Ajili, Faida; Abid, Rim; Bousseta, Najeh; Mrabet, Ali; Karoui, Ghazi; Louzir, Bassem; Battikh, Riadh; Othmani, Salah

    2013-01-01

    Les myiases sont des infections parasitaires par des larves de mouches. La localisation cutanée doit être évoquée de retour d'un pays tropical devant une évolution inhabituelle de lésions cutanées. Nous rapportons une observation d'un militaire tunisien, ayant séjourné en République Démocratique du Congo. Il était atteint de myiase cutanée simulatrice d'une furonculose résistante aux antibiotiques. L'intérêt de cette observation est de souligner l'importance d’évoquer la myiase dont le traitement est simple et rapide chez un patient de retour de zone d'endémie. PMID:24106569

  17. Antecedent wetness conditions based on ERS scatterometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocca, L.; Melone, F.; Moramarco, T.; Morbidelli, R.

    2009-01-01

    SummarySoil moisture is widely recognized as a key parameter in environmental processes mainly for the role of rainfall partitioning into runoff and infiltration. Therefore, for storm rainfall-runoff modeling the estimation of the antecedent wetness conditions ( AWC) is one of the most important aspect. In this context, this study investigates the potential of scatterometer on board of the ERS satellites for the assessment of wetness conditions in three Tiber sub-catchments (Central Italy), of which one includes an experimental area for soil moisture monitoring. The satellite soil moisture data are taken from the ERS/METOP soil moisture archive. First, the scatterometer-derived soil wetness index ( SWI) data are compared with two on-site soil moisture data sets acquired by different methodologies on areas of different extension ranging from 0.01 km 2 to ˜60 km 2. Moreover, the reliability of SWI to estimate the AWC at a catchment scale is investigated considering the relationship between SWI and the soil potential maximum retention parameter, S, of the Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN) method for abstraction. Several flood events occurred from 1992 to 2005 are selected for this purpose. Specifically, the performance of the SWI for S estimation is compared with two antecedent precipitation indices ( API) and one base flow index ( BFI). The S values obtained through the observed direct runoff volume and rainfall depth are used as benchmark. Results show the great reliability of the SWI for the estimation of wetness conditions both at the plot and catchment scale despite the complex orography of the investigated areas. As far as the comparison with on site soil moisture data set is concerned, the SWI is found quite reliable in representing the soil moisture at layer depth of 15 cm, with a mean correlation coefficient equal to 0.81. The characteristic time length parameter variations, as expected, is depended on soil type, with values in accordance with

  18. A qualitative and quantitative examination of the antecedents of customer incivility.

    PubMed

    Sliter, Michael; Jones, Morgan

    2016-04-01

    Customer incivility is known to have a negative impact on employees working in service jobs. Despite an understanding of the negative outcomes of customer incivility (e.g., burnout, disengagement, absenteeism), little research has investigated antecedents of this low-intensity deviant behavior. This is a clear oversight, given that understanding antecedents of customer incivility is essential for determining methods for reducing this stressor. As such, we conducted 2 studies examining these antecedents. For Study 1, we used a qualitative approach, assessing customer incivility from the perspective of the customer. Three overall themes (with 13 subthemes) emerged that could potentially lead to customer incivility: characteristics of the customer, characteristics of the organization/environment, and characteristics of the service employee. In Study 2, we conducted a quantitative study to investigate-from the perspective of the service employee-customer incivility antecedents that could be potentially controlled by the organization, either through changing the work environment or the employee (through training and selection). The results of a 2 time-point survey study showed that the service environment, service rep incivility, service orientation, agreeableness, and neuroticism served as antecedents to customer incivility. Practical implications are discussed, identifying options for organizational leaders interested in reducing customer incivility, and advice is provided for researchers seeking to further examine the antecedents of customer incivility. PMID:26641484

  19. Interdire aux enfants et aux adolescents de moins de 18 ans l’accès aux établissements commerciaux de bronzage

    PubMed Central

    Taddeo, Danielle; Stanwick, Richard

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Le nombre de mélanomes cutanés malins a plus que triplé depuis 35 ans. Puisque les dommages sont cumulatifs, l’exposition aux rayonnements ultraviolets tôt dans la vie accroît le risque, qui augmente davantage avec l’utilisation de sources artificielles de rayonnements ultraviolets. Il peut falloir des années pour évaluer les répercussions et l’étendue complètes des dommages causés par le bronzage artificiel à longueur d’année, compte tenu de la longue période de latence de la plupart des cancers de la peau. Les adolescents fréquentent souvent les salons de bronzage, les filles s’y rendant davantage et de manière soutenue. L’industrie du bronzage conteste la classification de cancérigène physique de groupe 1 qu’attribuent au bronzage artificiel l’Organisation mondiale de la santé et le Centre international de recherche sur le cancer. Les salons de bronzage cherchent à établir et à maintenir une clientèle chez les adolescents. Par conséquent, la Société canadienne de pédiatrie s’ajoute à d’autres organismes de santé réputés pour appuyer l’interdiction des établissements commerciaux de bronzage aux enfants et adolescents de moins de 18 ans.

  20. The Historical Antecedents of the UPR School of Tropical Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mayo-Santana, Raúl; Peña-Carro, Lucy; Rabionet, Silvia E

    2016-06-01

    This article deals with the historical antecedents of the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) School of Tropical Medicine (STM) under the auspices of Columbia University. It presents a general view of the social, institutional and conceptual factors that were correlated with the establishment of the STM. The authors start by examining the historical continuities and discontinuities present during the imperial transitions between Spanish colonial and U.S. military medicine at the turn of the 20th century. The clarification of these changes is important for the proper understanding of the emergence of tropical medicine in Puerto Rico, marked by the identification of the biological determinant of the so called "peasants' anemia." The essay focuses on two institutional precursor events: the Puerto Rico Anemia Commissions (1904-1908) and the Institute of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (1912-1914). Their nature and work paved the way for the establishment of the STM. The notions of tropical medicine and diseases are considered as historical concepts. The support of the Rockefeller Foundation to several significant public health activities in Puerto Rico is also examined. Finally, the social and health conditions which prevailed at the time of the creation of the STM have been summarized. In general, the article provides a sense of historical context deemed essential to understand the emergence and evolution of the STM. PMID:27232865

  1. Antecedents and sex/gender differences in youth suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this “gender paradox” in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others’ or one’s own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one’s ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth. PMID:25540727

  2. Motivational antecedent beliefs of endurance, strength, and flexibility activities.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Blanchard, Chris M; Matheson, Deborah Hunt

    2007-03-01

    Research into the correlates of physical activity has focused almost exclusively on physical activity as an omnibus construct. Health Canada and the American College of Sports Medicine, however, advocate physical activity in terms of performing regular endurance, strength, and flexibility activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the absolute and relative contributions of behavioral, normative, and control beliefs associated with endurance, strength, and flexibility activities within a theory of planned behavior (TPB) structure. Participants were 185 undergraduates who completed measures of the TPB and a 2-week follow-up of endurance, strength, and flexibility behavior. Results using structural equation modeling and Hotelling's t-tests for dependent correlations identified different motivational antecedents for each type of physical activity (p < .05). Endurance behavior was influenced exclusively by behavioral beliefs, flexibility behavior was influenced by normative and control beliefs, and strength behavior was influenced by key behavioral, normative, and control beliefs. The different motivational profiles for each physical activity allude to the importance of tailoring interventions by physical activity type. PMID:17365895

  3. Psychosocial antecedents of unwed motherhood among indigent adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, H B; Smith, P B; Pokorny, A D

    1979-06-01

    This study was undertaken to test theoretically based hypotheses regarding psychosocial antecedents of unwed motherhood among indigent adolescents. These hypotheses were derived from the theory that deviant social responses result from previously acquired negative self-attitudes. Data was obtained by survey of a 50% sample of female 7th graders from an urban school system. The experimental group was made up of 82 subjects who received perinatal care at a clinic for indigent adolescents and who gave birth out of wedlock at least 1 year after the survey and before reaching age 18. One control group consisted of 164 students matched 2:1 with each unwed mother according to race, mother's education and school. A 2nd control group included 164 randomly selected students. Analysis of the data obtained permitted identification of specific self-rejecting attitudes developed among the prospective unwed mothers in the course of normative group experiences. These attitudes, together with the social positions of these subjects and the erosion of controls exerted by family and school authorities emerged as significant factors contributing to the adoption of deviant behavior patterns. These deviant patterns, including those associated with unwed motherhood, appear to be congruent with subculturally influenced values and with adaptive/defensive patterns. On the whole, results indicate that the general theory of deviant behavior that has been applied to other behaviors can be used to explain the precursors of unwed motherhood among indigent adolescents. PMID:12335791

  4. Personality and motivational antecedents of activism and civic engagement.

    PubMed

    Omoto, Allen M; Snyder, Mark; Hackett, Justin D

    2010-12-01

    This article conceptually links theory and research on volunteerism to different forms of political activity, specifically activism and civic engagement. Multiple perspectives and measures of personality as antecedents of volunteerism, activism, and civic engagement are outlined, including individual differences in motivations, interpersonal orientations, and traits. Next, self-report data from 624 people involved in AIDS service organizations (as clients, volunteers, staff, or supporters) are utilized to empirically explore the best personality predictors of AIDS activism and civic engagement. Other-focused rather than self-focused motivation better predicted AIDS activism and civic engagement. The only measure of interpersonal orientation consistently related to these outcomes was communal orientation; as well, only the trait of extraversion was related to both outcomes. In analyses testing the predictive power of constellations of personality measures, other-focused motivation better predicted AIDS activism and civic engagement than the other measures of motivation, interpersonal orientation, and traits. Finally, meditational analyses supported a developmental sequence in which other-focused motivation leads to specific activism, which, in turn, encourages broader civic engagement. The discussion focuses on theoretical implications for understanding the impact of personality on different forms of citizenship behaviors and of the applicability of the Volunteer Process Model for studying political activity and civic engagement. PMID:21039529

  5. Antecedents of teachers’ emotions in the classroom: an intraindividual approach

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Eva S.; Keller, Melanie M.; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Taxer, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    Using a preexisting, but as yet empirically untested theoretical model, the present study investigated antecedents of teachers’ emotions in the classroom. More specifically, the relationships between students’ motivation and discipline and teachers’ enjoyment and anger were explored, as well as if these relationships are mediated by teachers’ subjective appraisals (goal conduciveness and coping potential). The study employed an intraindividual approach by collecting data through a diary. The sample consisted of 39 teachers who each participated with one of their 9th or 10th grade mathematics classes (N = 758 students). Both teachers and students filled out diaries for 2–3 weeks pertaining to 8.10 lessons on average (N = 316 lessons). Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that students’ motivation and discipline explained 24% of variance in teachers’ enjoyment and 26% of variance in teachers’ anger. In line with theoretical assumptions, after introducing teachers’ subjective appraisals as a mediating mechanism into the model, the explained variance systematically increased to 65 and 61%, for teachers’ enjoyment and anger respectively. The effects of students’ motivation and discipline level on teachers’ emotions were partially mediated by teachers’ appraisals of goal conduciveness and coping potential. The findings imply that since teachers’ emotions depend to a large extent on subjective evaluations of a situation, teachers should be able to directly modify their emotional experiences during a lesson through cognitive reappraisals. PMID:26042067

  6. The family antecedents and the subsequent outcomes of early puberty.

    PubMed

    Arim, Rübab G; Tramonte, Lucia; Shapka, Jennifer D; Dahinten, V Susan; Willms, J Douglas

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine both the family antecedents and the outcomes of early puberty, with a particular focus on factors related to family socioeconomic status (SES). The study employed a comprehensive measurement of pubertal development and longitudinal data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. The sample (N = 8,440; 49% girls) included four cohorts of children who were followed biennially for 10 years, starting from age 4-11 to 14-21 years. Data were drawn at different years of age from these cohorts of children. Girls whose fathers were unemployed were more likely to experience early puberty than those whose fathers were employed. For boys, those living with fathers who had not finished secondary school were more likely to experience early puberty. Early maturing girls tended to engage in smoking and drinking at an earlier age compared with their peers. These findings provide support for psychosocial acceleration theory and suggest that different aspects of low family SES may act as a psychosocial stress for early pubertal maturation in boys versus girls, which may lead to engagement in drinking and smoking at a younger age, at least for girls. PMID:21298330

  7. The Motivating Effect of Antecedent Stimuli on the Web Shop: A Conjoint Analysis of the Impact of Antecedent Stimuli at the Point of Online Purchase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerstrom, Asle

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of motivating operation (MO) to the field of online consumer research. A conjoint analysis was conducted to assess the motivating impact of antecedent stimuli on online purchasing. Stimuli tested were in-stock status, price, other customers' reviews, order confirmation procedures, and donation to charity. The…

  8. Combination of AIDP and pyramidal signs associated with antecedent hepatitis A infection: a rare (co)occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bhawna; Nagpal, Kadam; Handa, Rahul; Dubey, Parul

    2013-01-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a postinfectious illness and commonly occurs in association with infective agents such as Campylobacter jejuni, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, HIV, shigella, clostridium, Haemophilus influenzae; occasionally with acute hepatitis B, C, E; and more rarely with hepatitis A, as documented in various case reports. Classically, GBS presents with hyporeflexia or areflexia, but preserved and brisk reflexes have been described in context with GBS variant, AMAN (acute motor axonal neuropathy), in approximately 33% of the cases. Preserved or exaggerated tendon reflexes with extensor plantar response is not usually seen in patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP). We report a rare case of AIDP with upper motor neuron signs in association with an antecedent hepatitis A infection. PMID:23761608

  9. Approche aux soins en milieu communautaire à des adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Osmun, W.E.; Chan, Nelson; Solomon, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les obligations d’ordre médical, éthique et juridique dans les soins aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) qui vivent dans la communauté. Sources des données Des recherches ont été faites dans Google et MEDLINE à l’aide des mots disabled, disability, vulnerable et community. Les lois pertinentes ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Message principal Le traitement d’un patient ayant une DD varie en fonction de facteurs comme la pathogenèse du problème actuel du patient, ses affections concomitantes, la gravité de ses déficiences et ses soutiens sociaux habituels. Bien que l’on s’entende sur les bienfaits du transfert des soins institutionnels vers des soins communautaires pour les patients ayant une DD, il s’est révélé difficile de leur dispenser des soins de grande qualité en milieu communautaire. Par ailleurs, il existe peu de travaux de recherche sur les façons d’offrir efficacement des soins aux adultes ayant une DD. En tant que professionnels des soins primaires, les médecins de famille sont souvent le premier point de contact pour les patients et sont à la fois responsables de la coordination et de la continuité des soins. Compte tenu de l’importance accrue accordée aux soins préventifs et à la détection précoce des maladies, la participation active du patient revêt aussi une grande importance. Les valeurs et les objectifs du patient sont des éléments essentiels à prendre en compte, même s’ils vont à l’encontre de la bonne santé du patient ou des propres valeurs du clinicien. Les lois s’appliquant aux personnes vulnérables varient d’une province à l’autre. Par conséquent, l’obligation de signaler des mauvais traitements suspectés pourrait différer selon que la personne vulnérable habite dans un centre de soins ou la communauté, que la personne qui soupçonne le comportement abusif est un fournisseur de services ou un professionnel de la santé ou

  10. Effects of hydromechanical loading history and antecedent soil mechanical damage on shallow landslide triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Linfeng; Lehmann, Peter; Or, Dani

    2015-10-01

    Evidence suggests that the sudden triggering of rainfall-induced shallow landslides is preceded by accumulation of local internal failures in the soil mantle before their abrupt coalescence into a landslide failure plane. The mechanical status of a hillslope at any given time reflects competition between local damage accumulated during antecedent rainfall events and rates of mechanical healing (e.g., rebonding of microcracks and root regrowth). This dynamic interplay between damage accumulation and healing rates determines the initial mechanical state for landslide modeling. We evaluated the roles of these dynamic processes on landslide characteristics and patterns using a hydromechanical landslide-triggering model for a sequence of rainfall scenarios. The progressive nature of soil failure was represented by the fiber bundle model formalism that considers threshold strength of mechanical bonds linking adjacent soil columns and bedrock. The antecedent damage induced by prior rainfall events was expressed by the fraction of broken fibers that gradually regain strength or mechanically heal at rates specific to soil and roots. Results indicate that antecedent damage accelerates landslide initiation relative to pristine (undamaged) hillslopes. The volumes of first triggered landslides increase with increasing antecedent damage; however, for heavily damaged hillslopes, landslide volumes tend to decrease. Elapsed time between rainfall events allows mechanical healing that reduces the effects of antecedent damage. This study proposed a quantitative framework for systematically incorporating hydromechanical loading history and information on precursor events (e.g., such as recorded by acoustic emissions) into shallow landslide hazard assessment.

  11. Divergent Associations of Antecedent- and Response-Focused Emotion Regulation Strategies with Midlife Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Loucks, Eric B.; Buka, Stephen L.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not known whether various forms of emotion regulation are differentially related to cardiovascular disease risk. Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess whether antecedent and response-focused emotion regulation would have divergent associations with likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease. Methods Two emotion regulation strategies were examined: reappraisal (antecedent-focused) and suppression (response-focused). Cardiovascular disease risk was assessed with a validated Framingham algorithm that estimates the likelihood of developing CVD in 10 years. Associations were assessed among 373 adults via multiple linear regression. Pathways and gender-specific associations were also considered. Results One standard deviation increases in reappraisal and suppression were associated with 5.9 % lower and 10.0 % higher 10-year cardiovascular disease risk, respectively, in adjusted analyses. Conclusions Divergent associations of antecedent and response-focused emotion regulation with cardiovascular disease risk were observed. Effective emotion regulation may promote cardiovascular health. PMID:24570218

  12. The correlation of Skylab L-band brightness temperatures with antecedent precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    The S194 L-band radiometer flown on the Skylab mission measured terrestrial radiation at the microwave wavelength of 21.4 cm. The terrain emissivity at this wavelength is strongly dependent on the soil moisture content, which can be inferred from antecedent precipitation. For the Skylab data acquisition pass from the Oklahoma panhandle to southeastern Texas on 11 June 1973, the S194 brightness temperatures are highly correlated with antecedent precipitation from the preceding eleven day period, but very little correlation was apparent for the preceding five day period. The correlation coefficient between the averaged antecedent precipitation index values and the corresponding S194 brightness temperatures between 230 K and 270 K, the region of apparent response to soil moisture in the data, was -0.97. The equation of the linear least squares line is given.

  13. Should flood regimes change in a warming climate? The role of antecedent moisture conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldemeskel, Fitsum; Sharma, Ashish

    2016-07-01

    Assessing changes to flooding is important for designing new and redesigning existing infrastructure to withstand future climates. While there is speculation that floods are likely to intensify in the future, this question is often difficult to assess due to inadequate records on streamflow extremes. An alternate way of determining possible extreme flooding is through assessment of the two key factors that lead to the intensification of floods: the intensification of causative rainfall and changes in the wetness conditions prior to rainfall. This study assesses global changes in the antecedent wetness prior to extreme rainfall. Our results indicate a significant increase in the antecedent moisture in Australia and Africa over the last century; however, there was also a decrease in Eurasia and insignificant change in North America. Given the nature of changes found in this study, any future flood assessment for global warming conditions should take into account antecedent moisture conditions.

  14. Application de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebas, E.; Martin, G. H.

    2002-04-01

    La réduction des émissions d'oxydes d'azote sur turbines à gaz est obtenue par diminution de la température au sein de la chambre de combustion. Les techniques possibles comprennent l'injection d'eau ou de vapeur, la combustion pauvre et l'oxydation catalytique. Parmi celles-ci, la dernière est la plus prometteuse en terme de coûts et de performances, avec des émissions de NOx ramenées à un seul chiffre (typiquement inférieures à 3 ppm). L'IFP travaille depuis maintenant 10 ans sur l'adaptation de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz. Les études ont été conduites au travers de projets européen tels que AGATA (Advance Gas Turbine for Automotive Application) et ULECAT (Ultra Low CATalytic combustor for dual fuel gas turbine). Le premier projet était destiné au développement de véhicules hybrides et le second à la combustion stationnaire de biogaz et de combustible Diesel. Les études en cours dans ce domaine portent sur le développement d'une unité de cogénération intégrant une microturbine à combustion catalytique. Les travaux menés à l'IFP concernent la mise au point de catalyseurs répondant aux exigences de la combustion catalytique en turbine à gaz et le développement de chambres de combustion permettant la mise en oeuvre de ces catalyseurs.

  15. Constitutive auxin response in Physcomitrella reveals complex interactions between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lavy, Meirav; Prigge, Michael J; Tao, Sibo; Shain, Stephanie; Kuo, April; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated action of the auxin-sensitive Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors and ARF transcription factors produces complex gene-regulatory networks in plants. Despite their importance, our knowledge of these two protein families is largely based on analysis of stabilized forms of the Aux/IAAs, and studies of a subgroup of ARFs that function as transcriptional activators. To understand how auxin regulates gene expression we generated a Physcomitrella patens line that completely lacks Aux/IAAs. Loss of the repressors causes massive changes in transcription with misregulation of over a third of the annotated genes. Further, we find that the aux/iaa mutant is blind to auxin indicating that auxin regulation of transcription occurs exclusively through Aux/IAA function. We used the aux/iaa mutant as a simplified platform for studies of ARF function and demonstrate that repressing ARFs regulate auxin-induced genes and fine-tune their expression. Further the repressing ARFs coordinate gene induction jointly with activating ARFs and the Aux/IAAs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13325.001 PMID:27247276

  16. Constitutive auxin response in Physcomitrella reveals complex interactions between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins.

    PubMed

    Lavy, Meirav; Prigge, Michael J; Tao, Sibo; Shain, Stephanie; Kuo, April; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated action of the auxin-sensitive Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors and ARF transcription factors produces complex gene-regulatory networks in plants. Despite their importance, our knowledge of these two protein families is largely based on analysis of stabilized forms of the Aux/IAAs, and studies of a subgroup of ARFs that function as transcriptional activators. To understand how auxin regulates gene expression we generated a Physcomitrella patens line that completely lacks Aux/IAAs. Loss of the repressors causes massive changes in transcription with misregulation of over a third of the annotated genes. Further, we find that the aux/iaa mutant is blind to auxin indicating that auxin regulation of transcription occurs exclusively through Aux/IAA function. We used the aux/iaa mutant as a simplified platform for studies of ARF function and demonstrate that repressing ARFs regulate auxin-induced genes and fine-tune their expression. Further the repressing ARFs coordinate gene induction jointly with activating ARFs and the Aux/IAAs. PMID:27247276

  17. Unwrapping the organizational entry process: disentangling multiple antecedents and their pathways to adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kammeyer-Mueller, John D; Wanberg, Connie R

    2003-10-01

    This 4-wave longitudinal study of newcomers in 7 organizations examined preentry knowledge, proactive personality, and socialization influences as antecedents of both proximal (task mastery, role clarity, work group integration, and political knowledge) and distal (organizational commitment, work withdrawal, and turnover) indicators of newcomer adjustment. Results suggest that preentry knowledge, proactive personality, and socialization influences from the organization, supervisors, and coworkers are independently related to proximal adjustment outcomes, consistent with a theoretical framework highlighting distinct dimensions of organizational and work task adjustment. The proximal adjustment outcomes partially mediated most of the relationships between the antecedents of adjustment and organizational commitment, work withdrawal, and turnover. PMID:14516244

  18. The abative effect: A new term to describe the action of antecedents that reduce operant responding

    PubMed Central

    Laraway, Sean; Snycerski, Susan; Michael, Jack; Poling, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Behavior-analytic terminology concerning the so-called inhibitory effect of operant antecedents lacks precision. The present paper describes the problem with current nomenclature concerning the effects of antecedent events that reduce operant responding and offers a solution to this problem. The solution consists of adopting a new term, abative, for the effect in question. This paper suggests that the new term has several advantages over terms currently used and that adopting this term will yield a variety of practical and theoretical benefits, including, but not limited to, a more consistent vocabulary to describe antecedent—behavior relations. PMID:22477232

  19. Effects of antecedent soil moisture on runoff modeling in small semiarid watersheds of southeastern Arizona 2104

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antecedent soil moisture prior to a rain event influences the rainfall-runoff relationship, but its degree of importance and influence on overall model prediction capability for runoff modeling in semiarid areas is not clear. This study aimed to examine the sensitivity of runoff response to anteced...

  20. Antecedents of Career Exploration among Hong Kong Chinese University Students: Testing Contextual and Developmental Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Raysen; Arnold, John

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate the antecedents of career exploration. We apply the perspectives of Flum and Blustein [Flum, H., & Blustein, D. L. (2000). Reinvigorating the study of vocational exploration: A framework for research. "Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56", 380-404] for the first time in Hong Kong, and we also test culture-specific…

  1. Using an Antecedent Art Intervention to Improve the Behavior of a Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Nai-Cheng; Plavnick, Joshua B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an antecedent art intervention on reduction of off-task behavior for a 3-year-old child with autism. A single-case reversal design was used to show that one-on-one art task instruction occurring prior to large group instructional sessions produced decreased levels of off-task behavior when compared to…

  2. Students' Emotions during Homework in Mathematics: Testing a Theoretical Model of Antecedents and Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettmers, Swantje; Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    The experience of pleasant and unpleasant emotions in academic situations is known to affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to extend previous research by examining the antecedents and consequences of student emotions in the homework context. Multilevel analyses of a longitudinal dataset containing 3483 grade 9 and grade 10…

  3. The Antecedents of Friendships in Moderately Diverse Classrooms: Social Preference, Social Impact, and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the antecedents of cross-racial/ethnic friendships and same-racial/ethnic friendships. The sample consisted of 444 (161 African American, 108 European American, 100 Asian American, and 75 Latino) children who were in the fourth grade from 39 classrooms in 10 public elementary schools. Results of Mixed Linear…

  4. Antecedent Water Content Effects on Runoff and Sediment Yields From Two Coastal Plain Utisols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highly-weathered, low-carbon, intensively cropped, drought-prone Coastal Plain soils of Georgia are susceptible to runoff and soil loss, especially at certain times of the year when soil water contents are elevated. Our objective was to quantify the effects of antecedent water content (AWC) on r...

  5. Contagious Flow: Antecedents and Consequences of Optimal Experience in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Satoris S.; Fullagar, Clive J.; Simmons, Mathias J.; Zhu, Mengmeng

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined undergraduate student understanding of, and interest in, course material as potential antecedents to student experiences of flow within a classroom setting. In addition, the social, informative, and contagious nature of flow were examined, as was the influence of being in flow during classroom coverage of material on…

  6. Developmental Antecedents and Social and Academic Consequences of Stereotype-Consciousness in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark; Strambler, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which included 124 children ages 5-11, examined developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype-consciousness, defined as awareness of others' stereotypes. Greater age and more frequent parent-reported racial socialization practices were associated with greater likelihood of stereotype-consciousness.…

  7. Socialization and Individual Antecedents of Adolescents' and Young Adults' Moral Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Buchmann, Marlis

    2010-01-01

    Socialization and individual differences were examined as antecedents of moral motivation in representative samples of 15-year-old adolescents (N = 1,258; 54% female) and 21-year-old young adults (N = 584; 53% female). The adolescents' primary caregivers (N = 1,056) also participated. The strength of moral motivation was rated by participants'…

  8. Job Demands and Resources as Antecedents of Work Engagement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Ruokolainen, Mervi

    2007-01-01

    By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (n = 409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement--especially vigor and dedication--was relatively…

  9. Caregiving Antecedents of Secure Base Script Knowledge: A Comparative Analysis of Young Adult Attachment Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Ryan D.; Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    Based on a subsample (N = 673) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cohort, this article reports data from a follow-up assessment at age 18 years on the antecedents of "secure base script knowledge", as reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related difficulties are…

  10. Evidence-Based Practice: Quality Indicator Analysis of Antecedent Exercise in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasner, Melanie; Reid, Greg; MacDonald, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to conduct a quality indicator analysis of studies exploring the effects of antecedent exercise on self-stimulatory behaviors of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), Google Scholar, SPORTDiscus, PsychINFO, and PubMed/MedLine databases from 1980 to October…

  11. Antecedents of and Reactions to Emotions in the United States and Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, David; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examines the degree of cultural similarity and specificity in the emotional experiences of subjects from the United States and Japan. Found a high degree of cultural agreement in the antecedent/evaluation process, but some differences in relative/expressive aspects of emotion. (Author/BJV)

  12. Dispositional Antecedents and Outcomes of Political Skill in Organizations: A Four-Study Investigation with Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yongmei; Ferris, Gerald R.; Zinko, Robert; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Weitz, Bart; Xu, Jun

    2007-01-01

    We developed a four-study research plan to examine the dispositional antecedents of political skill and its job performance consequences, and also to incorporate the mediating role of reputation, drawing upon a recent theoretical model of political skill in organizations. Study 1 established the psychometric properties of the two reputation scales…

  13. A Study on the Conceptualization of Librarians' Career Movement and Identification of Antecedents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Younghee

    2011-01-01

    In today's world, the surrounding environment and organizations are constantly requiring individuals to engage in lifelong learning and develop boundaryless careers. In this paper, the antecedents of career movement for librarians or those working in related organizations will be identified and conceptualized. To this end, this study establishes a…

  14. Examination of an Antecedent Communication Intervention to Reduce Tangibly Maintained Challenging Behavior: A Controlled Analog Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Mark; Fragale, Christina; Gainey, Summer; Kang, Soyeon; Koch, Heather; Shubert, Jennifer; El Zein, Farah; Longino, Deanna; Chung, Moon; Xu, Ziwei; White, Pamela; Lang, Russell; Davis, Tonya; Rispoli, Mandy; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Healy, Olive; Kagohara, Deborah; van der Meer, Larah; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of an antecedent communication intervention on challenging behavior for three students with developmental disorders. Students were taught to request tangible items that were identified as reinforcers for challenging behavior in a prior functional analysis. Individual participant multielement and reversal designs were used…

  15. An Empirical Investigation of Dispositional Antecedents and Performance-Related Outcomes of Credit Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernerth, Jeremy B.; Taylor, Shannon G.; Walker, H. Jack; Whitman, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Many organizations use credit scores as an employment screening tool, but little is known about the legitimacy of such practices. To address this important gap, the reported research conceptualized credit scores as a biographical measure of financial responsibility and investigated dispositional antecedents and performance-related outcomes. Using…

  16. Exploring the Antecedents of Learning-Related Emotions and Their Relations with Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niculescu, Alexandra Corina; Tempelaar, Dirk; Dailey-Hebert, Amber; Segers, Mien; Gijselaers, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Recent work suggests that learning-related emotions (LREs) play a crucial role in performance especially in the first year of university, a period of transition for most students; however, additional research is needed to show how these emotions emerge. We developed a framework which links a course-contextualized antecedent--academic control in…

  17. The Costs of Today's Jobs: Job Characteristics and Organizational Supports as Antecedents of Negative Spillover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotto, Angela R.; Lyness, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined job characteristics and organizational supports as antecedents of negative work-to-nonwork spillover for 1178 U.S. employees. Based on hierarchical regression analyses of 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce data and O*NET data, job demands (requirements to work at home beyond scheduled hours, job complexity, time and…

  18. Antecedents and Concomitants of Parenting Stress in Adolescent Mothers in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Karen S.; Holdsworth, Michelle J. A.; HoganBruen, Kathy D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study's aim was to examine variables associated with different short-term trajectories in multiply disadvantaged adolescent mothers by investigating antecedents and concomitants of parenting stress. Method: We followed 49 adolescent mothers (ages 14-18 at study outset) who were wards in Illinois foster care using a longitudinal…

  19. Brief Antecedent Assessment and Treatment of Tics in the General Education Classroom: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, T.; Dufrene, Brad; Weaver, Adam; Butler, Tonya; Meeks, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if specific classroom antecedents were associated with motor and vocal tics in two males diagnosed with Tourette's syndrome. A functional assessment consisting of teacher and student interviews, direct observations, brief functional analysis, and confirmatory naturalistic observations indicated that…

  20. The Antecedents of Organizational Commitment: The Case of Australian Casual Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Therese A.; Bakalis, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the increasing attention of organizational commitment in the management literature, most studies predominantly focus on full-time workers in traditional work settings. This paper examined the antecedents of organizational commitment among casual academics working in the tertiary education sector in Australia.…

  1. The Antecedents of Menarcheal Age: Heredity, Family Environment, and Stressful Life Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Considered variations in pubertal timing, specifically age at menarche, and association with various antecedents, including heredity; weight and weight for height; stressful life events; family relations; absence or presence of adult male in household; and psychological adjustment, in 75 premenarcheal adolescent girls. Found complex interactions…

  2. Role Stress Revisited: Job Structuring Antecedents, Work Outcomes, and Moderating Effects of Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2014-01-01

    A previous study examined role stress in relation to work outcomes; in this study, we added job structuring antecedents to a model of role stress and examined the moderating effects of locus of control. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of our conceptual model, which specified hypothesized linkages among…

  3. Antecedents of Compliance in 2-Year-Olds From a High-Risk Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Martha Farrell; Crichton, Leslie

    In order to identify antecedents of infant's compliance with mothers' directions on how to solve four tasks (graded in terms of stressfulness to the infant), 194 high-risk mothers and their 2-year-old children were observed on videotape and assessed with a six-point rating scale. Data collected prenatally and postnatally at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months…

  4. ERP Evidence for the Rapid Assignment of an (Appropriate) Antecedent to PRO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demestre, Josep; Garcia-Albea, Jose E.

    2007-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were recorded while subjects listened to sentences containing a controlled infinitival complement. Subject and object control items were used, both with 2 potential antecedents in the upper clause. Half of the sentences had a gender agreement violation between the null subject of the infinitival complement and an…

  5. An Experimental Investigation of the Antecedents and Consequences of Psychological Reactance in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Hannah; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2014-01-01

    Psychological reactance theory (PRT) is largely understudied in the classroom context. In this experiment, we manipulated instructors' use of clarity and forceful language as antecedents of psychological reactance and examined student communication outcomes (i.e., instructional dissent and challenge behavior) as ways in which students restore…

  6. A Longitudinal Panel Study on Antecedents and Outcomes of Work-Home Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinmetz, Holger; Frese, Michael; Schmidt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical models of the antecedents and outcomes of work-home interference (WHI) suggest that work characteristics (e.g., job stressors, working hours) increase the probability that an individual experiences work-home interference. Since work-home interference is considered as a role stressor, these experiences should be detrimental for…

  7. Anaphoric Reference to Quantified Antecedents: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filik, Ruth; Leuthold, Hartmut; Moxey, Linda M.; Sanford, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    We report an event-related brain potential (ERP) study examining how readers process sentences containing anaphoric reference to quantified antecedents. Previous studies indicate that positive (e.g. "many") and negative (e.g. "not many") quantifiers cause readers to focus on different sets of entities. For example in "Many of the fans attended the…

  8. The correlation of Skylab L-band brightness temperatures with antecedent precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    The S194 L-band radiometer flown on the Skylab mission measured terrestrial radiation at the microwave wavelength of 21.4 cm. The terrain emissivity at this wavelength is strongly dependent on the soil moisture content, which can be inferred from antecedent precipitation. For the Skylab data acquisition pass from the Oklahoma panhandle to southeastern Texas on 11 June 1973, the S194 brightness temperatures are highly correlated with antecedent precipitation from the preceding eleven day period, but very little correlation was apparent for the preceding five day period. The correlation coefficient between the averaged antecedent precipitation index values and the corresponding S194 brightness temperatures between 230 K and 270 K, the region of apparent response to soil moisture in the data, was -0.97. The equation of the linear least squares line fitted to the data was: API (cm) = 31.99 -0.114 TB (K), where API is the antecedent precipitation index and TB is the S194 brightness temperature.

  9. Antecedents of Employees' Involvement in Work-Related Learning: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyndt, Eva; Baert, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Involvement in work-related learning seems to be more complex than a simple supply-demand fit. An interplay of several factors can influence this involvement at different stages of the decision-making process of the employee. The aim of this systematic review is to examine which antecedents of work-related learning have been identified in previous…

  10. Effects of Fishing Education Programs on Antecedents of Responsible Environmental Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemer, William F.; Knuth, Barbara A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates fishing and aquatic stewardship outcomes associated with different levels of program exposure among n=619 participants in a national fishing education program (Hooked on Fishing-Not on Drugs) designed for youth in Grades 6-8. Supports the assumption that such programs are more likely to influence antecedents to environmentally…

  11. Utilizing Antecedent Manipulations and Reinforcement in the Treatment of Food Selectivity by Texture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najdowski, Adel C.; Tarbox, Jonathan; Wilke, Arthur E.

    2012-01-01

    Food selectivity by texture is relatively common in children. Treatments for food selectivity by texture have included components such as stimulus fading, reinforcement, and escape extinction. The purpose of the current study was to attempt to treat food selectivity by texture utilizing antecedent manipulations and reinforcement in the absence of…

  12. Investigating the Individual Difference Antecedents of Perceived Enjoyment in Students' Use of Blogging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yi-Shun; Lin, Hsin-Hui; Liao, Yi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    With the proliferation of weblogs (blogs) used in educational contexts, gaining a better understanding of why students are willing to blog has become an important topic for practitioners and academics. The main purpose of this study is to explore the individual difference antecedents of perceived enjoyment and examine how they influence blogging…

  13. Causal Models of Role Stressor Antecedents and Consequences: The Importance of Occupational Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacharach, Samuel; Bamberger, Peter

    1992-01-01

    Survey data from 215 nurses (10 male) and 430 civil engineers (10 female) supported the plausibility of occupation-specific models (positing direct paths between role stressors, antecedents, and consequences) compared to generic models. A weakness of generic models is the tendency to ignore differences in occupational structure and culture. (SK)

  14. Antecedents and Consequences of Service Quality in a Higher Education Context: A Qualitative Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho Yin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to report on the perception of students in regard to critical antecedents, dimensions and consequences of service quality with an aim to develop a theoretical model in the context of a university in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This research used focus group discussions with 19 students who had been…

  15. The Use of Structural Analysis to Develop Antecedent-Based Interventions for Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stichter, Janine P.; Randolph, Jena K.; Kay, Denise; Gage, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Evidence continues to maintain that the use of antecedent variables (i.e., instructional practices, and environmental characteristics) increase prosocial and adaptive behaviors of students with disabilities (e.g., Kern et al. in J Appl Behav Anal 27(1):7-19, 1994; Stichter et al. in Behav Disord 30:401-418, 2005). This study extends the literature…

  16. Establishing Mand Emergence: The Effects of Three Training Procedures and Modified Antecedent Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Claire E.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a modified antecedent during probes for emergent mands following listener versus tact training for children with autism. Eight students, aged 7 to 11, were trained to respond to 3 sets of relational responses (front/back, left/right, on/under), each assigned a nonsense label. Three training types were evaluated:…

  17. The Effects of Antecedent Physical Activity on the Academic Engagement of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Heather; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Van Heest, Jaci

    2011-01-01

    A multiple baseline design was used to examine the effects of participation in antecedent physical activity on the academic engagement of four elementary-school children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The results indicated large effect sizes for academic engaged time for all four students. It was suggested that physical activity in…

  18. Antecedent Control of Oral Reading Errors and Self-Corrections by Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Singh, Judy

    1984-01-01

    The study evaluated effects of manipulating two antecedent stimulus events with respect to oral reading errors and self-corrections of four mentally retarded adolescents. Oral reading errors decreased and self-corrections increased when the children previewed the target text with their teacher before reading it orally. (Author/CL)

  19. Integrating Real-Time Antecedent Rubrics via Blackboard™ into a Community College General Psychology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goomas, David

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the innovative and effective delivery of online course content by community colleges, but not much has been done on how learning management systems (LMS) can deliver real-time (immediate data delivery) antecedents that inform students of performance requirements. This pilot study used Blackboard's™…

  20. The Undefined Role of the Antecedent: Addressing the Measurement Quagmires in Applied Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stichter, Janine Peck; Conroy, Maureen A.; Boyd, Brian A.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, several investigators have examined trends in the antecedent research literature through discussion of key conceptual models considered to guide this research (Conroy & Stichter, 2003; Smith & Iwata, 1997; Smith, Iwata, & Michael, 2000) as well as related trends in measurement (Mahon, Shores, & Buske, 1999). Despite varied points…

  1. Job Level, Demands, and Resources as Antecedents of Work-Family Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiRenzo, Marco S.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Weer, Chisty H.

    2011-01-01

    Although substantial research has examined the conflict that employees experience between their work and family roles, the literature has not investigated the prevalence and antecedents of work-family conflict for individuals who work at different levels of an organization. This study examines differences in work-family conflict (work interference…

  2. Reading the Past: Historical Antecedents to Contemporary Reading Methods and Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Arlene L.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the International Reading Association's foundational knowledge requirement that educators recognize historical antecedents to contemporary reading methods and materials. The historical overview presented here highlights the ineffective methods and restrictive materials that have been discarded and the progress that has been…

  3. Behavioral and Emotional Antecedents and Consequences of Binge Eating in Bulimic and Binge Eating College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzman, Melanie A.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.

    Recent studies have indicated that bulimia, characterized by binge eating followed by depressed mood and purging, is increasing. To investigate the behavioral and emotional antecedents and consequences of binge eating in women, 22 female college students (14 diagnosed bulimics, 8 binge eaters) completed self-monitoring forms for four binges.…

  4. Responsive and Proactive Stakeholder Orientation in Public Universities: Antecedents and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alarcón-del-Amo, María-del-Carmen; Casablancas-Segura, Carme; Llonch, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study, based on institutional theory, dynamic capabilities, and stakeholder theory, investigates the relationships between the antecedents of responsive and proactive stakeholder orientation and their consequences in the public university context. The results obtained mainly stress that the mimetic effect of copying successful university…

  5. Parent-Child and Triadic Antecedents of Children's Social Competence: Cultural Specificity, Shared Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq

    2010-01-01

    Guided by theories of cultural participation, the authors examined mother-child, father-child, and triadic interactive behaviors in 141 Israeli and Palestinian couples and their firstborn child at 5 and 33 months as antecedents of children's social competence. Four parent-child measures (parent sensitivity, child social engagement, parental…

  6. Social Networks in the Classroom: Personality Factors as Antecedents of Student Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Matthew T.; Johnson, Bryan R.; Darnold, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines personality factors as antecedents of student social capital. We hypothesize relationships between two constructs taken from the five-factor model of personality (agreeableness and extraversion) and two variables that reflect a student's social capital (quantity of ties and strength of ties) in an academic setting. Analysis of…

  7. Antecedent Factors Affecting Academic Performance of Graduate Students at the Nairobi Evangelical Graduate School of Theology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbogo, Rosemary Wahu

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a Master's level thesis work that was done in 1997 to assess the antecedent factors affecting the academic performance of graduate students at the Nairobi Evangelical School of Theology (N.E.G.S.T.), which is currently Africa International University (AIU). The paper reviews the effect of lack of finance on…

  8. Cosmetic surgery as an antecedent of life change.

    PubMed

    Belfer, M L; Mulliken, J B; Cochran, T C

    1979-02-01

    Of 42 patients who underwent cosmetic surgery, 4 patients, who gave no indication of an impending life change before surgery, obtained a legal separation or divorce 3-6 months later. These 4 patients had had strong parental domination and hostile relationships with younger siblings; they had a need for success on their own terms and for the rapid closure of potential conflict. The authors suggest that such patients are undergoing significant identity changes that become conscious only after cosmetic surgery, which tests out their shift from passivity and withdrawal to activity and participation. PMID:760549

  9. A systematic review and meta-analysis of antecedents of blood donation behavior and intentions.

    PubMed

    Bednall, Timothy C; Bove, Liliana L; Cheetham, Ali; Murray, Andrea L

    2013-11-01

    This meta-analysis sought to identify the strongest antecedents of blood donation behavior and intentions. It synthesized the results of 24 predictive correlational studies of donation behavior and 37 studies of donation intentions. The antecedents were grouped into six research programs: (1) the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and its extensions, (2) prosocial motivation, (3) affective expectations, (4) donor site experience, (5) past donation behavior, and (6) donor demographics. Antecedent categories were cross-validated by multiple coders, and combined effect sizes were analyzed using a random-effects model. For donation behavior, medium positive associations were found with five of the constructs from the extended TPB: intentions to donate, perceived behavioral control, attitude toward donation, self-efficacy and donor role identity. Other antecedents displaying a positive association with donation behavior included anticipated regret for not donating, number of past donations and donor age. Donor experiences at the collection site in the form of temporary deferral or adverse reactions had a medium negative association with behavior. For donation intentions, strong positive associations were observed for perceived behavioral control, attitude, self-efficacy, role identity and anticipated regret. Medium positive associations were observed for personal moral norm, subjective norm, satisfaction, and service quality. All other potential antecedents had weak or non-significant associations with behavior and intentions. Several of these associations were moderated by between-study differences, including donor experience, the period of data collection in which donation behavior was observed, and the use of a nominal (yes/no return) versus a ratio measure of donation behavior. Collectively, the results underscore the importance of enhancing donors' attitudes towards donation and building their perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy to donate. Further

  10. Protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression maps of ARFs and Aux/IAAs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Piya, Sarbottam; Shrestha, Sandesh K.; Binder, Brad; Stewart, C. Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Based on the current model in Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins repress auxin-inducible genes by inhibiting auxin response transcription factors (ARFs). Experimental evidence suggests that heterodimerization between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins are related to their unique biological functions. The objective of this study was to generate the Aux/IAA-ARF protein-protein interaction map using full length sequences and locate the interacting protein pairs to specific gene co-expression networks in order to define tissue-specific responses of the Aux/IAA-ARF interactome. Pairwise interactions between 19 ARFs and 29 Aux/IAAs resulted in the identification of 213 specific interactions of which 79 interactions were previously unknown. The incorporation of co-expression profiles with protein-protein interaction data revealed a strong correlation of gene co-expression for 70% of the ARF-Aux/IAA interacting pairs in at least one tissue/organ, indicative of the biological significance of these interactions. Importantly, ARF4-8 and 19, which were found to interact with almost all Aux-Aux/IAA showed broad co-expression relationships with Aux/IAA genes, thus, formed the central hubs of the co-expression network. Our analyses provide new insights into the biological significance of ARF-Aux/IAA associations in the morphogenesis and development of various plant tissues and organs. PMID:25566309

  11. Inter-seasonal variability in baseflow recession rates: The role of aquifer antecedent storage in central California watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bart, Ryan; Hope, Allen

    2014-11-01

    Baseflow recession rates vary inter-seasonally in many watersheds. This variability is generally associated with changes in evapotranspiration; however, an additional and less studied control over inter-seasonal baseflow recession rates is the effect of aquifer antecedent storage. Understanding the role of aquifer antecedent storage on baseflow recession rates is crucial for Mediterranean-climate regions, where seasonal asynchronicity of precipitation and energy levels produces large inter-seasonal differences in aquifer storage. The primary objective of this study was to elucidate the relation between aquifer antecedent storage and baseflow recession rates in four central California watersheds using antecedent streamflow as a surrogate for watershed storage. In addition, a parsimonious storage-discharge model consisting of two nonlinear stores in parallel was developed as a heuristic tool for interpreting the empirical results and providing insight into how inter-seasonal changes in aquifer antecedent storage may affect baseflow recession rates. Antecedent streamflow cumulated from the beginning of the wateryear was found to be the strongest predictor of baseflow recession rates, indicating that inter-seasonal differences in aquifer storage are a key control on baseflow recession rates in California watersheds. Baseflow recession rates and antecedent streamflow exhibited a negative power-law relation, with baseflow recession rates decreasing by up to two orders of magnitude as antecedent streamflow levels increased. Inference based on the storage-discharge model indicated that the dominant source of recession flow shifted from small, rapid response aquifers at the beginning of the wet season to large, seasonal aquifers as the wet season progressed. Aquifer antecedent storage in California watersheds should be accounted for along with evapotranspiration when characterizing baseflow recession rates.

  12. Symetries et integrabilite des equations aux differences finies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafortune, Stephane

    2000-09-01

    La présente thèse porte sur l'étude des symétries et des propriétés d'intégrabilité des équations aux différences finies. Dans le chapitre 1, le groupe de symétrie ponctuelle d'un système couplé à deux équations différentielles aux différences est étudié. On montre que dans certains cas, la dimension du groupe peut être infinie. Les équations peuvent décrire l'interaction de deux longues chaînes moléculaires, chacune étant composée d'atomes d'un même type. Dans le chapitre 2, une classe de théories de champs avec interaction exponentielle est introduite. L'interaction dépend de deux matrices de ``couplage'' et est suffisamment générale pour inclure toutes les théories de champs de Toda existant dans la littérature. Les symétries de Lie ponctuelles sont obtenues pour les cas où l'on a un nombre fini, infini ou semi-infini de champs. Une attention spéciale est accordée à la présence de l'invariance conforme. Dans le chapitre 3, nous procédons à la classification et à l'étude d'équations linéarisables. Nous examinons tout d'abord l'équation de Gambier continue qui contient, comme réductions, toutes les équations de deuxième ordre intégrables par linéarisation. Nous introduisons par la suite la forme discrète de cette équation et obtenons les conditions d'intégrabilité à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Nous étudions aussi les différentes réductions du cas discret. De plus, nous obtenons des transformations de Schlesinger pour les équations de Gambier discrète et continue. Dans la dernière partie du chapitre, nous étudions une famille d'équations discrètes du deuxième ordre incluant des équations résolubles par linéarisation. Plusieurs cas intégrables sont obtenus. Dans le cas discret, l'étude de l'intégrabilité est faite à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Dans le chapitre 4, nous étudions un autre critère d'intégrabilité: l'entropie algébrique. Nous montrons que les r

  13. Antecedents of chronic lung disease following three patterns of early respiratory disease in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Laughon, Matthew; Bose, Carl; Allred, Elizabeth N.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Van Marter, Linda J.; Leviton, Alan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/INTRODUCTION The incidence of chronic lung disease (CLD) varies among groups defined by their early pattern of respiratory disease. Although CLD is common among infants with continuous exposure to increased ambient oxygen throughout the first two postnatal weeks the antecedents of CLD among preterm infants without this exposure are not well understood. PATIENTS AND METHODS We examined data collected prospectively on the 1204 (out of 1506) infants born in 2002 to 2004 at 23 to 27 completed weeks of gestation who survived to 36 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA). Based on their initial respiratory presentation and need for supplemental oxygen during the first two weeks, infants were classified as having early and persistent pulmonary dysfunction (EPPD), early recovery of pulmonary function followed by deterioration (PD), or consistently good pulmonary function characterized by low FiO2 (Low FiO2). RESULTS CLD was diagnosed in 69% of infants with EPPD, in 52% with PD, and 17% in the Low FiO2 group. Risk factors for CLD varied among these groups. Birth weight z-score < -1 conveyed information about CLD risk in all three groups and was the major risk factor for infants in the Low FiO2 group (Odds Ratio [OR] 27; 95% confidence interval [CI] 7–95). Mechanical ventilation at 7 days was associated with increased risk in the pulmonary deterioration group (OR 4.2, 95% CI 2.5–6.9) and the early and persistent pulmonary dysfunction group (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5–4.7), but not the Low FiO2 group (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.5–3.9). CONCLUSION Both the likelihood of a very preterm infant developing CLD and the profile of risk factors linked with CLD are related to the infant’s pattern of respiratory disease during the first two postnatal weeks. Among infants with little exposure to oxygen during this period, fetal growth restriction, not mechanical ventilation, is the factor with the strongest association with CLD. PMID:20688867

  14. Considering Antecedent Factors for Transplant Recipient Athletes Learning to Live

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plunkett, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Patient education about managing chronic illness is critical given the growing burden of health care costs on society. Transplant recipients are forced into obtaining and learning how to understand complex information. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to highlight learning barriers and effective techniques used to manage care through…

  15. Réactions immunoallergiques graves aux antibacillaires: à propos de 10 cas

    PubMed Central

    Alami, Sabah El Machichi; Hammi, Sanae; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    L'hypersensibilité aux antituberculeux est l'un des effets secondaires imprévisibles qui apparait chez 4 à 5 % de la population exposée et s’élève à 25% chez les sujets VIH positifs. Dans notre étude parmi 39 patients ayant présenté des réactions immunoallergiques, 10 avaient des formes graves. Le délai moyen d'apparition des signes était de 23 jours. Les réactions immunoallergiques observées étaient 5 cas de toxidermie généralisée fébrile, un cas de Dress syndrome, un cas de neutropénie, un cas de pancitopénie et 2 cas de thrombopénie. Tous nos patients avaient bien évolué cliniquement et bactériologiquement après l'adoption d'un régime thérapeutique excluant le ou les médicaments incriminés. En pratique, si l'effet indésirable imputé à un antituberculeux est grave, il est impératif de l'arrêter, de traiter l'incident et d'associer une autre molécule chez certains cas. Notre étude a montré une fréquence significative des complications graves probablement sous-estimée, surtout dans les pays fortement touchés par l'infection HIV.

