Sample records for patient pain drawings

  1. Reliability of Ultrasound Imaging of the Transversus Deep Abdominial, Internal Oblique and External Oblique Muscles of Patients with Low Back Pain Performing the Drawing-in Maneuver

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung doo

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of ultrasound imaging (USI) measurements of muscle thicknesses of patients with low back pain (LBP) performing the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) [Subjects] Twenty patients with LBP were the subjects. [Methods] Muscle thickness measurements of transversus abdominis (Tra), internal obliques (IO), and external obliques (EO) muscles were measured using ultrasound imaging at rest and during performance of the ADIM. [Results] The intra-examiner reliability estimates ranged from 0.55 to 0.97 in the rest position, and from 0.82 to 0.95 during ADIM. The inter-examiner reliability estimates ranged from 0.77 to 0.98 in the rest position, and from 0.86 to 0.98 during ADIM. [Conclusion] ADIM thickness measurements of the TrA, IO, and EO muscles in patients with LBP based on the mean of 2 measures are highly reliable when taken by a single examiner and adequately reliable when taken by different examiners. PMID:24259867

  2. Patient Education on Pain

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... People with Pain Press Room Position Statements Patient Education on Pain AAPM Past President, Perry G. Fine, ... Member Center Patient Center Research Advocacy Practice Management Education Annual Meeting Contact Us Privacy Policy Sitemap Close ...

  3. JAMA Patient Page: Chest Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Chest Pain C hest pain can have many causes. ... about cardiac causes of chest pain. CAUSES OF CHEST PAIN FOR MORE INFORMATION • National Heart, Lung, and ...

  4. Accepting pain management or seeking pain cure: an exploration of patients' attitudes to chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Kathryn A; Iphofen, Ron

    2007-06-01

    This article explores the differing attitudes of patients toward chronic pain. Because pain is a subjective experience, individuals react to living with chronic pain in varying ways. Some patients successfully manage their chronic pain, whereas others continue to seek a pain cure. A convenience sample (n = 8) was generated from a district general hospital's nurse-led pain clinic. The sample was subdivided by an expert panel rating procedure into two groups: those accepting pain management and those seeking a pain cure. The study used a multimethod approach comprising extended, highly focused interviews coupled with patients' diaries and drawing on a phenomenologic theoretical framework. Initial hermeneutic data analysis provided emerging themes: "rules for living," "pain = life," and "acceptance" for the pain management group, and "pillar to post," "self-fulfilling prophecy," and "mood" for those seeking a cure. Thematic content common to both groups were "family" and "coping strategies." These themes illustrate some differences and similarities between those who manage pain compared with those who seek a pain cure. Phenomenologically based research findings can rarely be generalized, but they enlighten and highlight the need for further research to generate detailed understanding of why some patients with chronic pain can accept pain management and others relentlessly seek a cure that is frequently not possible. PMID:17544130

  5. Patients' perspective: lupus in patients' drawings. Assessing drawing as a diagnostic and therapeutic method.

    PubMed

    Nowicka-Sauer, Katarzyna

    2007-09-01

    This is the first report from a qualitative research on lupus patients' perspective expressed in the disease drawings. The aim of the study was to examine the variety of ways of illness perception and experiences among systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. The goal was also to assess the utility of drawing as an unconventional research method as well as a therapeutic means. Participants were 38 women with SLE. Patients attended 'My life' courses addressed to the lupus patients held in 2000-2002. During the psychological group sessions, subjects were asked to draw their disease and then to comment on their pictures. There were no time limits. The participants were ensured that their drawing abilities had no meaning. Despite initial hesitation, all of the patients drew their pictures. This report presents three lupus patients' drawings. Analysis of disease pictures reveals that they are the priceless source of information on patients' perspective and make many dimensions of living with the disease uncovered, especially psychological. This unconventional, nonverbal method allows patient to know and realize one's emotions and feelings. From health professionals' point of view, the advantage of drawing as a research method is the possibility of gaining much information that cannot be gained from interview or traditional tests alone. Drawing is a 'good beginning' to talk, it makes the patients open up to share their emotions, views, and experiences. Thus, it can be the useful therapeutic method. It can also prevent health professionals from schematization in approach to the patients with the same diagnosis. PMID:17447104

  6. Differing reports of pain perception by different personalities in a patient with chronic pain and multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    McFadden, I J; Woitalla, V F

    1993-12-01

    There have been several reports of patients with chronic pain (CP) and dissociative or multiple personality disorder (MPD). This report describes a patient with MPD in whom 4 different personalities reported different perceptions of pain. Psychological testing was used to confirm the diagnosis of MPD. Visual analogue scales (VAS) and the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) were used on each of the 4 personalities. Each personality completed pain drawings to indicate currently perceived pain and resulting disability, and had EMG recordings of muscle tension. These studies documented a difference in pain perception, location, and estimates of secondary functional impairment between different personalities in the same patient. PMID:8121699

  7. Pain Response and Pain Control in Burn Patients

    PubMed Central

    Castana, O.; Anagiotos, G.; Rempelos, G.; Adalopoulou, A.; Kokkinakis, C.; Giannakidou, M.; Diplas, D.B.; Alexakis, D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Burn injury is totally correlated to pain, which depends on burn depth and extent, cause, age and the patient's general condition, and on the local therapy of the burn wound. In hospitalized patients adjectival and numerical scales have been used to measure pain. The management of pain is challenging to the therapist and extremely important for the patient. PMID:21991161

  8. Pain Coping Strategies in Osteoarthritis Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the relation of pain coping strategies to pain, health status, and psychological distress in a group of osteoarthritis patients with chronic pain. Patients completed various questionnaires. Medical status variables were also used. The Pain Control and Rational Thinking factor derived from the Coping Strategies Questionnaire proved to…

  9. Behind the Veil: Mandala Drawings by Dementia Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couch, Janet Beaujon

    1997-01-01

    Examines the Mandala (circular) drawings of elderly patients diagnosed with dementia in order to explore the drawings' role in artmaking and patients' internal processes. Categorized drawings using the MARI Card Test (a projective psychological instrument). Describes the six MARI stages drawn most frequently and colors used most often. (RJM)

  10. Assessment of nerve involvement in the lumbar spine: agreement between magnetic resonance imaging, physical examination and pain drawing findings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Detection of nerve involvement originating in the spine is a primary concern in the assessment of spine symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the diagnostic method of choice for this detection. However, the agreement between MRI and other diagnostic methods for detecting nerve involvement has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this diagnostic study was to evaluate the agreement between nerve involvement visible in MRI and findings of nerve involvement detected in a structured physical examination and a simplified pain drawing. Methods Sixty-one consecutive patients referred for MRI of the lumbar spine were - without knowledge of MRI findings - assessed for nerve involvement with a simplified pain drawing and a structured physical examination. Agreement between findings was calculated as overall agreement, the p value for McNemar's exact test, specificity, sensitivity, and positive and negative predictive values. Results MRI-visible nerve involvement was significantly less common than, and showed weak agreement with, physical examination and pain drawing findings of nerve involvement in corresponding body segments. In spine segment L4-5, where most findings of nerve involvement were detected, the mean sensitivity of MRI-visible nerve involvement to a positive neurological test in the physical examination ranged from 16-37%. The mean specificity of MRI-visible nerve involvement in the same segment ranged from 61-77%. Positive and negative predictive values of MRI-visible nerve involvement in segment L4-5 ranged from 22-78% and 28-56% respectively. Conclusion In patients with long-standing nerve root symptoms referred for lumbar MRI, MRI-visible nerve involvement significantly underestimates the presence of nerve involvement detected by a physical examination and a pain drawing. A structured physical examination and a simplified pain drawing may reveal that many patients with "MRI-invisible" lumbar symptoms need treatment aimed at nerve involvement. Factors other than present MRI-visible nerve involvement may be responsible for findings of nerve involvement in the physical examination and the pain drawing. PMID:20831785

  11. [Post-operative pain therapy of a chronic pain patient].

    PubMed

    Pawlik, Michael T; Ittner, Karl Peter

    2006-11-01

    Post-operative pain therapy of chronic pain patients poses a challenge. Here we report the perioperative management of a 39-year-old male under chronic therapy with oxycodon, gabapentin and tolperison. Particular the pharmacointeractions regarding premedication and postoperative dose finding of opioids with intravenous PCIA are discussed. PMID:17151986

  12. 4. Photocopy of a 1942 architectural drawing titled: 'Patients Recreation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of a 1942 architectural drawing titled: 'Patients Recreation, REC-F-H. First Floor Plan & Details.' 10-31-42 - Madigan Hospital, Patients' Recreation, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  13. 4. Photocopy of a 1943 architectural drawing titled: 'Patients & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of a 1943 architectural drawing titled: 'Patients & Detachment Mess, MESS-Z-H. Elevations & Sections.' 1-13-43 - Madigan Hospital, Patients' & Medical Detachments, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  14. Surgical options for patients with shoulder pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salma Chaudhury; Stephen E. Gwilym; Jane Moser; Andrew J. Carr

    2010-01-01

    Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal complaint in the community, which can arise from diverse causes. Regardless of the cause, mild cases can often be effectively treated conservatively, with options including rest, physiotherapy, pain relief and glucocorticoid injections. If conservative strategies fail after a 3–6 month period then surgery might be considered. Generally, the proportion of patients with shoulder pain

  15. Chronic Pain Patients: Implications for Rehabilitation Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Lori T.

    Chronic pain syndrome appears to have certain dimensions which make it unique as a disabling condition. When pain persists, the resulting anxiety and depression, others' reactions to the patient's sick role behaviors, and situational variables such as disability benefits may all contribute to the pain syndrome and complicate the rehabilitation…

  16. JAMA Patient Page: Knee Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PAGE Knee Pain K nees are complex, weight-bearing joints (junctions between 2 bones) that provide your ... and pain. WHEN TO SEEK MEDICAL ADVICE • Difficulty bearing weight on the knee • Swelling of the knee • ...

  17. Pain in cognitively impaired nursing home patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce A. Ferrell; Betty R. Ferrell; Lynne Rivera

    1995-01-01

    Pain is an understudied problem in frail elderly patients, especially those with cognitive impairment, delirium, or dementia. The focus of this study was to describe the pain experienced by patients in skilled nursing homes, which have a high prevalence of cognitive impairment. A random sample of 325 subjects was selected from ten community skilled nursing homes. Subjects underwent a cross-sectional

  18. Pain in cognitively impaired nursing home patients.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, B A; Ferrell, B R; Rivera, L

    1995-11-01

    Pain is an understudied problem in frail elderly patients, especially those with cognitive impairment, delirium, or dementia. The focus of this study was to describe the pain experienced by patients in skilled nursing homes, which have a high prevalence of cognitive impairment. A random sample of 325 subjects was selected from ten community skilled nursing homes. Subjects underwent a cross-sectional interview and chart review for the prevalence of pain complaints, etiology, and pain management strategies. Pain was assessed using the McGill Pain Questionnaire and four unidimensional scales previously utilized in younger adults. Thirty-three percent (33%) of subjects were excluded because they were either comatose (21%), non-English speaking (3.7%), temporarily away (sick in hospital) (4.3%), or refused to participate (3.7%). Of 217 subjects in the final analysis, the mean age was 84.9 years, 85% were women, and most were dependent in all activities of daily living. Subjects demonstrated substantial cognitive impairment (mean Folstein Mini-Mental State exam score was 12.1 +/- 7.9), typically having deficits in memory, orientation, and visual spatial skills. Sixty-two percent reported pain complaints, mostly related to musculoskeletal and neuropathic causes. Pain was not consistently documented in records, and pain management strategies appeared to be limited in scope and only partially successful in controlling pain. None of the four unidimensional pain-intensity scales studied in this investigation had a higher completion rate than the Present Pain Intensity Scale of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (65% completion rate). However, 83% of subjects who had pain could complete at least one of the scales. We conclude that cognitive impairment among elderly nursing home residents present a substantial barrier to pain assessment and management. Nonetheless, most patients with mild to moderate cognitive impairment can be assessed using at least one of the available bedside assessment scales. PMID:8594119

  19. Usefulness of Cordotomy in Patients With Cancer Who Experience Bilateral Pain: Implications of Increased Pain and New Pain

    PubMed Central

    Higaki, Nobuhiro; Yorozuya, Toshihiro; Tsubota, Shinzo; Fujii, Tomomi; Fukunaga, Tomoe; Moriyama, Mitsuhide; Yoshikawa, Takeki

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although mirror pain occurs after cordotomy in patients experiencing unilateral pain via a referred pain mechanism, no studies have examined whether this pain mechanism operates in patients who have bilateral pain. OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of cordotomy for bilateral pain from the viewpoint of increased pain or new pain caused by a referred pain mechanism. METHODS: Twenty-six patients who underwent percutaneous cordotomy through C1-C2 for severe bilateral cancer pain in the lumbosacral nerve region were enrolled. Pain was dominant on 1 side in 23 patients, and pain was equally severe on both sides in 3 patients. Unilateral cordotomy was performed for the dominant side of pain, and bilateral cordotomy was performed for 13 patients in whom pain on the nondominant side developed or remained severe after cordotomy. RESULTS: After unilateral cordotomy, 19 patients (73.1%) exhibited increased pain, which for 14 patients was as severe as the original dominant pain. After bilateral cordotomy, 7 patients (53.4%) exhibited new pain, which was located cephalad to the region rendered analgesic by cordotomy and was better controlled than the original pain. No pathological organic causes of new pain were found in any patient, and evidence of a referred pain mechanism was found in 3 patients after bilateral cordotomy. CONCLUSION: These results show that a referred pain mechanism causes increased or new pain after cordotomy in patients with bilateral pain. Nevertheless, cordotomy can still be indicated for patients with bilateral pain because postoperative pain is better controlled than the original pain. PMID:25603110

  20. [Therapy of pain in multiborbid elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Junker, Uwe; Lux, Eberhard Albert; Neugebauer, Edmund A G; Basler, Heinz-Dieter

    2009-05-01

    All human organ systems are prone to age-related physiological changes. Functional impairment is especially found in the liver, the kidneys, the nervous system, the gastrointestinal tract and the blood vessels. Changes in metabolism cause, e.g., changes in the composition of blood, reduction in neurotransmitters and the respective receptors, changes in calcium homeostasis with consequences for the stability of bones. As with any pharmacotherapy, the treatment of pain must consider these age-related factors. Adequate pain treatment is especially important in elderly patients, because the number of morbidities increases together with the number of pain conditions of different origin. In Germany, most patients with severe pain are undertreated. Although tumor pain, e.g., can be relieved in up to 95% of patients, up to 40% of patients under medical treatment still have pain, the German Pain League states. The WHO's pain ladder, developed in the 1980ies, is still regarded as an appropriate guideline, albeit too often disregarded by physicians, reflecting the reserve of patients and doctors towards opioids. With progress in opioid therapy, however, experts tend to early prescription of step-III-analgesics without sticking to the steps of the WHO ladder. Constipation, the major side effect of opioids, can be overcome by co-medication with laxatives. The combination of slow-release oxycodone with naloxone, an orally given antagonist of intestinal micro-receptors is effective as analgesic and maintains the normal bowel function. PMID:19469187

  1. Suicidal intent in patients with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Fisher, B J; Haythornthwaite, J A; Heinberg, L J; Clark, M; Reed, J

    2001-01-01

    Suicidal ideation among individuals suffering from chronically painful conditions has not been widely studied, although rates of completed suicide are believed to be elevated in this population relative to the general population. The psychiatric literature on suicide documents the importance of controlling for the severity of depression when studying factors associated with suicidal ideation, attempts, or completion. The present study examined the relationships between suicidal ideation and the experience of pain, pain-related disability, and pain coping efforts among a sample of individuals experiencing chronically painful conditions. Of 200 patients evaluated on an inpatient rehabilitation unit in a psychiatric service, 13 individuals (6.5%) reported suicidal intent on a commonly used self-report measure of symptoms of depression, the Beck Depression Inventory. This group was compared to a matched (age, sex, pain duration) group of similarly depressed individuals (N=13) and a matched group of non-depressed individuals (N=13) on measures of pain, disability, pain beliefs, and pain coping strategies. A history of a suicide attempt was associated with suicidal intent. Family history of substance abuse was significantly more prevalent among the depressed groups, regardless of suicidal thinking. The depressed/suicidal group and depressed/non-suicidal groups reported higher levels of pain, higher levels of pain-related disability, lower use of active coping, and higher use of passive coping compared to the non-depressed group. The depressed groups did not differ from one another on any of the measures of pain experience. Depression, not suicidal status, consistently predicted level of functioning. The prevalence of suicidal intent was comparable to rates observed in other studies and relatively low. When individuals with chronic pain report suicidal intent, it is imperative that measures preventing self-harm be implemented immediately and the patient's depression be treated aggressively. PMID:11166476

  2. 5. Photocopy of a 1943 architectural drawing titled: 'Patients & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of a 1943 architectural drawing titled: 'Patients & Detachment Mess, MESS-Z-H. Floor Plan, Part A.' 1-13-43 - Madigan Hospital, Patients' & Medical Detachments, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  3. 6. Photocopy of a 1943 architectural drawing titled: 'Patients & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of a 1943 architectural drawing titled: 'Patients & Detachment Mess, MESS-Z-H. Floor Plan, Part B.' 1-13-43 - Madigan Hospital, Patients' & Medical Detachments, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  4. The use of multiple-item scales for pain intensity measurement in chronic pain patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark P Jensen; Lindsey R Turner; Judith A Turner; Joan M Romano

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the relative predictive validities of several measures of pain intensity. Forty chronic pain patients completed 6–14 days worth of hourly pain ratings, which were averaged to obtain a measure of actual average pain intensity. These patients then made ratings, on 101-point numerical rating scales, of worst, least, and usual pain during the previous 2 wks, and of

  5. Cerebral responses to pain in patients with atypical facial pain measured by positron emission tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S W Derbyshire; A K Jones; P Devani; K J Friston; C Feinmann; M Harris; S Pearce; J D Watson; R S Frackowiak

    1994-01-01

    The localised PET cerebral correlates of the painful experience in the normal human brain have previously been demonstrated. This study examined whether these responses are different in patients with chronic atypical facial pain. The regional cerebral responses to non-painful and painful thermal stimuli in six female patients with atypical facial pain and six matched female controls were studied by taking

  6. Drug management of pain in cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Tuttle, C B

    1985-01-01

    Chronic severe cancer pain is often not well controlled because both patient and physician have a poor understanding of the nature of the pain and of the actions of various potent analgesics. Physicians often fail to tailor analgesic dosages to the needs of the individual and unnecessarily limit the dosage because they have an ill founded fear that the patient will become addicted. The basis of rational management of cancer pain with drugs is an appropriate analgesic given regularly in doses adequate to suppress pain continuously. This review compares the potent analgesics and identifies and discusses those that have a role in treating chronic cancer pain. It emphasizes the value of morphine sulfate and gives information on starting and individualizing dosages and managing side effects. PMID:2856896

  7. Opioid misuse in oncology pain patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane C. Ballantyne

    2007-01-01

    The problem of therapeutic opioid misuse largely affects patients who need opioids to treat chronic pain conditions. Opioid\\u000a misuse is rarely an overt clinical problem during end of life or acute pain treatment. Misuse attaches a stigma to opioid\\u000a use, and makes many patients and prescribers reluctant to use these uniquely effective drugs, even when misuse is unlikely.\\u000a Cancer was

  8. Management of pain in the cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Ashburn, M A; Lipman, A G

    1993-02-01

    The pain experience of the cancer patient is the result of many factors, including nociceptive sources, specific pain syndromes, and behavioral contributions. Careful evaluation of the patient is necessary to identify the contributors to the patient's pain experience and to select treatment modalities which address the underlying causes. For patients who are experiencing poorly controlled pain as a result of cancer, therapy often includes multiple management strategies involving more than one discipline. Therefore, an interdisciplinary approach may be more useful for pain management. Disciplines and specialties. involved in such care commonly include anesthesiologists, oncologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, physical therapists, pharmacists, nurses, and social workers. The locus of control often influences how patients respond to their physicians' advice. Patients with a strong internal locus of control usually want to participate actively in treatment decisions. Such patients often resent having decisions made about their treatment without their participation. A lack of sense of control can exacerbate such patients' pain and limit compliance with recommended treatments. Drug therapy is the mainstay of cancer pain management. The therapy should be individualized to the patient, and medications should be selected for specific indications. The WHO three-step analgesic ladder should be used as a guide in selecting analgesics. Drugs should be administered by mouth unless it is impossible to do so, and drug costs should be considered when selecting analgesic medications. Doses should be titrated to response. Adjuvant drug therapy should be considered early and implemented when indicated. Practitioners should be familiar with the medications prescribed and be alert for the appearance of adverse side effects. Patients should be monitored and reassessed continuously. A thorough diagnostic work-up should be completed for new symptoms when indicated. For patients with specific pain syndromes, or for whom drug therapy has not been successful, local anesthetic and neurolytic block therapy and more invasive drug delivery systems (e.g., epidural catheters) should be considered. Although cure may not be attainable in many cancer patients, the obligations of health professionals to these patients are no less than to patients for whom a cure is achievable. Effective pain management has a profound impact on the quality of life, and may give the patient the opportunity to face death with dignity and reduced suffering. PMID:8424523

  9. Alexithymia and anxiety in female chronic pain patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feryal Cam Celikel; Omer Saatcioglu

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Alexithymia is highly prevalent among chronic pain patients. Pain is a remarkable cause for high levels of chronic anxiety. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of alexithymia and to determine anxiety levels among DSM-IV somatoform pain disorder (chronic pain) female patients and to examine the relationship between alexithymia and the self-reporting of pain. METHODS: Thirty

  10. Effective pain management and improvements in patients' outcomes and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Diane

    2015-06-01

    Adequate pain management is a compelling and universal requirement in health care. Despite considerable advancements, the adverse physiological and psychological implications of unmanaged pain remain substantially unresolved. Ineffective pain management can lead to a marked decrease in desirable clinical and psychological outcomes and patients' overall quality of life. Effective management of acute pain results in improved patient outcomes and increased patient satisfaction. Although research and advanced treatments in improved practice protocols have documented progressive improvements in management of acute and postoperative pain, little awareness of the effectiveness of best practices persists. Improved interventions can enhance patients' attitudes to and perceptions of pain. What a patient believes and understands about pain is critical in influencing the patient's reaction to the pain therapy provided. Use of interdisciplinary pain teams can lead to improvements in patients' pain management, pain education, outcomes, and satisfaction. PMID:26033099

  11. Anxiety and pain in surgical patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angel Martinez-Urrutia

    1975-01-01

    Investigated the effects of surgery on state anxiety (A-state) and perceived pain in 59 white male surgical patients. The Melzack-Torgerson Pain Questionnaire, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Fear of Surgery Scale (FSS) were given the day before the operation and again 10 days after surgery. Results indicate that surgery as a physical threat has an effect on A-state

  12. [Pain patients show a higher hindsight bias].

    PubMed

    Ruoss, M

    1997-01-01

    Research on pain-related cognitions has up to now predominantly relied upon introspective questionnaire data. Experimental cognitive psychology offers an alternative way of access to the cognitive aspects of chronical pain. Building on the assumption that information-processing is in part uncontrolled, automatic and pre-attentive, similar processes are also expected to be relevant for pain-relevant cognitions and to be involved in health-related convictions and in coping strategies that can be assessed with questionnaires. Cognitive-psychological research has established the "hindsight bias" as a robust phenomenon that occurs uncontrolled and automatically in diverse contexts when a prior judgment or prediction is assimilated to information received later on. The hindsight bias may be regarded as a manifestation of a universal cognitive mechanism, meaning that information (including information about emotional states) available at a given time will change the memory of prior judgments or of predictions of future events and results of behavior. Cognitive biases similar to the hindsight effect have been demonstrated in chronical pain patients. The present work elaborates the hypothesis that pain patients differ from other groups in the size of the hindsight bias and in its composition and outlines how it can contribute to the chronification of pain. Data from a hindsight-bias experiment comparing pain patients, psychiatric patients and students are analyzed using alternatively a traditional global hindsight bias score ("Hell-Index") and a multinomial modelling approach. The hindsight-effect was observed in the usual extent in the student control group, but was significantly greater in the pain group and absent in the psychiatric sample. In addition to this global finding, multinomial modelling revealed group differences in specific model parameters. This method of analysis thus proved as promising for the assessment of cognitive aspects of clinical disorders. PMID:9577225

  13. Physical Therapy for Patients with Back Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roelof WA van der Valk; Joost Dekker; Margriet E van Baar

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the physical therapy diagnosis and treatment in patients with back pain. More specifically, the relationship between the duration of the complaint and the diagnosis and treatment was analysed. Data were used from a representative survey of physical therapeutic practice in the Netherlands. The patients were divided into three groups on the basis

  14. Pain intensity and severe pain in young immigrant patients with long-standing back pain

    PubMed Central

    Taloyan, Marina

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore if self-rated pain intensity and severe pain differed significantly between immigrants from different regions, and if other socio-economic, or clinical, characteristics could predict severe pain. A total of 129 men and 217 women at a primary health centre in Stockholm, Sweden, 27–45 years, on long-term sick leave, were recruited in consecutive order and grouped into a Turkish (n = 122), Southern European (n = 52), Middle East (n = 69) and one Mixed (n = 173) group of immigrants. All were employed in service jobs. Somatic status, depression and level of psychosocial stressors, including pain anxiety, were established by standardized procedures. All reported long-standing disabling back pain. Patients rated intensity of pain “right now” on a 0–100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) as a last part of the consultation with two doctors. Severe pain was defined as VAS 75–100. Median values (md) with inter-quartile ranges (IQR) were calculated for interval and ordinal data. Non-parametric statistics were used to calculate significant differences between groups. Crude and age-standardized odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) as rating severe pain were calculated by binary and forward conditional logistic regression. Men and women were analyzed separately. Women had more tender points, (P < 0.001), and reported pain anxiety more often (P < 0.01). Frequency of depression did not differ between the immigrant groups. The VAS-values varied, but not significantly, between the immigrant groups of men and women. Men had lower VAS values than women (md 50, IQR 36–69 vs. md 72, IQR 51–85), (P < 0.001). Women had a three-fold risk to rate severe pain (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.8–4.7). By sex, no immigrant group had significantly elevated OR to rate severe pain. Being 40–45 year old doubled the OR as rating severe pain. Men with depression, or little education, had high risks as rating severe pain (age-standardized ORs 4.1; 95% CI 1.7–10.0 and 2.7; 95% CI 1.1–6.8, respectively), and so had depressed women (age-standardized OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1–3.4). Women with pain anxiety had a doubled, not statistically significant, elevated risk (age-standardized OR 2.0, 95% CI 0.95–4.3). The groups did not differ significantly in pain intensity or severe pain. Severe pain was predicted by depressed mood and probably linked to gender, age and sick roles. PMID:17952473

  15. RECURRENT LOW BACK PAIN: RELAPSE FROM A PATIENT PERSPECTIVE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ola Benjaminsson; Gabriele Biguet; Inga Arvidsson; Lena Nilsson-Wikmar

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore and describe how patients with recur- rent low back pain perceive and respond to the recurrence of pain. Design: A semi-structured interview study. Subjects: Seventeen patients (10 women and 7 men) with re- current low back pain. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were analysed using the phenomenographic method. Results: Patients' perceptions of relapse of low back pain could be

  16. Minimum detectable and minimal clinically important changes for pain in patients with nonspecific neck pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco M Kovacs; Víctor Abraira; Ana Royuela; Josep Corcoll; Luis Alegre; Miquel Tomás; María Antonia Mir; Alejandra Cano; Alfonso Muriel; Javier Zamora; María Teresa Gil del Real; Mario Gestoso; Nicole Mufraggi

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The minimal detectable change (MDC) and the minimal clinically important changes (MCIC) have been explored for nonspecific low back pain patients and are similar across different cultural settings. No data on MDC and MCIC for pain severity are available for neck pain patients. The objectives of this study were to estimate MDC and MCIC for pain severity in subacute

  17. The relationship of alexithymia to pain severity and impairment among patients with chronic myofascial pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A Lumley; Julie A Smith; David J Longo

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Alexithymia is elevated among patients with chronic pain, but the relationship of alexithymia to the severity of pain among chronic pain patients is unclear. Also, studies have rarely examined whether alexithymia is unique from other, more widely studied constructs in the chronic pain literature (i.e., self-efficacy, catastrophizing, and depression), and research has not examined how alexithymia relates to the

  18. Physical and emotional functioning of adult patients with chronic abdominal pain: Comparison with patients with chronic back pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia O. Townsend; Christopher D. Sletten; Barbara K. Bruce; Jeffrey D. Rome; Connie A. Luedtke; John E. Hodgson

    2005-01-01

    Adults with chronic abdominal pain remain a poorly defined population, despite the debilitation and depression associated with this therapeutically challenging condition. This study compared patients with chronic abdominal pain with an empirically well-known group of patients with chronic pain (back pain) to investigate similarities and differences in their physical and mental functioning. This retrospective, cross-sectional study included 136 patients with

  19. Prognosis of patients with "chest pain ?cause".

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, R G; Roland, J M; Hampton, J R

    1981-01-01

    All 662 patients admitted to the two coronary care units in Nottingham during 12 consecutive months were followed up prospectively for one year. At the time of discharge from hospital they were categorised according to set criteria into the following diagnostic groups: definite, probable, or possible myocardial infarction; ischaemia heart disease without infarction; chest pain ?cause; and other diagnoses. Eighty-nine patients (13% of admissions) were categorised as having chest pain ?cause. No deaths occurred among these patients during the observation period, although two were readmitted with myocardial infarction. Patients with chest pain ?cause had few problems during the year after admission, and at the end of that time 75% were in their original employment. Patients admitted with ischaemic heart disease had a similar death rate (between six weeks and one year after admission) to those with myocardial infarction, and only 36% were in their original employment one year after admission. Chest pain ?cause is a clinically useful diagnostic category to which patients may be allocated after only simple investigations. PMID:6780059

  20. Biobehavioral Measures for Pain in the Pediatric Patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mamoona Arif-Rahu; Deborah Fisher; Yui Matsuda

    Pain is a complex biobehavioral phenomenon. The quantification of pain involves the incorporation of many factors, including physiologic, behavioral, and psychologic factors. Recognition of pain relies heavily on the expression of the patient as well as the interpretation of the caregiver. There are many studies published on biobehavioral pain assessment tools, such as neuroimaging, neuromuscular, biomarker, and behavioral pain assessment

  1. A survey of pain in patients with advanced cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Twycross; Jean Harcourt; Stephen Bergl

    1996-01-01

    One hundred eleven patients with advanced cancer and pain newly referred to a palliative care center completed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) weekly for up to 4 weeks. The aims were (a) to review the numbers and causes of pain, (b) to consider the usefulness of the BPI in the evaluation of pain in cancer patients, and (c) to determine

  2. Pain. Author manuscript A patient-based national survey on postoperative pain management in

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Pain. Author manuscript Page /1 18 A patient-based national survey on postoperative pain management.fletcher@rpc.aphp.fr> Abstract We carried out a national survey on postoperative pain (POP) management in a representative sample pain, evaluation, treatment and side effects. A local consultant provided information about POP

  3. Effects of treatment of peripheral pain generators in fibromyalgia patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giannapia Affaitati; Raffaele Costantini; Alessandra Fabrizio; Domenico Lapenna; Emmanuele Tafuri; Maria Adele Giamberardino

    2011-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) frequently co-occurs with regional pain disorders. This study evaluated how these disorders contribute to FS, by assessing effects of local active vs placebo treatment of muscle\\/joint pain sources on FS symptoms.Female patients with (1) FS+myofascial pain syndromes from trigger points (n=68), or (2) FS+joint pain (n=56) underwent evaluation of myofascial\\/joint symptoms [number\\/intensity of pain episodes, pressure pain

  4. Acute pain and the critically ill trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Lome, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Pain is a frequent experience throughout our lifetime, and each person responds in a different manner to every pain experience. Critically ill trauma patients are obviously more likely to experience pain due to their injuries or iatrogenic causes. To optimize pain management for trauma patients, critical care nurses must continually be aware of the potential for pain. However, pain assessment for critically ill patients is usually complicated by their inability to express the subjective component of their pain experience. Understanding the pathophysiology of pain facilitates the assessment of the objective components of pain. It is imperative for the critical care nurse to function as the patient advocate especially regarding pain management issues. PMID:15875450

  5. Pain in hemodialysis patients: prevalence, cause, severity, and management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara N Davison

    2003-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence that dialysis patients have a high burden of symptoms, including pain. However, the prevalence, cause, severity, and management of pain in dialysis patients have not been described. Methods: This prospective cohort study of 205 Canadian hemodialysis (HD) patients describes the prevalence, cause, severity, and management of pain in this population. A chart review for demographic

  6. Biobehavioral measures for pain in the pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Arif-Rahu, Mamoona; Fisher, Deborah; Matsuda, Yui

    2012-09-01

    Pain is a complex biobehavioral phenomenon. The quantification of pain involves the incorporation of many factors, including physiologic, behavioral, and psychologic factors. Recognition of pain relies heavily on the expression of the patient as well as the interpretation of the caregiver. There are many studies published on biobehavioral pain assessment tools, such as neuroimaging, neuromuscular, biomarker, and behavioral pain assessment scales. These tools present a clinical challenge to appropriately assess and manage pain in the noncommunicative pediatric patients, such as infants, preverbal toddlers, and intubated and/or unconscious or cognitively impaired patients. Pain is a combination of physiologic, behavioral, and psychologic interactions. Any tool that incorporates the measurement of only one of those domains is inherently incomplete in the assessment of pain. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review was to provide a comprehensive overview of these biobehavioral pain assessment tools used in pain assessment in the noncommunicative pediatric population. PMID:22929603

  7. Patients' Responses to a Drawing Experience in a Hemodialysis Unit: A Step towards Healing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weldt, Cristina

    2003-01-01

    Investigates patients' responses to drawing experiences while in a hemodialysis unit. It was postulated that patients would be stimulated to talk about issues and experiences and improve their confidence and self-esteem. Results indicate that all patients enjoyed the experience of drawing; they became focused on doing the drawings and the hours…

  8. Comparison of Pain Measures Among Patients With Osteoarthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelli D. Allen; Cynthia J. Coffman; Yvonne M. Golightly; Karen M. Stechuchak; Corrine I. Voils; Francis J. Keefe

    2010-01-01

    This study compared recalled average pain, assessed at the end of the day, with the average of real-time pain ratings recorded throughout the day among patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Participants (N = 157) with hand, hip, or knee OA completed electronic pain diaries on 1 weekend day and 1 weekday. Diaries included at least 7 pain ratings per day, immediately

  9. Assessment and understanding of pain in patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Huffman, J C; Kunik, M E

    2000-10-01

    The literature on pain in dementia patients is reviewed. A summary of methods for assessment of pain in demented elderly persons and an examination of studies that used such methods are included. In addition, literature theorizing a decrease in affective pain in this population is discussed; management of pain in such patients is not discussed extensively. Research reveals 3 major findings: (a) a moderate decrease in pain occurs in cognitively impaired elderly persons, (b) communicative dementia patients' reports of pain tend to be as valid as those of cognitively intact patients, and (c) assessment scales developed thus far for noncommunicative patients require improvement in accuracy and facility. Many questions about pain in dementia patients remain, and the continued development of valid pain assessment techniques is a necessity. PMID:11037936

  10. Childhood sexual abuse among chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Wurtele, S K; Kaplan, G M; Keairnes, M

    1990-06-01

    Recent literature indicates a relationship between history of sexual abuse and subsequent psychological and social dysfunction. Less thoroughly examined are the possible abuse-related physical effects. This article examines the prevalence of sexual abuse among 135 chronic pain patients. History of abuse for all patients was determined during initial interview. Twenty-eight percent reported child sexual abuse, with history of victimization more significant for women (39%) than men (7%). The abused and nonabused groups of women differed on such variables as marital status, occupation, history of rape and substance abuse, and age of hospitalization. The relationship between sexual abuse and chronic somatic reactions was discussed. PMID:2135003

  11. Effects of Performance Feedback on Patient Pain Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen Duncan; Bunny Pozehl

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an individual feedback intervention provided to nurses on selected patient outcomes related to postoperative pain management. Individual performance feedback served as the intervention. Thirty orthopedic staff nurses received feedback information on their past performance of recommended pain management practices. Data were collected preintervention and postintervention on selected patient pain

  12. Paramedic assessment of pain in the cognitively impaired adult patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill Lord

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paramedics are often a first point of contact for people experiencing pain in the community. Wherever possible the patient's self report of pain should be sought to guide the assessment and management of this complaint. Communication difficulty or disability such as cognitive impairment associated with dementia may limit the patient's ability to report their pain experience, and this has

  13. Coital Positions and Sexual Functioning in Patients with Chronic Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trilok N. Monga; Uma Monga; Gabriel Tan; Martin Grabois

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe (1) coital positions adopted by chronic back pain patients, (2) and to describe sexual function as assessed by Derogatis Inventory of Sexual Functioning (DISF). In addition, patients were asked questions regarding effects of sexual intercourse on severity of pain, influence of pain over sexual functioning, and perceived factors causing sexual problems. This

  14. Pain in the Postoperative Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bunny Pozehl; Susan Barnason; Lani Zimmerman; Janet Nieveen; Joyce Crutchfield

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess and describe the multidimensional postoperative pain experience of patients (N = 194) undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) using the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Postoperative pain significantly decreased from postoperative day 2 to postoperative day 3 for all components of the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Sensory words chosen from the McGill Pain Questionnaire

  15. Pain management of hemiplegic shoulder pain post stroke in patients from Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi; Su, Bin; Li, Ning; Jin, Hongzhu

    2013-09-01

    We selected 106 hemiplegic patients with shoulder pain hospitalized after stroke from three hospitals in Nanjing, China between February 2007 and January 2012. All patients had complete clinical data sets and accounted for 45.5% of the inpatients because of stroke. Results showed that the number of patients with hemiplegic shoulder pain post stroke increased yearly, attacking mainly males 50-69 years of age. Of 106 patients, there were 60 cases (56.6%) of adhesive capsulitis, 19 (17.9%) of shoulder subluxation, 14 (13.2%) of complex regional pain syndrome, and 13 (12.6%) of central pain. The main symptoms were shoulder pain (100%), limit of shoulder mobility (98.1%), and adhesion of the scapula (56.6%). MRI of the shoulder showed tendon and ligament lesions (57.1%) and rotator cuff tear (38.1%). 53.8% of central pain was related to the thalamus, in addition to the basal ganglia, brain stem, and cerebellopontine angle. Shoulder pain, upper limb motor function, and function independence were significantly improved after comprehensive rehabilitation. In particular, electroacupuncture based on basic physical therapy exhibited efficacy on shoulder tion and complex regional pain syndrome. Multiple linear regression results showed a negative relationship of efficacy of pain management with the attack period of shoulder pain, involvement of the posterior limb of the internal capsule, and duration between onset and rehabilitation treatment, but a positive correlation with pain-related education, pain regression period, and pain diagnosis. PMID:25206549

  16. Are Pain-Related Fears Mediators for Reducing Disability and Pain in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1? An Explorative Analysis on Pain Exposure Physical Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Barnhoorn, Karlijn J.; Staal, J. Bart; van Dongen, Robert T. M.; Frölke, Jan Paul M.; Klomp, Frank P.; van de Meent, Henk; Samwel, Han; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether pain-related fears are mediators for reducing disability and pain in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 when treating with Pain Exposure Physical Therapy. Design An explorative secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Participants Fifty-six patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1. Interventions The experimental group received Pain Exposure Physical Therapy in a maximum of five treatment sessions; the control group received conventional treatment following the Dutch multidisciplinary guideline. Outcome measures Levels of disability, pain, and pain-related fears (fear-avoidance beliefs, pain catastrophizing, and kinesiophobia) were measured at baseline and after 3, 6, and 9 months follow-up. Results The experimental group had a significantly larger decrease in disability of 7.77 points (95% CI 1.09 to 14.45) and in pain of 1.83 points (95% CI 0.44 to 3.23) over nine months than the control group. The potential mediators pain-related fears decreased significantly in both groups, but there were no significant differences between groups, which indicated that there was no mediation. Conclusion The reduction of pain-related fears was comparable in both groups. We found no indication that pain-related fears mediate the larger reduction of disability and pain in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 treated with Pain Exposure Physical Therapy compared to conventional treatment. Trial registration International Clinical Trials Registry NCT00817128 PMID:25919011

  17. Are Pain Intensity and Pain Related Fear Related to Functional Capacity Evaluation Performances of Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michiel F. Reneman; Henrica R. Schiphorts Preuper; Marco Kleen; Jan H. B. Geertzen; Pieter U. Dijkstra

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Pain related fear and pain intensity have been identified as factors negatively influencing Functional Capacity Evaluation\\u000a (FCE) performances in patients with CLBP. Conflicting results have been reported in the literature. The objective of this\\u000a study was to analyze the relationships between pain intensity and pain-related fear on the one hand, and performances during\\u000a an FCE on the other hand

  18. Scrambler therapy for patients with cancer pain - case series -.

    PubMed

    Park, Hong Sik; Sin, Woo Kyung; Kim, Hye Young; Moon, Jee Youn; Park, Soo Young; Kim, Yong Chul; Lee, Sang Chul

    2013-01-01

    More than 80% of cancer patients experience cancer pain. Among them, more than 50% experience moderate to severe pain. To control cancer pain, a variety of methods have been used, including medications and nerve blocks. In some patients, however, it is impossible to perform nerve blocks due to caner metastasis into the epidural space, while in other patients, opioid dose escalation is impossible due to opioid side effects; thus, cancer pain management is difficult. Scrambler therapy is a novel approach for pain control that uses EKG-like pads, which are applied above and below the site of pain. Scrambler therapy synthesizes 16 different types of nerve action potentials that provide "non-pain" information via cutaneous nerves. The advantages of this treatment are that it is non-invasive and safe and has no significant side effects. In this case series, we report the treatment results of using scrambler therapy in three cancer patients with intractable pain. PMID:23342211

  19. 3-D Pain Drawings--Mobile Data Collection Using a PDA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gheorghita Ghinea; Fotis Spyridonis; Tacha Serif; Andrew O. Frank

    2008-01-01

    A large number of the adult population suffers from some kind of back pain during their lifetime. Part of the process of diagnosing and treating such back pain is for a clinician to collect information as to the type and location of the pain that is beingsuffered.Traditionalapproachestogatheringandvisualizing this pain data have relied on simple 2-D representations of the human body,

  20. Psychologic Influence on Experimental Pain Sensitivity and Clinical Pain Intensity for Patients with Shoulder Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Z. George; Adam T. Hirsh

    2009-01-01

    Pain-related fear and pain catastrophizing are 2 central psychologic factors in fear-avoidance models. Our previous studies in healthy subjects indicated that pain-related fear, but not pain catastrophizing, was associated with cold pressor pain outcomes. The current study extends previous work by investigating pain-related fear and pain catastrophizing in a group of subjects with shoulder pain, and included concurrent measures of

  1. Psychophysical assessment of patients with posttraumatic neuropathic trigeminal pain.

    PubMed

    Essick, Greg K

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the utility of psychophysical approaches in the assessment of posttraumatic neuropathic trigeminal pain. Methods of quantitative sensory testing are derived from psychophysical principles and provide a widely accepted means for characterizing sensory dysfunction in patients who experience injury to the trigeminal nerve. No published study, however, has sought to compare sensory findings from trigeminal nerve-injured patients who develop neuropathic pain with those from trigeminal nerve-injured patients who remain pain-free. Moreover, sensory testing data from trigeminal nerve-injured patients with pain have been published in only a few reports. As a result, remarkably little is known about sensory factors associated with the development of posttraumatic trigeminal neuralgia. Review of the separate literatures suggests that both trigeminal nerve-injured patients with pain and pain-free trigeminal nerve-injured patients exhibit grossly similar impairments in sensory function. In addition, trigeminal nerve-injured patients with pain may be more likely to report cold allodynia than patients without pain and to exhibit signs of central sensitization such as allodynia to light brushing tactile stimuli and abnormal temporal summation of pain. New studies using state-of-the-art psychophysical methods are needed to search for sensory markers that bear on the development of pain. Moreover, the relationship between psychophysical indices of central sensitization and measures of clinical pain should be addressed to obtain a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. PMID:15636019

  2. Knee muscle forces during walking and running in patellofemoral pain patients and pain-free controls

    E-print Network

    Delp, Scott

    (Farahmand et al., 1998; Lieb and Perry, 1968), resulting in reduced contact areas, increased stressesKnee muscle forces during walking and running in patellofemoral pain patients and pain proposed mechanism of patellofemoral pain, increased stress in the joint, is dependent on forces generated

  3. Catastrophizing, locus of control, pain, and disability in chinese chronic low back pain patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sammy K. Cheng; Freedom Leung

    2000-01-01

    The present study examined the associations of locus of control (LOC) and catastrophizing with pain intensity and disability in Chinese chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. In the study, 56 respondents (21 men and 35 women) with a mean age of 36.98 years (SD= 12.22) completed measures assessing locus of control, catastrophizing tendency, pain intensity, disability, and psychological distress. Results

  4. Repressive coping style: Relationships with depression, pain, and pain coping strategies in lung cancer out patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nusara Prasertsri; Janean Holden; Francis J. Keefe; Diana J. Wilkie

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have shown that coping style is related to pain and adjustment in people with chronic illness. This study was the first to examine how coping style related to pain, pain coping strategies, and depression in lung cancer outpatients. We conducted a comparative, secondary data analysis of 107 lung cancer patients (73% male, mean age 61.4±10.43 years, 88% Caucasian). As

  5. Pain syndromes in multiple sclerosis patients - patient experience at Lipik Special Hospital for Medical Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Vidovi?, Viktor; Rovazdi, Merisanda ?asar; Slivar, Senka Renduli?; Kraml, Oto; Kes, Vanja Baši?

    2014-12-01

    In the study, we evaluated 61 multiple sclerosis patients hospitalized at our hospital in the period from October 1, 2013 to February 15, 2014. The aim of the study was to investigate pain syndromes associated with the underlying disease. Pain in the month preceding assessment was reported by 90% of patients. Most patients suffered from low back pain (52%) and musculoskeletal pain (39%), followed by neck pain (31%), painful tonic spasm (26%), neuropathic extremity pain (23%) and pain due to spasticity (21%). Other types of pain were present in less than 20% of patients. A total of 67% of patients were taking analgesics; the most frequently used were nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, while drugs against neuropathic pain were taken by a smaller number of patients. The high incidence of pain syndromes pointed to the importance of regular physical therapy procedures. PMID:25868307

  6. Imaging pain: a potent means for investigating pain mechanisms in patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, M. C.; Tracey, I.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Chronic pain is a state of physical suffering strongly associated with feelings of anxiety, depression and despair. Disease pathophysiology, psychological state, and social milieu can influence chronic pain, but can be difficult to diagnose based solely on clinical presentation. Here, we review brain neuroimaging research that is shaping our understanding of pain mechanisms, and consider how such knowledge might lead to useful diagnostic tools for the management of persistent pain in individual patients. PMID:23794647

  7. Pain experience and satisfaction with postoperative pain control among surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Pathmawathi; Ramasamy, Suguna; Ng, Kwan Hoong; Chinna, Karuthan; Rosli, Roshaslina

    2014-10-30

    Alleviating acute pain and providing pain relief are central to caring for surgical patients as pain can lead to many adverse medical consequences. This study aimed to explore patients' experience of pain and satisfaction with postoperative pain control. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 107 respondents who had undergone abdominal surgery in the surgical ward of an urban hospital using the Revised American Pain Society's Patient Outcome and Satisfaction Survey Questionnaires (APS-POQ-R). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Chi-square test showed significant association between race (P?=?0.038), education level (P???0.001), previous operation status (P?=?0.032) and operation status (P???0.001). Further analysis on nominal regression, association between dissatisfaction with factors of operation status (46.09 (95% CI 7.456, 284.947)) and previous operation status (13.38 (95% CI 1.39, 128.74)) was found to be significant. Moderate to high levels of pain intensity in the last 24?h after surgery, as well as moderate to high rates of pain-related interference with care activities were most reported. Pain still remains an issue among surgical patients, and effective pain management and health education are needed to manage pain more effectively after surgery. PMID:25355297

  8. Pathogenesis and clinical aspects of pain in patients with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Mediati, Rocco Domenico; Vellucci, Renato; Dodaro, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bone pain is one of the most frequent kinds of chronic pain, mainly in elderly patients. It causes a significant worsening of functional capacity and deterioration in the quality of life in people affected. Mechanisms of pain in osteoporosis are poorly known and often extrapolated by other pathologies or other experimental model. One of principal causes would be a “hyper-remodeling” of bone, that involves osteoclasts activity and pathological modifications of bone innervation. Several studies show that osteoclasts play a significant role in bone pain etiology. Pain in osteoporosis is mainly nociceptive, if it become persistent a sensitization of peripheral and central nervous system can occur, so underlining the transition to a chronic pain syndrome. Central sensitization mechanisms are complex and involve several neuromediators and receptors (Substance P, NMDA, etc.). Most common manifestations of osteoporosis are vertebral compression fractures that cause persistent pain, though to differentiate from pain originating in structures as joint or muscle. First manifestation can be an acute pain due to pathological fracture, those of hip often causes disability. Pain in osteoporosis is an important clinical challenge. Often its complications and consequences on patient quality of life are underestimated with not negligible social implications. A balanced and early multimodal pain therapy including opioids as necessary, even in cases of acute pain, improve the functional capacity of patients and helps to prevent neurological alterations that seems to contribute in significant way in causing irreversible pain chronic syndromes. PMID:25568647

  9. Saphenous neuropathy in a patient with low back pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tannaz Ahadi; Gholam Reza Raissi; Mansoureh Togha; Parisa Nejati

    2010-01-01

    Saphenous nerve, a pure sensory nerve, may compromise as a result or complication of a surgical procedure or secondary to trauma or insidiously. We present a male patient with low back pain concomitant with pain in medial portion of left thigh in addition to pain and numbness in medial part of leg and inferior part of patella after a strenuous

  10. Pain in the cancer patient: different pain characteristics CHANGE pharmacological treatment requirements.

    PubMed

    Müller-Schwefe, Gerhard; Ahlbeck, Karsten; Aldington, Dominic; Alon, Eli; Coaccioli, Stefano; Coluzzi, Flaminia; Huygen, Frank; Jaksch, Wolfgang; Kalso, Eija; Kocot-K?pska, Magdalena; Kress, Hans-Georg; Mangas, Ana Cristina; Ferri, Cesar Margarit; Morlion, Bart; Nicolaou, Andrew; Hernández, Concepción Pérez; Pergolizzi, Joseph; Schäfer, Michael; Sichère, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Twenty years ago, the main barriers to successful cancer pain management were poor assessment by physicians, and patients' reluctance to report pain and take opioids. Those barriers are almost exactly the same today. Cancer pain remains under-treated; in Europe, almost three-quarters of cancer patients experience pain, and almost a quarter of those with moderate to severe pain do not receive any analgesic medication. Yet it has been suggested that pain management could be improved simply by ensuring that every consultation includes the patient's rating of pain, that the physician pays attention to this rating, and a plan is agreed to increase analgesia when it is inadequate. After outlining current concepts of carcinogenesis in some detail, this paper describes different methods of classifying and diagnosing cancer pain and the extent of current under-treatment. Key points are made regarding cancer pain management. Firstly, the pain may be caused by multiple different mechanisms and therapy should reflect those underlying mechanisms - rather than being simply based on pain intensity as recommended by the WHO three-step ladder. Secondly, a multidisciplinary approach is required which combines both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment, such as psychotherapy, exercise therapy and electrostimulation. The choice of analgesic agent and its route of administration are considered, along with various interventional procedures and the requirements of palliative care. Special attention is paid to the treatment of breakthrough pain (particularly with fast-acting fentanyl formulations, which have pharmacokinetic profiles that closely match those of breakthrough pain episodes) and chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain, which affects around one third of patients who receive chemotherapy. Finally, the point is made that medical education should place a greater emphasis on pain therapy, both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. PMID:24841174

  11. The use of analgesics in patients with acute abdominal pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank LoVecchio; Neill Oster; Kai Sturmann; Lewis S. Nelson; Scott Flashner; Ralph Finger

    1997-01-01

    Analgesics in patients with acute abdominal pain are often withheld for fear that they may change physical examination findings and thus may be unsafe. We conducted a randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled trial to investigate changes in physical examination following the administration of placebo, 5 mg, or 10 mg of morphine to 49 patients with acute abdominal pain. One patient was withdrawn

  12. Oral and maxillofacial surgery in patients with chronic orofacial pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard A. Israel; John Desmond Ward; Brenda Horrell; Steven J. Scrivani

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: In this investigation, we evaluated a population of patients with chronic orofacial pain who sought treatment at a pain center in an academic institution. These patients were evaluated with respect to 1) the frequency and types of previous oral and maxillofacial surgery procedures, 2) the frequency of previous significant misdiagnoses, and 3) the number of patients who subsequently required

  13. Isokinetic quadriceps training in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Werner; E. Eriksson

    1993-01-01

    The aims of the present investigation were (a) to evaluate the effect of eccentric quadriceps training in patients with unilateral patellofemoral pain and (b) to compare the effect of eccentric and concentric quadriceps training in patients with bilateral patellofemoral pain. Fifteen patients (9 male and 6 female, aged 17–36 years with a mean of 27.5 years) participated in this study.

  14. Painful crises in sickle cell disease--patients' perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Murray; A. May

    1988-01-01

    One hundred and two patients returned structured questionnaires sent to clinics for sickle cell disease in the United Kingdom in order to gain greater insight into the patients' perception of painful crises. Most patients who suffer pain crises experience a prodromal stage that should be investigated further to find out if prophylaxis is possible. Cold, exertion, and tiredness were the

  15. Systemic pharmacologic postoperative pain management in the geriatric orthopaedic patient.

    PubMed

    Karani, Reena; Meier, Diane E

    2004-08-01

    Although older adults have surgical procedures more frequently than any other group, they also experience the worst postoperative pain management. Among patients with orthopaedic disorders, this undertreatment of pain impacts postsurgical functional recovery and clinical outcomes. Recently adopted evidence-based pain management guidelines have improved care, but there still is significant room for improvement. We review standards for pain assessment in cognitively intact and impaired older adults, provide detailed guidelines for the pharmacologic treatment of postoperative pain in the orthopaedic geriatric patient, and review the stepwise approach to effective side-effect management in this population. PMID:15292784

  16. Successful Pain Management for the Recovering Addicted Patient

    PubMed Central

    Prater, Christopher D.; Zylstra, Robert G.; Miller, Karl E.

    2002-01-01

    Successful pain management in the recovering addict provides primary care physicians with unique challenges. Pain control can be achieved in these individuals if physicians follow basic guidelines such as those put forward by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations in their standards for pain management as well as by the World Health Organization in their stepladder approach to pain treatment. Legal concerns with using pain medications in addicted patients can be dealt with by clear documentation of indication for the medication, dose, dosing interval, and amount provided. Terms physicians need to be familiar with include physical dependence, tolerance, substance abuse, and active versus recovering addiction. Treatment is unique for 3 different types of pain: acute, chronic, and end of life. Acute pain is treated in a similar fashion for all patients regardless of addiction history. However, follow-up is important to prevent relapse. The goal of chronic pain treatment in addicted patients is the same as individuals without addictive disorders—to maximize functional level while providing pain relief. However, to minimize abuse potential, it is important to have 1 physician provide all pain medication prescriptions as well as reduce the opioid dose to a minimum effective dose, be aware of tolerance potential, wean periodically to reassess pain control, and use nonpsychotropic pain medications when possible. Patients who are at the end of their life need to receive aggressive management of pain regardless of addiction history. This management includes developing a therapeutic relationship with patients and their families so that pain medications can be used without abuse concerns. By following these strategies, physicians can successfully provide adequate pain control for individuals with histories of addiction. PMID:15014719

  17. Cancer Patient Attitudes Towards Analgesic Utilization and Pain Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Charles B.; Vapiwala, Neha; Hampshire, Margaret K.; Metz, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Although pain is commonly experienced among cancer patients, many receive inadequate pain management. Little data exist quantifying analgesic utilization among oncology patients. This study evaluates perceived causes of pain and investigates reasons oncology patients fail to receive optimal pain management. Methods An IRB-approved questionnaire assessing pain control and analgesic utilization was posted on OncoLink. Between 11/05-7/08, 1107 patients responded. Respondents were female (73%), Caucasian (74%), educated beyond high school (64%), and had surgery (69%), chemotherapy (64%), and radiation (47%). Most had breast (30%), gastrointestinal (12%), gynecologic (11%), and lung (8%) malignancies. Results Sixty-seven percent of respondents reported pain, with 48% reporting pain directly from their cancer and 47% reporting pain from their cancer treatment. Among patients in pain, 25% did not use analgesics. Analgesic utilization was significantly less in men (44% vs. 52%, p=0.023), minorities (42% vs. 53%, p=0.001), and patients with lower education levels (45% vs. 53%, p=0.013). Utilization varied by cancer diagnosis and was higher among patients who received chemotherapy (56% vs. 40%, p<0.001) and radiation (53% vs. 47%, p=0.058). Reasons for not taking analgesics included: healthcare provider not recommending medications (85%), fearing addiction/dependence (80%), and inability to pay (76%). Many patients reporting pain, not taking analgesics, pursued alternative therapies (94%). Discussion Most cancer patients perceive pain from their disease or treatment, regardless of therapy received. Many, however, did not use analgesics due to concerns of addiction, cost, or lack of healthcare provider endorsement. Providers should regularly discuss pain symptoms and management with cancer patients. PMID:21705874

  18. Is number sense impaired in chronic pain patients?

    PubMed Central

    Wolrich, J.; Poots, A. J.; Kuehler, B. M.; Rice, A. S. C.; Rahman, A.; Bantel, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent advances in imaging have improved our understanding of the role of the brain in painful conditions. Discoveries of morphological changes have been made in patients with chronic pain, with little known about the functional consequences when they occur in areas associated with ‘number-sense’; thus, it can be hypothesized that chronic pain impairs this sense. Methods First, an audit of the use of numbers in gold-standard pain assessment tools in patients with acute and chronic pain was undertaken. Secondly, experiments were conducted with patients with acute and chronic pain and healthy controls. Participants marked positions of numbers on lines (number marking), before naming numbers on pre-marked lines (number naming). Finally, subjects bisected lines flanked with ‘2’ and ‘9’. Deviations from expected responses were determined for each experiment. Results Four hundred and ninety-four patients were audited; numeric scores in the ‘moderate’ and ‘severe’ pain categories were significantly higher in chronic compared with acute pain patients. In experiments (n=150), more than one-third of chronic pain patients compared with 1/10th of controls showed greater deviations from the expected in number marking and naming indicating impaired number sense. Line bisection experiments suggest prefrontal and parietal cortical dysfunction as cause of this impairment. Conclusions Audit data suggest patients with chronic pain interpret numbers differently from acute pain sufferers. Support is gained by experiments indicating impaired number sense in one-third of chronic pain patients. These results cast doubts on the appropriateness of the use of visual analogue and numeric rating scales in chronic pain in clinics and research. PMID:25082664

  19. Postoperative pain management in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Tawfic, Qutaiba A.; Bellingham, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a health care problem with increasing prevalence worldwide. Pain management represents one of the challenges in providing perioperative care for this group of patients. Physicians from different specialties may be involved in pain management of CKD patients, especially in advanced stages. It is important to understand the clinical staging of kidney function in CKD patients as the pharmacotherapeutic pain management strategies change as kidney function becomes progressively impaired. Special emphasis should be placed on dose adjustment of certain analgesics as well as prevention of further deterioration of renal function that could be induced by certain classes of analgesics. Chronic pain is a common finding in CKD patients which may be caused by the primary disease that led to kidney damage or can be a direct result of CKD and hemodialysis. The presence of chronic pain in some of the CKD patients makes postoperative pain management in these patients more challenging. This review focuses on the plans and challenges of postoperative pain management for patient at different stages of CKD undergoing surgical intervention to provide optimum pain control for this patient population. Further clinical studies are required to address the optimal medication regimen for postoperative pain management in the different stages of CKD. PMID:25788766

  20. Painful Skin Ulcers in a Hemodialysis Patient

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary Calciphylaxis, also referred to as calcific uremic arteriolopathy, is a relatively rare but well described syndrome that occurs most commonly in patients with late stage CKD. It is characterized by very painful placques or subcutaneous nodules and violaceous, mottled skin lesions that may progress to nonhealing ulcers, tissue necrosis, and gangrene with a 1-year mortality rate >50%. The pathogenesis of calciphylaxis is poorly understood. Risk factors include female sex, obesity, hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, longer dialysis vintage, hypercoagulable states, and use of calcium-containing phosphate binders and warfarin. Treatment strategies for calciphylaxis are limited by inadequate understanding of its pathophysiology. Therapy is generally focused on correcting disturbances of calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone metabolism. Additional therapy focuses on decreasing inflammation and on dissolution of tissue calcium deposits with sodium thiosulfate and/or bisphosphonates. Successful treatment generally results in improvement of pain and healing of the lesions within 2–4 weeks, but the disorder generally takes many months to completely resolve. PMID:24202137

  1. Painful skin ulcers in a hemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Stuart M

    2014-01-01

    Calciphylaxis, also referred to as calcific uremic arteriolopathy, is a relatively rare but well described syndrome that occurs most commonly in patients with late stage CKD. It is characterized by very painful placques or subcutaneous nodules and violaceous, mottled skin lesions that may progress to nonhealing ulcers, tissue necrosis, and gangrene with a 1-year mortality rate >50%. The pathogenesis of calciphylaxis is poorly understood. Risk factors include female sex, obesity, hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, longer dialysis vintage, hypercoagulable states, and use of calcium-containing phosphate binders and warfarin. Treatment strategies for calciphylaxis are limited by inadequate understanding of its pathophysiology. Therapy is generally focused on correcting disturbances of calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone metabolism. Additional therapy focuses on decreasing inflammation and on dissolution of tissue calcium deposits with sodium thiosulfate and/or bisphosphonates. Successful treatment generally results in improvement of pain and healing of the lesions within 2-4 weeks, but the disorder generally takes many months to completely resolve. PMID:24202137

  2. Virtual Reality as a Distraction Technique in Chronic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures. PMID:24892196

  3. Virtual reality as a distraction technique in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures. PMID:24892196

  4. Perceptions of disability and occupational stress as discriminators of work disability in patients with chronic pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Feuerstein; Ronald W. Thebarge

    1991-01-01

    Pain-related work disability can be influenced by a number of medical, physical, and psychosocial factors. The present study investigated the role of perceived disability, occupational stress, pain, and distress in patients with chronic pain disorders who work despite pain and patients who are work disabled. A total of 165 patients referred to a multidisciplinary pain treatment center for chronic pain

  5. Neuropathic Pain Components in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    An, Howard S; Moon, Seong Hwan; Lee, Hwan Mo; Suh, Seung Woo; Chen, Ding; Jeon, Jin Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence and characteristics of neuropathic pain (NP) in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) according to subgroup analysis of symptoms. Materials and Methods We prospectively enrolled subjects with LSS (n=86) who were scheduled to undergo spinal surgery. The patients were divided into two groups according to a chief complaint of radicular pain or neurogenic claudication. We measured patient's pain score using the visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Leads Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS). According to LANSS value, the prevalence of NP component pain in patients with LSS was assessed. Statistical analysis was performed to find the relationship between LANSS scores and the other scores. Results From our sample of 86 patients, 31 (36.0%) had a NP component, with 24 (63.4%) in the radicular pain group having NP. However, only seven patients (15.6%) in the neurogenic claudication group had NP. The LANSS pain score was not significantly correlated with VAS scores for back pain, but did correlate with VAS scores for leg pain (R=0.73, p<0.001) and with ODI back pain scores (R=0.54, p<0.01). Conclusion One-third of the patients with LSS had a NP component. The presence of radicular pain correlated strongly with NP. The severity of leg pain and ODI score were also closely related to a NP component. This data may prove useful to understanding the pain characteristics of LSS and in better designing clinical trials for NP treatment in patients with LSS. PMID:26069129

  6. Prediction of postoperative pain after percutaneous nephrolithotomy: can preoperative experimental pain assessment identify patients at risk?

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Osther, Palle Jørn Sloth; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2013-04-01

    Postoperative pain remains a significant problem and the individual variance in postoperative pain is not fully understood. In recent years, there has been focus on identifying risk factors predicting patients with high postoperative pain intensity or consumption of analgesics, which may facilitate an improvement in rehabilitation. This study evaluates the relationship between preoperative experimental pain assessment and postoperative pain and opioid consumption. Forty-four patients with uni- or bilateral kidney stone disease scheduled for percutaneous nephrolithotomy were included. The preoperative pain thresholds were measured using electrical (single and 5 repeated) and pressure pain stimulation over the flank bilaterally (stone-side = operation side and control-side = non-operation side). Postoperative pain scores were recorded on a numerical rating scale and analgesic consumption was registered. The responses to repeated electrical stimuli (temporal summation) were preoperatively increased on the stone-side compared to the control-side (P = 0.016). Preoperative electrical pain thresholds from the control-side correlated inversely with postoperative opioid consumption (single stimuli: ? = -0.43, P < 0.01; repeated stimuli: ? = -0.45, P < 0.005). This correlation was more pronounced for the 22 patients with unilateral renal calculi (single stimuli: ? = -0.54, P < 0.02; repeated stimuli: ? = -0.58, P < 0.01). There were no other correlations between the preoperative sensory tests and postoperative pain or opioid consumption. This study showed a correlation between the preoperative electrical pain thresholds on the control-side and postoperative opioid consumption after percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Preoperative measurement of the electrical pain thresholds may, therefore, be useful as a screening tool to identify patients at high risk of postoperative pain. PMID:23503880

  7. GUIDELINE Open Access Pain care for patients with epidermolysis bullosa

    E-print Network

    GUIDELINE Open Access Pain care for patients with epidermolysis bullosa: best care practice present with a number of both acute and chronic pain care needs. Effects on quality of life and itch care for these patients is minimal. Evidence-based best care practice guidelines are needed

  8. Paramedic assessment of pain in the cognitively impaired adult patient

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Background Paramedics are often a first point of contact for people experiencing pain in the community. Wherever possible the patient's self report of pain should be sought to guide the assessment and management of this complaint. Communication difficulty or disability such as cognitive impairment associated with dementia may limit the patient's ability to report their pain experience, and this has the potential to affect the quality of care. The primary objective of this study was to systematically locate evidence relating to the use of pain assessment tools that have been validated for use with cognitively impaired adults and to identify those that have been recommended for use by paramedics. Methods A systematic search of health databases for evidence relating to the use of pain assessment tools that have been validated for use with cognitively impaired adults was undertaken using specific search criteria. An extended search included position statements and clinical practice guidelines developed by health agencies to identify evidence-based recommendations regarding pain assessment in older adults. Results Two systematic reviews met study inclusion criteria. Weaknesses in tools evaluated by these studies limited their application in assessing pain in the population of interest. Only one tool was designed to assess pain in acute care settings. No tools were located that are designed for paramedic use. Conclusion The reviews of pain assessment tools found that the majority were developed to assess chronic pain in aged care, hospital or hospice settings. An analysis of the characteristics of these pain assessment tools identified attributes that may limit their use in paramedic practice. One tool - the Abbey Pain Scale - may have application in paramedic assessment of pain, but clinical evaluation is required to validate this tool in the paramedic practice setting. Further research is recommended to evaluate the Abbey Pain Scale and to evaluate the effectiveness of paramedic pain management practice in older adults to ensure that the care of all patients is unaffected by age or disability. PMID:19807928

  9. [Pain management for adult patients relative to palliative care].