  16. Daily hassles, their antecedents and outcomes among professional first responders: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Gerry; Berglund, Anna Karin; Ohlsson, Alicia

    2016-08-01

    Occupational groups such as firefighters, military officers, paramedics and police officers are exposed to a combination of acute, severe and accumulated everyday stress. Drawing on the daily hassles perspective on stress, the aim was to synthesize existing research on daily hassles in professional first responder settings into a theoretical model. A systematic mixed studies review with an integrated design was undertaken. The selection process resulted in 40 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. The selected papers represented two literature reviews, one qualitative study, eight longitudinal studies and 29 cross-sectional studies. Five superior categories emerged in the analysis: Individual antecedent and continuously framing factors, Environmental antecedent and continuously framing factors, Appraisal and coping processes, Daily hassles and Outcome. Suggestions for future research are presented. PMID:27291300

  17. Correlations between Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer data and an antecedent precipitation index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilke, G. D.; Mcfarland, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Passive microwave brightness temperatures from the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) can be used to infer the soil moisture content over agricultural areas such as the southern Great Plains of the United States. A linear regression analysis between three transforms of the five dual polarized SMMR wavelengths of 0.81, 1.36, 1.66, 2.80 and 4.54 cm and an antecedent precipitation index representing the precipitation history showed correlation coefficients greater than 0.90 for pixel aggregates of 25-50 km. The use of surface air temperatures to approximate the temperature of the emitting layer was not required to obtain high correlation coefficients between the transforms and the antecedent precipitation index.

  18. Rhythms of life: antecedents and outcomes of work-family balance in employed parents.

    PubMed

    Aryee, Samuel; Srinivas, E S; Tan, Hwee Hoon

    2005-01-01

    This study examined antecedents and outcomes of a fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance in terms of the direction of influence (work-family vs. family-work) and type of effect (conflict vs. facilitation). Respondents were full-time employed parents in India. Confirmatory factor analysis results provided evidence for the discriminant validity of M. R. Frone's (2003) fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance. Results of moderated regression analysis revealed that different processes underlie the conflict and facilitation components. Furthermore, gender had only a limited moderating influence on the relationships between the antecedents and the components of work-family balance. Last, work-family facilitation was related to the work outcomes of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. PMID:15641894

  19. Individual and contextual antecedents of workplace aggression in aged care nurses and certified nursing assistants.

    PubMed

    Rodwell, John; Demir, Defne; Gulyas, Andre

    2015-08-01

    Employees in aged care are at high risk of workplace aggression. Research rarely examines the individual and contextual antecedents of aggression for specific types of workers within these settings, such as nurses and certified nursing assistants (CNAs). The study aimed to explore characteristics of the job demands-resources model (JD-R), negative affectivity (NA) and demographics related to workplace aggression for aged care workers. The survey study was based on 208 nurses and 83 CNAs working within aged care. Data from each group were analysed separately using ordinal regressions. Both aged care nurses and CNAs reported high rates of bullying, external emotional abuse, threat of assault and physical assault. Elements of the JD-R model and individual characteristics were related to aggression types for both groups. Characteristics of the JD-R model, NA and demographics are important in understanding the antecedents of aggression observed among aged care workers. PMID:26224217

  20. Individual- and perceived contextual-level antecedents of individual technical information inquiry in organizations.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hwee Hoon; Zhao, Bin

    2003-11-01

    The authors conducted an empirical study in research and development centers and research-oriented commercial companies in Singapore to test a model for understanding individuals' technical information inquiry behavior in organization settings. Individual-level antecedents (learning orientation, risk-taking propensity, and self-efficacy) and perceived contextual-level antecedents (management support, relationship quality, organizational norms favoring technical information inquiry, and accessibility of the information source) were theorized to affect one's evaluation of the potential benefits and costs in making technical information inquiries. The results showed that the perceived norms favoring technical information inquiry affected the willingness of individuals to make technical information inquiries through the mediating variable, expectancy value. In addition, compared with individual-level variables, perceived contextual-level variables explained slightly more variance in the willingness to make technical information inquiries. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:14992350

  1. Newcomer adjustment during organizational socialization: a meta-analytic review of antecedents, outcomes, and methods.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Talya N; Bodner, Todd; Erdogan, Berrin; Truxillo, Donald M; Tucker, Jennifer S

    2007-05-01

    The authors tested a model of antecedents and outcomes of newcomer adjustment using 70 unique samples of newcomers with meta-analytic and path modeling techniques. Specifically, they proposed and tested a model in which adjustment (role clarity, self-efficacy, and social acceptance) mediated the effects of organizational socialization tactics and information seeking on socialization outcomes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, intentions to remain, and turnover). The results generally supported this model. In addition, the authors examined the moderating effects of methodology on these relationships by coding for 3 methodological issues: data collection type (longitudinal vs. cross-sectional), sample characteristics (school-to-work vs. work-to-work transitions), and measurement of the antecedents (facet vs. composite measurement). Discussion focuses on the implications of the findings and suggestions for future research. PMID:17484552

  2. Antecedents and outcomes of union loyalty: a constructive replication and an extension.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hwee Hoon; Aryee, Samuel

    2002-08-01

    Primary data obtained from unionized employees in Singapore were used to examine P. A. Bamberger, A. N. Kluger, and R. Suchard's (1999) integrative model of the antecedents and outcomes of union commitment. Structural equation modeling results revealed support for their integrative model. Specifically, the results revealed the influence of job satisfaction on union loyalty to be indirect through organizational commitment. However, the union-related antecedents (union socialization and union instrumentality) were both directly and indirectly related to union loyalty through pro-union attitudes. In addition, union loyalty was related to the individually and organizationally directed union citizenship behavior dimensions. Limitations of the study and implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:12184575

  3. Assessing Injuries with Proxies: Implications for Understanding Concurrent Relations and Behavioral Antecedents of Pediatric Injuries

    PubMed Central

    van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the implications of using proxies of medically attended injuries (minor injuries and close calls) for understanding concurrent relations among—and behavioral antecedents of—pediatric injuries. Methods Participants were 812 children from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Measures of externalizing behavior, maternal depression, SES, and the home environment were examined as prospective predictors of minor injuries, close calls, and medically attended injuries. Results Minor injuries and close calls were associated with medically attended injuries concurrently. Regression equations revealed different prospective predictors across the three outcome variables. Conclusions This study was the first to examine concurrent associations among minor injuries, close calls, and medically attended injuries. Prospective antecedents of each injury assessment were also examined. The present findings signify the importance of distinguishing between these different methods of assessing pediatric injury. The study also illustrated that different analytic strategies were needed to represent observed data of each outcome variable. PMID:19451172

  4. Applying generalizability theory to examine the antecedents of perceived coach support.

    PubMed

    Coussens, Adam Howard; Rees, Tim; Freeman, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Although social support is integral to the coaching process, there is only a limited understanding of the antecedents of perceived coach support. We applied generalizability theory to examine perceived coach support and its antecedents at perceiver, provider, and relational levels of analysis. Two studies were conducted in which athletes rated the degree to which they identified with a selection of coaches, and the personality, competency, and supportiveness of those coaches. Univariate analyses demonstrated that the relational component accounted for a significant amount of variance in perceived coach support in both studies. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that when athletes perceive specific coaches to be highly agreeable, competent, and individuals with whom they share a common identity, they also perceive these same coaches to be particularly supportive in comparison with other coaches. PMID:25730891

  5. Antecedents of periventricular haemorrhage in infants weighing 1250 g or less at birth.

    PubMed Central

    Szymonowicz, W; Yu, V Y; Wilson, F E

    1984-01-01

    Fifty infants who weighed 1250 g or less at birth were studied with serial real time cerebral ultrasound to evaluate the temporal relation of various perinatal factors to the onset and progression of periventricular haemorrhage (PVH). The significant antecedents of PVH were severe bruising at birth, low birthweight, short gestation, ratio of arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) to fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2), and haematocrit on admission, hyaline membrane disease, assisted ventilation, pneumothorax, administration of tubocurarine, hypercapnia, hypoxaemia, and hypotension. Case control studies, in which infants with PVH at 26 weeks' and 28 weeks' gestation were compared with matched infants without PVH, confirmed that the antecedents identified were independent of gestational influences. A multivariate discriminant analysis for the antecedents of PVH showed that hyaline membrane disease, hypercapnia, and short gestation correctly classified presence or absence of PVH in 78% of the study group. A similar analysis comparing infants with germinal layer haemorrhage or intraventricular haemorrhage with those who developed intracerebral extension of haemorrhage showed that three factors found on admission (hypothermia, a low PaO2:FiO2 ratio, and severe bruising) combined to classify correctly 90% of the haemorrhages. Our data suggest that prevention of perinatal trauma and asphyxia as well as respiratory illness, especially hyaline membrane disease, and stabilisation of blood gas tensions, blood pressure, and haematocrit within the physiological range, are likely to be the most effective ways of preventing PVH in extremely preterm infants. PMID:6696488

  6. An assessment of antecedent events influencing noncompliance in an outpatient clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Call, Nathan A; Wacker, David P; Ringdahl, Joel E; Cooper-Brown, Linda J; Boeiter, Eric W

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown that various factors can influence noncompliance, including task novelty, rate of presentation, and task preference. This study examined the impact of selected antecedent variables on noncompliance in an outpatient clinic setting. In two experiments involving 6 typically developing children, the consequences for noncompliance remained constant. During Experiment 1, demands that included noncontingent access to adult attention were contrasted with the same demands that did not include attention within a multielement design. In Experiment 2, demands were altered by decreasing the difficulty or amount of work or providing access to attention. In both experiments, results indicated idiosyncratic responses to the manipulated variables, with decreases in noncompliance observed following introduction of one or more antecedent variables with 5 of the 6 participants. These results suggested that noncompliance can be reduced via changes in antecedent variables, including adding potential positive reinforcers to the task situation, and that it is possible to probe variables that alter noncompliance in an outpatient clinic setting. PMID:15293634

  7. Antecedents and consequences of psychological and team empowerment in organizations: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Seibert, Scott E; Wang, Gang; Courtright, Stephen H

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides meta-analytic support for an integrated model specifying the antecedents and consequences of psychological and team empowerment. Results indicate that contextual antecedent constructs representing perceived high-performance managerial practices, socio-political support, leadership, and work characteristics are each strongly related to psychological empowerment. Positive self-evaluation traits are related to psychological empowerment and are as strongly related as the contextual factors. Psychological empowerment is in turn positively associated with a broad range of employee outcomes, including job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and task and contextual performance, and is negatively associated with employee strain and turnover intentions. Team empowerment is positively related to team performance. Further, the magnitude of parallel antecedent and outcome relationships at the individual and team levels is statistically indistinguishable, demonstrating the generalizability of empowerment theory across these 2 levels of analysis. A series of analyses also demonstrates the validity of psychological empowerment as a unitary second-order construct. Implications and future directions for empowerment research and theory are discussed. PMID:21443317

  8. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints

    PubMed Central

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed. PMID:24344286

  9. Ti1-xAux Alloys: Hard Biocompatible Metals and Their Possible Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanidze, Eteri; Besara, Tiglet; Ozaydin, M. Fevzi; Xin, Yan; Han, Ke; Liang, Hong; Siegrist, Theo; Morosan, Emilia

    2015-03-01

    The search for new hard materials is often challenging from both theoretical and experimental points of view. Furthermore, using materials for biomedical applications calls for alloys with high biocompatibility which are even more sparse. The Ti1-xAux (0 . 22 <= x <= 0 . 8) exhibit extreme hardness and strength values, elevated melting temperatures (compared to those of constituent elements), reduced density compared to Au, high malleability, bulk metallicity, high biocompatibility, low wear, reduced friction, potentially high radio opacity, as well as osseointegration. All these properties render the Ti1-xAux alloys particularly useful for orthopedic, dental, and prosthetic applications, where they could be used as both permanent and temporary components. Additionally, the ability of Ti1-xAux alloys to adhere to ceramic parts could reduce the weight and cost of these components. The work at Rice was supported by NSF DMR 0847681 (E.M. and E.S.).

  10. Precise AuxPt1-x Alloy Nanoparticle Array of Tunable Composition for Catalytic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, Sarah; Lechner, Sebastian J.; Freichels, Helene; Möller, Martin; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2016-02-01

    A 3-dimensional Block Copolymer Micellar nanoLithography (BCML) process was used to prepare AuxPt1-x alloy nanoparticles (NPs) monodisperse in size and composition, strongly anchored onto SiO2-particles (0.2 wt.% AuxPt1-x/SiO2). The particles possess a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and their size could be varied from 3-12 nm. We demonstrate the uniformity of the Au/Pt composition by analyzing individual NPs by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The strongly bound AuxPt1-x NPs catalyzed the oxidation of CO with high activity. Thermal ageing experiments in pure CO2 as well as in ambient atmosphere demonstrated stability of the size distribution for times as long as 22 h.

  11. Semi-arid vegetation response to antecedent climate and water balance windows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thoma, David P.; Munson, Seth M.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Witwicki, Dana L.; Bunting, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Questions Can we improve understanding of vegetation response to water availability on monthly time scales in semi-arid environments using remote sensing methods? What climatic or water balance variables and antecedent windows of time associated with these variables best relate to the condition of vegetation? Can we develop credible near-term forecasts from climate data that can be used to prepare for future climate change effects on vegetation? Location Semi-arid grasslands in Capitol Reef National Park, Utah, USA. Methods We built vegetation response models by relating the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from MODIS imagery in Mar–Nov 2000–2013 to antecedent climate and water balance variables preceding the monthly NDVI observations. We compared how climate and water balance variables explained vegetation greenness and then used a multi-model ensemble of climate and water balance models to forecast monthly NDVI for three holdout years. Results Water balance variables explained vegetation greenness to a greater degree than climate variables for most growing season months. Seasonally important variables included measures of antecedent water input and storage in spring, switching to indicators of drought, input or use in summer, followed by antecedent moisture availability in autumn. In spite of similar climates, there was evidence the grazed grassland showed a response to drying conditions 1 mo sooner than the ungrazed grassland. Lead times were generally short early in the growing season and antecedent window durations increased from 3 mo early in the growing season to 1 yr or more as the growing season progressed. Forecast accuracy for three holdout years using a multi-model ensemble of climate and water balance variables outperformed forecasts made with a naïve NDVI climatology. Conclusions We determined the influence of climate and water balance on vegetation at a fine temporal scale, which presents an opportunity to forecast vegetation

  12. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA—BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA—AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa. PMID

  13. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Paul, Parameswari; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa. PMID

  14. Grief and depression after miscarriage: their separation, antecedents, and course.

    PubMed

    Beutel, M; Deckardt, R; von Rad, M; Weiner, H

    1995-01-01

    Bereavement is a major risk factor for physical illness, grief, depression, and anxiety. In contrast to recent tendencies in the psychiatric literature to equate grief and depression, we propose that a careful discrimination between the two must be made for diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative purposes. We report the results of a longitudinal study of a frequent but neglected event, miscarriage early in pregnancy, to make this point. Clinical criteria for differentiating grief and depressive reactions were developed based on phenomenological criteria and theoretical considerations. We hypothesized that the detrimental psychological and physical consequences occur only when the miscarriage was not mourned and resulted in a depressive reaction, but not in a grief reaction. In a controlled, representative study, 125 consecutive women were assessed shortly after their miscarriage (before the 20th week of gestation) and 6 months (N = 94) and 12 months (N = 90) later. Assessments included standardized questionnaires for life events, depression, physical complaints, anxiety, and a specific, multidimensional grief scale (Munich Grief Scale) that we had developed previously. Immediately after the miscarriage, the average anxiety and depression scores were elevated when compared with 80 pregnant and 125 age-matched community controls. Twenty percent of the patients who had miscarried showed a grief reaction, 12% showed a depressive reaction, and 20% responded with a combined depressive and grief reaction. The remaining women (48%) reported no changes in their emotional reactions. As predicted, longer-lasting psychological, social, and health status changes followed the initial depressive, but not the grief reactions. Depressive reactions were predicted by a history of previous depression, a lack of social resources, and an ambivalent attitude to the lost fetus. The grief measures were reliable and made it possible to discriminate between grief and depression. PMID

  15. Application of GPR, EMI, and Lidar to Assess the Role of Antecedent Geology in Barrier Island Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernette, P. A.; Weymer, B. A.; Houser, C.; Bishop, M. P.; Everett, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Barrier island longevity is threatened by the observed and modeled accelerating rates of sea-level rise. It has been suggested that subsurface geologic structure is also an important factor controlling barrier island morphology and long-term island evolution, yet the precise role of antecedent geology on the response and recovery of barrier islands to hurricanes and sea-level rise remains unclear. Thus, this study aims to provide more detailed insight into the role of the antecedent geology on barrier island evolution at two sites along the Texas, USA coast: Follets Island and a portion of North Padre Island. Alongshore and across-island ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic inductance (EMI) surveys are used in this study to infer subsurface geologic structure. The accuracy of the interpreted geophysical survey data was assessed using selective vibracoring. Information about island morphology is derived from airborne and terrestrial LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs). Preliminary results suggest that dune height is generally lower and washover frequency higher in areas where the antecedent geologic surface is deeper. Another important factor influencing dune breaching and washover locations is offshore bathymetry. The barrier island is generally narrower in areas where an offshore swale is present. The antecedent geologic structure is an important factor influencing barrier island morphology. Integrating EMI, GPR, and seismic subsurface geologic structure information and surficial morphology information helps improve our understanding of factors affecting barrier island evolution and the role that antecedent geology plays in island morphology.

  16. Beneficial Effects of Antecedent Exercise Training on Limb Motor Function and Calpain Expression in a Rat Model of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Myoung; Kim, Eunjung

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] In the present study, we investigated the effects of antecedent exercise on functional recovery and calpain protein expression following focal cerebral ischemia injury. [Subjects and Methods] The rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model was employed. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group I comprised untreated normal rats (n=10); Group II comprised untreated rats with focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); Group III comprised rats that performed treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training after focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); and Group IV comprised rats that performed antecedent treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training before focal cerebral ischemia (n=10). At different time points (1, 7, 14, and 21 days), limb placement test score and the levels of calpain protein in the hippocampus were examined. [Results] In the antecedent exercise group, improvements in the motor behavior index (limb placement test) were observed and hippocampal calpain protein levels were decreased. [Conclusion] These results indicated that antecedent treadmill exercise prior to focal cerebral ischemia exerted neuroprotective effects against ischemic brain injury by improving motor performance and decreasing the levels of calpain expression. Furthermore, these results suggest that antecedent treadmill exercise of an appropriate intensity is critical for post-stroke rehabilitation. PMID:24259890

  17. Cloning and expression analysis of novel Aux/IAA family genes in Gossypium hirsutum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family encode proteins to mediate the responses of auxin gene expression and to regulate various aspects of plant morphological development. In this paper, we report the identification of nine cDNAs that contain complete open reading frame (OR...

  18. Oligomerization of SCFTIR1 Is Essential for Aux/IAA Degradation and Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dezfulian, Mohammad H; Jalili, Espanta; Roberto, Don Karl A; Moss, Britney L; Khoo, Kerry; Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Crosby, William L

    2016-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Molecular studies in Arabidopsis have shown that auxin perception and signaling is mediated via TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA co-receptors that assemble as part of the SCFTIR1/AFB E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex and direct the auxin-regulated degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. Despite the importance of auxin signaling, little is known about the functional regulation of the TIR1/AFB receptor family. Here we show that TIR1 can oligomerize in planta via a set of spatially clustered amino acid residues. While none of the residues identified reside in the interaction interface of the TIR1-Aux/IAA degron, they nonetheless regulate the binding of TIR1 to Aux/IAA substrate proteins and their subsequent degradation in vivo as an essential aspect of auxin signaling. We propose oligomerization of TIR1 as a novel regulatory mechanism in the regulation of auxin-mediated plant patterning and development. PMID:27618443

  19. The Acquisition of Aux. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kypriotaki, Lyn

    This report examines the question of whether grammatical rules are globally learned and applied. It also attempts to determine the underlying word order in English as well as the developmental sequence of the acquisition of Aux. A sentence-repetition test using positive statements, positive questions, and negative questions was administered to 30…

  20. Antecedent rivers and early rifting: a case study from the Plio-Pleistocene Corinth rift, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemelsdaël, Romain; Ford, Mary; Malartre, Fabrice

    2016-04-01

    Models of early rifting present syn-rift sedimentation as the direct response to the development of normal fault systems where footwall-derived drainage supplies alluvial to lacustrine sediments into hangingwall depocentres. These models often include antecedent rivers, diverted into active depocentres and with little impact on facies distributions. However, antecedent rivers can supply a high volume of sediment from the onset of rifting. What are the interactions between major antecedent rivers and a growing normal fault system? What are the implications for alluvial stratigraphy and facies distributions in early rifts? These questions are investigated by studying a Plio-Pleistocene fluvial succession on the southern margin of the Corinth rift (Greece). In the northern Peloponnese, early syn-rift deposits are preserved in a series of uplifted E-W normal fault blocks (10-15 km long, 3-7 km wide). Detailed sedimentary logging and high resolution mapping of the syn-rift succession (400 to 1300 m thick) define the architecture of the early rift alluvial system. Magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphic markers are used to date and correlate the fluvial succession within and between fault blocks. The age of the succession is between 4.0 and 1.8 Ma. We present a new tectonostratigraphic model for early rift basins based on our reconstructions. The early rift depositional system was established across a series of narrow normal fault blocks. Palaeocurrent data show that the alluvial basin was supplied by one major sediment entry point. A low sinuosity braided river system flowed over 15 to 30 km to the NE. Facies evolved downstream from coarse conglomerates to fined-grained fluvial deposits. Other minor sediment entry points supply linked and isolated depocentres. The main river system terminated eastward where it built stacked small deltas into a shallow lake (5 to 15 m deep) that occupied the central Corinth rift. The main fluvial axis remained constant and controlled

  1. The Relationship Between Anaphor Features and Antecedent Retrieval: Comparing Mandarin Ziji and Ta-Ziji

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Brian; Chow, Wing-Yee; Xiang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we report two self-paced reading experiments that investigate antecedent retrieval processes in sentence comprehension by contrasting the real-time processing behavior of two different reflexive anaphors in Mandarin Chinese. Previous work has suggested that comprehenders initially evaluate the fit between the morphologically simple long-distance reflexive “ziji” and the closest available subject position, only subsequently considering more structurally distant antecedents (Gao et al., 2005; Liu, 2009; Li and Zhou, 2010; Dillon et al., 2014; cf. Chen et al., 2012). In this paper, we investigate whether this locality bias effect obtains for other reflexive anaphors in Mandarin Chinese, or if it is associated specifically with the morphologically simple reflexive ziji. We do this by comparing the processing of ziji to the processing of the morphologically complex reflexive ta-ziji (lit. s/he-self). In Experiment 1, we investigate the processing of ziji, and replicate the finding of a strong locality bias effect for ziji in self-paced reading measures. In Experiment 2, we investigate the processing of the morphologically complex reflexive ta-ziji in the same structural configurations as Experiment 1. A comparison of our experiments reveals that ta-ziji shows a significantly weaker locality bias effect than ziji does. We propose that this results from the difference in the number of morphological and semantic features on the anaphor ta-ziji relative to ziji. Specifically, we propose that the additional retrieval cues associated with ta-ziji reduce interference from irrelevant representations in memory, allowing it to more reliably access an antecedent regardless its linear or structural distance. This reduced interference in turn leads to a diminished locality bias effect for the morphologically complex anaphor ta-ziji. PMID:26779079

  2. Why continuous simulation? The role of antecedent moisture in design flood estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathiraja, S.; Westra, S.; Sharma, A.

    2012-06-01

    Continuous simulation for design flood estimation is increasingly becoming a viable alternative to traditional event-based methods. The advantage of continuous simulation approaches is that the catchment moisture state prior to the flood-producing rainfall event is implicitly incorporated within the modeling framework, provided the model has been calibrated and validated to produce reasonable simulations. This contrasts with event-based models in which both information about the expected sequence of rainfall and evaporation preceding the flood-producing rainfall event, as well as catchment storage and infiltration properties, are commonly pooled together into a single set of "loss" parameters which require adjustment through the process of calibration. To identify the importance of accounting for antecedent moisture in flood modeling, this paper uses a continuous rainfall-runoff model calibrated to 45 catchments in the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. Flood peaks derived using the historical daily rainfall record are compared with those derived using resampled daily rainfall, for which the sequencing of wet and dry days preceding the heavy rainfall event is removed. The analysis shows that there is a consistent underestimation of the design flood events when antecedent moisture is not properly simulated, which can be as much as 30% when only 1 or 2 days of antecedent rainfall are considered, compared to 5% when this is extended to 60 days of prior rainfall. These results show that, in general, it is necessary to consider both short-term memory in rainfall associated with synoptic scale dependence, as well as longer-term memory at seasonal or longer time scale variability in order to obtain accurate design flood estimates.

  3. Antecedent flow conditions and nitrate concentrations in the Mississippi River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Jennifer C.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Sprague, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between antecedent flow conditions and nitrate concentrations was explored at eight sites in the 2.9 million square kilometers (km2) Mississippi River basin, USA. Antecedent flow conditions were quantified as the ratio between the mean daily flow of the previous year and the mean daily flow from the period of record (Qratio), and the Qratio was statistically related to nitrate anomalies (the unexplained variability in nitrate concentration after filtering out season, long-term trend, and contemporaneous flow effects) at each site. Nitrate anomaly and Qratio were negatively related at three of the four major tributary sites and upstream in the Mississippi River, indicating that when mean daily streamflow during the previous year was lower than average, nitrate concentrations were higher than expected. The strength of these relationships increased when data were subdivided by contemporaneous flow conditions. Five of the eight sites had significant negative relationships (p ≤ 0.05) at high or moderately high contemporaneous flows, suggesting nitrate that accumulates in these basins during a drought is flushed during subsequent high flows. At half of the sites, when mean daily flow during the previous year was 50 percent lower than average, nitrate concentration can be from 9 to 27 percent higher than nitrate concentrations that follow a year with average mean daily flow. Conversely, nitrate concentration can be from 8 to 21 percent lower than expected when flow during the previous year was 50 percent higher than average. Previously documented for small, relatively homogenous basins, our results suggest that relationships between antecedent flows and nitrate concentrations are also observable at a regional scale. Relationships were not observed (using all contemporaneous flow data together) for basins larger than 1 million km2, suggesting that above this limit the overall size and diversity within these basins may necessitate the use of more

  4. Public health and health and wellbeing boards: antecedents, theory and development.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The 2012 Health and Social Care Act transfers responsibility for public health in England from primary care trusts to local authorities. This article traces the theoretical and policy antecedents of the proposals and highlights some key changes since their original conception in the 2010 public health white paper. It suggests that the development of health and well-being boards and their objectives can best be understood by viewing them through the theoretical prism of public value or new public service theory and concludes with some recommendations for their implementation and development. PMID:23780754

  5. Wearing the cloak: antecedents and consequences of creating facades of conformity.

    PubMed

    Hewlin, Patricia Faison

    2009-05-01

    This study examines a select set of relationships proposed in P. F. Hewlin's (2003) conceptual model of antecedents and consequences of creating facades of conformity. Results from a survey study of 238 employees working in multiple industries indicate that perceived nonparticipative work environments, minority status, self-monitoring, and collectivism are related to creating facades of conformity. Emotional exhaustion serves as a mediator between creating facades of conformity and members' intention to leave the organization. Collectivism moderates the relationship between emotional exhaustion and intention to leave. PMID:19450009

  6. The antecedents of teen fatherhood: a retrospective case-control study of Great Britain youth.

    PubMed Central

    Dearden, K A; Hale, C B; Woolley, T

    1995-01-01

    Historically, researchers have focused on identifying risk factors for teen motherhood, largely ignoring teen fathers. This study uses the 1958 National Child Development Study of Great Britain to examine antecedents of teen fatherhood. Teen fathers were compared with later fathers and nonfathers by using epidemiological methods. Results indicate that boys who became fathers while in their teens were at increased risk for experiencing problems at home and at school and were more likely to demonstrate aggressive, truant, and law-breaking behaviors. Many of these risk factors were also evident among those who became fathers while in their early 20s. PMID:7702121

  7. Responses of soil water percolation to dynamic interactions among rainfall, antecedent moisture and season in a forest site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Xiaoming; Liao, Kaihua; Feng, Huihui; Zhu, Qing

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of soil water percolation below the rooting zone and its responses to the dynamic interactions of different factors are important for the control of non-point source pollution. Based on 3600 scenarios in Hydrus-1D simulation, this study revealed the integrated effects of rainfall characteristics (rainfall amount, maximum rainfall intensity or MRI, time distribution characteristics of rainfall or TDC), antecedent moisture and the season on deep percolation (DP) at a forest site in Taihu Lake Basin, China. Results showed that Hydrus-1D model can well simulate the soil water dynamics at this site. Antecedent moisture had the greatest relative contribution to DP (85.7%), followed by rainfall amount (10.9%) and MRI (3.4%). As the antecedent moisture increased, the relative contribution of the season on DP increased from 0.0% to 16.4%. In comparison, that of MRI decreased from 58.7% to 38.5% and that of rainfall amount followed a bell shape pattern (greatest when the antecedent moisture was 0.26 m3 m-3). The relative contribution of antecedent moisture to DP in summer was the greatest (87.8%), while that of the rainfall was the least. The TDC influenced DP by affecting the responses of DP to other factors. When the rainfall amount was ⩾80 mm and the antecedent moisture content was ⩾0.34 m3 m-3, effect of TDC on DP could be observed. The DP of TDC_B (rainfall intensity linearly increased with time) was the lowest, while that of TDC_E (rainfall intensity kept constant with time) was the greatest. Findings of this study have practical significance for investigating the water and pollutant transport in vadose zone.

  8. Using Structural Analysis in Head Start Classrooms: Antecedent-Based Interventions for Young Children at Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kristy Lee

    2008-01-01

    The majority of FBA research has focused on identifying and developing interventions based on the function or consequences of problem behavior; however, increased attention has recently been focused on the effects of antecedent variables on problem behavior in natural settings. This study examined the functional antecedent-based process in early…

  9. Development of perceived job insecurity across two years: associations with antecedents and employee outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Ulla; Mäkikangas, Anne; Mauno, Saija; De Cuyper, Nele; De Witte, Hans

    2014-04-01

    This 2-year longitudinal study among 848 university employees investigated the individual development of perceived job insecurity (JI) in the context of changes occurring in the Finnish universities during the follow-up time. Adopting a person-oriented approach through latent profile analysis, 8 classes of employees with similar mean levels and mean-level changes in JI were identified. Two of these classes (75% of the participants) indicated stable (low, moderately high) JI, and the remaining 6 classes (25% of the participants) showed change (decreasing, increasing, curvilinear) in the level of JI across time. We then examined possible differences between these classes with respect to individual antecedents and outcomes of JI. Of the antecedents, the type of employment contract distinguished best between the JI classes. Of the outcomes, moderately high stable JI was associated with low stable vigor and high stable levels of exhaustion and turnover intentions across time. In addition, it seemed that a decrease in JI was associated with a decrease in exhaustion and turnover intentions and vice versa. Altogether the findings suggest that developmental JI classes exhibit a substantial amount of heterogeneity, which is simultaneously reflected in occupational well-being. PMID:24730428

  10. The antecedents of identification: a rhetorical analysis of British Muslim activists' constructions of community and identity.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Nick; Kahani-Hopkins, Vered

    2004-03-01

    This paper takes as its focus the perception of community. This is analysed through reference to the literature concerning the adoption of more inclusive, superordinate social categories. Whilst most research tends to focus on the consequences of these social categories for self and other perception, we focus on their antecedents. These are typically hypothesized to include such issues as the perception of the subordinate groups' common fate and factors affecting their perceptual differentiation (e.g. their similarity and entitativity). However, rather than conceiving of such issues as pre-given antecedent variables, we explore how these issues (and others) are actively constructed in and through discourse. More specifically, we explore how such issues are sites of contestation as activists with different political projects seek to construct quite different versions of the relevant superordinate community identity. Our data are qualitative and are drawn from contemporary debates amongst British Muslims concerning their relations with non-Muslim Britons and non-British Muslims across the globe. A key issue in these deliberations concerns the nature of British Muslims' identity and the superordinate identifications that best facilitate its expression and realization. We suggest that constructions of common fate, similarity, entitativity etc., far from being 'givens', are the means through which different definitions of Muslim identity are constructed and different forms of collective action mobilized. PMID:15035697

  11. [Antecedents and consequences of workplace bullying: a longitudinal analysis with a structural equation model].

    PubMed

    Carretero Domínguez, Noelia; Gil-Monte, Pedro Rafael; Luciano Devis, Juan Vicente

    2011-11-01

    Most studies focusing on the antecedents and consequences of workplace bullying have used a cross-sectional design, which impedes determining the causality of the relationships. In the present work, we analyzed, by means of structural equation models, the relationship between workplace bullying and some variables that are considered antecedents (interpersonal conflicts, role ambiguity, role conflict, and workplace social support) or consequences (health complaints and inclination to absenteeism from work) of this phenomenon. Multicenter study with two phases. The sample consisted of 696 employees from 66 centers. Workplace bullying was assessed by means of the "Mobbing-UNIPSICO" questionnaire, and the other variables with frequency scales. The cross-sectional models indicated a significant association between role conflict, workplace social support, and workplace bullying in both study periods. Concerning the longitudinal relationships, only workplace social support was a significant predictor of workplace bullying, which, in turn, was a cross-sectional and longitudinal predictor of workers' health complaints. Our results show the mediating effect of workplace bullying between certain work conditions and health complaints, and it is recommendable to replicate these findings in a multi-occupational sample. PMID:22047848

  12. Antecedents of deviant responses: Predicting from a general theory of deviant behavior.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, H B

    1977-03-01

    A statement of a general theory of deviant behavior asserts that four factors or processes intervene between the development of self-rejecting attitudes and adoption of deviant patterns. An earlier report demonstrated a relationship between antecedent negative self-attitudes and subsequent increases in seven variables that reflected these four factors. The present paper tests hypotheses that these seven variables are in turn related to the subsequent adoption of each of 22 deviant responses. Subjects were seventh-grade students (N=4694) who responded to questionnaires at T1 and T2 (a year later). The seven independent variables were measured by scale scores based on subject responses at T1. Adoption of deviant responses was defined in terms of subject's selfreports of performing each of 22 deviant acts between T1 and T2 after having denied performance of the deviant act during a specified period prior to T1. The results were interpreted as supporting the hypotheses, although relatively few exceptions were noted. These findings together with those of the earlier analysis were thus congruent with the theoretical position that the relationship between antecedent self-rejection and subsequent deviant responses is mediated by the subjective association of membership group experiences with feelings of self-rejection, the genesis of contranormative attitudes, the inability to satisfy the self-esteem motive through normative response patterns, and awareness of deviant alternatives to these normative patterns that in the past have failed to permit development of self-accepting attitudes. PMID:24408234

  13. Creative Self-Efficacy: An Exploration of Its Antecedents, Consequences, and Applied Implications.

    PubMed

    Puente-Díaz, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    Creativity and innovation are at the core of important outcomes such as economic and sales growth, production of articles and students' learning. Thus, it is not surprising to find research articles on creativity and innovation across different disciplines such as business, psychology, and education. Given the importance of understanding creativity and innovation, we reviewed the empirical literature examining the antecedents and consequences of creative self-efficacy in the work domain. Our review used the theory of individual creative action and social cognitive theory as guiding frameworks to place creative self-efficacy in the creativity and innovation process, define creativity and innovation, explore how creative self-efficacy has been measured, examine the antecedents and consequences of creative self-efficacy, point out gaps in knowledge and offer suggestions for future research and provide some applied implications. One important finding was that creative self-efficacy has made a significant contribution as a process variable explaining how several organizational and personal factors influence creative outcomes via their influence on creative self-efficacy. PMID:26431487

  14. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA and ARF gene families in Populus trichocarpa

    SciTech Connect

    Kalluri, Udaya C; DiFazio, Stephen P; Brunner, A.; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) and Auxin Response Factor (ARF) transcription factors are key regulators of auxin responses in plants. A total of 35 Aux/IAA and 39 ARF genes were identified in the Populus genome. Comparative phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subgroups PoptrARF2, 6, 9 and 16 and PoptrIAA3, 16, 27 and 29 have differentially expanded in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Activator ARFs were found to be two fold-overrepresented in the Populus genome. PoptrIAA and PoptrARF gene families appear to have expanded due to high segmental and low tandem duplication events. Furthermore, expression studies showed that genes in the expanded PoptrIAA3 subgroup display differential expression. The gene-family analysis reported here will be useful in conducting future functional genomics studies to understand how the molecular roles of these large gene families translate into a diversity of biologically meaningful auxin effects.

  15. The Aux/IAA, Sl-IAA17 regulates quality parameters over tomato fruit development

    PubMed Central

    Su, LY; Audran, C; Bouzayen, M; Roustan, JP; Chervin, C

    2015-01-01

    Auxin is known to be involved in all the stages of fruit development. Aux/IAAs are regulators of the auxin signaling at the transcription level. In a recent study, using RNAi strategy to limit the expression Sl-IAA17, it was shown that this tomato AuxIAA regulates fruit size mainly through altering the ploidy level of pericarp cells. Indeed, Sl-IAA17 down-regulated lines showed fruit with larger diameter, bigger volume and heavier weight than wild-type. The increase in fruit size was associated with thicker pericarp rather than larger locular spaces. The thicker pericarp was linked to larger cells harboring higher ploidy level, probably due to more active endoreduplication at the beginning of fruit development. The present report describes some additional phenotypes, not described in the initial article, among which are soluble solid content, juice pH, firmness, seed weight and fruit morphology. PMID:26317283

  16. Genome-wide survey and comprehensive expression profiling of Aux/IAA gene family in chickpea and soybean

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vikash K.; Jain, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Auxin plays a central role in many aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) genes cooperate with several other components in the perception and signaling of plant hormone auxin. An investigation of chickpea and soybean genomes revealed 22 and 63 putative Aux/IAA genes, respectively. These genes were classified into six subfamilies on the basis of phylogenetic analysis. Among 63 soybean Aux/IAA genes, 57 (90.5%) were found to be duplicated via whole genome duplication (WGD)/segmental events. Transposed duplication played a significant role in tandem arrangements between the members of different subfamilies. Analysis of Ka/Ks ratio of duplicated Aux/IAA genes revealed purifying selection pressure with restricted functional divergence. Promoter sequence analysis revealed several cis-regulatory elements related to auxin, abscisic acid, desiccation, salt, seed, and endosperm, indicating their role in development and stress responses. Expression analysis of chickpea and soybean Aux/IAA genes in various tissues and stages of development demonstrated tissue/stage specific differential expression. In soybean, at least 16 paralog pairs, duplicated via WGD/segmental events, showed almost indistinguishable expression pattern, but eight pairs exhibited significantly diverse expression patterns. Under abiotic stress conditions, such as desiccation, salinity and/or cold, many Aux/IAA genes of chickpea and soybean revealed differential expression. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the differential expression patterns of selected Aux/IAA genes in chickpea. The analyses presented here provide insights on putative roles of chickpea and soybean Aux/IAA genes and will facilitate elucidation of their precise functions during development and abiotic stress responses. PMID:26579165

  17. Decommissioning of the nuclear licensed facilities at the Fontenay aux Roses CEA center

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanjacques, Michel; Piketty, Laurence; Letuhaire, Nathalie; Mandard, Lionel; Meden, Igor; Estivie, David; Boissonneau, Jean Francois; Fouquereau, Alain; Pichereau, Eric; Binet, Cedric

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) center at Fontenay aux Roses (CEN-FAR) is the Commission's oldest center is located in the southern suburbs of Paris. It was opened on 26 March 1946 to host the first French nuclear reactor ZOE that went critical on 12 December 1946. The first laboratories were installed in existing buildings on the site. (authors)

  18. The Sequential Introduction of Positive Antecedent and Consequent Components in a Compliance Training Package with Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellipanni, Kimberly D.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Olmi, D. Joe; Roberts, Dannell S.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the separate and combined effects of the antecedent manipulations of effective instruction delivery and time-in, as well as the effects of the addition of the consequent manipulation of contingent praise in a compliance training package for four elementary students displaying low levels of compliance. Four teachers were trained to…

  19. Describing Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence Relations Using Conditional Probabilities and the General Operant Contingency Space: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Tanya L.; Martens, Brian K.; DiGennaro, Florence D.

    2005-01-01

    Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (A-B-C) recordings are often used in school settings as part of a functional assessment. A number of limitations are associated with A-B-C recordings, and a novel approach for describing data from A-B-C recordings is to compute conditional probabilities that can be graphed in the general operant contingency space to…

  20. Effects of Antecedent Prompt and Test Procedure on Teaching Simulated Menstrual Care Skills to Females with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersoy, Gulhan; Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Kircaali-Iftar, Gonul

    2009-01-01

    Although menstrual care is among the most important skill areas for females with mild to moderate developmental disabilities to facilitate their independence, there is limited research examining this issue. The present study was designed to analyze the acquisition and maintenance effects of antecedent prompt and test procedure on teaching changing…

  1. An examination of antecedents to coal miners' hearing protection behaviors: A test of the theory of planned behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Quick, B.L.; Stephenson, M.T.; Witte, K.; Vaught, C.; Booth-Butterfield, S.; Patel, D.

    2008-07-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's (NIOSH) National Occupational Research Agenda (DHHS Publication No. 96-115) reports that approximately 50% of miners will experience hearing loss by age 50, compared to only 9% of the general population. The present investigation examines three antecedents believed to be associated with miner's use of hearing protection. A posttest-delayed-posttest-control group field research design was employed to assess antecedents toward wearing hearing protection. Following the initial posttest, miners' attitudes and subjective norms were antecedents to intentions to wear hearing protection devices. Also, intentions toward wearing hearing protection predicted hearing protection behaviors. Approximately six weeks later, miners' attitudes and perceived behavioral control were each significant predictors of intentions to wear hearing protection and again, intentions were positively associated with hearing protection behaviors. Our results indicate that appeals to normative influences may be the most effective antecedent to employ when persuading coal miners to wear hearing protection. However, messages designed to impact attitudes and perceived behavioral control were also effective.

  2. The Relationship between Use and Perception: The Case of Catalan Variants of a Subject Coreferential with an Antecedent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa Carreras, Joan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the relationship between use and perception of five Catalan variants of the variable "subject coreferential with an antecedent." This will be done by examining the results of a cloze test and three perception surveys answered in 1997 by 26 respondents. Two different correct constructions were then presented as…

  3. Use of an Antecedent Analysis and a Force Sensitive Platform to Compare Stereotyped Movements and Motor Tics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosland, Kimberly A.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Schroeder, Stephen; Zarcane, Troy; Fowler, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Stereotyped movements displayed by 6 participants and tics displayed by 6 children were evaluated using an antecedent behavioral analysis and a force sensitive platform. We found that tics occurred more often in an alone condition when compared to high preference toy and play conditions, whereas stereotyped movements were more variable across…

  4. Consideration of "g" as a Common Antecedent for Cognitive Ability Test Performance, Test Motivation, and Perceived Fairness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Lam, Holly

    2007-01-01

    Several different analyses were used to test the hypothesis that test-taking motivation, perceived test fairness, and actual test performance are correlated only because they share a common antecedent. First, hierarchical regressions reveal that initial test performance has a unique influence on non-ability factors even after controlling for…

  5. Perceived Deep-Level Dissimilarity: Personality Antecedents and Impact on Overall Job Attitude, Helping, Work Withdrawal, and Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Hui; Chuang, Aichia; Joshi, Aparna

    2008-01-01

    The current research extends three research areas in relational demography: considering deep-level dissimilarity in theory building, assessing dissimilarity perceptions directly in theory testing, and examining the antecedents of dissimilarity perceptions. The results, based on two field studies using diverse samples, demonstrate the effects of…

  6. Antecedents and Outcomes of Joint Trajectories of Mother-Son Conflict and Warmth during Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Criss, Michael M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Lacourse, Eric; Hyde, Luke W.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the development of mother-son relationship quality from ages 5 to 15 in a sample of 265 low-income families. Nonparametric random effects modeling was utilized to uncover distinct and homogeneous developmental trajectories of conflict and warmth; antecedents and outcomes of the trajectory groups also were examined. Four…

  7. Completing College: A Longitudinal Examination of Potential Antecedents of Success in Postsecondary Education for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achola, Edwin Obilo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the antecedent conditions that contribute to post-secondary education (PSE) completion for students with disabilities, taking into account institutional experiences associated with social integration. A prospective longitudinal design was used to analyze data from the National Longitudinal Transition…

  8. Middle Childhood Antecedents to Progressions in Male Adolescent Substance Use: An Ecological Analysis of Risk and Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Yoerger, Karen

    1999-01-01

    This study examined antecedents to early patterned alcohol and tobacco use and marijuana experimentation between ages 11 and 16 for an at-risk male sample. Findings suggested that family, peer, and child characteristics were inextricably connected within an ecology of development. A structural equation prediction model suggested a higher order…

  9. An Evaluation of Antecedent Exercise on Behavior Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement Using a Three-Component Multiple Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Heather; Roscoe, Eileen M.; Atwell, Amy

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated antecedent exercise for treating the automatically reinforced problem behavior of 4 individuals with autism. We conducted preference assessments to identify leisure and exercise items that were associated with high levels of engagement and low levels of problem behavior. Next, we conducted three 3-component multiple-schedule…

  10. An Interdisciplinary Meta-Analysis of the Potential Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences of Protege Perceptions of Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eby, Lillian Turner de Tormes; Allen, Tammy D.; Hoffman, Brian J.; Baranik, Lisa E.; Sauer, Julia B.; Baldwin, Sean; Morrison, M. Ashley; Kinkade, Katie M.; Maher, Charleen P.; Curtis, Sara; Evans, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarized youth, academic, and workplace research on the potential antecedents (demographics, human capital, and relationship attributes), correlates (interaction frequency, relationship length, performance, motivation, and social capital), and consequences (attitudinal, behavioral, career-related, and health-related outcomes)…

  11. Antecedents and Outcomes of Level and Rates of Change in Perceived Control: The Moderating Role of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Infurna, Frank J.; Okun, Morris A.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived control is interrelated with aging-related outcomes across adulthood and old age. Relatively little is known, however, about resources as antecedents of longitudinal change in perceived control and the role of perceived control as a buffer against mortality risk when these resources are low. We examined functional limitations, depressive…

  12. Childhood Antecedents of Being a Cigarette Smoker in Early Adulthood. The Finnish "From a Boy to a Man" Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemela, Solja; Sourander, Andre; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Susser, Ezra; Helenius, Hans; Piha, Jorma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Tamminen, Tuula; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify childhood psychiatric symptoms as antecedents of cigarette smoking at age 18. Methods: In 1989, a general population sample of 2946 8-year-old boys born in Finland in 1981 was assessed using the Rutter's parent and teacher questionnaires, and the Child Depression Inventory. This birth cohort was followed up in 1999, when the…

  13. Aux Vases Sandstone diagenesis: Implications for hydrocarbon recovery from southern Illinois reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Seyler, B.D.; Beaty, D.S.; Huff, B.G. )

    1991-03-01

    The Aux Vases Sandstone (Mississippian) is a problematic yet productive reservoir in the Illinois basin. The Aux Vases Formation was deposited in a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate offshore environment. Hydrocarbon reservoirs are dominantly elongate sandstone bodies interpreted as subtidal facies within a prograding tidally influenced deposystem. Oil saturated zones, in most cases, are composed of fine-grained, cross-bedded, friable, feldspathic quartz sandstone. Resistivity logs, even from productive wells, are typically characterized by unusually low resistivities (2-4 ohms) that lead to high calculated water saturations. X-ray diffraction, SEM/EDS, and thin section studies were used to analyze diagenetic processes that may affect hydrocarbon production in several Aux Vases reservoirs. Diagenetic processes common to the field studied include: (1) early calcite cementation occluding primary porosity and inhibiting compaction, (2) dissolution of feldspar grains to form authigenic clay, (3) dissolution of early calcite cement, (4) diagenesis of detrital clay minerals into new authigenic clay minerals, and (5) multiple stages of quartz overgrowths that reduce porosity. Commonly used drilling and completion practices may adversely affect reservoir quality by reacting with diagenetic products. Loosening of the fine mineral fraction that causes migration of fines and swelling of expandable clay minerals are examples of this type of damage. Knowledge of reservoir mineralogy and diagenesis may influence drilling and completion practices and affect selection of secondary and tertiary recovery methods.

  14. FIGO Stage III Metastatic Gestational Choriocarcinoma Developed From an Antecedent Partial Hydatidiform Molar Pregnancy Bearing a Numerical Chromosomal Aberration 68, XX: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Ma, Naili; Litkouhi, Babak; Mannion, Ciaran M

    2016-03-01

    A 36-yr-old, gravida 5 para 4 woman presented with uterine bleeding and was discovered to have a 3.7-cm uterine mass with multiple, bilateral, lung metastases. Six months earlier, the patient was diagnosed with a partial hydatidiform mole that demonstrated a rare chromosomal karyotype 68, XX[12]. The patient's serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin was elevated from baseline to 12,039 mIU/mL before the treatment. A total hysterectomy was performed and revealed a markedly hemorrhagic, extensively necrotic choriocarcinoma. The tumor mass invaded to a depth of 1/3 of the uterine wall thickness. Cytogenetic analysis of the choriocarcinoma revealed the same 68, XX karyotype, as observed in the antecedent partial hydatidiform mole. A clinical diagnosis of advanced stage invasive choriocarcinoma was rendered, with a risk factor score of 5. Following the development of chemoresistance to a single-agent (methotrexate) regimen, the patient subsequently received 5 cycles of chemotherapy (EMA-CO), without any major complication. She is currently >5 yr posttreatment and is asymptomatic. Her most recent imaging studies, including scans of chest and brain, show no evidence of disease, and her serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin level has remained consistently below detectable levels. PMID:26352546

  15. Pink triangles: antecedents and consequences of perceived workplace discrimination against gay and lesbian employees.

    PubMed

    Ragins, B R; Cornwell, J M

    2001-12-01

    A model of perceived sexual orientation discrimination was tested in a national sample of 534 gay and lesbian employees. The effects of legislation, organizational policies and practices, and work group composition on perceived sexual orientation discrimination were examined, as well as the attitudinal and organizational outcomes associated with discrimination. Gay employees were more likely to report discrimination when employed in groups that were primarily heterosexual and in organizations that lacked supportive policies and were not covered by protective legislation. Disclosure of sexual orientation at work was related to discrimination and antecedent variables. Perceived discrimination was associated with negative work attitudes and fewer promotions. Organizational policies and practices had the strongest impact on perceived discrimination and were directly related to outcomes. PMID:11768065

  16. A Study of the Antecedents and Consequences of Members' Helping Behaviors in Online Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Kuo-Ming

    Despite the growing popularity of online communities, there are a major gap between practitioners and academicians as to how to share information and knowledge among members of these groups. However, none of the previous studies have integrated these variables into a more comprehensive framework. Thus more validations are required the aim of this paper is to develop a theoretical model that enables us to examine the antecedents and consequences effects of members’ helping behavior in online communities. The moderating effects of the sense of community on the relationships between members’ helping behaviors on information sharing and knowledge contribution are also evaluated. A complete model is developed for empirical testing. Using Yahoo’s members as the samples of this study, the empirical results suggested that online communities members’ helping behavior represents a large pool of product know-how. They seem to be a promising source of innovation capabilities for new product development.