    PubMed

    Béziaud, Nicolas; Laval, Guillemette; Rostaing, Sylvie

    2009-06-20

    Pain management for a patient in palliative care requires a multi-functional approach that entails the physical, psychological, social and spiritual dimensions. It is based on a deep understanding of the pain physiopatology and its accurate assessment to optimize the treatment. This article provides guidelines to manage nociceptive and neuropathic pains, along with tips in case of refractory pains. It gives detailed instructions relative to the use of strong opiods taking advantage of the availability of new types of galenics. It proposes a decision tree relative to neuropatic pain management. PMID:19642435

  10. Caring for patients with chronic pain: pearls and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Debono, David J; Hoeksema, Laura J; Hobbs, Raymond D

    2013-08-01

    Chronic, nonmalignant pain is a substantial public health problem in the United States. Research over the past 2 decades has defined chronic pain by using a "biopsychosocial model" that considers a patient's biology and psychological makeup in the context of his or her social and cultural milieu. Whereas this model addresses the pathology of chronic pain, it also places many demands on the physician, who is expected to assess and manage chronic pain safely and successfully. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that opioids can be effective in the management of chronic pain, but there has also been a rise in opioid-related overdoses and deaths. Clinicians should be aware of assessment tools that may be used to evaluate the risk of opioid abuse. A basic understanding of chronic pain pathophysiology and a uniform approach to patient care can satisfy the needs of both patients and physicians. PMID:23918913

  11. Sympathetic blocks provided sustained pain relief in a patient with refractory painful diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jianguo; Daftari, Anuj; Zhou, Lan

    2012-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system has been implicated in pain associated with painful diabetic neuropathy. However, therapeutic intervention targeted at the sympathetic nervous system has not been established. We thus tested the hypothesis that sympathetic nerve blocks significantly reduce pain in a patient with painful diabetic neuropathy who has failed multiple pharmacological treatments. The diagnosis of small fiber sensory neuropathy was based on clinical presentations and confirmed by skin biopsies. A series of 9 lumbar sympathetic blocks over a 26-month period provided sustained pain relief in his legs. Additional thoracic paravertebral blocks further provided control of the pain in the trunk which can occasionally be seen in severe diabetic neuropathy cases, consequent to extensive involvement of the intercostal nerves. These blocks provided sustained and significant pain relief and improvement of quality of life over a period of more than two years. We thus provided the first clinical evidence supporting the notion that sympathetic nervous system plays a critical role in painful diabetic neuropathy and sympathetic blocks can be an effective management modality of painful diabetic neuropathy. We concluded that the sympathetic nervous system is a valuable therapeutic target of pharmacological and interventional modalities of treatments in painful diabetic neuropathy patients. PMID:22606406

  12. Acute stress contributes to individual differences in pain and pain-related brain activity in healthy and chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Martel, Marc-Oliver; Roy, Mathieu; Caron, Etienne; Albouy, Geneviève; Marin, Marie-France; Plante, Isabelle; Sullivan, Michael J; Lupien, Sonia J; Rainville, Pierre

    2013-04-17

    Individual differences in pain sensitivity and reactivity are well recognized but the underlying mechanisms are likely to be diverse. The phenomenon of stress-induced analgesia is well documented in animal research and individual variability in the stress response in humans may produce corresponding changes in pain. We assessed the magnitude of the acute stress response of 16 chronic back pain (CBP) patients and 18 healthy individuals exposed to noxious thermal stimulations administered in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment and tested its possible contribution to individual differences in pain perception. The temperature of the noxious stimulations was determined individually to control for differences in pain sensitivity. The two groups showed similar significant increases in reactive cortisol across the scanning session when compared with their basal levels collected over 7 consecutive days, suggesting normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity to painful stressors in CBP patients. Critically, after controlling for any effect of group and stimulus temperature, individuals with stronger cortisol responses reported less pain unpleasantness and showed reduced blood oxygenation level-dependent activation in nucleus accumbens at the stimulus onset and in the anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC), the primary somatosensory cortex, and the posterior insula. Mediation analyses indicated that pain-related activity in the aMCC mediated the relationship between the reactive cortisol response and the pain unpleasantness. Psychophysiological interaction analysis further revealed that higher stress reactivity was associated with reduced functional connectivity between the aMCC and the brainstem. These findings suggest that acute stress modulates pain in humans and contributes to individual variability in pain affect and pain-related brain activity. PMID:23595741

  13. Clinical Characteristics, Patient-Reported Outcomes, and Previous Therapeutic Management of Patients with Uncontrolled Neuropathic Pain Referred to Pain Clinics

    PubMed Central

    de Andrés, José; de la Calle, José-Luis; Pérez, María; López, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Background. The aim of this report was to evaluate the clinical profile and previous management of patients with uncontrolled neuropathic pain who were referred to pain clinics. Methods. We included adult patients with uncontrolled pain who had a score of ?4 in the DN4 questionnaire. In addition to sociodemographic and clinical data, we evaluated pain levels using a visual analog scale as well as anxiety, depression, sleep, disability, and treatment satisfaction employing validated tools. Results. A total of 755 patients were included in the study. The patients were predominantly referred to pain clinics by traumatologists (34.3%) and primary care physicians (16.7%). The most common diagnoses were radiculopathy (43%) and pain of oncological origin (14.3%). The major cause for uncontrolled pain was suboptimal treatment (88%). Fifty-three percent of the patients were depressed, 43% had clinical anxiety, 50% rated their overall health as bad or very bad, and 45% noted that their disease was severely or extremely interfering with their daily activities. Conclusions. Our results showed that uncontrolled neuropathic pain is a common phenomenon among the specialties that address these clinical entities and, regardless of its etiology, uncontrolled pain is associated with a dramatic impact on patient well-being. PMID:24891950

  14. A Patient with Kikuchi's Disease: What Should Pain Clinicians Do?

    PubMed

    Park, Kyeong Eon; Kang, Sebin; Ok, Seong Ho; Shin, Il Woo; Sohn, Ju Tae; Chung, Young Kyun; Lee, Heon Keun

    2012-07-01

    Kikuchi's disease (KD) is an idiopathic and self-limiting necrotizing lymphadenitis that predominantly occurs in young females. It is common in Asia, and the cervical lymph nodes are commonly involved. Generally, KD has symptoms and signs of lymph node tenderness, fever, and leukocytopenia, but there are no reports on treatment for the associated myofacial pain. We herein report a young female patient who visited a pain clinic and received a trigger point injection 2 weeks before the diagnosis of KD. When young female patients with myofascial pain visit a pain clinic, doctors should be concerned about the possibility of KD, which is rare but can cause severe complications. PMID:22787550

  15. A Patient with Kikuchi's Disease: What Should Pain Clinicians Do?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyeong Eon; Kang, Sebin; Ok, Seong Ho; Shin, Il Woo; Sohn, Ju Tae; Chung, Young Kyun

    2012-01-01

    Kikuchi's disease (KD) is an idiopathic and self-limiting necrotizing lymphadenitis that predominantly occurs in young females. It is common in Asia, and the cervical lymph nodes are commonly involved. Generally, KD has symptoms and signs of lymph node tenderness, fever, and leukocytopenia, but there are no reports on treatment for the associated myofacial pain. We herein report a young female patient who visited a pain clinic and received a trigger point injection 2 weeks before the diagnosis of KD. When young female patients with myofascial pain visit a pain clinic, doctors should be concerned about the possibility of KD, which is rare but can cause severe complications. PMID:22787550

  16. Patient satisfaction and pain severity as outcomes in pain management: A longitudinal view of one setting's experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra E. Ward; Debra B. Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Longitudinal data from quality assurance studies of pain. outcomes (pain severity and patient satisfaction) were critically examined to explore the reasons that patients are satisfied with their care even when they are in pain. Data were acquired from three sources: self-report surveys of patients during inpatient admission or ambulatory clinic visit (N = 306), telephone interviews of patients after discharge

  17. Intrathecal pain pumps: indications, patient selection, techniques, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bolash, Robert; Mekhail, Nagy

    2014-10-01

    Intrathecal drug delivery represents an advanced modality for refractory chronic pain patients as well as intractable spasticity. This article reviews the advantages and indications for intrathecal therapy, as well as recommendations for proper patient selection using a multidisciplinary team to provide a global assessment of the impact of chronic pain on the patient's well-being. The goals and expectations of trialing are discussed alongside advantages and disadvantages of several trialing techniques. A discussion of outcomes is presented for patients with chronic pain due to both malignant and nonmalignant causes. PMID:25240660

  18. The Impact of Pain on Patient and Physician

    PubMed Central

    Longhurst, Mark F.

    1984-01-01

    A patient's pain has lost its status as an expression of personal suffering and is seen by both physician and patient as a strictly physical attribute. Because of this, their communication may become oblique and subversive, effectively destroying a therapeutic relationship. The patient's failure to recover causes the physician to suffer unease and begin assuming pain-reducing postures of anger, indifference and assertiveness. The physician, to avoid this scenario, must acknowledge the existential component of the patient's pain, the reality of his own discomfort, and be open enough to give personal suffering a place in the relationship. PMID:21279065

  19. Effect of Massage on Pain Management for Thoracic Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dion, Liza; Rodgers, Nancy; Cutshall, Susanne M.; Cordes, Mary Ellen; Bauer, Brent; Cassivi, Stephen D.; Cha, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Integrative therapies such as massage have gained support as interventions that improve the overall patient experience during hospitalization. Thoracic surgery patients undergo long procedures and commonly have postoperative back, neck, and shoulder pain. Purpose: Given the promising effects of massage therapy for alleviation of pain, we studied the effectiveness and feasibility of massage therapy delivered in the postoperative thoracic surgery setting. Methods: Patients who received massage in the postoperative setting had pain scores evaluated pre and post massage on a rating scale of 0 to 10 (0 = no pain, 10 = worst possible pain). Results: In total, 160 patients completed the pilot study and received massage therapy that was individualized. Patients receiving massage therapy had significantly decreased pain scores after massage (p ? .001), and patients’ comments were very favorable. Patients and staff were highly satisfied with having massage therapy available, and no major barriers to implementing massage therapy were identified. Conclusions: Massage therapy may be an important additional pain management component of the healing experience for patients after thoracic surgery. PMID:21847428

  20. Ethics, law, and pain management as a patient right.

    PubMed

    Hall, John K; Boswell, Mark V

    2009-01-01

    Ethical and legal considerations in pain management typically relate to 2 issues. The first refers to pain management as a human right. The second involves the nature of the patient-physician relationship as it relates to pain management. Although pain physicians often like to think of pain management as a human right, it remains difficult to support this position as a point of law or as a matter of ethics. Medical organizations generally do not define pain management as a specific duty of the physician, apart from the provision of competent medical care. To date, neither law nor ethics creates a duty of care outside of the traditional patient-physician relationship. Absent a universal duty, no universal right exists. Pursuing pain management as a fundamental human right, although laudable, may place the power of the government in the middle of the patient-physician relationship. Despite apparent altruistic motives, attempts to define pain management as a basic human right could have unintended consequences, such as nationalization of medicine to ensure provision of pain management for all patients. PMID:19461819

  1. Fentanyl sublingual spray for breakthrough pain in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zeppetella, Giovambattista

    2013-06-01

    Breakthrough pain is a transient exacerbation of pain that occurs either spontaneously, or in relation to a specific predictable or unpredictable trigger, despite relatively stable and adequately controlled background pain. Typically, breakthrough pain has a fast onset and short duration, and a significant impact on patients' quality of life. Normal-release oral opioids are the traditional pharmacological approach for patients who are receiving an around the clock opioid regimen; however, their onset and duration of action may not be suitable for treating many breakthrough pains. Efforts to provide nonparenteral opioid formulations that could provide more rapid, and more effective, relief of breakthrough pain have led to the development of transmucosal opioid formulations including fentanyl sublingual spray (FSLS). This is a formulation of fentanyl available in doses of 100, 200, 400, 600, and 800 ?g strengths approved for the management of breakthrough pain in adult cancer patients already receiving and who are tolerant to opioid therapy for their underlying persistent cancer pain. Published pharmacokinetic, efficacy, tolerability, and safety data suggest that FSLS has a valuable role to play in the symptomatic pharmacological management of breakthrough pain. The effective dose of FSLS is determined by titration according to the needs of the individual patient. PMID:25135032

  2. Pain management in the opioid-dependent patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Streltzer

    2001-01-01

    The opioid-dependent patient presents great challenges for pain management. These challenges are not limited to potential\\u000a addictive behaviors. In contrast to the profound pain relieving effects of acute opioid intake, chronic opioid intake can\\u000a promote a counterintuitive state of enhanced pain sensitivity. Multiple biologic mechanisms inducing opioid tolerance and\\u000a hyperalgesia have recently been elucidated. The potential hyperalgesic state accompanying opioid

  3. Determinants of Pain in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fiesky Nunez; Ana-Maria Vranceanu; David Ring

    2010-01-01

    Background  Carpal tunnel syndrome causes numbness, weakness, and atrophy. Pain without numbness is not characteristic of this disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  We tested the hypothesis that among patients with carpal tunnel syndrome confirmed by electrophysiologic testing, pain catastrophizing\\u000a and\\/or depression would be good predictors of pain intensity at the time of diagnosis, whereas nerve conduction velocity would\\u000a not.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods  Fifty-four patients completed a

  4. Nursing attitudes toward patients with substance use disorders in pain.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Betty D

    2014-03-01

    The problem of inadequate pain management in hospitals is well documented. Patients who have substance use disorders (SUD) have many medical problems and are often in pain as a result of these problems. Nurses often lack knowledge of appropriate treatment of both pain and SUD, and have been identified as having negative attitudes toward patients with SUD. The negative attitudes may affect the quality of care delivered to patients with problems of pain and SUD. The purpose of this study was to identify and explore nurses' attitudes toward hospitalized patients with SUD who are in pain, to expand the knowledge about nurses' attitudes and interactions with patients with SUD in pain, and to generate theory that will contribute to a greater understanding of the problem. Grounded theory methodology was used to interview hospital-based nurses who work with patients with SUD who are in pain. Individual interviews, using a semistructured interview guide, were conducted with 14 nurses who worked with this population. Additionally, an expert addictions nurse was interviewed at the end of the study to validate the findings. Interviews were analyzed and coded with the use of grounded theory concepts. A model illustrating the categories and their relationships was developed based on the theory generated as a result of the study. The implications for nursing practice, education, research, and policy are discussed. PMID:24602434

  5. [One patient with painful ophthalmoplegia and acute rhinosinusitis].

    PubMed

    Li, Shujun; Xue, Mingxue; Sun, Bo

    2012-09-01

    By analyzing the diagnosis and treatment of a patient who suffered from painful ophthalmoplegia and acute rhinosinusitis, authors further identified the clinical features of painful ophthalmoplegia, and the differential diagnosis of those diseases which might cause migraine and ophthalmoplegia to avoid clinical misdiagnosis and mistreatment. PMID:23214323

  6. Which Patients With Low Back Pain Benefit From Deadlift Training?

    PubMed

    Berglund, Lars; Aasa, Björn; Hellqvist, Jonas; Michaelson, Peter; Aasa, Ulrika

    2015-07-01

    Berglund, L, Aasa, B, Hellqvist, J, Michaelson, P, and Aasa, U. Which patients with low back pain benefit from deadlift training? J Strength Cond Res 29(7): 1803-1811, 2015-Recent studies have indicated that the deadlift exercise may be effective in decreasing pain intensity and increasing activity for most, but not all, patients with a dominating pattern of mechanical low back pain. This study aimed to evaluate which individual factors measured at baseline could predict activity, disability, and pain intensity in patients with mechanical low back pain after an 8-week training period involving the deadlift as a rehabilitative exercise. Thirty-five participants performed deadlift training under the supervision of a physical therapist with powerlifting experience. Measures of pain-related fear of movement, hip and trunk muscle endurance, and lumbopelvic movement control were collected at baseline. Measures of activity, disability, and pain intensity were collected at baseline and at follow-up. Linear regression analyses were used to create models to predict activity, disability, and pain intensity at follow-up. Results showed that participants with less disability, less pain intensity, and higher performance on the Biering-Sørensen test, which tests the endurance of hip and back extensor muscles, at baseline benefit from deadlift training. The Biering-Sørensen test was the most robust predictor because it was included in all predictive models. Pain intensity was the next best predictor as it was included in 2 predictive models. Thus, for strength and conditioning professionals who use the deadlift as a rehabilitative exercise for individuals with mechanical low back pain, it is important to ensure that clients have sufficient back extensor strength and endurance and a sufficiently low pain intensity level to benefit from training involving the deadlift exercise. PMID:25559899

  7. Universal precautions revisited: managing the inherited pain patient.

    PubMed

    Gourlay, Douglas L; Heit, Howard A

    2009-07-01

    "Universal Precautions in Pain Medicine: A Rational Approach to the Treatment of Chronic Pain" was published in 2005. In it, a unified 10-step approach to the assessment and management of patients suffering from chronic pain was proposed. As well, a triage scheme of risk stratification was offered. By placing patients into risk categories of low, medium, or high (Groups I, II, and III), it became possible to recommend to primary care practitioners those patients whom they might confidently manage on their own, comanage with specialty support, or refer to specialty clinics with more experience and resources to tackle these often challenging cases. It is important to note that Universal Precautions is not simply about opioid prescribing, although the use of opioids does highlight the value inherent in managing risk in all patients. Moreover, it should serve to remind health care professionals that the presence of significant psychiatric comorbidities, including substance-use disorders, may represent treatable conditions that must be addressed in order to optimize outcomes. Universal Precautions as a concept should be based upon mutual trust and respect between patient and practitioner, both of whom should be committed to setting and achieving realistic goals in both cancer and noncancer pain patients. The goal of this article is to explore the application of a Universal Precautions approach to manage the care of patients with chronic pain who no longer have an appropriate source of the medications upon which they have become physically dependent-so-called inherited pain patients. PMID:19691682

  8. Pain threshold correlates with functional scores in osteoarthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Kuni, Benita; Wang, Haili; Rickert, Markus; Ewerbeck, Volker; Schiltenwolf, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Pain sensitization may be one of the reasons for persistent pain after technically successful joint replacement. We analyzed how pain sensitization, as measured by quantitative sensory testing, relates preoperatively to joint function in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) scheduled for joint replacement. Patients and methods We included 50 patients with knee OA and 49 with hip OA who were scheduled for joint replacement, and 15 control participants. Hip/knee scores, thermal and pressure detection, and pain thresholds were examined. Results Median pressure pain thresholds were lower in patients than in control subjects: 4.0 (range: 0–10) vs. 7.8 (4–10) (p = 0.003) for the affected knee; 4.5 (2–10) vs. 6.8 (4–10) (p = 0.03) for the affected hip. Lower pressure pain threshold values were found at the affected joint in 26 of the 50 patients with knee OA and in 17 of the 49 patients with hip OA. The American Knee Society score 1 and 2, the Oxford knee score, and functional questionnaire of Hannover for osteoarthritis score correlated with the pressure pain thresholds in patients with knee OA. Also, Harris hip score and the functional questionnaire of Hannover for osteoarthritis score correlated with the cold detection threshold in patients with hip OA. Interpretation Quantitative sensory testing appeared to identify patients with sensory changes indicative of mechanisms of central sensitization. These patients may require additional pain treatment in order to profit fully from surgery. There were correlations between the clinical scores and the level of sensitization. PMID:25323797

  9. Pain in the pediatric patient: practical aspects of assessment.

    PubMed

    McGrath, P A

    1995-03-01

    A child's pain is plastic and complex. In order to more effectively alleviate suffering, emphasis must shift from an exclusive focus on the source of tissue damage to a more comprehensive focus that includes factors that modulate pain. Evaluating a child's pain requires an integrated approach. Clinicians always should ask a child directly about his or her pain experience to determine the sensory characteristics. Clinicians also should assess situational factors to develop strategies to modify their impact. Then, a child's pain intensity should be measured regularly to monitor the effectiveness of interventions. Interviews, structured questionnaires, and simple rating scales are the primary tools to assess pain for most children older than 5 years of age. For infants, toddlers, and cognitively impaired children, physicians must infer the presence and severity of pain by evaluating changes in children's behavioral and physiological states. Parents and the health professionals who work most closely with children with particular handicaps can provide valuable information about the presence and severity of a child's pain because they often can recognize extremely subtle behavioral cues that indicate distress. A standardized but flexible approach is necessary to assess a child's pain. Pain assessment, like pain management, is a continuous process. Pain intensity rating scales should be used so children can provide a direct rating of their pain intensity and pain effect. Patients should receive some guidance about how to use the information from rating scales to develop consistent and objective criteria to know when children require analgesics and then to evaluate the effectiveness of those medications. PMID:7603767

  10. Changes in proprioception and pain in patients with neck pain after upper thoracic manipulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinmo; Lee, Byoungkwon; Kim, Changbeom

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to conduct cervical stability training and upper thoracic manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain and then investigate the changes of cervical proprioception and pain. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 30 workers with mechanical neck pain, who were randomly divided into an upper thoracic manipulation group and a cervical stability training group. Upper thoracic manipulation after cervical stability training was conducted for the upper thoracic manipulation group, and only stability training was conducted for the cervical stability training group. The intervention period was six weeks, and consisted of three sessions a week, each of which lasted for 30 minutes. For proprioception measurement, an electro-goniometer was used to measure reposition sense before and after the intervention. The visual analogue scale was used to assess pain. [Results] After the intervention, the error angle was significantly smaller in flexion and right left side-bending, and pain was significantly reduced in the upper thoracic manipulation group. According to the post intervention comparison of the two groups, there were significant differences in the proprioception and pain values. [Conclusion] Conducting both cervical stability training and upper thoracic manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain was more helpful for the improvement of proprioception and pain than cervical stability training alone. PMID:25931733

  11. Active and passive coping strategies in chronic pain patients 

    E-print Network

    Snow-Turek, Andrea Lynn

    1994-01-01

    This study assessed the validity of an active/passive conceptualization of coping in a sample of chronic pain patients (N = 84). The validity of active and passive coping dimensions was supported. The Coping Strategies Questionnaire...

  12. Many Patients with Cancer Need Better Treatments for Pain

    Cancer.gov

    Inadequate pain treatment in patients with cancer remains a significant problem and appears to be more frequent among minorities, according to a new study published online April 16, 2012, in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

  13. Active and passive coping strategies in chronic pain patients

    E-print Network

    Snow-Turek, Andrea Lynn

    1994-01-01

    This study assessed the validity of an active/passive conceptualization of coping in a sample of chronic pain patients (N = 84). The validity of active and passive coping dimensions was supported. The Coping Strategies Questionnaire...

  14. A Simple and Effective Daily Pain Management Method for Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy for Painful Bone Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Andrade, Regiane S. [University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, UPMC Shadyside Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); UPMC Radiation Oncology Outreach Program (ROCOG), UPMC McKeesport Hospital, McKeesport, PA (United States); Proctor, Julian W., E-mail: proctorj@upmc.ed [UPMC Jameson Cancer Center, Radiation Oncology Department, New Castle, PA (United States); UPMC Radiation Oncology Outreach Program (ROCOG), UPMC McKeesport Hospital, McKeesport, PA (United States); Slack, Robert; Marlowe, Ursula [UPMC Jameson Cancer Center, Radiation Oncology Department, New Castle, PA (United States); Ashby, Karlotta R. [University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, UPMC Shadyside Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); UPMC Radiation Oncology Outreach Program (ROCOG), UPMC McKeesport Hospital, McKeesport, PA (United States); Schenken, Larry L. [UPMC Radiation Oncology Outreach Program (ROCOG), UPMC McKeesport Hospital, McKeesport, PA (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: The incidence of painful bone metastases increases with longer survival times. Although external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is an effective palliative treatment, it often requires several days from the start of treatment to produce a measurable reduction in pain scores and a qualitative amelioration of patient pain levels. Meanwhile, the use of analgesics remains the best approach early on in the treatment course. We investigated the role of radiation therapists as key personnel for collecting daily pain scores to supplement assessments by physician and oncology nursing staff and manage pain more effectively during radiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Daily pain scores were obtained by the radiation therapists for 89 patients undertaking a total of 124 courses of EBRT for bone metastases and compared with pretreatment pain scores. The majority of patients (71%) were treated to 30 Gy (range, 20-37.5) in 10 fractions (range, 8-15 fractions). Results: One hundred nineteen treatment courses (96%) were completed. Pain scores declined rapidly to 37.5%, 50%, and 75% of the pretreatment levels by Days 2, 4, and 10, respectively. Pain was improved in 91% of patients with only 4% of worse pain at the end of treatment. Improved pain scores were maintained in 83% of patients at 1-month follow-up, but in 35% of them, the pain was worse than at the end of treatment. Conclusions: Collection of daily pain scores by radiation therapists was associated with an effective reduction in pain scores early on during EBRT of painful osseous metastases.

  15. Is Postoperative Pain a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy? Expectancy Effects on Postoperative Pain and Patient-Controlled Analgesia Use Among Adolescent Surgical Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deirdre E. Logan; John B. Rose

    2005-01-01

    Objective To explore relationships among anxiety, anticipated pain, coping styles, postoperative pain, and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) use among adolescent surgical patients and their parents. Methods Sixty-five 12- to 18-year-old surgical patients undergoing surgery with postoperative PCA pain management were included. Before surgery, adolescents and parents reported anxiety and expected levels of postoperative pain. Pain catastrophizing and coping style were assessed

  16. Psychological variables associated with foot function and foot pain in patients with plantar heel pain.

    PubMed

    Cotchett, Matthew P; Whittaker, Glen; Erbas, Bircan

    2015-05-01

    It is widely accepted that psychological variables are associated with self-reported pain and self-reported physical function in patients with musculoskeletal pain. However, the relationship between psychological variables and foot pain and foot function has not been evaluated in people with plantar heel pain. Eighty-four participants with plantar heel pain completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale short version (DASS-21) and Foot Health Status Questionnaire. Using a hierarchical regression analysis, a baseline model with age, sex and BMI explained 10 % of the variability in foot function. The addition of depression and stress in separate models explained an additional 7.3 % and 8.1 % of foot function scores, respectively. In the respective models, depression was a significant predictor (??=?-0.28; p?=?0.009) as was stress (??=?-0.29; p?=?0.006). Females drove the effect between stress and foot function (??=?-0.50; p?=?0.001) and depression and foot function (??=?-0.53; p?pain, depression, anxiety and stress did not contribute significantly to pain scores. When the data was stratified by sex, stress (??=?-0.36; p?=?0.024) and depression (??=?-0.41; p?=?0.013) were significantly associated with foot pain in females but not in males. For participants with plantar heel pain, stress and depression scores were significantly associated with foot function but not foot pain. When the data was stratified by sex, stress and depression were significant predictors of foot pain and function in females. PMID:24647980

  17. Acupuncture for chronic pain: individual patient data meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Andrew J.; Cronin, Angel M.; Maschino, Alexandra C.; Lewith, George; MacPherson, Hugh; Victor, Norbert; Foster, Nadine E.; Sherman, Karen J.; Witt, Claudia M.; Linde, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Background Although acupuncture is widely used for chronic pain, there remains considerable controversy as to its value. We aimed to determine the effect size of acupuncture for four chronic pain conditions: back and neck pain, osteoarthritis, chronic headache, and shoulder pain. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify randomized trials of acupuncture for chronic pain where allocation concealment was determined unambiguously to be adequate. Individual patient data meta-analyses were conducted using data from 29 of 31 eligible trials, with a total of 17,922 patients analyzed. Results In the primary analysis including all eligible trials, acupuncture was superior to both sham and no acupuncture control for each pain condition (all p<0.001). After exclusion of an outlying set of trials that strongly favored acupuncture, the effect sizes were similar across pain conditions. Patients receiving acupuncture had less pain, with scores 0.23 (95% C.I. 0.13, 0.33), 0.16 (95% C.I. 0.07, 0.25) and 0.15 (95% C.I. 0.07, 0.24) standard deviations lower than sham controls for back and neck pain, osteoarthritis, and chronic headache respectively; the effect sizes in comparison to no acupuncture controls were 0.55 (95% C.I. 0.51, 0.58), 0.57 (95% C.I. 0.50, 0.64) and 0.42 (95% C.I. 0.37, 0.46). These results were robust to a variety of sensitivity analyses, including those related to publication bias. Conclusions Acupuncture is effective for the treatment of chronic pain and is therefore a reasonable referral option. Significant differences between true and sham acupuncture indicate that acupuncture is more than a placebo. However, these differences are relatively modest, suggesting that factors in addition to the specific effects of needling are important contributors to the therapeutic effects of acupuncture. PMID:22965186

  18. [Intrathecal morphine treatment in advanced cancer pain patients].

    PubMed

    Hattori, Seiji; Sano, Hiromi; Tanaka, Kiyotaka; Yokota, Miyuki

    2009-11-01

    For more than 20 years morphine for spinal analgesia in patients with refractory cancer pain has been one of the cornerstones for the management of chronic, medically intractable pain. In general, most types of cancer pain are treatable following the guideline of Cancer Pain Relief well established by the WHO. However, some patient are unable to tolerate pain only following the guideline and often suffer with side-effects from high doses of opioid and from prescribed multiple adjuvant drugs. Due to the proximity to the receptor sites, the therapeutic efficacy of intrathecal opioid application lasts longer and also reduces systemic side effects. Intrathecal drug application is cost effective and can significantly improve the quality of life in selected patients with limited life expectancy. However, an intensive training of physicians, careful patient selection, awareness of specific complications, and arrangement of social back-up medical system are essential to commence intrathecal morphine application using implantable access port. This article introduces the basic idea of intrathecal morphine therapy with implantable access port (not pumps) as cost effective, alternative therapy for cancer patient suffering from intractable pain. PMID:19928505

  19. [Needs and expectations of patients during pain treatment].

    PubMed

    Radbruch, L

    2008-06-01

    Many patients accept sedation in the early phase or in the course of sort-term opioid treatment in exchange for adequate pain relief. Long-term pain treatment often alters the priorities of patients from pure pain relief to their ability to function in everyday life, which includes mobility and driving a car. Patients with malignant or other diseases often have numerous concomitant symptoms which may directly affect their driving ability. A significant percentage of patients will have an improvement in cognitive and physical abilities as a result of appropriate analgesic treatment with opioids and may thus be able to do what they had previously not been able to (e.g. driving). But the result of testing driving ability can also have great significance in other areas of life. In consequence we find that patients who have done poorly in driving tests will have difficulties also in other areas, just as the opposite may be true. PMID:18548366

  20. Cancer patient supportive care and pain management. Special listing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    This Special Listing of Current Cancer Research Projects is a publication of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute. Each Listing contains descriptions of ongoing projects in one selected cancer research area. The research areas include: Infectious disease in cancer patients; Immunological aspects of supportive care of cancer patients; Nutritional evaluation and support of cancer patients; Pain management of cancer patients.

  1. Painful and non-painful neuropathy in HIV-infected patients: an analysis of somatosensory nerve function.

    PubMed

    Martin, Claes; Solders, Göran; Sönnerborg, Anders; Hansson, Per

    2003-01-01

    Fifteen to 50% of AIDS-patients suffer from distal predominantly sensory neuropathy (DSP), which is commonly associated with painful symptoms. In the present study, we have focused on the function of fine calibre nerve channels, in 36 consecutive HIV-1-infected patients with painful (PPN) (n=20; 54%) and non-painful (PN) (n=16) sensory neuropathy, assessed by clinical, quantitative thermal testing (QTT) (31/36), and peripheral nerve conduction examination (32/36). Control QTT data were obtained from 49 healthy subjects with a corresponding age- and sex distribution. Demographics, antiviral treatment, immunological status, and nerve conduction examination did not differ between patients with and without painful symptoms. Hypoaesthesia to warmth, cold, and heat pain was observed in both neuropathy groups when compared to healthy controls. However, the perception threshold to warmth was more often impaired (p<0.01) and the level of impairment was more pronounced (p<0.001) in patients with painful neuropathy. Furthermore, increased pain sensitivity to cold was found only in patients with painful symptoms (p<0.05). An abnormal outcome of any QTT parameter was found in all patients with pain, but only among 62% of patients without pain, p<0.01, and the cumulative frequency of abnormalities in any of the four thermal percepts (warmth, cold, heat pain, and cold pain) was higher in patients with painful symptoms, p<0.0001. This study demonstrates a more pronounced impairment of C-fibre-mediated innocuous warm perception in patients with painful neuropathy, which in the setting of impaired or absent heat pain perception suggests a more generalised loss of function in somatosensory C-fibre channels. PMID:12527314

  2. Impaired modulation of pain in patients with postherpetic neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Gisèle; Pereira, Bruno; Dufour, Elodie; Soule, Sylvie; Dubray, Claude

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficiency of inhibitory pain descending pathways (evaluated using conditioned pain modulation [CPM]) has not been studied in postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). OBJECTIVE: To compare CPM in PHN patients with healthy controls. METHODS: Nine PHN patients and nine control individuals were matched according to age and sex. Amplitudes of cortical thermal-evoked potentials were recorded on the surface of the scalp; clinical pain and thermal pain were evaluated on a 0 to 10 numerical rating scale, at baseline and at intervals during the 6 min after CPM (elicited by a cold pressor test, 8°C). A battery of cognitive tests was performed. Amplitude differences, percentages and related areas under the curve (AUCCPM) were calculated and all data were compared between both groups; P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: AUCCPM0–6 min was significantly lower in PHN patients compared with controls (?39±51 ?V/min versus ?144±66 ?V/min; P=0.0012) and correlated (P=0.04) with clinical pain intensity. Pain ratings before CPM were similar in both groups but were significantly lower in the control group 3 min after the cold pressor test. Cognitive test results were not significantly different. CONCLUSION: Psychophysical and electrophysiological approaches have shown that patients with PHN exhibit a deficiency of pain inhibition modulation, which could signal a predisposing factor to developing chronic pain. This deficiency was not linked to the cognitive performance but rather to subtle in situ cognitivoemotional adaptations, which remain to be investigated. PMID:24427769

  3. Evaluating the role of physical, operant, cognitive, and affective factors in the pain behaviors of chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Turk, D C; Okifuji, A

    1997-07-01

    Behavioral manifestations of pain, distress, and suffering have been characterized as pain behaviors. Although acquisition and maintenance of pain behaviors have been considered to occur through reinforcement contingencies, empirical evidence suggests that pain behavior is better understood as a multidimensional entity. The present study was designed to evaluate the contributions of physical, operant, cognitive, and affective factors to individual differences in pain behaviors. A total of 63 chronic pain patients diagnosed with the disorder fibromyalgia underwent medical, physical, and psychological evaluations. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the physical, cognitive, and affective factors, but not operant factors, were significantly related to observed pain behaviors. The set of all factors accounted for 53% of the variance in observed pain behavior. The results in this study suggest that pain behaviors should be conceptualized as behavioral manifestation of pain based on a complex interaction of various psychological and physical factors. PMID:9243955

  4. The Effects of Repeated Thermal Therapy for Patients with Chronic Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akinori Masuda; Yasuyuki Koga; Masato Hattanmaru; Shinichi Minagoe; Chuwa Tei

    2005-01-01

    Background: It has been reported that local thermal therapy with a hot pack or paraffin relieves pain. We hypothesized that systemic warming may decrease pain and improve the outcomes in patients with chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of systemic thermal therapy in patients with chronic pain. Methods: Group A (n = 24) patients

  5. Deciphering the Temporal Link between Pain and Sleep in a Heterogeneous Chronic Pain Patient Sample: A Multilevel Daily Process Study