  17. The effects of antecedent flows on sediment entrainment in a mountain stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Luca; Comiti, Francesco; Dell'Agnese, Andrea; Engel, Angel; Lucia, Ana

    2015-04-01

    The difficulty for predicting bedload transport and identifying incipient motion thresholds in high mountain streams is well-known, especially during flood events. Surrogate methods aiming at quantification of sediment transport rates and sizes have been developed thorughout the last decades; among those, tracers in general, and PITs (Passive Integrated Transponders) in particular are a good alternative in particle dynamics study. Usually, the recovery of PITs after flood events is done by means of a portable antenna; however an alternate valid option is represented by antennas fixed on the channel bank or on the river shores. The use of stationary antennas allows to know the actual discharge at the moment of motion. This study focuses on incipient motion of tracers measured by means of a stationary antenna system in the upper part of a mountain basin (Saldur River, drainage area 18.6 km2, Italian Alps) where significant daily fluctuations in summer - due to the part of the basin (2.3 km2) being glacierized - are monitored. From 2011 to 2013, flow discharge varied between 1 and 10 m3s-1. A total of 587 clasts equipped with PITs ranging from 35 to 580 mm were released along the main channel, in a confined reach with bed morphology transitional from plane-bed to step-pool (6% slope). PIT-tagged clasts were gently deployed on the riverbed, few meters upstream of an antenna anchored to the channel bed. Flow stage data were acquired at 10 min interval by means of a pressure transducer installed near the fixed antenna. The analysis of preliminary results showed that the relationship between the size of transported tracers and the discharge measured at the time clasts were passing above the antenna is weak. Hence, it was investigated the influence of antecedent flows on incipient motion, by dividing the peak discharge recorded between each PIT deployment and the subsequent entrainment by the actual critical discharge at the time of movement (ratio Qmax/Qc). Results show

  18. Developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype-consciousness in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    McKown, Clark; Strambler, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which included 124 children ages 5-11, examined developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype-consciousness, defined as awareness of others' stereotypes. Greater age and more frequent parent-reported racial socialization practices were associated with greater likelihood of stereotype-consciousness. Children who knew of broadly held stereotypes more often explained hypothetical negative interracial encounters between White actors and Black targets as discriminatory. In addition, among African American and Latino children who knew about broadly held stereotypes, diagnostic testing conditions led to stereotype threat effects on a standardized working memory task. Findings are discussed in terms of the contribution to our understanding of children's developing thinking about and response to stereotypes and related phenomena. PMID:19930343

  19. A meta-analysis of the antecedents and consequences of pay level satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Williams, Margaret L; McDaniel, Michael A; Nguyen, Nhung T

    2006-03-01

    This study reports results from a meta-analysis of 28 correlates of pay level satisfaction involving 240 samples from 203 studies conducted over the past 35 years. Results are presented in 4 categories: primary determinants, antecedents, correlates, and outcomes of pay satisfaction. The authors controlled for pay in examining relations between correlates and pay level satisfaction, as suggested by theory and when primary studies were available to do so. The authors found support for many of the relations suggested by a theoretical model and also note some limitations in the research that has tested this model. The authors recommend changes and additions to the model and suggest additional primary research in specific areas. PMID:16551191

  20. Developmental antecedents of political ideology: a longitudinal investigation from birth to age 18 years.

    PubMed

    Fraley, R Chris; Griffin, Brian N; Belsky, Jay; Roisman, Glenn I

    2012-01-01

    The study reported here examined the developmental antecedents of conservative versus liberal ideologies using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development and a follow-up study conducted when the sample was 18 years old. Specifically, we examined variation in conservative versus liberal ideologies at age 18 years as a function of parenting attitudes and child temperament during the first 5 years of life. Consistent with long-standing theories on the development of political attitudes, our results showed that parents' authoritarian attitudes assessed when children were 1 month old predicted conservative attitudes in those children more than 17 years later. Consistent with the findings of Block and Block (2006), our results also showed that early childhood temperament predicted variation in conservative versus liberal ideologies. PMID:23054474

  1. B. F. Skinner's Science and Human Behavior: its antecedents and its consequences.

    PubMed

    Catania, A Charles

    2003-11-01

    Skinner's Science and Human Behavior marked a transition from a treatment of behavior that took physics as its reference science to one that emphasized behavior as a fundamental part of the subject matter of biology. The book includes what may be Skinner's earliest statement about the similarity of operant selection to Darwinian natural selection in phylogeny. Other major topics discussed in the book included multiple causation, private events, the self, and social contingencies. Among the important antecedents were Skinner's own Behavior of Organisms and Keller & Schoenfeld's Pincinples of Psychology. Current developments in education, behavioral economics, and some behavior therapies can be attributed at least in part to Skinner's seminal work. The effective behavioral analysis of governmental and religious systems will probably depend on elaborations of our understanding of verbal behavior. PMID:14964711

  2. Facet personality and surface-level diversity as team mental model antecedents: implications for implicit coordination.

    PubMed

    Fisher, David M; Bell, Suzanne T; Dierdorff, Erich C; Belohlav, James A

    2012-07-01

    Team mental models (TMMs) have received much attention as important drivers of effective team processes and performance. Less is known about the factors that give rise to these shared cognitive structures. We examined potential antecedents of TMMs, with a specific focus on team composition variables, including various facets of personality and surface-level diversity. Further, we examined implicit coordination as an important outcome of TMMs. Results suggest that team composition in terms of the cooperation facet of agreeableness and racial diversity were significantly related to team-focused TMM similarity. TMM similarity was also positively predictive of implicit coordination, which mediated the relationship between TMM similarity and team performance. Post hoc analyses revealed a significant interaction between the trust facet of agreeableness and racial diversity in predicting TMM similarity. Results are discussed in terms of facilitating the emergence of TMMs and corresponding implications for team-related human resource practices. PMID:22468847

  3. A Model of Consumer Response to Over-the-Counter Drug Advertising: Antecedents and Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jisu; Delorme, Denise E; Reid, Leonard N

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in the health care marketplace and lack of systematic research on OTC drug advertising (OTCA) effects, this study tested a theory-based, product category-specific OTCA effects model. Structural equation modeling analysis of data for 1 OTC drug category, analgesics, supported the proposed model, explaining the OTCA effect process from key consumer antecedents to ad involvement, from ad involvement to ad attention, from ad attention to cognitive responses, then to affective/evaluative responses, leading to the final behavioral outcome. Several noteworthy patterns also emerged: (a) Product involvement was directly linked to ad attention, rather than exerting an indirect influence through ad involvement; (b) ad attention was significantly related to both cognitive and affective/evaluative responses to different degrees, with stronger links to cognitive responses; and PMID:26312772

  4. New perspective on job burnout: exploring the root cause beyond general antecedents analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Wu, Peng; Wei, Wei

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies of job burnout are discussed and three types of job burnout are presented and compared. Various studies of job burnout were reviewed in terms of participants, burnout situation, and root cause. Next, the framework of job burnout antecedents was reformulated, including characteristics of organizations, work, and individuals. Three types of job burnout-organizational weakness-caused burnout, work weakness-caused burnout, and individual characteristic-caused burnout-were posited based on the root causes contributing to job burnout. Finally, the three subcomponents of job burnout were compared on availability, concealment, universality, severity, duration, diffusibility, and changeability. Root causes of job burnout should be attended to in job burnout research and intervention programs. PMID:22897086

  5. B. F. Skinner's Science and Human Behavior: its antecedents and its consequences.

    PubMed Central

    Catania, A Charles

    2003-01-01

    Skinner's Science and Human Behavior marked a transition from a treatment of behavior that took physics as its reference science to one that emphasized behavior as a fundamental part of the subject matter of biology. The book includes what may be Skinner's earliest statement about the similarity of operant selection to Darwinian natural selection in phylogeny. Other major topics discussed in the book included multiple causation, private events, the self, and social contingencies. Among the important antecedents were Skinner's own Behavior of Organisms and Keller & Schoenfeld's Pincinples of Psychology. Current developments in education, behavioral economics, and some behavior therapies can be attributed at least in part to Skinner's seminal work. The effective behavioral analysis of governmental and religious systems will probably depend on elaborations of our understanding of verbal behavior. PMID:14964711

  6. Early childhood antecedents of aggression and passive-withdrawal in early elementary school.

    PubMed

    Renken, B; Egeland, B; Marvinney, D; Mangelsdorf, S; Sroufe, L A

    1989-06-01

    Early childhood antecedents of elementary school aggression and passive-withdrawal were evaluated in a large longitudinal study (N = 191). With teacher ratings as outcome measures, a variety of predictor variables were selected from a comprehensive data base. Predictors were selected to represent several major factors: (a) a developmental history of insecure attachment and poor adjustment; (b) inadequate or hostile parental care; and (c) stressful or chaotic life circumstances. Support was found for the prediction of these behavior problems from early childhood measures (up to one third of the variance), with results varying with sex and outcome measure. Results were stronger for boys than girls, and stronger for aggression than for passive-withdrawal. Boys' outcome was strongly related to attachment classification at 18 months. It is suggested that these findings support Bowlby's view that early acquired "working models" of self and other affect later interpersonal functioning. PMID:2769557

  7. Caregiving Antecedents of Secure Base Script Knowledge: A Comparative Analysis of Young Adult Attachment Representations

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Ryan D.; Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sub-sample (N = 673) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cohort, this paper reports data from a follow-up assessment at age 18 years on the antecedents of secure base script knowledge, as reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related difficulties are recognized, competent help is provided, and the problem is resolved. Secure base script knowledge was (a) modestly to moderately correlated with more well established assessments of adult attachment, (b) associated with mother-child attachment in the first three years of life and with observations of maternal and paternal sensitivity from childhood to adolescence, and (c) partially accounted for associations previously documented in the SECCYD cohort between early caregiving experiences and Adult Attachment Interview states of mind (Booth-LaForce & Roisman, 2014) as well as self-reported attachment styles (Fraley, Roisman, Booth-LaForce, Owen, & Holland, 2013). PMID:25264703

  8. Safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified organisations: antecedents and consequences of safety behaviour.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Muñiz, Beatriz; Montes-Peón, José Manuel; Vázquez-Ordás, Camilo José

    2012-03-01

    The occupational health and safety standard OHSAS 18001 has gained considerable acceptance worldwide, and firms from diverse sectors and of varying sizes have implemented it. Despite this, very few studies have analysed safety management or the safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified organisations. The current work aims to analyse the safety climate in these organisations, identify its dimensions, and propose and test a structural equation model that will help determine the antecedents and consequences of employees' safety behaviour. For this purpose, the authors carry out an empirical study using a sample of 131 OHSAS 18001-certified organisations located in Spain. The results show that management's commitment, and particularly communication, have an effect on safety behaviour and on safety performance, employee satisfaction, and firm competitiveness. These findings are particularly important for management since they provide evidence about the factors that should be encouraged to reduce risks and improve performance in this type of organisation. PMID:22269566

  9. An empirical investigation of dispositional antecedents and performance-related outcomes of credit scores.

    PubMed

    Bernerth, Jeremy B; Taylor, Shannon G; Walker, H Jack; Whitman, Daniel S

    2012-03-01

    Many organizations use credit scores as an employment screening tool, but little is known about the legitimacy of such practices. To address this important gap, the reported research conceptualized credit scores as a biographical measure of financial responsibility and investigated dispositional antecedents and performance-related outcomes. Using personality data collected from employees, objective credit scores obtained from the Fair Isaac Corporation, and performance data provided by supervisors, we found conscientiousness to be positively related and agreeableness to be negatively related to credit scores. Results also indicate significant relationships between credit scores and task performance and organizational citizenship behaviors. Credit scores did not, however, predict workplace deviance. Implications for organizations currently using or planning to use credit scores as part of the screening process are discussed. PMID:22023073

  10. Differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers: developmental antecedents and behavioral comparisons.

    PubMed

    Burton, David L; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually victimized sexual abusers have more severe developmental antecedents (trauma, family characteristics, early exposure to pornography and personality) and recent behavioral difficulties (characteristics of sexual aggression, sexual arousal, use of pornography, and nonsexual criminal behavior) than the nonsexually victimized group. Results are contrasted with recent typological research, which found no relationship between sexual victimization and subtype membership. Treatment, research, and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:21259148

  11. Antecedents and outcomes of abusive supervision: test of a trickle-down model.

    PubMed

    Aryee, Samuel; Chen, Zhen Xiong; Sun, Li-Yun; Debrah, Yaw A

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined antecedents of abusive supervision and the relative importance of interactional and procedural justice as mediators of the relationship between abusive supervision and the work outcomes of affective organizational commitment and individual- and organization-directed citizenship behaviors. Data were obtained from subordinate-supervisor dyads from a telecommunication company located in southeastern China. Results of moderated regression analysis revealed that authoritarian leadership style moderated the relationship between supervisors' perceptions of interactional justice and abusive supervision such that the relationship was stronger for supervisors high rather than low in authoritarian leadership style. In addition, results of structural equation modeling analysis revealed that subordinates' perceptions of interactional but not procedural justice fully mediated the relationship between abusive supervision and the work outcomes. Implications for future investigations of abusive supervision are discussed. PMID:17227160

  12. Water Imbibition into Rock as Affected by Sample Shape, Pore, Conductivity, and Antecedent Water Content

    SciTech Connect

    R.P. Ewing

    2005-08-29

    Infiltration is often presumed to follow Philip's equation, I = st{sup 1/2}, where I is cumulative infiltration, s is sorptivity, and t is time. This form of the equation is appropriate for short times, and/or for negligible gravitational effects. For a uniform soil, this equation describes a plot of log(mass imbibed) versus log(time), with a slope (imbibition exponent) of 1/2. The equation has also been applied to low-porosity rocks, where the extremely small pores render gravitational forces negligible. Experiments recently performed on a wide variety of rocks produced imbibition exponents from 0.2 to 0.5. Many rock types showed initial imbibition proceeding as I {approx} t{sup 1/4}, then later switched to ''normal'' (t{sup 1/2}) behavior. The distance to the wetting front that corresponds to this cross-over behavior was found to be related to the sample shape: tall thin samples are more likely to exhibit the exponent 1/4, and to cross over to 1/2-type behavior later, while short, squat samples are less likely to display the 1/4-type behavior at all. Additionally, the exponents are sensitive to antecedent water content, with initially wetter samples having smaller values. In this study, we present the experimental data, and provide a consistent and physically-based explanation using percolation theory. The analogy between imbibition and diffusion is used to model imbibition into samples with low pore connectivity, with the exponents and their crossover behavior emerging from a random walk process. All laboratory phenomena--different exponents, crossover behavior, and effects of sample shape and antecedent water content--are reproduced by the model, with similar patterns across experiment and simulation. We conclude both that diffusion is a useful and powerful conceptual model for understanding imbibition, and also that imbibition experiments, being simpler than diffusion measurements, can be used to examine diffusive behavior in rock.

  13. Antecedents of Neonatal Encephalopathy in the Vermont Oxford Network Encephalopathy Registry

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Peter; Edwards, Erika M.; Horbar, Jeffrey D.; Kenny, Michael J.; Inder, Terrie; Pfister, Robert H.; Raju, Tonse; Soll, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a major predictor of death and long-term neurologic disability, but there are few studies of antecedents of NE. OBJECTIVES: To identify antecedents in a large registry of infants who had NE. METHODS: This was a maternal and infant record review of 4165 singleton neonates, gestational age of ≥36 weeks, meeting criteria for inclusion in the Vermont Oxford Network Neonatal Encephalopathy Registry. RESULTS: Clinically recognized seizures were the most prevalent condition (60%); 49% had a 5-minute Apgar score of ≤3 and 18% had a reduced level of consciousness. An abnormal maternal or fetal condition predated labor in 46%; maternal hypertension (16%) or small for gestational age (16%) were the most frequent risk factors. In 8%, birth defects were identified. The most prevalent birth complication was elevated maternal temperature in labor of ≥37.5°C in 27% of mothers with documented temperatures compared with 2% to 3.2% in controls in population-based studies. Clinical chorioamnionitis, prolonged membrane rupture, and maternal hypothyroidism exceeded rates in published controls. Acute asphyxial indicators were reported in 15% (in 35% if fetal bradycardia included) and inflammatory indicators in 24%. Almost one-half had neither asphyxial nor inflammatory indicators. Although most infants with NE were observably ill since the first minutes of life, only 54% of placentas were submitted for examination. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically recognized asphyxial birth events, indicators of intrauterine exposure to inflammation, fetal growth restriction, and birth defects were each observed in term infants with NE, but much of NE in this large registry remained unexplained. PMID:23071210

  14. Promoting Trust in the Registered Nurse-Patient Relationship.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Jamie Lynn; Lonneman, William

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of trust in the registered nurse (RN)-patient relationship promotes patient engagement and improves the likelihood that the patient will be an active member of the patient care team. The purpose of this article is to examine nursing literature to identify the antecedents, attributes, and outcomes of trusting relationships between RNs and patients in home healthcare. Antecedents of trust for the RN-patient relationship included 1) meeting a need, 2) respect, 3) attention to time, 4) continuity of care, and 5) the initial visit. Attributes of trust between RN and patient in the home healthcare setting were identified as communication, connection, and reciprocity. For the RN and patient who established mutual trust, patients demonstrated better adaptation and collaboration for improvement of health, expressed a sense of security, and indicated a willingness to engage in additional trusting relationships. Barriers to a trusting relationship included a lack of respect and incompetent and/or unethical care. PMID:26645843

  15. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission. PMID:25982744

  16. Influence of Antecedent Hydrologic Conditions on Nitrate and Phosphorus Export from a Small Agricultural Catchment in Southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macrae, M. L.; English, M. C.; Schiff, S. L.; Stone, M.

    2009-04-01

    The ability of the scientific community to quantify and predict discharge and nutrient transport in a range of settings is confounded by the effects of antecedent hydrologic conditions in upland areas. Previous work has empirically linked spatial variables such as land use, soil type, topography, and drainage characteristics to hydrochemical export from various landscapes (e.g. MCDOWELL et al., 2001; ARHEIMER and LIDEN, 2000; STAMM et al., 1998; JORDAN et al., 1997; WELSCH et al., 2001). However, the specific reasons why similar types of events produce different nutrient export patterns are poorly understood. Nutrient (nitrate, soluble and total phosphorus) transport from agricultural catchments is difficult to quantify and predict because of the influence of variable hydrologic flowpaths and their interaction with varying nutrient pools. This research examines the role of antecedent hydrologic conditions on stream discharge and nitrate (NO3-), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) export from a small (2.7 km2) first-order agricultural catchment in Southern Ontario, Canada. During 59 events occurring over a two-year sampling period (year-round), runoff ratios ranged from 0-0.99). Runoff ratios increased throughout successive events as conditions became wetter although key indices of antecedent wetness such as water table position, pre-event streamflow and soil moisture did not yield predictive relationships. Nitrate, SRP and TP transport from the catchment increased with antecedent wetness during some periods but decreased with antecedent wetness during other periods. This variability appears to be linked to a combination of the position of water table before and during the event, as well as timing of fertilizer application. It is hypothesized that in general, wetter antecedent hydrologic conditions increase nutrient transport from the catchment by increasing macropore connectivity between surface soil horizons and tile drains, although this

  17. Complementation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tumor-inducing aux mutants by genes from the TR-region of the Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    PubMed Central

    Offringa, I. A.; Melchers, L. S.; Regensburg-Tuink, A. J. G.; Costantino, P.; Schilperoort, R. A.; Hooykaas, P. J. J.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper we provide information indicating that the agropine-type root-inducing (Ri) plasmid pRi1855 of Agrobacterium rhizogenes contains functional genes for auxin production (aux) in the right transferred DNA (T-DNA) region (TR-region). These genes were cloned and introduced into the T-region of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmids of mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying an aux mutation. Depending on the Ri aux gene present, the oncogenicity of the Ti aux-1 and/or aux-2 mutations was restored, showing that the Ri aux genes are able to complement the Ti aux genes. Agrobacterium strains with an agropine-type Ri plasmid not only cause hairy root on certain plant species, but they also induce tumors on other plant species. In this paper it is shown that a mutation in either of the aux genes in the Ri plasmid leads to a total loss of tumorigenicity and a strongly diminished rhizogenicity of the host bacterium, revealing that the aux genes are important for tumor and root induction. Agrobacterium strains containing the TR-region but not the TL (left)-region of the Ri plasmid are still tumorigenic on certain plant species but are no longer capable of hairy-root induction. Images PMID:16593762

  18. How different types of users develop trust in technology: A qualitative analysis of the antecedents of active and passive user trust in a shared technology

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Le, Kim; Deitermann, Annika; Montague, Enid

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antecedents of trust in technology for active users and passive users working with a shared technology. According to the prominence-interpretation theory, to assess the trustworthiness of a technology, a person must first perceive and evaluate elements of the system that includes the technology. An experimental study was conducted with 54 participants who worked in two-person teams in a multi-task environment with a shared technology. Trust in technology was measured using a trust in technology questionnaire and antecedents of trust were elicited using an open-ended question. A list of antecedents of trust in technology was derived using qualitative analysis techniques. The following categories emerged from the antecedent: technology factors, user factors, and task factors. Similarities and differences between active users and passive user responses, in terms of trust in technology were discussed. PMID:24882059

  19. Chemical composition and geologic history of saline waters in Aux Vases and Cypress Formations, Illinois Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demir, I.; Seyler, B.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-six samples of formation waters were collected from oil wells producing from the Aux Vases or Cypress Formations in the Illinois Basin. Forty core samples of the reservoir rocks were also collected from the two formations. Analyses of the samples indicated that the total dissolved solids content (TDS) of the waters ranged from 43,300 to 151,400 mg/L, far exceeding the 35,400 mg/mL of TDS found in typical seawater. Cl-Br relations suggested that high salinities in the Aux Vases and Cypress formation waters resulted from the evaporation of original seawater and subsequent mixing of the evaporated seawater with concentrated halite solutions. Mixing with the halite solutions increased Na and Cl concentrations and diluted the concentration of other ions in the formation waters. The elemental concentrations were influenced further by diagenetic reactions with silicate and carbonate minerals. Diagenetic signatures revealed by fluid chemistry and rock mineralogy delineated the water-rock interactions that took place in the Aux Vases and Cypress sandstones. Dissolution of K-feldspar released K into the solution, leading to the formation of authigenic illite and mixed-layered illite/smectite. Some Mg was removed from the solution by the formation of authigenic chlorite and dolomite. Dolomitization, calcite recrystallization, and contribution from clay minerals raised Sr levels significantly in the formation waters. The trend of increasing TDS of the saline formation waters with depth can be explained with density stratification. But, it is difficult to explain the combination of the increasing TDS and increasing Ca/Na ratio with depth without invoking the controversial 'ion filtration' mechanism.

  20. Does antecedent precipitation play a role for floods in (small) Swiss catchments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froidevaux, Paul; Schwanbeck, Jan; Weingartner, Rolf; Chevalier, Clément; Romppainen-Martius, Olivia

    2014-05-01

    River flooding is one of the most devastating natural hazards worldwide. In Switzerland, like in many other regions, the building of flood protection infrastructures is complicated by difficulties in assessing flood risk due to: - The large year-to-year variability in flood losses. The variations amount to several orders of magnitude (see for ex. Hilker et al., 2009). - The non-stationarity of the flood risk at longer time scales. A pronounced decadal variability in flood risk has been observed by Schmocker-Fackel and Naef (2010) and Köplin et al. (2013) show that climate change will induce diverse and complex regional changes in flood risk. A better understanding of flood processes is therefore required in order to better predict changes in flood frequency. It has been hypothesized that flood frequency variations are linked to changes in the atmospheric circulation. Consequently, the whole mechanism chain starting from atmospheric circulation patterns triggering severe precipitation weather and ending with extreme river discharge must be considered. In a step in that direction we characterize precipitation events that triggered observed annual maximum discharges at 120 discharge stations during the last 53 years in Switzerland. The precipitation dataset is a temporally-homogeneous complex interpolation of daily rain gauge data on a 1 by 1 km grid covering the Swiss territory (MeteoSwiss, 2011). We test the relationship between different catchment-averaged precipitation indices and flood occurrence. We explicitly separate antecedent and event-associated precipitation. The preliminary results show that antecedent precipitation (weekly to monthly sums ending 3 days before the event) are no significant flood predictors for most of the catchments. On the other hand, a very strong signal is found for the 1-3 days precipitation sums. Lessons for flood modeling in Swiss catchments is that a strong effort is required in order to represent the flood-associated weather

  1. Antecedent Wetness Conditions based on ERS scatterometer data in support to rainfall-runoff modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocca, L.; Melone, F.; Moramarco, T.

    2009-04-01

    Despite of its small volume compared to other components of the hydrologic cycle, the soil moisture is of fundamental importance to many hydrological, meteorological, biological and biogeochemical processes. For storm rainfall-runoff modeling the estimation of the Antecedent Wetness Conditions (AWC) is one of the most important issues to determine the hydrological response. In this context, this study investigates the potential of the scatterometer on board of the ERS satellites for the assessment of soil wetness conditions at two different scales. The satellite soil moisture data set, available from 1992, is downloaded from the ERS/METOP Soil Moisture archive located at http://www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/radar/index.php?go=ascat. At the local scale, the scatterometer-derived soil wetness index (SWI) data (Wagner, W., Lemoine, G., and Rott, H., 1999. A Method for Estimating Soil Moisture from ERS Scatterometer and Soil Data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 70, 191-207) have been compared with two in-situ soil moisture data sets. At the catchment scale, the reliability of the SWI to estimate the AWC has been tested considering its relationship with the soil potential maximum retention parameter, S, of the Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN) method for abstraction. The parameter S has been derived by considering several flood events occurred from 1992 to 2005 in different catchments of central Italy. The performance of two Antecedent Precipitation Indices (API) and one Base Flow Index (BFI), usually employed in the hydrological practice for the AWC assessment, have been compared with the SWI. The obtained results show a high accuracy of the SWI for the estimation of wetness conditions both at the local and catchment scale despite of the complex orography of the investigated areas (Brocca, L., Melone, F., Moramarco, T., Morbidelli, R., 2009. Antecedent wetness conditions based on ERS scatterometer data. Journal of Hydrology, 364 (1-2), 73-87). At the local scale

  2. Assessment of Potential Cross-Reactivity of Human Endogenous Matrix Metalloproteinases with Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum Antibodies in Human Sera Obtained from Patients with Dupuytren's Contracture

    PubMed Central

    Edkins, Thomas J.; Koller-Eichhorn, Roland; Alhadeff, Jack A.; Mayer, Ulrich; Faust, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) contains a fixed ratio of class I (AUX-I) and class II (AUX-II) collagenases and is used as treatment for Dupuytren's contracture. These two Zn-dependent enzymes, produced by the Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium histolyticum, are related functionally to matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which, among other functions, degrade the extracellular matrix. Since AUX-I and AUX-II exhibit sequence similarities to human MMPs, we assessed MMP-1 (interstitial collagenase), MMP-2 (gelatinase A), MMP-3 (stromelysin 1), MMP-8 (collagenase 2), and MMP-13 (collagenase 3) for cross-reactivity with anti-AUX-I and anti-AUX-II antibodies in patient serum. Serum samples from 71 subjects enrolled in a long-term clinical study (58 males and 13 females; 63 ± 10 years old [mean ± standard error]) were evaluated for cross-reactivity with the five MMPs using the two validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Inhibition cutoff points for anti-AUX-I and anti-AUX-II antibodies were based on assay inhibition obtained with a nonspecific protein, bovine gamma globulin, which was tested for each clinical sample. No MMP cross-reactivity was found for any of the 71 clinical antibody-positive sera evaluated. Sequence identity assessments indicated minimal, nonmeaningful alignments of the MMPs and AUX-I/AUX-II. Furthermore, clinical adverse event assessments indicated no safety signals related to MMP inhibition. The bioanalytical results, sequence identity, and clinical assessments consistently did not demonstrate cross-reactivity between CCH antidrug antibodies and endogenous human matrix metalloproteinases. The results presented here suggest that treatment of Dupuytren's contracture patients with CCH does not lead to any clinical adverse events associated with MMP inhibition. PMID:22357647

  3. Internalizing Antecedents and Consequences of Binge-Eating Behaviors in a Community-Based, Urban Sample of African American Females

    PubMed Central

    Musci, Rashelle J.; Hart, Shelley R.; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of problem-eating behaviors is often overlooked in research as it typically shares many symptoms with other more common psychiatric illnesses. Binge-eating problems are at the forefront of the popular media because of the connection to obesity; therefore, increased knowledge of binge eating problems, particularly the internalizing antecedents and consequences will have implications in a multitude of domains, including prevention programs aimed at physical and mental health. The current study examines the antecedents of binge-eating behaviors by exploring how the growth of internalizing symptoms influences the proximal outcome of a binge-eating inventory in a longitudinal sample of African American girls. Additional consequences of binge-eating problems are also explored. This study focuses on binge-eating problems in order to present valuable information for prevention scientists who wish to develop target individuals at high risk for internalizing problems such as suicide. PMID:23873475

  4. Antecedents of team potency and team effectiveness: an examination of goal and process clarity and servant leadership.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia; Liden, Robert C

    2011-07-01

    Integrating theories of self-regulation with team and leadership literatures, this study investigated goal and process clarity and servant leadership as 3 antecedents of team potency and subsequent team effectiveness, operationalized as team performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Our sample of 304 employees represented 71 teams in 5 banks. Results showed that team-level goal and process clarity as well as team servant leadership served as 3 antecedents of team potency and subsequent team performance and team organizational citizenship behavior. Furthermore, we found that servant leadership moderated the relationships between both goal and process clarity and team potency, such that the positive relationships between both goal and process clarity and team potency were stronger in the presence of servant leadership. PMID:21319877

  5. The effects of antecedent flows on sediment entrainment in a mountain stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, L.; Comiti, F.; Dell'Agnese, A.; Engel, M.; Lucía, A.

    2014-12-01

    Bedload transport in mountain streams is notoriously difficult to measure, and substantial efforts are currently devoted to develop and test reliable surrogate techniques for quantifying bedload transport rates and size. Tracers, and in particular Passive Integrated Transponders (PITs), represent a powerful method to assess particle dynamics. PITs are usually searched after floods using a portable antenna, and grain size of tracers are typically related to the peak of the events. However, antennas fixed on the channel bed have the potential to identify the actual discharge at the time of transport. This work focuses on incipient motion of tracers measured with a stationary antenna in the upper part of a mountain basin (Saldur River, drainage area 18.6 km2, Italian Alps), where a glacier (2.3 km2) determines significant daily discharge fluctuations in summer. During the study period (2011 to 2013) flow discharge ranged from 1 to 10 m3s-1. Almost 600 clasts - ranging in diameter from 40 mm to about 0.5 m - were equipped with PITs and laid in a confined reach (6% slope) of the main channel featuring a bed morphology transitional from plane-bed to step-pool. PITs-clasts were gently placed on the bed surface few meters upstream of an antenna fixed on the channel bed, where flow stage is recorded every 10 min. Preliminary results indicate that discharge at the time of passage above the antenna is only slightly related to the size of transported tracers, providing little evidence of size-selectivity conditions in this stream. The influence of antecedent flows on incipient motion was then investigated dividing the maximum discharge recorded between each PIT placement and its subsequent entrainment by the actual critical discharge at the time of movement (ratio Qmax/Qc). It results that only 45% of tracers moved at Qmax/Qc ~ 1, and 70% of tracers moved at Qmax/Qc < 1.5. Therefore, about 30% of tracers had to previously experience a discharge substantially higher than the

  6. Antecedent moisture content and soil texture effects on infiltration and erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedov, A. I.; Huang, C.; Levy, G. J.

    2006-12-01

    Water infiltration, seal formation, runoff and erosion depend on the soil's inherent properties and surface conditions. Most erosion models consider only soil inherent properties (mainly texture) in assessing infiltration and erosion without consideration of spatial and temporary variation in the surface condition, particularly the antecedent moisture content. We studied the interaction of two different surface conditions, i.e. antecedent moisture content (AMC) and aging (timing after wetting) on infiltration (IR), seal formation (runoff generation) and erosion in four soils varying from loam to clay. Soil samples were packed in erosion box and wetted with different amounts of water (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, or 16 mm) to obtain a wide moisture range (i.e., pF 0-6.2, or from air dry to full saturation). The boxes were put in plastic bags and allowed to age for 0.01, 1, 3, or 7 days. Then the soil in the erosion box exposed to 60 mm of rain. At no aging final IR of soils did not change significantly, but runoff volume (a measure for seal development) and soil loss increased with an increase in AMC mainly because of aggregate breakdown. For any given aging, the highest IR and smallest runoff volume and soil loss were obtained at the intermediate AMC levels (pF 2.4-4.2, between wilting point and field capacity). For instance, in the clay soil to which 3 mm of water (pF~2.7) was added, as aging increased from one to seven days, final IR increased from 5.3 to 7.9 mm h-1, while runoff and soil loss decreased from 34 mm to 22 mm, and from 630 to 360 g m2 respectively. At this AMC range, increasing aging time resulted in up to 40% increase in IR and decrease in runoff or soil loss. This tendency significantly more pronounced for clay soils because water-filled pores in the clay fabric were considered active in the stabilization process and the development of cohesive bonds between and within particles during the aging period. The results of this study are important for soil

  7. The use of sexually explicit internet material and its antecedents: a longitudinal comparison of adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2011-10-01

    An implicit assumption in research on adolescents' use of sexually explicit internet material (SEIM) is that they may feel more attracted to such material than adults, given the "forbidden" character of SEIM for minors. However, systematic comparisons between adolescents' and adults' SEIM use and of its antecedents are missing. We conducted a two-wave panel survey among a nationally representative sample of 1,445 Dutch adolescents and a nationally representative sample of 833 Dutch adults. Adolescents' and adults' SEIM use was similar. When significant differences in the SEIM use occurred, they indicated that adults used SEIM more often than adolescents. Male adults were the most frequent users of SEIM. No difference in the antecedent structure of SEIM use emerged between adolescents and adults. In both groups, males, sensation seekers, as well as people with a not exclusively heterosexual orientation used SEIM more often. Among adolescents and adults, lower life satisfaction increased SEIM use. Our findings suggest that the frequency of SEIM use and its antecedents are largely the same among adolescents and adults. PMID:20623250

  8. Family, employment, and individual resource-based antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nan; Buehler, Cheryl

    2016-07-01

    This study used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,019) to examine family, employment, and individual antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood. Work-family conflict and important confounding factors were controlled. From the family domain, higher income-to-needs ratio and social support were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the employment domain, greater job rewards, benefits of employment for children, and work commitment were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the individual domain, higher maternal education and extroversion were associated with higher work-family enrichment. No family, employment, and individual characteristics were associated with work-family conflict across time except for partner intimacy. In general, the results supported antecedents of work-family enrichment that supply needed resources. The present study contributed to the literature by identifying antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment across early child developmental stages, which goes beyond examinations of particular life stages and a work-family conflict perspective. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26641483

  9. Misperceptions of facial emotions among youth aged 9-14 years who present multiple antecedents of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Hannah; Calkins, Monica E; Kohler, Christian G; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Laurens, Kristin R

    2014-03-01

    Similar to adults with schizophrenia, youth at high risk for developing schizophrenia present difficulties in recognizing emotions in faces. These difficulties might index vulnerability for schizophrenia and play a role in the development of the illness. Facial emotion recognition (FER) impairments have been implicated in declining social functioning during the prodromal phase of illness and are thus a potential target for early intervention efforts. This study examined 9- to 14-year-old children: 34 children who presented a triad of well-replicated antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz), including motor and/or speech delays, clinically relevant internalizing and/or externalizing problems, and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), and 34 typically developing (TD) children who presented none of these antecedents. An established FER task (ER40) was used to assess correct recognition of happy, sad, angry, fearful, and neutral expressions, and facial emotion misperception responses were made for each emotion type. Relative to TD children, ASz children presented an overall impairment in FER. Further, ASz children misattributed neutral expressions to face displaying other emotions and also more often mislabeled a neutral expression as sad compared with healthy peers. The inability to accurately discriminate subtle differences in facial emotion and the misinterpretation of neutral expressions as sad may contribute to the initiation and/or persistence of PLEs. Interventions that are effective in teaching adults to recognize emotions in faces could potentially benefit children presenting with antecedents of schizophrenia. PMID:23378011

  10. Precise AuxPt1−x Alloy Nanoparticle Array of Tunable Composition for Catalytic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Sarah; Lechner, Sebastian J.; Freichels, Helene; Möller, Martin; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2016-01-01

    A 3-dimensional Block Copolymer Micellar nanoLithography (BCML) process was used to prepare AuxPt1−x alloy nanoparticles (NPs) monodisperse in size and composition, strongly anchored onto SiO2-particles (0.2 wt.% AuxPt1−x/SiO2). The particles possess a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and their size could be varied from 3–12 nm. We demonstrate the uniformity of the Au/Pt composition by analyzing individual NPs by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The strongly bound AuxPt1−x NPs catalyzed the oxidation of CO with high activity. Thermal ageing experiments in pure CO2 as well as in ambient atmosphere demonstrated stability of the size distribution for times as long as 22 h. PMID:26856888

  11. Diversity of Stability, Localization, Interaction and Control of Downstream Gene Activity in the Maize Aux/IAA Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Yvonne; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Xu, Changzheng; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-01-01

    AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) proteins are central regulators of auxin signal transduction. They control many aspects of plant development, share a conserved domain structure and are localized in the nucleus. In the present study, five maize Aux/IAA proteins (ZmIAA2, ZmIAA11, ZmIAA15, ZmIAA20 and ZmIAA33) representing the evolutionary, phylogenetic and expression diversity of this gene family were characterized. Subcellular localization studies revealed that ZmIAA2, ZmIAA11 and ZmIAA15 are confined to the nucleus while ZmIAA20 and ZmIAA33 are localized in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Introduction of specific point mutations in the degron sequence (VGWPPV) of domain II by substituting the first proline by serine or the second proline by leucine stabilized the Aux/IAA proteins. While protein half-life times between ∼11 min (ZmIAA2) to ∼120 min (ZmIAA15) were observed in wild-type proteins, the mutated forms of all five proteins were almost as stable as GFP control proteins. Moreover, all five maize Aux/IAA proteins repressed downstream gene expression in luciferase assays to different degrees. In addition, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analyses demonstrated interaction of all five Aux/IAA proteins with RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1, ZmIAA10) while only ZmIAA15 and ZmIAA33 interacted with the RUM1 paralog RUL1 (RUM-LIKE 1, ZmIAA29). Moreover, ZmIAA11, ZmIAA15 ZmIAA33 displayed homotypic interaction. Hence, despite their conserved domain structure, maize Aux/IAA proteins display a significant variability in their molecular characteristics which is likely associated with the wide spectrum of their developmental functions. PMID:25203637

  12. Urban Waste Recycling Behavior: Antecedents of Participation in a Selective Collection Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcés, Conchita; Lafuente, Alberto; Pedraja, Marta; Rivera, Pilar

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the antecedents of urban waste recycling behavior. To achieve this goal, a concrete urban waste management program was chosen. The study focuses on the Selective Collection Program (SCP) in Zaragoza, a medium-sized city in northeastern Spain. The research starts with a conceptual model in which the variables that potentially affect recycling behavior can be classified into two groups: incentives and barriers. Moreover, the sociodemographic characteristics of the individuals are included in our study. Given that the proposed model requires specification of latent variables or constructs, the analysis is based on the Structural Equation Models (SEM) methodology. The results revealed that environmental awareness, knowledge of the environmental impact of urban waste, and the positive perception of management by local government exercise a positive effect on individual recycling behavior, while perceived personal difficulties (space and time availability) and distance to and from the container have a negative effect. As regards sociodemographic variables, this study found that annual family income sustains a negative relationship with recycling behavior, while age maintains a positive one. The results obtained clearly show the important role that the public authorities play, especially municipal governments, in achieving the waste recycling objectives established in accordance with international legislation.

  13. Effects of Antecedent GABA A Receptor Activation on Counterregulatory Responses to Exercise in Healthy Man.

    PubMed

    Hedrington, Maka S; Tate, Donna B; Younk, Lisa M; Davis, Stephen N

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether antecedent stimulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors with the benzodiazepine alprazolam can blunt physiologic responses during next-day moderate (90 min) exercise in healthy man. Thirty-one healthy individuals (16 male/15 female aged 28 ± 1 year, BMI 23 ± 3 kg/m(2)) were studied during separate, 2-day protocols. Day 1 consisted of morning and afternoon 2-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic or hypoglycemic clamps with or without 1 mg alprazolam given 30 min before a clamp. Day 2 consisted of 90-min euglycemic cycling exercise at 50% VO2max. Despite similar euglycemia (5.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L) and insulinemia (46 ± 6 pmol/L) during day 2 exercise studies, GABA A activation with alprazolam during day 1 euglycemia resulted in significant blunting of plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, glucagon, cortisol, and growth hormone responses. Lipolysis (glycerol, nonesterified fatty acids) and endogenous glucose production during exercise were also reduced, and glucose infusion rates were increased following prior euglycemia with alprazolam. Prior hypoglycemia with alprazolam resulted in further reduction of glucagon and cortisol responses during exercise. We conclude that prior activation of GABA A pathways can play a significant role in blunting key autonomous nervous system, neuroendocrine, and metabolic physiologic responses during next-day exercise in healthy man. PMID:25901095

  14. Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Pesce, Caterina; Chiang, Yi-Te; Kuo, Cheng-Yuh; Fong, Dong-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict) control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT), with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate intensity spinning wheel exercise or without antecedent exercise. The ANT combined warning signals prior to targets, spatial cueing of potential target locations and target stimuli surrounded by congruent or incongruent flankers, which were provided to assess three attentional networks. Event-related brain potentials and task performance were measured during the ANT. Exercise resulted in a larger P3 amplitude in the alerting and executive control subtasks across frontal, central and parietal midline sites that was paralleled by an enhanced reaction speed only on trials with incongruent flankers of the executive control network. The P3 latency and response accuracy were not affected by exercise. These findings suggest that after spinning, more resources are allocated to task-relevant stimuli in tasks that rely on the alerting and executive control networks. However, the improvement in performance was observed in only the executively challenging conflict condition, suggesting that whether the brain resources that are rendered available immediately after acute exercise translate into better attention performance depends on the cognitive task complexity. PMID:25914634

  15. Brazilian purpuric fever: epidemic purpura fulminans associated with antecedent purulent conjunctivitis. Brazilian Purpuric Fever Study Group.

    PubMed

    1987-10-01

    In late 1984, 10 children in a small, rural town in Brazil had high fever associated with vomiting and abdominal pain. Within 12-48 h of the onset of fever, purpura developed associated with vascular collapse and peripheral necrosis. All 10 children died. Cerebrospinal fluid examinations did not suggest meningitis and, when done, tests were negative for Neisseria meningitidis. Other culture, serological, and necropsy examinations did not reveal a cause. Case-finding uncovered another cluster of similar illness in children in a second town and sporadic cases in five other cities. Two case-control studies demonstrated that children who became ill were significantly more likely than control children to have had conjunctivitis during the month before illness. This conjunctivitis was purulent, preceded the onset of more severe disease by 3-15 days, and had resolved before fever began. Although no conjunctival cultures were obtained from case-children, Haemophilus aegyptius was the most common pathogen isolated from other conjunctival cultures during the epidemic. This organism was also isolated from a non-aseptic skin scraping from 1 case child. A 25-megadalton plasmid distinguished the H aegyptius isolates epidemiologically associated with illness from other Brazilian conjunctival isolates. Brazilian purpuric fever is a newly recognized syndrome of epidemic purpura fulminans associated with antecedent purulent conjunctivitis, possibly caused by H aegyptius. PMID:2888985

  16. Exploring utilitarian and hedonic antecedents for adopting information from a recommendation agent and unplanned purchase behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Research indicated that in order for properly utilizing recommendation agents (RAs), customers must rationally evaluate capability and suggestions of RAs during the interaction process. However, enjoying interactive processes and interface is also important. Methods for increasing user enjoyment of RAs are yet unknown. This study investigated the influences of utilitarian and hedonic factors on intention to adopt RAs suggestions and their antecedents. Involvement influences relative importance of utilitarian and hedonic factors. Contrary to common assumptions, customers may make unplanned purchases, rather than rational purchase. A field experiment with 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design reveals main findings. First, information diagnosticity and enjoyment enhance adoption intention simultaneously. Information diagnosticity is more important than enjoyment. Diagnosticity was determined by outcome similarity, and enjoyment was determined by both outcome similarity and atmospherics. The context of interacting with RAs is important. Outcome similarity even directly affects adoption intention. Second, highly involved users considered enjoyment and diagnosticity when forming adoption intentions, while users with low involvement only considered enjoyment. Third, information cascades altered the relationship between adoption intention and unplanned purchases. Most customers change selection after seeing ratings from other customers, even if they originally strongly want to adoption suggestion from RAs. Theoretical and managerial implications are proposed.

  17. Modelling antecedents of blood donation motivation among non-donors of varying age and education.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, K P H; Abraham, C; Ruiter, R A C; Veldhuizen, I J T; Dehing, C J G; Bos, A E R; Schaalma, H P

    2009-02-01

    Understanding blood donation motivation among non-donors is prerequisite to effective recruitment. Two studies explored the psychological antecedents of blood donation motivation and the generalisability of a model of donation motivation across groups differing in age and educational level. An older well-educated population and a younger less well-educated population were sampled. The studies assessed the role of altruism, fear of blood/needles and donation-specific cognitions including attitudes and normative beliefs derived from an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Across both samples, results showed that affective attitude, subjective norm, descriptive norm, and moral norm were the most important correlates of blood donation intentions. Self-efficacy was more important among the younger less well-educated group. Altruism was related to donation motivation but only indirectly through moral norm. Similarly, fear of blood/needles only had an indirect effect on motivation through affective attitude and self-efficacy. Additional analyses with the combined data set found no age or education moderation effects, suggesting that this core model of donation-specific cognitions can be used to inform future practical interventions recruiting new blood donors in the general population. PMID:18547458

  18. Predictive statistical models linking antecedent meteorological conditions and waterway bacterial contamination in urban waterways.

    PubMed

    Farnham, David J; Lall, Upmanu

    2015-06-01

    Although the relationships between meteorological conditions and waterway bacterial contamination are being better understood, statistical models capable of fully leveraging these links have not been developed for highly urbanized settings. We present a hierarchical Bayesian regression model for predicting transient fecal indicator bacteria contamination episodes in urban waterways. Canals, creeks, and rivers of the New York City harbor system are used to examine the model. The model configuration facilitates the hierarchical structure of the underlying system with weekly observations nested within sampling sites, which in turn were nested inside of the harbor network. Models are compared using cross-validation and a variety of Bayesian and classical model fit statistics. The uncertainty of predicted enterococci concentration values is reflected by sampling from the posterior predictive distribution. Issuing predictions with the uncertainty reasonably reflected allows a water manager or a monitoring agency to issue warnings that better reflect the underlying risk of exposure. A model using only antecedent meteorological conditions is shown to correctly classify safe and unsafe levels of enterococci with good accuracy. The hierarchical Bayesian regression approach is most valuable where transient fecal indicator bacteria contamination is problematic and drainage network data are scarce. PMID:25813489

  19. Strabismus at Age 2 Years in Children Born Before 28 Weeks' Gestation: Antecedents and Correlates.

    PubMed

    VanderVeen, Deborah K; Allred, Elizabeth N; Wallace, David K; Leviton, Alan

    2016-03-01

    Children born very preterm are at greater risk of ophthalmic morbidities, including strabismus, than children born at term. We evaluated perinatal factors associated with strabismus at age 2 years in a large population of infants delivered before 28 weeks' gestation. A total of 996 infants in the multicenter ELGAN (Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn) study who had a retinal exam in infancy and a developmental assessment at 2 years corrected age are included. Their mothers were interviewed about the pregnancy, and both mother and newborn charts were reviewed. Certified examiners administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and performed an examination of ocular alignment. Time-oriented logistic regression risk models were created to evaluate the associations of characteristics and exposures with the development of strabismus. Overall, 14% (n = 141) of the children had strabismus at 2 years, and 80% of strabismic children had esotropia. Characteristics associated with strabismus were birth before 26 weeks' gestation, severe fetal growth restriction, and maternal history of aspirin ingestion. Associated postnatal factors included a SNAP-II (Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology) illness severity value ≥ 30, brain ventriculomegaly, type I retinopathy of prematurity, and ventilator-dependent severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Strabismus in very preterm populations is associated with a number of antenatal and postnatal antecedents as well as clinical and imaging correlates indicative of brain damage in these children. Routine ophthalmologic assessments in the early years can allow appropriate and timely interventions. PMID:26350726

  20. Relationship between latex yield of Hevea brasiliensis and antecedent environmental parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Shammi; Das, Gitali; Pothen, Jacob; Dey, Sushil Kumar

    2005-01-01

    A study on the relationship between latex yield and antecedent environmental data was undertaken for five clones (RRII203, RRII118, RRIM600, RRII105 and GT1) of Hevea brasiliensis (rubber) in Agartala, northeast India, a region in which rubber is not traditionally cultivated. The explained variance for the regression equations based on parameters determined on the day of tapping and up to 3 days prior to it, varied from 72% to 37% during the NWT period and 94 83% during the WT period. Soil moisture storage, 1 and 3 days prior to tapping, was found to be the primary parameter affecting yield for the NWT and WT periods, respectively. It was observed that the clone RRII105, with a comparatively lower yield to that of RRIM600, was more susceptible to daily WD conditions during the non-winter season. RRIM600 and RRII105 being high-yielding clones were also found to be fairly dependent on the AT of the day prior to tapping. The mean lag period correlation of this parameter with yield was also found to be higher during the WT period than during the NWT period. As a whole, the mean lag period based on prior measurements of environmental variables showed optimum correlation with yield at 15 20 days prior to the day of tapping. The study also confirms that varied responses of yield with environmental factors in this non-traditional region of rubber cultivation depend on clonal character.

  1. Antecedents and outcomes of organizational support for development: the critical role of career opportunities.

    PubMed

    Kraimer, Maria L; Seibert, Scott E; Wayne, Sandy J; Liden, Robert C; Bravo, Jesus

    2011-05-01

    This study examines antecedents and behavioral outcomes of employees' perceptions of organizational support for development. We first propose that employees' past participation in formal developmental activities and experience with developmental relationships positively relate to their perceptions of organizational support for development. We then propose that perceived career opportunity within the organization moderates the relationship between organizational support for development and employee performance and turnover. Using a sample of 264 exempt-level employees and their supervisors, we found that participation in training classes, leader-member exchange, and career mentoring were each positively related to employees' perceptions of organizational support for development. We also found support for the moderator hypotheses. Specifically, development support positively related to job performance, but only when perceived career opportunity within the organization was high. Further, development support was associated with reduced voluntary turnover when perceived career opportunity was high, but it was associated with increased turnover when perceived career opportunity was low. Our study demonstrates that social exchange and career motivation theory work together to explain when and how employees' perceptions of organizational support for development relate to turnover and job performance. PMID:21114356

  2. Anaphoric reference to quantified antecedents: an event-related brain potential study.

    PubMed

    Filik, Ruth; Leuthold, Hartmut; Moxey, Linda M; Sanford, Anthony J

    2011-11-01

    We report an event-related brain potential (ERP) study examining how readers process sentences containing anaphoric reference to quantified antecedents. Previous studies indicate that positive (e.g. many) and negative (e.g. not many) quantifiers cause readers to focus on different sets of entities. For example in Many of the fans attended the game, focus is on the fans who attended (the reference set), and subsequent pronominal reference to this set, as in, Their presence was a boost to the team, is facilitated. In contrast, if many is replaced by not many, focus shifts to the fans who did not attend (the complement set), and reference to this set, as in, Their absence was disappointing, is preferred. In the current studies, the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded while participants read positive or negative quantified statements followed by anaphoric reference to the reference set or complement set. Results showed that the pronoun their elicited a larger N400 following negative than positive quantifiers. There was also a larger N400 on the disambiguating word (presence/absence) for complement set reference following a positive quantifier, and for reference set reference following a negative quantifier. Findings are discussed in relation to theoretical accounts of complement anaphora. PMID:21986293

  3. Examining Antecedents and Consequences of Gambling Passion: The Case of Gambling on Horse Races

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Back, Ki-Joon; Hodgins, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the antecedents and consequences of gambling passion using structural equation modeling to examine relationships among gambling motivation, passion, emotion, and behavioral intentions in the horse racing industry. Methods An onsite survey was conducted with 447 patrons at a horseracing park in South Korea. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Gambling Passion Scale was valid and reliable, resulting in two sub-scales: obsessive passion (OP) and harmonious passion (HP). Results Study results indicated that extrinsic motivation influenced OP whereas intrinsic motivation significantly affected HP. Furthermore, OP was correlated with negative emotion, whereas HP was related to positive emotion. Gamblers' satisfaction was found to be influenced positively by positive emotion and negatively by negative emotion. Finally, satisfaction appeared to affect gamblers' behavioral intentions. Conclusion Study results echoed the notion of distinct and separate gambling motivations and passions among horse racing gamblers. Furthermore, results identified specific areas to which horse racing operators or policy makers should pay special attention in developing effective marketing strategies to promote responsible gambling. PMID:24474985

  4. Examining Antisocial Behavioral Antecedents of Juvenile Sexual Offenders and Juvenile Non-Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    McCuish, Evan C; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R

    2015-08-01

    In prospective longitudinal studies of juvenile offenders, the presence of multiple developmental pathways of antisocial behaviors has consistently been identified. An "antisocial" type of juvenile sex offender (JSO) has also been identified; however, whether antisocial JSOs follow different antisocial pathways has not been examined. In the current study, differences in antisocial pathways within JSOs and between JSOs and juvenile non-sex offenders (JNSOs) were examined. Data on Canadian male incarcerated adolescent offenders were used to identify whether behavioral antecedents differed within JSOs and between JSOs (n = 51) and JNSOs (n = 94). Using latent class analysis (LCA), three behavioral groups were identified. For both JSOs and JNSOs, there was a Low Antisocial, Overt, and Covert group. Overall, there were important within-group differences in the behavioral patterns of JSOs, but these differences resembled differences in the behavioral patterns of their JNSO counterpart. Risk factors including offense history, abuse history, and family history were more strongly associated with the Overt and Covert groups compared with the Low Antisocial group. Implications for JSO assessment practices were discussed. PMID:24487119

  5. Paving the road to war with group membership, appraisal antecedents, and anger.

    PubMed

    Cheung-Blunden, Violet; Blunden, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This study uses appraisal theory, functionalist approach to emotions, and recent theory on group emotions as a basic framework to model the genesis of supporting military action. During the year after the events of 9/11, 588 college students participated in a series of four studies that assessed religious affiliation, appraisal antecedents, anger response to viewing photographs of the 9/11 attack, and support for military action. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that the relation between support for the war and attitudes toward terrorism and relevance could be explained adequately by a model in which anger mediated the effects of attitudes and relevance on support. Attitudes toward terrorism were further identified as mediators that could explain the group effect by Christians. The result was not only generalizable across the conflict in Afghanistan and Iraq, but also in terms of how consent for war manifests itself--outright calls for bloodshed versus more subtle, politically loaded, posturing (e.g. entreaties to "support our troops"). PMID:17786941

  6. Antecedents of Intact Cognition and Dementia at Age 90: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant, George E.; Okereke, Olivia I; Mukamal, Kenneth; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the possible antecedents of both dementia and sustained intact cognition at age 90 among men who underwent a prospective, multidisciplinary assessment from age 19 to 90, with little attrition. Methods A prospective 20-year reassessment of the 196 (out of 268) former Harvard College sophomores who survived until age 70. Begun in 1939 the Study gathered measurements of childhood environment, dominant personality traits, and objective mental and physical health over time, smoking in pack years, alcohol abuse and depression. Questionnaires were obtained every two years and physical exams every five years. Cognitive status was assessed at ages 80, 85 and 90. Results Despite addressing a wide variety health, behavioral and social factors over the lifespan, we observed few predictors with strong association with either intact cognition at age 90 (n = 40) or dementia (n = 44). Univariate analysis revealed seven suggestive predictors of intact cognition at age 90 or of dementia: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, high maternal education, young age of mother at subject’s birth, low BMI, good physical health at 60, and late retirement. Only the first 3 variables: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, and high maternal education remained significant with logistic regression. Conclusions In this prospective study of long-lived, highly educated men several well-known putative predictors of AD did not distinguish those who over the next 20 years developed dementia from those with unimpaired cognition until age 90. PMID:24733646

  7. Bombing alone: tracing the motivations and antecedent behaviors of lone-actor terrorists,.

    PubMed

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige

    2014-03-01

    This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender's grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors' plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article. PMID:24313297

  8. Attitudes antecedent to transition to self-management of a chronic genetic disorder.

    PubMed

    Giarelli, E; Bernhardt, B A; Pyeritz, R E

    2008-10-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is the exemplar of chronic genetic disorders that require multiorgan system management by health care providers (HCPs) and lifelong self-management by affected individuals. This article describes the ways to facilitate transition to self-management (TSM) by the adolescent with MFS. This thematic content analysis uses data collected for a larger grounded theory investigation of TSM of a chronic genetic disorder in adolescents and focuses on the system issues related to transition. A total sample of 107 included three groups of participants: parents (n = 39), adolescents (n = 37, ages 14-21 years) and young adults (n = 16, ages 22-34 years) with MFS, and HCPs (n = 15), including physicians, genetic counselors, and nurses. Data were derived from 180 transcripts of audiotaped interviews and a sociodemographic survey. Frames of mind that are antecedent to transition were belief in the diagnosis, wanting to understand and appreciate the cause and effect of MFS, and willing to share responsibility in problem solving. These frames of mind occurred primarily within the context of the family relationship. Parents taught children self-surveillance as 'listening to one's body'. The parent's fears and need to stay involved in the child's health care slowed the child's independent work on self-management responsibilities. A systematic, institutionalized transition program for adolescents might involve parents and the child soon after diagnosis and incrementally build acknowledgment, understanding, and rapport. PMID:18616734

  9. Antecedents to and outcomes of Rh(D) isoimmunization: Mater Mothers Hospital, Brisbane, 1988-1995.

    PubMed

    Portmann, C; Ludlow, J; Joyce, A; Chan, F Y

    1997-02-01

    We analyzed the antecedents and outcomes of Rh(D) isoimmunization in a local population. Forty-two Rh(D) isoimmunized women attending Mater Mothers Hospital for antenatal care were identified through the Mater Hospital Blood Bank database; their records were reviewed for variables including sensitizing events, obstetric interventions and pregnancy outcomes. In this group, 74% of women became sensitized despite receiving anti-D immune globulin, 17% did not receive anti-D appropriately and the other failed to attend for treatment of bleeding in pregnancy. Antenatal sensitization was implicated in 6 women (14%) and potentially responsible for isoimmunization in another 18. Over half of the 80 viable pregnancies in this study group required some form of obstetric intervention. Thirty pregnancies required amniocentesis and 1 in 3 babies underwent either intrauterine or exchange transfusion. Three fetal deaths occurred as a result of severe disease. This study offers information highlighting circumstances in which immunoprophylaxis guidelines have failed to impart protection against Rh(D) sensitization and the consequences of such failures. PMID:9075540

  10. Racism, ideology, and affirmative action revisited: the antecedents and consequences of "principled objections" to affirmative action.

    PubMed

    Federico, Christopher M; Sidanius, Jim

    2002-04-01

    In 2 studies, the antecedents and consequences of "principled objections" to affirmative action (specific, "race-neutral" reasons for opposing the policy) among Whites were examined. In Study 1. data from a probability sample of Los Angeles adults indicated the following: (a) that principled-objection endorsement was driven not merely by race-neutral values but also by dominance-related concerns like racism; (b) that principled objections mediated the effects of group dominance; and (c) that education strengthened-rather than attenuated-the relationship between dominance-related concerns and principled objections. whereas it left the relationship between race-neutral values and the latter essentially unchanged. In Study 2, the education findings were conceptually replicated in a panel study of undergraduates: The completion of additional years of college boosted the correlation between racism and principled objections, whereas it had no effect on the predictive power of conservatism. These results provide support for a general group-dominance approach, which suggests that factors like racism continue to shape White opposition to race-targeted policies. PMID:11999919

  11. A note on emotion appraisal and burnout: the mediating role of antecedent-focused coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Nizielski, Sophia; Hallum, Suhair; Schütz, Astrid; Lopes, Paulo N

    2013-07-01

    Burnout is a serious problem in the profession of teaching. Previous studies have found that teachers with high perceived abilities to appraise emotions tend to experience symptoms of burnout less frequently than others. The aim of this study was to investigate processes that may underlie this relation. We hypothesized that teachers' perceived abilities to appraise their own and others' emotions would facilitate proactive coping and attending to student needs. In turn, these antecedent-focused regulation strategies were expected to help teachers deal with emotionally demanding situations at work. We tested the hypotheses using multiple mediation analyses of self-report data from 300 teachers, controlling for general perceived self-efficacy, teaching experience, work demands, and school-level effects. Results showed that both proactive coping and attending to student needs constituted mediators of the relations between self-emotion appraisal and burnout as well as between other-emotion appraisal and burnout. Although we cannot infer causality from the present data, the perceived abilities to appraise their own emotions and those of others may help to protect teachers from burnout by enabling them to prevent potential stressors and to engage with their students effectively. PMID:23834450

  12. Academic Performance Antecedent Scale: validation with native and recent immigrant children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ru-Jer; Kuo, Kung-Bin; Cheng, Chien-Ming; Hsieh, Pei-Jung; Wang, Han-Yu; Chang, Ya-Wen; Shen, Chia-Yi

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to assess the measurement invariance of the three subscales of the newly developed Academic Performance Antecedent Scale (APAS)--School Factors, Mother's Parenting Style, and Individual Factors--across native and new immigrant children in Taiwan. The study sample comprised 527 Grade 4 students (M age = 10.4 yr., SD = 0.6), 263 boys and 264 girls. The three groups were urban and rural children of Taiwanese natives (n = 343, 65.1%), and 184 children with non-Taiwanese mothers (34.9%). The four-factor structure of the School Factors Subscale, the three-factor structure of the Mother's Parenting Style Subscale, and the five-factor structure of the Individual Factors Subscale all showed at least acceptable fit for the groups. In addition, metric invariance was confirmed for the School Factors and Individual Factors Subscales. Metric invariance was partially obtained for the Mother's Parenting Style Subscale. The findings provide validity evidences for cross-cultural generalizability of the APAS. PMID:24245069

  13. Antecedents and consequences of customer-company identification: expanding the role of relationship marketing.

    PubMed

    Ahearne, Michael; Bhattacharya, C B; Gruen, Thomas

    2005-05-01

    This article presents an empirical test of organizational identification in the context of customer-company (C-C) relationships. It investigates whether customers identify with companies and what the antecedents and consequences of such identification are. The model posits that perceived company characteristics, construed external image, and the perception of the company's boundary-spanning agent lead to C-C identification. In turn, such identification is expected to impact both in-role behavior (i.e., product utilization) as well as extra-role behavior (i.e., citizenship). The model was tested in a consultative selling context of pharmaceutical sales reps calling on physicians. Results from the empirical test indicated that customers do indeed identify with organizations and that C-C identification positively impacts both product utilization behavior and extra-role behavior even when the effect of brand perception is accounted for. Second, the study found that the organization's characteristics as well as the salesperson's characteristics contributed to the development of C-C identification. PMID:15910151

  14. Distinct longitudinal patterns of absenteeism and their antecedents in full-time Australian employees.

    PubMed

    Magee, Christopher A; Caputi, Peter; Lee, Jeong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated distinct longitudinal trajectories of absenteeism over time, and underlying demographic, work, and health antecedents. Data from the Household, Income, and Labor Dynamics in Australia Survey were used; this is a panel study of a representative sample of Australian households. This paper focused on 2,481 full-time employees across a 5-year period. Information on annual sick leave and relevant sociodemographic, work, and health-related factors was collected through interviews and self-completed surveys. Growth mixture modeling indicated 4 distinct longitudinal patterns of absenteeism over time. The moderate absenteeism trajectory (34.8%) of the sample had 4-5 days of sick leave per year and was used as the reference group. The low absenteeism trajectory (33.5%) had 1-2 days of absenteeism per year, while the no absenteeism trajectory (23.6%) had very low rates of absenteeism (<1 day per year). Finally, a smaller trajectory accounting for 8.1% of the sample had high levels of absenteeism (>11 days per year). Compared with the moderate absenteeism trajectory, the high absenteeism trajectory was characterized by poor health; the no absenteeism and low absenteeism trajectories had better health but may also reflect processes relating to presenteeism. These results provide important insights into the nature of absenteeism in Australian employees, and suggest that different patterns of absenteeism over time could reflect a range of demographic, work, and health related factors. PMID:25938167

  15. Unraveling care integration: Assessing its dimensions and antecedents in the Italian Health System.

    PubMed

    Calciolari, Stefano; Ilinca, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, consensus has grown on the need to organize health systems around the concept of care integration to better confront the challenges associated with demographic trends and financial sustainability. However, care integration remains an imprecise umbrella term in both the academic and policy arenas. In addition, little substantive knowledge exists on the success factors for integration initiatives. We propose a composite measure of care integration and a conceptual framework suggesting its relationships with three types of antecedents: contextual, cultural, and organizational factors. Our framework was tested using data from the Italian National Health System (NHS). We administered an ad-hoc questionnaire to all Italian local health units (LHUs), with a 60.4% response rate, and used structural equation modeling to assess the relationships between the relevant latent constructs. The results validated our measure of care integration and supported the hypothesized relationships. In particular, integration was found to be fostered by results-oriented institutional settings, a professional culture conducive to inclusiveness and shared goals, and organizational arrangements promoting clear expectations among providers. Thus, integration improves care and mediates the effects of specific operating means on care enhancement. PMID:26725643

  16. Bombing Alone: Tracing the Motivations and Antecedent Behaviors of Lone-Actor Terrorists*,†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender’s grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors’ plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article. PMID:24313297

  17. Staff-reported antecedents to aggression in a post-acute brain injury treatment programme: what are they and what implications do they have for treatment?

    PubMed

    Giles, Gordon Muir; Scott, Karen; Manchester, David

    2013-01-01

    Research in psychiatric settings has found that staff attribute the majority of in-patient aggression to immediate environmental stressors. We sought to determine if staff working with persons with brain injury-related severe and chronic impairment make similar causal attributions. If immediate environmental stressors precipitate the majority of aggressive incidents in this client group, it is possible an increased focus on the management of factors that initiate client aggression may be helpful. The research was conducted in a low-demand treatment programme for individuals with chronic cognitive impairment due to acquired brain injury. Over a six-week period, 63 staff and a research assistant reported on 508 aggressive incidents. Staff views as to the causes of client aggression were elicited within 72 hours of observing an aggressive incident. Staff descriptions of causes were categorised using qualitative methods and analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Aggression towards staff was predominantly preceded by (a) actions that interrupted or redirected a client behaviour, (b) an activity demand, or (c) a physical intrusion. The majority of aggressive incidents appeared hostile/angry in nature and were not considered by staff to be pre-meditated. Common treatment approaches can be usefully augmented by a renewed focus on interventions aimed at reducing antecedents that provoke aggression. Possible approaches for achieving this are considered. PMID:23782342

  18. Predicting Short Term Runoff Efficiency Using Antecedent Soil Moisture Estimates From Ground Penetrating Radar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermance, J. F.; Bohidar, R. N.

    2002-05-01

    Hydrologists universally recognize the importance of antecedent soil moisture conditions for predicting the response of catchments to storm events. We describe a pilot study involving a series of repeat geophysical measurements over a 5 month period to determine the water content of the subsurface immediately before a sequence of precipitation events. We correlate the resultant streamflow "response" of the local catchment to each event with the antecedent soil moisture at our reference site using a metric commonly employed by hydrologists: the ratio Qef/W, referred to here as the "short term runoff efficiency", which is simply the time-integrated volume of event flow (Qef) at the catchment's outflow point normalized by the volume of total precipitation (W) over its area. To determine the volumetric water content (Cw) of soils, past studies suggest the effectiveness of pulsed radio frequency methods, such as time domain reflectometry (TDR), or ground-penetrating radar (GPR). To first order, for typical field conditions and procedures, the velocity of a radio pulse in the subsurface is inversely proportional to the square root of the bulk dielectric constant, which in turn is proportional to the soil's water content. For this study, the advantage of GPR over conventional TDR measurements is that the GPR procedure determines average velocities from two-way traveltimes to an interface at depth, resulting in estimates of average physical properties over much larger volumes of the subsurface than would TDR. Our hydrologic data are USGS daily averaged discharges from the Ten Mile River (watershed area = 138 km2; 53.2 mi2) in southern New England. Daily values of precipitation were provided by personnel from the Seekonk Water District Office (MA) adjacent to the field site. Our hydrograph separation was facilitated by the observation that the event flow seems to be adequately represented by a simple composite cascaded linear reservoir model. The GPR data involved a series

  19. Innate Immune Response to LPS in Airway Epithelium Is Dependent on Chronological Age and Antecedent Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Maniar-Hew, Kinjal; Clay, Candice C.; Postlethwait, Edward M.; Evans, Michael J.; Fontaine, Justin H.

    2013-01-01

    The immune mechanisms for neonatal susceptibility to respiratory pathogens are poorly understood. Given that mucosal surfaces serve as a first line of host defense, we hypothesized that the innate immune response to infectious agents may be developmentally regulated in airway epithelium. To test this hypothesis, we determined whether the expression of IL-8 and IL-6 in airway epithelium after LPS exposure is dependent on chronological age. Tracheas from infant, juvenile, and adult rhesus monkeys were first exposed to LPS ex vivo, and then processed for air–liquid interface primary airway epithelial cell cultures and secondary LPS treatment in vitro. Compared with adult cultures, infant and juvenile cultures expressed significantly reduced concentrations of IL-8 after LPS treatment. IL-8 protein in cultures increased with animal age, whereas LPS-induced IL-6 protein was predominantly associated with juvenile cultures. Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway RT-PCR arrays showed differential expressions of multiple mRNAs in infant cultures relative to adult cultures, including IL-1α, TLR10, and the peptidoglycan recognition protein PGLYRP2. To determine whether the age-dependent cytokine response to LPS is reflective of antecedent exposures, we assessed primary airway epithelial cell cultures established from juvenile monkeys housed in filtered air since birth. Filtered air–housed animal cultures exhibited LPS-induced IL-8 and IL-6 expression that was discordant with age-matched ambient air–housed animals. A single LPS aerosol in vivo also affected this cytokine profile. Cumulatively, our findings demonstrate that the innate immune response to LPS in airway epithelium is variable with age, and may be modulated by previous environmental exposures. PMID:23600597

  20. The role of antecedent soil moisture on variability of the North American Monsoon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Qian, Y.; Leung, R.

    2006-12-01

    We evaluate the influence of soil moisture anomalies on the timing and strength of North American Monsoon system (NAMS) precipitation using the MM5 mesoscale climate model coupled with the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model. Our experiments are motivated by results of previous data analysis that has evaluated the role of land surface conditions on variations in monsoon precipitation in the Arizona-New Mexico northwestern Mexico subregions of the NAMS region. These previous studies showed that soil moisture memory can propagate winter precipitation anomalies, and hence land surface cooling, through the dry spring season and into early summer. The effect is greater in NW Mexico where the monsoon begins earlier than in the southwestern U.S. We further investigate this land surface feedback mechanism through a set of coupled model runs using MM5/VIC. These coupled runs are consistent with the previous off-line runs to the extent that the VIC land surface scheme is the basis for soil moisture prediction in both. MM5/VIC control runs together with a set of sensitivity experiments in which soil moisture is prescribed to field capacity, wilting point and VIC soil moisture climatology, respectively, during pre-monsoon seasons (April-June) are used to examine the influence of antecedent (above-normal, below-normal and normal) soil moisture on pre-monsoon (May and June) surface temperature. Surface temperature, and its contrast with sea surface temperature, is a key driver of the onset of the NAMS. These experiments are intended to better understand the role of land- atmosphere feedbacks on the NAMS by testing a range of land surface and climate conditions in the coupled modeling environment.

  1. The role of antecedent soil moisture on variability of the North American Monsoon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C.; Qian, Y.; Leung, R.; Gochis, D.; Cavazos, T.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2007-05-01

    We evaluate the influence of soil moisture anomalies on the timing and strength of North American Monsoon system (NAMS) precipitation through analysis of retrospective data sets including off-line simulations with the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model, and through coupled model simulations using the MM5 mesoscale climate model coupled with the VIC land surface scheme. The role of land surface conditions on variations in monsoon precipitation in the Arizona-New Mexico and northwestern Mexico subregions of the North American Monsoon region are evaluated. The retrospective data analysis shows that soil moisture memory can propagate winter precipitation anomalies, and hence land surface cooling, through the dry spring season and into early summer. The effect is greater in NW Mexico where the monsoon begins earlier than in the southwestern U.S. We further investigate this land surface feedback mechanism through a set of coupled model runs using MM5/VIC. These coupled runs are consistent with the previous off-line runs to the extent that the VIC land surface scheme is the basis for soil moisture prediction in both. MM5/VIC control runs together with a set of sensitivity experiments in which soil moisture is prescribed to field capacity, wilting point and VIC soil moisture climatology, respectively, during pre-monsoon seasons (April-June) are used to examine the influence of antecedent (above-normal, below-normal and normal) soil moisture on pre-monsoon (May and June) surface temperature. Surface temperature, and its contrast with sea surface temperature, is a key driver of the onset of the NAMS. These experiments are intended to better understand the role of land-atmosphere feedbacks on the NAMS by testing a range of land surface and climate conditions in the coupled modeling environment.

  2. Mental Health Antecedents of Early Midlife Insomnia: Evidence from a Four-Decade Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Gregory, Alice M.; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, HonaLee; Parsons, Michael; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insomnia is a highly prevalent condition that constitutes a major public health and economic burden. However, little is known about the developmental etiology of adulthood insomnia. Design: We examined whether indicators of psychological vulnerability across multiple developmental periods (psychiatric diagnoses in young adulthood and adolescence, childhood behavioral problems, and familial psychiatric history) predicted subsequent insomnia in adulthood. Setting and Participants: We used data from the ongoing Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a population-representative birth cohort study of 1,037 children in New Zealand who were followed prospectively from birth (1972–1973) through their fourth decade of life with a 95% retention rate. Measurements: Insomnia was diagnosed at age 38 according to DSM-IV criteria. Psychiatric diagnoses, behavioral problems, and family psychiatric histories were assessed between ages 5 and 38. Results: In cross-sectional analyses, insomnia was highly comorbid with multiple psychiatric disorders. After controlling for this concurrent comorbidity, our results showed that individuals who have family histories of depression or anxiety, and who manifest lifelong depression and anxiety beginning in childhood, are at uniquely high risk for age-38 insomnia. Other disorders did not predict adulthood insomnia. Conclusions: The link between lifelong depression and anxiety symptoms and adulthood insomnia calls for further studies to clarify the neurophysiological systems or behavioral conditioning processes that may underlie this association. Citation: Goldman-Mellor S, Gregory AM, Caspi A, Harrington H, Parsons M, Poulton R, Moffitt TE. Mental health antecedents of early midlife insomnia: evidence from a four-decade longitudinal study. SLEEP 2014;37(11):1767-1775. PMID:25364072

  3. Separation of Plasma Thromboplastin Antecedent from Kallikrein by the Plasma α2-Macroglobulin, Kallikrein Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Harpel, Peter C.

    1971-01-01

    Plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA, factor XI) is an important intermediate in the intrinsic coagulation system, and plasma kallikrein has been implicated as a mediator of the inflammatory process. Whereas their biologic activities are functionally distinct, their identity as separate entities in plasma has not been fully established, and the nature of their plasma inhibitors has not been completely characterized. A partially purified preparation containing the clotting, tosyl arginine methyl ester (TAMe) esterase and kinin-producing activities of these substances has been prepared by DEAE-cellulose chromatography of a Celite eluate obtained from acid-treated human plasma. These activities were not separable by acrylamide gel electrophoresis nor by isoelectric focusing, their pI being approximately 8.7. Human plasma α2-macroglobulin has been shown to inhibit the proteolytic activity of kallikrein and to inhibit partially its TAMe esterase activity. An α2-macroglobulin, PTA, kallikrein incubation mixture was separated by gel filtration chromatography. The α2-macroglobulin formed a high molecular weight complex with kallikrein and appeared in early chromatographic fractions. The PTA-clotting activity was not inhibited by the α2-macroglobulin; 64% of the initial PTA activity was isolated in later fractions free of kallikrein-induced kinin-like activity. In contrast, clotting, TAMe esterase, and kinin-forming activities were inhibited after gel filtration chromatography of an incubation mixture of these activities and partially purified C1̄ inactivator (C1 esterase inhibitor). Electrofocusing of an incubation mixture of an activated PTA, kallikrein preparation, and α2-macroglobulin resulted in the isolation of a PTA fraction free of kallikrein proteolytic activity, and with 4% of the original TAMe esterase activity. In this manner, activated PTA and plasma kallikrein have been shown to be distinct substances, and methods have been introduced for the further

  4. Antenatal Antecedents of Cognitive Impairment at 24 Months In Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns

    PubMed Central

    O’Shea, Thomas M.; Kuban, Karl C. K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Hecht, Jonathan L.; Dammann, Olaf; Paneth, Nigel; McElrath, T. F.; Onderdonk, Andrew; Leviton, Alan

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Extremely low gestational age neonates are more likely than term infants to develop cognitive impairment. Few studies have addressed antenatal risk factors of this condition. We identified antenatal antecedents of cognitive impairment determined by the Mental Development Index (MDI) portion of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition (BSID-II), at 24 months corrected age. METHODS: We studied a multicenter cohort of 921 infants born before 28 weeks of gestation during 2002 to 2004 and assessed their placentas for histologic characteristics and microorganisms. The mother was interviewed and her medical record was reviewed. At 24 months adjusted age, children were assessed with BSID-II. Multinomial logistic models were used to estimate odds ratios. RESULTS: A total of 103 infants (11%) had an MDI <55, and 99 infants (11%) had an MDI between 55 and 69. No associations were identified between organisms recovered from the placenta and developmental delay. Factors most strongly associated with MDI <55 were thrombosis of fetal vessels (OR 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2, 7.7), maternal BMI >30 (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.5), maternal education ≤12 years (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.9, 6.2), nonwhite race (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.3, 3.8), birth weight z score < −2 (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.1, 6.9), and male gender (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.6, 4.5). CONCLUSIONS: Antenatal factors, including thrombosis of fetal vessels in the placenta, severe fetal growth restriction, and maternal obesity, convey information about the risk of cognitive impairment among extremely premature newborns. PMID:22331342

  5. The adult antisocial syndrome with and without antecedent conduct disorder: comparisons from an adoption study.

    PubMed

    Langbehn, D R; Cadoret, R J

    2001-01-01

    DSM antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) requires a retrospective diagnosis of conduct disorder-historical behavior not present in everyone with adult ASPD criteria. Using adoption study data, we examined the impact of this requirement on biological and environmental risk associations. We also compared clinical correlates of adult antisocial behavior with and without prior conduct disorder. We defined three subgroups: DSM-III ASPD (n = 30), adult antisocials without conduct disorder (n = 25), and controls (n = 142). By design, the sample had a high incidence of biological parent ASPD, which was partially confounded with fetal alcohol exposure. We compared the associations of both of these putative risk factors with subgroup membership after controlling for gender and adverse adoptive environment. We also examined differences in two sociopathy scales and the incidence of co-occurring affective, alcohol, and other substance use disorders. Finally, we explored differences in individual antisocial symptoms. Having an antisocial biological parent was a specific risk factor for ASPD. In contrast, fetal alcohol exposure, male gender, and adverse environment were associated with the adult antisocial syndrome, regardless of conduct disorder history. The two antisocial groups were similar with respect to sociopathy scales, co-occurring diagnoses, and the incidence of most individual symptoms. However, several adult and conduct disorder symptoms had significant specific associations with biological or environmental background or their interaction. Phenotypic expression of the biological-possibly genetic-risk for ASPD appears to be manifest before adulthood. The influence of other risk factors may not depend on antecedent conduct disorder. Despite this, we could not detect clinically important differences between the two sociopathic groups. The conduct disorder requirement therefore may be more relevant to etiological than clinical understanding of adult antisocial behavior

  6. A covariance structure model test of antecedents of adolescent alcohol misuse and a prevention effort.

    PubMed

    Dielman, T E; Shope, J T; Butchart, A T; Campanelli, P C; Caspar, R A

    1989-01-01

    As part of an alcohol misuse prevention evaluation, questionnaires were administered to 4,157 junior high school students to determine levels of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem. A conceptual model of the antecedents of adolescent alcohol misuse and the effectiveness of a prevention effort was tested using covariance structure modeling techniques. The factor loadings for the model were all moderate to high, indicating that the observed variables served well as measurement instruments for the latent variables. The hypothesized structural relationships among the latent variables of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem were supported by the data. The full model explained 45 percent of the variance in alcohol misuse in the analysis based on the total sample. The direct effect of the intervention on alcohol misuse was small but significant in the hypothesized direction. The direct effects of the intervention on susceptibility to peer pressure and internal health locus of control were not significant. The model was tested separately for groups of students who had high versus low scores on susceptibility to peer pressure in order to test the interaction between susceptibility to peer pressure and exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol. The percentage of variance accounted for in alcohol misuse did not increase upon testing the model separately for students who had high versus low scores on susceptibility to peer pressure. Observed differences in the significance of the parameter estimates between the high and low susceptibility to peer pressure groups suggest that different approaches to the design and evaluation of substance abuse prevention programs may be necessary for different subgroups of students. PMID:2621540

  7. The impact of antecedent fire area on burned area in southern California coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Price, Owen F; Bradstock, Ross A; Keeley, Jon E; Syphard, Alexandra D

    2012-12-30

    Frequent wildfire disasters in southern California highlight the need for risk reduction strategies for the region, of which fuel reduction via prescribed burning is one option. However, there is no consensus about the effectiveness of prescribed fire in reducing the area of wildfire. Here, we use 29 years of historical fire mapping to quantify the relationship between annual wildfire area and antecedent fire area in predominantly shrub and grassland fuels in seven southern California counties, controlling for annual variation in weather patterns. This method has been used elsewhere to measure leverage: the reduction in wildfire area resulting from one unit of prescribed fire treatment. We found little evidence for a leverage effect (leverage = zero). Specifically our results showed no evidence that wildfire area was negatively influenced by previous fires, and only weak relationships with weather variables rainfall and Santa Ana wind occurrences, which were variables included to control for inter-annual variation. We conclude that this is because only 2% of the vegetation burns each year and so wildfires rarely encounter burned patches and chaparral shrublands can carry a fire within 1 or 2 years after previous fire. Prescribed burning is unlikely to have much influence on fire regimes in this area, though targeted treatment at the urban interface may be effective at providing defensible space for protecting assets. These results fit an emerging global model of fire leverage which position California at the bottom end of a continuum, with tropical savannas at the top (leverage = 1: direct replacement of wildfire by prescribed fire) and Australian eucalypt forests in the middle (leverage ~ 0.25). PMID:23064248

  8. Soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, William F.; Berg, Joseph M.; Bradley, Elspeth; Cheetham, Tom; Denton, Richard; Heng, John; Hennen, Brian; Joyce, David; Kelly, Maureen; Korossy, Marika; Lunsky, Yona; McMillan, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Mettre à jour les lignes directrices canadiennes de 2006 sur les soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) et présenter des recommandations pratiques fondées sur les connaissances actuelles pour traiter des problèmes de santé particuliers chez des adultes ayant une DD. Qualité des preuves Des professionnels de la santé expérimentés participant à un colloque et un groupe de travail subséquent ont discuté et convenu des révisions aux lignes directrices de 2006 en se fondant sur une recherche documentaire exhaustive, la rétroaction obtenue des utilisateurs du guide de pratique et les expériences cliniques personnelles. La plupart des preuves disponibles dans ce domaine viennent de l’opinion d’experts ou de déclarations consensuelles publiées (niveau III). Message principal Les adultes ayant une DD ont des problèmes de santé complexes, dont plusieurs diffèrent de ceux de la population en général. De bons soins primaires permettent d’identifier les problèmes de santé particuliers dont souffrent les adultes ayant une DD pour améliorer leur qualité de vie et leur accès aux soins de santé et prévenir la morbidité et le décès prématuré. Ces lignes directrices résument les problèmes de santé générale, physique, comportementale et mentale des adultes ayant une DD que devraient connaître les professionnels des soins primaires et présentent des recommandations pour le dépistage et la prise en charge en se basant sur les connaissances actuelles que les cliniciens peuvent mettre en pratique. En raison de l’interaction des facteurs biologiques, psychoaffectifs et sociaux qui contribuent à la santé et au bien-être des adultes ayant une DD, ces lignes directrices insistent sur la participation des aidants, l’adaptation des interventions, au besoin, et la consultation auprès de divers professionnels de la santé quand ils sont accessibles. Elles mettent aussi en évidence la

  9. The Effects of Antecedent Exercise on Motor Function Recovery and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression after Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gyeyeop; Kim, Eunjung

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] In the present study, we investigated the effect of antecedent exercise on functional recovery and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression following focal cerebral ischemia injury. [Subjects] The rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was employed. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group I included untreated normal rats (n=10); Group II included untreated rats with focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); Group III included rats that performed treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training after focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); and Group IV included rats that performed antecedent treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training before focal cerebral ischemia (n=10) as well as treadmill exercise after ischemia. At different time points (1, 7, 14, and 21 days) Garcia’s score, and the hippocampal expressions level of BDNF were examined. [Results] In the antecedent exercise group, improvements in the motor behavior index (Garcia’s score) were observed and hippocampal BDNF protein expression levels increased. [Conclusion] These results indicate that antecedent treadmill exercise, before permanent brain ischemia exerts a neuroprotective effect against ischemia brain injury by improving motor performance and increasing the level of BDNF expression. Furthermore, the antecedent treadmill exercise of appropriate intensity is critical for post-stroke rehabilitation. PMID:24259800

  10. Antecedents and outcomes of level and rates of change in perceived control: The moderating role of age.

    PubMed

    Infurna, Frank J; Okun, Morris A

    2015-10-01

    Perceived control is interrelated with aging-related outcomes across adulthood and old age. Relatively little is known, however, about resources as antecedents of longitudinal change in perceived control and the role of perceived control as a buffer against mortality risk when these resources are low. We examined functional limitations, depressive symptoms, and emotional support as antecedents of level and rates of change in perceived control and whether level and rates of change in perceived control buffer the relations between high functional limitations and depressive symptoms and lack of emotional support and mortality risk. In addition, age was investigated as a moderator of these associations. To do so, we used 16-year longitudinal data from participants in the Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) Study who were at least 40 years old at Wave 1 (N = 2,540; mean age = 62.85, SD = 12.15; 65% women). With respect to the antecedents of perceived control, results indicated that more functional limitations and depressive symptoms, as well as having less emotional support, were each associated with lower levels of and stronger declines in perceived control over time. Additionally, more functional limitations and less emotional support were more detrimental to levels of perceived control in midlife compared to old age. Focusing on outcomes of perceived control, more positive rates of change in perceived control protected against mortality risk for those with fewer functional limitations and depressive symptoms and more emotional support, and this was more pronounced for functional limitations and depressive symptoms in old age as compared to midlife. Our discussion focuses on the complex interplay among perceived control, functional limitations, depressive symptoms, and emotional support; how they vary with age; and the implications of our findings for interventions. PMID:26214226

  11. Effects of antecedent land cover on physical, chemical, and biological responses to urbanization in streams across the conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuffney, T. F.; Qian, S.

    2012-12-01

    The effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of streams were assessed across gradients of urbanization in 9 metropolitan areas of the conterminous US (Boston, MA; Raleigh; NC, Birmingham, AL; Atlanta, GA; Milwaukee-Green Bay, WI; Denver, CO; Dallas-Fort Worth, TX; Salt Lake City, UT; and Portland, OR) as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program. Gradients of urbanization were established on the basis of a multimetric index of urban intensity that combined land cover, population, and road density. Simple regression models established that the condition of biological communities (e.g., invertebrate responses) showed statistically significant degradation as urbanization increased in six (Boston, Raleigh, Birmingham, Atlanta, Salt Lake, and Portland) of the nine metropolitan areas. Multiple regression models incorporating basin-scale land cover (e.g., forest, agricultural land) and environmental variables (e.g., water temperature, chemistry, hydrology) did not substantially improve the explanatory power of the regressions and could not explain differences in responses among metropolitan areas. Multilevel hierarchical models incorporating basin- and regional-scale predictors demonstrated that regional-scale climate (air temperature and precipitation) and antecedent land cover (i.e., land cover being converted to urban) predicted invertebrate responses to urbanization. The lack of identifiable urban responses for Milwaukee-Green Bay, Denver, and Dallas-Fort Worth were associated with high levels of antecedent agriculture (row crops and grazing) that degraded the biological communities and obscured the effects of urbanization. Urbanization was associated with increases in conductivity, nutrients, pesticides, and hydrologic variability. Levels of these variables at background sites were higher in regions with high antecedent agriculture; consequently, the effects of urbanization appeared to be

  12. Effects of antecedent hydrologic conditions, time dependence, and climate cycles on the suspended sediment load of the Salinas River, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Andrew B.; Pasternack, Gregory B.; Watson, Elizabeth B.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Goñi, Miguel A.

    2015-06-01

    Previous estimations of sediment flux for the Salinas River of central California were based on data collected in the 1970s and assumptions of time invariant suspended sediment-discharge behavior. The goals of this study were to estimate sediment flux from the Salinas River using data from 1967-2011 by incorporating time dependent behavior and reassess the role of El Niño Southern Oscillation patterns in inter-decadal sediment load. This study builds on previous findings that time-dependent suspended sediment behavior in this system is controlled in part by antecedent hydrologic conditions. The condition of temporal dependence was further tested herein through comparison of flux estimates obtained using time-dependent formulations and a multivariate approach incorporating hydrologic factors. Longer sampling records and incorporation of decadal scale behavior or antecedent hydrologic conditions resulted in average annual load estimates of 2.0-2.9 Mt/yr with 95% confidence intervals of ±25 to 202%, in comparison to earlier estimates of ∼3.3 Mt/yr. Previous overestimation of sediment load is due largely to the extrapolation of suspended sediment behavior from a decade of high sediment concentrations to the entire record, and the use of log-linear regression techniques on a non-linear system. The use of LOESS methods lowered QSS estimates and decreased confidence interval size. The inclusion of time-stratified and antecedent flow indices further decreased QSS estimates, but increased confidence interval size. However, temporal dependence of the CSS-Q relationship violates the assumptions of single base period regression, which suggests that time-stratified rating curves provide more realistic estimates of sediment flux means and uncertainty. The majority of suspended sediment was transported by flows of ∼25-90 times mean discharge depending on transport constituent (fines or sand) and estimation method. Periods of differential suspended sediment behavior changed

  13. Development of an antecedent moisture condition model for prediction of Rainfall-Derived Inflow/Infiltration (RDII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadri, S.; Graham, E.

    2011-12-01

    The rainfall-derived Infiltration/inflow (RDII) response of a sanitary sewer system is quite complex. In addition to rainfall, one of the major factors that control RDII response is the Antecedent Moisture Condition (AMC). AMC is one of the key inputs to many hydrological models. For urban hydrology planning and management, quantifying the effect of AMC, the moisture of soil condition during and prior a rainfall event will enhance the prediction capabilities of RDII-rainfall models. The problem with simply correlating the peak rainfall and peak flows is that the data will typically be scattered in a a way that the regression analysis will not yield reliable information. Thus, there is a need to find the contribution of AMC to RDII. In urban hydrology engineering projects, although soil moisture data can be very useful, especially for more pervious surfaces, it is typical that not much data is available. In the past, here has been little research on defining and calculating AMC in the domain of urban hydrology. In this study, a parametric model is developed to predict RDII as a function of antecedent rainfalls. The hypothesis of this study is that besides the current rainfall, the rainfall events of the past, up to certain limit of time, affect the current flow and therefore, AMC is directly related to a geometrically-weighted sum of rainfall which we will denote s[t]. Let γ be a parameter between 0 and 1, representing the effect of a day's rainfall on the next day. Then consider the geometrically-weighted sum s[t] = γ*r[t-1] + γ^2*r[t-2] + ... + γ^10*r[t-10] where t represents the present day (time) and r[t] is the rainfall depth on that day. Intuitively, s[t] measures the effect accumulated rainfall from the past 10 days. The general regression model is hence: Predicted flow at time t = α*r[t] + β*s[t] where β is a multiplier and α is the parameter based on a separate and stronger effect of rain at time t. The goal is to find the optimized parameters α,

  14. The influence of source landforms, antecedent precipitation, and winds on dust events in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantine, John-Andrew Chapin

    This dissertation identifies conditions associated with dust storms in North Africa. The introductory chapter frames a conceptual model of how atmospheric dustiness is governed by static landforms, dynamic characteristics of the surface (represented by cumulative antecedent precipitation or CAP), and surface wind fields. Visibility at 225 meteorological stations across Africa, north of 10° north latitude, is used as a proxy for atmospheric dust. A map of landforms is created from a multiple endmember mixture analysis of MODIS satellite imagery to represent landforms. The ten landforms identified are alluvial surfaces, dunes, dry lakebeds, water, basaltic surfaces, mountains, regs, bedrock surfaces, sandsheets, and vegetated surfaces. Climatological and event-based statistics are used to determine relationships between parameters related to visibility, landforms, CAP, and wind speed. CAP represents dynamic changes in the erodibility of the surface including the sheltering effect of vegetation and delivery of erodible sediments. Surface wind velocities represent the winds that mobilize fine sediments to become dust. Alluvial surfaces, dunes, dry lakebeds, regs, bedrock, and sandsheets are more often associated with low visibility (<5 km) events than high. Negative correlations between median wind speed and the monthly frequency of visibility less than five kilometers (DEF-5) identify 33 stations where factors other than dust strongly influence the visibility record and these stations are removed. Results regarding the relationship between CAP and dustiness find that at Sahelian and southern Saharan locations, vulnerability to dust emissions is related to drought reducing vegetation cover. At central, northern, and eastern Saharan locations, vulnerability to dust emissions is related to wet conditions, probably as a result of fresh sediment being deposited at erodible locations in the landscape. Wind speed results find that for any dust source, there is an

  15. The role of antecedent land surface conditions in North American Monsoon warm season precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Cavazos, T.

    2005-12-01

    North American Monsoon (NAM) warm season precipitation strongly affects the semiarid regions of the southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico. A first step in developing useful prediction capabilities for NAM precipitation is to explore links between the NAM seasonal (JJAS) precipitation and the antecedent pre-monsoon (previous autumn, winter, and spring) land surface conditions, such as precipitation, surface air temperature, soil moisture, and snow cover. We define two monsoon regions: western in Arizona and eastern in New Mexico which exhibit a "pure" monsoon signal, and northwestern Mexico as the core NAM region. Land surface data for the east and west regions are monthly aggregates from the extended retrospective North American Land Data Assimilation System (N-LDAS) archive for the period 1950 to 1999, which includes gridded precipitation (P), mean surface air temperature (Ts), and Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model-derived soil moisture (Sm), and snow water equivalent (SWE). For northwestern Mexico three different sources of station data are combined and gridded to be analogous to the N-LDAS archive: Servicio MeterorolOgico Nacional (SMN) daily data (pre-1940 - 2003), SMN daily historical precipitation data (1995 - near real-time), and northwestern Mexico NAME Event Raingage Network (NERN) precipitation daily data (2002 - ). Long-term (1950-2003) retrospective VIC model runs were then performed to produce derived data (soil moisture, snow) analogous to those in the N-LDAS archive. Through correlation and composite analysis, we find that the two southwest US regions and northwestern Mexico exhibit somewhat different land surface feedback mechanism. For the U.S, regions, we previously proposed a land surface feedback hypothesis and found that while NAM precipitation is correlated with the previous winter's precipitation, the corresponding soil moisture anomaly contributes little to the predictability of NAM precipitation. For northwestern

  16. HIV and AIDS in Workplace: The role of behaviour antecedents on behavioural intentions

    PubMed Central

    Dipeolu, I. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV and AIDS) constitutes one of the major challenges to development worldwide. Actions taken by employers of labour against staff or applicants living with HIV have great impacts in the labour force and in the fight to mitigate the impact of the disease condition. In Nigeria, there's paucity of documented work about employers of labour's behavioural intentions when they are faced with staff/applicant living with the virus. This study explored the behavioural antecedents and intentions of employers of labour in Ibadan North Local Government Area, Oyo state, Nigeria. Methods The study was cross-sectional survey in design. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 400 study respondents (38 public and 362 private sectors) for interview. The instrument for data collection was a pre-tested semi–structured questionnaire. Attitude was categorised as negative (score ≤ 54) and positive (score ≥55). Data were analysed and presented using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results There were more males (68.2%) respondents than females (31.8%). A large majority, 79.0%, in the public sector (PuS) and 72.9% in the private sector (PrS) knew that an infected healthy looking person could harbour and transmit HIV to others. A majority, 80.0%, of which 2.3% with no formal education, 1.0% primary education, 13.5% high school education, 41.5% bachelor, 21.0% postgraduate and 0.8% with other qualifications were of the view that workers infected with HIV should not be sacked. Slightly less than half (48.0%) would keep their staff's HIV status secret while more than half, 57.0%, would not recruit a PLWHA. More PrS respondents (47.8%) claimed to have ever organised HIV/AIDS-related educational programmes for staff than PuS (42.1%) (p<0.05). Almost equal respondents (PuS 36.8%) and (PrS 36.2%) would require mandatory test for HIV before employment. Only 1.8% (PuS) and 6% (PrS) reported that

  17. Testing a model of antecedents and consequences of defensive pessimism and self-handicapping in school physical education.

    PubMed

    Ntoumanis, Nikos; Taylor, Ian M; Standage, Martyn

    2010-12-01

    There has been very limited research on the use of self-worth protection strategies in the achievement context of school physical education (PE). Thus the aim of the present study was to examine some antecedents and consequences of defensive pessimism and self-handicapping. The sample comprised 534 British pupils (275 females, 259 males) recruited from two schools who responded to established questionnaires. Results of structural equation modelling analysis indicated that self-handicapping and defensive pessimism were positively predicted by fear of failure and negatively predicted by competence valuation. In addition, defensive pessimism was negatively predicted by physical self-concept. In turn, defensive pessimism negatively predicted enjoyment in PE and intentions to participate in future optional PE programmes. Self-handicapping did not predict enjoyment or intentions. Results from multi-sample structural equation modelling showed the specified model to be largely invariant across males and females. The findings indicate that although both strategies aim to protect one's self-worth, some of their antecedents and consequences in PE may differ. PMID:21058166

  18. Affective Antecedents of the Perceived Effectiveness of Antidrug Advertisements: An Analysis of Adolescents’ Momentary and Retrospective Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Vohs, Kathleen D.; Luciana, Monica; Cuthbert, Bruce N.; MacDonald, Angus W.

    2013-01-01

    Perceived message effectiveness is often used as a diagnostic tool to determine whether a health message is likely to be successful or needs modification before use in an intervention. Yet, published research on the antecedents of perceived effectiveness is scarce and, consequently, little is known about why a message is perceived to be effective or ineffective. The present study’s aim was to identify and test the affective antecedents of perceived effectiveness of antidrug television messages in a sample of 190 adolescents in the 15–19 year age range. Factor-analytical tests of retrospective message evaluation items suggested two dimensions of perceived effectiveness, one that contained items such as convincingness whereas the other contained pleasantness items. Using retrospective data as well as real time valence and arousal ratings, we found that arousal underlies perceived convincingness and valence underlies perceived pleasantness. The results indicated activation of appetitive and defensive motivational systems, which suggests a clear motivational component to the concept of perceived message effectiveness. PMID:21499729

  19. When the customer shouldn't be king: antecedents and consequences of sexual harassment by clients and customers.

    PubMed

    Gettman, Hilary J; Gelfand, Michele J

    2007-05-01

    Much of the work in today's service industries requires women to deal with people outside of their organizations, namely, customers and clients, yet research on sexual harassment has focused almost exclusively on sexual harassment within organizations. Because the threat of harassment also operates at the boundaries of organizations, our existing models based solely on harassment inside organizations may be too restricted to adequately explain the harassment experiences of women in today's economy. To address this, the authors introduce a theoretical model of the antecedents and consequences of sexual harassment by clients and customers (CSH) and describe 2 field studies conducted to test components of the model. In Study 1, they developed a model of antecedents and consequences of CSH and illustrated that certain contextual factors (client power and gender composition of the client base) affect levels of CSH and that CSH is related to a number of job and psychological outcomes among professional women. Study 2 revealed that CSH is related to lower job satisfaction among nonprofessional women, above and beyond that which is accounted for by internal sexual harassment. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:17484555

  20. Modelisation de la diffusion sur les surfaces metalliques: De l'adatome aux processus de croissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Ghyslain

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude des processus de diffusion en surface dans le but ultime de comprendre, et de modeliser, la croissance d'une couche mince. L'importance de bien mai triser la croissance est primordiale compte tenu de son role dans la miniaturisation des circuits electroniques. Nous etudions ici les surface des metaux nobles et de ceux de la fin de la serie de transition. Dans un premier temps, nous nous interessons a la diffusion d'un simple adatome sur une surface metallique. Nous avons, entre autres, mis en evidence l'apparition d'une correlation entre evenements successifs lorsque la temperature est comparable a la barriere de diffusion, i.e., la diffusion ne peut pas etre associee a une marche aleatoire. Nous proposons un modele phenomenologique simple qui reproduit bien les resultats des simulations. Ces calculs nous ont aussi permis de montrer que la diffusion obeit a la loi de Meyer-Neldel. Cette loi stipule que, pour un processus active, le prefacteur augmente exponentiellement avec la barriere. En plus, ce travail permet de clarifier l'origine physique de cette loi. En comparant les resultats dynamiques aux resultats statiques, on se rend compte que la barriere extraite des calculs dynamiques est essentiellement la meme que celle obtenue par une approche statique, beaucoup plus simple. On peut donc obtenir cette barriere a l'aide de methodes plus precises, i.e., ab initio, comme la theorie de la fonctionnelle de la densite, qui sont aussi malheureusement beaucoup plus lourdes. C'est ce que nous avons fait pour plusieurs systemes metalliques. Nos resultats avec cette derniere approche se comparent tres bien aux resultats experimentaux. Nous nous sommes attardes plus longuement a la surface (111) du platine. Cette surface regorge de particularites interessantes, comme la forme d'equilibre non-hexagonale des i lots et deux sites d'adsorption differents pour l'adatome. De plus, des calculs ab initio precedents n'ont pas reussi a confirmer la

  1. Conséquences comportementales de la violence faite aux enfants

    PubMed Central

    Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Discuter des répercussions de la violence sur le développement comportemental durant l’enfance, mettre en évidence certains signes comportementaux susceptibles d’alerter les médecins à la présence d’une maltraitance continue d’un enfant et explorer le rôle précis du médecin de famille dans une telle situation clinique. Sources des données Une recension systématique a servi à examiner la recherche pertinente, les articles de révision clinique et les sites web des organismes de protection de la jeunesse. Message principal Le comportement d’un enfant est une manifestation extériorisée de sa stabilité et de sa sécurité intérieures. C’est une lentille au travers de laquelle le médecin de famille peut observer le développement de l’enfant pendant toute sa vie. Tous les genres de violence sont dommageables pour les enfants, qu’elle soit physique, affective ou psychologique, et peuvent causer des problèmes à long terme dans le développement du comportement et de la santé mentale. Les médecins de famille doivent connaître les indices de maltraitance et de négligence envers les enfants et être aux aguets de ces derniers afin d’entreprendre les interventions appropriées et améliorer les résultats pour ces enfants. Conclusion La violence faite aux enfants peut causer un développement psychologique désordonné et des problèmes de comportement. Les médecins de famille exercent un rôle important dans la reconnaissance des signes comportementaux laissant présager une maltraitance, ainsi que pour offrir de l’aide afin de protéger les enfants.