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Nicole K.Y.; Goodchild, Claire E.; Sanborn, Adam N.; Howard, Jonathan; Salkovskis, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Because insomnia is a common comorbidity of chronic pain, scientific and clinical interest in the relationship of pain and sleep has surged in recent years. Although experimental studies suggest a sleep-interfering property of pain and a pain-enhancing effect of sleep deprivation/fragmentation, the temporal association between pain and sleep as experienced by patients is less understood. The current study was conducted to examine the influence of presleep pain on subsequent sleep and sleep on pain reports the next day, taking into consideration other related psychophysiologic variables such as mood and arousal. Design: A daily process study, involving participants to monitor their pain, sleep, mood, and presleep arousal for 1 wk. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the data. Setting: In the patients' natural living and sleeping environment. Patients: One hundred nineteen patients (73.9% female, mean age = 46 years) with chronic pain and concomitant insomnia. Measurement: An electronic diary was used to record patients' self-reported sleep quality/efficiency and ratings of pain, mood, and arousal at different times of the day; actigraphy was also used to provide estimates of sleep efficiency. Results: Results indicated that presleep pain was not a reliable predictor of subsequent sleep. Instead, sleep was better predicted by presleep cognitive arousal. Although sleep quality was a consistent predictor of pain the next day, the pain-relieving effect of sleep was only evident during the first half of the day. Conclusions: These findings challenge the often-assumed reciprocal relationship between pain and sleep and call for a diversification in thinking of the daily interaction of these 2 processes. Citation: Tang NKY; Goodchild CE; Sanborn AN; Howard J; Salkovskis PM. Deciphering the temporal link between pain and sleep in a heterogeneous chronic pain patient sample: a multilevel daily process study. SLEEP 2012;35(5):675-687. PMID:22547894

  6. Assessment tools for the evaluation of pain in the oncology patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen O. Anderson; Holcombe Boulevard

    2007-01-01

    The control of cancer pain is an essential goal in the care of patients with cancer. Inadequate pain assessment by health\\u000a care providers is a major risk factor for undertreatment of pain. Repeated and accurate pain assessment is required for optimal\\u000a pain management. Pain assessment tools such as simple rating scales and short pain questionnaires can facilitate routine measurement\\u000a of

  7. Saphenous neuropathy in a patient with low back pain.

    PubMed

    Ahadi, Tannaz; Raissi, Gholam Reza; Togha, Mansoureh; Nejati, Parisa

    2010-01-01

    Saphenous nerve, a pure sensory nerve, may compromise as a result or complication of a surgical procedure or secondary to trauma or insidiously. We present a male patient with low back pain concomitant with pain in medial portion of left thigh in addition to pain and numbness in medial part of leg and inferior part of patella after a strenuous activity. Preliminary diagnosis suggested that the patient had radiculopathy but electrodiagnostic tests revealed the absence of left saphenous response both in medial leg and infrapatellar region, while normal findings were recorded from right side. Needle electromyography in L4 innervated muscles were normal. The patient had saphenous nerve entrapment in left thigh. Two months later symptoms relieved with conservative therapy. PMID:20205890

  8. Saphenous neuropathy in a patient with low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Saphenous nerve, a pure sensory nerve, may compromise as a result or complication of a surgical procedure or secondary to trauma or insidiously. We present a male patient with low back pain concomitant with pain in medial portion of left thigh in addition to pain and numbness in medial part of leg and inferior part of patella after a strenuous activity. Preliminary diagnosis suggested that the patient had radiculopathy but electrodiagnostic tests revealed the absence of left saphenous response both in medial leg and infrapatellar region, while normal findings were recorded from right side. Needle electromyography in L4 innervated muscles were normal. The patient had saphenous nerve entrapment in left thigh. Two months later symptoms relieved with conservative therapy. PMID:20205890

  9. Correlative study of 3 pain rating scales among obstetric patients.

    PubMed

    Akinpelu, A O; Olowe, O O

    2002-06-01

    The relationship between pain scores obtained on the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) the Box Numerical Scale (BNS) and Verbal Rating Scale (VRS) was studied. The subjects were 35 volunteer female patients who had their babies through caesarian section 1-3 days prior to the study. Demographic data and pain scores were collected through a questionnaire, which was available in both English and Yoruba, the two most commonly spoken languages in Ibadan where the study was carried out. Data were analysed using Pearson Product, Moment Correlation Coefficient, and One-way Analysis of Variance. Results indicated that there was no significant difference between the pain scores obtained on the 3 pain rating scales. Significant correlations existed between pain scores obtained on the VAS and VRS (r = 0.48, p = 0.003); VAS and BNS (r = 0.74, P = 0.000); BNS and VRS (r = 0.74, P = 0.000). High educational attainment improved correlation between the scales in this study. It was concluded that the three pain rating scales measure the same construct, and could be used for pain measurement in obstetrically related conditions in this environment. PMID:12518906

  10. Pain, power and patience - A narrative study of general practitioners' relations with chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic pain patients are common in general practice. In this study "chronic pain" is defined as diffuse musculoskeletal pain not due to inflammatory diseases or cancer. Effective patient-physician relations improve treatment results. The relationship between doctors and chronic pain patients is often dysfunctional. Consultation training for physicians and medical students can improve the professional ability to build effective relations, but this demands a thorough understanding of the problems in the relation. Several studies have defined the issues that frequently cause problems, but few have described the process. The aim of this study was to understand and illustrate what GPs' experience in contact with chronic pain patients and what works and does not work in these consultations. Methods Our theoretical perspective is constructivist, based upon the relativist view that individuals construct realities to understand and navigate the world. Five Swedish General Practitioners (GPs), two male and three female, were interviewed and asked to tell a story about a difficult encounter with a chronic pain patient. Tapes of the interviews were transcribed and analysed using narrative analysis. Three GPs told narratives suited for our analytic tools and these were included in the final results. Results Each narrative highlights a certain dilemma and a strategy. The dilemmas were: power game; good intentions that fail when a patient is persuaded against her own conviction; persuasion of the unwilling; transferred tiredness; distrust and dissociation from the patient. Professional strategies of listening, encouraging and teamwork were central to handling difficult situations. Conclusions The narratives show that GP's consultations with chronic pain patients sometimes are characterized by conflicts and difficult situations. They are facilitated by methods such as active listening and teamwork, but still may remain hard to handle. This has not before been studied among Swedish GPs. Narratives based on experience are known to be successful in education and this study suggest how narratives can serve as a training of consultation for medical students, but also in Continuing Professional Development groups for experienced doctors in practice. PMID:21575158

  11. The draw a person test and young state hospital patients.

    PubMed

    Dudley, H K; Craig, E M; Craft, J E; Sheehan, D M; Mason, J M; Rhoten, V E

    1973-12-01

    Because of the increasing number of adolescents being admitted to state hospitals, because of the continuing need for appropriate testing materials for these patients, and because of the frequent criticism leveled against the DAP's validity, this study was undertaken in order to provide normative data for the DAP with this particular clinical population. The subjects were 84 male and 66 female psychiatric patients from the Adolescent Unit (AU) at Rusk State Hospital. As each patient was admitted to the AU, he was scheduled for psychological testing, with the DAP, the Revised Beta, and the MMPI being part of this testing. The results of this study indicate that the social factors of Ethnicity and Work Habits are significantly related to DAP test performance by male subjects, while Diagnosis is significantly related to DAP test performance by female subjects. A subject's performance on the MMPI and the Revised Beta Examination was not found to be significantly related to his performance on the DAP. PMID:24414139

  12. Esophageal manometrics in patients with angina-like chest pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas L. Brand; Doris Martin; Charles E. Pope

    1977-01-01

    Fifty-eight patients with angina-like chest pain had esophageal manometric testing. Forty-three had no evidence of coronary artery disease at the time of referral or at subsequent contact; 15 patients were proven to have coronary artery disease. High-amplitude contraction waves were the most frequently found manometric abnormality (15 patients). Less frequent were increased duration of contractions, achalasia, and diffuse esophageal spasm;

  13. Searching for Hidden, Painful Osteochondral Lesions of the Ankle in Patients with Chronic Lower Limb Pain - Two Case Reports -

    PubMed Central

    Ri, Hyun Su; Lee, Dong Heon

    2013-01-01

    It is easy to overlook osteochondral lesions (OCLs) of the ankle in patients with chronic lower limb pain, such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) or thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO, Buerger's disease). A 57-year-old woman diagnosed with type 1 CRPS, and a 58-year-old man, diagnosed with TAO, complained of tactile and cold allodynia in their lower legs. After neurolytic lumbar sympathethic ganglion block and titration of medications for neuropathic pain, each subject could walk without the aid of crutches. However, they both complained of constant pain on the left ankle during walking. Focal tenderness was noted; subsequent imaging studies revealed OCLs of her talus and his distal tibia, respectively. Immediately after percutaneous osteoplasties, the patients could walk without ankle pain. It is important to consider the presence of a hidden OCL in chronic pain patients that develop weight-bearing pain and complain of localized tenderness on the ankle. PMID:23614079

  14. Anger Arousal and Behavioral Anger Regulation in Everyday Life among Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: Relationships to Patient Pain and Function

    PubMed Central

    Burns, John W.; Gerhart, James I.; Bruehl, Stephen; Peterson, Kristina M.; Smith, David A.; Porter, Laura S.; Schuster, Erik; Kinner, Ellen; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Marie Fras, Anne; Keefe, Francis J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the degree to which patient anger arousal and behavioral anger regulation (expression, inhibition) occurring in the course of daily life was related to patient pain and function as rated by patients and their spouses. Method Married couples (N = 105) (one spouse with chronic low back pain) completed electronic daily diaries, with assessments 5 times/day for 14 days. Patients completed items on their own state anger, behavioral anger expression and inhibition, and pain-related factors. Spouses completed items on their observations of patient pain-related factors. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test concurrent and lagged relationships. Results Patient-reported increases in state anger were related to their reports of concurrent increases in pain and pain interference and to spouse reports of patient pain and pain behavior. Patient-reported increases in behavioral anger expression were related to lagged increases in pain intensity and interference and decreases in function. Most of these relationships remained significant with state anger controlled. Patient-reported increases in behavioral anger inhibition were related to concurrent increases in pain interference and decreases in function, which also remained significant with state anger controlled. Patient-reported increases in state anger were related to lagged increases in spouse reports of patient pain intensity and pain behaviors. Conclusions Results indicate that in patients with chronic pain, anger arousal and both behavioral anger expression and inhibition in everyday life are related to elevated pain intensity and decreased function as reported by patients. Spouse ratings show some degree of concordance with patient reports. PMID:25110843

  15. Evaluating care of patients reporting pain in fundholding practices.

    PubMed Central

    Howie, J. G.; Heaney, D. J.; Maxwell, M.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare quality of care between 1990 and 1992 in patients with self diagnosed joint pain. DESIGN--Questionnaire and record based study. SUBJECTS--Patients identified at consecutive consultations during two weeks in 1990, 1991, and 1992. SETTING--Six practice groups in pilot fundholding scheme in Scotland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Length of consultation; numbers referred or investigated or prescribed drugs; responses to questions about enablement and satisfaction. RESULTS--About 15% of patients consulted with joint pain each year. 25% (316) of them had social problems in 1990 and 37% (370) in 1992; about a fifth wanted to discuss their social problems. Social problems were associated with a raised general health questionnaire score. The mean length of consultation for patients with pain was 7.6 min in 1990 and 7.7 min in 1992. Patients wishing to discuss social problems received longer consultations (8.5 min 1990; 10.4 min 1992); but other patients with social problems received shorter consultations (7.4 min; 7.2 min). The level of prescribing was stable but the proportion of patients having investigations or attending hospital fell significantly from 1990 to 1992 (31% to 24%; 31% to 13% respectively). Fewer patients responded "much better" to six questions about enablement in 1992 than in 1990. Enablement was better after longer than shorter consultations for patients with social problems. CONCLUSIONS--Quality of care for patients with pain has been broadly maintained in terms of consultation times. The effects of lower rates of investigation and referral need to be investigated further. PMID:7950524

  16. Pain relief at the end of life: nurses' experiences regarding end-of-life pain relief in patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Brorson, Hanna; Plymoth, Henrietta; Örmon, Karin; Bolmsjö, Ingrid

    2014-03-01

    Patients with dementia receive suboptimal palliative care, and this patient group is at risk to have pain at the end of life. Because communicative impairments are common in this patient group, nurses play an important caregiver role in identifying, assessing, and relieving patients' pain. This study aimed to describe nurses' experiences regarding end-of-life pain relief in patients with dementia. This descriptive exploratory qualitative study was based on seven semistructured interviews. Burnard's content analysis inspired the data analysis. Two main categories were identified: (1) nurses' experience of difficulties concerning pain relief and (2) nurses' experience of resources concerning pain relief. Nurses experienced difficulties, such as feeling of powerlessness because of difficulties in obtaining adequate prescriptions for analgesics, ethical dilemmas, feeling of inadequacy because analgesia did not have the desired effect, and a feeling of not being able to connect with the patient. Factors, including knowledge about the patient, professional experience, utilization of pain assessment tools, interpersonal relationships, and interprofessional cooperation, served as resources and enabled end-of-life pain relief. The results of this study highlight the complexity of pain relief in patients with dementia at the end of life from a nursing perspective. The inability of patients with dementia to verbally communicate their pain makes them a vulnerable patient group, dependent on their caregivers. Knowing the life story of the patient, professional experience, teamwork based on good communication, and use of a pain assessment tool were reported by the nurses to improve pain relief at the end of life for patients with dementia. PMID:23453467

  17. The role of the patient in the management of post surgical pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell M. F. Hawkins

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the idea that patients do not have the necessary knowledge about pain relief to contribute effectively to their own pain management through such strategies as being more assertive in requesting analgesia. When patients were provided with video-taped information about available pain control techniques, together with a rationale for the minimisation of pain and encouragement

  18. Increased sensitivity to heat pain after sad mood induction in female patients with major depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janneke Terhaar; Michael Karl Boettger; Christiane Schwier; Gerd Wagner; Anna-Karoline Israel; Karl-Jürgen Bär

    2010-01-01

    Patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) have been shown to exhibit increased thresholds towards experimentally induced thermal pain applied to the skin. In contrast, the induction of sad mood can increase pain perception in healthy controls. Here, we aimed to test the hypothesis that heat pain thresholds are further increased after sad mood induction in depressed patients.Thermal pain thresholds

  19. Acute pain management in patients with prior opioid consumption: a case-controlled retrospective review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne E. Rapp; L. Brian Ready; Michael L. Nessly

    1995-01-01

    The patient with a history of current opioid consumption presenting in the acute postoperative setting presents a challenge for pain management. Standard treatment dosages and strategies are often ineffective in providing pain relief. This retrospective case-control study reviews 4 years' experience of the Acute Pain Service (APS) at our institution providing care for 202 chronic pain and opioid-consuming (CPOC) patients,

  20. Clinical and experimental pain perception is attenuated in patients with painless myocardial infarction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michal Granot; Rizan Khoury; Gidon Berger; Norberto Krivoy; Eyal Braun; Doron Aronson; Zaher S. Azzam

    2007-01-01

    Background. The lack of pain alarm in painless myocardial infarction (MI) leads to increased morbidity and mortality, since patients do not seek medical treatment in a timely manner. We aimed to explore whether reduced systemic pain perception in response to experimental stimuli and pain related personality variables characterizes painless MI patients. Methods. Level of chest pain intensity was assessed by

  1. Altered rectal sensory response induced by balloon distention in patients with functional abdominal pain syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsukasa Nozu; Miwako Kudaira

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) has chronic unexplained abdominal pain and is similar to the psychiatric diagnosis of somatoform pain disorder. A patient with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) also has chronic unexplained abdominal pain, and rectal hypersensitivity is observed in a majority of the patients. However, no reports have evaluated the visceral sensory function of FAPS precisely. We aimed

  2. The MOBID-2 pain scale: Reliability and responsiveness to pain in patients with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Husebo, BS; Ostelo, R; Strand, LI

    2014-01-01

    Background Mobilization-Observation-Behavior-Intensity-Dementia-2 (MOBID-2) pain scale is a staff-administered pain tool for patients with dementia. This study explores MOBID-2's test–retest reliability, measurement error and responsiveness to change. Methods Analyses are based upon data from a cluster randomized trial including 352 patients with advanced dementia from 18 Norwegian nursing homes. Test–retest reliability between baseline and week 2 (n = 163), and weeks 2 and 4 (n = 159) was examined in patients not expected to change (controls), using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2.1), standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest detectable change (SDC). Responsiveness was examined by testing six priori-formulated hypotheses about the association between change scores on MOBID-2 and other outcome measures. Results ICCs of the total MOBID-2 scores were 0.81 (0–2 weeks) and 0.85 (2–4 weeks). SEM and SDC were 1.9 and 3.1 (0–2 weeks) and 1.4 and 2.3 (2–4 weeks), respectively. Five out of six hypotheses were confirmed: MOBID-2 discriminated (p < 0.001) between change in patients with and without a stepwise protocol for treatment of pain (SPTP). Moderate association (r = 0.35) was demonstrated with Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, and no association with Mini-Mental State Examination, Functional Assessment Staging and Activity of Daily Living. Expected associations between change scores of MOBID-2 and Neuropsychiatric Inventory – Nursing Home version were not confirmed. Conclusion The SEM and SDC in connection with the MOBID-2 pain scale indicate that the instrument is responsive to a decrease in pain after a SPTP. Satisfactory test–retest reliability across test periods was demonstrated. Change scores ? 3 on total and subscales are clinically relevant and are beyond measurement error. PMID:24799157

  3. Internet-Based Survey Evaluating Use of Pain Medications and Attitudes of Radiation Oncology Patients Toward Pain Intervention

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, Charles B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)], E-mail: simonec@mail.nih.gov; Vapiwala, Neha; Hampshire, Margaret K.; Metz, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: Pain is a common symptom among cancer patients, yet many patients do not receive adequate pain management. Few data exist quantifying analgesic use by radiation oncology patients. This study evaluated the causes of pain in cancer patients and investigated the reasons patients fail to receive optimal analgesic therapy. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved, Internet-based questionnaire assessing analgesic use and pain control was posted on the OncoLink (available at (www.oncolink.org)) Website. Between November 2005 and April 2006, 243 patients responded. They were predominantly women (73%), white (71%), and educated beyond high school (67%) and had breast (38%), lung (6%), or ovarian (6%) cancer. This analysis evaluated the 106 patients (44%) who underwent radiotherapy. Results: Of the 106 patients, 58% reported pain from their cancer treatment, and 46% reported pain directly from their cancer. The pain was chronic in 51% and intermittent in 33%. Most (80%) did not use medication to manage their pain. Analgesic use was significantly less in patients with greater education levels (11% vs. 36%, p = 0.002), with a trend toward lower use by whites (16% vs. 32%, p 0.082) and women (17% vs. 29%, p = 0.178). The reasons for not taking analgesics included healthcare provider not recommending medication (87%), fear of addiction or dependence (79%), and inability to pay (79%). Participants experiencing pain, but not taking analgesics, pursued alternative therapies for relief. Conclusions: Many radiation oncology patients experience pain from their disease and cancer treatment. Most study participants did not use analgesics because of concerns of addiction, cost, or failure of the radiation oncologist to recommend medication. Healthcare providers should have open discussions with their patients regarding pain symptoms and treatment.

  4. Treating Pain in Addicted Patients: Recommendations from an Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Cheatle, Martin; Wunsch, Martha; Skoufalos, Alexis; Reddy, Yeshwant

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Clinicians may face pragmatic, ethical, and legal issues when treating addicted patients. Equal pressures exist for clinicians to always address the health care needs of these patients in addition to their addiction. Although controversial, mainly because of the lack of evidence regarding their long-term efficacy, the use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain management is widespread. Their use for pain management in the addicted population can present even more challenges, especially when evaluating the likelihood of drug-seeking behavior. As the misuse and abuse of opioids continues to burgeon, clinicians must be particularly vigilant when prescribing chronic opioid therapy. The purpose of this article is to summarize recommendations from a recent meeting of experts convened to recommend how primary care physicians should approach treatment of chronic pain for addicted patients when an addiction specialist is not available for a referral. As there is a significant gap in guidelines and recommendations in this specific area of care, this article serves to create a foundation for expanding chronic pain guidelines in the area of treating the addicted population. This summary is designed to be a practical how-to guide for primary care physicians, discussing risk assessment, patient stratification, and recommended therapeutic approaches. (Population Health Management 2014;17:79–89) PMID:24138341

  5. [Management of facet pain syndrome in patients treated by microdiscectomy].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, A V; Dreval', O N; Rynkov, I P; Chagava, D A; Zakirov, A A

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this study was to assess effectiveness of high-frequency denervation of facet joints in facet pain syndrome in patients who underwent microdiscectomy. The analyzed series included 42 patients treated by microdiscectomy 2 to 56 months before minimally invasive manipulation. The control group was made of 50 patients of similar age with facet pain syndrome who did not undergo spinal surgery. Effectiveness of treatment in the main group reached 62% while in the control group it was 82%. VAS score after 6-12 months changed from 7.6 to 3.2 and from 7.9 to 2.2 in control and mail groups, respectively. Conclusions are made about effectiveness of high-frequency denervation of facet joints in patients with failed back surgery syndrome in conditions of their careful selection for this procedure. PMID:21793297

  6. Analysis of long-standing nociceptive and neuropathic pain in patients with post-polio syndrome.

    PubMed

    Werhagen, Lars; Borg, Kristian

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze pain, both nociceptive and neuropathic, in patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS) and relate the pain to age at the initial polio infection, age at examination, to gender and disability. The study was conducted in a university hospital department. Patients with PPS were interviewed at their regular visits about pain, its character, intensity and localization. A clinical examination, including a thorough neurological examination, was performed. Data included age at time of polio infection, age at time of examination and gender. Pain intensity was measured with the VAS-scale and walking capability by the WISCI-scale. One hundred sixty-three (88 women, 75 men) patients were included in the study. Pain was present in 109 (67%). Pain was more frequently reported by women (82%) than by men (49%). 96 patients experienced nociceptive pain, 10 patients both neuropathic and nociceptive pain and three experienced pure neuropathic pain. Half of the patients with pain experienced pain in more than one body region. When neuropathic pain was present, another additional neurological disorder was diagnosed. Pain was more often found in younger patients (around 70%) than in older patients (around 50%). In summary pain is common in patients with PPS and most patients experienced nociceptive pain. Women have pain more often than men. Older patients experience pain more seldom than younger patients. Age at time of primary polio infection is important for the development of pain. When neuropathic pain is present, it is important to proceed with neurological examination to find an adequate diagnosis. PMID:20352256

  7. Acute Pain Management for Patients Receiving Maintenance Methadone or Buprenorphine Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Alford, Daniel P.; Compton, Peggy; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2007-01-01

    More patients with opioid addiction are receiving opioid agonist therapy (OAT) with methadone and buprenorphine. As a result, physicians will more frequently encounter patients receiving OAT who develop acutely painful conditions, requiring effective treatment strategies. Undertreatment of acute pain is suboptimal medical treatment, and patients receiving long-term OAT are at particular risk. This paper acknowledges the complex interplay among addictive disease, OAT, and acute pain management and describes 4 common misconceptions resulting in suboptimal treatment of acute pain. Clinical recommendations for providing analgesia for patients with acute pain who are receiving OAT are presented. Although challenging, acute pain in patients receiving this type of therapy can effectively be managed. PMID:16418412

  8. Associations between Neuroticism and Depression in Relation to Catastrophizing and Pain-Related Anxiety in Chronic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kadimpati, Sandeep; Zale, Emily L.; Hooten, Michael W.; Ditre, Joseph W.; Warner, David O.

    2015-01-01

    Several cognitive-affective constructs, including pain catastrophizing and pain-related anxiety, have been implicated in the onset and progression of chronic pain, and both constructs have been identified as key targets for multidisciplinary pain treatment. Both neuroticism and depression have been linked to these constructs (and to each other), but how each may contribute to the pain experience is unknown. This study tested associations between neuroticism, depression, and indices of catastrophizing and pain-related anxiety among persons seeking treatment for chronic non-malignant pain. We hypothesized, as a higher-order personality trait, neuroticism would remain uniquely associated with both pain catastrophizing and pain-related anxiety, even after accounting for current symptoms of depression. A retrospective study design assessed depression (as measured by the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale), neuroticism (measured with the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory), the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Pain Anxiety Symptom Score in a consecutive series of patients (n=595) admitted to a 3-week outpatient pain treatment program from March 2009 through January 2011. Hierarchical regression indicated that neuroticism was independently associated with greater pain catastrophizing and pain-related anxiety, above-and-beyond the contributions of sociodemographic characteristics, pain severity, and depression. A depression by neuroticism interaction was not observed, suggesting that associations between neuroticism and cognitive-affective pain constructs remained stable across varying levels of current depression. These findings represent an early but important step towards the clarification of complex associations between trait neuroticism, current depression, and tendencies toward catastrophic and anxiety-provoking appraisals of pain among persons seeking treatment for chronic pain. PMID:25902153

  9. Escitalopram is associated with reductions in pain severity and pain interference in opioid dependent patients with depressive symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith I. Tsui; Debra S. Herman; Malyna Kettavong; Bradley J. Anderson; Michael D. Stein

    2011-01-01

    Pain is common among opioid-dependent patients, yet pharmacologic strategies are limited. The aim of this study was to explore whether escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was associated with reductions in pain. The study used longitudinal data from a randomized, controlled trial that evaluated the effects of escitalopram on treatment retention in patients with depressive symptoms who were initiating buprenorphine\\/naloxone

  10. Minimally invasive spine surgery in chronic low back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Spoor, A B; Öner, F C

    2013-09-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 85%. The pathophysiology of LBP can be various depending on the underlying problem. Only in about 10% of the patients specific underlying disease processes can be identified. Patients with scoliosis, spondylolisthesis, herniated discs, adjacent disc disease, disc degeneration, failed back surgery syndrome or pseudoartrosis all have symptoms of LBP in different ways. Chronic low back pain patients are advised to stay active, however, there is no strong evidence that exercise therapy is significantly different than other nonsurgical therapies. Not every patient with symptoms of LBP is an appropriate candidate for surgery. Even with thorough systematic reviews, no proof can be found for the benefit of surgery in patients with low back pain, without serious neurologic deficit. And subjects like psychologic and socio-demographic factors also seem to be influencing a patients perception of back pain, expectations of treatment, and outcomes of treatment. Open lumbar fusion procedures are typically lengthy procedures and require a long exposure, which may result in ischemic necrosis of the paraspinal musculature, atrophy, and prolonged back pain. Minimally invasive spine surgery needed to take care of a decrease in muscle injuries due to retraction and avoidance of disruption of the osseotendineous complex of the paraspinal muscles, especially the multifidus attachment to the spinous process and superior articular process. Therefore, effort has been made to develop percutaneous fusion, as well as fixation methods, which avoid the negative effects of open surgery. Several minimally invasive fusion strategies have been described, like anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and two lateral approaches (XLIF and DLIF), all with pro's and con's compared to open surgery and each other. The effect of MIS of all type is that patients have less blood loss, faster postoperative ambulation, lower use of opioids, and shorter in hospital stay, which is nearly always significantly better than an open procedure. And most of the studies show a significant improvement of VAS leg-and back pain, Oswestry Disability Index and a high fusion rate, but most of the times not significantly different than the open counterpart. When it comes to cost-effectiveness there is a trend in favor of MIS, but to when we want to differentiate MIS from open surgery, comorbidities and complications significantly affect general and disease-specific outcome measures. In our opinion, the actual better outcome of minimal invasive surgery comes down to obtain a good cost-effectiveness study, provided that minimally invasive surgery has an equal or better clinical and radiologic outcome, given that socio-economic, demographic and psychological influencers are equal for both types of surgery. There are no studies done on the subject MIS and low back pain solely. Deriving answers from the difference in VAS back pain in MIS studies reveal a 100% improvement of back pain after surgery. But that does not imply that this procedure, which is still in its childhood, will be the solution to all low back pain patients. PMID:23877267

  11. Pain and Anxiety Experienced by Patients Following Placement of a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy.

    PubMed

    Oppong, Philip; Pitts, Narrie; Chudleigh, Vicky; Latchford, Andrew; Roy, Amy; Rocket, Mark; Lewis, Stephen

    2014-09-23

    Background: Abdominal pain following percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement is a recognized complication. However, the prevalence and degree of severity of pain are poorly characterized. We assessed abdominal pain and anxiety levels associated with PEG placement in communicative and noncommunicative patients. Methods: A prospective questionnaire assessed patients' anxiety and abdominal pain 1 hour before, 1 hour after, and 24 hours after PEG placement using 11-point Likert-type scales. Patients were followed up until pain had resolved. Procedural data, analgesia requirements, and complications were recorded. For analysis, patients were divided into 2 groups: communicative (able to self-assess) and noncommunicative (clinician assessed). Results: Seventy consecutive patients were assessed. Of the 49 self-assessed patients, 11 (22%) reported immediate pain, 32 (65%) reported pain at 1 hour (24 mild, 5 moderate, 3 severe), and 40 (82%) reported pain at 24 hours. Pain most commonly lasted between 24 and 48 hours (25 patients). Of the 21 clinician-assessed patients, only 1 was deemed to have pain, and this was at 24 hours. Four (6%) patients were admitted with pain. There was no relationship between preplacement anxiety scores and postplacement pain scores. Discussion: Abdominal pain after PEG placement pain is common but resolved by 48 hours in most patients. In patients able to communicate, clinicians scored pain lower compared with patients' scores. It is likely that pain is not identified in patients unable to communicate. Patients need to be better informed about the possibility of postprocedural pain and routinely offered access to appropriate analgesia. PMID:25249027

  12. Morphine Patient-Controlled Analgesia Is Superior to Meperidine Patient-Controlled Analgesia for Postoperative Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John L. Plummer; Harry Owen; Anthony H. Ilsley; Stuart Inglis

    1997-01-01

    The choice between morphine and meperidine for post- operative pain is usually based on the preference of the prescriber, as few objective comparative data are avail- able. This blind, randomized study compared the effi- cacy and side effects of morphine and meperidine ad- ministered by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for postoperative pain. One hundred two consenting pa- tients scheduled for major

  13. Pain in patients with COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Dam van Isselt, Eléonore F; Groenewegen-Sipkema, Karin H; Spruit-van Eijk, Monica; Chavannes, Niels H; de Waal, Margot W M; Janssen, Daisy J A; Achterberg, Wilco P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To systematically investigate the prevalence of pain, factors related with pain and pain management interventions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources and study eligibility criteria PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychINFO from 1966 to December 2013. Studies were included if they presented clinical data on pain or symptom burden in patients with COPD, or pain as a domain of quality of life (QoL). All types of study designs were included. Results Of the 1571 articles that were identified, 39 met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Fourteen studies focused on pain and symptom burden (including pain) in patients with COPD and 25 studies focused on QoL using a questionnaire that included a separate pain domain. Reported pain prevalence in high-quality studies ranged from 32 to 60%. Included studies report that pain is more prevalent in patients with COPD compared to participants from the general population. Comorbidity, nutritional status, QoL and several symptoms were related to pain. None of the included studies reported a significant relationship between lung function and pain prevalence or severity. However, studies investigating pain in patients with moderate COPD reported higher pain prevalence compared to studies in patients with severe of very severe COPD. Conclusions Although literature on this topic is limited and shows substantial heterogeneity, pain seems to be a significant problem in patients with COPD and is related to several other symptoms, comorbidity and QoL. Data synthesis suggests that pain is more prevalent in patients with moderate COPD compared to patients with severe or very severe COPD. Further research is needed and should focus on determining a more accurate pain prevalence, investigating the relationship between pain prevalence, disease severity and comorbidity and explore implementation and efficacy of pain management interventions in patients with COPD. PMID:25260370

  14. Reflecting on pain management for patients with osteoarthritis and other rheumatic disorders: there's more to pain management than managing pain

    PubMed Central

    Perret, Danielle; Chang, Eric Y; Pang, Winnie; Shinada, Shuntaro; Panush, Richard S

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Medical progress is measured by advances in science and technology. The pace of discovery will surely accelerate. We are increasingly challenged not only to assimilate new information, but also to reconcile our learning with our art. We present the common clinical problem of managing pain in osteoarthritis as a paradigm for this dilemma in contemporary patient care. We do not yet have the understanding and interventions to do this optimally for all with osteoarthritis, leaving us with uncertainties as we struggle to care for these patients. In a world of growing complexity and sophistication we must not overlook the person who is our patient. It is easy to be seduced by electronic and informational advances, to be entranced by machinery, and to forget the unique individuality and needs of each patient. Osler taught that “the practice of medicine is an art, based on science”. This doesn't change. PMID:24654815

  15. Perspectives for patients. Knee pain: safely strengthening your thigh muscles.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Quadriceps are the muscles on the front of your thigh that help you straighten your knee. When these muscles are not strong, you may feel pain under your kneecap. Quadriceps can be strengthened by performing squats and leg extensions. However, when you do not perform these exercises properly, you may also feel knee pain. Understanding the load and stress under the kneecap when you execute squats and leg extensions can help you perform these exercises better and with less pain while you strengthen your quadriceps. A study published in the May 2014 issue of JOSPT provides information intended to help physical therapists and their patients use these exercises to strengthen thigh muscles while minimizing the load under the kneecap. PMID:24787326

  16. Compassionate Care for Patients With Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Melissa A; Smith, Carolyn E; Pomidor, Michelle A

    2015-08-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a debilitating condition characterized by specific symptoms such as intense pain and loss of function. This syndrome can be so devastating that it affects quality of life. Often, CRPS is misdiagnosed and misunderstood, which can be extremely frustrating for patients. The purpose of the survey in this study was to query actual patients living with CRPS to gain additional knowledge and suggestions to help improve their care. Respondents expressed a variety of emotions when asked about their healthcare experiences, which suggests that healthcare providers need to be better educated about CRPS so they can provide more compassionate care for patients trying to cope with this condition. PMID:26153786

  17. Homotopic stimulation can reduce the area of allodynia in patients with neuropathic pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah J. Love-Jones; Marie Besson; Charlotte E. Steeds; Peter Brook; Boris A. Chizh; Anthony E. Pickering

    2009-01-01

    Allodynia is a common, troublesome feature of neuropathic pain conditions. In a previous study of postherpetic neuralgia we observed that repeated tactile stimulation appeared to reduce the size of the area of allodynia in some patients. We have undertaken a pragmatic clinical study to characterise this phenomenon in neuropathic pain patients with a range of different aetiologies.Neuropathic pain patients with

  18. Do beliefs, coping, and catastrophizing independently predict functioning in patients with chronic pain?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith A. Turner; Mark P. Jensen; Joan M. Romano

    2000-01-01

    Physical and psychosocial disability in patients with chronic pain have been shown to be associated with patientspain-related beliefs, tendency to catastrophize, and pain coping strategy use. However, little is known about whether beliefs, catastrophizing, and coping strategies are independently associated with patient adjustment. Identification of specific beliefs, cognitive responses, and coping strategies strongly and independently associated with physical and

  19. Reflex receptive fields are enlarged in patients with musculoskeletal low back and neck pain.

    PubMed

    Biurrun Manresa, José A; Neziri, Alban Y; Curatolo, Michele; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Andersen, Ole K