  2. Isolation of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 from etiolated pea epicotyls and their expression on a three-dimensional clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    We isolated novel cDNAs containing the complete open reading frames of a putative auxin influx carrier, PsAUX1, and a putative auxin efflux carrier, PsPIN2, from etiolated pea epicotyls. High levels of homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (Accession No. AY222857) and AtPINs. Phylogenetic analyses based on deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PsPIN2 belonged to a subclade including AtPIN3, AtPIN4 and AtPIN7, while PsPIN1 belonged to the same clade as AtPIN1. The results were similar for PsAUX1 and AtAUX1, where PsAUX1 belongs to the same subclade as AtAUX1 and CS-AUX1. Expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 in pea epicotyl segments was promoted upon incubation of the segments with auxin (indole-3-acetic acid). In 3.5-d-old etiolated pea seedlings, relatively high expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 was observed in the hook region, growing epicotyls and root tips as compared with those in mature regions of epicotyls and roots. Expression of PsPIN2 in roots was less than that in shoots. Simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat remarkably increased gene expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the hook and the internodes of pea epicotyls, but the increase in PsPIN2 was less. In contrast, polar auxin transport of pea epicotyls was substantially suppressed under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3D clinostat, similar to data from a space experiment on STS-95. These results suggest that PsPINs and PsAUX1 are auxin-inducible genes, and that the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 genes is sensitive to gravistimulation.

  3. Periodicity, Electronic Structures, and Bonding of Gold Tetrahalides [AuX4](-) (X = F, CI, Br, I, At, Uus)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Yong; Xu, Congqiao; Wang, Xue B.; Vorpagel, Erich R.; Li, Jun

    2015-12-07

    Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed to understand the periodicity and electronic structures of trivalent-gold halides using gold tetrahalides [AuX4]⁻ anions (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus). The [AuX4]⁻ (X = Cl, Br, I) anions were produced in gas phase and their negative-ion photoelectron spectra were obtained, which exhibited rich and well-resolved spectral peaks. We calculated the adiabatic as well as vertical electron detachment energies using density functional methods with scalar and spin-orbit coupling relativistic effects. The simulated photoelectron spectra based on these calculations are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Our results show that the trivalent Au(III) oxidation state becomes progressively less stable while Au(I) is preferred when the halides become heavier along the Period Table. This trend reveals that the oxidation state of metals in complexes can be manipulated through ligand design

  4. Phloem-specific expression of a melon Aux/IAA in tomato plants alters auxin sensitivity and plant development

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Guy; Betzer, Rotem; Wolf, Shmuel

    2013-01-01

    Phloem sap contains a large repertoire of macromolecules in addition to sugars, amino acids, growth substances and ions. The transcription profile of melon phloem sap contains over 1000 mRNA molecules, most of them associated with signal transduction, transcriptional control, and stress and defense responses. Heterografting experiments have established the long-distance trafficking of numerous mRNA molecules. Interestingly, several trafficking transcripts are involved in the auxin response, including two molecules coding for auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA). To further explore the biological role of the melon Aux/IAA transcript CmF-308 in the vascular tissue, a cassette containing the coding sequence of this gene under a phloem-specific promoter was introduced into tomato plants. The number of lateral roots was significantly higher in transgenic plants expressing CmF-308 under the AtSUC2 promoter than in controls. A similar effect on root development was obtained after transient expression of CmF-308 in source leaves of N. benthamiana plants. An auxin-response assay showed that CmF-308-transgenic roots are more sensitive to auxin than control roots. In addition to the altered root development, phloem-specific expression of CmF-308 resulted in shorter plants, a higher number of lateral shoots and delayed flowering, a phenotype resembling reduced apical dominance. In contrast to the root response, cotyledons of the transgenic plants were less sensitive to auxin than control cotyledons. The reduced auxin sensitivity in the shoot tissue was confirmed by lower relative expression of several Aux/IAA genes in leaves and an increase in the relative expression of a cytokinin-response regulator, TRR8/9b. The accumulated data suggest that expression of Aux/IAA in the phloem modifies auxin sensitivity in a tissue-specific manner, thereby altering plant development. PMID:23986770

  5. The Tomato Aux/IAA Transcription Factor IAA9 Is Involved in Fruit Development and Leaf MorphogenesisW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Jones, Brian; Li, Zhengguo; Frasse, Pierre; Delalande, Corinne; Regad, Farid; Chaabouni, Salma; Latché, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2005-01-01

    Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins are transcriptional regulators that mediate many aspects of plant responses to auxin. While functions of most Aux/IAAs have been defined mainly by gain-of-function mutant alleles in Arabidopsis thaliana, phenotypes associated with loss-of-function mutations have been scarce and subtle. We report here that the downregulation of IAA9, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene from a distinct subfamily of Aux/IAA genes, results in a pleiotropic phenotype, consistent with its ubiquitous expression pattern. IAA9-inhibited lines have simple leaves instead of wild-type compound leaves, and fruit development is triggered before fertilization, giving rise to parthenocarpy. This indicates that IAA9 is a key mediator of leaf morphogenesis and fruit set. In addition, antisense plants displayed auxin-related growth alterations, including enhanced hypocotyl/stem elongation, increased leaf vascularization, and reduced apical dominance. Auxin dose–response assays revealed that IAA9 downregulated lines were hypersensitive to auxin, although the only early auxin-responsive gene that was found to be upregulated in the antisense lines was IAA3. The activity of the IAA3 promoter was stimulated in the IAA9 antisense genetic background, indicating that IAA9 acts in planta as a transcriptional repressor of auxin signaling. While no mutation in any member of subfamily IV has been reported to date, the phenotypes associated with the downregulation of IAA9 reveal distinct and novel roles for members of the Aux/IAA gene family. PMID:16126837

  6. Interracial and Intraracial Differences in Neuropsychiatric Symptoms, Sociodemography, and Treatment among Nursing Home Patients with Dementia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Carl I.; Hyland, Kathryn; Magai, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Using a social antecedent model of psychopathology, three samples (African Americans, African Caribbeans, Caucasians) were compared. Symptoms of depression, psychoses, and agitation among nursing home patients were studied. Although there were appreciable interracial differences in sociodemographics, there were minimal clinical differences and no…

  7. [Auricular perichondritis in adults. An evaluation-study of 12 hospitalized patients].

    PubMed

    Pino Rivero, V; Marcos García, M; Trinidad Ruiz, G; Pardo Romero, G; González Palomino, A; Guerra Camacho, M; Barrantes Celaya, G; Blasco Huelva, A

    2005-01-01

    Perichondritis of the auricle in adults can be secondary to traumatic agents, external otitis or surgery being Pseudomona aeruginosa the bacteria more often isolated. We have performed a retrospective study of 12 hospitalized patients with that diagnosis and these following variables have been evaluated: Age, sex, personal antecedents, clinical symptoms, affected auricle, complementary explorations, treatment, evolution and stay. PMID:15803915

  8. Periodicity, Electronic Structures, and Bonding of Gold Tetrahalides [AuX4]- (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus).

    PubMed

    Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Yong; Xu, Cong-Qiao; Wang, Xue-Bin; Vorpagel, Erich; Li, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed to understand the periodicity, electronic structures, and bonding of gold halides using tetrahalide [AuX4](-) anions (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus). The [AuX4](-) (X = Cl, Br, I) anions were experimentally produced in the gas phase, and their negative-ion photoelectron spectra were obtained, exhibiting rich and well-resolved spectral peaks. As expected, Au-X bonds in such series contain generally increasing covalency when halogen ligands become heavier. We calculated the adiabatic electron detachment energies as well as vertical electron detachment energies using density functional theory methods with scalar relativistic and spin-orbit coupling effects. The computationally simulated photoelectron spectra are in good agreement with the experimental ones. Our results show that the trivalent Au(III) oxidation state becomes progressively less stable while Au(I) tends to be preferred when the halides become heavier along the Periodic Table. This series of molecules provides an example for manipulating the oxidation state of metals in complexes through ligand design. PMID:26550845

  9. Canalization of auxin flow by Aux/IAA-ARF-dependent feedback regulation of PIN polarity.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Michael; Balla, Jozef; Luschnig, Christian; Wisniewska, Justyna; Reinöhl, Vilém; Friml, Jirí; Benková, Eva

    2006-10-15

    Plant development is characterized by a profound ability to regenerate and form tissues with new axes of polarity. An unsolved question concerns how the position within a tissue and cues from neighboring cells are integrated to specify the polarity of individual cells. The canalization hypothesis proposes a feedback effect of the phytohormone auxin on the directionality of intercellular auxin flow as a means to polarize tissues. Here we identify a cellular and molecular mechanism for canalization. Local auxin application, wounding, or auxin accumulation during de novo organ formation lead to rearrangements in the subcellular polar localization of PIN auxin transport components. This auxin effect on PIN polarity is cell-specific, does not depend on PIN transcription, and involves the Aux/IAA-ARF (indole-3-acetic acid-auxin response factor) signaling pathway. Our data suggest that auxin acts as polarizing cue, which links individual cell polarity with tissue and organ polarity through control of PIN polar targeting. This feedback regulation provides a conceptual framework for polarization during multiple regenerative and patterning processes in plants. PMID:17043314

  10. Aspects épidémiologiques des accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) aux urgences de l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan (ICA)

    PubMed Central

    N'goran, Yves N'da Kouakou; Traore, Fatou; Tano, Micesse; Kramoh, Kouadio Euloge; Kakou, Jean-Baptiste Anzouan; Konin, Christophe; Kakou, Maurice Guikahue

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de notre étude était de décrire les caractéristiques sociodémographiques et les Facteurs de Risque cardio-Vasculaires (FRV) des patients admis pour accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) dans un service autre que celui de la neurologie. Méthodes Étude transversale rétrospective sur une période de 2 ans (janv. 2010 et déc. 2011), réalisée aux urgences de l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan. Résultats Il s'agissait de 176 adultes avec un âge moyen de 60 ans, une prédominance féminine. Les facteurs de risque majeurs retrouvés étaient l'hypertension artérielle dans 86,4% des cas, le diabète dans 11,4% des cas, le tabagisme dans 2,2% des cas. Les motifs de consultation étaient la perte de connaissance dans 36,4% des cas, l'hémiplégie dans 31,8% des cas, les céphalées dans 17,4% des cas, les vertiges dans 10,9% et les palpitations dans 2,2% des cas. La tension artérielle systolique moyenne était à 174 mmHg, la tension artérielle diastolique moyenne était à 105 mmHg et la pression pulsée moyenne était à 70 mmHg. Les AVC étaient associés à une arythmie complète par fibrillation auriculaire dans 11,4% des cas. Les AVC ischémiques représentaient 84,1%. L’évolution aux urgences a été marquée par un décès dans 17% (30) des cas. Conclusion Les AVC constituent un problème majeur de santé publique. Malgré sa prédominance féminine, ils (AVC) touchaient 44% des hommes dans notre étude lorsqu'on sait qu'en Afrique l'activité sociale repose sur les hommes. Ils restent une pathologie grave par la forte létalité. PMID:26327997

  11. Antecedents of Teachers' Educational Beliefs about Mathematics and Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching among In-Service Teachers in High Poverty Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkin, Danya M.; Ekmekci, Adem; Papakonstantinou, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the antecedents of three types of educational beliefs about mathematics among 151 teachers predominantly working in high poverty schools. Studies across various countries have found that teachers in high poverty schools are less likely to enact instructional approaches that align with mathematics reform standards set by…

  12. Academic Emotions from a Social-Cognitive Perspective: Antecedents and Domain Specificity of Students' Affect in the Context of Latin Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Thomas; Pekrun, Reinhard; Hall, Nathan; Haag, Ludwig

    2006-01-01

    This study concentrates on two assumptions of a social-cognitive model outlining the development of academic emotions (emotions directly linked to learning, classroom instruction, and achievement), namely on their antecedents and domain-specific organization. Our sample consisted of 200 students from Grades 7 to 10. Proposed relationships…

  13. Part II: Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers and Delinquent Youth--Further Group Comparisons of Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibowitz, George S.; Burton, David L.; Howard, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper published in the "Journal of Child Sexual Abuse," we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers (Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to…

  14. A Comparison of Teacher Checklists Used over 15 Days and a One-Day Antecedent Analysis to Conduct a Medication Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, R.; Larsen, D.; Derby, K. M.; McLaughlin, T. F.; Weber, K. P.; Brown, K.; Herring, M.

    2004-01-01

    A one-day antecedent analysis and an extended school-based double-blind medication trial were used to assess the effects of Ritalin on the disruptive behavior of a child diagnosed with ADHD. The evaluations took place in an outpatient clinic and in the child's general education classroom. The results of both evaluations indicated that the…

  15. Antecedents of Charter School Success in New York State: Charter School Management Agencies and Additional Factors That Affect English/Language Arts Test Scores in Elementary Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Charter schools frequently receive public as well as federal attention, and there is a growing body of research becoming available examining charter schools. With all this research there is still a need for further studies which deal specifically with antecedents of charter school success. This study examined factors contributing toward the…

  16. Emergent Literacy Skills, Behavior Problems and Familial Antecedents of Reading Difficulties: A Follow-Up Study of Reading Achievement from Kindergarten to Fifth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Hugo Camara; Perdry, Herve; Soria, Carmen; Pulgar, Salome; Cusin, Francoise; Dellatolas, Georges

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relation between emergent literacy skills, teachers' reports of behavioral problems, and word reading achievement in a community sample of French students. Family background was investigated and included familial antecedents of reading difficulties (Fa/Rd) and parents' educational level. The analyses explored the pattern of…

  17. Modeling Technology Preparedness as an Antecedent of Mathematic Pre-Service Teachers' Self Efficacy, Perceived Usefulness and Intention toward Use of Information Technology in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shittu, Ahmed Tajudeen; Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Gimba, W. Rahmatu; Ahmed, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study test a specified model of information technology (IT) preparedness as antecedent of pre-service teachers' self efficacy, perceived usefulness, and intention toward IT use for teaching in Nigeria. Survey method was employed for prosecuting the study. The participants of the study comprise of 200 pre-service teachers studying Mathematics…

  18. Aldicarb and carbofuran transport in a Hapludalf influenced by differential antecedent soil water content and irrigation delay.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, H V; Anderson, S H; Goyne, K W; Gantzer, C J

    2009-01-01

    Pesticide use in agroecosystems can adversely impact groundwater quality via chemical leaching through soils. Few studies have investigated the effects of antecedent soil water content (SWC) and timing of initial irrigation (TII) after chemical application on pesticide transport and degradation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of antecedent soil water content (wet vs dry) and timing of initial irrigation (0h Delay vs 24h Delay) on aldicarb [(EZ)-2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde O-methylcarbamoyloxime] and carbofuran [2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate] transport and degradation parameters at a field site with Menfro silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalf) soils. Aldicarb and carbofuran were applied to plots near field capacity (wet) or near permanent wilting point (dry). Half of the dry and wet plots received irrigation water immediately after chemical application and the remaining plots were irrigated after a 24h Delay. The transport and degradation parameters were estimated using the method of moments. Statistical significance determined for SWC included averages across TII levels, and significance determined for TII included averages across SWC levels. For the dry treatment, aldicarb was detected 0.10 m deeper (P<0.01) on two of the four sampling dates and carbofuran was detected at least 0.10 m deeper (P<0.05) on all of the sampling dates compared to the wet treatment. Pore water velocity was found to be higher (P<0.10) in the dry vs wet treatments on three of four dates for aldicarb and two of four dates for carbofuran. Retardation coefficients for both pesticides showed similar evidence of reduced values for the dry vs wet treatments. These results indicate deeper pesticide movement in the initially dry treatment. For aldicarb and carbofuran, estimated values of the degradation rate were approximately 40-49% lower in the initially dry plots compared to the initially wet plots

  19. Transposition des gros vaisseaux associée aux communications interventriculaire et interauriculaire: à propos d'un cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Mutombo, Augustin Mulangu; Mukuku, Olivier; Lubala, Toni Kasole; Kabuya, Maguy Sangaji; Ilunga, Paul Makinko; Bugeme, Marcellin; Luboya, Oscar Numbi

    2013-01-01

    Nous rapportons une observation d'un nourrisson de 5 mois présentant une transposition des gros vaisseaux associée aux communications interventriculaire et interauriculaire. Il est né à terme sans aucun facteur de risque retrouvé dans les antécédents maternels. Le diagnostic est posé, grâce à une échocardiographie, à 5 mois après sa naissance lors de la survenue d'une cyanose et d'un malaise anoxique. Une prise en charge symptomatique a permis de stabiliser l’état du patient mais suite à l'absence d'un traitement chirurgical, il est décédé à domicile 3 semaines après sa sortie de l'hôpital. Dans les pays en développement, le diagnostic de la transposition des gros vaisseaux est souvent fait en période postnatale et son pronostic reste fatal par manque des centres médico-chirurgicaux spécialisés. PMID:24009800

  20. A simulation study of the recession coefficient for antecedent precipitation index. [soil moisture and water runoff estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Blanchard, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The antecedent precipitation index (API) is a useful indicator of soil moisture conditions for watershed runoff calculations and recent attempts to correlate this index with spaceborne microwave observations have been fairly successful. It is shown that the prognostic equation for soil moisture used in some of the atmospheric general circulation models together with Thornthwaite-Mather parameterization of actual evapotranspiration leads to API equations. The recession coefficient for API is found to depend on climatic factors through potential evapotranspiration and on soil texture through the field capacity and the permanent wilting point. Climatologial data for Wisconsin together with a recently developed model for global isolation are used to simulate the annual trend of the recession coefficient. Good quantitative agreement is shown with the observed trend at Fennimore and Colby watersheds in Wisconsin. It is suggested that API could be a unifying vocabulary for watershed and atmospheric general circulation modelars.

  1. Me or we? The role of personality and justice as other-centered antecedents to innovative citizenship behaviors within organizations.

    PubMed

    Moon, Henry; Kamdar, Dishan; Mayer, David M; Takeuchi, Riki

    2008-01-01

    The present research takes an "other-centered" approach to examining personal and contextual antecedents of taking charge behavior in organizations. Largely consistent with the authors' hypotheses, regression analyses involving data collected from 2 diverse samples containing both coworkers and supervisors demonstrated that the other-centered trait, duty, was positively related to taking charge, whereas the self-centered trait, achievement striving, was negatively related to taking charge. In addition, the authors found that procedural justice at the organizational level was positively related to taking charge when evaluated by a coworker, while both procedural and distributive justice were positively related to taking charge when considered by a supervisor. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:18211137

  2. Antecedents of perceived coach autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors: coach psychological need satisfaction and well-being.

    PubMed

    Stebbings, Juliette; Taylor, Ian M; Spray, Christopher M

    2011-04-01

    Within the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) framework, research has considered the consequences of coaches' autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors on various athlete outcomes (e.g., motivation and performance). The antecedents of such behaviors, however, have received little attention. Coaches (N = 443) from a variety of sports and competitive levels completed a self-report questionnaire to assess their psychological need satisfaction, well-being and perceived interpersonal behaviors toward their athletes. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that coaches' competence and autonomy need satisfaction positively predicted their levels of psychological well-being, as indexed by positive affect and subjective vitality. In turn, coaches' psychological well-being positively predicted their perceived autonomy support toward their athletes, and negatively predicted their perceived controlling behaviors. Overall, the results highlight the importance of coaching contexts that facilitate coaches' psychological need satisfaction and well-being, thereby increasing the likelihood of adaptive coach interpersonal behavior toward athletes. PMID:21558583

  3. Work-Family Conflict Among Newly Licensed Registered Nurses: A Structural Equation Model of Antecedents and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Lynn Y; Raffenaud, Amanda; Fottler, Myron

    2016-01-01

    Conflict between work and family is a human resource management issue that is particularly relevant for nurses. Nursing is a demanding profession, and a high proportion of nurses are women, who tend to have greater family responsibilities than men. Little is known regarding work-family conflict among nurses, and even less is known about how this affects newly licensed registered nurses (NLRNs), who can be stressed from their new jobs and careers. This study empirically tests a model of antecedents and outcomes of work-family and family-work conflict among a sample of NLRNs. We developed a model of the relationships between personal and work environment characteristics, work-family and family-work conflicts, job satisfaction, and intent to leave the job and profession. We used structural equation modeling (Amos, IBM SPSS) to test the model with data from.a survey of NLRNs. We examined a number of latent variables, as well as direct and mediating relationships. The measurement models for all latent variables were validated. The final model indicated that age, health, and family responsibilities are antecedents of family-work conflict; job demands lead to work-family conflict; family-work conflict contributes to job difficulties, which lowers job satisfaction, which, in turn, increases the intent to leave the job and profession; and work-family conflict increases the intent to leave the job and profession (but does not directly affect job satisfaction). Policies to help NLRNs with family responsibilities could reduce family-work conflict, which might reduce job difficulties and improve satisfaction and retention. In addition, policies to reduce job demands could reduce work-family conflict and improve retention. PMID:27111932

  4. Tectonic conditions of hydrothermal polymetallic vein-type mineralization, Sainte Marie-aux-Mines, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeznia, Y.; Bourlange, S.; Ohnenstetter, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines (SMM) mines host one of the most famous and oldest silver deposits in Europe. The SMM district is located in the central part of the Vosges mountains, France, within gneiss and granites of the Moldanubian zone. The SMM district includes the Neuenberg E-W vein-type Cu-Ag-As/Pb-Zn deposit and the Altenberg N-S vein-type Pb-Zn-Ag deposit. Deposition of the SMM hydrothermal mineralization occurred under a brittle tectonic regime that might be connected to neo-Variscan and/or post-Variscan tectonics, in a similar way as the polymetallic vein deposits of the Black Forest, Germany. A structural study was done in the Neuenberg area, in the vicinity of the Saint-Jacques vein, and within the Gabe Gottes mine, considering the orientation, extent, chronology and density of faults as well as the nature of the infilling minerals. In the Gabe-Gottes mine, the Saint-Jacques vein comprises multiple successive, sub-parallel subvertical veinlets with gangue minerals, mostly carbonates and quartz, and metal-bearing phases, sulfides and sulfosalts. The veinlets are 2 to 50 cm thick and strike N80° to N110°, the earlier veins slightly dipping towards the north, and the latest one, to the south. Seven systems of faults were identified, which may be classified into three major groups formed respectively before, during and after the main stage of ore deposition: a) Pre-mineralization faults - These consist of sinistral NE-SW strike-slip faults, and NW-SE and NE-SW steeply dipping normal faults. These could be related to Carboniferous events considering their relationships with the granitoid intrusives present in the mine area (Brézouard leucogranite ~329 Ma), and the extensional tectonics developed during exhumation processes. b) Faults associated with the main ore-deposition - These faults could be related to late-Hercynian processes from compressional to extensional tectonic regimes. Mineralization controlling faults consist of dextral and sinistral E

  5. A Factor-Analytic Study of Childhood Symptoms Antecedent to Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roff, James D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A sample of child guidance clinic patients who received an adult diagnosis of schizophrenia were followed through record sources into middle adulthood. The determination of within-sample differences in long-term adult outcome provided predictive criteria. (Editor)

  6. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-03-01

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. PMID:26869512

  7. Evaluating auxin distribution in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) through an analysis of the PIN and AUX/LAX gene families.

    PubMed

    Pattison, Richard J; Catalá, Carmen

    2012-05-01

    The temporal and spatial control of auxin distribution has a key role in the regulation of plant growth and development, and much has been learnt about the mechanisms that influence auxin pools and gradients in vegetative tissues, particularly in Arabidopsis. For example polar auxin transport, mediated by PIN and AUX/LAX proteins, is central to the control of auxin distribution. In contrast, very little information is known about the dynamics of auxin distribution and the molecular basis of its transport within and between fruit tissues, despite the fact that auxin regulates many aspects of fruit development, which include fruit formation, expansion, ripening and abscission. In addition, functional information regarding the key regulators of auxin fluxes during both vegetative and reproductive development in species other than Arabidopsis is scarce. To address these issues, we have investigated the spatiotemporal distribution of auxin during tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit development and the function of the PIN and AUX/LAX gene families. Differential concentrations of auxin become apparent during early fruit growth, with auxin levels being higher in internal tissues than in the fruit pericarp and the pattern of auxin accumulation depended on polar transport. Ten tomato PIN (SlPIN1 to 10) and five AUX/LAX (SlLAX1 to 5) genes were identified and found to display heterogeneous expression patterns, with tissue and developmental-stage specificity. RNAi-mediated co-silencing of SlPIN4 and SlPIN3 did not affect fruit development, which suggested functional redundancy of PIN proteins, but did lead to a vegetative phenotype, and revealed a role for these genes in the regulation of tomato shoot architecture. PMID:22211518

  8. US Geological Survey urban-stormwater data base of constituent storm loads; characteristics of rainfall, runoff, and antecedent conditions; and basin characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mustard, M.H.; Driver, N.E.; Chyr, John; Hansen, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    A data base which consists of constituent storm loads, characteristics of rainfall, runoff, and antecedent conditions, and basin characteristics measured at most of the stations in the U.S. Geological Survey urban-stormwater data-collection network in metropolitan areas throughout the United States has been compiled. Tables of these constituents storm loads and characteristics are presented in this report. The data base also is available on magnetic tape. The data represent 1,144 storms at 97 stations in 21 metropolitan areas. Storm loads for 18 constituents and 15 characteristics of rainfall, runoff, and antecedent conditions are reported. Twenty-eight selected basin characteristics also are reported, including 11 categories of land use. (USGS)

  9. Antecedent conditions, hydrological connectivity and anthropogenic inputs: Factors affecting nitrate and phosphorus transfers to agricultural headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Outram, Faye N; Cooper, Richard J; Sünnenberg, Gisela; Hiscock, Kevin M; Lovett, Andrew A

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines relationships between rainfall-runoff, catchment connectivity, antecedent moisture conditions and fertiliser application with nitrate-N and total phosphorus (TP) fluxes in an arable headwater catchment over three hydrological years (2012-2014). Annual precipitation totals did not vary substantially between years, yet the timing of rainfall strongly influenced runoff generation and subsequent nitrate-N and TP fluxes. The greatest nitrate-N (>250 kg N day(-1)) and TP (>10 kg TP day(-1)) fluxes only occurred when shallow groundwater was within 0.6m of the ground surface and runoff coefficients were greater than 0.1. These thresholds were reached less frequently in 2012 due to drought recovery resulting in lower annual nitrate-N (7.4 kg N ha(-1)) and TP (0.12 kg P ha(-1)) fluxes in comparison with 2013 (15.1 kg N ha(-1); 0.21 kg P ha(-1)). The wet winter of 2013 with elevated shallow groundwater levels led to more frequent activation of sub-surface pathways and tile drain flow. Throughout the period, dry antecedent conditions had a temporary effect in elevating TP loads. Evidence of TP source exhaustion after consecutive storm events can be attributed to the repeated depletion of temporarily connected critical source areas to the river network via impermeable road surfaces. Fertiliser application varied considerably across three years due to differences in crop rotation between farms, with annual N and P fertiliser inputs varying by up to 21% and 41%, respectively. Proportional reductions in annual riverine nitrate-N and TP loadings were not observed at the sub-catchment outlet as loadings were largely influenced by annual runoff. Nitrate loadings were slightly higher during fertiliser application, but there was little relationship between P fertiliser application and riverine TP load. These data indicate that this intensive arable catchment may be in a state of biogeochemical stationarity, whereby legacy stores of nutrients buffer against changes

  10. The effect of antecedent moisture conditions on sediment and phosphorus loss during overland flow: Mahantango Creek catchment, Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, R. W.; Sharpley, A. N.

    2002-10-01

    The loss of P in overland flow from most cultivated soils is controlled by erosion, and in-turn soil moisture. We evaluated the effect of soil moisture on erosion and P transport in overland flow by applying rainfall (7 cm h-1) to packed soil boxes (1 m long and 0·15 m wide) and field plots (1 and 10 m long by 1 m wide) of silt loams in a central Pennsylvania (USA) catchment. Flow from packed soil boxes took longer to initiate as antecedent soil moisture decreased from field capacity (2 min) to air dried (8 to 9 min). Even in the more complex field plots (i.e. soil heterogeneity and topography), the wetter site (1 by 10 m plot; 70% field capacity) produced flow more quickly (3 min) and in greater volume (439 L) than the drier site (1 by 10 m plot; 40% field capacity, 15 min, and 214 L, respectively). However, less suspended sediment was transported from wetter soil boxes (1·6 to 2·5 g L-1) and field plots (0·9 g L-1) than drier boxes (2·9 to 4·2 g L-1) and plots (1·2 g L-1). Differences are attributed to their potential for soil aggregate breakdown, slaking and dispersion, which contribute to surface soil sealing and crusting, as dry soils are subject to rapid wetting (by rainfall). During flow, selective erosion and antecedent moisture conditions affected P transport. At field capacity, DRP and PP transport varied little during overland flow. Whereas P transport from previously dry soil decreased rapidly after the initiation of flow (6 to 1·5 mg TP L-1), owing to the greater slaking and dispersion of P-rich particles into flow at the beginning than end of the flow event. These results indicate that soil moisture fluctuations greatly effect erosion and P transport potential and that management to decrease the potential for loss should consider practices such as conservation tillage and cover crops, particularly on areas where high soil P and erosion coincide.

  11. Second primary cancers in patients with urothelial cancers

    PubMed Central

    Altok, Muammer; Akdeniz, Fırat; Yıldız, Güner; Divrik, Rauf Taner

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the second primary cancers (SPCs) in patients with urothelial cancer (UC). Materials and Methods The records of 2,339 patients whose UC was diagnosed between January 1974 and December 2012 were reviewed. All data about characteristics of patients, of UC and, of SPC was, recorded digitally. We investigated the prevalence and the type of second or higher order cancers, and the factors associated with SPC. Results Total 260 patients (11.1%) had SPC, 14 had a third primary cancer and one had a fourth primary cancer. The most common SPC with UC was lung cancer (29.6%). Of all 260 with SPC, 64 (24.6%) had synchronous (within the 6 months) SPC, 120 (46.2%) had subsequent SPC and, 76 (29.2%) had antecedent SPC. The mean duration of SPC was 56 months in patients with subsequent SPC and 75.8 months in patients with antecedent SPC. The mean age at the time of diagnosis of UC was higher in patients with SPC. The ratio of male gender, body mass index, blood type, status of smoking and, occupational risk was similar in both groups. Total amount of smoking and the mean follow-up were higher in patients with SPC. Conclusions The majority of the patients with UC have long life expectancy. In patients with UC, the risk of having another cancer is quite higher than normal population. The physicians managing patients with UC should look for SPC.

  12. Preliminary paleogeographic reconstruction of the Illinois basin during deposition of the Mississippian Aux Vases Formation: Implications for hydrocarbon recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Extensive outcrop investigation and selective subsurface study allow definition of Illinois basin paleogeography during deposition of the Mississippian (Valmeyeran-Meramecian) Aux Vases Formation. The results incorporate an integrated approach utilizing field observations and petrographic analysis, wireline logs, subsurface maps, and cores. The Aux Vases Formation depositional system has been determined to be composed of subtidal to intertidal facies. Depositional facies in outcrop are based on rock body geometries, sedimentary structure assemblages, paleocurrent analysis, paleontology of body and trace fossils, facies relationships, and petrography. Depositional facies determined from subsurface data are based on correlation of lithologic interpretations from wireline logs, sand body geometries form isopach maps, and petrography. Specific depositional facies observed in outcrop and core and inferred from wireline logs and isopach maps are offshore bars and tidal channel complexes, extensive subtidal to lower intertidal, ripple-laminated, fine-grained quartzose sandstone. Carbonate facies occur as subtidal grainstones at or near the base of a sequence, or as high energy deposits which have been tidally reworked. This depositional system produces reservoir heterogeneities that complicate efficient hydrocarbon recovery. This diverse facies architecture is modified by tectonic and diagenetic overprinting, further segregating potential producing zones. To significantly improve recovery efficiency, predictions regarding compartmentalization can be used prior to designing a drilling program, an infill drilling program, or an application of enhanced recovery techniques.

  13. Assessing Arboreal Adaptations of Bird Antecedents: Testing the Ecological Setting of the Origin of the Avian Flight Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Dececchi, T. Alexander; Larsson, Hans C. E.

    2011-01-01

    The origin of avian flight is a classic macroevolutionary transition with research spanning over a century. Two competing models explaining this locomotory transition have been discussed for decades: ground up versus trees down. Although it is impossible to directly test either of these theories, it is possible to test one of the requirements for the trees-down model, that of an arboreal paravian. We test for arboreality in non-avian theropods and early birds with comparisons to extant avian, mammalian, and reptilian scansors and climbers using a comprehensive set of morphological characters. Non-avian theropods, including the small, feathered deinonychosaurs, and Archaeopteryx, consistently and significantly cluster with fully terrestrial extant mammals and ground-based birds, such as ratites. Basal birds, more advanced than Archaeopteryx, cluster with extant perching ground-foraging birds. Evolutionary trends immediately prior to the origin of birds indicate skeletal adaptations opposite that expected for arboreal climbers. Results reject an arboreal capacity for the avian stem lineage, thus lending no support for the trees-down model. Support for a fully terrestrial ecology and origin of the avian flight stroke has broad implications for the origin of powered flight for this clade. A terrestrial origin for the avian flight stroke challenges the need for an intermediate gliding phase, presents the best resolved series of the evolution of vertebrate powered flight, and may differ fundamentally from the origin of bat and pterosaur flight, whose antecedents have been postulated to have been arboreal and gliding. PMID:21857918

  14. Linking health information seeking to behavioral outcomes: antecedents and outcomes of childhood vaccination information seeking in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Ou; Kim, Soyoon

    2015-01-01

    Although research on health information has made significant progress in identifying the antecedents of individuals' information-seeking behavior in the context of the United States, the results have not been generalizable to the contexts of many other countries. Moreover, little is known about how one's information-seeking behavior is connected to actual behavioral outcomes relevant to the search action. The authors conducted an online survey with a stratified random sample of 1,004 mothers to examine the applicability of the comprehensive model of health information seeking in predicting the use of diverse childhood vaccination information sources in South Korea, and to investigate associations between the mothers' engagement with specific vaccine information sources and behavioral intention to immunize their children. Findings indicated that the hierarchical structure and the role of predictors within the comprehensive model of health information seeking provided a valid framework in the context of vaccine information seeking in Korea. In addition, the authors found negative associations between the use of certain types of information sources and mothers' intention to vaccinate. This suggests that the dissemination of critical health information through a variety of available sources does not automatically lead to prudent behavioral decisions when the specific characteristics of the different sources are not considered. PMID:25539018

  15. Understanding the Antecedents of Korean High School Students’ Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy: Parental Influence, Peer Influence, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Su Ahn; Cho, NamAuk; Yoo, Jina

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the factors that influence Korean adolescents’ drinking refusal self-efficacy, which is known to be associated with alcohol use and drinking intentions. Specifically, this study considered parental monitoring, parent-child communication satisfaction, peer influence, and prior alcohol use as possible antecedents of Korean high school students’ drinking refusal self-efficacy. High school students (n = 538) in South Korea responded to the current study. The data revealed that parent-child communication satisfaction facilitated parental monitoring, and these factors indirectly predicted adolescents’ drinking behavior through peer influence. We also found that prior drinking, parental monitoring, and peer influence were directly associated with drinking refusal self-efficacy, and the self-efficacy, in turn, was associated with drinking intentions. These results not only suggest that drinking refusal self-efficacy are related to drinking behavior and intentions, but they also provide a theoretical explanation for how parental and peer influences are associated with adolescents’ drinking refusal self-efficacy. PMID:22980099

  16. Examining the antecedents of challenge and threat states: the influence of perceived required effort and support availability.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lee J; Vine, Samuel J; Wilson, Mark R; Freeman, Paul

    2014-08-01

    To date, limited research has explicitly examined the antecedents of challenge and threat states proposed by the biopsychosocial model. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the influence of perceived required effort and support availability on demand/resource evaluations, challenge and threat states, and motor performance. A 2 (required effort; high, low)×2 (support availability; available, not available) between-subjects design was used with one hundred and twenty participants randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions. Participants received instructions designed to manipulate perceptions of required effort and support availability before demand/resource evaluations and cardiovascular responses were assessed. Participants then performed the novel motor task (laparoscopic surgery) while performance was recorded. Participants in the low perceived required effort condition evaluated the task as more of a challenge (i.e., resources outweighed demands), exhibited a cardiovascular response more indicative of a challenge state (i.e., higher cardiac output and lower total peripheral resistance), and performed the task better (i.e., quicker completion time) than those in the high perceived required effort condition. However, perceptions of support availability had no significant impact on participants' demand/resource evaluations, cardiovascular responses, or performance. Furthermore, there was no significant interaction effect between perceptions of required effort and support availability. The findings suggest that interventions aimed at promoting a challenge state should include instructions that help individuals perceive that the task is not difficult and requires little physical and mental effort to perform effectively. PMID:24867434

  17. Hippocampal functional magnetic resonance imaging during a face-name learning task in adolescents with antecedents of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Mónica; Junqué, Carme; Vendrell, Pere; Caldú, Xavier; Narberhaus, Ana; Bargalló, Núria; Falcón, Carles; Botet, Francesc; Mercader, Josep Maria

    2005-04-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to map hippocampal activation during a declarative memory task in a sample of 14 adolescents with antecedents of prematurity (AP). The sample with AP was matched by age, sex and handedness with 14 full-term controls with no history of neurological or psychiatric illness. The target task consisted in learning 16 novel face-name pairs, and the control task involved the examination of two repeated face-name pairs. Stereological methods were also used to quantify hippocampal volumes. In both groups, we observed increased activation in the learning condition compared to the control task in the right fusiform gyrus and the left inferior occipital gyrus, but only premature subjects activated the hippocampus. Group comparison of the activation versus control conditions showed that prematures had greater activity in the right hippocampus than controls during the encoding of the word-face association. Volumetric analyses showed a significant left hippocampal volume loss in adolescents with AP. In addition, we found a significant positive correlation in the premature group between right hippocampal activation and face-name recognition. Functional MRI data also correlated with structural MRI data: right hippocampal activation correlated positively with right hippocampal volume. Our findings are consistent with previous studies of brain plasticity after focal lesions. Left hippocampal tissue loss may be related to an increase in contralateral brain activity, probably reflecting a compensatory mechanism. Our data also suggest that this plasticity is not enough to achieve normal performance. PMID:15784435

  18. Effects of culturally specific cessation messages on theoretical antecedents of behavior among low-income african american smokers.

    PubMed

    Webb, Monica S; Baker, Elizabeth A; Rodríguez de Ybarra, Denise

    2010-06-01

    Previous research has highlighted the importance of cultural relevance in health risk communications, including tobacco interventions. However, few studies have examined the active components of smoking cessation messages targeting low-income African American smokers. This study tested the influence of message content and culturally specific framing in a sample of adult smokers. In a 2 x 2 factorial experiment, 243 African American smokers (M = 19 cigarettes/day) recruited from the community (55% women; mean age = 43 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: culturally specific smoking messages, standard smoking messages, culturally specific exercise/weight messages, or standard exercise/weight messages. The primary outcome measures were theoretical antecedents to behavior change, including risk perceptions (general, personal, and culturally specific), readiness to quit smoking, and smoking-related knowledge. The results showed that the smoking messages produced greater culturally specific risk perceptions, readiness to quit smoking, and smoking-related knowledge. The culturally specific messages produced greater personal risk perceptions and intentions to quit. Culturally specific risk perceptions were most affected by culturally specific smoking messages. Findings support the roles of message content and culturally specific framing in the efficacy of brief written interventions for smoking cessation in this population. Future research is needed to examine the influence of these constructs on behavior change. PMID:20565159

  19. A prospective study of childhood and adolescent antecedents of homelessness among a community population of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Fothergill, Kate E; Doherty, Elaine E; Robertson, Judith A; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2012-06-01

    Much is known about contemporaneous correlates of homelessness from studies of homeless individuals. However, few studies have prospectively examined early antecedents and prevalence of homelessness in community populations. We use data from a 35-year study of a community population of African Americans to examine relationships between homelessness and prior structural, family, school, and behavioral influences. Nearly 22% of males and 16% of females reported homelessness between ages 15 and 42, providing a rare estimate within an African American urban community population. In bivariate analyses, lower school bonds, depressed mood, violent behavior, and running away in adolescence are predictive for both males and females. Teen parenting and angry mood are unique influences for females, while for males, poor first grade classroom conduct and adolescent substance use are unique risks. In multivariate analyses, poor classroom conduct and weaker school bonds predict homelessness among males, while teen parenting does so for females. Running away before age 15 is strongly predictive of later homelessness for both males and females. These results reveal the relative influence of multiple, interrelated early risks on homelessness and confirm our hypothesis that factors linked to other poor outcomes also relate to homelessness, underscoring another benefit to early prevention efforts. PMID:22234393

  20. It matters how old you feel: Antecedents and performance consequences of average relative subjective age in organizations.

    PubMed

    Kunze, Florian; Raes, Anneloes M L; Bruch, Heike

    2015-09-01

    This article extends the conceptual knowledge of average relative subjective age in organizations by exploring organizational-level antecedents and consequences of employees, on average, feeling younger than their chronological age. We draw from the theories of selection-optimization-compensation and socioemotional selectivity to build a theoretical framework for relative subjective age in organizations. We hypothesize that companies in which employees, on average, perceive themselves to be younger than they actually are have a higher average individual goal accomplishment and, in turn, experience higher company performance. We further hypothesize that employees' average experience of high work-related meaning relates to a lower subjective age in organizations. In addition, we assess the role of environmental dynamism and age-inclusive human resource management as moderators in this theoretical model. Through empirically testing this model in a multisource dataset, including 107 companies with 15,164 participating employees, we received support for the hypothesized relationships. Our results contribute to current debates in the scientific literature on age and have important practical implications in light of the demographic changes faced by many companies. This research indicates to both researchers and practitioners that it is not employees' chronological age but their subjective age, a factor that can be influenced, which drives organizational performance outcomes. PMID:25798554

  1. Severe viral oesophagitis, pharyngitis, and stomatitis as antecedents of ileocecal Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Waluga, Marek; Budzyńska, Agnieszka; Kajor, Maciej; Hartleb, Marek

    2015-01-01

    We present a 22-year-old male who developed a severe erosive oesophagitis extending to the pharynx and oral cavity without obvious risk factors. Endoscopic image suggested viral aetiology that could not be confirmed by routine serological diagnostics of infections with cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Herpes simplex virus. The histopathological evaluation also gave no definite clues to the aetiology of the inflammation. Treatment with acyclovir was ineffective, but gancyclovir therapy caused spectacular clinical improvement and healing of erosions. Two months later the patient presented febrile diarrhoea that was a symptom of ileocecal Crohn's disease proven by endoscopy, enterography, and histopathology. It is the first report of severe viral oesophagitis preceding clinical manifestation of Crohn's disease. This observation warrants further study towards the viral aetiology of oral, pharyngeal, and oesophageal erosions, frequently associated with Crohn's disease. PMID:25960815

  2. Probing the structures of gold-aluminum alloy clusters AuxAly-: a joint experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khetrapal, Navneet Singh; Jian, Tian; Pal, Rhitankar; Lopez, Gary V.; Pande, Seema; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Besides the size and structure, compositions can also dramatically affect the properties of alloy nanoclusters. Due to the added degrees of freedom, determination of the global minimum structures for multi-component nanoclusters poses even greater challenges, both experimentally and theoretically. Here we report a systematic and joint experimental/theoretical study of a series of gold-aluminum alloy clusters, AuxAly- (x + y = 7,8), with various compositions (x = 1-3 y = 4-7). Well-resolved photoelectron spectra have been obtained for these clusters at different photon energies. Basin-hopping global searches, coupled with density functional theory calculations, are used to identify low-lying structures of the bimetallic clusters. By comparing computed electronic densities of states of the low-lying isomers with the experimental photoelectron spectra, the global minima are determined. It is found that for y >= 6 there is a strong tendency to form the magic-number square bi-pyramid motif of Al6- in the AuxAly- clusters, suggesting that the Al-Al interaction dominates the Au-Au interaction in the mixed clusters. A closely related trend is that for x > 1, the gold atoms tend to be separated by Al atoms unless only the magic-number Al6- square bi-pyramid motif is present, suggesting that in the small-sized mixed clusters, Al and Au components do not completely mix with one another. Overall, the Al component appears to play a more dominant role due to the high robustness of the magic-number Al6- square bi-pyramid motif, whereas the Au component tends to be either ``adsorbed'' onto the Al6- square bi-pyramid motif if y >= 6, or stays away from one another if x < y < 6.Besides the size and structure, compositions can also dramatically affect the properties of alloy nanoclusters. Due to the added degrees of freedom, determination of the global minimum structures for multi-component nanoclusters poses even greater challenges, both experimentally and theoretically. Here we

  3. An improved technique for modeling initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions: Applications in Illinois (USA) aux vases oil reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udegbunam, E.; Amaefule, J.O.

    1998-01-01

    An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to as the flow zone indicator (FZI). FZI is derived from porosity and permeability data. In the FUSOI approach, capillary pressure parameters, S(wir), P(d), and ??, derived from the Brooks and Corey (1966) model [Brooks, R.H., Corey, A.T., 1966. Hydraulic properties of porous media, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, No. 3, March.], are correlated to the FZI. Subsequent applications of these parameters then permit the computation of improved hydrocarbon saturations as functions of FZI and height above the free water level (FWL). This technique has been successfully applied in the Mississippian Aux Vases Sandstone reservoirs of the Illinois Basin (USA). The Aux Vases Zeigler field (Franklin County, IL, USA) was selected for a field-wide validation of this FUSOI approach because of the availability of published studies. With the initial oil saturations determined on a depth-by-depth basis in cored wells, it was possible to geostatistically determine the three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of initial oil saturations in the Zeigler field. The original oil-in-place (OOIP), computed from the detailed initialization of the 3-D reservoir simulation model of the Zeigler field, was found to be within 5.6% of the result from a rigorous material balance method.An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to

  4. The auxin transporter, OsAUX1, is involved in primary root and root hair elongation and in Cd stress responses in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Yu, ChenLiang; Sun, ChenDong; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Suikang; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yan; Chen, YunLong; Li, Chuanyou; Qian, Qian; Aryal, Bibek; Geisler, Markus; Jiang, De An; Qi, YanHua

    2015-09-01

    Auxin and cadmium (Cd) stress play critical roles during root development. There are only a few reports on the mechanisms by which Cd stress influences auxin homeostasis and affects primary root (PR) and lateral root (LR) development, and almost nothing is known about how auxin and Cd interfere with root hair (RH) development. Here, we characterize rice osaux1 mutants that have a longer PR and shorter RHs in hydroponic culture, and that are more sensitive to Cd stress compared to wild-type (Dongjin). OsAUX1 expression in root hair cells is different from that of its paralogous gene, AtAUX1, which is expressed in non-hair cells. However, OsAUX1, like AtAUX1, localizes at the plasma membrane and appears to function as an auxin tranporter. Decreased auxin distribution and contents in the osaux1 mutant result in reduction of OsCyCB1;1 expression and shortened PRs, LRs and RHs under Cd stress, but may be rescued by treatment with the membrane-permeable auxin 1-naphthalene acetic acid. Treatment with the auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acid and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid increased the Cd sensitivity of WT rice. Cd contents in the osaux1 mutant were not altered, but reactive oxygen species-mediated damage was enhanced, further increasing the sensitivity of the osaux1 mutant to Cd stress. Taken together, our results indicate that OsAUX1 plays an important role in root development and in responses to Cd stress. PMID:26140668

  5. Diversification and Expression of the PIN, AUX/LAX, and ABCB Families of Putative Auxin Transporters in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Carraro, Nicola; Tisdale-Orr, Tracy Eizabeth; Clouse, Ronald Matthew; Knöller, Anne Sophie; Spicer, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Intercellular transport of the plant hormone auxin is mediated by three families of membrane-bound protein carriers, with the PIN and ABCB families coding primarily for efflux proteins and the AUX/LAX family coding for influx proteins. In the last decade our understanding of gene and protein function for these transporters in Arabidopsis has expanded rapidly but very little is known about their role in woody plant development. Here we present a comprehensive account of all three families in the model woody species Populus, including chromosome distribution, protein structure, quantitative gene expression, and evolutionary relationships. The PIN and AUX/LAX gene families in Populus comprise 16 and 8 members respectively and show evidence for the retention of paralogs following a relatively recent whole genome duplication. There is also differential expression across tissues within many gene pairs. The ABCB family is previously undescribed in Populus and includes 20 members, showing a much deeper evolutionary history, including both tandem and whole genome duplication as well as probable gene loss. A striking number of these transporters are expressed in developing Populus stems and we suggest that evolutionary and structural relationships with known auxin transporters in Arabidopsis can point toward candidate genes for further study in Populus. This is especially important for the ABCBs, which is a large family and includes members in Arabidopsis that are able to transport other substrates in addition to auxin. Protein modeling, sequence alignment and expression data all point to ABCB1.1 as a likely auxin transport protein in Populus. Given that basipetal auxin flow through the cambial zone shapes the development of woody stems, it is important that we identify the full complement of genes involved in this process. This work should lay the foundation for studies targeting specific proteins for functional characterization and in situ localization. PMID:22645571

  6. Probing the structures of gold-aluminum alloy clusters AuxAly(-): a joint experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Khetrapal, Navneet Singh; Jian, Tian; Pal, Rhitankar; Lopez, Gary V; Pande, Seema; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Besides the size and structure, compositions can also dramatically affect the properties of alloy nanoclusters. Due to the added degrees of freedom, determination of the global minimum structures for multi-component nanoclusters poses even greater challenges, both experimentally and theoretically. Here we report a systematic and joint experimental/theoretical study of a series of gold-aluminum alloy clusters, AuxAly(-) (x + y = 7,8), with various compositions (x = 1-3; y = 4-7). Well-resolved photoelectron spectra have been obtained for these clusters at different photon energies. Basin-hopping global searches, coupled with density functional theory calculations, are used to identify low-lying structures of the bimetallic clusters. By comparing computed electronic densities of states of the low-lying isomers with the experimental photoelectron spectra, the global minima are determined. It is found that for y ≥ 6 there is a strong tendency to form the magic-number square bi-pyramid motif of Al6(-) in the AuxAly(-) clusters, suggesting that the Al-Al interaction dominates the Au-Au interaction in the mixed clusters. A closely related trend is that for x > 1, the gold atoms tend to be separated by Al atoms unless only the magic-number Al6(-) square bi-pyramid motif is present, suggesting that in the small-sized mixed clusters, Al and Au components do not completely mix with one another. Overall, the Al component appears to play a more dominant role due to the high robustness of the magic-number Al6(-) square bi-pyramid motif, whereas the Au component tends to be either "adsorbed" onto the Al6(-) square bi-pyramid motif if y ≥ 6, or stays away from one another if x < y < 6. PMID:27119726

  7. Longitudinal Analysis of a Model to Predict Quality of Life in Prostate Cancer Patients and their Spouses

    PubMed Central

    Kershaw, Trace S.; Mood, Darlene W.; Newth, Gail; Ronis, David L.; Sanda, Martin G.; Vaishampayan, Ulka; Northouse, Laurel L.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Purpose This study examined a stress-coping model to assess whether baseline antecedent variables predicted subsequent appraisal, and how that appraisal predicted coping and quality of life for prostate cancer patients and their spouses. Methods In a sample of 121 prostate cancer patient/spouse dyads, we assessed baseline antecedent variables (self-efficacy, current concerns, age, socioeconomic status, social support, communication, symptoms, phase of illness), 4-month follow-up appraisal (negative appraisal, hopelessness, uncertainty), and 8-month follow-up coping and mental and physical quality of life. Patients and spouses were assessed in a single integrated path model using structural equation modeling. Results The stress-coping model accounted for a significant amount of variance in mental and physical quality of life at 8 months for patients (40% and 34%, respectively) and spouses (43% and 24%, respectively). Appraisal mediated the effect of several antecedent variables on quality of life. In addition, several partner effects (e.g., spouse variables influencing patient outcomes) were found. Conclusions Prostate cancer patients need interventions that assist them to manage the effects of their disease. The stress-coping model suggests skills in several areas that could be improved. Programs need to include spouses because they also are negatively affected by the disease and can influence patient outcomes. PMID:18830672

  8. Smoking Antecedents: Separating Between- and Within-Person Effects of Tobacco Dependence in a Multiwave Ecological Momentary Assessment Investigation of Adolescent Smoking

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) investigations have shown that the antecedents of smoking vary with individual differences in tobacco dependence. This has been interpreted as indicating that the transition to dependence is characterized by an erosion of external stimulus control over smoking. Rigorously testing this requires collecting multiple waves of EMA data, which permits separation of the influence of between- and within-person tobacco dependence variation in multilevel models. Methods: Adolescents (n = 313, 9th or 10th grade at baseline) participated in up to 4 waves of week-long EMA assessment over the course of 2 years as part of a larger longitudinal, observational study. At each wave, participants recorded contextual features and subjective states in response to prompted diary assessments and when smoking. They completed a youth-specific form of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale at each wave. Results: In cross-sectional multilevel analyses, smoking was less contingent on alcohol/drug use and was more common at home and in the morning for adolescents with higher levels of dependence. Multiwave analyses demonstrated that these effects were largely attributable to between-person variation in dependence, although parameter estimates for intraindividual dependence × antecedent effects tended to be in the predicted direction. Discussion: Findings provided partial support for the contention that the antecedents of smoking shift as an individual progresses to higher levels of dependence. Distinctive choices concerning smoking settings also appear to reflect between-person differences in propensity to dependence. More generally, the findings illustrate the value of using multilevel modeling and repeated EMA assessments to investigate the correlates of tobacco dependence at different levels of analysis. PMID:23990475

  9. Arabidopsis SHR and SCR transcription factors and AUX1 auxin influx carrier control the switch between adventitious rooting and xylogenesis in planta and in in vitro cultured thin cell layers

    PubMed Central

    Della Rovere, F.; Fattorini, L.; D’Angeli, S.; Veloccia, A.; Del Duca, S.; Cai, G.; Falasca, G.; Altamura, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Adventitious roots (ARs) are essential for vegetative propagation. The Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors SHORT ROOT (SHR) and SCARECROW (SCR) affect primary/lateral root development, but their involvement in AR formation is uncertain. LAX3 and AUX1 auxin influx carriers contribute to primary/lateral root development. LAX3 expression is regulated by SHR, and LAX3 contributes to AR tip auxin maximum. In contrast, AUX1 involvement in AR development is unknown. Xylogenesis is induced by auxin plus cytokinin as is AR formation, but the genes involved are largely unknown. Stem thin cell layers (TCLs) form ARs and undergo xylogenesis under the same auxin plus cytokinin input. The aim of this research was to investigate SHR, SCR, AUX1 and LAX3 involvement in AR formation and xylogenesis in intact hypocotyls and stem TCLs in arabidopsis. Methods Hypocotyls of scr-1, shr-1, lax3, aux1-21 and lax3/aux1-21 Arabidopsis thaliana null mutant seedlings grown with or without auxin plus cytokinin were examined histologically, as were stem TCLs cultured with auxin plus cytokinin. SCR and AUX1 expression was monitored using pSCR::GFP and AUX1::GUS lines, and LAX3 expression and auxin localization during xylogenesis were monitored by using LAX3::GUS and DR5::GUS lines. Key Results AR formation was inhibited in all mutants, except lax3. SCR was expressed in pericycle anticlinally derived AR-forming cells of intact hypocotyls, and in cell clumps forming AR meristemoids of TCLs. The apex was anomalous in shr and scr ARs. In all mutant hypocotyls, the pericycle divided periclinally to produce xylogenesis. Xylary element maturation was favoured by auxin plus cytokinin in shr and aux1-21. Xylogenesis was enhanced in TCLs, and in aux1-21 and shr in particular. AUX1 was expressed before LAX3, i.e. in the early derivatives leading to either ARs or xylogenesis. Conclusions AR formation and xylogenesis are developmental programmes that are inversely related, but they

  10. The artful management of older patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jay; Schiffer, Charles A

    2016-05-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia in older patients has historically had a dismal 10-15% long-term survival rate. Although patient frailty plays a role in this disappointing outcome, the primary driver of poor results remains the resistance of disease to current therapies. The optimal management of this difficult-to-treat disease should include a careful consideration of disease, patient and treatment factors. Disease factors include cytogenetic and molecular features and the history of an antecedent hematological disorder. Patient factors include age, performance status, comorbid conditions and individual patient preference. We favor intensive induction in most fit older patients but alternatives such as hypomethylating agents and low-dose cytarabine may be considered in patients with other comorbidities. Enrollment of patients into well designed clinical trials addressing important questions remains of utmost importance in order to advance the understanding and treatment of this disease although the best means of drug development remains a challenging dilemma. PMID:26878693

  11. A method of evaluating effects of antecedent precipitation on duststorms and its application to Yuma, Arizona, 1981-1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKinnon, D.J.; Elder, D.F.; Helm, P.J.; Tuesink, M.F.; Nist, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Precipitation causes several short- and long-term effects on wind-induced surface erodibility and subsequent dust emission. Among the principal effects considered by this paper are soil moisture, soil crusts, and vegetation. A quantitative method is developed to assess these effects using differences between the potential and the actual amounts of dust emitted from dust sources as inferred from surface meteorological measurements obtained downwind from those sources. The results of this assessment must be interpreted with caution, however, when the size and location of dust sources are unknown. Using meteorological data recorded near Yuma, Arizona at the Yuma Marine Corps Air Station (YMCAS), the method is applied to calculate the potential and actual amounts of dust emitted from upwind dust sources during the spring and fall/winter seasons between January 1, 1981 and May 31, 1988. (Spring is considered to be the period between February 1 and May 31; fall/winter, between October 1 and January 31.) Because summer precipitation is intermittent and wind patterns are localized, summer meteorological data are not used to evaluate regional correlations between precipitation and dust storms. For the period between 1981 and 1988, a correlation of -0.60 was found between fall/winter precipitation and the actual amount of dust emitted from sources upwind of YMCAS during the following spring. A particularly strong reduction in dust emission was noted during the springs of 1983 and 1984 following the start of an 'El Nino event' in fall/winter 1982. Photographs taken at a geological and meteorological data-collection (Geomet) site, located in the natural desert 25 km southeast of YMCAS, show a correspondence between increased antecedent precipitation recorded at the site and increased vegetation. Whereas the annual precipitation totals at YMCAS and the Geomet site from the beginning of 1982 through 1984 are high, their seasonal totals, especially during the fall/winter seasons

  12. Investigating surface and groundwater mixing dynamics under varying antecedent moisture conditions in a karst aquifer, Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C.; Banner, J. L.; Musgrove, M.; Mahler, B. J.

    2010-12-01

    Variability in Sr concentrations and isotope values of groundwater from the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer during the period of November 2008 to March 2010 reflects a broad range of hydrologic conditions, and lends insight into surface and groundwater mixing dynamics. Surface water recharge rapidly moves through the karst groundwater system, making surface water quality an important component of groundwater quality. Understanding how surface and groundwater mixing changes in response to varying antecedent moisture conditions is critical to groundwater management. Within the Barton Spring segment, groundwater compositions are characterized by Sr concentrations (median = 1,600 μg/l) and Sr isotope values (median = 0.70792) that reflect extensive interaction with the carbonate bedrock. Surface water, in contrast, has lower Sr concentrations (median = 290 μg/l) and higher Sr isotope values (median = 0.70805) that reflect interaction with soils and urban water inputs. Groundwater was sampled from wells that accessed conduit and diffuse flow dominated parts of the aquifer and from the main discharge point (Barton Springs) of the aquifer segment. Samples were collected in conditions ranging from drought and near-historically low spring discharge to above average rainfall conditions and spring discharge. Groundwater sampled from a well accessing the diffuse part of the aquifer had consistent Sr concentrations and Sr isotope values, reflecting little to no surface water mixing. Groundwater sampled from a well accessing the conduit part of the aquifer had gradually decreasing Sr concentrations and increasing Sr isotope values with increasingly wetter hydrologic conditions, reflecting an increasing proportion of surface water mixing. While spring water also has decreasing Sr concentrations and increasing Sr isotope values with increasingly wetter hydrologic conditions, concentrations and isotope values begin to change only after spring discharge exceeded 50

  13. Les accidents aux AVK: étude rétrospective à propos de 30 cas

    PubMed Central

    Serghini, Issam; Aissaoui, Younés; Quamouss, Youssef; Sedikki, Rachid; Taj, Nourredine; Salim Alaoui, Jaafar; Zoubir, Mohamed; Boughanem, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Les accidents hémorragiques sous AVK (antivitamines K) sont la première cause d’hospitalisation iatrogène. Le but de cette étude est de ressortir les caractéristiques des patients présentant des accidents hémorragiques graves sous AVK et de mettre le point sur la prise en charge. Nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective portant sur 30 malades, réalisée au service de réanimation de l’hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech. L’âge moyen de nos patients est de 59, 6 avec un sexe ratio de 1,5 (18 femmes et 12 femmes). On note dans notre série le terrain multi-taré des patients sous AVK avec plusieurs antécédents en cause. La fibrillation auriculaire était la principale indication recensée. Plus que la moitié ne bénéficiaient pas d’une bonne surveillance biologique à base d’INR (international normalized ratio). Le saignement d’origine gastro-intestinal était le plus fréquent. La conduite était différente en fonction des cas mais axée sur l’arrêt des AVK, l’administration de vit K, la transfusion de culots globulaires et plasma frais congelé. Plus du quart des patients admis sont décédés. L’index de Landefeld s’est avéré utile, il permet de classer les patients selon le risque prédictif de saignement (élevé moyen ou faible), ce qui concordait avec les résultats de notre étude. Son importance est d’ autant plus qu’il est facile à mesurer et à appliquer par le médecin en ambulatoire et permet de définir les patients nécessitant une surveillance accrue. La polymédication et les antécédents de saignement digestif sont apparus comme facteur de risque de saignement sous AVK. La prévention de la survenue de ces accidents est le pilier de la prise en charge, d’où l’importance de l’information et de l’éducation des différents intervenants dans cette complication iatrogène potentiellement mortelle. PMID:22514758

  14. Communication Style as an Antecedent to Reactance, Self-Efficacy, and Restoration of Freedom for Drug- and Alcohol-Involved Women on Probation and Parole.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sandi W; Cornacchione, Jennifer J; Morash, Merry; Kashy, Deborah; Cobbina, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    This study extends research on psychological reactance theory by examining probation and parole officer (PO) communication style as an antecedent to female offenders' reactance and 2 indicators of subsequent drug and alcohol abuse while serving probation or parole sentences. Structural equation modeling was conducted to test a mediational path model, the results of which demonstrated that perceptions of PO conversational communication style were negatively associated with reactance but positively associated with self-efficacy to avoid drugs and alcohol. Conversely, women who perceived their POs as having a conformity communication style were more likely to report higher levels of reactance and lower self-efficacy to avoid drugs and alcohol. Psychological reactance led to desire to restore freedom, whereas self-efficacy to avoid drugs and alcohol did not. Desire to restore freedom was linked with reports of using drugs and alcohol and violations of parole or probation for using drugs and alcohol. These findings highlight the importance of communication style as an antecedent to reactance and in the relationship between POs and offenders. PMID:27070189

  15. The effect of storm sequence, catchment structure, vegetation type and antecedent moisture conditions on nutrient loading and stream discharge for a small Catskill mountain watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randolph, A.; Schneiderman, E. M.; Pierson, D. C.; Zion, M. S.; Band, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    Research suggests that among the possible consequences of climate change could be a change in the spatio-temporal pattern of precipitation within and across years. In particular, it is suggested that changes in inter-storm period, storm depth and the partitioning of precipitation between rain and snow events could occur. A complex interaction exists between precipitation, topographic controls, catchment structure and vegetation type and status. Collectively, they define a spatial pattern of antecedent moisture conditions across the landscape prior to each precipitation event, which in turn significantly impacts stream flow characteristics such as base flow, storm flow and nutrient loading. In the present study, we use a spatially distributed hydro-ecological model (RHESSys) to model the change in the relative contribution of stream flow and nutrient loading from sub-catchments within Biscuit Brook (Catskill mountains, New York, USA) as a function of precipitation pattern and vegetation cover. Specifically, we investigate how the spatial pattern of antecedent moisture conditions within each sub-catchment varies as a function of modeled vegetation type and precipitation pattern, and how the aggregate response of the catchment changes in terms of base flow, storm flow and nutrient loading. Implications for water quality and water quality management are assessed and discussed. Key words: climate change, RHESSys, stream discharge, nutrient loading, watershed modeling, ecological modeling, water quality

  16. The French Tsunami warning center for the Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic (CENtre d'ALerte aux Tsunamis, CENALT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelé, F.; Bossu, R.; Alabrune, N.; Arnoul, P.; Duperray, P.; Gailler, A.; Guilbert, J.; Hébert, H.; Hernandez, B.; Loevenbruck, A.; Roudil, P.

    2012-04-01

    The CENALT (CENtre d'Alerte aux Tsunamis) is responsible for the French NTWC (National Tsunami Warning Center). This center was established through a project that was requested by the French Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Sustainable Development. It is implemented by the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), the French Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (SHOM) and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), and is based in Bruyères-le-Châtel (30 km from Paris). This center is based on three main components: seismic network data, sea level network data, dissemination system and processing and analyzing softwares and is operating on a 24/7 basis. The CENALT has established scientific cooperation with 8 institutions and implemented and funded private leased lines to exchange data with institutions from 5 different European countries (Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia). The seismic data are processed with the Seiscomp 3 software. SHOM is working on making all French tide-gauge stations operated and available in real-time in 2012, and they installed 5 new tide gage stations. The tide gage data will be processed with a customized version of the Guitar (Gempa) software allowing the detection of tsunami signals, complemented by other softwares developed by the CEA. Historical tsunami databases (sources and observations) and earthquake databases, mostly based on available international databases, have been synthetized by CEA to produce information maps in real time, used to guide operators of permanence. Precomputed tsunami scenarios are implemented to build in real time maps of the highest tsunami impact expected in deep water. Along with an optimized tsunami modeling tool, these softwares help to define the areas where the tsunami may be observed and cause damage. The CENALT has been operating since early January 2012 as a pre-operational service and will be fully operational in July 2012. It is also

  17. Le système opioïde endogène et l’addiction aux drogues1

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Résumé L’addiction aux drogues est une maladie psychiatrique chronique qui conduit à d’importantes altérations adaptatives dans les circuits de récompense du cerveau. Plusieurs systèmes de neurotransmission sont impliqués dans ces modifications. Cependant, un des systèmes neurochimiques qui joue un rôle essentiel dans l’addiction est le système opioïde endogène. Les récepteurs opioïdes et les peptides opioïdes endogènes sont très largement présents dans les structures cérébrales qui contrôlent les phénomènes de récompense, en particulier le système mésolimbique. Ces récepteurs et peptides opioïdes participent d’une manière sélective à plusieurs aspects des processus addictifs induits par les opiacés, les cannabinoïdes, les psychostimulants, l’alcool et la nicotine. Cette revue rend compte de l’état actuel des connaissances sur la participation de chaque composante du système opioïde endogène dans les propriétés addictives des différentes drogues. PMID:20176158

  18. Gestion des ressources hydriques adaptee aux changements climatiques pour la production optimale d'hydroelectricite. Etude de cas: Bassin versant de la riviere Manicouagan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haguma, Didier

    Il est dorenavant etabli que les changements climatiques auront des repercussions sur les ressources en eau. La situation est preoccupante pour le secteur de production d'energie hydroelectrique, car l'eau constitue le moteur pour generer cette forme d'energie. Il sera important d'adapter les regles de gestion et/ou les installations des systemes hydriques, afin de minimiser les impacts negatifs et/ou pour capitaliser sur les retombees positives que les changements climatiques pourront apporter. Les travaux de la presente recherche s'interessent au developpement d'une methode de gestion des systemes hydriques qui tient compte des projections climatiques pour mieux anticiper les impacts de l'evolution du climat sur la production d'hydroelectricite et d'etablir des strategies d'adaptation aux changements climatiques. Le domaine d'etude est le bassin versant de la riviere Manicouagan situe dans la partie centrale du Quebec. Une nouvelle approche d'optimisation des ressources hydriques dans le contexte des changements climatiques est proposee. L'approche traite le probleme de la saisonnalite et de la non-stationnarite du climat d'une maniere explicite pour representer l'incertitude rattachee a un ensemble des projections climatiques. Cette approche permet d'integrer les projections climatiques dans le probleme d'optimisation des ressources en eau pour une gestion a long terme des systemes hydriques et de developper des strategies d'adaptation de ces systemes aux changements climatiques. Les resultats montrent que les impacts des changements climatiques sur le regime hydrologique du bassin de la riviere Manicouagan seraient le devancement et l'attenuation de la crue printaniere et l'augmentation du volume annuel d'apports. L'adaptation des regles de gestion du systeme hydrique engendrerait une hausse de la production hydroelectrique. Neanmoins, une perte de la performance des installations existantes du systeme hydrique serait observee a cause de l'augmentation des

  19. Le consentement libre et éclairé aux soins en psychiatrie

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Grainne; Chaimowitz, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Le patient a le droit d’être informé sur les soins de santé qui lui sont proposés et de participer activement à la prise de décisions relativement à ces soins. Le respect de la dignité et de l’autonomie de la personne passe par le respect de son droit de prendre des décisions à propos de ses soins psychiatriques, notamment de refuser un traitement, pour autant qu’elle soit apte à prendre des décisions. Il importe que le psychiatre connaisse les fondements éthiques du consentement libre et éclairé et les exigences prévues par le droit en cette matière, y compris la jurisprudence. Le consentement n’est pas immuable, pouvant changer avec le temps, au fil de l’évolution des conditions et des circonstances. Par conséquent, le consentement doit être un processus continu.

  20. Preferential effectiveness of cyclosporin in patients receiving kidney transplants after glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Cats, S; Terasaki, P I; Perdue, S; Mickey, M R

    1985-03-01

    Glomerulonephritis patients transplanted with cadaver kidneys had a significantly higher one-year graft survival when immunosuppressed with cyclosporin rather than standard therapy (80% versus 59%, p less than 10(-5]. For nephrosclerosis patients the corresponding rates were 70% and 59% (p greater than 0.05); and in those with antecedent diabetes mellitus, polycystic kidney, and pyelonephritis the differences were negligible. In glomerulonephritis patients, but not in the other groups, cyclosporin was additive to the effect of transfusions and of HLA-A, B and HLA-Dr matching. PMID:2857855

  1. Part II: differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers and delinquent youth: further group comparisons of developmental antecedents and behavioral challenges.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, George S; Burton, David L; Howard, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper published in the Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers ( Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011 ). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to pornography) and behavioral difficulties (sexual aggression, arousal, pornography use, and nonsexual offenses). The present study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized adolescent sexual abusers with a group of nonsexually victimized delinquent youth. Findings included that delinquent youth had fewer behavioral and developmental problems than the comparison groups. In addition, sexually victimized sexual abusers had the highest mean scores on trauma and personality measures. Implications for research and treatment are offered. PMID:22574846

  2. Impacts of rainfall features and antecedent soil moisture on occurrence of preferential flow: A study at hillslopes using high-frequency monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhenyang; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang

    2016-04-01

    In order to evaluate influences of rainfall features and antecedent soil moisture on occurrence of preferential flow, a more than 2 years observation was conducted at 12 sites within a 7-km2 catchment, by applying the high-frequency monitoring approach. Totally 65 rainfall events were selected to compare among sites, and preferential flow was inferred when (i) responses of soil moisture did not follow a linear sequence with depth, and (ii) penetration velocity of wetting front in at least one horizon exceeded the threshold, which was set to be 5-10 times of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil matrix at different depths. Results showed that frequency of preferential flow was 40.7% in average, but varied from 17.9% to 74.3% among the sites. Correlations between the frequency and rainfall features, i.e. rainfall amount, duration, maximum and average intensity, were well fitted by logarithmic curves. Rainfall amount, which was most prominently correlated with frequency (R2=0.93), was regarded as the dominant driving factor of preferential flow, while average intensity was in second (R2=0.90). Antecedent soil moisture was also significantly correlated with the frequency. However, this should largely be attributed to the differences of soil moisture among sites, since varying range of soil moisture at a specific site was not wide enough to influence the frequency significantly. Further examination suggested that topography and surface cover (dead leaves and humus) were the controlling factors of both infiltration amount and occurrence of preferential flow, as water was more readily to infiltrate into soils and preferential flow was more readily to occur when slope gradient was small and surface cover was thick, while soil moisture was more likely to be a consequence of water storage capacity, rather than an inducer of preferential flow. This knowledge could be helpful in understanding the partitioning of surface runoff and infiltration, as well as runoff

  3. Antecedent mid-tropospheric frontogenesis caused by the interaction between a tropical cyclone and midlatitude trough: a case study of Typhoon Rusa (2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Eun-Hyuk; Lim, Gyu-Ho; Kim, Joo-Hong; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2014-10-01

    This study examines antecedent mid-tropospheric frontogenesis (AMF) resulting from the interaction between Typhoon Rusa (2002) and a midlatitude trough over the Korean Peninsula. In this event, the AMF contributed to the first peak in the time series of rainfall in Gangneung (37.75°N, 128.90°E), occurring about 12 h before the time of the extratropical transition (ET) process of the tropical cyclone (TC). Using observations and high-resolution model outputs, we showed that the AMF contributed to the antecedent rainfall in Gangneung during the first rainfall period when Gangneung was located outside of Rusa's sphere of direct influence. A Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model experiment was conducted to diagnose the frontogenetical features and associated precipitation processes in detail. The experiment revealed that the AMF was mainly forced by the horizontal deformation forcing (HDF). The direction of the HDF was oriented from southwest to northeast in the middle part of the peninsula. The HDF increased positively due to the confluence of the southeasterlies from the TC and the northwesterlies emanating from the midlatitude trough. The experiment also suggested that the mid-tropospheric moisture originated from the subtropical ocean and deposited into the frontal region by the southerlies on the eastern periphery of the TC, which enhanced the convergence of moisture flux in the frontal region during the first rainfall period. The thermally direct circulation associated with the AMF lead to the mid-tropospheric saturation, which enhanced the precipitation of the first rainfall event together with the orographically forced convection at the low level above Gangneung.

  4. The Role of Antecedent Geology in Submarine Slope Failure: Insights from the Currituck Slide Complex along the Central U.S. Atlantic Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. C.; Brothers, D. S.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Craig, B.; Chaytor, J. D.; Flores, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the influence of antecedent geology on the distribution of submarine landslides along the central U.S. Atlantic margin, we examined a suite of multichannel seismic data, including vintage airgun data from Norfolk Canyon to Cape Hatteras and new high-resolution sparker data across the Currituck Slide, as well as regional multibeam bathymetry. Areas north and south of the Currituck Slide are characterized by oblique margin morphology, defined by angular, convex deltaic clinoforms deposited during the Mid-Miocene, which generated an abrupt shelf-break with relatively steep downslope gradients (>8°). As a result, upper slope sediment bypass, closely spaced submarine canyons, and small landslides confined to canyon headwalls and sidewalls characterize these areas. In contrast, the Currituck region is defined by a sigmoidal geometry, with a smooth shelf-edge rollover and more gentle slope gradient (<6°) that allowed >800m of Plio-Pleistocene sediment accumulation across the continental slope prior to failure. Regionally continuous seismic reflectors show little or no evidence of canyonization beneath the Currituck Slide. A significant volume of intact strata on the lower slope suggests the Currituck region was a primary depocenter for fluvial inputs during multiple sea level lowstands. Failure along bedding planes is evident in outcropping strata along the upper and lower headwalls. Buried scarps beneath these headwalls imply repeated cycles of failure. Folds and faults suggest differential compaction across these scarps may have contributed to the most recent failure. These results suggest high sedimentation and subsequent compaction along a sigmoidal margin were critical components in preconditioning the Currituck Slide for failure. Examination of the regional geological framework illustrates the importance of sediment supply and antecedent slope morphology in the development of large, potentially unstable depocenters along passive margins.

  5. Multilocular True Ulnar Artery Aneurysm in a Pediatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Mark W; Sanders, Christopher; Lago, Mary; Hilaire, Hugo St

    2016-01-01

    Ulnar artery aneurysms are an exceedingly rare entity in the pediatric population and have no consistent etiologic mechanism. We present the case of a 15-year-old male with a multilocular ulnar artery aneurysm in the setting of no antecedent history of trauma, no identifiable connective tissue disorders, and no other apparent etiological factors. Furthermore, the patient's arterial palmar arch system was absent. The aneurysm was resected, and arterial reconstruction was successfully performed via open surgical approach with cephalic vein interposition graft. We believe this treatment modality should be considered as the primary approach in all of these pediatric cases in consideration of the possible pitfalls of less comprehensive measures. PMID:27104094

  6. Complex facies relationships and regional stratigraphy of the Mississippian Ste. Genevieve, Paoli, and Aux Vases Formations, Illinois basin: A major hydrocarbon-producing interval

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.D.; Nelson, W.J. )

    1993-03-01

    The Mississippian Ste. Genevieve and Paoli Limestones and sandstones of the Aux Vases Formation are lateral facies of one another. This interpretation is based on comprehensive investigations of outcrops, and selected cores, samples of well cuttings, and geophysical logs conducted over a period of four years. Both units exhibit similar sedimentological characteristics and represent open marine, shallow subtidal, and intertidal environments. The presence of low-angle cross-laminae, ripple- and plane-laminae, climbing ripples, and ooid shoals suggest most deposition occurred under low energy conditions. Lenticular, channel-like scour and fill structures that contain both fine-grained quartz sand and abraded, disarticulated fossil fragments indicate localized higher energy deposition. The authors studies indicate that siliciclastic vs. carbonate deposition was controlled strictly by available sediment, and not by regressive (siliciclastic) and transgressive (carbonate) events, as inferred by previous workers. This conclusion is based on lateral facies relationships, and the supplanting of carbonates by clastics occurring in the upper part of the Ste. Genevieve through the middle part of the Paoli. The Aux Vases is thickest, coarsest, and least mature in the northwestern part of the Illinois Basin, and pinches out to the southeast. This implies a northwesterly source for clastics, perhaps the Transcontinental Arch. After early Chesterian time, the Transcontinental Arch apparently supplied little or no sediment to any flanking basin. The Ste. Genevieve, Paoli, and Aux Vases are major oil-producing units in the Illinois Basin. New understanding of regional relationships should enhance exploratory success and improve recovery from established fields.

  7. Developing a conceptual model for the application of patient and public involvement in the healthcare system in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Azmal, Mohammad; Sari, Ali Akbari; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Ahmadi, Batoul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patient and public involvement is engaging patients, providers, community representatives, and the public in healthcare planning and decision-making. The purpose of this study was to develop a model for the application of patient and public involvement in decision making in the Iranian healthcare system. Methods A mixed qualitative-quantitative approach was used to develop a conceptual model. Thirty three key informants were purposely recruited in the qualitative stage, and 420 people (patients and their companions) were included in a protocol study that was implemented in five steps: 1) Identifying antecedents, consequences, and variables associated with the patient and the publics’ involvement in healthcare decision making through a comprehensive literature review; 2) Determining the main variables in the context of Iran’s health system using conceptual framework analysis; 3) Prioritizing and weighting variables by Shannon entropy; 4) designing and validating a tool for patient and public involvement in healthcare decision making; and 5) Providing a conceptual model of patient and the public involvement in planning and developing healthcare using structural equation modeling. We used various software programs, including SPSS (17), Max QDA (10), EXCEL, and LISREL. Content analysis, Shannon entropy, and descriptive and analytic statistics were used to analyze the data. Results In this study, seven antecedents variable, five dimensions of involvement, and six consequences were identified. These variables were used to design a valid tool. A logical model was derived that explained the logical relationships between antecedent and consequent variables and the dimensions of patient and public involvement as well. Conclusion Given the specific context of the political, social, and innovative environments in Iran, it was necessary to design a model that would be compatible with these features. It can improve the quality of care and promote the patient and

  8. Effect of antecedent-hydrological conditions on rainfall triggering of debris flows in ash-fall pyroclastic mantled slopes of Campania (southern Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Napolitano, E.; Fusco, F; Baum, Rex L.; Godt, Jonathan W.; De Vita, P.

    2015-01-01

    Mountainous areas surrounding the Campanian Plain and the Somma-Vesuvius volcano (southern Italy) are among the most risky areas of Italy due to the repeated occurrence of rainfallinduced debris flows along ash-fall pyroclastic soil-mantled slopes. In this geomorphological framework, rainfall patterns, hydrological processes taking place within multi-layered ash-fall pyroclastic deposits and soil antecedent moisture status are the principal factors to be taken into account to assess triggering rainfall conditions and the related hazard. This paper presents the outcomes of an experimental study based on integrated analyses consisting of the reconstruction of physical models of landslides, in situ hydrological monitoring, and hydrological and slope stability modeling, carried out on four representative source areas of debris flows that occurred in May 1998 in the Sarno Mountain Range. The hydrological monitoring was carried out during 2011 using nests of tensiometers and Watermark pressure head sensors and also through a rainfall and air temperature recording station. Time series of measured pressure head were used to calibrate a hydrological numerical model of the pyroclastic soil mantle for 2011, which was re-run for a 12-year period beginning in 2000, given the availability of rainfall and air temperature monitoring data. Such an approach allowed us to reconstruct the regime of pressure head at a daily time scale for a long period, which is representative of about 11 hydrologic years with different meteorological conditions. Based on this simulated time series, average winter and summer hydrological conditions were chosen to carry out hydrological and stability modeling of sample slopes and to identify Intensity- Duration rainfall thresholds by a deterministic approach. Among principal results, the opposing winter and summer antecedent pressure head (soil moisture) conditions were found to exert a significant control on intensity and duration of rainfall

  9. Role of antecedent conditions on nitrogen and phosphorus mobilisation observed in a lowland arable catchment in eastern England: insights from high-frequency monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outram, Faye; Hiscock, Kevin; Dugdale, Stephen; Lovett, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    In order to reduce annual riverine loadings of nutrients which are responsible for degradation of ecosystems downstream and in near coastal areas, it is important to first understand the mobilisation and pathways responsible for transporting them from source to river and how these pathways vary in space and time. The Blackwater tributary of the River Wensum in Norfolk, England, has been equipped with a sensor network as part of the Demonstration Test Catchments project, which has the aim of reducing pollution from agriculture to river systems whilst maintaining food security by the trial of mitigation measures on working farms at the sub-catchment level. The River Wensum is a lowland chalk catchment with intensive arable agriculture and high occurrence of tile drainage on heavier soils. Three hydrological years of high-frequency data have been gathered in the Blackwater since October 2011, including rainfall, half hourly measurements of discharge and groundwater level coupled with hydrochemical parameters including nitrate, total phosphorus (TP) and total reactive phosphorus (TRP). In the three years of data collection, there were distinct departures from long-term rainfall averages as the winter of 2011-12 was extremely dry following a drought from the previous hydrological year, followed by a summer which was unseasonably wet, which continued into the following winter. The relationship between rainfall, storage and discharge was found to be complex, which in turn had an impact on the dominant controls transporting nutrients from the landscape to the river network. Thirty three storms occurred throughout the three year period which have been analysed in the context of the range of hydrometeorological conditions observed throughout the dataset. Discharge-concentration hysteretic responses of nitrogen, TP and TRP have been used alongside statistical analysis of storm characteristics including antecedent hydrological conditions. The nitrate storm response showed

  10. Ampleur et impact des évènements indésirables graves liés aux soins: étude d'incidence dans un hôpital du Centre-Est tunisien

    PubMed Central

    Bouafia, Nabiha; Bougmiza, Iheb; Bahri, Fathi; Letaief, Mondher; Astagneau, Pascal; Njah, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La prévention des événements indésirables représente une priorité de santé du fait de leur fréquence et de leur gravité potentielle. Ce travail a été mené afin d'avoir un diagnostic de la situation épidémiologique relative aux événements indésirables survenant dans notre hôpital. Méthodes Une étude prospective a été menée auprès de tous les patients qui ont été hospitalisés au CHU Farhat Hached - Sousse (Tunisie) sur une période d'un mois dans quatorze services de l'hôpital. La détection d'évènement indésirable grave (EIG) était basée sur les critères adoptés dans différentes études. Les tests T et Chi 2 ont été utilisés pour identifier les facteurs contribuant à l'apparition d'évènements indésirables. Résultats Au total, 162 EIG ont été identifiés pendant la période. 45% de ces évènements étaient des infections nosocomiales. Ces EIG ont eu comme conséquences un décès chez 9,2% des patients, la mise en jeu du pronostic vital de 26% des patients et la prolongation de la durée de séjour chez 61,7% d'entre eux. L'admission dans des circonstances particulières et l'exposition à des soins invasifs étaient identifiés comme des facteurs de risque potentiels EIG. Conclusion Le renforcement de la stratégie de gestion des risques sanitaires en ciblant préférentiellement le risque infectieux constitue une étape fondamentale dans l'amélioration de la sécurité des patients au sein de notre établissement de santé. PMID:24711868

  11. Conception, elaboration et mise a l'essai d'un simulateur interactif permettant une approche modelisante: Application aux lois de la genetique mendelienne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasri, Abdel-Halim

    Dans cette recherche-developpement, nous avons concu, developpe et mis a l'essai un simulateur interactif pour favoriser l'apprentissage des lois probabilistes impliqees dans la genetique mendelienne. Cet environnement informatise devra permettre aux etudiants de mener des experiences simulees, utilisant les statistiques et les probebilites comme outils mathematiques pour modeliser le phenomene de la transmission des caracteres hereditaires. L'approche didactique est essentiellement orientee vers l'utilisation des methodes quantitatives impliquees dans l'experimentation des facteurs hereditaires. En incorporant au simulateur le principe de la "Lunette cognitive" de Nonnon (1986), l'etudiant fut place dans une situation ou il a pu synchroniser la perception de la representation iconique (concrete) et symbolique (abstraite) des lois probabilistes de Mendel. A l'aide de cet environnement, nous avons amene l'etudiant a identifier le(s) caractere(s) hereditaire(s) des parents a croiser, a predire les frequences phenotypiques probables de la descendance issue du croisement, a observer les resultats statistiques et leur fluctuation au niveau de l'histogramme des frequences, a comparer ces resultats aux predictions anticipees, a interpreter les donnees et a selectionner en consequence d'autres experiences a realiser. Les etapes de l'approche inductive sont privilegiees du debut a la fin des activites proposees. L'elaboration, du simulateur et des documents d'accompagnement, a ete concue a partir d'une vingtaine de principes directeurs et d'un modele d'action. Ces principes directeurs et le modele d'action decoulent de considerations theoriques psychologiques, didactiques et technologiques. La recherche decrit la structure des differentes parties composant le simulateur. L'architecture de celui-ci est construite autour d'une unite centrale, la "Principale", dont les liens et les ramifications avec les autres unites confere a l'ensemble du simulateur sa souplesse et sa

  12. Staff-reported antecedents to aggression in a post-acute brain injury treatment programme: What are they and what implications do they have for treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Gordon Muir; Scott, Karen; Manchester, David

    2013-01-01

    Research in psychiatric settings has found that staff attribute the majority of inpatient aggression to immediate environmental stressors. We sought to determine if staff working with persons with brain injury-related severe and chronic impairment make similar causal attributions. If immediate environmental stressors precipitate the majority of aggressive incidents in this client group, it is possible an increased focus on the management of factors that initiate client aggression may be helpful. The research was conducted in a low-demand treatment programme for individuals with chronic cognitive impairment due to acquired brain injury. Over a six-week period, 63 staff and a research assistant reported on 508 aggressive incidents. Staff views as to the causes of client aggression were elicited within 72 hours of observing an aggressive incident. Staff descriptions of causes were categorised using qualitative methods and analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Aggression towards staff was predominantly preceded by (a) actions that interrupted or redirected a client behaviour, (b) an activity demand, or (c) a physical intrusion. The majority of aggressive incidents appeared hostile/angry in nature and were not considered by staff to be pre-meditated. Common treatment approaches can be usefully augmented by a renewed focus on interventions aimed at reducing antecedents that provoke aggression. Possible approaches for achieving this are considered. PMID:23782342

  13. Concept analysis of good death in terminally ill patients.

    PubMed

    Granda-Cameron, Clara; Houldin, Arlene

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this concept analysis of good death was to examine the attributes of a good death and explore the changes of the concept over time and its impact on terminally ill patients. The method used for this analysis was the Rodgers' evolutionary method. A literature search was completed using Medline Ovid and Journal Storage (JSTOR).The findings describe the evolution of the good death concept over time from the prehistoric era followed by premodern, modern, and postmodern times. In addition, information is presented about surrogate terms, attributes, antecedents, and consequences associated with good death followed by analysis and discussion of the findings. General attributes of a good death include pain and symptom management, awareness of death, patient's dignity, family presence, family support, and communication among patient, family, and health care providers. PMID:22363039

  14. [The first 25 years of oncopsychology at the National Institute of Oncology: antecedents and events (1988-2013)].

    PubMed

    Riskó, Ágnes

    2015-09-01

    The first oncopsychological department was established in National Institute of Oncology by Sándor Eckhardt in 1988. At an early stage the specialists who were interested in mental hygiene made a united effort with Katalin Muszbek's oncopsychologic group. Ágnes Riskó was the first specialist who seceded from this group, and she became a permanent member of the onco-hematology group in 1992. Due to the universalized approach, the psyhcologist would become a permanent member of onco-team. The overhand and increasing multidisciplinary cooperation enable to use this accepted method in the daily medical treatment. When necessary, patients' relatives may come in for treatment and this method can help for medical stuff to avoid burnout. As a result of oncopsychology techniques and cooperation of oncologic teamwork the integration of psychosocial intervention into a complex oncologic treatment has already begun. The attendance of supervised onco-psychological specialists is being increased. Our activity contributes to improve our patients' psychosocial standard of living, their cooperation with the medical staff and the atmosphere of oncologic departments. The integration of the approach and methods of psychosocial rehabilitation into the new oncologic professional guideline has also begun. PMID:26339913

  15. Violent behaviour from young adults and the parents of paediatric patients in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Pich, Jacqueline; Hazelton, Michael; Kable, Ashley

    2013-07-01

    Violence in healthcare is a significant issue and one that is increasing in prevalence globally. Nurses have been identified as the professional group at most risk, with patients the main source of this violence. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of Australian ED nurses with episodes of patient-related violence from young adults (16-25years of age) and the parents of paediatric patients. Data analysis of semi-structured interviews led to the identification of antecedents to episodes of violence and behaviours specific to these two groups of interest. These behaviours included: "performing" and attention-seeking behaviours and violent behaviours including both verbal and physical abuse. Antecedents discussed by participants included: parental emotions and alcohol and substance abuse. Overall the results speak to a working environment where participants regularly feel unsafe. Violence in the ED is perceived to occur frequently and to such an extent that participants have become resigned to expect and accept it as part of their job. The role played by distinct groups such as young adults and the parents of paediatric patients must be acknowledged and this knowledge used along with other known risk factors to help identify patients at risk of potential violence. PMID:23063841

  16. Expression of PIN and AUX1 genes encoding putative carrier proteins for auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls [correction of epicotyles] under simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    2003-10-01

    Etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat showed automorphosis-like growth and development similar to that observed in true microgravity conditions in space. Application of inhibitors of auxin polar transport phenocopied automorphosis-like growth on 1 g conditions, suggesting that automorophosis is closely related to auxin polar transport. Strenuous efforts to know the relationships between automorphosis and auxin polar transport in pea seedlings at molecular bases resulted in successful identification of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 encoding putative auxin efflux and influx carrier protein, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 and AtPINs, and between PsAUX1 and AtAUX1. Expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 genes in etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were substantially affected, but that of PsPIN2 was not. Roles of these genes in auxin polar transport and automorphosis of etiolated pea seedlings are also described. PMID:14676360

  17. Paternité des articles et intérêts concurrents : une analyse des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique

    PubMed Central

    Courbon, Ève; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : La présence d’auteurs honorifiques et fantômes ainsi que les intérêts concurrents représentent des difficultés bien documentées, liées à la publication d’articles scientifiques. Il existe des lignes directrices encadrant la rédaction et la publication de manuscrits scientifiques, notamment celles de l’International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Objectifs : L’objectif principal de cette étude descriptive et transversale visait à recenser les instructions portant sur la paternité des articles et les intérêts concurrents provenant des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. L’objectif secondaire visait à déterminer des mesures correctrices pour une paternité des articles plus transparente. Méthode : La recherche a débuté par l’identification des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. La consultation des instructions aux auteurs des journaux a permis ensuite de recenser les recommandations destinées à éviter les problèmes de paternité des articles et d’intérêts concurrents. Finalement, les membres de l’équipe de recherche se sont consultés afin de définir des mesures correctrices possibles à l’intention des chercheurs. Résultats : Des 232 journaux traitant de pharmacie, 33 ont été définis comme traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. Un total de 24 (73 %) journaux mentionnaient suivre la politique de l’ICMJE, 14 (42 %) demandaient aux auteurs de remplir un formulaire de déclaration d’intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission de l’article, 17 (52 %) présentaient une définition de la qualité d’auteur et 5 (15 %) demandaient de détailler les contributions de chaque auteur. Une grille de 40 critères a été élaborée pour définir l’attribution du statut d’auteur. Conclusion : Moins de la moitié des journaux demandait aux auteurs de transmettre un formulaire de déclaration des intérêts concurrents au moment de la

  18. Le syndrome d'insensibilité complète aux androgènes: à propos de deux cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Lachiri, Boutaina; Hakimi, Ihssane; Boudhas, Adil; Guelzim, Khalid; Kouach, Jaouad; Oukabli, Mohamed; Rahali, Driss Moussaoui; Dehayni, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Le syndrome d'insensibilité complète aux androgènes (SICA) est une entité rare qui correspond à la forme complète des pseudohermaphrodismes androgynoïdes. Son incidence est en fait très variable, allant, selon les auteurs de 1/20000 à 1/60000 naissances. Il est caractérisé par la coexistence chez le même sujet d'un caryotype masculin (46 XY), avec des gonades males, et d'une morphologie féminine normale. Les auteurs rapportent deux observations de deux jeunes filles présentant le SICA ayant consulté pour aménorrhée primaire, illustrant les particularités cliniques, anatomopathologiques et biologiques du syndrome avec certaines particularités. PMID:26301004

  19. Ordered BaAl4- Type Variants in the BaAuxSn4-x System: A Unified View on Their Phase Stabilities versus Valence Electron Counts

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Qisheng; Miller, Gordon J.; Corbett, John D.

    2014-05-28

    Three ordered structures of the tetragonal BaAl4 type were identified in the Ba–Au–Sn system, from which a unified view of the interplay between the valence electron counts (VECs) and phase stabilities of these three types of derivatives can be developed. The BaNiSn3 (I4mm), ThCr2Si2 (I4/mmm), and CaBe2Ge2 (P4/nmm) type BaAuxSn4–x phases occurred respectively at x = 0.78(1)–1, 1.38(1)–1.47(1), and 1.52(1)–2.17(1), consistent with theoretical atomic “coloring” analyses that reveal an optimal VEC of 14 for the ThCr2Si2 type but larger and smaller values respectively for the BaNiSn3- and CaBe2Ge2-type structures.

  20. J. M. Despréaux' lichens from the Canary Islands and West Africa: an account of a 19th century collection found in an English archive.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Hudson, Begoña; Whitworth, Isabella; Spooner, Brian M

    2011-01-01

    This is an historical and descriptive account of 28 herbarium specimens, 27 lichens and an alga, found in the archives of Charles Chalcraft, a descendant of the Bedford family, who were dye manufacturers in Leeds, England, in the 19th century. The lichens comprise 13 different morphotypes collected in the Canary Islands and West Africa by the French botanist J. M. Despréaux between 1833 and 1839. The collections include samples of "Roccella fuciformis", "R. phycopsis" and "R. tinctoria" (including the fertile morphotype "R. canariensis"), "Ramalina crispatula" and "R. cupularis", two distinct morphotypes of "Sticta", "S. canariensis" and "S. dufouri", "Physconia enteroxantha", "Pseudevernia furfuracea var. ceratea" and "Pseudocyphellaria argyracea". The herbarium also includes authentic material of "Parmotrema tinctorum" and a probable syntype of "Seirophora scorigena". Most of these species are known as a source of the purple dye orchil, which was used to dye silk and wool. PMID:21941694

  1. Conserved and unique features of the homeologous maize Aux/IAA proteins ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1 and RUM1-like 1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Marcon, Caroline; Tai, Huanhuan; von Behrens, Inga; Ludwig, Yvonne; Hey, Stefan; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays L.) Aux/IAA protein RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1) is a key regulator of lateral and seminal root formation. An ancient maize genome duplication resulted in the emergence of its homeolog rum1-like1 (rul1), which displays 92% amino acid sequence identity with RUM1. Both, RUL1 and RUM1 exhibit the canonical four domain structure of Aux/IAA proteins. Moreover, both are localized to the nucleus, are instable and have similar short half-lives of ~23min. Moreover, RUL1 and RUM1 can be stabilized by specific mutations in the five amino acid degron sequence of domain II. In addition, proteins encoded by both genes interact in vivo with auxin response factors (ARFs) such as ZmARF25 and ZmARF34 in protoplasts. Although it was demonstrated that RUL1 and RUM1 can homo and heterodimerize in vivo, rul1 expression is independent of rum1. Moreover, on average rul1 expression is ~84-fold higher than rum1 in the 12 tested tissues and developmental stages, although the relative expression levels in different root tissues are very similar. While RUM1 and RUL1 display conserved biochemical properties, yeast-two-hybrid in combination with BiFC experiments identified a RUM1-associated protein 1 (RAP1) that specifically interacts with RUM1 but not with RUL1. This suggests that RUM1 and RUL1 are at least in part interwoven into different molecular networks. PMID:26672614

  2. Expression profile of PIN, AUX/LAX and PGP auxin transporter gene families in Sorghum bicolor under phytohormone and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Shen, ChenJia; Bai, YouHuang; Wang, SuiKang; Zhang, SaiNa; Wu, YunRong; Chen, Ming; Jiang, DeAn; Qi, YanHua

    2010-07-01

    Auxin is transported by the influx carriers auxin resistant 1/like aux1 (AUX/LAX), and the efflux carriers pin-formed (PIN) and P-glycoprotein (PGP), which play a major role in polar auxin transport. Several auxin transporter genes have been characterized in dicotyledonous Arabidopsis, but most are unknown in monocotyledons, especially in sorghum. Here, we analyze the chromosome distribution, gene duplication and intron/exon of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP gene families, and examine their phylogenic relationships in Arabidopsis, rice and sorghum. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that most of these genes were differently expressed in the organs of sorghum. SbPIN3 and SbPIN9 were highly expressed in flowers, SbLAX2 and SbPGP17 were mainly expressed in stems, and SbPGP7 was strongly expressed in roots. This suggests that individual genes might participate in specific organ development. The expression profiles of these gene families were analyzed after treatment with: (a) the phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid and brassinosteroid; (b) the polar auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acids, 1-naphthylphthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid; and (c) abscissic acid and the abiotic stresses of high salinity and drought. Most of the auxin transporter genes were strongly induced by indole-3-acetic acid and brassinosteroid, providing new evidence for the synergism of these phytohormones. Interestingly, most genes showed similar trends in expression under polar auxin transport inhibitors and each also responded to abscissic acid, salt and drought. This study provides new insights into the auxin transporters of sorghum. PMID:20528920

  3. Conserved and unique features of the homeologous maize Aux/IAA proteins ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1 and RUM1-like 1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Marcon, Caroline; Tai, Huanhuan; von Behrens, Inga; Ludwig, Yvonne; Hey, Stefan; Berendzen, Kenneth W; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    The maize (Zea mays L.) Aux/IAA protein RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1) is a key regulator of lateral and seminal root formation. An ancient maize genome duplication resulted in the emergence of its homeolog rum1-like1 (rul1), which displays 92% amino acid sequence identity with RUM1. Both, RUL1 and RUM1 exhibit the canonical four domain structure of Aux/IAA proteins. Moreover, both are localized to the nucleus, are instable and have similar short half-lives of ~23min. Moreover, RUL1 and RUM1 can be stabilized by specific mutations in the five amino acid degron sequence of domain II. In addition, proteins encoded by both genes interact in vivo with auxin response factors (ARFs) such as ZmARF25 and ZmARF34 in protoplasts. Although it was demonstrated that RUL1 and RUM1 can homo and heterodimerize in vivo, rul1 expression is independent of rum1. Moreover, on average rul1 expression is ~84-fold higher than rum1 in the 12 tested tissues and developmental stages, although the relative expression levels in different root tissues are very similar. While RUM1 and RUL1 display conserved biochemical properties, yeast-two-hybrid in combination with BiFC experiments identified a RUM1-associated protein 1 (RAP1) that specifically interacts with RUM1 but not with RUL1. This suggests that RUM1 and RUL1 are at least in part interwoven into different molecular networks. PMID:26672614

  4. Elevated Seismic Activity Beneath the Slumbering Morne aux Diables Volcano, Northern Dominica and the Monitoring Role of the Seismic Research Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, R. B.; Robertson, R. E.; Abraham, W.; Cole, P.; de Roche, T.; Edwards, S.; Higgins, M.; Johnson, M.; Joseph, E. P.; Latchman, J.; Lynch, L.; Nath, N.; Ramsingh, C.; Stewart, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Since June 2009, periods of elevated seismic activity have been experienced around the flanks of Morne Aux Diables Volcano in northern Dominica. This long-dormant volcano is a complex of 7 andesitic lava domes with a central depression where a cold soufrière is evident. Prior to this activity, seismicity was very quiet except for a short period in 2000 and an intense short-lived swarm in April 2003. The most recent earthquake activity has been regularly felt by residents in villages on all flanks of the complex. In Dec 09/Jan10, scientists from the Seismic Research Centre (SRC), based in Trinidad & Tobago, in collaboration with staff of the Office of Disaster Management (ODM) and Dominica Public Seismic Network (DPSN) improved the monitoring capacity around this volcano from 1 to 7 seismic stations. Earthquakes are determined to be volcano-tectonic in nature and located at shallow depths (<4 km) beneath the central depression. Additionally, in Jan/Feb 10 geothermal sampling was undertaken and 2 permanent GPS sites were deployed. Public information leaflets prepared by SRC scientists using a "Question & Answer" format have been distributed to concerned citizens whilst many public meetings were carried out by ODM staff. Field investigations indicate that the previous Late Pleistocene activity of Morne Aux Diables switched from Pelèan dome growth and gravitational collapse to more explosive pumice-falls and associated ignimbrites, both styles forming extensive pyroclastic fans around the central complex. The town of Portsmouth is located on one of these fans ~5 km southwest of the central depression. Sporadic, short bursts of seismic activity continue at the time of writing.