    2013-08-01

    Pain hypersensitivity has been consistently detected in chronic pain conditions, but the underlying mechanisms are difficult to investigate in humans and thus poorly understood. Patients with endometriosis pain display enlarged reflex receptive fields (RRF), providing a new perspective in the identification of possible mechanisms behind hypersensitivity states in humans. The primary hypothesis of this study was that RRF are enlarged in patients with musculoskeletal pain. Secondary study end points were subjective pain thresholds and nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) thresholds after single and repeated (temporal summation) electrical stimulation. Forty chronic neck pain patients, 40 chronic low back pain patients, and 24 acute low back pain patients were tested. Electrical stimuli were applied to 10 sites on the sole of the foot to quantify the RRF, defined as the area of the foot from where a reflex was evoked. For the secondary end points, electrical stimuli were applied to the cutaneous innervation area of the sural nerve. All patient groups presented enlarged RRF areas compared to pain-free volunteers (P<.001). Moreover, they also displayed lower NWR and pain thresholds to single and repeated electrical stimulation (P<.001). These results demonstrate that musculoskeletal pain conditions are characterized by enlarged RRF, lowered NWR and pain thresholds, and facilitated temporal summation, most likely caused by widespread spinal hyperexcitability. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these pain conditions, and it supports the use of the RRF and NWR as objective biomarkers for pain hypersensitivity in clinical and experimental pain research. PMID:23707309

  20. Predicting pain and disability in patients with hand fractures: Comparing pain anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and pain catastrophizing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edmund Keogh; James Thomas; Grey Giddins; Christopher Eccleston

    2010-01-01

    There is a range of anxiety-related constructs associated with pain and pain-related disability. Those most often examined are pain catastrophizing, pain anxiety and anxiety sensitivity. All three are conceptualized to be important in the development and maintenance of chronic pain, and are included within fear avoidance models. Surprisingly these constructs are not routinely examined together, and when they are, have

  1. Avascular necrosis in a patient with hip pain.

    PubMed

    Sabadis, Sebastian; Gattie, Eric; Cleland, Joshua

    2015-06-01

    The patient was a 64-year-old man who was referred to a physical therapist 3 weeks following a right L3 hemilaminectomy and an L3-4 facetectomy. At the time of the initial evaluation, the patient was ambulating with a rolling walker due to low back and anterolateral right hip pain, as well as a giving-way sensation of the right hip with weight bearing. The patient was referred to his surgeon, where radiographs revealed collapse/dissolution of the femoral head that was consistent with avascular necrosis. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(6):497. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.0406. PMID:26027745

  2. The relationship between the fear-avoidance model of pain and personality traits in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Martínez, María Pilar; Sánchez, Ana Isabel; Miró, Elena; Medina, Ana; Lami, María José

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between several cognitive-affective factors of the fear-avoidance model of pain, the big five model of personality, and functional impairment in fibromyalgia (FM). Seventy-four FM patients completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20, the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire, and the Impairment and Functioning Inventory. Results indicated that the cognitive-affective factors of pain are differentially associated with personality traits. Neuroticism and conscientiousness were significant predictors of pain catastrophizing, and neuroticism, openness, and agreeableness were significant predictors of pain anxiety. Personality traits did not contribute significantly to vigilance to pain. The effect of neuroticism upon pain anxiety was mediated by pain catastrophizing, and neuroticism showed a trend to moderate the relationship between impairment and pain anxiety. Results support the fear-avoidance model of pain. Implications of the findings for the understanding and management of FM are discussed. PMID:21964824

  3. Gender differences in post-operative pain and patient controlled analgesia use among adolescent surgical patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deirdre E Logan; John B Rose

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore gender differences in anticipatory emotional distress, coping strategies, post-operative pain perception, and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) use among adolescent surgical patients. One hundred and two 12–18-year-old adolescents undergoing surgeries with overnight hospital stay were recruited. Participants completed pre-operative measures of anxiety and anticipated pain. Post-operatively, they reported on coping skills, post-operative anxiety, and

  4. The Pain Experience of Post Surgical Patients Following the Implementation of an Evidence-Based Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise Bédard; Margaret Ann Purden; Nicole Sauvé-Larose; Cynthia Certosini; Constance Schein

    2006-01-01

    Effective pain management has been shown to promote earlier mobilization, adequate rest, reduced hospital stays, postoperative complications, and costs. A multidisciplinary quality improvement team worked together to develop and implement a comprehensive evidence-based program for postoperative pain management. The purpose of this study was to assess surgical patientspain status, satisfaction, and beliefs with regard to pain management prior to

  5. Pain, coping strategies, and quality of life in Arab American cancer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nijmeh Mohammad Hussein Al-Atiyyat

    2009-01-01

    Cancer pain remains inadequately treated worldwide in up to 91% of patients. Challenges to daily activities due to cancer pain may produce maladaptation that significantly affects quality of life. Enhancing behavioral and cognitive coping are important strategies in providing holistic care for optimum pain management, potentially leading to better quality of life. Assessment of cancer pain lacks a comprehensive framework

  6. The relationship between symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and pain, affective disturbance and disability among patients with accident and non-accident related pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael E. Geisser; Randy S. Roth; Jan E. Bachman; Thomas A. Eckert

    1996-01-01

    Recent studies have reported a high prevalence of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among individuals with chronic pain. Studies suggest that persons with pain and PTSD also display higher levels of affective disturbance. In the present study we examined self-reports of pain, affective disturbance, and disability among pain patients with and without symptoms of PTSD. Patients without PTSD symptoms

  7. Talking about painful subjects: flexibility and constraints in patient interviews.

    PubMed

    Moore, John; Lieberman, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Increasing understanding of how to categorize patient symptoms for efficient diagnosis has led to structured patient interviews and diagnostic flowcharts that can provide diagnostic accuracy and save valuable physician time. But the rigidity of predefined questions and controlled vocabulary for answers can leave patients feeling over-constrained, like the doctor (or computer system) is not really listening to them. In addition, not hearing the patient's own words can lead to the physician overlooking subtle details that are diagnostically relevant. How can we reconcile the need for patients to express themselves with the doctor's need to understand the patient's experience in medically appropriate terms? We present I'm Listening, a system for automatically conducting patient pre-visit interviews. It does not replace a human doctor, but can be used before an office visit to elicit complaint details. This information can be used to triage care and prepare patients for visits with educational materials and appropriate tests, making better use of both doctor and patient time. It uses an on-screen avatar and natural language processing to (partially) understand the patient's response. Key is a Commonsense reasoning system that lets patients express themselves in unconstrained natural language, even using metaphor, and that maps the language to medically relevant categories. For example, if a patient describes his or her pain like, "someone sticking in a knife and then turning it", the system could categorize it as sharp, intense, and localized. PMID:19745477

  8. Discussing sexual concerns with chronic low back pain patients: barriers and patients' expectations.

    PubMed

    Bahouq, H; Allali, F; Rkain, H; Hajjaj-Hassouni, N

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to explore patient's concerns when discussing sexual problems caused by chronic low back pain with their healthcare provider. It also aims to identify factors influencing and limiting such communication. A cross-sectional analysis of 100 consenting chronic low back pain sexually active patients was carried out. Patients answered questions on their disease characteristics and sex life. They also mentioned prohibitions of discussing sex with their healthcare provider and their expectations of such discussion. Factors influencing patient's experiences were analyzed. Median of chronic low back pain duration was 36 (24-72) months and back pain intensity using visual analogical scale (0-100 mm) was 50 ± 10.7 mm. Eighty-one percent of our patients complained of sexual problems, 66 % have never discussed the subject with their healthcare provider. Barriers which prevent discussion on sex include the taboo character of the topic, inappropriateness of visit conditions, and patient disinterest in sex. Ninety-three percent of patients expressed the need of sexual problems' management in chronic low back pain consulting. Seventy-four percent expected information and advice from their healthcare provider about recommended intercourse positions so as to avoid pain. Thirty-three percent of patients wanted their partner to be involved in the discussion and 81 % preferred talking with a healthcare provider of the same gender. Ability to communicate on the topic was associated with the decrease of patient sexual satisfaction and limited by patient illiteracy. Our study evidences that sex discussion between patient and healthcare provider is restricted by several barriers and that patients expect more involvement from their healthcare provider on the subject. Illiteracy and level of sexual satisfaction seem to be the strongest factors influencing this communication. PMID:23743660

  9. Analysis of codeine positivity in urine of pain management patients.

    PubMed

    Colby, Jennifer M; Wu, Alan H B; Lynch, Kara L

    2015-06-01

    The opioids codeine and morphine have legitimate uses in managing chronic pain conditions, but they are frequently abused. Patients prescribed opioids submit urine samples for medication compliance monitoring, and the interpretation of the results is complex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the percentage of codeine- and morphine-positive urine drug tests that result from morphine use only, with the positive codeine result arising from low levels of codeine present in pharmaceutical formulations of morphine. This study included 80 urine samples which tested positive for codeine and morphine after pre-analytical hydrolysis and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Quantitative results were correlated with patient prescription information and immunoassay results to classify patients into one of four categories: heroin users (50%), codeine users (34%), codeine and morphine users (5%), and morphine users (11%). The percentage of codeine-positive resulting from morphine use was higher than previous estimates. Urine from patients prescribed morphine only was found to contain codeine at <1% of the morphine concentration, a ratio that was also observed in patients who used heroin. Careful analysis of urine drug testing results, including assessing the ratio of codeine to morphine (C/M), can help providers determine if patients are compliant with their pain management regimens. PMID:25840440

  10. Pain judgements of patients' relatives: examining the use of social contract theory as theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Kappesser, Judith; de C Williams, Amanda C

    2008-08-01

    Observer underestimation of others' pain was studied using a concept from evolutionary psychology: a cheater detection mechanism from social contract theory, applied to relatives and friends of chronic pain patients. 127 participants estimated characters' pain intensity and fairness of behaviour after reading four vignettes describing characters suffering from pain. Four cues were systematically varied: the character continuing or stopping liked tasks; continuing or stopping disliked tasks; availability of medical evidence; and pain intensity as rated by characters. Results revealed that pain intensity and the two behavioural variables had an effect on pain estimates: high pain self-reports and stopping all tasks led to high pain estimates; pain was estimated to be lowest when characters stopped disliked but continued with liked tasks. This combination was also rated least fair. Results support the use of social contract theory as a theoretical framework to explore pain judgements. PMID:18483846

  11. A Personalized Approach to Assessing and Managing Pain in Patients With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hui, David; Bruera, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Pain is one of the most common and distressing symptoms in patients with cancer. In this review, we discuss an evidence-based approach to personalized pain assessment and management. Recent insights into the pain expression pathway have led to a paradigm shift in pain management, allowing clinicians to deliver personalized treatments tailored to the individual's needs. Personalized pain management begins with systematic screening, followed by comprehensive pain assessment. Impeccable characterization of pain informs its etiology and the mechanism to guide treatment choices. Identification of modulators of pain expression such as psychological distress, alcoholism, substance use, and delirium allow clinicians to further tailor treatment recommendations. Documentation of a personalized pain goal provides an individualized response criterion. A multidimensional treatment plan is then formulated targeting the pain mechanism, etiologic factors, and modulators. Finally, longitudinal monitoring customized to the individual's needs allows clinicians to improve adherence and, ultimately, to optimize pain control over time. PMID:24799495

  12. Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia and management of pain in post-surgical elderly with cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastiano Mercadante

    2010-01-01

    Postoperative pain is often underestimated in elderly patients, based on considerations of the limited function of kidney and liver with advancing age or presumed high threshold of pain sensation. Achieving adequate pain management for the older patient is complicated by comorbid diseases, increased risk of adverse drug reactions, and physician factors such as inadequate training and reluctance to prescribe opioid

  13. Symptoms and visceral perception in patients with pain-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Lembo; Bruce Naliboff; Julie Munakata; Steve Fullerton; Lynn Saba; Scott Tung; Max Schmulson; Emeran A Mayer

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Abdominal pain is thought to be a hallmark of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), although currently used symptom criteria do not differentiate between abdominal pain and discomfort. By focusing on viscerosensory symptoms, we sought to determine: 1) which type of symptoms are most commonly reported by IBS patients, and 2) whether patients who report pain as their most bothersome symptom

  14. Congruence in family dyadic perceptions of pain controllability between older adult cancer patients and family caregivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl K Riley-Doucet

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have shown that perception of control over pain contributes to higher levels of well being and thus, is highly valued by both patients and their family caregivers (Anderson, 1998; Wells, 1994) trying to manage cancer pain in the home. However, there have been no studies that have investigated how congruence in perceptions of control over pain between patients

  15. A study of patient experience and perception regarding postoperative pain management in Chinese hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Weiran, Liu; Lei, Zhang; Woo, Stephanie Mu-Lian; Anliu, Tang; Shumin, Xie; Jing, Zhang; Kai, Zhang; Zhen, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to analyze the current status of postoperative pain management in the People’s Republic of China’s provincial-level hospitals, and the existing knowledge and opinions held by patients regarding these methods. Methods The 128 participants in this study were urology and hepatobiliary patients from three provincial-level hospitals in Hunan. The questionnaire assessing postoperative pain was designed using the typical pain assessment scales and pain management guidelines as references. Results 82.8% of study participants claimed that their postoperative pain was relieved within 3 days of their operations. However, while 91.4% of surveyed patients experienced moderate to severe pain, 51.6% received no treatment for their postoperative pain, and 14.9% complained that medical personnel failed to manage their pain. 20.2% were unsatisfied with their pain management, indicating that treatment did not meet their expectations. Furthermore, participants demonstrated a great misunderstanding of pain and analgesics, as 72.6% of patients were unfamiliar with morphine, 51.6% of patients believed only certain types of pain required management, and 18.5% refused to use morphine. Conclusion In most Chinese provincial-level hospitals, current postoperative pain management methods are able to alleviate the pain experienced by the majority of patients, though pain assessment and therapy procedures are still not standardized. Furthermore, most patients lack a proper understanding of postoperative pain and analgesics. Therefore, pain management education for doctors and patients and their relatives should be implemented in order to improve the quality of postoperative pain management. PMID:24235819

  16. Assessing pain in non-intubated critically ill patients unable to self report: an adaptation of the Behavioral Pain Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gérald Chanques; Jean-François Payen; Grégoire Mercier; Sylvie de Lattre; Eric Viel; Boris Jung; Moussa Cissé; Jean-Yves Lefrant; Samir Jaber

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  To validate an adaptation of the Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS) for its use in non-intubated intensive care unit (ICU) patients\\u000a unable to self-report their pain because of the occurrence of delirium. The “vocalization” domain was inserted to construct\\u000a the BPS-non intubated (BPS-NI) scale, ranging from 3 (no pain) to 12 (most pain).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Prospective psychometric study in a medical-surgical ICU.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The

  17. Widespread sensitization in patients with chronic pain after revision total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Skou, Soren Thorgaard; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Sten; Simonsen, Ole H; Laursen, Mogens B; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2013-09-01

    Pain and sensitization are major issues in patients with osteoarthritis both before and after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and revision TKA (re-TKA). The aim of this study was to assess sensitization in patients with and without chronic pain after re-TKAs. Twenty patients with chronic knee pain and 20 patients without pain after re-TKA participated. Spreading of pain was evaluated as the number of pain sites using a region-divided body chart. The pressure pain threshold (PPT) and pressure pain tolerance (PTT) were assessed by cuff algometry at the lower leg. Temporal summation of pain was assessed by recordings of the pain intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS) during repeated cuff pressure stimulations. Conditioning pain modulation (CPM) was recorded by experimental tonic arm pain by cuff pressure stimulation and assessment of PPTs on the knee, leg, and forearm using handheld pressure algometry. Participants with pain after re-TKA compared to participants without pain demonstrated: (1) significantly more pain sites (P=.004), (2) decreased cuff PPTs and PTTs at the lower leg (P<.001), (3) facilitated temporal summation (P<.001), and (4) impaired CPM (P<.001). Additionally, significant correlations between knee pain intensity and cuff PPTs, temporal summation, and CPM and between total duration of knee pain and temporal summation were found (P<.05). This study demonstrated widespread sensitization in patients with pain after re-TKA and highlighted the importance of ongoing nociceptive input for the chronification process. This has important implications for future revisions, and precautions should be taken if patients have widespread sensitization. PMID:23707268

  18. [Pain assessment and documentation in patients with tumors: theory and reality].

    PubMed

    Senn, H J

    1993-03-01

    Each tumor patient with pain is not only entitled to a careful diagnostic workup and to effective treatment of his pain syndrome, but also to a clear and useful documentation of the course of his pain(s). This documentation ('pain evolution chart') should at least include the main location(s) of the treated pain and the varying pain intensity during the course of the day as well as at night. A respective pain documentation instrument, the St. Gallen Pain Evolution Chart (S-PEC), was presented as a practical example, together with a brief review of the literature. The 'pain evolution chart' should be a regular part of the patient's hospital chart, as it forces the patient and his care-givers to cope more constructively with the present pain syndrome. The (well instructed) patient himself is responsible for an accurate and realistic pain documentation. Such longitudinal 'pain evolution charts' are not only useful for clinical oncology practice but also for clinical pain and analgesic research. PMID:8506446

  19. Pain Assessment and Management in Critically ill Intubated Patients in Jordan: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ayasrah, Shahnaz Mohammad; O’Neill, Teresa Mary; Abdalrahim, Maysoon Saleem; Sutary, Manal Mohammed; Kharabsheh, Muna Suliman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to describe: (1) pain indicators used by nurses and physicians to assess pain, (2) pain management interventions (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) used by nurses, and (3) indicators used by nurses to verify pain intervention effectiveness. Methodology A total of 301 medical records of currently admitted patients from six different ICUs in Jordan were reviewed using a data collection instrument developed by Gélinas et al. (2004) Pain-related indicators were classified into non-observable (patient’s self-reports of pain) and observable (physiological and behavioral) categories. Results Only 105 (35%) of a total 301 reviewed medical records contained pain assessment data. From these medical records, 15 pain episodes were collected altogether. Observable indicators documented 98% of the 115 pain episodes. Patients’ self-reports of pain were documented only 1.7% of the time. In 78% and 46% of the 115 pain episodes, pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for pain management were documented, respectively. Only 37% of the pain episodes were reassessed with self- report (1%) and observable indicators (36%) to determine the effectiveness of the interventions. Conclusion Pain documentation for assessment, management, and reassessment was lacking and needs improvement. PMID:25505864

  20. Comparative study of chest pain characteristics in patients with normal and abnormal coronary angiograms.

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, R. A.; Smeeton, N.; Chambers, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To improve the characterisation of chest pain by comparing symptoms in patients with normal and abnormal coronary angiograms. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. SETTING: Single tertiary cardiac referral centre. PATIENTS: 65 consecutive patients with chest pain and completely normal coronary angiograms recruited over a period of one year, and 65 sex matched patients with significant stenoses at angiography. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Standardised chest pain questionnaires. RESULTS: 61 of 65 patients (94%) and every control reported chest pain on exertion. There were no important differences in the site, quality, and radiation of pain but three symptoms had discriminatory value expressed in binary fashion ("typical" v "atypical"): the consistency with which pain was reproduced by exercise (typical, score index 10/10), the duration of pain episodes (typical, five minutes), and the frequency of pain at rest (typical, 10% all pain episodes). All three symptoms were atypical in 21 (32%) patients with normal coronary angiograms, but only one patient with an abnormal coronary angiogram. Patients with no typical features had a 2% chance of an abnormal coronary angiogram if aged under 55 years or 12% if aged 55 years or more. The additional impact of exercise stress testing was low. CONCLUSIONS: Chest pain characteristics which separate patients with normal coronary angiograms from patients with obstructive coronary heart disease can be defined objectively. This may allow improvements in referral patterns for specialist opinion or angiography, and in characterisation of patients in research studies. PMID:9326987

  1. Intrathecal clonidine and adenosine: effects on pain and sensory processing in patients with chronic regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rauck, Richard L; North, James; Eisenach, James C

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain may be accompanied by hyperalgesia and allodynia, and analgesic interventions may reduce these hypersensitivity phenomena. Preclinical data suggest that intrathecal clonidine and adenosine reduce hypersensitivity, but only clonidine reduces pain; therefore, we tested the effects of these interventions in patients with chronic pain. Twenty-two subjects with pain and hyperalgesia in a lower extremity from complex regional pain syndrome were recruited in a double-blind crossover study to receive intrathecal clonidine, 100 ?g, or adenosine, 2 mg. Primary outcome measure was proportion with ?30% reduction in pain 2 hours after injection, and secondary measures were pain report, areas of hypersensitivity, and temporal summation to heat stimuli. Treatments did not differ in the primary outcome measure (10 met success criterion after clonidine administration and 5 after adenosine administration), although they did differ in pain scores over time, with clonidine having a 3-fold greater effect (P = 0.014). Both drugs similarly reduced areas of hyperalgesia and allodynia by approximately 30% and also inhibited temporal summation. The percentage change in pain report did not correlate with the percentage change in areas of hyperalgesia (P = 0.09, r = 0.08) or allodynia (P = 0.24, r = 0.24) after drug treatment. Both intrathecal clonidine and adenosine acutely inhibit experimentally induced and clinical hypersensitivity in patients with chronic regional pain syndrome. Although these drugs do not differ in analgesia by the primary outcome measure, their difference in effect on pain scores over time and lack of correlation between effect on pain and hypersensitivity suggest that analgesia does not parallel antihyperalgesia with these treatments. PMID:25599305

  2. Pain management in cardiac surgery patients: Comparison between standard therapy and patient-controlled analgesia regimen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim Boldt; Eef Thaler; Andreas Lehmann; Michael Papsdorf; Frank Isgro

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To compare standard nurse-based pain therapy with a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) regimen.Design: Prospective, randomized study.Setting: Single-institutional, clinical investigation in an urban, university-affiliated hospital.Participants: Sixty patients undergoing elective first-time cardiac surgery were included.Interventions: In 30 patients, a standard analgesic regimen was used, and in 30 patients, a PCA regimen was used. The perioperative and postoperative management was similar for all

  3. Pain Associated with Wound Care Treatment among Buruli Ulcer Patients from Ghana and Benin

    PubMed Central

    Alferink, Marike; de Zeeuw, Janine; Sopoh, Ghislain; Agossadou, Chantal; Abass, Karibu M.; Phillips, Richard O.; Loth, Susanne; Jutten, Emma; Barogui, Yves T.; Stewart, Roy E.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Stienstra, Ymkje; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    2015-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. People living in remote areas in tropical Sub Saharan Africa are mostly affected. Wound care is an important component of BU management; this often needs to be extended for months after the initial antibiotic treatment. BU is reported in the literature as being painless, however clinical observations revealed that some patients experienced pain during wound care. This was the first study on pain intensity during and after wound care in BU patients and factors associated with pain. In Ghana and Benin, 52 BU patients above 5 years of age and their relatives were included between December 2012 and May 2014. Information on pain intensity during and after wound care was obtained during two consecutive weeks using the Wong-Baker Pain Scale. Median pain intensity during wound care was in the lower range (Mdn = 2, CV = 1), but severe pain (score > 6) was reported in nearly 30% of the patients. Nevertheless, only one patient received pain medication. Pain declined over time to low scores 2 hours after treatment. Factors associated with higher self-reported pain scores were; male gender, fear prior to treatment, pain during the night prior to treatment, and pain caused by cleaning the wound. The general idea that BU is painless is incorrect for the wound care procedure. This procedural pain deserves attention and appropriate intervention. PMID:26030764

  4. Barriers to postoperative pain management in hip fracture patients with dementia as evaluated by nursing staff.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Maija; Kankkunen, Päivi; Kvist, Tarja; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports a study of the perceptions of nursing staff regarding barriers to postoperative pain management in hip fracture patients with dementia, their expectations, and facilitators offered by their employers to overcome these barriers. Patients with dementia are at high risk for insufficient postoperative pain treatment, mainly owing to inability to articulate or convey their pain experience. Nursing staff have an essential role in the treatment and care of patients who are vulnerable, and therefore unable to advocate for their own pain treatment. Questionnaires with both structured and open-ended questions were used to collect data from nursing staff members in seven university hospitals and ten city-center hospitals from March to May 2011. The response rate was 52% (n = 331). According to nursing staff, the biggest barrier in pain management was the difficulty in assessing pain owing to a patient's cognitive impairment (86%). Resisting care and restlessness among patients with dementia can lead to use of restraints, although these kinds of behavioral changes can point to the occurrence of pain. There were statistically significant differences between the sufficiency of pain management and barriers. Those who expected pain management to be insufficient identified more barriers than those who expected pain management to be sufficient (p < .001). Further updating education for nursing staff in pain detection and management is needed so that nursing staff are also able to recognize behavioral symptoms as potential signs of pain and provide appropriate pain management. PMID:24602437

  5. Beyond patient reported pain: perfusion magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates reproducible cerebral representation of ongoing post-surgical pain.

    PubMed

    Howard, Matthew A; Krause, Kristina; Khawaja, Nadine; Massat, Nathalie; Zelaya, Fernando; Schumann, Gunter; Huggins, John P; Vennart, William; Williams, Steven C R; Renton, Tara F

    2011-01-01

    Development of treatments for acute and chronic pain conditions remains a challenge, with an unmet need for improved sensitivity and reproducibility in measuring pain in patients. Here we used pulsed-continuous arterial spin-labelling [pCASL], a relatively novel perfusion magnetic-resonance imaging technique, in conjunction with a commonly-used post-surgical model, to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow [rCBF] associated with the experience of being in ongoing pain. We demonstrate repeatable, reproducible assessment of ongoing pain that is independent of patient self-report. In a cross-over trial design, 16 participants requiring bilateral removal of lower-jaw third molars underwent pain-free pre-surgical pCASL scans. Following extraction of either left or right tooth, repeat scans were acquired during post-operative ongoing pain. When pain-free following surgical recovery, the pre/post-surgical scanning procedure was repeated for the remaining tooth. Voxelwise statistical comparison of pre and post-surgical scans was performed to reveal rCBF changes representing ongoing pain. In addition, rCBF values in predefined pain and control brain regions were obtained. rCBF increases (5-10%) representing post-surgical ongoing pain were identified bilaterally in a network including primary and secondary somatosensory, insula and cingulate cortices, thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, midbrain and brainstem (including trigeminal ganglion and principal-sensory nucleus), but not in a control region in visual cortex. rCBF changes were reproducible, with no rCBF differences identified across scans within-session or between post-surgical pain sessions. This is the first report of the cerebral representation of ongoing post-surgical pain without the need for exogenous tracers. Regions of rCBF increases are plausibly associated with pain and the technique is reproducible, providing an attractive proposition for testing interventions for on-going pain that do not rely solely on patient self-report. Our findings have the potential to improve our understanding of the cerebral representation of persistent painful conditions, leading to improved identification of specific patient sub-types and implementation of mechanism-based treatments. PMID:21373203

  6. Beyond Patient Reported Pain: Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Demonstrates Reproducible Cerebral Representation of Ongoing Post-Surgical Pain

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Matthew A.; Krause, Kristina; Khawaja, Nadine; Massat, Nathalie; Zelaya, Fernando; Schumann, Gunter; Huggins, John P.; Vennart, William; Williams, Steven C. R.; Renton, Tara F.

    2011-01-01

    Development of treatments for acute and chronic pain conditions remains a challenge, with an unmet need for improved sensitivity and reproducibility in measuring pain in patients. Here we used pulsed-continuous arterial spin-labelling [pCASL], a relatively novel perfusion magnetic-resonance imaging technique, in conjunction with a commonly-used post-surgical model, to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow [rCBF] associated with the experience of being in ongoing pain. We demonstrate repeatable, reproducible assessment of ongoing pain that is independent of patient self-report. In a cross-over trial design, 16 participants requiring bilateral removal of lower-jaw third molars underwent pain-free pre-surgical pCASL scans. Following extraction of either left or right tooth, repeat scans were acquired during post-operative ongoing pain. When pain-free following surgical recovery, the pre/post-surgical scanning procedure was repeated for the remaining tooth. Voxelwise statistical comparison of pre and post-surgical scans was performed to reveal rCBF changes representing ongoing pain. In addition, rCBF values in predefined pain and control brain regions were obtained. rCBF increases (5–10%) representing post-surgical ongoing pain were identified bilaterally in a network including primary and secondary somatosensory, insula and cingulate cortices, thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, midbrain and brainstem (including trigeminal ganglion and principal-sensory nucleus), but not in a control region in visual cortex. rCBF changes were reproducible, with no rCBF differences identified across scans within-session or between post-surgical pain sessions. This is the first report of the cerebral representation of ongoing post-surgical pain without the need for exogenous tracers. Regions of rCBF increases are plausibly associated with pain and the technique is reproducible, providing an attractive proposition for testing interventions for on-going pain that do not rely solely on patient self-report. Our findings have the potential to improve our understanding of the cerebral representation of persistent painful conditions, leading to improved identification of specific patient sub-types and implementation of mechanism-based treatments. PMID:21373203

  7. Prevalence of cocaine use among patients attending the emergency department with chest pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanya Maric; Sally OConnor; Noel Pollock; Zul Mirza; John Henry

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionCocaine is the only drug to show a rise in misuse between 1996 and 2007 in England and Wales. It can cause chest pain and myocardial infarction. This study assessed the prevalence of cocaine use in patients presenting with chest pain, and determined the association between cocaine use and chest pain.MethodsPatients presenting with chest pain had a urine sample collected

  8. Exposure to physical movement in chronic back pain patients: no evidence for generalization across different movements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liesbet Goubert; Geert Francken; Geert Crombez; Debora Vansteenwegen; Roeland Lysens

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated whether the effects of exposure to one movement generalize towards another dissimilar movement in patients with low back pain. Thirty-nine patients (11 male, 28 female; mean age=43.49 yrs) were requested to perform two movements twice, i.e. bending forward and straight leg raising. During each of the four trials, baseline pain, expected pain and experienced pain were recorded.

  9. Attentional Strategy Moderates Effects of Pain Catastrophizing on Symptom-Specific Physiological Responses in Chronic Low Back Pain Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip J. Quartana; John W. Burns; Kenneth R. Lofland

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether experimentally-manipulated attentional strategies moderated relations between pain\\u000a catastrophizing and symptom-specific physiological responses to a cold-pressor task among sixty-eight chronic low back patients.\\u000a Patients completed measures of pain catastrophizing and depression, and were randomly assigned to sensory focus, distraction\\u000a or suppression conditions during a cold pressor. Lumbar paraspinal and trapezius EMG, and cardiovascular responses

  10. Evaluation of Factors Associated with Chronic Low Back Pain in Hemodialysis Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiana Cristofolini; Sergio Draibe; Ricardo Sesso

    2008-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Low back pain is a common and disabling symptom that has not been properly studied in hemodialysis patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors associated with chronic low back pain in these patients. Methods: We evaluated 205 patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Data were obtained through medical records, patient interviews and physical examination. Balance was evaluated through

  11. Physical examination for lumbar radiculopathy due to disc herniation in patients with low-back pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Windt van der D. A. W. M; E. Simons; I. I. Riphagen; C. Ammendolia; A. P. Verhagen; M. Laslett; W. Devillé; R. A. Deyo; L. M. Bouter; Vet de H. C. W; B. Aertgeerts

    2010-01-01

    Background Low-back pain with leg pain (sciatica) may be caused by a herniated intervertebral disc exerting pressure on the nerve root. Most patients will respond to conservative treatment, but in carefully selected patients, surgical discectomy may provide faster relief of symptoms. Primary care clinicians use patient history and physical examination to evaluate the likelihood of disc herniation and select patients

  12. Physical examination for lumbar radiculopathy due to disc herniation in patients with low-back pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. W. M. van der Windt; E. Simons; I. I. Riphagen; C. Ammendolia; A. P. Verhangen; M. Laslett; W. Devillé; R. A. Deyo; L. M. Bouter; H. C. W. de Vet; B. Aertgeerts

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low-back pain with leg pain (sciatica) may be caused by a herniated intervertebral disc exerting pressure on the nerve root. Most patients will respond to conservative treatment, but in carefully selected patients, surgical discectomy may provide faster relief of symptoms. Primary care clinicians use patient history and physical examination to evaluate the likelihood of disc herniation and select patients

  13. Somatosensory and Affective Contributions to Emotional, Social, and Daily Functioning in Chronic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Boggero, Ian A; Carlson, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study tested the independent and interactive contributions of the somatosensory component of pain (pain intensity) and the affective component of pain (pain unpleasantness) on emotional, social, and daily functioning in chronic pain patients. Subjects Participants were 472 patients seeking treatment for chronic orofacial pain. Mean age of the sample was 46.0 years (standard deviation [SD] = 14.67, range 18–78), with 82.2% female. Average pain duration at the time of initial appointment was 75.7 months (SD = 106.66). Methods Participants completed self-report measures of pain intensity, unpleasantness, and functional outcomes at the time of their first appointment. These data were later extracted from participant’s de-identified medical records. Multivariate linear regression was used to test the interaction of pain intensity and unpleasantness on outcome measures of emotional, social, and daily functioning. Results Results revealed that pain intensity contributed to poorer functional outcomes but higher levels of social support even after controlling for pain unpleasantness. After controlling for pain intensity, unpleasantness was associated with higher pain interference and affective distress. There was also pain intensity by unpleasantness interaction on pain interference. Specifically, at lower levels of pain unpleasantness, changes in pain intensity produced greater changes in pain interference than they did at higher levels of pain unpleasantness. Conclusions Results suggest that both intensity and unpleasantness contribute unique variance to functional outcomes. The results highlight the importance of interventions that not only try to reduce pain levels but also reduce levels of pain unpleasantness. PMID:25351790

  14. Helping patients decide: From Hippocrates to videodiscs—an application for patients with low back pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl W. Nelson

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines a modular, microcomputer and videodisc expert system, for patients with mechanical low back pain. The system incorporate facts, rules, and methods to extract data, opinions, information, and user preferences. It supports individual patient needs with a broad knowledge base, and analytical modelling techniques that connect flexible inference structures and user choices. Videodisc based expert systems help break

  15. Is there a relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in patients with non-specific low back pain?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Ruhe; René Fejer; Bruce Walker

    2011-01-01

    Background  Increased center of pressure excursions are well documented in patients suffering from non-specific low back pain, whereby\\u000a the altered postural sway includes both higher mean sway velocities and larger sway area. No investigation has been conducted\\u000a to evaluate a relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in adults (aged 50 or less) with non-specific low back\\u000a pain.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Seventy-seven patients with