  5. The role of vegetation patches and antecedent soil moisture conditions in runoff and erosion connectivity in a 4-times burnt pine stand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regensburg, Taco; González-Pelayo, Oscar; Martins, Martinho; Hosseini, Mohammedreza; Keesstra, Saskia; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2015-04-01

    As part of the EU-FP7 project CASCADE, which addresses tipping-points in land degradation of Mediterranean ecosystems, the degradation drivers of repeated wildfires and post-fire drought spell are being studied in maritime pine stands in north-central Portugal. Preliminary results indicated that overland flow and sediment losses were markedly higher at 4-times burnt sites than at one-time burnt sites and, at the same time, that they were markedly higher at recently burnt than long-unburnt sites. These results, however, concerned micro-plots where post-fire recovery was mainly due to seeders and, as a consequence, rather reduced during the study period of the first two years following the wildfire ("inter-patches"). In the framework of COST Action ES1306 (Connecting European Connectivity Research), the present follow-up study aimed at assessing how the overland flow and erosion generated at such inter-patches would be "handled" by downslope vegetation patches and, in particular, patches where the main shrub species in the study area, Pterospartum tridentatum, had re-sprouted. More specifically, this study wanted to assess: (i) how the sink function of these vegetation patches was influenced by potential flow length or the length of the upslope inter-patch; and (ii) how it varied through time and, in particular, with antecedent soil moisture content. The study site is a south-west facing slope in an area that had burnt, with moderate severity, in early September 2012 and three more times before that since 1975 (as of when burnt area maps are available). By the time of the 2012-fire, it was covered by a sparse maritime pine stand that was roughly 7-years old. During October 2014, the study site was instrumented with a total of 12 bounded runoff plots, equally divided over the three slope sections (upper, middle and lower). At each slope section, four types of plots were laid out using square plots of 50 cm x 50 cm as basic building blocks. They were: (i) single inter

  6. The effects of antecedent dry days on the nitrogen removal in layered soil infiltration systems for storm run-off control.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kang-Woo; Yoon, Min-Hyuk; Song, Kyung-Guen; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2011-01-01

    The effects of antecedent dry days (ADD) on nitrogen removal efficiency were investigated in soil infiltration systems, with three distinguishable layers: mulch layer (ML), coarse soil layer (CSL) and fine soil layer (FSL). Two sets of lab-scale columns with loamy CSL (C1) and sandy CSL (C2) were dosed with synthetic run-off, carrying chemical oxygen demand of 100 mg L(-1) and total nitrogen of 13 mg L(-1). The intermittent dosing cycle was stepwise adjusted for 5, 10 and 20 days. The influent ammonium and organic nitrogen were adsorbed to the entire depth in C1, while dominantly to the FSL in C2. In both columns, the effluent ammonium concentration increased while the organic nitrogen concentration decreased, as ADD increased from 5 to 20 days. The effluent of C1 always showed nitrate concentration exceeding influent, caused by nitrification, by increasing amounts as ADD increased. However, the wash-out of nitrate in C1 was not distinct in terms of mass since the effluent flow rate was only 25% of the influent. In contrast, efficient reduction (>95%) of nitrate loading was observed in C2 under ADD of 5 and 10 days, because of insignificant nitrification in the CSL and denitrification in the FSL. However, for the ADD of 20 days, a significant nitrate wash-out appeared in C2 as well, possibly because of the re-aeration by the decreasing water content in the FSL. Consequently, the total nitrogen load escaping with the effluent was always smaller in C2, supporting the effectiveness of sandy CSL over loamy FSL for nitrogen removal under various ADDs. PMID:21879550

  7. A Multi-Platform Approach to Examine Spatial and Temporal Variability of Antecedent Moisture Content on Model-Generated Runoff from a Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, W. J.; Ahmad, S.; Young, M.; Shafer, D. S.; Miller, J. J.; Chief, K.

    2009-12-01

    Ungaged watersheds are commonly found in the arid southwest United States. Models are the only practicable method available to water resource managers, earth scientists, and civil engineers for estimating stormwater runoff volumes and flowrates. Significant design decisions are thus based on synthetic hydrographs calculated from coarse-resolution surveys, from which hydraulic properties are obtained. These synthetic hydrographs are often calculated using methods developed for other areas of the country with entirely different environments and landuses that may not be entirely applicable to the arid southwest. This study seeks to examine the use of pedo-transfer functions and soil hydrology principles to determine a more physically-based approach for obtaining soil hydraulic properties and antecedent moisture content (AMC). A multi-modeling platform approach was developed that uses site-specific soil hydraulic and physical data, evaluates them through a regression model, predicts the AMC for a specific set of meteorological conditions, and then predicts stormwater runoff volumes and flowrates. The modeling software packages used for this platform are Rosetta, HYDRUS-1D, and FLO-2D, respectively, all of which are publicly available. The approaches were tied together using Matlab. All data were geospatially rectified and assigned with specific geomorphic surfaces, accounting for spatial variability. Temporal variability of water content is then examined using atmospheric demand and soil properties. These different AMC values are surrogates for successive storm intervals of 1, 5, 10, and 30 days, and used in FLO-2D, a physically-based hydraulic model, which solves full dynamic wave equations for surface runoff. The overall approach was tested on a meso-scale watershed in the Mojave Desert to evaluate the watershed response for design storm frequencies of 2-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year return periods. The results show that this multi-platform approach can efficiently

  8. Impaired visual fixation at age 2 years in children born before the 28th week of gestation. Antecedents and correlates in the multi-center ELGAN Study

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, Anuradha; Msall, Michael E; Droste, Patrick; Allred, Elizabeth N; O'Shea, T. Michael; Kuban, Karl; Dammann, Olaf; Leviton, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the prevalence, antecedents and correlates of impaired visual fixation in former very preterm newborns. Methods In the multi-center ELGAN Study sample of 1057 infants born before the 28th week of gestation who had a developmental assessment at 2 years corrected age, we identified 73 who were unable to follow an object across the midline. We compared them to the 984 infants who could follow an object across the midline. Results In this sample of very preterm newborns, those who had impaired visual fixation were much more likely than those without impaired visual fixation to have been born after the shortest of gestations (odds ratio = 3.2; 99% confidence interval =1.4, 7.5) and exposed to maternal aspirin (OR: 5.2; 99% CI: 2.2, 12). They were also more likely than their peers to have had prethreshold ROP (OR: 4.1; 99% CI: 1.8, 9.0). At age 2 years, the children with impaired fixation were more likely than others to be unable to walk (even with assistance) (OR: 7.5; 99% CI: 2.2, 26) and have a Mental Development Index more than 3 standard deviations below the mean of a normative sample (OR:3.6; 99% CI: 1.4, 8.2). Conclusion Risk factors for brain and retinal damage, such as very low gestational age, appear to be risk factors for impaired visual fixation. This inference is further supported by the co-occurrence at age 2 years of impaired visual fixation, inability to walk, and a very low Mental Development Index PMID:24938138

  9. Fire activity as a function of fire–weather seasonal severity and antecedent climate across spatial scales in southern Europe and Pacific western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urbieta, Itziar R.; Zavala, Gonzalo; Bedia, Joaquin; Gutierrez, Jose M.; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Camia, Andrea; Keeley, Jon E.; Moreno, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate has a strong influence on fire activity, varying across time and space. We analyzed the relationships between fire–weather conditions during the main fire season and antecedent water-balance conditions and fires in two Mediterranean-type regions with contrasted management histories: five southern countries of the European Union (EUMED)(all fires); the Pacific western coast of the USA (California and Oregon, PWUSA)(national forest fires). Total number of fires (≥1 ha), number of large fires (≥100 ha) and area burned were related to mean seasonal fire weather index (FWI), number of days over the 90th percentile of the FWI, and to the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) from the preceding 3 (spring) or 8 (autumn through spring) months. Calculations were made at three spatial aggregations in each area, and models related first-difference (year-to-year change) of fires and FWI/climate variables to minimize autocorrelation. An increase in mean seasonal FWI resulted in increases in the three fire variables across spatial scales in both regions. SPEI contributed little to explain fires, with few exceptions. Negative water-balance (dry) conditions from autumn through spring (SPEI8) were generally more important than positive conditions (moist) in spring (SPEI3), both of which contributed positively to fires. The R2 of the models generally improved with increasing area of aggregation. For total number of fires and area burned, the R2 of the models tended to decrease with increasing mean seasonal FWI. Thus, fires were more susceptible to change with climate variability in areas with less amenable conditions for fires (lower FWI) than in areas with higher mean FWI values. The relationships were similar in both regions, albeit weaker in PWUSA, probably due to the wider latitudinal gradient covered in PWUSA than in EUMED. The large variance explained by some of the models indicates that large-scale seasonal forecast could help anticipating

  10. Effect of antecedent moderate-intensity exercise on the glycemia-increasing effect of a 30-sec maximal sprint: a sex comparison.

    PubMed

    Justice, Tara D; Hammer, Greta L; Davey, Raymond J; Paramalingam, Nirubasini; Guelfi, Kym J; Lewis, Lynley; Davis, Elizabeth A; Jones, Timothy W; Fournier, Paul A

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether a prior bout of moderate-intensity exercise attenuates the glycemia-increasing effect of a maximal 30-sec sprint. A secondary aim was to determine whether the effect of antecedent exercise on the glucoregulatory response to sprinting is affected by sex. Participants (men n = 8; women n = 7) were tested on two occasions during which they either rested (CON) or cycled for 60-min at a moderate intensity of ~65% V ˙ O 2 peak (EX) before performing a 30-sec maximal cycling effort 195 min later. In response to the sprint, blood glucose increased to a similar extent between EX and CON trials, peaking at 10 min of recovery, with no difference between sexes (P > 0.05). Blood glucose then declined at a faster rate in EX, and this was associated with a glucose rate of disappearance (R d) that exceeded the glucose rate of appearance (R a) earlier in EX compared with CON, although the overall glucose R a and R d profile was higher in men compared with women (P < 0.05). The response of growth hormone was attenuated during recovery from EX compared with CON (P < 0.05), with a lower absolute response in women compared with men (P < 0.05). The response of epinephrine and norepinephrine was also lower in women compared with men (P < 0.05) but similar between trials. In summary, a prior bout of moderate-intensity exercise does not affect the magnitude of the glycemia-increasing response to a 30-sec sprint; however, the subsequent decline in blood glucose is more rapid. This blood glucose response is similar between men and women, despite less pronounced changes in glucose R a and R d, and a lower response of plasma catecholamines and growth hormone to sprinting in women. PMID:26019290

  11. The "con" of concept analysis A discussion paper which explores and critiques the ontological focus, reliability and antecedents of concept analysis frameworks.

    PubMed

    Beckwith, Sue; Dickinson, Angela; Kendall, Sally

    2008-12-01

    This paper draws on the work of Paley and Duncan et al in order to extend and engender debate regarding the use of Concept Analysis frameworks. Despite the apparent plethora of Concept Analysis frameworks used in nursing studies we found that over half of those used were derived from the work of one author. This paper explores the suitability and use of these frameworks and is set at a time when the numbers of published concept analysis papers are increasing. For the purpose of this study thirteen commonly used frameworks, identified from the nursing journals 1993 to 2005, were explored to reveal their origins, ontological and philosophical stance, and any common elements. The frameworks were critiqued and links made between their antecedents. It was noted if the articles contained discussion of any possible tensions between the ontological perspective of the framework used, the process of analysis, praxis and possible nursing theory developments. It was found that the thirteen identified frameworks are mainly based on hermeneutic propositions regarding understandings and are interpretive procedures founded on self-reflective modes of discovery. Six frameworks rely on or include the use of casuistry. Seven of the frameworks identified are predicated on, or adapt the work of Wilson, a school master writing for his pupils. Wilson's framework has a simplistic eleven step, binary and reductionist structure. Other frameworks identified include Morse et al's framework which this article suggests employs a contestable theory of concept maturity. Based on the findings revealed through our exploration of the use of concept analysis frameworks in the nursing literature, concerns were raised regarding the unjustified adaptation and alterations and the uncritical use of the frameworks. There is little evidence that these frameworks provide the necessary depth, rigor or replicability to enable the development in nursing theory which they underpin. PMID:18715562

  12. Job characteristics, physical and psychological symptoms, and social support as antecedents of sickness absence among men and women in the private industrial sector.

    PubMed

    Väänänen, Ari; Toppinen-Tanner, Salla; Kalimo, Raija; Mutanen, Pertti; Vahtera, Jussi; Peiró, José M

    2003-09-01

    Most longitudinal studies on the relationship between psychosocial health resources and risks, and the employees' subsequent sickness absences have been conducted in the public sector. The purpose of this study was to find out psychosocial antecedents of sickness absenteeism in the private industrial sector. The effects of job characteristics (job autonomy and job complexity), physical and psychological symptoms, and social support (from coworkers and supervisors) on sickness absenteeism were investigated. The number of long (4-21 days) and very long (>21 days) sickness absence episodes of 3895 persons (76% men and 24% women, mean age 44 years) was obtained from the health registers of a multinational forest industry corporation in 1995-1998. A questionnaire survey on the working conditions and health of the workers was carried out in 1996. The follow-up time of the sickness absences was 1-year 9-month. Job autonomy was found to be associated with long and very long episodes in men (rate ratio (RR) in the lowest autonomy group approximately 2 times higher than the highest autonomy group), and with very long episodes of absence in women (2-3 times higher RR between the low vs. the high category). Low job complexity predicted men's very long absences (RR 1.4). Long and very long episodes were associated with physical and psychological symptoms (RR 1.2-1.7) among men and women. Lack of coworkers' support increased the frequency of very long sickness absence among men (RR 1.4), and lack of supervisor's support among women (RR 1.6). Also, some interaction effects of social support variables were observed among both genders. We conclude that the studied psychosocial factors are associated with subsequent sickness absence, and that the associations are partly gender-specific. The results showing which variables are related to employees' sickness absenteeism in the private industrial sector can be applied in human resource management and health service planning. PMID

  13. Effect of antecedent moderate-intensity exercise on the glycemia-increasing effect of a 30-sec maximal sprint: a sex comparison

    PubMed Central

    Justice, Tara D; Hammer, Greta L; Davey, Raymond J; Paramalingam, Nirubasini; Guelfi, Kym J; Lewis, Lynley; Davis, Elizabeth A; Jones, Timothy W; Fournier, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether a prior bout of moderate-intensity exercise attenuates the glycemia-increasing effect of a maximal 30-sec sprint. A secondary aim was to determine whether the effect of antecedent exercise on the glucoregulatory response to sprinting is affected by sex. Participants (men n = 8; women n = 7) were tested on two occasions during which they either rested (CON) or cycled for 60-min at a moderate intensity of ~65% (EX) before performing a 30-sec maximal cycling effort 195 min later. In response to the sprint, blood glucose increased to a similar extent between EX and CON trials, peaking at 10 min of recovery, with no difference between sexes (P > 0.05). Blood glucose then declined at a faster rate in EX, and this was associated with a glucose rate of disappearance (Rd) that exceeded the glucose rate of appearance (Ra) earlier in EX compared with CON, although the overall glucose Ra and Rd profile was higher in men compared with women (P < 0.05). The response of growth hormone was attenuated during recovery from EX compared with CON (P < 0.05), with a lower absolute response in women compared with men (P < 0.05). The response of epinephrine and norepinephrine was also lower in women compared with men (P < 0.05) but similar between trials. In summary, a prior bout of moderate-intensity exercise does not affect the magnitude of the glycemia-increasing response to a 30-sec sprint; however, the subsequent decline in blood glucose is more rapid. This blood glucose response is similar between men and women, despite less pronounced changes in glucose Ra and Rd, and a lower response of plasma catecholamines and growth hormone to sprinting in women. PMID:26019290

  14. Fire activity as a function of fire-weather seasonal severity and antecedent climate across spatial scales in southern Europe and Pacific western USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbieta, Itziar R.; Zavala, Gonzalo; Bedia, Joaquín; Gutiérrez, José M.; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús; Camia, Andrea; Keeley, Jon E.; Moreno, José M.

    2015-11-01

    Climate has a strong influence on fire activity, varying across time and space. We analyzed the relationships between fire-weather conditions during the main fire season and antecedent water-balance conditions and fires in two Mediterranean-type regions with contrasted management histories: five southern countries of the European Union (EUMED)(all fires); the Pacific western coast of the USA (California and Oregon, PWUSA)(national forest fires). Total number of fires (≥1 ha), number of large fires (≥100 ha) and area burned were related to mean seasonal fire weather index (FWI), number of days over the 90th percentile of the FWI, and to the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) from the preceding 3 (spring) or 8 (autumn through spring) months. Calculations were made at three spatial aggregations in each area, and models related first-difference (year-to-year change) of fires and FWI/climate variables to minimize autocorrelation. An increase in mean seasonal FWI resulted in increases in the three fire variables across spatial scales in both regions. SPEI contributed little to explain fires, with few exceptions. Negative water-balance (dry) conditions from autumn through spring (SPEI8) were generally more important than positive conditions (moist) in spring (SPEI3), both of which contributed positively to fires. The R2 of the models generally improved with increasing area of aggregation. For total number of fires and area burned, the R2 of the models tended to decrease with increasing mean seasonal FWI. Thus, fires were more susceptible to change with climate variability in areas with less amenable conditions for fires (lower FWI) than in areas with higher mean FWI values. The relationships were similar in both regions, albeit weaker in PWUSA, probably due to the wider latitudinal gradient covered in PWUSA than in EUMED. The large variance explained by some of the models indicates that large-scale seasonal forecast could help anticipating fire

  15. Clinical and serological studies in a series of 45 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boucquey, D; Sindic, C J; Lamy, M; Delmée, M; Tomasi, J P; Laterre, E C

    1991-07-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the clinical files of 45 Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) patients admitted to our Department between 1979 and 1989. The age distribution was bimodal with a first peak in young adults (20-40 years), and a second one between 60 to 70 years. Seasonal distribution showed a late fall and a hivernal predominance. Three patients experienced a second attack of GBS 2-9 years after the first one. Thirty-one (69%) presented antecedent events, most often a respiratory tract infection (n = 20) or enteritis (n = 6). Serological studies were systematically performed, including antibody titers against herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Campylobacter jejuni/coli and cardiolipin. These studies showed the presence of antibodies indicative of a CMV primary infection in 22% cases and of a Campylobacter jejuni/coli infection in 13%. Co-infection was observed in 3 cases. Serology remained negative in 12 patients with a preceding respiratory infection. There was no correlation between serology and the severity of the disease. Absence of antecedent events and of positive anti-infectious serology was observed in only 10 patients. PMID:1655983

  16. [Facial and oropharyngeal angioedema in patient with alimentary fish allergy. Diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Pino Rivero, V; Rodríguez Carmona, M; Iglesias González, R J; del Castillo Beneyto, F

    2007-01-01

    Vegetal or animal food can produce hipersensibility reactions IgE mediated of diverse intensity. We report the case of a 54 years old woman without previous allergic antecedents who after eating frozen fish had to go to Emergencies due to angioedema especially in face and oropharynx. The ENT exploration by fibroscopia descarted laryngeal edema but the patient showed initially respiratory symptoms so she was treated with SC adrenalina and then steroids during her admission. The diagnosis of alimentary alergia would be confirmed after by Allergology with cutaneous test prick type. PMID:18030852

  17. Antenatal antecedents of a small head circumference at age 24-months post-term equivalent in a sample of infants born before the 28th post-menstrual week

    PubMed Central

    Leviton, Alan; Kuban, Karl; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Hecht, Jonathan L.; Onderdonk, Andrew; O'Shea, T. Michael; McElrath, Thomas; Paneth, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the antecedents of microcephaly in early childhood among children born at extremely low gestational age. Aim To identify some of the antecedents of microcephaly at age two years among children born before the 28th week of gestation. Study design Observational cohort study. Subjects 1004 infants born before the 28th week of gestation. Outcome measures Head circumference Z-scores of <−2 and ≥−2, <−1. Results Risk of microcephaly and a less severely restricted head circumference decreased monotonically with increasing gestational age. After adjusting for gestational age and other potential confounders, the risk of microcephaly at age 2 years was increased if microcephaly was present at birth [odds ratio: 8.8 ((95% confidence interval: 3.7, 21)], alpha hemolytic Streptococci were recovered from the placenta parenchyma [2.9 (1.2, 6.9)], the child was a boy [2.8 (1.6, 4.9)], and the child's mother was not married [2.5 (1.5, 4.3)]. Antecedents associated not with microcephaly, but with a less extreme reduction in head circumference were recovery of Propionibacterium sp from the placenta parenchyma [2.9 (1.5, 5.5)], tobacco exposure [2.0 (1.4, 3.0)], and increased syncytial knots in the placenta [2.0 (1.2, 3.2)]. Conclusions Although microcephaly at birth predicts a small head circumference at 2 years among children born much before term, pregnancy and maternal characteristics provide supplemental information about the risk of a small head circumference years later. Two findings appear to be novel. Tobacco exposure during pregnancy, and organisms recovered from the placenta predict reduced head circumference at age two years. PMID:20674197

  18. Prise en charge hospitalière de la malnutrition aigue sévère chez l'enfant avec des préparations locales alternatives aux F-75 et F-100: résultats et défis

    PubMed Central

    Nguefack, Félicitée; Adjahoung, Chritoph Akazong; Keugoung, Basile; Kamgaing, Nelly; Dongmo, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La mise en œuvre des directives de l'OMS permettrait de réduire significativement la mortalité hospitalière due à la malnutrition sévère. Cependant, elle n'est pas effective et la pénurie en aliments thérapeutiques est l'une des principales causes. L’étude décrit notre expérience sur la prise en charge hospitalière de la malnutrition aigue sévère avec des laits alternatifs aux F75 et F100 composés localement. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'un essai clinique non randomisé. La prise en charge des patients utilisait les laits composés localement et une évaluation quotidienne du gain pondéral était faite. Résultats L’étude a porté sur 41 sujets âgés de 6 à 59 mois. Au total, 73,2% avaient le kwashiorkor-marasmique, 17,0% le kwashiorkor, 9,8% le marasme et 41,5% étaient infectés par le VIH. Nous avons noté une prise progressive du poids d'environ 10 g/kg/jour vers le 7ème jour et de 15 à 20 g/kg/jour en fin d'hospitalisation. Le taux de mortalité était de 21,9% soit une réduction de 8,4% des chiffres antérieurs. Conclusion Malgré les obstacles financiers liés au coût des ingrédients, les préparations lactées alternatives aux standards F75 et F100, sont adaptables dans notre contexte. En l'absence des formules standards de l'OMS et lorsque la référence vers une structure qui en disposent n'est pas possible, les préparations locales permettraient de réhabiliter efficacement les patients. D'autres recherches pointues permettraient de tirer les ingrédients uniquement de notre environnement. Elles contribueraient ainsi à minimiser les couts des préparations et de favoriser la pérennisation des laits thérapeutiques locaux. PMID:26587175

  19. Using New Theory and Experimental Methods to Understand the Relative Controls of Storage, Antecedent Conditions and Precipitation Intensity on Transit Time Distributions through a Sloping Soil Lysimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.; Pangle, L. A.; Cardoso, C.; Lora, M.; Wang, Y.; Harman, C. J.; Troch, P. A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Transit time distributions (TTD) are an efficient way of characterizing transport through the complex flow dynamics of a hydrologic system, and can serve as a basis for spatially-integrated solute transport modeling. Recently there has been progress in the development of a theory of time-variable TTDs that captures the effect of temporal variability in the timing of fluxes as well as changes in flow pathways. Furthermore, a new formulation of this theory allows the essential transport properties of a system to be parameterized by a physically meaningful time-variable probability distribution, the Ω function. This distribution determines how the age distribution of water in storage is sampled by the outflow. The form of the Ω function varies if the flow pathways change, but is not determined by the timing of fluxes (unlike the TTD). In this study, we use this theory to characterize transport by transient flows through a homogeneously packed 1 m3 sloping soil lysimeter. The transit time distribution associated with each of four irrigation periods (repeated daily for 24 days) are compared to examine the significance of changes in the Ω function due to variations in total storage, antecedent conditions, and precipitation intensity. We observe both the time-variable TTD and the Ω function experimentally by applying the PERTH method (Harman and Kim, 2014, GRL, 41, 1567-1575). The method allows us to observe multiple overlapping time-variable TTD in controlled experiments using only two conservative tracers. We hypothesize that both the TTD and the Ω function will vary in time, even in this small scale, because water will take different flow pathways depending on the initial state of the lysimeter and irrigation intensity. However, based on primarily modeling, we conjecture that major variability in the Ω function will be limited to a period during and immediately after each irrigation. We anticipate the Ω function is almost time-invariant (or scales simply with

  20. Improved understanding of solute concentration-discharge dynamics through state-of-the-art antecedent moisture content (AMC) monitoring and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eludoyin, A. O.; Brazier, R.; Quine, T.; Bol, R.; Orr, R.; Griffith, B.

    2012-04-01

    The relationship between solute/sediment concentration and discharge (c-Q) can be neither understood nor predicted without full understanding of the antecedent moisture content (AMC). Many preceding studies have ignored this variable in part because of the problems associated with accurate and full documentation of AMC. This study presents new insights into the control of AMC on c-Q made possible through work on the uniquely well-instrumented 'NorthWyke Farm Platform' which was commissioned in April 2011 as a UK national capability for collaborative research, training and knowledge exchange in agro-environmental sciences for agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices. The Farm Platform was designed into 15 hydrological units based on a predicted 50-year flood event, each with H-flume at catchment outlet. 9.2 km of French drains were installed at 800mm soil depth with perforated plastic drainage pipe installed to collect surface and near surface flow from the catchments. Each flume receives flow from 2 branches of each French drain system and discharges via concrete piping and a sampling pit. Where required the catchment is protected from groundwater seepage and surface runoff ingress from adjacent catchment with open ditches and sealed pipes. Discharge is measured at each flume with an ISCO bubbler flowmeter, and concentrations of Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Ammonium (NH4-N), Nitrate (NO3-N), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), total Phosphorus, chloride, pH and turbidity are monitored at 15 minutes intervals. In addition, rainfall, soil temperature and soil moisture are monitored at the same timestep. This study analyses discharge and soil moisture data alongside TOC, NO3-N and PO4-P at 15 min intervals in rain events between November 28 and December 13, 2011. Soil moisture exhibited moderately strong relationships with TOC and NO3 (r≥ -0.38; p≤0.05), but a weak one with PO4. Discharge, on the other hand, exhibited a weak (r ≤0

  1. Low-temperature thermoelectric, galvanomagnetic, and thermodynamic properties of the type-I clathrate Ba8AuxSi46-x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydemir, U.; Candolfi, C.; Ormeci, A.; Oztan, Y.; Baitinger, M.; Oeschler, N.; Steglich, F.; Grin, Yu.

    2011-11-01

    Polycrystalline samples of the clathrate Ba8AuxSi46-x were synthesized for 0.2 ⩽ x ⩽ 10. The homogeneity range of the type-I clathrate phase was determined to be 3.63 ⩽ x ⩽ 6.10 after annealing at 900 °C, while a lower Au concentration (x ≈ 2.2) was obtained by steel-quenching. Quasisingle phase materials were obtained for 4.10 ⩽ x ⩽ 6.10. In this composition range, thermoelectric properties, including electrical resistivity, thermopower, and thermal conductivity, were investigated between 2 and 350 K. These experiments were complemented by low-temperature specific heat and Hall-effect measurements (2-300 K). First-principles calculations were carried out to determine the evolution of the electronic structure as a function of x. Both theoretical and experimental results evidence a progressive evolution, with the Au content, from a metallic-like behavior towards a highly doped semiconducting state which develops around x = 5.43. At this concentration, a crossover from n- to p-type conduction occurs, suggesting that the present system satisfies the Zintl-Klemm concept, which predicts a transition at x = 5.33. This crossover is traced by Hall-effect data indicating a dominant electronlike response for x ⩽ 5.43, which turns into a holelike signal at higher x values. Analysis of the data based on a single-parabolic-band model under the assumption of a single scattering mechanism of the charge carriers proved to adequately describe the transport properties in the compositional range investigated. Interestingly, the temperature dependence of the lattice thermal conductivity is strongly influenced by the Au concentration: the typical behavior of crystalline insulators in the n-type compounds evolves into a glasslike dependence in the p-type samples. The series Ba8AuxSi46-x thus provides an excellent testing ground for the interplay between crystal structure, electronic properties, and lattice thermal conductivity in type-I clathrates.

  2. DET/MPS - THE GSFC ENERGY BALANCE PROGRAM, DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFER/MULTIMISSION SPACECRAFT MODULAR POWER SYSTEM (MACINTOSH A/UX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagielski, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DET/MPS programs model and simulate the Direct Energy Transfer and Multimission Spacecraft Modular Power System in order to aid both in design and in analysis of orbital energy balance. Typically, the DET power system has the solar array directly to the spacecraft bus, and the central building block of MPS is the Standard Power Regulator Unit. DET/MPS allows a minute-by-minute simulation of the power system's performance as it responds to various orbital parameters, focusing its output on solar array output and battery characteristics. While this package is limited in terms of orbital mechanics, it is sufficient to calculate eclipse and solar array data for circular or non-circular orbits. DET/MPS can be adjusted to run one or sequential orbits up to about one week, simulated time. These programs have been used on a variety of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft projects. DET/MPS is written in FORTRAN 77 with some VAX-type extensions. Any FORTRAN 77 compiler that includes VAX extensions should be able to compile and run the program with little or no modifications. The compiler must at least support free-form (or tab-delineated) source format and 'do do-while end-do' control structures. DET/MPS is available for three platforms: GSC-13374, for DEC VAX series computers running VMS, is available in DEC VAX Backup format on a 9-track 1600 BPI tape (standard distribution) or TK50 tape cartridge; GSC-13443, for UNIX-based computers, is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format; and GSC-13444, for Macintosh computers running AU/X with either the NKR FORTRAN or AbSoft MacFORTRAN II compilers, is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Source code and test data are supplied. The UNIX version of DET requires 90K of main memory for execution. DET/MPS was developed in 1990. A/UX and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. VMS, DEC VAX and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a

  3. Assessment of risk factors related to suicide attempts in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Song, Joo Yun; Yu, Han Young; Kim, Se Hyun; Hwang, Samuel S-H; Cho, Hyun-Sang; Kim, Yong Sik; Ha, Kyooseob; Ahn, Yong Min

    2012-11-01

    We compared the characteristics of patients with bipolar disorder with and without a history of suicide attempts to identify the risk factors of suicide in this disorder. Among 212 patients with bipolar disorder, 44 (21.2%) patients had histories of suicide attempts. Suicide attempters were younger and more likely to be diagnosed with bipolar II. The variables that differentiated those who did from those who did not attempt suicide included age at first contact, lifetime history of antidepressant use, major depressive episode, mixed episode, auditory hallucinations, rapid cycling, the number of previous mood episodes, age of first depressive episode, and age of first psychotic symptoms. Strong predictors of suicide attempts were younger age at onset, lifetime history of auditory hallucinations, and history of antidepressant use. Antecedent depressive episodes and psychotic symptoms predicted the first suicide attempt in patients with bipolar disorder. This study could help clinicians to understand the major risk factors of suicidal behavior in bipolar disorder. PMID:23124183

  4. Antecedent factors in teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Black, D

    1979-10-01

    41 women under 17 presenting with pregnancy at 2 Sheffield hospitals were interviewed between December 1976-77. 78% had experienced intercourse by age 15. 7 had more than 1 partner. 21 were pregnant by age 15. 50% came from large families, 4 or more children. There was a family history of illegitimacy in 1/3 of the group. 46% had experienced separation from 1 or both parents before age 7, chronic illness, death or divorce of parents. Only 8 had received contraceptive advice; 7 had received no school sex education. Most sources of information were mothers, siblings, and friends. 70% knew of at least 3 methods of contraception: withdrawal, the sheath, and the pill. The chemist and the general practitioner were most frequently named sources. 3 had gone to a clinic; most could not identify any clinics. 18 felt contraception should be their own decision; 15 felt it should be a joint decision. The high level of accepted risk taking and nonacceptability of the source of information were the most common reasons for noncontraceptive use. Adolescent pregnancies occur more frequently in lower socioeconomic classes. The majority of the women who continued with the pregnancy (15) were older and presented after 14 weeks. PMID:12336080

  5. Antecedents to Prostitution: Childhood Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadon, Susan M.; Koverola, Catherine; Schludermann, Eduard H.

    1998-01-01

    Adolescent prostitutes (n=45) and adolescent nonprostitutes (n=37) were interviewed regarding their experiences related to childhood physical and sexual abuse, leaving home, family functioning, parental alcohol and drug use, and level of self-esteem. Although results replicated previous findings, when a comparison group was considered the same…

  6. Personality Antecedents of the Vote.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Bruce A.

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between psychological traits and voting behavior. Investigated is the thesis that psychological traits are useful concepts for political scientists as predictors of consistency in behavior. Contending that previous trait theory research has been generally unimpressive, the author…

  7. Antecedents of the Theory Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Jack A.

    1981-01-01

    Traces the conceptual roots of the theory movement in educational administration, highlighting the ideas of Auguste Comte and the logical positivists. Explains how core concepts that shaped the theory movement were diffused into educational administration and sets forth implications for future study. (Author/WD)

  8. Psychosocial Antecedents of Chronic Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towberman, Donna B.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined associations between selected characteristics and background historical events of subjects and chronic delinquency, defined as the number of adjudicated offenses. Results indicate that family functioning had a strong association. Other factors include early age at first adjudication, out-of-home placements, having been abused,…

  9. Antecedents and Consequences of Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catania, A. Charles

    2006-01-01

    As instances of behavior, words interact with environments. But they also interact with each other and with other kinds of behavior. Because of the interlocking nature of the contingencies into which words enter, their behavioral properties may become increasingly removed from nonverbal contingencies, and their relationship to those contingencies…

  10. Negative phototropism is seen in Arabidopsis inflorescences when auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level by an Aux/IAA dominant mutation, axr2

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T.

    2015-01-01

    Inflorescences of a dominant mutant of Arabidopsis Aux/IAA7, axr2, showed negative phototropism with a similar fluence response curve to the positive phototropism of wild-type stems. Application of a synthetic auxin, NAA, and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, NPA, increased and decreased respectively the magnitude of the phototropic response in the wild type, while in axr2 application of NAA reduced the negative phototropic response and NPA had no effect. Decapitation of the apex induced a small negative phototropism in wild-type stems, and had no effect in axr2 plants. Inflorescences of the double mutants of auxin transporters, pgp1 pgp19, showed no phototropic response, while decapitation resulted in a negative phototropic response. These results suggest that negative phototropism can occur when the level of auxin or of auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level, and that in plant axial organs the default phototropic response to unilateral blue light may be negative. Expression of axr2 protein by an endodermis-specific promoter resulted in agravitropism of inflorescences in a similar way to that of axr2, but phototropism was normal, confirming that the endodermis does not play a critical role in phototropism. PMID:25738325

  11. Ammonium inhibition of Arabidopsis root growth can be reversed by potassium and by auxin resistance mutations aux1, axr1, and axr2.

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Y; Glass, A D; Crawford, N M

    1993-01-01

    A novel effect of ammonium ions on root growth was investigated to understand how environmental signals affect organ development. Ammonium ions (3-12 mM) were found to dramatically inhibit Arabidopsis thaliana seedling root growth in the absence of potassium even if nitrate was present. This inhibition could be reversed by including in the growth medium low levels (20-100 microM) of potassium or alkali ions Rb+ and Cs+ but not alkali ions Na+ and Li+. The protective effect of low concentrations of potassium is not due to an inhibition of ammonium uptake. Ammonium inhibition is reversible, because root growth was restored in ammonium-treated seedlings if they were subsequently transferred to medium containing potassium. It is known that plant hormones can inhibit root growth. We found that mutants of Arabidopsis resistant to high levels of auxin and other hormones (aux1, axr1, and axr2) are also resistant to the ammonium inhibition and produce roots in the absence of potassium. Thus, the mechanisms that mediate the ammonium inhibition of root development are linked to hormone metabolic or signaling pathways. These findings have important implications for understanding how environmental signals, especially mineral nutrients, affect plant root development. PMID:8278539

  12. Negative phototropism is seen in Arabidopsis inflorescences when auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level by an Aux/IAA dominant mutation, axr2.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

    2015-01-01

    Inflorescences of a dominant mutant of Arabidopsis Aux/IAA7, axr2, showed negative phototropism with a similar fluence response curve to the positive phototropism of wild-type stems. Application of a synthetic auxin, NAA, and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, NPA, increased and decreased respectively the magnitude of the phototropic response in the wild type, while in axr2 application of NAA reduced the negative phototropic response and NPA had no effect. Decapitation of the apex induced a small negative phototropism in wild-type stems, and had no effect in axr2 plants. Inflorescences of the double mutants of auxin transporters, pgp1 pgp19, showed no phototropic response, while decapitation resulted in a negative phototropic response. These results suggest that negative phototropism can occur when the level of auxin or of auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level, and that in plant axial organs the default phototropic response to unilateral blue light may be negative. Expression of axr2 protein by an endodermis-specific promoter resulted in agravitropism of inflorescences in a similar way to that of axr2, but phototropism was normal, confirming that the endodermis does not play a critical role in phototropism. PMID:25738325

  13. Light-dependent gravitropism and negative phototropism of inflorescence stems in a dominant Aux/IAA mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, axr2.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

    2014-09-01

    Gravitropism and phototropism of the primary inflorescence stems were examined in a dominant Aux/IAA mutant of Arabidopsis, axr2/iaa7, which did not display either tropism in hypocotyls. axr2-1 stems completely lacked gravitropism in the dark but slowly regained it in light condition. Though wild-type stems showed positive phototropism, axr2 stems displayed negative phototropism with essentially the same light fluence-response curve as the wild type (WT). Application of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid-containing lanolin to the stem tips enhanced the positive phototropism of WT, and reduced the negative phototropism of axr2. Decapitation of stems caused a small negative phototropism in WT, but did not affect the negative phototropism of axr2. p-glycoprotein 1 (pgp1) pgp19 double mutants showed no phototropism, while decapitated double mutants exhibited negative phototropism. Expression of auxin-responsive IAA14/SLR, IAA19/MSG2 and SAUR50 genes was reduced in axr2 and pgp1 pgp19 stems relative to that of WT. These suggest that the phototropic response of stem is proportional to the auxin supply from the shoot apex, and that negative phototropism may be a basal response to unilateral blue-light irradiation when the levels of auxin or auxin signaling are reduced to the minimal level in the primary stems. In contrast, all of these treatments reduced or did not affect gravitropism in wild-type or axr2 stems. Tropic responses of the transgenic lines that expressed axr2-1 protein by the endodermis-specific promoter suggest that AXR2-dependent auxin response in the endodermis plays a more crucial role in gravitropism than in phototropism in stems but no significant roles in either tropism in hypocotyls. PMID:24938853

  14. Administration d’anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens aux enfants ayant des antécédents de sibilance

    PubMed Central

    Sih, Kendra; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Question Un enfant qui fréquente ma clinique s’est récemment fait une entorse à la cheville et il éprouve de la douleur et de la difficulté à supporter son poids sur la jambe affectée. Sa mère lui donne de l’acétaminophène parce qu’on lui a dit de ne jamais utiliser d’anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens (AINS) en raison de son asthme contrôlé par pharmacologie. L’asthme chez un enfant est-il une contre-indication à l’administration d’AINS? La maladie respiratoire exacerbée par les AINS existe-t-elle comme entité réelle? Réponse Les AINS sont des médicaments analgésiques et antipyrétiques efficaces. La maladie respiratoire exacerbée par des AINS a été décrite chez des adultes ayant certains facteurs de prédisposition, mais n’a pas été clairement identifiée chez un grand nombre d’enfants. Les AINS peuvent donc être recommandés aux enfants ayant une sibilance connue qui n’ont pas d’antécédents de maladie respiratoire déclenchée par des AINS. PMID:27521406

  15. [Concept analysis of medication adherence in patients with chronic disease].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jen-Ying; Chen, Hsing-Mei

    2014-06-01

    Pharmacotherapy plays an important role in the management of chronic diseases. However, many patients with chronic disease do not adhere to their medication regimen. This results in worsening symptoms and frequent re-hospitalizations. As a result, healthcare providers may view these patients as bad. Medication adherence is a complex concept. Analyzing this concept may assist nurses to improve patient-centered care. This paper uses Walker & Avant's method to conduct a concept analysis of medication adherence. Results show the defining attributes of medication adherence as: (1) knowing and agreeing to the medication; (2) communicating and negotiating the regimen; and (3) active, continuous involvement in and appraisal of the treatment effect. Identified antecedents of medication adherence included the patient having: (1) a prescribed medication regimen; (2) cognitive and action abilities in her / his role as a patient; and (3) level of preparation for medication treatment. Identified consequences of medication adherence include: (1) improving symptom control; (2) decreasing re-hospitalizations and mortality; (3) reducing medical care costs; (4) restoring self-esteem; and (5) diminishing depression. It is hoped that this concept analysis provides a reference for nurses to achieve a better understanding of medication adherence and further improve nursing practice. PMID:24899565

  16. An Increase of Plasma Advanced Oxidation Protein Products Levels Is Associated with Cardiovascular Risk in Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Elena; Bajo, Maria-Auxiliadora; Carrero, Juan J.; Lindholm, Bengt; Grande, Cristina; Sánchez-Villanueva, Rafael; Del Peso, Gloria; Díaz-Almirón, Mariana; Iglesias, Pedro; Díez, Juan J.; Selgas, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) are considered as markers and even mediators of the proinflammatory effect of oxidative stress in uremia. We hypothesized that an increase of oxidative stress associated with peritoneal dialysis (PD), estimated by the variation of plasma AOPPs over time, might be associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk and overall prognosis. In 48 PD patients, blood samples were collected on two occasions: the first one in the first six months after starting PD therapy and the second one, one year after. The plasma AOPPs level variation over the first year on PD was significantly associated with CV antecedents and also with CV prognosis. In those patients in whom the AOPPs levels increased more than 50% above the baseline value, a significant association with past and future CV disease was confirmed. These patients had 4.7 times greater risk of suffering later CV disease than those with a smaller increase, even after adjusting for previous CV history. Our data suggest that the increase of AOPPs plasma level over the first year on PD is conditioned by CV antecedents but also independently predicts CV prognosis. AOPPs plasma levels seem to represent the CV status of PD patients with sufficient sensitivity to identify those with a clearly sustained higher CV risk. PMID:26581178

  17. Les recommandations thérapeutiques relatives aux effets secondaires extrapyramidaux associés à l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Doja, Asif; Belanger, Stacey; Patten, Scott

    2012-01-01

    HISTORIQUE ET OBJECTIF : L’utilisation d’antipsychotiques augmente chez les enfants. Le présent article visait à orienter les cliniciens quant à la prise en charge clinique des effets secondaires extrapyramidaux des antipsychotiques de deuxième génération. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les publications, les entrevues avec des informateurs clés et des échanges avec les membres d’un groupe de discussion et les partenaires ont permis de déterminer les principaux secteurs cliniques d’orientation et les préférences quant à la structure des présentes recommandations. Les membres responsables des lignes directrices ont reçu le projet de recommandations, ont évalué l’information recueillie grâce à une analyse bibliographique systématique et ont utilisé un processus de groupe nominal pour parvenir à un consensus quant aux recommandations thérapeutiques. Les lignes directrices contiennent une description des anomalies neurologiques souvent observées avec l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques ainsi que les recommandations sur le moyen d’examiner et de quantifier ces anomalies. Une démarche séquentielle sur la prise en charge des anomalies neurologiques est présentée. RÉSULTATS : On peut observer plusieurs types de symptômes extrapyramidaux attribuables à l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques chez les enfants, y compris la dystonie aiguë, l’akathisie, le parkinsonisme et la dyskinésie tardive, toutes induites par les neuroleptiques, de même que la dystonie tardive, l’akathisie tardive et les dyskinésies de sevrage. La forte majorité des données probantes sur le traitement des troubles du mouvement induits par les antipsychotiques proviennent de patients adultes atteints de schizophrénie. Étant donné le peu de données pédiatriques, les recommandations découlent de publications portant tant sur des adultes que sur des enfants. Compte tenu des limites de généralisation des données provenant de sujets adultes pour des enfants, il

  18. Consensus formalisé: recommandations de pratiques cliniques pour la prise en charge de la lombalgie aiguë du patient africain

    PubMed Central

    Elleuch, Mohamed; El Maghraoui, Abdellah; Griene, Brahim; Nejmi, Mati; Ndongo, Souhaibou; Serrie, Alain

    2015-01-01

    La lombalgie aiguë est la pathologie rhumatismale la plus fréquente en Afrique. L’épidémiologie et la présentation clinique ne diffèrent pas de celles observées sur les autres continents. En revanche, les aspects psycho-sociaux, la disponibilité des traitements, l'accès aux soins et le poids culturel des médecines traditionnelles sont autant de spécificités qui ont conduit à la réalisation du 1er consensus d'experts en rhumatologie pour la prise en charge du patient africain. Destiné aux praticiens, ce travail collaboratif multinational a pour objectif de fournir 11 recommandations de pratiques cliniques simples, fondées sur les preuves, et adaptées aux conditions de l'exercice médical en Afrique. Leur ambition est d'améliorer la prise en charge de la lombalgie aigue par une évaluation initiale clinique pertinente, une diminution des examens radiologiques inutiles, une prescription médicamenteuse adéquate et l'abandon de procédures invasives inappropriées. PMID:26955427

  19. RE(AuAl2)nAl2(AuxSi1-x)2: a new homologous series of quaternary intermetallics grown from aluminum flux.

    PubMed

    Latturner, Susan E; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2008-03-17

    The combination of early rare earth metals (La- to Gd and Yb), gold, and silicon in molten aluminum results in the formation of intermetallic compounds with four related structures, forming a new homologous series: RE[AuAl2]nAl2(AuxSi(1-x))2, with x approximately 0.5 for most of the compound and n = 0, 1, 2, and 3. Because of the highly reducing nature of the Al flux, rare earth oxides instead of metals can also be used in these reactions. These compounds grow as large plate-like crystals and have tetragonal structure types that can be viewed as intergrowths of the BaAl4 structure and antifluorite-type AuAl2 layers. REAuAl2Si materials form with the BaAl4 structure type in space group I4/mmm (cell parameters for the La analogue are a = 4.322(2) A, c = 10.750(4) A, and Z = 2). REAu2Al4Si forms in a new ordered superstructure of the KCu4S3 structure type, with space group P4/nmm and cell parameters of the La analogue of a = 6.0973(6) A, c = 8.206(1) A, and Z = 2. REAu3Al6Si forms in a new I4/mmm symmetry structure type with cell parameters of a = 4.2733(7) A, c = 22.582(5) A, and Z = 2 for RE = Eu. The end member of the series, REAu4Al8Si, forms in space group P4/mmm with cell parameters for the Yb analogue of a = 4.2294(4) A, c = 14.422(2) A, and Z = 1. New intergrowth structures containing two different kinds of AuAl2 layers were also observed. The magnetic behavior of all these compounds is derived from the RE ions. Comparison of the susceptibility data for the europium compounds indicates a switch from 3-D magnetic interactions to 2-D interactions as the size of the AuAl2 layer increases. The Yb ions in YbAu(2.91)Al(6)Si(1.09) and YbAu(3.86)Al(8)Si(1.14) are divalent at high temperatures. PMID:18198865

  20. Modélisation du cycle de vie d'un polluant en atmosphère : application aux oxydes d'azote (NO{X})

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzi, R.; Bourmada, N.; Benamrane, B. T.; Londiche, H.

    2005-05-01

    Les problèmes de l'environnement nécessitent des modélisations particulièrement difficiles, mais d'une grande importance sociale. C'est un domaine récent, où les données sont encore peu nombreuses, mais où les attentes sont considérables, tant auprès du public que des politiques et des industriels. En effet, la modélisation consiste à définir un modèle qui permettra de représenter efficacement le processus étudié. Dans cette optique le comportement modélisé n'est que la manifestation extérieure d'une structure plus profonde. La complexité du système et du problème posé détermine celle du modèle, qui va de la simple représentation qualitative d'un comportement aux formules mathématiques les plus élaborées. Lorsque la modélisation est exprimée mathématiquement, on recourt généralement à un programme de simulation pour calculer le comportement prévisionnel du modèle. La compréhension du cycle de vie d'un polluant en atmosphère, dans notre cas les oxydes d'azote (NOX), nécessite la modélisation de l'évolution des réactifs et des produits en fonction du temps exprimée par des équations différentielles. La réalisation de la simulation à partir de ces modèles, nous permet de connaître l'ensemble des processus ayant lieu lors de l'émission du polluant en atmosphère jusqu'à sa consommation.