  16. Ulcer pain in patients with venous leg ulcers related to antibiotic treatment and compression therapy.

    PubMed

    Akesson, Nina; Oien, Rut Frank; Forssell, Henrik; Fagerström, Cecilia

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare venous leg ulcer patients with and without ulcer pain to see whether ulcer pain affected the use of antibiotic treatment and compression therapy throughout healing. A total of 431 patients with venous leg ulcers were included during the study period. Every patient was registered in a national quality registry for patients with hard-to-heal leg, foot, and pressure ulcers. A high incidence of ulcer pain (57%) was found when the patients entered the study. Patients with ulcer pain had been treated more extensively with antibiotics both before and during the study period. Throughout healing there was a significant reduction of antibiotic use among patients in the 'no pain' group, from 44% to 23% (P=0.008). There was no significant difference between the two groups concerning compression therapy (85% vs. 88%), but 12% of patients in the 'pain' group did not get their prescribed compression compared with 6% of patients in the 'no pain' group. The groups did not differ significantly in terms of ulcer duration, ulcer size or healing time. This study shows a high incidence of ulcer pain, confirming that pain has a great impact on patients with venous leg ulcers. Results further suggest that the presence of ulcer pain increases the prescription of antibiotics but does not affect the use of compression therapy. Several advantages were found from using a national quality registry. The registry is a valuable clinical tool showing the importance of accurate diagnosis and effective treatment. PMID:25191864

  17. Impact of Pain and Palliative Care Services on Patients

    PubMed Central

    Santha, S

    2011-01-01

    Background: Palliative care has become an emerging need of the day as the existing health-care facilities play only a limited role in the care of the chronically ill in the society. Patients with terminal illness in most cases spend their lives in the community among their family and neighbors, so there is the need for a multi disciplinary team for their constant care. Volunteers are primary care givers who originate normally from the same locality with local knowledge and good public contact through which they can make significant contributions in a team work by bridging the gap between the patient community and outside world. Aim: The present study has been undertaken to analyze the impact of palliative care services on patients by considering 51 variables. Materials and Methods: The respondents of the study include 50 pain and palliative care patients selected at random from 15 palliative care units functioning in Ernakulam district. The analysis was made by using statistical techniques viz. weighted average method, Chi-square test, Friedman repeated measures analysis of variance on ranks and percentages. Results: The study revealed that the major benefit of palliative care to the patients is the reduction of pain to a considerable extent, which was unbearable for them earlier. Second, the hope of patients could be maintained or strengthened through palliative care treatment. Conclusion: It is understood that the services of the doctors and nurses are to be improved further by making available their services to all the palliative care patients in a uniform manner. PMID:21633618

  18. Effectiveness of mindfulness meditation on pain and quality of life of patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Banth, Sudha; Ardebil, Maryam Didehdar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Recovery of patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) is depended on several physical and psychological factors. Therefore, the authors aimed to examine the efficacy of mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) as a mind-body intervention on quality of life and pain severity of female patients with nonspecific chronic LBP (NSCLBP). Methods: Eighty-eight patients diagnosed as NSCLBP by physician and randomly assigned to experimental (MBSR+ usual medical care) and the control group (usual medical care only). The subjects assessed in 3 times frames; before, after and 4 weeks after intervention by Mac Gil pain and standard brief quality of life scales. Data obtained from the final sample analyzed by ANCOVA using SPSS software. Results: The findings showed MBSR was effective in reduction of pain severity and the patients who practiced 8 sessions meditation reported significantly lower pain than patients who only received usual medical care. There was a significant effect of the between subject factor group (F [1, 45] = 16.45, P < 0.001) and (F [1, 45] = 21.51, P < 0.001) for physical quality of life and (F [1, 45] = 13.80, P < 0.001) and (F [1, 45] = 25.07, P < 0.001) mental quality of life respectively. Conclusion: MBSR as a mind-body therapy including body scan, sitting and walking meditation was effective intervention on reduction of pain severity and improvement of physical and mental quality of life of female patients with NSCLBP. PMID:26170592

  19. Pain modulation efficiency delays seeking medical help in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Granot, Michal; Dagul, Pnina; Darawsha, Wisam; Aronson, Doron

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reperfusion is crucial to reduce mortality in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction. Prehospital patient delay, defined as time from symptoms onset to the decision to seek medical attention, accounts for a large proportion of cases with delayed reperfusion. However, whether pain modulation processes are involved in this phenomenon is not known. We hypothesized that prehospital patient delay may be affected by a reduction of perceived pain perception and pain modulation pattern. Pain threshold, magnitude estimation of suprathreshold stimulation, mechanical temporal summation and conditioned pain modulation (CPM), and recalls of pain magnitude at the onset of chest pain were obtained in 67 patients with first ST elevation myocardial infarction. The study's primary outcome was prehospital patient delay. The median patient delay was 24 (interquartile range, 0.5-72) hours. Of all psychophysical pain measures including pain threshold, magnitude estimation of suprathreshold stimulation, mechanical temporal summation, as well as CPM, only warm sensation threshold was independently associated with lower clinical chest pain intensity (P = 0.01). Multivariable regression analysis (R = 0.449; P < 0.0001) revealed an inverse independent association between chest pain intensity (P < 0.001) and patient delay, whereas efficient CPM was positively associated with prolonged patient delay (P = 0.034). The electrocardiography-derived myocardial ischemic area was not associated with chest pain intensity or patient delay, indicating that the affected ischemic tissue is not a dominant component that determines pain response. In conclusion, beyond the perceived chest pain intensity, the activation pattern of descending inhibition pathways during coronary occlusion affects pain interpretation and behavior during acute coronary occlusion. PMID:25599315

  20. The Effect of Shiatsu Massage on Pain Reduction in Burn Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ardabili, Fatemeh Mohaddes; Purhajari, Soybeh; Najafi Ghezeljeh, Tahereh; Haghani, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Burn is a tragedy that follows multiple problems in a patient including pain, anxiety and lack of confidence into medical team. This study evaluated the effect of shiatsu massage on pain intensity of burn patients. METHODS A total of 120 burn patients from Motahhari Burn Hospital and of both genders were randomly divided into 4 groups of undergoing hand massage, leg massage, both hand and leg massages, and the control group. The effect of shiatsu massage in pain relief of burned patients was evaluated. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess pain in burn patients. RESULTS Pain intensity in the control group before and after the intervention was not statistically significant (p=1). In all massage groups, the difference for pain intensity before and after the intervention was statistically significant. CONCLUSION According to our data, shiatsu method over both hands and legs were effective in pain reduction and can be recommended together with analgesics to decrease the dose. PMID:25489534

  1. Sex differences in experimental and clinical pain sensitivity for patients with shoulder pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindsay L. Kindler; Carolina Valencia; Roger B. Fillingim; Steven Z. George

    2011-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that men and women differ in the way that they perceive and process pain. Much of this work has been done in healthy adults with a lack of consensus in clinical pain populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate how men and women with shoulder pain differ in their experience of experimental and clinical pain

  2. Pain-Related Attitudes and Functioning in Elderly Primary Care Patients.

    PubMed

    Miró, Jordi; Queral, Rosa; Nolla, Maria Del Carme

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations between specific pain-related beliefs and both mental health and pain interference in elderly patients with chronic pain. A total of 139 patients completed validated questionnaires assessing pain domains (i.e., intensity, duration and location), psychological functioning, pain interference and demographic variables. Pain-related beliefs were related with poorer mental health (Disability = -.27; Harm = -.23; Solicitude = -.24; Control = .18; Emotion = -.29) and greater interference in daily activities (Disability =.41; Harm =.13; Solicitude =.29; Control = -.31). Our findings are consistent with a biopsychosocial model of chronic pain which goes beyond physical variables in an attempt to understand and promote patients' adjustment to chronic pain problems. PMID:26055164

  3. Clinical Presentation and Self-Reported Patterns of Pain and Function in Patients with Plantar Heel Pain

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Sandra E.; Dale, Ann Marie; Hayes, Marcie Harris; Johnson, Jeffrey E.; McCormick, Jeremy J.; Racette, Brad A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Plantar heel pain is a common disorder of the foot for which patients seek medical treatment. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between duration of symptoms in plantar fasciitis patients and demographic factors, the intensity and location of pain, extent of previous treatment and self reported pain and function. Methods The charts of patients presenting with plantar heel pain between June 2008 and October 2010 were reviewed retrospectively and 182 patients with a primary diagnosis of plantar fasciitis were identified. Patients with symptoms less than 6 months were identified as acute and patients with symptoms greater than or equal to six months were defined as having chronic symptoms. Comparisons based on duration of symptoms were performed for age, gender, BMI, comorbidities, pain location and intensity, and a functional score measured by the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM). Results The two groups were similar in age, BMI, gender, and comorbidities. Pain severity, as measured by a VAS, was not statistically significant between the two groups (6.6 and 6.2). The acute and chronic groups of patients reported similar levels of function on both the activity of daily living (62 and 65) and sports (47 and 45) subscales of the FAAM. Patients in the chronic group were more likely to have seen more providers and tried more treatment options for this condition. Conclusion As plantar fasciitis symptoms extend beyond 6 months, patients do not experience increasing pain intensity or functional limitation. No specific risk factors have been identified to indicate a risk of developing chronic symptoms. PMID:22995253

  4. Chest Pain as a presenting complaint in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI)

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Muhammad Ajmal; Alam Khan, Shahzad; Safdar, Sohail; Taseer, Ijaz-Ul-Haque

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study various characteristics of chest pain in acute myocardial infarction patients. Methodology: A total of 331 patients of AMI admitted at Cardiology unit Nishtar Hospital Multan and Chaudhry Pervez Elahi Institute of Cardiology Multan, irrespective of the age and gender, were included in this study. The study duration was one year starting from June 2011 to June 2012. Non-probability purposive sampling technique was used in this descriptive study. Informed consent to participate in this study was taken. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS-11. Results: A total number of 331 patients with AMI were included in the study. Mean age was 54.99±11.25 years with minimum age 20 years and maximum age 90 years. It included 264(79.8%) male and 67(20.2%) female patients with male to female ratio of 3.9:1. Out of these 331 patients 308 (93.1%) patients reported chest pain as the presenting complaint. Remaining 23(6.9%) presented with clinical features other than chest pain. There were 127(38.4%) patients with pre-cordial chest pain, 115(34.7%) had retrosternal chest pain, 58(17.5%) were having epigastric pain. Severe chest pain was seen in 281(84.9%) patients while 26(7.9%) had only mild chest discomfort. Radiation of the pain to shoulder, neck and jaw was seen in 75 (22.7%) patients. In 42(12.7%) patients, pain radiated to both sides of chest. Another 55(16.6%) patients had pain radiation to chest, shoulder, upper arm and ulnar side of left forearm. Chest pain radiation to interscapular region along with both sides of chest was present in 10(3.0%) patients. In 11(3.3%) patientspain radiated only to left side of chest. Pain persisting for >20 minutes was reported by 298 (90%) patients while only 10(3.1%) had pain persisting for <20 minutes. Conclusion: There is considerable overlap in chest pain of cardiac as well as non cardiac causes. However, vigilant evaluation of characteristics of chest pain in history taking may help to overcome this dilemma. Severe and prolonged precordial chest pain in a male patient between the age of 41-70 years, with pain radiation to left shoulder, neck and jaw is highly suggestive of AMI. PMID:24353577

  5. Sensitivity of patients with painful temporomandibular disorders to experimentally evoked pain: evidence for altered temporal summation of pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Maixner; Roger Fillingim; Asgeir Sigurdsson; Shelley Kincaid; Stefanie Silva

    1998-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) represent a group of chronic painful conditions involving the muscles of mastication and the temporomandibular joint. Several studies have reported that TMD is associated with enhanced sensitivity to experimental pain. Twenty-three TMD subjects and 24 pain-free matched control subjects participated in a set of studies which were designed to evaluate whether the temporal integrative aspects of thermal

  6. The effect of a preoperative educational film on patients' postoperative pain in relation to their request for opioids.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Jacqueline F M; van Wijck, Albert J M; Kappen, Teus H; Peelen, Linda M; Kalkman, Cor J; Schuurmans, Marieke J

    2015-04-01

    Guidelines for postoperative pain treatment are based on patients' pain scores. Patients with an intermediate Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score of 5 or 6 may consider their pain as either bearable or unbearable, which makes it difficult to decide on pain treatment because guidelines advise professionals to treat pain at NRS > 4. Educating patients in using an NRS score for pain might improve adequate pain treatment. A quasi-randomized controlled trial was conducted in which 194 preoperative patients watched the educational film and 183 the control film. Pain scores were considered discordant when patients reported an NRS ? 4 and wanted additional opioids or when patients reported an NRS > 4 and did not want additional opioids. Beliefs, fear, and knowledge of pain; pain assessment; and pain treatment were measured by questionnaires. No significant differences in discordant pain scores between the groups were found: relative risk (RR) 0.73, confidence interval (CI) 0.47-1.15 at rest and RR 0.96, CI 0.72-1.28 at movement. Patients in the intervention group had lower NRS pain scores than patients in the control group. In the intervention group, patients had significantly more knowledge and lower barriers to pain management compared with the control group. We did not find a statistically significant reduction in discordant pain scores when comparing the intervention group with the control group. However, patients in the intervention group had significantly lower pain scores, lower barriers, and more knowledge of pain treatment than patients in the control group. PMID:25246325

  7. Evoked Pain Analgesia in Chronic Pelvic Pain Patients using Respiratory-gated Auricular Vagal Afferent Nerve Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Napadow, Vitaly; Edwards, Robert R; Cahalan, Christine M; Mensing, George; Greenbaum, Seth; Valovska, Assia; Li, Ang; Kim, Jieun; Maeda, Yumi; Park, Kyungmo; Wasan, Ajay D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Previous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) studies have demonstrated anti-nociceptive effects, and recent non-invasive approaches; termed transcutaneous-VNS, or t-VNS, have utilized stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve in the ear. The dorsal medullary vagal system operates in tune with respiration, and we propose that supplying vagal afferent stimulation gated to the exhalation phase of respiration can optimize t-VNS. Design counterbalanced, crossover study. Patients patients with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) due to endometriosis in a specialty pain clinic. Interventions/Outcomes We evaluated evoked pain analgesia for Respiratory-gated Auricular Vagal Afferent Nerve Stimulation (RAVANS) compared with Non-Vagal Auricular Stimulation (NVAS). RAVANS and NVAS were evaluated in separate sessions spaced at least one week apart. Outcome measures included deep tissue pain intensity, temporal summation of pain, and anxiety ratings, which were assessed at baseline, during active stimulation, immediately following stimulation, and 15 minutes after stimulus cessation. Results RAVANS demonstrated a trend for reduced evoked pain intensity and temporal summation of mechanical pain, and significantly reduced anxiety in N=15 CPP patients, compared to NVAS, with moderate to large effect sizes (eta2>0.2). Conclusion Chronic pain disorders such as CPP are in great need of effective, non-pharmacological options for treatment. RAVANS produced promising anti-nociceptive effects for QST outcomes reflective of the noted hyperalgesia and central sensitization in this patient population. Future studies should evaluate longer-term application of RAVANS to examine its effects on both QST outcomes and clinical pain. PMID:22568773

  8. Association of serum total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status with pain perception in patients with myofacial pain dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Etoz, Osman A; Ataoglu, Hanife; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Herken, Emine Nur; Bayazit, Yildirim Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to find out the association of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) with generalized pressure pain thresholds (PPT) of patients with myofacial pain dysfunction (MPD). PPT scores of patients with MPD (n = 37) and healthy individuals (n = 43) were measured on the hypothenar region of the hand using a mechanical algometer. Serum samples were collected and TAC and TOS were measured by novel methods. The TAC of patients was significantly lower than that of the control subjects. The difference between the TOS measurements of patients and control subjects was not significant. The PPT scores of the patients were significantly lower than that of control subjects. There may be an association between serum antioxidant capacity and MPD. Low serum TAC might also be related with pain perception. PMID:19922356

  9. [Experience in treatment of patients with neuropathic facial pain using ziconotide].

    PubMed

    Lux, E A; Rasche, D

    2011-08-01

    We report on the intrathecal use of ziconotide in three patients with idiopathic facial pain after surgery of the mouth, jaw or face and one patient with neuropathic pain after damage of the lingual nerve. The therapy was successful in three patients but one patient with idiopathic facial pain had pain relief only during the test phase of ziconotide with an external pump and not after implanting the Synchromed® pump. With intrathecal morphine therapy this patient achieved good pain relief. We recommend that patients with neuropathic facial pain should be treated with ziconotide after implementation of guideline-based therapy. In the test phase the ziconotide dose should be increased by 0.6 µg/day per week after an initial dose of 0.6-1.2 µg/day to avoid side-effects. PMID:21818721

  10. Nursing care for the patient with co-existing pain and substance misuse: meeting the patient's needs.

    PubMed

    Finney, Leanne

    2010-01-01

    Meeting the needs of the patient with co-existing pain and substance misuse is a complex ethical issue. As advocates for the patient, nurses participate in developing a patient-centered approach to care. PMID:20336981

  11. Effects of reflexotherapy on acute postoperative pain and anxiety among patients with digestive cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsay, Shiow-Luan; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Chen, Su-Chiu; Lin, Hung-Ru; Lin, Kuan-Chia

    2008-01-01

    Even after receiving analgesia, patients with gastric and liver cancer still report moderate levels of postoperative pain. The purpose of the study was to investigate the efficacy of foot reflexotherapy as adjuvant therapy in relieving pain and anxiety in postoperative patients with gastric cancer and hepatocellular cancer. The study design was a randomized controlled trial. Data were collected from 4 surgical wards of a medical center in 2005 in Taipei, Taiwan. Sixty-one patients who had received surgery for gastric cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 30) or control (n = 31) group. Patients in the intervention group received the usual pain management plus 20 minutes of foot reflexotherapy during postoperative days 2, 3, and 4. Patients in the control group received usual pain management. Outcome measures included the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire, visual analog scale for pain, summary of the pain medications consumed, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results demonstrated that studied patients reported moderately high levels of pain and anxiety postoperatively while patients were managed with patient-controlled analgesia. Using generalized estimation equations and controlling for confounding variables, less pain (P < .05) and anxiety (P < .05) over time were reported by the intervention group compared with the control group. In addition, patients in the intervention group received significantly less opioid analgesics than the control group (P < .05). Findings from this study provide nurses with an additional treatment to offer postoperative digestive cancer patients. PMID:18490886

  12. Accurate Pain Detection Is Not Enough: Contextual and Attributional Style as Biasing Factors in Patient Evaluations and Treatment Choice1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda M. Lundquist; N. C. Higgins; Kenneth M. Prkachin

    2007-01-01

    Ninety-six adults with a supportive or unsupportive attributional style participated in an experiment that examined the effects of contextual (i.e., coping and medical evidence) information on evaluations of pain severity, the pain sufferer, and treatment choice for shoulder pain patients. Respondents accurately detected a patient's pain level from the vid­ eotaped facial displays, but patients who were coping with the

  13. Gallbladder Ejection Fraction and Symptom Outcome in Patients with Acalculous Biliary-Like Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuri Ozden; John K. DiBaise

    2003-01-01

    Patients with acalculous biliary-like pain present a difficult clinical challenge. Our aim was to evaluate the outcome of patients with recurrent biliary-like pain without gallstones who underwent testing of gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) by cholecystokinin-cholescintigraphy (CCK-CS) in order to determine clinical factors that may predict symptom resolution. We reviewed the records of patients with recurrent acalculous biliary-like pain who underwent

  14. Mobile Pain Coping Skills Training for Stem Cell Transplant Patients | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Persistent pain is a major challenge for patients who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and is related to more fatigue, more physical disability, poorer quality of life, and poorer medical adherence. There is a need to examine strategies for managing pain in HSCT patients that can complement existing analgesic regimens. Strong evidence suggests that cognitive and behavioral factors play an important role in HSCT patients' ability to manage their pain.

  15. The effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on pain, disability, and depression of chronic low back pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyeonjee; Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong; Jeon, Chunbae; Kim, Taehoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on pain, disability, and depression of chronic low back pain patients. [Subjects] In this study, 30 chronic low back pain patients were divided into an extracorporeal shock wave therapy group (ESWTG, n=15) and a conservative physical therapy group (CPTG, n=15). [Methods] The ESWTG received extracorporeal shock wave therapy and the CPTG received general conservative physical therapy two times per week for six weeks. Pain was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS), the degree of disability of the patients was assessed using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and their degree of depression was measured using the Beck depression index (BDI). [Results] In intra-group comparisons, ESWTG and CPTG showed significant decreases in VAS, ODI, and BDI scores. Intergroup comparisons revealed that these decreases in VAS, ODI, and BDI scores were significantly larger in ESWTG than in CPTG. [Conclusion] Extracorporeal shock wave therapy is an effective intervention for the treatment of pain, disability, and depression in chronic low back pain patients. PMID:25729177

  16. The effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on pain, disability, and depression of chronic low back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyeonjee; Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong; Jeon, Chunbae; Kim, Taehoon

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on pain, disability, and depression of chronic low back pain patients. [Subjects] In this study, 30 chronic low back pain patients were divided into an extracorporeal shock wave therapy group (ESWTG, n=15) and a conservative physical therapy group (CPTG, n=15). [Methods] The ESWTG received extracorporeal shock wave therapy and the CPTG received general conservative physical therapy two times per week for six weeks. Pain was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS), the degree of disability of the patients was assessed using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and their degree of depression was measured using the Beck depression index (BDI). [Results] In intra-group comparisons, ESWTG and CPTG showed significant decreases in VAS, ODI, and BDI scores. Intergroup comparisons revealed that these decreases in VAS, ODI, and BDI scores were significantly larger in ESWTG than in CPTG. [Conclusion] Extracorporeal shock wave therapy is an effective intervention for the treatment of pain, disability, and depression in chronic low back pain patients. PMID:25729177

  17. Pocket-size, portable surface EMG device in the differentiation of low back pain patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Jalovaara; T. Niinimäki; H. Vanharanta

    1995-01-01

    The relevance of surface EMG of the paraspinal muscles measured by a portable, pocket-size device with a special amplifier was evaluated in different low back pain groups. Patients with only local low back pain had significantly higher EMG activities than those with unilateral radiating pain without verified disc herniation, those with verified disc herniation, and controls, but there were no

  18. Disorders in trunk rotation during walking in patients with low back pain: a dynamical systems approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruud W. Selles; Robert C. Wagenaar; Theo H. Smit; Paul I. J. M. Wuisman

    2001-01-01

    Objective. (1) To introduce an evaluation tool for the assessment of walking disorders in low back pain patients. (2) To investigate whether walking patterns in low back pain patients are different from those of control subjects.Design. Relative phase measures of movement coordination are applied in the assessment of trunk function in a small group of patients with non-specific low back

  19. A Review and Investigation of Family Factors in the Treatment of Chronic Pain Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailis, Karen L.

    Chronic pain is a syndrome which forces many changes upon the patient and upon the family system. To examine the relationship between patients' and their spouses' psychosocial functioning, questionnaire data were collected from 28 male and 18 female patients referred for evaluation to an outpatient pain management program. The Minnesota…

  20. Brief presurgery hypnosis reduces distress and pain in excisional breast biopsy patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy H. Montgomery; Christina R. Weltz; Megan Seltz; Dana H. Bovbjerg

    2002-01-01

    Each year, hundreds of thousands of women undergo excisional breast biopsies for definitive diagnosis. Not only do these patients experience pain associated with the procedure, but they also endure distress associated with the threat of cancer. Hypnosis has been demonstrated as effective for controlling patients' pain in other surgical settings, but breast surgery patients have received little attention. To determine

  1. Enhanced temporal summation of second pain and its central modulation in fibromyalgia patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald D. Price; Roland Staud; Michael E. Robinson; Andre P. Mauderli; Richard Cannon; Charles J. Vierck

    2002-01-01

    We have previously shown that fibromyalgia (FMS) patients have enhanced temporal summation (windup) and prolonged decay of heat-induced second pain in comparison to control subjects, consistent with central sensitization. It has been hypothesized that sensory abnormalities of FMS patients are related to deficient pain modulatory mechanisms. Therefore, we conducted several analyses to further characterize enhanced windup in FMS patients and

  2. Upper thoracic-spine disc degeneration in patients with cervical pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Estanislao Arana; Luis Martí-Bonmatí; Enrique Mollá; Salvador Costa

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship of upper thoracic spine degenerative disc contour changes on MR imaging in patients with neck pain. The relation between upper thoracic and cervical spine degenerative disc disease is not well established. Design and patients One hundred and fifty-six patients referred with cervical pain were studied. There were 73 women and 77 men with a mean

  3. A patient with acute kidney pain and high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Debbie L; Soulen, Michael C

    2015-04-01

    This case presented challenging diagnostic and management issues in a young healthy man who presented with abdominal pain and new-onset hypertension. The differential diagnosis evolved over the course of the clinical presentation. The patient had severe vascular involvement of his renal and basal cerebral arteries that initially was assumed to be due to a vasculitic process or hypercoagulable state. Finally it became apparent that the patient did not have a systemic illness but rather a localized vascular disease most likely due to segmental arterial mediolysis, a rare, under-recognized condition that can potentially be fatal. This condition is often difficult to distinguish from fibromuscular dysplasia. It is important to recognize and correctly diagnose the condition, particularly in the acute phase of the disease, because delay in diagnosis can contribute to morbidity and mortality. PMID:25583291

  4. Cognitive profile of patients with rotated drawing at copy or recall: a controlled group study.

    PubMed

    Molteni, Federica; Traficante, Debora; Ferri, Francesca; Isella, Valeria

    2014-03-01

    When copying or recalling a figure from memory, some patient with dementia or focal brain lesions may rotate the drawing through ±90° or 180°. We have tried to clarify the nature of this phenomenon by investigating the cognitive profile of 22 patients who rotated the copy of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure and 27 who rotated (only) the recall, and two control groups of cases with the same neuropsychiatric diagnoses, but no misorientation deficit. Brain MRI and FDG-PET images were also analysed. Predictor of rotation at the copy versus rotation at the recall was visuospatial impairment as measured by the copy of the Rey Figure; predictors of rotation at the copy versus no rotation were, again, visuospatial deficits, in addition to an abnormal performance at the task of selective attention. No specific profile of cognitive impairment distinguished patients with and without rotation at the recall. Disproportionate temporo-parieto-occipital atrophy or hypometabolism were evident in cases with misorientation of the copy, while predominant frontal abnormalities were found in cases of rotated recall. Based on these findings, rotated drawing at the copy is interpreted as a dorsal visual stream deficit, whose occurrence is more probable when attentional control is impaired. Rotation at recall seems to have a distinct, more anterior, neural substrate, but its dysexecutive nature has yet to be demonstrated. PMID:24509088

  5. Student nurses’ experiences of caring for patients in pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick Allcock; Penny Standen

    2001-01-01

    Poor pain assessment contributes to inadequate pain relief. Studies in the United States have shown that while student nurses become more sensitive to psychological distress during training, they become less sensitive to pain. However, a recent study by the authors in the United Kingdom found that while inferences of psychological distress increased there was no change in inferences of pain

  6. Process evaluation of podiatric treatment of patients with forefoot pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Foot pain is a common problem for people aged 50 and over and occurs more often in women than in men. About 60% of the foot problems are forefoot problems and slightly more than half of these patients seek medical help, mainly in the form of podiatric care. Podiatric treatment of forefoot problems is known to be heterogeneous. The aims of the present study are to describe the podiatric treatment of patients with forefoot pain and to evaluate the podiatric examination and treatment using an expert panel. Method We invited twenty-five randomly selected subjects with forefoot problems who had received podiatric treatment in a pragmatic randomised clinical trial to participate in an analysis of their treatment by an expert panel. The panel retrospectively established the cause of the foot problem as well as the therapeutic goals and evaluated the treatment. These findings were compared to those reported by the treating podiatrist. Results Two fundamentally different approaches were found in approach of podiatric examination; a functional approach (n?=13) and a non-functional approach (n?=12). In nine cases the expert panel agreed with the cause recorded by the podiatrist. In five other cases the expert panel concluded that the treatment of the podiatrist was not consistent with the cause of the problem recorded by the podiatrist. Of the 10 patients for whom the podiatrist had recorded to have given shoe advice, only two were able to recollect the proper advice. Three patients did not remember receiving advice at all. Conclusion In this study almost half of the podiatrists worked according to a non-functional approach where the other half (like the expert panel) chose a functional strategy that analyses the underlying problem. Fundamental differences in treatment plans and thus heterogeneous treatments could be a consequence. PMID:23919765

  7. Effects of coaching patients with lung cancer to report cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, Diana; Berry, Donna; Cain, Kevin; Huang, Hsiu-Ying; Mekwa, Julia; Lewis, Frances; Gallucci, Betty; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Ko, Nai-Ying

    2010-02-01

    The authors have examined the effects of coaching sensory self-monitoring and reporting on pain-related variables in patients with lung cancer. Randomly assigned to coached or not-coached groups, 215 patients have their interactions with their providers audiotaped and complete study measures pre- and postintervention. Of the 151 patients who complete the 4-week study, those coached are more likely than those not coached to give their providers unsolicited sensory pain information and to mention it before their providers ask for it. The mean number of pain parameters discussed during the audiotaped clinic visit is statistically larger at study end for the coached group. Scores for analgesic adequacy, all pain indices except one, anxiety, depression, and catastrophizing coping are not significantly different. Although coaching increases the amount of pain data communicated to providers by patients with lung cancer, the magnitude is small and does not lead to improved adequacy of analgesics prescribed for each patient's pain level. PMID:20164474

  8. Kinesiophobia in chronic low back pain patients—does the startle paradigm support the hypothesis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uta Kronshage; Birgit Kroener-Herwig; Michael Pfingsten

    2001-01-01

    Pain research has shown that fear-avoidance beliefs determine disability from back pain to a significant degree. It is assumed\\u000a that anxiety regarding certain movements or activities motivates avoidance behavior. It has not yet been established whether\\u000a chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients actually experience fear of movement when confronted with back pain-related movements.\\u000a Startle response measures reliably differentiate the affective

  9. Beyond Patient Reported Pain: Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Demonstrates Reproducible Cerebral Representation of Ongoing Post-Surgical Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew A. Howard; Kristina Krause; Nadine Khawaja; Nathalie Massat; Fernando Zelaya; Gunter Schumann; John P. Huggins; William Vennart; Steven C. R. Williams; Tara F. Renton; Bernhard Baune

    2011-01-01

    Development of treatments for acute and chronic pain conditions remains a challenge, with an unmet need for improved sensitivity and reproducibility in measuring pain in patients. Here we used pulsed-continuous arterial spin-labelling [pCASL], a relatively novel perfusion magnetic-resonance imaging technique, in conjunction with a commonly-used post-surgical model, to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow [rCBF] associated with the experience

  10. Postoperative Pain Management among Surgically Treated Patients in an Ethiopian Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Woldehaimanot, Tewodros Eyob; Eshetie, Tesfahun Chanie; Kerie, Mirkuzie Woldie

    2014-01-01

    Background Incidence of postoperative pain has been reported to be between 47–100%. Ineffective postoperative pain management results in tangible and intangible costs. The purpose of this study was to assess the processes and outcomes of pain management in the surgical wards of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. Methods and Findings A prospective cross sectional study was conducted among 252 postoperative patients during February 13 to April 30, 2012. A contextually modified and validated (Cronbach’s ? coefficient of 0.78) American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire was used to assess pain experience of patients. Patients’ charts were reviewed to assess the pattern of analgesic use. Incidence of postoperative pain was 91.4%, and remained high over 3 measurements (McNemar’s; p<0.05), and 80.1% of the patients were undertreated. The mean pain intensity, and pain interference on functional status were 6.72±1.44 and 5.61±1.13 on a 10 point Numerical rating scale respectively; both being strongly correlated(r?=?0.86: p<0.001). Pain intensity was varied by ethnicity, education and preoperative information (ANOVA; P<0.05). Only 50% of the patients were adequately satisfied with their pain management. As needed (prn), solo analgesic, null analgesic, and intramuscular orders were noted for 31.3%, 89.29%, 9.7% and 20.1% of the prescription orders respectively. Though under dose, diclofenac and tramadol were the top prescribed medications, and only 57% of their dose was administered. Linear regression model showed that the predictors of satisfaction were sex of an individual and pain interference with functional status. Conclusion Despite patients’ paradoxical high satisfaction with pain management, the majority of patients were inadequately and inappropriately treated. Thus, further research is needed to determine how best to break down current barriers to effective pain management. PMID:25033399

  11. Suicidal ideation and the risk of suicide in patients with fibromyalgia: a comparison with non-pain controls and patients suffering from low-back pain.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Rodríguez, Irene; Garcia-Leiva, Juan Miguel; Jimenez-Rodriguez, Beatriz M; Condés-Moreno, Emilia; Rico-Villademoros, Fernando; Calandre, Elena P

    2014-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is associated with an increased rate of mortality from suicide. In fact, this disease is associated with several characteristics that are linked to an increased risk of suicidal behaviors, such as being female and experiencing chronic pain, psychological distress, and sleep disturbances. However, the literature concerning suicidal behaviors and their risk factors in fibromyalgia is sparse. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the prevalence of suicidal ideation and the risk of suicide in a sample of patients with fibromyalgia compared with a sample of healthy subjects and a sample of patients with chronic low-back pain. We also aimed to evaluate the relevance of pain intensity, depression, and sleep quality as variables related to suicidal ideation and risks. Logistic regression was applied to estimate the likelihood of suicidal ideation and the risk of suicide adjusted by age and sex. We also used two logistic regression models using age, sex, pain severity score, depression severity, sleep quality, and disease state as independent variables and using the control group as a reference. Forty-four patients with fibromyalgia, 32 patients with low-back pain, and 50 controls were included. Suicidal ideation, measured with item 9 of the Beck Depression Inventory, was almost absent among the controls and was low among patients with low-back pain; however, suicidal ideation was prominent among patients with fibromyalgia (P<0.0001). The risk of suicide, measured with the Plutchik Suicide Risk Scale, was also higher among patients with fibromyalgia than in patients with low-back pain or in controls (P<0.0001). The likelihood for suicidal ideation and the risk of suicide were higher among patients with fibromyalgia (odds ratios of 26.9 and 48.0, respectively) than in patients with low-back pain (odds ratios 4.6 and 4.7, respectively). Depression was the only factor associated with suicidal ideation or the risk of suicide. PMID:24790444

  12. Opportunities to improve pain management outcomes in total knee replacements: patient-centered care across the continuum.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Joanne G; Woodward, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of pain management to each patient's overall experience with a total knee replacement, opportunities to improve pain care exist. The authors target an unnecessarily fragmented pain management trajectory as one cause of variability in pain outcomes. They propose that a technology-enhanced patient-centered pain management continuum running from the preoperative through the recovery phase offers effective and efficient pain management. PMID:25607613

  13. Recognizing Myofascial Pelvic Pain in the Female Patient with Chronic Pelvic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, Elizabeth Anne; Katzman, Wendy B.

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial pelvic pain (MFPP) is a major component of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and often is not properly identified by healthcare providers. The hallmark diagnostic indicator of MFPP is myofascial trigger points in the pelvic floor musculature that refer pain to adjacent sites. Effective treatments are available to reduce MFPP, including myofascial trigger point release, PMID:22862153

  14. Relationship of depression and catastrophizing to pain, disability, and medication adherence in patients with HIV-associated sensory neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brendan P. Lucey; David B. Clifford; Jason Creighton; Robert R. Edwards; Justin C. McArthur; Jennifer Haythornthwaite

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined how patients with chronic HIV infection cope with pain and how pain relates to medication adherence. Pain coping strategies such as catastrophizing are often associated with increased pain and disability and may also influence adherence to medications. The goal of our study is to assess the relationship of catastrophizing and depression to pain, disability, and medication

  15. Oral magnesium treatment in patients with neuropathic pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Gisèle; Morel, Véronique; Simen, Estelle; Cardot, Jean-Michel; Moustafa, Fares; Delage, Noémie; Picard, Pascale; Eschalier, Sylvie; Boulliau, Sylvia; Dubray, Claude

    2011-06-01

    Studies in animals and in patients have suggested that magnesium (Mg), a physiological blocker of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, could have an antinociceptive effect in painful situations. This randomised, double-blind, controlled trial in two parallel groups aims at studying oral Mg effects in patients with neuropathic pain. It explores the impact of Mg (6x419?mg Mg chloride/capsule per day for a month), versus placebo (lactose) on pain [Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI) and numerical scale (NS)], and on quality of life indicators after 4 weeks treatment, in 45 patients suffering from neuropathic pain. After 4 weeks, NPSI, NS and quality of life are not different in the Mg and placebo groups, while the frequency of pain paroxysms diminishes and the emotional component improves in the Mg group compared to baseline. This clinical trial displays a large placebo response and could not demonstrate any significant difference in pain alleviation after a month of oral treatment between Mg and placebo in patients suffering from neuropathic pain. Frequency of pain paroxysms and emotional impact will be explored in future studies as they constitute major aspects of pain alleviation in chronic pain conditions. PMID:21659058

  16. Barriers and enablers to emergency department nurses' management of patients' pain.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, Annatjie; Searle, Judy; Marshall, Bob

    2015-06-01

    Pain is the most common reason for presentation to the emergency department (ED). On presentation patients expect rapid pain relief, yet this is often not met. Despite extensive improvements in analgesia medication there are still barriers to nurses' assessment, management, documentation, and reassessment of pain. The aim of this study is to identify barriers, enablers, and current nursing knowledge regarding pain management. Using an anonymous quantitative web-based survey, members of the College of Emergency Nurses New Zealand were invited to complete a questionnaire on pain assessment and management. The questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Enablers to ED nurses' improved management of pain were the provision of nurse-initiated analgesic protocols and pain management champions. Common barriers perceived by the respondents were the responsibility of caring for acutely ill patients as well as a patient with pain. Similar barriers to previous research were identified and included lack of time, workload, reluctance of clinicians to prescribe analgesia, and the lack of nursing knowledge regarding opioid administration. Raising awareness that oligoanalgesia exists in the ED is essential. This research suggested that nurses would benefit from ongoing education on the usage of opioids. Nurses' attitude regarding patients' right to expect total pain relief as a consequence of treatment was also an issue. ED nurses, by virtue of their role, are in a unique position to be leaders in pain assessment and pain management. PMID:25440235

  17. Managing a Female Patient with Left Low Back Pain and Sacroiliac Joint Pain with Therapeutic Exercise: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of this case study is to describe the management of a female patient with chronic left low back pain and sacroiliac joint pain (LBP/SIJP) using unique unilateral exercises developed by the Postural Restoration Institute (PRI) to address pelvic asymmetry and left hip capsule restriction, which is consistent with a Right Handed and Left Anterior Interior Chain pattern of postural asymmetry. Client Description: The client was 65-year-old woman with a 10-month history of constant left LBP/SIJP and leg pain. Intervention: The patient was seen six times to correct pelvic position/posture and left hip posterior capsule restriction via (1) muscle activation (left hamstrings, adductor magnus, and anterior gluteus medius) and (2) left hip adduction to lengthen the left posterior capsule/ischiofemoral ligament. Stabilization exercises included bilateral hamstrings, gluteus maximus, adductors, and abdominals to maintain pelvic position/posture. Measures and Outcome: Left Ober's test (initially positive) was negative at discharge. Pain as measured on the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (initially 1/10 at best and 8/10 at worst) was 0/10–0/10 at discharge. Oswestry Disability Index score (initially 20%) was 0% at discharge. The patient no longer had numbness in her left leg, and sexual intercourse had become pain free. Implications: Interventions to restore and maintain the optimal position of pelvis and hip (femoral head in the acetabulum) may be beneficial for treating patients with chronic LBP/SIJP. The patient's pain was eliminated 13 days after she first performed three exercises to reposition the pelvis and restore left posterior hip capsule extensibility and internal rotation. PMID:22379254

  18. Acceptance of pain is an independent predictor of mental well-being in patients with chronic pain: empirical evidence and reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Viane, Ilse; Crombez, Geert; Eccleston, Christopher; Poppe, Carine; Devulder, Jacques; Van Houdenhove, Boudewijn; De Corte, Wilfried

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports upon: (1) the value of acceptance of pain in predicting well-being in patients suffering from chronic pain and (2) the construct validity of acceptance by comparing two questionnaires designed to measure acceptance (the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire, CPAQ, unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Nevada, Reno, NV, 1992 and the Illness Cognitions Questionnaire, ICQ, J Consult Clin Psychol 69 (2001) 1026). The results of two independent cross-sectional studies are reported. Study 1 included 120 patients seeking help in tertiary care settings. In Study 2, 66 patients were recruited from a self-support group for fibromyalgia patients and from a pain clinic. Both studies revealed that acceptance of pain predicted mental well-being beyond pain severity and pain catastrophizing, but did not account for physical functioning. In both instruments, it was found that acceptance of pain was strongly related to engagement in normal life activities and the recognition that pain may not change. Acceptance in both instruments was strongly related to a cognitive control over pain. Study 2 further revealed that the correlation between the CPAQ and the ICQ is moderate, indicating that both instruments measured different aspects of acceptance. It is concluded that acceptance of chronic pain is best conceived of as the shift away from pain to non-pain aspects of life, and the shift away from a search for a cure with an acknowledgement that pain may not change. PMID:14581112

  19. Increased variability in spiral drawing in patients with functional (psychogenic) tremor.

    PubMed

    Hess, Christopher W; Hsu, Annie W; Yu, Qiping; Ortega, Robert; Pullman, Seth L

    2014-12-01

    Increased variability is a characteristic clinical and physiologic feature of functional (psychogenic) tremor. In this study, we use computerized spiral analysis to show that the variability of a motor task is a quantifiable characteristic of functional tremor. We compare functional tremor patients to phenomenologically similar dystonic tremor patients and to normal controls. We used the spiral severity score, a measure that does not incorporate spiral tightness, as a marker of spiral drawing performance, and inter-spiral tightness variability (based on the 25-75%(ile) range in tightness across ten spirals) to evaluate the effects of functional tremor on drawing spirals. The spirals of 74 participants: 22 functional tremor, 21 dystonic tremor, and 31 normal controls were analyzed. Spiral severity was higher in both tremor groups compared to controls, but did not differentiate them. Inter-spiral variability, however, was higher in the functional tremor group compared to both other groups. Thus, spiral analysis captures variability of a motor task and may be used as an objective test for functional tremor. The effect of functional tremor in other motor tasks should be investigated. PMID:25240176

  20. Pain and distress among elderly intensive care unit patients: Comparison of patients' experiences and nurses' assessments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie Louise Hall-Lord; Gerry Larsson; Bertil Steen

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate elderly intensive care unit (ICU) patients' experiences of pain and distress, as well as interventions aimed at reducing these conditions, and to compare these experiences with the way nurses and assistant nurses, respectively, assess their patients' responses related to these issues.DESIGN: Descriptive, correlational, comparative.SETTING: Two medical-surgical ICUs at county hospitals in two medium-sized cities in Sweden.SUBJECTS: Fifty-one

  1. Suppression of anger and subsequent pain intensity and behavior among chronic low back pain patients: the role of symptom-specific physiological reactivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. BurnsPhillip; Phillip J. Quartana; Wesley Gilliam; Justin Matsuura; Carla Nappi; Brandy Wolfe

    Suppression of anger may be linked to heightened pain report and pain behavior during a subsequent painful event among chronic\\u000a low back patients, but it is not clear whether these effects are partly accounted for by increased physiological reactivity\\u000a during suppression. Chronic low back pain patients (N = 58) were assigned to Suppression or No Suppression conditions for a “cooperative” computer maze

  2. Allopathic, complementary, and alternative medical treatment utilization for pain among methadone-maintained patients: An exploratory study1

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Declan T.; Beitel, Mark; Cutter, Christopher J.; Garnet, Brian; Joshi, Dipa; Schottenfeld, Richard S.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed 150 methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) patients about pain, pain treatment utilization, perceived efficacy of prior pain treatment, and interest in pursuing pain treatment at the MMTP. Respondents with chronic severe pain (CSP) (i.e., pain lasting at least 6 months with moderate to severe pain intensity or significant pain interference) and “some pain” (i.e., pain reported in the previous week but not CSP) endorsed similar rates of past-week and lifetime allopathic or standard medical (with the exception of lifetime medical use of non-opiate medication) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization for pain reduction. Prior pain treatments were perceived to be less effective by CSP than SP patients but both groups had equivalent high rates of interest in pain treatment associated with the MMTP. These findings may have implications for resource and program planning in MMT programs. PMID:19874157

  3. Early maladaptive schemas in Finnish adult chronic pain patients and a control sample.

    PubMed

    Saariaho, Tom Harri; Saariaho, Anita Sylvia; Karila, Irma Anneli; Joukamaa, Matti I

    2011-04-01

    Engel (1959) suggested that negative physical or emotional experiences in childhood predispose to the development of chronic pain. Studies have shown that physical and sexual abuse in early life is connected with chronic pain. Emotional adversities are much less studied causes contributing to the development of chronic pain and disability. Early emotional abuse, neglect, maltreatment and other adversities are deleterious childhood experiences which, according to Young's schema theory (1990), produce early maladaptive schemas (EMSs). The primary goal of this study was to examine whether early adversities were more common in chronic pain patients than in a control group. A total of 271 (53% women) first-visit chronic pain patients and 331 (86% women) control participants took part in the study. Their socio-demographic data, pain variables and pain disability were measured. To estimate EMSs the Young Schema Questionnaire was used. Chronic pain patients scored higher EMSs reflecting incapacity to perform independently, catastrophic beliefs and pessimism. The most severely disabled chronic pain patients showed an increase in all the EMSs in the Disconnection and Rejection schema domain, namely Abandonment/Instability, Mistrust/Abuse, Emotional Deprivation, Defectiveness/Shame and Social Isolation/Alienation EMSs. The results of the study suggested that chronic pain patients had suffered early emotional maltreatment. PMID:21054422

  4. [The oncologic patient with chronic pain. An approach on care from the nursing perspective].

    PubMed

    Nobre, Cidália de Fátima Carvoeiras

    2008-01-01

    This is a study of descriptive, exploratory and qualitative nature. It aims at identifying how nurses perceive chronic pain in cancer patients and analyses how nurses care for cancer patients with chronic pain. There were semistructured interviews with an intentional sample of six nurses from the services of Chemotherapy and Medicine III from the Baixo Alentejo Hospital Center. We found that the nurses understand pain through verbal and non verbal language of patients. Nurses pointed out some difficulties with the assessement of pain, the pharmacologic and non-phamarcologic treatments. PMID:19341049

  5. Surgical evaluation and treatment of the patient with chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Holloran-Schwartz, M Brigid

    2014-09-01

    Treatment of patients with chronic pelvic pain is assisted by detailed history, physical examination, pain diary, and ultrasonography. The possibility of other contributing systems (eg, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, musculoskeletal) should also be addressed and treatment initiated if present. A diagnostic surgical procedure is helpful in patients for whom medical management or whose severity of pain warrants an urgent diagnosis. Limited evidence exists to support adhesions, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, ovarian remnants, and hernias as being causes of chronic pelvic pain. In select patients, ovarian cystectomy, excision of endometriosis and ovarian remnants, adhesiolysis, hysterectomy, hernia repair, and presacral neurectomy may provide relief. PMID:25155118

  6. [Psychiatric, psychological, and neurological characteristics of patients with chronic low back pain].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrovski?, Iu A; Iakhno, N N; Avedisova, A S; Chakhava, K O; Ershova, E M; Protasenko, T V; Alekseev, V V; Podchufarova, E V

    2003-01-01

    We examined 143 patients, aged 18-65 years, with chronic low back pain, in 78 of patients diagnosed as chronic somatoform pain disorder (CSPD)--ICD-10 F45.4--and in 65 as chronic pain syndrome (CPS) caused by spine pathology (M48.0, M51.1, M54.4). Depressive symptoms predominated in CSPD patients, who exhibited more pronounced psychopathological disturbances and two-fold higher frequency of personality disorders, comparing to those with CPS. In CSPD patients pain severity and reaction to pain syndrome were significantly higher than in CPS patients. Psychodiagnostic study revealed higher expressed anxiety and depression as well as socio-psychological maladaptation in CSPD patients as compared to CPS ones. After neurological examination, significant between-group differences were found in the frequency of muscular-tonic myofacial, syndrome and iliosacral joint dysfunction. PMID:12800548

  7. Evaluation of metabolic syndrome in patients with chronic low back pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Tuncay Duruöz; Yasemin Turan; Alev Gürgan; Hülya Deveci

    The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency of the metabolic syndrome in chronic low back pain and evaluate the\\u000a differences in clinical and functional parameters in chronic low back pain patients with and without metabolic syndrome. Patients\\u000a complaining of low back pain complaint lasting for at least 2 months were included in the study. In order to establish

  8. Predictors of expectancies for post-surgical pain and fatigue in breast cancer surgical patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie B. Schnur; Michael N. Hallquist; Dana H. Bovbjerg; Jeffrey H. Silverstein; Angelina Stojceska; Guy H. Montgomery

    2007-01-01

    Expectancies for post-surgical pain and fatigue have previously been found to predict pain and fatigue among breast cancer surgery patients. However, the study of predictors of these expectancies has been neglected. The present study was designed to investigate predictors of expectancies for post-surgical pain and fatigue among breast cancer surgery patients.Four hundred and eighteen women (M=48.3years, SD=13.66years) scheduled to undergo

  9. Prevalence, clinical characteristics, and mortality among patients with myocardial infarction presenting without chest pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John G. Canto; Michael G. Shlipak; William J. Rogers; Judith A. Malmgren; Paul D. Frederick; Costas T. Lambrew; Joseph P. Ornato; Hal V. Barron; Catarina I. Kiefe

    2000-01-01

    CONTEXT: Although chest pain is widely considered a key symptom in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI), not all patients with MI present with chest pain. The extent to which this phenomenon occurs is largely unknown.\\u000aOBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency with which patients with MI present without chest pain and to examine their subsequent management and outcome.\\u000aDESIGN: Prospective

  10. Analysis of long-standing nociceptive and neuropathic pain in patients with post-polio syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Werhagen; Kristian Borg

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze pain, both nociceptive and neuropathic, in patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS)\\u000a and relate the pain to age at the initial polio infection, age at examination, to gender and disability. The study was conducted\\u000a in a university hospital department. Patients with PPS were interviewed at their regular visits about pain, its character,\\u000a intensity

  11. Pain patterns and descriptions in patients with radicular pain: Does the pain necessarily follow a specific dermatome?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald R Murphy; Eric L Hurwitz; Jonathan K Gerrard; Ronald Clary

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is commonly stated that nerve root pain should be expected to follow a specific dermatome and that this information is useful to make the diagnosis of radiculopathy. There is little evidence in the literature that confirms or denies this statement. The purpose of this study is to describe and discuss the diagnostic utility of the distribution of pain

  12. Modified Severity of Dyspepsia Assessment pain scale: a new tool for measuring upper abdominal pain in osteoarthritis patients taking NSAIDs

    PubMed Central

    Welle, Jennifer; Fort, John; Crawley, Joseph; Cryer, Byron; Dickerhoof, Rene; Turner, Michelle P; Miller, Kimberly L

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated the electronically administered modified Severity of Dyspepsia Assessment (mSODA) pain scale, a six-item measure of upper abdominal pain intensity, for daily use in osteoarthritis patients taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Methods: Once the mSODA pain scale was isolated, cognitive debriefing interviews (n = 30) were used to examine its appropriateness in the target population. Following administration of the instrument in two Phase III pivotal trials, the data were analyzed to examine reliability, validity, responsiveness, and the minimal important difference. Results: Using a subset of trial data (n = 90 patients), the mSODA pain scale proved to be a unidimensional, highly internally consistent instrument (? = 0.93) with good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.77). Construct validity was established via moderate correlations with other similar patient-reported outcomes. Additionally, known-groups validity demonstrated that the mSODA pain scale could distinguish between subjects who did and did not report gastrointestinal symptoms and antacid use (both P values ? 0.05). The mSODA pain scale was also responsive to change in heartburn at weeks 6 and 12 (Guyatt’s statistic = 1.7 and 2.6, respectively), and the minimal important difference obtained via ½ SD was 5.7 (range 2–47). Conclusion: This research suggests that the mSODA pain scale is both feasible and valid for assessing dyspepsia in patients taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for relief of symptoms of osteoarthritis. PMID:22915974

  13. Reasons for opioid use among patients with dependence on prescription opioids: the role of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Roger D; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Griffin, Margaret L; McHugh, R Kathryn; Haller, Deborah; Jacobs, Petra; Gardin, John; Fischer, Dan; Rosen, Kristen D

    2014-08-01

    The number of individuals seeking treatment for prescription opioid dependence has increased dramatically, fostering a need for research on this population. The aim of this study was to examine reasons for prescription opioid use among 653 participants with and without chronic pain, enrolled in the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study, a randomized controlled trial of treatment for prescription opioid dependence. Participants identified initial and current reasons for opioid use. Participants with chronic pain were more likely to report pain as their primary initial reason for use; avoiding withdrawal was rated as the most important reason for current use in both groups. Participants with chronic pain rated using opioids to cope with physical pain as more important, and using opioids in response to social interactions and craving as less important, than those without chronic pain. Results highlight the importance of physical pain as a reason for opioid use among patients with chronic pain. PMID:24814051

  14. A Review of Objective Pain Measures for Use With Critical Care Adult Patients Unable to Self-Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise Li; Kathleen Puntillo; Christine Miaskowski

    2008-01-01

    Critically ill patients experience significant levels of pain and discomfort from multiple intrinsic and extrinsic sources while in the intensive care unit (ICU). The use of objective pain measures in nonverbal patients is an essential alternative approach for pain assessment when self-reports are unavailable. This paper provides a critical review of the psychometric properties of 6 objective pain measures that

  15. Perceived future in chronic pain: the relationship between outlook on future and empirically derived psychological patient profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Hellström; Bengt Jansson; Sven G. Carlsson

    2000-01-01

    Perceived (subjective) future has been found to be a significant factor in explaining the relationship between pain and pain-related distress. The present study is based on the assumption that chronic pain patients with the three psychological profiles introduced by Turk and Rudy in 1988 could also be found in a sample of chronic pain patients and if so, these profiles

  16. Painful Hashimoto's thyroiditis as an indication for thyroidectomy: clinical characteristics and outcome in seven patients.

    PubMed

    Kon, Yin C; DeGroot, Leslie J

    2003-06-01

    Patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, or Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), usually present with goiter, hypothyroidism, or both. Thyroid pain and tenderness are rare and suggest an alternative diagnosis of subacute granulomatous thyroiditis or other forms of thyroiditis. We report seven patients with painful HT who had temporary or no relief from L-thyroxine replacement or steroid treatment and required surgical intervention for unremitting pain. Antithyroid antibodies were elevated in all except one patient, in whom fine-needle aspiration and surgical pathology were diagnostic of HT. All patients underwent either a subtotal or near-total thyroidectomy. Pathology showed lymphocytic thyroiditis in all specimens, with varying degrees of fibrosis. Giant cells and granulomas characteristic of subacute thyroiditis were not seen. After surgery, four patients obtained total and permanent relief of pain after subtotal (two patients) or near total (two patients) thyroidectomy, whereas one patient had minimal residual discomfort. One patient had relapse of pain, despite adjunct radioiodine ablation. In this patient with documented total thyroid ablation but persistent pain, the overall clinical picture suggested a strong psychological element in her medical problem. In conclusion, thyroidectomy is an uncommon but necessary therapy for patients with painful HT not responding to medical therapy. PMID:12788871

  17. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia in chronic pain patients and the mitigating effects of gabapentin.

    PubMed

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Russell, Daric; Weidner, Greg; Durda, Michael; Joseph, Nicholas C; Yu, Jeffrey; Bergese, Sergio D

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain patients receiving opioid drugs are at risk for opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), wherein opioid pain medication leads to a paradoxical pain state. OIH involves central sensitization of primary and secondary afferent neurons in the dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglion, similar to neuropathic pain. Gabapentin, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analog anticonvulsant used to treat neuropathic pain, has been shown in animal models to reduce fentanyl hyperalgesia without compromising analgesic effect. Chronic pain patients have also exhibited lower opioid consumption and improved pain response when given gabapentin. However, few human studies investigating gabapentin use in OIH have been performed in recent years. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms that underlie OIH and provide a critical overview of interventional therapeutic strategies, especially the clinically-successful drug gabapentin, which may reduce OIH. PMID:26074817

  18. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia in chronic pain patients and the mitigating effects of gabapentin

    PubMed Central

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Russell, Daric; Weidner, Greg; Durda, Michael; Joseph, Nicholas C.; Yu, Jeffrey; Bergese, Sergio D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain patients receiving opioid drugs are at risk for opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), wherein opioid pain medication leads to a paradoxical pain state. OIH involves central sensitization of primary and secondary afferent neurons in the dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglion, similar to neuropathic pain. Gabapentin, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analog anticonvulsant used to treat neuropathic pain, has been shown in animal models to reduce fentanyl hyperalgesia without compromising analgesic effect. Chronic pain patients have also exhibited lower opioid consumption and improved pain response when given gabapentin. However, few human studies investigating gabapentin use in OIH have been performed in recent years. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms that underlie OIH and provide a critical overview of interventional therapeutic strategies, especially the clinically-successful drug gabapentin, which may reduce OIH.

  19. Pain management in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: insights for the clinician

    PubMed Central

    Srinath, Arvind Iyengar; Walter, Chelsea; Newara, Melissa C.

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal pain is a common symptom in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and has a profound negative impact on patients’ lives. There are growing data suggesting that pain is variably related to the degree of active inflammation. Given the multifactorial etiologies underlying the pain, the treatment of abdominal pain in the IBD population is best accomplished by individualized plans. This review covers four clinically relevant categories of abdominal pain in patients with IBD, namely, inflammation, surgical complications, bacterial overgrowth, and neurobiological processes and how pain management can be addressed in each of these cases. The role of genetic factors, psychological factors, and psychosocial stress in pain perception and treatment will also be addressed. Lastly, psychosocial, pharmacological, and procedural pain management techniques will be discussed. An extensive review of the existing literature reveals a paucity of data regarding pain management specific to IBD. In addition, there is growing consensus suggesting a spectrum between IBD and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. Thus, this review for adult and pediatric clinicians also incorporates the literature for the treatment of functional abdominal pain and the clinical consensus from IBD and IBS experts on pharmacological, behavioral, and procedural methods to treat abdominal pain in this population. PMID:22973418

  20. Management of Chronic Pain among Older Patients: Inside Primary Care in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Tai-Seale, Ming; Bolin, Jane; Bao, Xiaoming; Street, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Under-treatment of pain is a worldwide problem. We examine how often pain was addressed and the factors that influence how much time was spent on treating pain. We analyzed 385 videotapes of routine office visits in several primary care practices in the Southwest and Midwest regions of the United States. We coded the visit contents and the time spent on pain and other topics. Logistic regression and survival analyses examined the effects of time constraint, physician’s supportiveness, patient’s health, and demographic concordance. We found that discussion of pain occurred in 48% of visits. A median of 2.3 minutes was spent on addressing pain. The level of pain, physician’s supportiveness, and gender concordance were significantly associated with the odds of having a pain discussion. Time constraints and racial concordance significantly influenced the length of discussion. We conclude that despite repeated calls for addressing under-treatment for pain, only a limited amount of time is used to address pain among elderly patients. This phenomenon could contribute to the under-treatment of pain. PMID:21784680

  1. Predicting aberrant drug behavior in patients treated for chronic pain: importance of abuse history

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Michna; Edgar L. Ross; Wilfred L. Hynes; Srdjan S. Nedeljkovic; Sharonah Soumekh; David Janfaza; Diane Palombi; Robert N. Jamison

    2004-01-01

    Physicians can encounter problems in prescribing opioids for some patients with chronic pain such as multiple unsanctioned dose escalations, episodes of lost or stolen prescriptions, and positive urine drug screenings for illicit substances. This study explored the usefulness of questions on abuse history in predicting problems with prescribing opioids for patients at a hospital-based pain management program. One hundred forty-five

  2. Overcoming the Influence of Chronic Pain on Older Patients' Difficulty with Recommended Self-Management Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krein, Sarah L.; Heisler, Michele; Piette, John D.; Butchart, Amy; Kerr, Eve A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Many older patients with common chronic conditions also experience chronic pain. We examined how chronic pain affects patients' difficulty with recommended self-management activities and the potential intervening role of self-efficacy (the level of confidence in one's own ability to perform a specific task). Design and Methods: We…

  3. Reproducibility of postural control measurement during unstable sitting in low back pain patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrike Van Daele; Stefanie Huyvaert; Friso Hagman; William Duquet; Bart Van Gheluwe; Peter Vaes

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postural control tests like standing and sitting stabilometry are widely used to evaluate neuromuscular control related to trunk balance in low back pain patients. Chronic low back pain patients have lesser postural control compared to healthy subjects. Few studies have assessed the reproducibility of the centre of pressure deviations and to our knowledge no studies have investigated the reproducibility

  4. [Pain management in patients with cognitive impairment: a research implementation project].

    PubMed

    Lagger, Veronika; Mahrer Imhof, Romy; Imhof, Lorenz

    2008-06-01

    People with cognitive impairment and consecutive communication disturbance are, due to their illness, a very vulnerable group of patients. They are particularly at risk that their pain is not well assessed and therefore often not treated adequately. Insufficient pain management however impacts health status and decreases cognitive functioning and the patients' quality of life. The aim of the evidence-based practice development project was to establish a systematic pain management for cognitively impaired patients on a surgical ward of a regional hospital. Based on a literature review a quality standard and an algorithm including the pain assessment instrument BESD were developed and subsequently implemented. The project was evaluated by obtaining data from the patients charts and by interviewing the nurses. Ten patients were included in the project. First results showed that pain was individually assessed with the patients in each shift and that pain was treated both with and without medication. Nurses paid more attention to pain assessment and improved their practice of structured assessments in patients with severe cognitive impairment. We therefore recommend applying both the standard and the pain assessment instrument BESD with cognitively impaired patients. PMID:18622989

  5. Predictors of opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain: a prospective cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J Ives; Paul R Chelminski; Catherine A Hammett-Stabler; Robert M Malone; J Stephen Perhac; Nicholas M Potisek; Betsy Bryant Shilliday; Darren A DeWalt; Michael P Pignone

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioid misuse can complicate chronic pain management, and the non-medical use of opioids is a growing public health problem. The incidence and risk factors for opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain, however, have not been well characterized. We conducted a prospective cohort study to determine the one-year incidence and predictors of opioid misuse among patients enrolled in a

  6. A prospective study of ED pain management practices and the patient's perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Tanabe; MaryBeth Buschmann

    1999-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to describe the prevalence of pain in the emergency department and to identify factors that may contribute to its treatment. Methods: Interviews were conducted with 203 patients who entered the emergency department during the study period. Patients were interviewed regarding various aspects of their pain. Medical records were reviewed to determine what treatments were provided.

  7. Pain Control in Augmentation Mammaplasty Using Indwelling Catheters in 687 Consecutive Patients: Data Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter T. Pacik; Craig E. Nelson; Catherine Werner

    2008-01-01

    Background: Postoperative pain following augmentation mammaplasty can cause significant disability. In the authors' previously published prospective study of 644 consecutive augmentation mammaplasty patients, it was shown that the use of indwelling catheters for the postoperative instillation of bupivacaine is both safe and effective in postoperative pain management. Objective: This study analyzes a large population of augmentation mammaplasty patients to not

  8. Topical Pain Relief: Assessment of Patient Satisfaction with a Novel Compound Containing at Least Ketoprofen.

    PubMed

    Zugerman, Jessie Jean M; Reed, Thomas C

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess perceived efficacy and patient satisfaction at a single point in time during a course of therapy with a compounded topical formulation containing at least ketoprofen in an anhydrous gel base. Patients aged 18 and older, currently using one of the topical pain relief compounds of interest obtained from Reed's Compounding Pharmacy in Tucson, Arizona, were recruited and then interviewed (in person or by telephone). Data collected during patient interviews were recorded on a form designed solely for the purposes of this study. Interiew questions pertained to the nature of the participants' pain, their assessment of their pain both before treatment with the medication of interest and at the time of the interview, frequency and duration of use of the pain relief gel, disclosure of any other pain relief medications used at the time, and overall satisfaction with the medication. Interviews were conducted with a total of 50 patients who had chronic pain conditions representing several different etiologies and anatomical locations. The average pain assessement score at the time of the interview (representing perceived pain after use of the topical pain relief compound) was significantly lower than the average before treatment pain assessment score (P less than 0.001). Perceived pain scores dropped by an average of 3.56 units after treatment with the gel (standard deviation, 2.28), or 44% (P less than 0.001). Neither increased frequency of application of the topical pain relief gel nor longer duration of use of the topical pain relief gel was associated with greater pain relief or changes in overall patient satisfaction with the preparation. Use of other pain relief midications(s) while undergoing treatment with the topical pain relief gel had no bearing on patient assessement of pain either before use of the gel or at the time of interview. The average overall rating of patient satisfaction with the topical pain relief product was 6.6 out of a possible 10 units (standard deviation, 3.13). Thirty-six patients (72%) rated their satisfaction with the topical medication of interest with a satisfaction score of > or = to 6, 10 patients (20%) rated their satisfaction with a score of 10 (completely satisfied), and 6 patients (12%) rated their satisfaction with a score of 0 (not at all satisfied). The lower the perceived pain assessment score at the time of the interview (after using the gel), the greater the patient satisfaction with the preparation. Moreover, the greater the difference between before-treatment and after-treatment pain assessment scores, the more satisfied with the preparation the patient was. Treatment of chronic pain with a topical pain relief compound containing at least ketoprofen in an anhydrous gel base is associated with patient satisfaction and perceived analgesic benefits. During the one-time interview, most patients reported a significant improvement in their pain relief, and the great majority of patients were very satisfied with the compounded topical treatment they recieved. PMID:23994812

  9. Urinary hydrocodone and metabolite distributions in pain patients.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Neveen H; Atayee, Rabia S; Best, Brookie M; Ma, Joseph D

    2014-09-01

    Hydrocodone combined with acetaminophen is commonly used for moderate pain. Hydrocodone is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 into hydromorphone and by CYP3A4 into norhydrocodone. This was a retrospective study evaluating hydrocodone, hydromorphone and norhydrocodone distributions in urine. Urine specimens (n = 76,924) were obtained from patients on chronic opioid therapy during their first or single visit and were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The patients were at least 16 years of age and had documented hydrocodone use via a medication list. There were 48,710 specimens that were positive for all three analytes. Mean hydrocodone, hydromorphone and norhydrocodone mole fractions (95% confidence interval) were 0.39 (0.38-0.39), 0.12 (0.11-0.12) and 0.49 (0.48-0.49), respectively. Hydromorphone fractions were lower in women compared with men (0.11 versus 0.13; P < 0.0001). Hydrocodone mole fractions were higher in the 65-year and older age group compared with the 16- to 39-year age group (0.4 versus 0.36; P ? 0.005). Concurrent use of a CYP2D6 and/or CYP3A4 inhibitor altered hydromorphone and norhydrocodone mole fractions, compared with the control group. Patient factors affect hydrocodone and metabolite mole fractions and suggest increased awareness of their contribution when attempting to interpret urine drug testing results. PMID:24836897

  10. Home Delivery of Pain Therapy to Elderly Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Coralie

    Chronic pain occurs most frequently in the elderly. Unfortunately, most pain clinics are located in large urban areas and are not readily accessible to the rural elderly. Recent advances in behavioral medicine have provided pain relief techniques that can be used by a wide variety of professional and paraprofessional workers who do not have…

  11. Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that may be adding to your pain l deep breathing exercises —helps you to relax l guided ... Independence Ave SW, Room 712E Washington, DC 20201 web site: www.womenshealth.gov/faq/ carpal.htm www. ...