  1. Deep assessment of machine learning techniques using patient treatment in acute abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Blazadonakis, M; Moustakis, V; Charissis, G

    1996-11-01

    Learning from patient records may aid knowledge acquisition and decision making. Existing inductive machine learning (ML) systems such us NewId, CN2, C4.5 and AQ15 learn from past case histories using symbolic and/or numeric values. These systems learn symbolic rules (IF... THEN like) which link an antecedent set of clinical factors to a consequent class or decision. This paper compares the learning performance of alternative ML systems with each other and with respect to a novel approach using logic minimization, called LML, to learn from data. Patient cases were taken from the archives of the Paediatric Surgery Clinic of the University Hospital of Crete, Heraklion, Greece. Comparison of ML system performance is based both on classification accuracy and on informal expert assessment of learned knowledge. PMID:8985539

  2. Distress in patients with acute leukemia: A concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Tara A.; Rosenzweig, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with acute leukemia require immediate and aggressive in-patient treatment that results in many weeks to months of hospitalization. Thus, it is not surprising that distress has been found in as many as 45.5% of patients. While distress is a regularly reported outcome measure in clinical research, currently there is a lack of a clear consistent and universal definition of this concept. Objective The purpose of this article is to examine the current state of the science surrounding the concept of distress and propose a model of distress for patients with acute leukemia. Interventions/Methods The Walker and Avant framework was used to guide the analysis of the concept of distress in patients with AL. The findings from this analysis were then used to generate a model guided by the current science. Results Distress in AL is generally accepted as multi-dimensional, quantifiable, subjective and temporal. Antecedents to distress include: demographics; intrinsic factors; social support; disease progression; treatment; and communication. Consequences to distress include: decreased quality of life; patient outcomes; as well as the severity of physical and psychological symptoms. Conclusions Distress is an outcome measure that is frequently assessed and reported within the literature. The operationalization of distress varies by investigator, limiting its generalizabiliy. Implications for Practice The proposed conceptual model may be used to guide further research on distress in patients with AL at high risk for negative outcomes. Improved understanding of patient distress may guide interventions aimed at managing the psychosocial needs for patients receiving treatment for AL. PMID:23632470

  3. Prophylaxis of invasive aspergillosis with voriconazole or caspofungin during building work in patients with acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chabrol, Amélie; Cuzin, Lise; Huguet, Françoise; Alvarez, Muriel; Verdeil, Xavier; Linas, Marie Denise; Cassaing, Sophie; Giron, Jacques; Tetu, Laurent; Attal, Michel; Récher, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Background Invasive aspergillosis is a common life-threatening infection in patients with acute leukemia. The presence of building work near to hospital wards in which these patients are cared for is an important risk factor for the development of invasive aspergillosis. This study assessed the impact of voriconazole or caspofungin prophylaxis in patients undergoing induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia in a hematology unit exposed to building work. Design and Methods This retrospective cohort study was carried out between June 2003 and January 2006 during which building work exposed patients to a persistently increased risk of invasive aspergillosis. This study compared the cumulative incidence of invasive aspergillosis in patients who did or did not receive primary antifungal prophylaxis. The diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis was based on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycosis Study Group criteria. Results Two-hundred and fifty-seven patients (213 with acute myeloid leukemia, 44 with acute lymphocytic leukemia) were included. The mean age of the patients was 54 years and the mean duration of their neutropenia was 21 days. Eighty-eight received antifungal prophylaxis, most with voriconazole (n=74). The characteristics of the patients who did or did not receive prophylaxis were similar except that pulmonary antecedents (chronic bronchopulmonary disorders or active tobacco use) were more frequent in the prophylaxis group. Invasive aspergillosis was diagnosed in 21 patients (12%) in the non-prophylaxis group and four (4.5%) in the prophylaxis group (P=0.04). Pulmonary antecedents, neutropenia at diagnosis and acute myeloid leukemia with high-risk cytogenetics were positively correlated with invasive aspergillosis, whereas primary prophylaxis was negatively correlated. Survival was similar in both groups. No case of zygomycosis was observed. The 3-month mortality rate was 28% in patients with invasive aspergillosis. Conclusions

  4. Birth order and memories of traumatic and family experiences in Greek patients with borderline personality disorder versus patients with other personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Karamanolaki, Hara; Spyropoulou, Areti C; Iliadou, Aggeliki; Vousoura, Eleni; Vondikaki, Stamatia; Pantazis, Nikos; Vaslamatzis, Grigoris

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the possible effect of recalled traumatic experiences, perceived parental rearing styles, and family parameters on the occurrence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) versus other personality disorders (other-PDs). A total of 88 adult outpatients with personality disorders completed the Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire and the Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, which measures perceptions regarding parental rearing. Results indicated that incidence of traumatic childhood experiences was higher among those in the BPD group compared to those in the other-PD group. Firstborns were less likely to carry a diagnosis of BPD over other-PDs. Also, significantly more BPD compared to other-PD patients reported being the father's favorite child over siblings. Results suggest that traumatic experiences, birth order, and family interactions in the presence of siblings seem to differentially affect the formation of borderline diagnosis compared to other-PDs. Limitations and clinical implications of the study are discussed in detail. PMID:27583811

  5. 14-Year-Old Boy With Mild Antecedent Neck Pain in Setting of Acute Trauma: A Rare Case of Benign Fibrous Histiocytoma of the Spine.

    PubMed

    Skunda, Raymond; Puckett, Timothy; Martin, Michael; Sanclement, Jose; Peterson, Jo Elle

    2016-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with neck pain after a football accident. Imaging revealed a discrete, expansile, lytic, radiolucent mass extending anterior from the left C2 vertebral body. The differential diagnosis for this mass is broad and includes both benign and malignant lesions. A thorough history and physical examination, along with selective imaging and a tissue sample, are essential in making the correct diagnosis. We report a case of benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) in the cervical spine of a pediatric patient, present the diagnostic dilemma involved in diagnosing BFH, and review the literature to compare the characteristics of BFH with those of other benign bone lesions. To our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of BFH in the cervical spine of a pediatric patient. PMID:26991583

  6. Patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Bhanu

    2010-09-01

    Patient satisfaction is an important and commonly used indicator for measuring the quality in health care. Patient satisfaction affects clinical outcomes, patient retention, and medical malpractice claims. It affects the timely, efficient, and patient-centered delivery of quality health care. Patient satisfaction is thus a proxy but a very effective indicator to measure the success of doctors and hospitals. This article discusses as to how to ensure patient satisfaction in dermatological practice. PMID:21430827

  7. Evolution de la résistance aux antibiotiques des entérobactéries isolées à l'Hôpital Général de Douala de 2005 à 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ebongue, Cécile Okalla; Tsiazok, Martial Dongmo; Mefo'o, Jean Pierre Nda; Ngaba, Guy Pascal; Beyiha, Gérard; Adiogo, Dieudonné

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cette étude vise à déterminer le profil de résistance aux antibiotiques des entérobactéries isolées à l'Hôpital Général de Douala (Cameroun) et analyser leur évolution dans le temps. Méthodes Etude rétrospective, sur une période de huit ans (2005 - 2012), portant sur l'ensemble des souches d'entérobactéries isolées chez les malades ambulatoires et hospitalisés. Les prélèvements ont été analysés au laboratoire de bactériologie de l'Hôpital Général de Douala. Résultats Les entérobactéries étaient les germes les plus fréquents sur l'ensemble des souches isolées. Nous avons noté une prédominance d’Escherichia coli (48,5%) et de Klebsiella pneumoniae (32,8%). Pendant la période d’étude, nous avons observé des taux de résistance élevés aux principales classes d'antibiotiques, et une augmentation entre 2005 et 2012 de 29,1% à 51,6% pour les céphalosporines de troisième génération, de 29,2% à 44% pour la ciprofloxacine. L'imipénème, l'amikacine et la fosfomycine étaient les molécules les plus actives avec respectivement 1,3%, 12,9% et 13,4% des souches d'entérobactéries résistantes. Conclusion L’évolution des résistances des entérobactéries aux antibiotiques est un phénomène réel dans la ville de Douala. Il expose à des difficultés de prise en charge thérapeutique des infections. Lamaitrise actuelle de ce phénomène est une véritable urgence et nécessite une implication des pouvoirs publics. Des tests spécifiques de recherche des bétalactamases à spectre élargi (BLSE) et AmpC doivent être mis en place dans nos laboratoires afin de mettre en évidence les différents phénotypes de résistances. PMID:26140070

  8. RE16AuxAl13-x with RE = La-Nd, Sm (x≤ 3.37): synthesis, crystal structure and physical properties of an intermetallic solid solution with barrelane analogue units.

    PubMed

    Stegemann, Frank; Janka, Oliver

    2016-09-21

    During phase analytical investigations in the rare-earth element rich side of the ternary system cerium-gold-aluminum, the new ternary rare-earth (RE) gold aluminides with a composition of RE16AuxAl13-x (RE = La-Nd, Sm, x≤ 3.37) have been synthesized first by reactive eutectics of RE/Au with Al. Single crystals of high quality can be obtained by this method. The title compounds can be selectively prepared by annealing arc-melted beads of appropriate composition below the peritectic point of the respective system. Like prototypic La16Al13, the representatives of the solid solution RE16AuxAl13-x (RE = La-Nd, Sm; x≤ 3.37) crystallize in the hexagonal crystal system (space group P6[combining macron]2m, a = 916.6-890.4 pm, c = 1122.4-1090.1 pm) with one formula unit per unit cell. Single crystal investigations revealed Au/Al mixing on three of the four crystallographic aluminum sites. These sites form an empty (Au/Al)11 barrelane analogous unit, coordinated solely by the respective rare-earth atoms. In addition one independent Al site with a fivefold capped trigonal prismatic arrangement, a so called Edshammar polyhedron, exists. Magnetic measurements of Ce16Au3Al10 revealed two antiferromagnetic transitions with Neél-temperatures of 7.7(1) and 2.7(1) K and a magnetic moment of μeff = 2.48(1) μB, Pr16Au3Al10 shows ferromagentic ordering with a Curie-temperature of 19.8(1) K and a magnetic moment of μeff = 3.58(1) μB. PMID:27512911

  9. Developpement d'une plateforme de calcul d'equilibres chimiques complexes et adaptation aux problemes electrochimiques et d'equilibres contraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neron, Alex

    Avec l'arrivée de l'environnement comme enjeu mondial, le secteur de l'efficacité énergétique prend une place de plus en plus importante pour les entreprises autant au niveau économique que pour l'image de la compagnie. Par le fait même, le domaine des technologies de l'énergie est un créneau de recherche dont les projets en cours se multiplient. D'ailleurs, un des problèmes qui peut survenir fréquemment dans certaines entreprises est d'aller mesurer la composition des matériaux dans des conditions difficiles d'accès. C'est le cas par exemple de l'électrolyse de l'aluminium qui se réalise à des températures très élevées. Pour pallier à ce problème, il faut créer et valider des modèles mathématiques qui vont calculer la composition et les propriétés à l'équilibre du système chimique. Ainsi, l'objectif global du projet de recherche est de développer un outil de calcul d'équilibres chimiques complexes (plusieurs réactions et plusieurs phases) et l'adapter aux problèmes électrochimiques et d'équilibres contraints. Plus spécifiquement, la plateforme de calcul doit tenir compte de la variation de température due à un gain ou une perte en énergie du système. Elle doit aussi considérer la limitation de l'équilibre due à un taux de réaction et enfin, résoudre les problèmes d'équilibres électrochimiques. Pour y parvenir, les propriétés thermodynamiques telles que l'énergie libre de Gibbs, la fugacité et l'activité sont tout d'abord étudiées pour mieux comprendre les interactions moléculaires qui régissent les équilibres chimiques. Ensuite, un bilan énergétique est inséré à la plateforme de calcul, ce qui permet de calculer la température à laquelle le système est le plus stable en fonction d'une température initiale et d'une quantité d'énergie échangée. Puis, une contrainte cinétique est ajoutée au système afin de calculer les équilibres pseudo-stationnaires en évolution dans le temps. De plus, la

  10. Epidemiologic Profile, Sexual History, Pathologic Features, and Human Papillomavirus Status of 103 Patients with Penile Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chaux, Alcides; Netto, George J.; Rodríguez, Ingrid M.; Barreto, José E.; Oertell, Judith; Ocampos, Sandra; Boggino, Hugo; Codas, Ricardo; Bosch, F. Xavier; de Sanjose, Silvia; Muñoz, Nubia; Hildesheim, Allan; Cubilla, Antonio L.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The incidence of penile cancer is four times higher in Paraguay than in the United States or Europe. There are no adequate scientific explanations for this geographical variation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the interplay among risk factors, morphology of the primary tumor, and HPV status. METHODS Information on socioeconomic status, education level, habits, and sexual history was obtained in 103 Paraguayan patients with penile cancer. All patients were then treated by surgery and specimens were evaluated histopathologically. RESULTS Patients usually dwelled in rural/suburban areas (82%), lived in poverty (75%), had a low education level (91%), and were heavy smokers (76%). Phimosis (57%), moderate/poor hygienic habits (90%), and history of sexually-transmitted diseases (74%) were frequently found. Patients with >10 lifetime female partners had an odds ratio of 3.8 (95% CI 1.1, 12.6; P-trend = .03) for presenting HPV positive tumors when compared to patients with <6 partners. However, this trend was not significant when the number of sexual partners was adjusted for age of first coitus and antecedents of sexually-transmitted diseases. HPV-related tumors (found in 36% of the samples) were characterized by a warty and/or basaloid morphology and high histological grade in most cases. CONCLUSIONS In our series, patients with penile cancer presented a distinctive epidemiological and pathological profile. These data might help explaining the geographical differences in incidence and aid in the design of strategies for cancer control in Paraguay. PMID:22116602

  11. The Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire: evaluation of a brief questionnaire to measure physical activity, dietary control, maintenance of a healthy weight, and psychological antecedents

    PubMed Central

    Traina, Shana B; Mathias, Susan D; Colwell, Hilary H; Crosby, Ross D; Abraham, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed measurement properties of the 17-item Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire (DIAB-Q), which measures intention to engage in self-care behaviors, including following a diabetes diet and engaging in appropriate physical activity. Methods The DIAB-Q includes questions based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Items were developed using published literature, input from health care professionals, and qualitative research findings in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In Stage I of the study, 23 adults with T2DM were interviewed to evaluate the content and clarity of the DIAB-Q. In Stage II 1,015 individuals with T2DM completed the DIAB-Q and supplemental questionnaires, including the Short Form-36 acute (SF-36), section III of the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities questionnaire, and self-administered items relevant to the treatment and management of T2DM (eg, blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c]) at baseline and 3–7 days later. Once the DIAB-Q scale structure was determined, its test–retest reliability, construct validity, and known-groups validity were evaluated, and minimal clinically important change was estimated. Results In Stage I, the 23 respondents surveyed generally reported that the DIAB-Q was clear and comprehensive and endorsed questions as relevant to their intentions to engage in diabetes-related self-care activities. Most subjects in Stage II were male, Caucasian, and married. Mean age was 63 years. Factor analysis revealed six psychological constructs (Behavior, Planning, Intention, Perceived Behavioral Control, Attitude, and Subjective Norm). Test–retest reliability was acceptable (≥0.70) for all scales, except Perceived Behavioral Control. Construct validity was demonstrated based on correlations with diabetes-specific items/scales and the SF-36. Known-groups validity was confirmed for Behavior, Planning, and

  12. Antecedent Drug Exposure Aetiology and Management Protocols in Steven-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis, A Hospital Based Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Samina; Hassan, Iffat

    2016-01-01

    Aim The study sought to identify the magnitude and characteristic of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR’s) like Steven–Johnson syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN). Materials and Methods A prospective study was conducted by the Department of Pharmacology in association with Department of Dermatology in SMHS hospital. The study was carried out from June 2013-June 2015 on hospitalized cases of cutaneous adverse drug reaction reporting in hospital. The SCAR’s were reported in a structured questionnaire based on adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting form provided by the Central Drug Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Government of India. The SCAR’s were analysed for their characteristics, causality, severity and prognosis. Causality assessment was done by using a validated ADR probability scale of Naranjo as well as WHO Uppsala Monitoring Center (WHO-UMC) system for standardized case causality assessment. The management protocol were analysed for their clinical outcome through a proper follow up period. Results A total of 52 hospitalized cases of cutaneous adverse drug reactions were reported during the study period. We identified a total of 15 cases (28%) of SCAR’s involving 9(17%) of SJS and 6 (12%) of TEN. SJS was seen in 2(22%) males and 7(78%) females. TEN was seen in all females (100%) and in no male. Drugs implicated in causing these life threatening reactions were identified as anticonvulsant agents like carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin (PHT) and Lamotrigine (LTG), oxicam NSAID, Sulfasalazine and levofloxacin. Despite higher reported mortality rates in SJS and TEN all patients survived with 2 patients surviving TEN suffered from long term opthalmological sequelae of the disease. Conclusion Present study suggest that drug induced cutaneous eruptions are common ranging from common nuisance rashes to rare life threatening diseases like SJS and TEN, SJS/TEN typically occur 1-3 weeks after

  13. Mechanisms of hypoglycemia unawareness and implications in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Timón, Iciar; del Cañizo-Gómez, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycemia unawareness (HU) is defined at the onset of neuroglycopenia before the appearance of autonomic warning symptoms. It is a major limitation to achieving tight diabetes and reduced quality of life. HU occurs in approximately 40% of people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and with less frequency in T2DM. Though the aetiology of HU is multifactorial, possible mechanisms include chronic exposure to low blood glucose, antecedent hypoglycaemia, recurrent severe hypoglycaemia and the failure of counter-regulatory hormones. Clinically it manifests as the inability to recognise impeding hypoglycaemia by symptoms, but the mechanisms and mediators remain largely unknown. Prevention and management of HU is complex, and can only be achieved by a multifactorial intervention of clinical care and structured patient education by the diabetes team. Less know regarding the impact of medications on the development or recognition of this condition in patients with diabetes. Several medications are thought to worsen or promote HU, whereas others may have an attenuating effect on the problem. This article reviews recent advances in how the brain senses and responds to hypoglycaemia, novel mechanisms by which people with insulin-treated diabetes develop HU and impaired counter-regulatory responses. The consequences that HU has on the person with diabetes and their family are also described. Finally, it examines the evidence for prevention and treatment of HU, and summarizes the effects of medications that may influence it. PMID:26185599

  14. Profil comparatif et évolutif des personnes infectées par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine traitées aux antirétroviraux à Kinshasa, République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Koy, Tshingani; Mukumbi, Henri; Malandala, Ghislain Lubangi Muteba; Donnen, Philippe; Wilmet–Dramaix, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A trithérapie (ARV) introduite en R.D.Congo en 1996, a permis l′amélioration substantielle de la qualité de vie des PVVIH et a réduit la morbimortalité liée au sida en R.D. Congo. L'objectif de cette étude est de présenter le profil épidémiologique comparatif, clinique, ainsi que l’évolution anthropométrique des PVVIH sous ARV à Kinshasa. Méthodes Etude de cohorte sur 438 PVVIH, de 18 ans et plus, suivies entre mai 2010 à 2011 à Amo Congo à Kinshasa. Une comparaison a été faite entre les patients suivis pendant un an et ceux perdus de vue. Le Chi carré de Mc Nemar et l'analyse de variance pour mesures répétées ont été appliqués pour étudier l’évolution. Résultats Près 12 mois de suivi, 11,4% de patients ont été perdus de vue. Parmi eux, on observait des proportions significativement plus élevées de personnes de niveau socioéconomique bas, d'indice de masse corporelle (IMC) bas, présentant de l'anorexie, des affections opportunistes. Les proportions de patients aux stades OMS 3 & 4 et naïfs étaient également significativement plus élevées et la durée sous ARV plus courte. Les gains moyens des paramètres anthropométriques au 12ème mois, étaient importants: de 3,6 [3,2 - 4,0] kg pour le poids, 1,8 (1,4 - 2,3) cm pour le périmètre abdominal, 0,9 (0,8 - 1,2) cm pour le périmètre brachial, 1,4 (1,2 - 1,5) kg/m2 pour l'IMC. La proportion de patients avec un IMC <18,5 kg/m2 a significativement plus baissé entre l'admission et le 12ème mois parmi les patients sans stomatite que parmi ceux avec stomatite. L'IMC moyen évoluait significativement différemment entre l'admission et le 12ème mois selon l’âge et la taille de ménage. Conclusion Les facteurs fragilisant la rétention des patients sous antirétroviraux et une évolution progressive de l’état nutritionnel ont été observés. PMID:25995784

  15. Trois types de stratégies des fabricants pour la fidélisation aux médicaments de marque

    PubMed Central

    Prémont, Marie-Claude; Gagnon, Marc-André

    2014-01-01

    La restructuration de l'industrie pharmaceutique a mené au développement de trois nouveaux types de stratégies commerciales pour la fidélisation de différentes cohortes de patients à des médicaments: la fidélisation par le rabais, par l'accompagnement et par la compassion. La fidélisation par le rabais vise à maintenir les traitements au produit de marque et décourager la substitution au produit générique. La fidélisation par l'accompagnement est basée sur une offre des services de suivi et d'accompagnement à domicile et par téléphone afin d'encourager les patients à adopter un traitement puis d'en améliorer l'observance. Enfin, l'industrie offre des programmes de compassion où les patients peuvent recevoir des traitements avant même que le médicament ne soit généralement disponible ou remboursé par son assureur. Dès que le médicament (le plus souvent très dispendieux) est inscrit à la liste des médicaments remboursés, le manufacturier met fin au programme de compassion et bénéficie d'une importante cohorte de patients déjà sous traitement. L'impact de ces programmes sur les politiques publiques et les droits des patients soulève de nombreuses préoccupations, au nombre desquelles figurent au premier plan l'accès direct du fabricant au patient et ses données de santé et la pression à la hausse sur les coûts de l'assurance-médicaments. PMID:25617517

  16. Long-term post-operative cognitive decline in the elderly: the effects of anesthesia type, apolipoprotein E genotype, and clinical antecedents

    PubMed Central

    Ancelin, Marie-Laure; De Roquefeuil, Guilhem; Scali, Jacqueline; Bonnel, François; Adam, Jean-François; Cheminal, Jean-Claude; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Carrière, Isabelle; Ritchie, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction in the elderly commonly observed following anesthesia has been attributed to age-related neuronal changes exacerbated by pharmacotoxic effects. However, the extent to which these changes may persist following recovery from surgery is still largely unknown. This study investigates the long-term effects of anesthesia on cognitive functioning after orthopedic surgery in 270 elderly patients over the age of 65 who completed a computerized cognitive battery before and 8 days, 4 and 13 months after surgery. Their performance was compared to that of 310 elderly controls who completed the same neuro-psychiatric evaluation at baseline and one-year interval. Multivariate analyses adjusted for socio-demographic variables, depressive symptomatology, vascular pathology as well as baseline cognitive performance. We found early and transient post-operative decline in reaction time and constructional praxis. With regard to long-term changes we observed improvement compared to controls in most verbal tasks (probably due to learning effects). On the other hand, a clear dissociation effect was observed for several areas of visuospatial functioning which persisted up to the 13-month follow-up. This specific pattern of visuospatial deficit was found to be independent of apolipoprotein E genotype and closely resembles what has recently been termed vascular mild cognitive impairment, in turn associated with subtle sub-cortical vascular changes. The observation of only minor differences between persons operated by general and regional anesthesia makes it difficult to attribute these changes directly to the anesthetic agents themselves, suggesting that cognitive dysfunction may be attributable at least in part to peri-operative conditions, notably stress and glucocorticoid exposure. PMID:20858969

  17. [Morphological and biochemical features of fungi isolated from patients with renal failure].

    PubMed

    Drozdowska, Agata

    2007-01-01

    Patients with renal failure are more frequently at risk of fungal infections than the healthy individuals. The aim of the study was: (1) Evaluation of the prevalence of fungi in biological materials obtained from different ontocenoses from patients with end-stage and chronic renal failure undergoing haemodialysis and conservative treatment, respectively. (2) Species determining of isolated fungal strains and evaluation their morphological and biochemical features with regard to biotyping. (3) Examining the connection between intraspecies features of fungal strains isolated from different ontocenoses of the same patient. The study group comprised 136 persons, including 56 patients with end-stage renal failure dialysed for the mean period of 36.2 (+/- 1.62) months--all patients were on chronic haemodialysis therapy (4 hours sessions, 3 times per week), 50 patients with chronic renal failure undergoing conservative treatment and 30 persons with the negative history of any renal disease--control group. At the moment of the evaluation and collection of samples all patients were in good condition, none of the patients revealed symptoms suggesting possible fungal infection. Material for mycological examinations included washings from the oral cavity and samples of urine and faeces. In order to evaluate morphological and biochemical features of fungi the following methods were applied: (1) macrocultures in solid Sabouraud medium, (2) direct microscopic slides, (3) API 20 C AUX test and (4) API ZYM test (bioMérieux). Totally 385 samples for mycological examinations were collected from different ontocenoses, from which 161 fungal strains were isolated and classified to 17 species from 5 genera. Most strains belonged to the genus Candida 96.9% and the most frequently occurring species was C. albicans (60.3%). Other species from this genus composed 39.7%, among which in 11.8% of cases C. parapsilosis was determined, and the following were: C. guilliermondii and C. humicola

  18. Systematic biases in group decision-making: implications for patient safety.

    PubMed

    Mannion, Russell; Thompson, Carl

    2014-12-01

    Key decisions in modern health care systems are often made by groups of people rather than lone individuals. However, group decision-making can be imperfect and result in organizational and clinical errors which may harm patients-a fact highlighted graphically in recent (and historical) health scandals and inquiries such as the recent report by Sir Robert Francis into the serious failures in patient care and safety at Mid Staffordshire Hospitals NHS Trust in the English NHS. In this article, we draw on theories from organization studies and decision science to explore the ways in which patient safety may be undermined or threatened in health care contexts as a result of four systematic biases arising from group decision-making: 'groupthink', 'social loafing', 'group polarization' and 'escalation of commitment'. For each group bias, we describe its antecedents, illustrate how it can impair group decisions with regard to patient safety, outline a range of possible remedial organizational strategies that can be used to attenuate the potential for adverse consequences and look forward at the emerging research agenda in this important but hitherto neglected area of patient safety research. PMID:25320152

  19. Clostridium difficile Infections amongst Patients with Haematological Malignancies: A Data Linkage Study

    PubMed Central

    Slimings, Claudia; Joske, David J. L.; Riley, Thomas V.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Identify risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and assess CDI outcomes among Australian patients with a haematological malignancy. Methods A retrospective cohort study involving all patients admitted to hospitals in Western Australia with a haematological malignancy from July 2011 to June 2012. Hospital admission data were linked with all hospital investigated CDI case data. Potential risk factors were assessed by logistic regression. The risk of death within 60 and 90 days of CDI was assessed by Cox Proportional Hazards regression. Results There were 2085 patients of whom 65 had at least one CDI. Twenty percent of CDI cases were either community-acquired, indeterminate source or had only single-day admissions in the 28 days prior to CDI. Using logistic regression, having acute lymphocytic leukaemia, neutropenia and having had bacterial pneumonia or another bacterial infection were associated with CDI. CDI was associated with an increased risk of death within 60 and 90 days post CDI, but only two deaths had CDI recorded as an antecedent factor. Ribotyping information was available for 33 of the 65 CDIs. There were 19 different ribotypes identified. Conclusions Neutropenia was strongly associated with CDI. While having CDI is a risk factor for death, in many cases it may not be a direct contributor to death but may reflect patients having higher morbidity. A wide variety of C. difficile ribotypes were found and community-acquired infection may be under-estimated in these patients. PMID:27314498

  20. Patient Empowerment and its neighbours: clarifying the boundaries and their mutual relationships.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Lia Paola; Radaelli, Giovanni; Lettieri, Emanuele; Bertele', Paolo; Masella, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Patients are increasingly encouraged to become active players in self-care and shared decision-making. Such attention has led to an explosion of terms - empowerment, engagement, enablement, participation, involvement, activation - each having multiple and overlapping meanings. The resulting ambiguity inhibits an effective use of existing evidence. This study addresses this problem by delivering an evidence-based concept mapping of these terms that delineates their boundaries and mutual relationships. We implemented a literature review of contributions associated to patient empowerment, activation, engagement, enablement, involvement, and participation. We implemented a keyword-based strategy collecting contributions published in PubMed database in the 1990-2013 timespan. A total of 286 articles were selected. The results identified three distinct interpretation of patient empowerment, either conceived as a process, an emergent state or as a participative behaviour. Most definitions recognize empowerment as the combination of ability, motivation and power opportunities. A concept mapping for patient empowerment, activation, enablement, engagement, involvement, and participation was then delineated. The concept map consists of two dimensions (nature and focus of concept) and marks distinctions and relationships between the concepts. The resulting concept map paves the way for a number of future research directions that can help improve our understanding of the antecedents and consequences of patient empowerment policies. PMID:25467286

  1. Reduced-intensity conditioning followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for adult patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and myeloproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Laport, Ginna G; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Storer, Barry E; Scott, Bart L; Stuart, Monic J; Lange, Thoralf; Maris, Michael B; Agura, Edward D; Chauncey, Thomas R; Wong, Ruby M; Forman, Stephen J; Petersen, Finn B; Wade, James C; Epner, Elliot; Bruno, Benedetto; Bethge, Wolfgang A; Curtin, Peter T; Maloney, David G; Blume, Karl G; Storb, Rainer F

    2008-02-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the only curative strategy for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and myeloproliferative disorders (MPD). We report the results of 148 patients (median age = 59 years old) with de novo MDS (n = 40), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) after antecedent MDS/MPD (n = 49), treatment-related MDS (t-MDS) (n = 25), MPD (n = 27), and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) (n = 7) who underwent allogeneic HCT using a conditioning regimen of low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) alone (200 cGy) on day 0 (n = 5) or with the addition of fludarabine (Flu) 30 mg/m(2)/day on days -4 to -2 (n = 143). Postgrafting immunosuppression consisted of cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Seventy-five patients (51%) received an allograft from a matched related donor (MRD), and 73 patients (49%) were recipients of unrelated donor (URD) grafts. There was no significant difference in the incidence of acute (gr II-IV) and chronic extensive graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD, cGVHD) between the recipients of related and unrelated donor grafts. By day +28, 75% of patients demonstrated mixed T cell chimerism. Graft rejection was seen in 15% of patients. With a median follow-up of 47 (range: 6-89) months, the 3-year relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) are both 27% for all patients, with a relapse incidence of 41%. The 3-year RFS for the patients with de novo MDS, AML after antecedent MDS/MPD, t-MDS, MPD, and CMML were 22%, 20%, 29%, 37%, and 43%, respectively, and the 3-year OS was 20%, 23%, 27%, 43%, and 43%, respectively. The 3-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 32%. Factors associated with a lower risk of relapse were the development of extensive cGVHD and having a low risk or intermediate-1 risk International Prognostic Score for the de novo MDS patients. Nonmyeloablative HCT confers remissions in patients who otherwise were not eligible for conventional HCT but for whom relapse is the leading cause of

  2. [Predictive factors of non-compliance with anti-tuberculosis treatment in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Pulido Ortega, F; Sánchez de Rivera, J M; Rubio García, R; González García, J; Costa Pérez-Herrero, J R; Vázquez Rodríguez, J J; del Palacio Pérez-Medel, A

    1997-03-01

    A study was conducted to know the rate of non-compliance of antituberculosis therapy among HIV-infected patients, the factors associated with non-compliance and the evolution of these patients. The therapy compliance in 276 tuberculous HIV infected patients diagnosed in two Madrid hospitals was analyzed. Fifty-one patients (18%) were not included in the analysis (6 died without therapy, 6 were lost and 39 died during therapy). Out of the 225 evaluable patients, 36 (16%, 95% CI, 11.6-21.6) did not comply with therapy. The only factor associated with a higher therapy non-compliance was the antecedent of drug use (20% of non-compliance; relative risk: 10, 95% CI, 1.4-71). Patients using drugs at tuberculosis diagnosis had higher risk for non-compliance (31%; RR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.6-6.3). The incidence of tuberculosis reactivation after leaving therapy was 78.8/100 patient-years. Therapy non-compliance increased death risk associated with tuberculosis (RR, 9.8; 95% CI, 4.6-21). Programs for controlling antituberculous therapy should give priority to active drug users, as this is the group with the highest risk for non-compliance. PMID:9273580

  3. Séroprévalence et facteurs associés au VIH et aux hépatites virales B et C dans la ville de Bafoussam au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Nkala, Isabelle Vanessa Monthe; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kamga, Hortense Gonsu; Noubom, Michel; Mvogo, Côme Ebana; Sosso, Maurice Aurelien

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer la séroprévalence et les facteurs associés au VIH et aux hépatites virales B et C dans la ville de Bafoussam au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude descriptive et analytique réalisée de février 2012 à Juin 2012 dans la ville de Bafoussam au Cameroun. Pour cette étude, nous avons obtenu une clairance éthique. Résultats Au total, 982 personnes ont été dépistées pour le VIH et les hépatites virales B et C. Les femmes représentaient 56,3% des personnes dépistées. La tranche d’âge la plus représentée était celle des 20 à 24 ans. L’âge médian était de 34,5 ans. Les prévalences du VIH, de l'AgHBs, et de l'Ac anti HCV étaient respectivement de 6,0%, 4,1%, et 0,4%. La prévalence du VIH était 2 fois plus élevée parmi les femmes que les hommes avec 8,1% contre 3,5% (p=0,01). Les prévalences les plus élevées ont été observées chez les personnes de 30 à 34 ans, 40 à 44 ans avec 15,0% et 11,5% (p=0,01), les personnes sans emploi avec 11,1% (p<0,001) et les personnes en union libre avec 17,9% (p=0,000). La prévalence du VIH n’était pas directement liée aux comportements et pratiques sexuels de la population de l’étude. On enregistrait une prévalence élevée de 29,3% chez les individus ayant déclaré avoir au moins une infection sexuellement transmissible (p=0,000). Conclusion Il apparait urgent de mettre en place des stratégies de prévention contre le VIH, les hépatites virales et les facteurs associés au Cameroun. PMID:26113899

  4. Dressing and Addressing the Mental Patient: The Uses of Clothing in the Admission, Care and Employment of Residents in English Provincial Mental Hospitals, c. 1860–1960

    PubMed Central

    Baur, Nicole; Melling, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Scholars of insanity and its historical antecedents have paid very little attention to personal and institutional clothing. Such dress, distributed to patients in mental institutions, has always been inscribed with the conflicting narratives of the period in which it was made and worn. The language of civil and medical authority is more evident than personal choice in the shape and address of the attire. This article examines clothing worn by patients in three Devon mental hospitals during the century before 1960. We consider the ways in which institutional clothing formed part of a hospital regimen of overt control, as well as suiting considerations of economy and employment that figured in these institutions. PMID:26989271

  5. Psychiatric adverse effects of zonisamide in patients with epilepsy and mental disorder comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Cavanna, Andrea E; Seri, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    Over the last few years, zonisamide has been proposed as a potentially useful medication for patients with focal seizures, with or without secondary generalization. Since psychiatric adverse effects, including mania, psychosis, and suicidal ideation, have been associated with its use, it was suggested that the presence of antecedent psychiatric disorders is an important factor associated with the discontinuation of zonisamide therapy in patients with epilepsy. We, therefore, set out to assess the tolerability profile of zonisamide in a retrospective chart review of 23 patients with epilepsy and comorbid mental disorders, recruited from two specialist pediatric (n=11) and adult (n=12) neuropsychiatry clinics. All patients had a clinical diagnosis of treatment-refractory epilepsy after extensive neurophysiological and neuroimaging investigations. The vast majority of patients (n=22/23, 95.7%) had tried previous antiepileptic medications, and most adult patients (n=9/11, 81.8%) were on concomitant medication for epilepsy. In the majority of cases, the psychiatric adverse effects of zonisamide were not severe. Four patients (17.4%) discontinued zonisamide because of lack of efficacy, whereas only one patient (4.3%) discontinued it because of the severity of psychiatric adverse effects (major depressive disorder). The low discontinuation rate of zonisamide in a selected population of patients with epilepsy and neuropsychiatric comorbidity suggests that this medication is safe and reasonably well-tolerated for use in patients with treatment-refractory epilepsy. Given the limitations of the present study, including the relatively small sample size, further research is warranted to confirm this finding. PMID:24070880

  6. Trust between patients and health websites: a review of the literature and derived outcomes from empirical studies

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Laurian C.; Montague, Enid; DeHart, Tom

    2012-01-01

    With the exploding growth of the web, health websites have become a dominant force in the realm of health care. Technically savvy patients have been using the web not only to self inform but to self diagnose. In this paper we examine the trust relationship between humans and health websites by outlining the existing literature on trust in health websites. A total of forty-nine papers were examined using a meta-analytical framework. Using this framework, each paper was coded for the antecedents and facets that comprise user trust in health websites. Our findings show that there is little consensus regarding the defining characteristics of the construct of trust in health websites. Further research in this field should focus on collaboratively defining trust and what factors affect trust in health web sites. PMID:22288026

  7. Discharging patients.

    PubMed

    Causey, Amy

    2016-06-22

    What was the nature of the CPD activity and/or practice-related feedback and/or event or experience in your practice? The CPD article discussed the importance of effective planning when discharging patients from acute care hospitals. It emphasised the benefit of early assessment and planning, and outlined the essential principles that should be followed when discharging a patient. PMID:27332612

  8. Patient Roadmap

    MedlinePlus

    ... Follow ATA’s Patient Roadmap for the step-by-step process of how to achieve the best results. Find ... Patient Roadmap,” that identifies the optimal step-by-step process for finding medical support. Please note: this “Roadmap” ...

  9. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin–rotation constants in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br and {sup 127}I)

    SciTech Connect

    Demissie, Taye B. Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth; Jaszuński, Michał

    2015-10-28

    We present nuclear spin–rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br, {sup 127}I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin–rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin–rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin–rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin–rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  10. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin-rotation constants in (175)LuX and (197)AuX (X = (19)F, (35)Cl, (79)Br and (127)I).

    PubMed

    Demissie, Taye B; Jaszuński, Michał; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-10-28

    We present nuclear spin-rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in (175)LuX and (197)AuX (X = (19)F, (35)Cl, (79)Br, (127)I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin-rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin-rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin-rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin-rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides. PMID:26520517

  11. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin-rotation constants in 175LuX and 197AuX (X = 19F, 35Cl, 79Br and 127I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, Taye B.; Jaszuński, Michał; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-10-01

    We present nuclear spin-rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in 175LuX and 197AuX (X = 19F, 35Cl, 79Br, 127I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin-rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin-rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin-rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin-rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  12. Behavioral Correlates of Depression: Antecedents or Consequences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, David A.; Milstead, Matthew

    1989-01-01

    Compared Coyne's interpersonal model of depression to Lewinsohn's social skill model of depression in a large sample of nonreferred college students (N=202). Contrary to both Coyne and Lewinsohn, no evidence of a direct relation between social support and depression was found. Results suggest social skills deficits are a consequence, not a cause,…

  13. Phallocratic Antecedents of Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peers, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This article examines a series of historical examples drawn from antiquity in order to describe some basic organisational parameters which have continued to inform modern concepts of teaching and learning. The author adopts an analytic method modelled on the work of the philosopher Luce Irigaray, in an effort to demonstrate how sexual difference…

  14. Medical missionaries to China: the antecedents.

    PubMed

    Fu, Louis

    2015-02-01

    Notwithstanding the traditional belief that disciples of Jesus Christ introduced Christianity into China, conclusive evidence showed that it was the Nestorian missionaries who entered China in AD 635. Alongside commercial contacts between the West and China during the prosperous T'ang dynasty (618-906), trepanation, bloodletting and the universal antidote theriac were introduced from the Byzantium Empire. Nestorian Christians built churches throughout China and offered some form of medical services. During the Yuan (Mongol) dynasty (1260-1368), foreign physicians were present in the Royal Court; the most famous was the astronomer, linguist and physician Ai-hsieh (Isaiah), Head of the Imperial Medical Bureau. With the fall of this dynasty, Christianity, being primarily the faith of a foreign community, naturally fell into oblivion. It was not until the sixteenth-century's Age of Discovery when a safe sea route to China was found that a new phase of Christian missionaries began. PMID:24585604

  15. Longitudinal antecedents of executive function in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne; Stifter, Cynthia A

    2012-01-01

    Despite an extensive history underscoring the role of social processes and child contributions to the development of executive functions (C. Lewis & J. Carpendale, 2009; L. S. Vygotsky, 1987), research on these relations is sparse. To address this gap, 68 mother-child dyads were examined to determine whether maternal attention-directing behaviors (attention maintaining, attention redirection) and toddlers' temperament predicted executive processes during preschool (mean age = 4.5 years, SD = 0.46)-delay and conflict inhibition. Maternal attention maintaining was associated with high levels of conflict inhibition for inhibited and exuberant children, whereas attention redirection was associated with low levels of delay and conflict inhibition for inhibited children. Therefore, maternal attention-directing behaviors may enhance the development of executive functions but only for children with inhibited and exuberant temperaments. PMID:22469209

  16. Antecedents of Children's Comprehension of Television Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Ronald J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compares the importance of role taking and the logical operations stage of child development in predicting children's understanding of the purpose of television advertising. Research on children's comprehension of television commercials is briefly reviewed and the subjects of the study, as well as the study methodology, are described. (Author/JL)

  17. Some Family Antecedents of Severe Shyness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmartin, Brian G.

    1985-01-01

    Comparison of 100 older and 200 younger love-shy men to 200 nonshy men revealed that love-shys were more likely to have grown up without sisters or as only children, and to have come from homes characterized by disharmony, verbal abuse, and isolation from kin family networks. (Author/NRB)

  18. [Antecedents of the Catalan health model].

    PubMed

    Sabaté i Casellas, Ferran

    2015-11-01

    The Catalan healthcare model is a particular way of addressing public health contingencies of the population as a whole, based on an organizational tradition that brings together stakeholders, such as the civil society, local government, the church, mutual care societies, public and private foundations, which for centuries have worked in coordination and complemented each other to provide quality public healthcare, far and beyond merely catering to the poor or those passing through. This model is based on a selfless, public spirited concept of society, achieved through a vocation to form social agreements, preserved in Catalan civil law. During the 3 periods of self-government Catalonia has enjoyed throughout the twentieth century, it has adapted to the economic, social, and scientific conditions, which define modern society, without sacrificing its fundamental features, thereby achieving a remarkable level of efficiency together with significant social consensus. PMID:26711054

  19. [Individual and environmental antecedents of mobbing].

    PubMed

    Mościcka, Agnieszka; Drabek, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present the most common risk factors of bullying at the workplace. In the relevant literature one can find two main classes of bullying risk factors: environmental and individual. The most important environmental predictors of bullying are negative social climate, ineffective social communication and poor work organization. Among individual risk factors of bullying the most frequently pointed are functional features, such as low level of assertiveness, lack of social skills, ineffective coping with difficult situations and the few relatively stable individual characteristics, like neuroticism, trait anxiety, hostility and aggression. Most authors underline the crucial role of environmental factors in the development of bullying, and the individual characteristics of persons involved in this pathological relation are usually seen as the modifiers of bullying process. PMID:20865859

  20. Pretend Play: Antecedent of Adult Creativity.

    PubMed

    Russ, Sandra W

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the theoretical and empirical literature in the area of pretend play as a predictor of adult creativity. There is strong evidence that processes expressed in pretend play are associated with measures of creativity, especially with divergent thinking. There is some evidence from longitudinal studies that this association is stable over time. Converging evidence suggests that cognitive and affective processes in pretend play are involved in adult creative production. However, there is a lack of consensus in the field as to whether engaging in pretend play actually facilitates creative thinking. In addition, many other variables (opportunity, tolerance for failure, motivation, work ethic, etc.) determine whether children with creative potential are actually creative in adulthood. In spite of the many methodological challenges in conducting research in the play area, it is important to continue investigating specific processes expressed in play and their developmental trajectories. Large samples in multisite studies would be ideal in investigating the ability of specific play processes to predict these creative processes and creative productivity in adulthood. PMID:26994722

  1. Antecedents to Empowerment: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Karel J.

    1998-01-01

    Contends that empowerment and student autonomy strongly correlate with self-confidence; that this increases with incremental successes; and that any success is the outcome of acquiring and applying appropriate skills. Argues that geography students will be better life-long learners if they are taught enabling skills early in their programs. (DSK)

  2. Some Antecedents to Compulsory School Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhart, Robert B.

    While the impact of schools in colonial America was soft before the mid-eighteenth century, devotion to education was strong and self-evident. By the early nineteenth century, schooling was well on its way to becoming universal for most children. As the nineteenth century wore on, the state became more and more involved in schooling. As taxation…

  3. Pretend Play: Antecedent of Adult Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Sandra W.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the theoretical and empirical literature in the area of pretend play as a predictor of adult creativity. There is strong evidence that processes expressed in pretend play are associated with measures of creativity, especially with divergent thinking. There is some evidence from longitudinal studies that this association is…

  4. Preschool Antecedents of Internalizing Problems in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Sheryl L.; Rosenblum, Katherine

    1998-01-01

    Examined the relationship of 79 children's preschool social adaptation to internalizing problem behaviors following transition to kindergarten. Found that boys and girls did not differ in symptom level, but girls showed higher stability in internalizing problem behavior than boys. Preschoolers with high internalizing problem behavior rates…

  5. The Cultural Antecedents of Sociolinguistic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Abraham

    1975-01-01

    This paper sought the answer to the question: What is the origin of the sociolinguistic differences described by Basil Bernstein and others in relation to social class, patterns of family organization and socialization, and modes of speech? (Author/RK)

  6. Prenatal Antecedents of Newborn Neurological Maturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Kivlighan, Katie T.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Rubin, Suzanne E.; Shiffler, Dorothy E.; Henderson, Janice L.; Pillion, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    Fetal neurobehavioral development was modeled longitudinally using data collected at weekly intervals from 24 to 38 weeks gestation in a sample of 112 healthy pregnancies. Predictive associations between 3 measures of fetal neurobehavioral functioning and their developmental trajectories to neurological maturation in the first weeks after birth…

  7. Reflections on Antecedents of the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Stephen G.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the influence of Karl Marx's writings on Adolf Hitler, and asks whether there was a causal nexus between Russian and Nazi atrocities. Uses primary sources as a method for historical comparison. Compares Hitler's writings on antisemitism with those of Marx. (NL)

  8. Family Rearing Antecedents of Pubertal Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence D.; Houts, Renate M.; Friedman, Sarah L.; DeHart, Ganie; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Roisman, Glenn I.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Susman, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Two general evolutionary hypotheses were tested on 756 White children (397 girls) studied longitudinally: (1) rearing experiences would predict pubertal timing; and (2) children would prove differentially susceptible to rearing. Analysis of pubertal measurements, including some based on repeated physical assessments, showed that mothering and…

  9. Antecedents and Outcomes of Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steers, Richard M.

    1977-01-01

    Personal characteristics, job characteristics, and work experiences influenced commitment. Moreover, commitment was found to be strongly related to intent and desire to remain for both samples and moderately related to attendance and turnover for one sample. Performance was generally unrelated to commitment. (Author)

  10. Longitudinal Antecedents of Executive Function in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Anne; Stifter, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite an extensive history underscoring the role of social processes and child contributions to the development of executive functions (C. Lewis & J. Carpendale, 2009; L. S. Vygotsky, 1987), research on these relations is sparse. To address this gap, 68 mother-child dyads were examined to determine whether maternal attention-directing behaviors…

  11. Watching the Watchdog: Antecedents of Media Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Douglas M.

    A study examined the effects of several structural and individual variables on the perceived role of the media by media representatives and the general public. The focus of the study was on public perceptions of the media as "watchdog," but the images of the media as "guide dog,""rabid dog,""lap dog" and "guard dog" were included. Subjects, 567…

  12. "Brown:" The Historical-Legal Antecedents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engl, Margaret; Permuth, Steven B.; Wonder, Terri K.

    2003-01-01

    In the "Columbia Law Review," Harry Jones (1974) illustrates five general and sometimes overlapping purposes of the law. They include the preservation of the public peace and safety, the settlements of individual disputes, the maintenance of security expectations, the resolutions of conflicting social interests, and the channeling of social…

  13. Developmental Antecedents of Young Adult Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obradovic, Jelena; Masten, Ann S.

    2007-01-01

    Civic engagement was studied in relation to overall development in adolescence, emerging adulthood, and young adulthood to examine how earlier activity involvement and success in prior and concurrent age-salient domains of competence may contribute to 2 forms of civic engagement in adulthood (citizenship and volunteering). Data on 163 youth were…

  14. Antecedents and Consequences of Job Search Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffy, Brian D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated impact of individual difference variables (gender, school performance, Type A behavior) on job search and influence of search on recruitment, interview performance, job offers, and job placement outcomes (search stress and job satisfaction). Results suggest link between job search, interview outcomes, number of job offers, and placement…

  15. Decreasing Pica by Targeting Antecedent Scavenging Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluestone, Michael A.

    A nonverbal, severely retarded, 24-year-old female, who had undergone abdominal surgery due to pica (compulsive eating of inedible substances) participated in the study. Antecendent scavenging behavior was reliably identified and redirected. Pica was prevented by using a short duration physical restraint. Giving non-edible items that might be…

  16. Classification of odontogenic cysts and tumors - Antecedents.

    PubMed

    Imran, Aesha; Jayanthi, P; Tanveer, Shahela; Gobu, Sreeja C

    2016-01-01

    Pierre Paul Broca produced a monograph on tumor classification which also included the classification of odontogenic tumors (OTs). The terminology used to describe malignant epithelial OTs has varied since the World Health Organization published the initial consensus on the taxonomy of OTs. Minor changes were introduced in the second edition. It is only in the very recent years that additional knowledge has accumulated and refined the classification. This review emphasizes on reasons for modification by each author and the recent acceptance. PMID:27601821

  17. Patient education.

    PubMed

    Lindeman, C A

    1988-01-01

    The 120 studies included in this review were grouped in relation to five categories of variables basic to a theory of instruction in patient education. Findings in the studies related to the characteristics of the patient as learner support the following variables as significant for a theory of instruction: demographic characteristics including age, race, duration and type of illness, educational level, and family preparedness. Selected psychological variables are significant as they interact with teaching approaches. Given only two studies in which the characteristics of the nurse as teacher were the main variables, no inferences for a theory of instruction could be drawn. However, the findings from those studies combined with results from studies in which characteristics of the nurse were secondary variables support the importance of this category of variables. The educational preparation, motivation, values, and job description of the nurse implementing patient teaching appear to be significant variables for a theory of instruction. Investigators explored a wide range of teaching strategies in the studies of patient teaching. The setting for teaching, group and individual teaching, and a variety of instructional strategies all prove promising at the operational level. The instructional strategies were too diverse to allow analysis at a level of abstraction beyond the operational. Findings in this review also support characteristics of the health care setting as an important category of variables for a theory of instruction. The organizational structure, a quality assurance framework, and valuing patient teaching appear to be significant variables. Patient education research provides a rich data source for future developments in theory, practice, and research. The effectiveness of patient education as a nursing intervention is clearly established. Furthermore, positive learning outcomes are associated with a broad range of teaching strategies, content areas, and

  18. Patient Empowerment

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer patient organization. Ask for this help. Your Responsibilities Keep Good Records Get in the habit of ... responsible for your follow-up. You should take responsibility for getting a follow-up scheduled and for ...

  19. Yeast Colonization and Drug Susceptibility Pattern in the Pediatric Patients With Neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Haddadi, Pedram; Zareifar, Soheila; Badiee, Parisa; Alborzi, Abdolvahab; Mokhtari, Maral; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Pakshir, Keyvan; Jafarian, Hadis

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pediatric patients with neutropenia are vulnerable to invasive Candida infections. Candida is the primary cause of fungal infections, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. Candida albicans has been the most common etiologic agent of these infections, affecting 48% of patients Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify Candida spp. isolated from children with neutropenia and determine the antifungal susceptibility pattern of the isolated yeasts. Patients and Methods: In this study 188 children with neutropenia were recruited, fungal surveillance cultures were carried out on nose, oropharynx, stool, and urine samples. Identification of Candida strains was performed using germ tube and chlamydospore production tests on an API 20 C AUX system. Susceptibility testing on seven antifungal agents was performed using the agar-based E-test method. Results: A total of 229 yeasts were isolated. Among those, C. albicans was the most common species followed by C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. famata, C. dubliniensis, C. kefyr, and other Candida species. C. glabrata was the most resistant isolated yeasts, which was 70% resistant to fluconazole and 50% to itraconazole, 7.5% to amphotericin B and 14% to ketoconazole. All the tested species were mostly sensitive to caspofungin. Conclusions: Knowledge about the susceptibility patterns of colonized Candida spp. can be helpful for clinicians to manage pediatric patients with neutropenia. In this study, caspofungin was the most effective antifungal agent against the colonized Candida spp. followed by conventional amphotericin B. PMID:25485060

  20. The Risk of Cancer in Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Cheng-Che; Hu, Li-Yu; Hu, Yu-Wen; Chang, Wen-Han; Tang, Pei-Ling; Chen, Pan-Ming; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies suggest a link between anxiety disorders and cancer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of cancer among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using a nationwide population-based dataset. We recruited newly diagnosed OCD patients without antecedent cancer from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 2002 and 2011. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated for 22 specific cancer types among OCD patients and we determined the SIRs for subgroups according to age and sex group. In addition, because of a potential detection bias, a subgroup analysis stratified with the duration of the OCD diagnosis was carried out. Among the 52,656 OCD patients, who were followed up for 259,945 person-years (median follow-up = 4.9 years), there were 718 cases of cancer. Patients with OCD did not exhibit an increased overall cancer risk relative to the general population (SIR 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98–1.13). An increased SIR was observed among OCD patients only within the first year of OCD diagnosis (SIR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01–1.43). This study indicated that the overall cancer risk was not elevated among OCD patients. An increased SIR observed among OCD patients within the first year of OCD diagnosis may be caused by a surveillance bias, and because paraneoplastic manifestations presented with obsessive-compulsive behaviors. Prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:26945419