  12. Pain outcomes in patients with bone metastases from advanced cancer: assessment and management with bone-targeting agents.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Donald L; Cleeland, Charles S; von Moos, Roger; Fallowfield, Lesley; Wei, Rachel; Öhrling, Katarina; Qian, Yi

    2015-04-01

    Bone metastases in advanced cancer frequently cause painful complications that impair patient physical activity and negatively affect quality of life. Pain is often underreported and poorly managed in these patients. The most commonly used pain assessment instruments are visual analogue scales, a single-item measure, and the Brief Pain Inventory Questionnaire-Short Form. The World Health Organization analgesic ladder and the Analgesic Quantification Algorithm are used to evaluate analgesic use. Bone-targeting agents, such as denosumab or bisphosphonates, prevent skeletal complications (i.e., radiation to bone, pathologic fractures, surgery to bone, and spinal cord compression) and can also improve pain outcomes in patients with metastatic bone disease. We have reviewed pain outcomes and analgesic use and reported pain data from an integrated analysis of randomized controlled studies of denosumab versus the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZA) in patients with bone metastases from advanced solid tumors. Intravenous bisphosphonates improved pain outcomes in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors. Compared with ZA, denosumab further prevented pain worsening and delayed the need for treatment with strong opioids. In patients with no or mild pain at baseline, denosumab reduced the risk of increasing pain severity and delayed pain worsening along with the time to increased pain interference compared with ZA, suggesting that use of denosumab (with appropriate calcium and vitamin D supplementation) before patients develop bone pain may improve outcomes. These data also support the use of validated pain assessments to optimize treatment and reduce the burden of pain associated with metastatic bone disease. PMID:25533578

  13. Temporal associations between spouse criticism/hostility and pain among patients with chronic pain: A within-couple daily diary study

    PubMed Central

    Burns, John W.; Peterson, Kristina M.; Smith, David A.; Keefe, Francis J.; Porter, Laura S.; Schuster, Erik; Kinner, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain can strain marriages, perhaps even to the point of engendering spouse criticism and hostility directed toward patients. Such negative spouse responses may have detrimental effects on patient well-being. While results of cross-sectional studies support this notion, we extended these efforts by introducing expressed emotion (EE) and interpersonal theoretical perspectives, and by using electronic diary methods to capture both patient and spouse reports in a prospective design. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients and their spouses (N = 105 couples) reported on perceived spouse behavior and patient pain 5 times/day for 14 days using Personal Data Assistants (PDAs). Concurrent and lagged within-couple associations between patient's perceptions of spouse criticism/hostility and patient self-reported pain and spouses’ observations of patient pain behaviors revealed that 1) patient perceived spouse criticism and hostility were correlated significantly with pain intensity, and spouse observed patient pain behavior was related significantly with patient perceived hostility at the same time point; 2) patient perceived spouse hostility significantly predicted patient pain intensity three hours later, and spouse observed pain behaviors significantly predicted patient perceived spouse hostility three hours later. Results support both EE and interpersonal models, and imply that a comprehensive model would combine these conceptualizations to fully illustrate how spouse criticism/hostility and patient pain interact to produce a negative spiral. Given that marital interactions are amenable to clinical intervention, improved insight into how spouse behavior and patient pain are tightly linked will encourage productive translational efforts to target this neglected area. PMID:23932908

  14. The role of optimism and pessimism in chronic pain patients adjustment.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen; Esteve, Rosa; López, Alicia E

    2012-03-01

    This study analyses the relationships between patients' dispositional optimism and pessimism and the coping strategies they use. In addition, the coping strategies repercussions on adjustment to chronic pain were studied. Ninety-eight patients with heterogeneous chronic pain participated. The assessment tools were as follows: Life Orientation Test (LOT), the Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory (VPMI), the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Impairment and Functioning Inventory for Chronic Pain Patients (IFI). The hypothetical model establishes positive relationships between optimism and the use of active coping strategies, whereas pessimism is related to the use of passive coping. Active coping is associated with low levels of pain, anxiety, depression and impairment and high levels of functioning. However, passive coping is related to high levels of pain, anxiety, depression and impairment and low levels of functioning. The hypothetical model was empirically tested using the LISREL 8.20 software package and the unweighted least squares method. The results support the hypotheses formulated regarding the relations among optimism, pessimism, coping and adjust of chronic pain patients. By analysing optimism among chronic pain patients, clinicians could make better predictions regarding coping and adjustment. PMID:22379718

  15. Cupping for Treating Pain: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong-In Kim; Myeong Soo Lee; Dong-Hyo Lee; Kate Boddy; Edzard Ernst

    The objective of this study was to assess the evidence for or against the effectiveness of cupping as a treatment option for pain. Fourteen databases were searched. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) testing cupping in patients with pain of any origin were considered. Trials using cup- ping with or without drawing blood were included, while trials comparing cupping with other treatments

  16. Pain threshold and intensity in rheumatic patients: correlations with the Hamilton Depression Rating scale.

    PubMed

    Bagnato, Gianluca; De Andres, Ilenia; Sorbara, Stefania; Verduci, Elisa; Corallo, Giorgio; Ferrera, Antonino; Morgante, Salvatore; Roberts, William Neal; Bagnato, Gianfilippo

    2015-03-01

    Individuals suffering from chronic pain are frequently affected by depression, which in turn increases the risk of developing chronic pain over time. This study aims to investigate the relationship between depression and pain intensity and threshold in a group of rheumatic patients compared to healthy subjects. One hundred twenty-four individuals of whom 50 were affected by rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 23 by psoriatic arthritis (PsA), 23 by ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and 28 age-matched controls without chronic pain underwent quantitative sensory testing to assess pressure pain threshold with pressure algometry. Pain intensity was evaluated through the visual analogue scale (VAS) and depression through the Hamilton Depression Rating scale (HAMD). A significant inverse correlation between HAMD values and pressure pain thresholds was found in the entire group of patients (p?patients when analyzed separately, while no significant correlation was found between HAMD and VAS values or pressure pain thresholds and VAS. We found lower pain thresholds in RA and PsA patients while no difference has been evidenced in AS patients compared to healthy controls. HAMD scores were also significantly higher in rheumatic patients than in controls. The use of pressure algometry in the evaluation of chronic pain in patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis that display comorbid depression could represent an additional and integrative method to improve pain/depression overlap management or research. PMID:24407907

  17. Treatment outcome of chronic non-malignant pain patients managed in a Danish multidisciplinary pain centre compared to general practice: a randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niels Becker; Per Sjøgren; Per Bech; Alf Kornelius Olsen; Jørgen Eriksen

    2000-01-01

    This randomised controlled study investigated the effect of outpatient multidisciplinary pain centre treatment (MPT) compared with treatment by a general practitioner after initial supervision by a pain specialist (GP-group) and with a group of patients waiting for 6 months before treatment was initiated (WL-group). One-hundred-and-eighty-nine chronic non-malignant pain patients were studied. At referral, and after 3 and 6 months patients

  18. Pain and self-injury in borderline patients: sensory decision theory, coping strategies, and locus of control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark J. Russ; W. Crawford Clark; Lisa W. Cross; Ingrid Kemperman; Tatsuyuki Kakuma; Katherine Harrison

    1996-01-01

    Fifteen women with borderline personality disorder who do not experience pain during self-injury were found to discriminate more poorly between imaginary painful and mildly painful situations, to reinterpret painful sensations (a pain-coping strategy related to dissociation), and to have higher scores on the Dissociative Experiences Scale than 24 similar female patients who experience pain during self-injury and 22 age-matched normal

  19. Effect of experimental low back pain on neuromuscular control of the trunk in healthy volunteers and patients with chronic low back pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Daniel Dubois; Mathieu Piché; Vincent Cantin; Martin Descarreaux

    2011-01-01

    Studies of electromyographic (EMG) activity and lumbopelvic rhythm have led to a better understanding of neuromuscular alterations in chronic low back pain (cLBP) patients. Whether these changes reflect adaptations to chronic pain or are induced by acute pain is still unclear. This work aimed to assess the effects of experimental LBP on lumbar erector spinae (LES) EMG activity and lumbopelvic

  20. Morbidity of "DSM-IV" Axis I Disorders in Patients with Noncardiac Chest Pain: Psychiatric Morbidity Linked with Increased Pain and Health Care Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kamila S.; Raffa, Susan D.; Jakle, Katherine R.; Stoddard, Jill A.; Barlow, David H.; Brown, Timothy A.; Covino, Nicholas A.; Ullman, Edward; Gervino, Ernest V.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined current and lifetime psychiatric morbidity, chest pain, and health care utilization in 229 patients with noncardiac chest pain (NCCP), angina-like pain in the absence of cardiac etiology. Diagnostic interview findings based on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; "DSM-IV"; American…

  1. Pathological C-fibres in patients with a chronic painful condition.

    PubMed

    Ørstavik, Kristin; Weidner, Christian; Schmidt, Roland; Schmelz, Martin; Hilliges, Marita; Jørum, Ellen; Handwerker, Herman; Torebjörk, Erik

    2003-03-01

    Little is known about the contribution of C-afferent fibres to chronic painful conditions in humans. We sought to investigate the role of C-fibres in the pathophysiology of pain and hyperalgesia in erythromelalgia as a model disease for chronic pain. Erythromelalgia is a condition characterized by painful, red and hot extremities, and patients often report tenderness on walking. We made microneurographic recordings from single C-fibres in cutaneous fascicles of the peroneal nerve in patients suffering from this disease. All patients had had a pain attack recently and psychophysical signs of allodynia and punctate hyperalgesia were found. We obtained recordings from a total of 103 C-fibres and found significantly lower conduction velocities and increased activity-dependent slowing of the conduction velocity of afferent C-fibres in the patients compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, several units with biophysical properties of mechano-insensitive fibres were pathological, being spontaneously active or sensitized to mechanical stimuli. Since these fibres also mediate the axon reflex flare, their hyperexcitability might account not only for ongoing pain and tenderness but also for redness and warming in this pain syndrome. The changes in conductive properties found in the C-fibres of these patients could be the first signs of a small-fibre neuropathy. This is the first systematic study of single C-fibres in patients and it shows an active contribution of mechano-insensitive fibres to chronic pain. PMID:12566278

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of neuropathic pain in leprosy patients treated years ago

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, José Manuel; Alonso-Castañeda, Beatriz; Eshetu, Dejene; Lemma, Deriba; Reyes, Francisco; Belinchón, Isabel; Górgolas, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of neuropathic pain, now recognized as another late complication of leprosy, and its characteristics among leprosy patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out of people treated for leprosy up to at least 5 years ago in a rural area of Ethiopia. Seventy-four patients were interviewed using the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI) questionnaire. In total, 78.9% of the patients were female with a mean age of 42.9. The mean time from initial diagnosis to the time of the study was 28.0 years, and 73.0% of patients were diagnosed over 20 years ago. Fifty-two (70.3%) reported having symptoms suggestive of neuropathic pain and the majority described the pain as burning (88.5%), electric (80.8%), stabbing (76.9%), cutting (76.9%), tingling (65.4%), squeezing (57.7%), and/or pressure (53.8%). The pain caused a severe or moderate impact on daily life in 75% and 57.7% of cases, respectively, and 92.3% suffered from disrupted sleep. Eighty percent of patients with pain (42/52) took some medication for pain relief. Neuropathic pain is common in patients treated for leprosy and in more than half of them, it causes disruption in their daily life and sleep, limiting their quality of life even more. PMID:24892791

  3. Patients visiting the complementary medicine clinic for pain: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pain is one of the most common reasons for seeking medical care. The purpose of this study was to characterize patients visiting the complementary medicine clinic for a pain complaint. Methods This is a cross-sectional study. The study took place at Clalit Health Services (CHS) complementary clinic in Beer-Sheva, Israel. Patients visiting the complementary clinic, aged 18 years old and older, Hebrew speakers, with a main complaint of pain were included. Patients were recruited consecutively on random days of the month during a period of six months. Main outcome measures were: pain levels, location of pain, and interference with daily activities. Once informed consent was signed patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire by a qualified nurse. The questionnaire included socio-demographic data, and the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). Results Three-hundred and ninety-five patients were seen at the complementary medicine clinic during the study period, 201 (50.8%) of them met the inclusion criteria. Of them, 163 (81.1%) agreed to participate in the study and were interviewed. Pain complaints included: 69 patients (46.6%) with back pain, 65 (43.9%) knee pain, and 28 (32.4%) other limbs pain. Eighty-two patients (50.3%) treated their pain with complementary medicine as a supplement for their conventional treatment, and 55 (33.7%) felt disappointed from the conventional medicine experience. Eighty-three patients (50.9%) claimed that complementary medicine can result in better physical strength, or better mental state 51 (31.3%). Thirty-seven patients (22.7%) were hoping that complementary medicine will prevent invasive procedures. Conclusion Given the high proportion of patients with unsatisfactory pain relief using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), general practitioners should gain knowledge about CAM and CAM providers should gain training in pain topics to improve communication and counsel patients. More clinical research to evaluate safety and efficiency of CAM for pain is needed to provide evidence based counseling. PMID:21545733

  4. Influence from genetic variability on opioid use for cancer pain: A European genetic association study of 2294 cancer pain patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Klepstad; T. Fladvad; F. Skorpen; K. Bjordal; A. Caraceni; O. Dale; A. Davies; M. Kloke; S. Lundström; M. Maltoni; L. Radbruch; R. Sabatowski; V. Sigurdardottir; F. Strasser; P. M. Fayers; S. Kaasa

    2011-01-01

    Cancer pain patients need variable opioid doses. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that opioid efficacy is related to genetic variability. However, the studies have small samples, findings are not replicated, and several candidate genes have not been studied. Therefore, a study of genetic variability with opioid doses in a large population using a confirmatory validation population was warranted. We recruited

  5. The impact of chronic pain: the perspective of patients, relatives, and caregivers.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Begoña; Salazar, Alejandro; Dueñas, María; Torres, Luís Miguel; Micó, Juan Antonio; Failde, Inmaculada

    2014-12-01

    To assess the impact of chronic pain on the family environment from the patient's, relative's and caregiver's perspective, we undertook cross-sectional study on a representative sample of Spanish adults who suffered pain at least 4 days a week for ?3 months and on relatives and caregivers of patients that fulfilled these criteria. The characteristics of pain and the perception of its impact on the family environment were assessed, using logistic regression models to reveal the variables associated with the impact of pain on the family. From a total of 1,957 subjects, 325 experienced chronic pain and 34.6% of them perceived that their pain affected their family environment. These patients recognized a stronger impact when their relatives were sad (OR = 3.61; CI:1.57, 8.27) and had modified the leisure activities because of the pain (OR = 3.62; CI:1.56, 8.38). Among the 131 relatives, 51.2% perceived that pain was affecting the family, causing changes in their leisure activities (OR = 1.17; CI:1.04, 9.94) and sleep disturbance (OR = 1.40; CI:1.32, 12.58). Of the 36 caregivers, mainly women over 50 years of age, 66.7% indicated that pain affected the family, although 72.8% were satisfied with the help they provided. Chronic pain has a very strong impact on the family, although this is perceived distinctly by patients, relatives, and caregivers. Recognizing that factors related to pain affect the family's well-being, and adopting a global approach to pain that takes into consideration the family's experiences, should improve the therapeutic response, and enhance the patient's and relative's quality of life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25000222

  6. EXERCISE PERFORMANCE IN PATIENTS WITH PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE WHO HAVE DIFFERENT TYPES OF EXERTIONAL LEG PAIN

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Andrew W.; Montgomery, Polly S.; Afaq, Azhar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To compare the exercise performance of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) who have different types of exertional leg pain. Methods Patients with PAD were classified into one of the following four groups according to the San Diego claudication questionnaire: intermittent claudication (n = 406), atypical exertional leg pain causing patients to stop (n = 125), atypical exertional leg pain in which patients were able to continue walking (n = 81), and leg pain on exertion and rest (n = 103). Patients were assessed on the following primary outcome measures: ankle/brachial index (ABI), treadmill exercise measures, and ischemic window Results All patients experienced leg pain consistent with intermittent claudication during a standardized treadmill test. Initial claudication distance (ICD) was similar (p = 0.642) among patients with intermittent claudication (168 ± 160 m; mean ± SD), atypical exertional leg pain causing patients to stop (157 ± 130 m), atypical exertional leg pain in which patients were able to continue walking (180 ± 149 m), and leg pain on exertion and rest (151 ± 136 m). The absolute claudication distance (ACD) was similar (p = 0.648) in the four respective groups (382 ± 232 m, 378 ± 237 m, 400 ± 245 m, 369 ± 236 m). Similarly, the ischemic window, expressed as the area under the curve (AUC) following treadmill exercise, was similar (p = 0.863) in these groups (189 ± 137 AUC, 208 ± 183 AUC, 193 ± 143 AUC, 199 ± 119 AUC). Conclusion PAD patients with different types of exertional leg pain, all limited by intermittent claudication during a standardized treadmill test, were remarkably similar in ICD, ACD, and ischemic window. Thus, the presence of ambulatory symptoms should be of primary clinical concern in evaluating PAD patients regardless of whether they are consistent with classic intermittent claudication. PMID:17540534

  7. Influences of the Aging Process on Acute Perioperative Pain Management in Elderly and Cognitively Impaired Patients

    PubMed Central

    Halaszynski, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background The aging process results in physiological deterioration and compromise along with a reduction in the reserve capacity of the human body. Because of the reduced reserves of mammalian organ systems, perioperative stressors may result in compromise of physiologic function or clinical evidence of organ insult secondary to surgery and anesthesia. The purpose of this review is to present evidence-based indications and best practice techniques for perioperative pain management in elderly surgical patients. Results In addition to pain, cognitive dysfunction in elderly surgical patients is a common occurrence that can often be attenuated with appropriate drug therapy. Modalities for pain management must be synthesized with intraoperative anesthesia and the type of surgical intervention and not simply considered a separate entity. Conclusions Pain in elderly surgical patients continues to challenge physicians and healthcare providers. Current studies show improved surgical outcomes for geriatric patients who receive multimodal therapy for pain control. PMID:23789010

  8. Auditory instructional cues benefit unimanual and bimanual drawing in Parkinson’s disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Ringenbach, Shannon D. R.; Van Gemmert, Arend W. A.; Shill, Holly A.; Stelmach, George E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated performance of unimanual and bimanual anti-phase and in-phase upper limb line drawing using three different types of cues. Fifteen Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, 15 elderly, and 15 young adults drew lines away from and towards their body on a tabletop every 1000 ms for 30 s under three different cueing conditions: (1) verbal (‘up’, ‘down’); (2) auditory (high tone, low tone); (3) visual (target line switched from top to bottom). PD patients had larger and more variable amplitudes which may be related to the finding that they also produced more curvilinear movements than young and elderly adults. Consistent with previous research, when compared to the elderly and young adult group PD patients produced a mean relative phase which deviated more from the instructed coordination modes and they showed larger variability of relative phase in bimanual coordination, especially in anti-phase conditions. For all groups, auditory and verbal cues resulted in lower coefficient of variance of cycle time, lower variability of amplitude and lower variability of relative phase than visual cues. The benefit of auditory cues may be related to the timing nature of the task or factors related to the auditory cues (e.g., reduced attentional demands, more kinesthetic focus). PMID:21168929

  9. The Val158Met polymorphism of the COMT gene is associated with increased pain sensitivity in morphine-treated patients undergoing a painful procedure after cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ahlers, Sabine J G M; Elens, Laure L; van Gulik, Laura; van Schaik, Ron H; van Dongen, Eric P A; Bruins, Peter; Tibboel, Dick; Knibbe, Catherijne A J

    2013-01-01

    Aims The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism affected pain sensitivity of healthy volunteers upon application of experimental pain stimuli. The relevance of these findings in morphine-treated postoperative cardiac patients undergoing painful healthcare procedures is unknown; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the COMT?Val158Met polymorphism increases pain sensitivity in morphine-treated patients undergoing an unavoidable painful routine procedure after cardiac surgery. Methods One hundred and seventeen postoperative cardiac patients in the intensive care unit were genotyped for the COMT?Val158Met polymorphism. All patients were treated with continuous morphine infusions for pain at rest, and received a bolus of morphine (2.5 or 7.5 mg) before a painful procedure (turning and/or chest drain removal) on the first postoperative day. Numerical rating scale (NRS) scores were evaluated at the following four time points: at baseline (at rest), and before, during and after the painful procedure. Results Overall mean NRS scores were significantly higher in patients carrying the Met-variant allele. During the painful procedure, the mean NRS score was significantly higher for Met/Met patients compared with Val/Met and Val/Val patients (mean NRS 3.4 ± 2.8, 2.7 ± 2.4 and 1.7 ± 1.7, respectively; P = 0.04). In Met/Met patients, the increase in NRS scores during the painful procedure compared with the baseline NRS score was clinically relevant (?NRS ? 1.3) and statistically significant and appeared to be independent of sex and the morphine bolus dose. Conclusions Our results show that the COMT?Val158Met polymorphism contributes to variability in pain sensitivity after cardiac surgery of morphine-treated patients in the intensive care unit, because Met-allele carriers were more sensitive to overall pain and procedure-related pain. PMID:23210659

  10. Sex differences in cardiac and autonomic response to clinical and experimental pain in LBP patients.

    PubMed

    Tousignant-Laflamme, Yannick; Marchand, Serge

    2006-10-01

    Rehabilitation professionals are currently using heart rate (HR) in order to assess the sincerity of effort in certain evaluations. It has been shown that a relation exists between HR and pain but no study has measured cardiac response during both clinical and experimental pain among a patient population using an intra-subject design. Thirty patients with low back pain (LBP) participated in this study including 16 men. Clinical pain was induced by applying a postero-anterior pressure (PA) on a painful lumbar segment for 15 and 30s in order to reproduce the patient's typical LBP at an intensity ranging between 50 and 70/100. Experimental pain was induced with a 15s thermal stimulus at a temperature which reproduced the same pain intensity as the 15s PA. For both reproduced clinical pain durations, we observed a rise in HR ranging between 8.5% and 12.67%. However, unlike men, women's cardiac response failed to show a constant rise in HR during the 30s PA. For all subjects, the rise in HR was much lower during the experimental pain condition (p<0.001), reaching only 5%. On the other hand, galvanic skin responses were significantly higher during the experimental pain condition (p<0.001). During this same condition, women also had a greater rise in galvanic skin responses than men (p=0.04). Finally, a significant correlation was found between both types of pain. These results suggest that pain induced during a clinical evaluation will produce a significant HR augmentation. However, heart rate variability analysis showed greater sympathetic cardiac regulation for men. The sex differences observed in this study call for caution when interpreting HR during pain assessment. PMID:16298532

  11. Gender differences in patient-spouse interactions: a sequential analysis of behavioral interactions in patients having osteoarthritic knee pain.

    PubMed

    Smith, Suzanne J A; Keefe, Francis J; Caldwell, David S; Romano, Joan; Baucom, Donald

    2004-11-01

    Theory and research suggest that spousal responses to displays of pain behavior can vary markedly. To our knowledge, observational research on spousal responses to pain behavior has been carried out only in chronic low back pain patients, but not in other populations. In this study systematic observations were conducted of interactions occurring between 50 married osteoarthritis patients (25 male and 25 female) and their respective spouses. Observations were conducted as the patient and spouse performed three common household tasks: sweeping the floor, folding laundry, and carrying small, artificial logs from one side of the room to the other. Contrary to prior research on chronic low back pain this study found that in osteoarthritis patients spouse facilitative behavior preceded and followed patient pain behavior significantly more often than did spouse solicitous behavior. A gender difference in spousal responding to pain behavior also was observed in that wives were significantly more likely to show facilitative behavior preceding and following patient pain behavior than were husbands. The implications of these findings for future research and clinical interventions focused on patient-spouse interactions are discussed. PMID:15494199

  12. Treatment for Chronic Pain in Patients With Advanced Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-11-07

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Pain; Precancerous/Nonmalignant Condition; Small Intestine Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  13. [The Helsinki Declaration for Patient Safety in Anaesthesiology - Post operative care including pain management].

    PubMed

    Pfau, Giselher; Brinkers, Michael; Hachenberg, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Primary aspects of post operative care should include decisive and adequate treatment of pain. Accordingly, schemes based on international guidelines and in consensus with other departments of the university hospital were developed. Successful therapy includes resolute action on three levels: Instruction of physicians, including supervision. standardized approach based on a readily available algorithm. adherence to fundamental implications of pain therapy such as pain assessment, repeated consultations and observation of complications. Based on this concept, patient safety in anesthesia can be increased. PMID:23929166

  14. Laser-evoked potentials: prognostic relevance of pain pathway defects in patients with acute radiculopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Quante; Jürgen Lorenz; Michael Hauck

    2010-01-01

    The radicular pain syndrome is a major problem in public health care that can lead to chronic back and leg pain in 30%. Ischalgia\\u000a and back pain are the most prominent signs of dorsal root affection. Until now, no clinical or neurophysiological test procedure\\u000a exists that evaluates the function of the dorsal root and predicts the prognosis of patients suffering

  15. A scale to measure pain in non-verbally communicating older patients: The EPCA-2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Remy Morello; Alain Jean; Michel Alix; Dominique Sellin-Peres; Jacques Fermanian

    2007-01-01

    We have constructed and validated the Elderly Pain Caring Assessment 2 (EPCA-2) an 8 items behavioural scale to rate the intensity of pain in non-verbally communicating older (age?65years) patients (NVC-OP). It was postulated that the assessed pain had two dimensions (signs outside and during caregiving). The first version of the scale was constructed on the basis of the results of

  16. The efficacy of relaxation training on stress, anxiety, and pain perception in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Heidari Gorji, M A; Davanloo, A Abbaskhani; Heidarigorji, A M

    2014-11-01

    Patients on dialysis experience psychological distress, which can impact pain perception. Reduction of stress and anxiety in patients provides psychological resources to cope with their physical condition. We examined the efficacy of relaxation training on stress, anxiety, and pain perception of hemodialysis (HD) patients. eighty HD patients were randomized into two groups (intervention and control). Benson relaxation training was implemented in the intervention group for 15 min twice daily during 4 weeks. Pain perception, stress, and anxiety scale were evaluated before and after intervention. There were significant differences between pain perception, stress, and anxiety levels in case group before and after intervention (P < 0.001) and there was a correlation between pain perception with stress and anxiety. Instructing Benson's relaxation technique is accompanied by reducing pain, stress, and anxiety level of HD patients. Reducing stress and anxiety can provide calmness for the patients so that pursuing medical therapy would be accompanied with more tranquility and low pain intensity. We suggest improving and preventing the patients' psychological problems as well as other chronic disorders through applying nonpharmacological interventions. PMID:25484528

  17. Benefits of treating highly disabled migraine patients with zolmitriptan while pain is mild.

    PubMed

    Klapper, J; Lucas, C; Røsjø, Ø; Charlesworth, B

    2004-11-01

    Clinical trials of migraine therapy often require treatment when migraine pain intensity is moderate or severe, but many physicians find this practice artificial and patients often prefer to treat while pain is mild. This randomized, placebo-controlled study assessed the efficacy of zolmitriptan 2.5 mg in treating migraine while pain is mild, in patients who typically experience migraine attacks that are initially mild, but progress to moderate or severe. The intent-to-treat population comprised 280 patients (138 zolmitriptan; 148 placebo), with mean MIDAS grades of 29.6 (zolmitriptan) and 27.6 (placebo). Zolmitriptan 2.5 mg provided a significantly higher pain-free rate at 2 h (43.4% vs. 18.4% placebo; P < 0.0001). Significantly fewer zolmitriptan patients reported progression of headache pain to moderate or severe intensity 2 h postdose (53.7% vs. 70.4% placebo; P < 0.01), or required further medication within 24 h (46.4% vs. 71.1% placebo; P < 0.0001). The efficacy of zolmitriptan was more pronounced in patients treating during the first 15 min following pain onset. Adverse events were reported in 31.2% of patients treated with zolmitriptan (vs. 11.3% for placebo), and the incidence was lower in patients who treated early after attack onset. Zolmitriptan provides high efficacy when treating migraine while pain is mild, with the clinical benefits being more pronounced when treating early after migraine onset. PMID:15482352

  18. The efficacy of relaxation training on stress, anxiety, and pain perception in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Heidari Gorji, M. A.; Davanloo, A. Abbaskhani; Heidarigorji, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Patients on dialysis experience psychological distress, which can impact pain perception. Reduction of stress and anxiety in patients provides psychological resources to cope with their physical condition. We examined the efficacy of relaxation training on stress, anxiety, and pain perception of hemodialysis (HD) patients. eighty HD patients were randomized into two groups (intervention and control). Benson relaxation training was implemented in the intervention group for 15 min twice daily during 4 weeks. Pain perception, stress, and anxiety scale were evaluated before and after intervention. There were significant differences between pain perception, stress, and anxiety levels in case group before and after intervention (P < 0.001) and there was a correlation between pain perception with stress and anxiety. Instructing Benson's relaxation technique is accompanied by reducing pain, stress, and anxiety level of HD patients. Reducing stress and anxiety can provide calmness for the patients so that pursuing medical therapy would be accompanied with more tranquility and low pain intensity. We suggest improving and preventing the patients' psychological problems as well as other chronic disorders through applying nonpharmacological interventions. PMID:25484528

  19. Predictors of Pain and Fatigue in the Year Following Diagnosis Among Elderly Cancer Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles W Given; Barbara Given; Faouzi Azzouz; Sharon Kozachik; Manfred Stommel

    2001-01-01

    Using data obtained from an inception cohort of 841 patients aged 65 or older newly diagnosed with breast, colon, lung, or prostate cancer, and observed at 6–8, 12–16, 24–30, and 52 weeks, three questions related to patients' experiences with pain and fatigue were posed. First, how do numbers of patients reporting neither pain nor fatigue, either symptom, or both change

  20. The effect of ethnicity on prescriptions for patient-controlled analgesia for post-operative pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernardo Ng; Joel E. Dimsdale; Jens D. Rollnik; Harvey Shapiro

    1996-01-01

    We studied if ethnicity influences patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for the treatment of post-operative pain. Using a retrospective record review, we examined data from all patients treated with PCA for post-operative pain from January to June 1993. We excluded patients who did not have surgery prior to the prescription of PCA or were not prescribed PCA in the immediate post-operative period.

  1. Chronic pain therapy: an evolution from solo-interventions to a holistic interdisciplinary patient approach.

    PubMed

    Poppe, C; Devulder, J; Mariman, A; Mortier, E

    2003-01-01

    The treatment of chronic pain patients has changed over years. Anaesthesiologists treat pain patients, their skills in locoregional anaesthesia techniques and their pharmacological knowledge being a unique resource to reduce pain. However, the International Association for the Study of Pain provides more and more scientific evidence that chronic pain is a biopsychosocial event and that its diagnosis and treatment should be considered in a multidisciplinary frame. Nevertheless, in practice we can't deny the fact that there are several steps in the process in which the patient himself decides if he wants such an approach or not. The 'motivating' phase is a very important pretherapy and basic condition to start up a holistic pain treatment. Therefore, at the Ghent University Hospital Pain Clinic, we focused in a first step how to motivate our pain patients to take part in a multidisciplinary diagnostic examination, the second step is motivate them for an interdisciplinary treatment when it is indicated. We diagnose the four most important pain components: the sensory, myofacial, autonomic and psychosocial problems. The patient who is initially examined by the anaesthesiologist, will also be evaluated by the psychologist and the physician in rehabilitation medicine. By this way each component is mapped and a final (holistic) diagnosis can be made. In a weekly half-a-day meeting, the different specialists discuss the patients and put forward an interdisciplinary treatment plan. On several moments, the patients' treatment progress will be discussed and redirected if necessary. So, we hope to obtain an optimal result and avoid overtreatment and too invasive pain treatment. PMID:12836491

  2. Bilateral Sensory Abnormalities in Patients with Unilateral Neuropathic Pain; A Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) Study

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M.R.F.; van Wijhe, Marten

    2012-01-01

    In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold). Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%. PMID:22629414

  3. [Pain in elderly people with dementia].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Heng; Lin, Li-Chan

    2008-04-01

    Aging is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment, such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and frontotemporal dementia. These diseases not only impair brain tissues and the nervous system, but also affect patients' verbal and non-verbal communicative ability. It is difficult, for instance, to assess pain in the cognitively impaired elderly because pain perception draws heavily on a patient's subjective interpretation and tolerance level. To seek an effective solution for pain detection in patients with dementia is therefore essential. From a systematic literature review covering the past decade, this paper presents a synopsis of the difficulty of pain assessment in the elderly with cognitive impairment, changes in the academic concept of pain, and explores factors resulting in obstacles to pain recognition. The obstacles to pain assessment derive mainly from three general factors. Firstly, classic definitions of early stage pain are inappropriate when applied to the elderly with cognitive impairment. Secondly, pain indicators are also unclear for this population. Thirdly, pain instruments and informants are ineffective in evaluating elderly patients with varying cognitive levels. To address these obstacles, a sound, multifaceted model of pain assessment for elderly patients with different severities of cognitive impairment is presented. On the basis of the above literature review, multiple methods for detecting aspects of pain in elderly people with cognitive impairment is recommended. To test the feasibility of the multidimensional model of pain assessment, further study is needed. PMID:18393211

  4. A COMPARISON OF OSTEOPATHIC SPINAL MANIPULATION WITH STANDARD CARE FOR PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G UNNAR B. J. A NDERSSON; T RACY L UCENTE; M. D AVIS; R OBERT E. K APPLER; J AMES A. L IPTON; S UE L EURGANS

    A BSTRACT Background The effect of osteopathic manual ther- apy (i.e., spinal manipulation) in patients with chronic and subchronic back pain is largely unknown, and its use in such patients is controversial. Nevertheless, manual therapy is a frequently used method of treat- ment in this group of patients. Methods We performed a randomized, controlled trial that involved patients who had

  5. Transdermal Fentanyl Patches Versus Patient-Controlled Intravenous Morphine Analgesia for Postoperative Pain Management

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohamad Hossein; Mousavi, Seyed Kamal; Ashraf, Hami; Abubakri, Rahil; Birjandinejad, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acute and severe pain is common in patients postoperatively and should be correctly managed. In the past years studies on preparing better postoperative pain control have resulted in development of postoperative pain management guidelines. Perhaps, one of the major improvements in managing postoperative pain is the development of the patient-controlled analgesia systems (PCA), especially through intra venous (IV), extradural and transdermal routes, which has resulted in marked improvements in acute postoperative pain management. Physicians administrate potent opioids for moderate to severe post-surgical pains. Morphine is the most commonly IV-PCA administrated analgesic. The fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system (fentanyl ITS) is also another efficient option for pain management. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic effects of these two routine postoperative pain control systems. Patients and Methods: We enrolled 281 patients (224 males, 57 females) in this blind randomized controlled clinical trial, who had undergone an orthopedic surgery, with the mean age of 33.91 ± 14.45 years. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; in group A patients received IV-morphine PCA pump and in group B fentanyl transdermal patches were attached on patients’ arms. The severity of the pain was registered according to Visual Analogue Scale in specially designed forms by pain-trained nurses in two steps; first after the surgery and next before the beginning of analgesic effects. After 24 hours, the pain score was assessed again. Results: No significant difference was observed in mean pain intensity score at the first patient assessment. Mean pain intensity scores were also similar in both groups at the last measured time point (P > 0.05). Differential pain intensity scores, showing the impacts of analgesic system on the pain experience of the patients was also similar between fentanyl patches (6.48 ± 2.20) and morphine PCIA (6.40 ± 1.80). (P > 0.05) Mean patient satisfactory score (scale: 0–100) was also similar in both groups (P > 0.05). The percentage of patients, whose differential pain intensity scores at 24 hours reached our pain management goal was similar between fentanyl and morphine groups (P > 0.05). The percentage of patients with at least one adverse event was significantly higher in fentanyl group (P < 0.05). The most frequent adverse events were nausea, vomiting and itching. In none of the groups, no patient experienced serious adverse events related to the studied medications. Conclusions: Although both pain killing therapeutic regimens are safe and effective for postoperative pain management, regarding the easy usage of the patches, lower risk of abuse and cost-effectiveness in the Iranian market, it is recommended for use in Iranian hospitals and trauma centers and in countries with similar socioeconomic situations. PMID:25031847

  6. Predictors of Abdominal Pain in Depressed Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Srinath, Arvind I.; Goyal, Alka; Zimmerman, Lori A.; Newara, Melissa C.; Kirshner, Margaret A.; McCarthy, F. Nicole; Keljo, David; Binion, David; Bousvaros, Athos; DeMaso, David R.; Youk, Ada; Szigethy, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have high rates of abdominal pain. The study aims were to (1) Evaluate biological and psychological correlates of abdominal pain in depressed youth with IBD, (2) Determine predictors of abdominal pain in Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods 765 patients ages 9–17 with IBD seen over 3 years at two sites were screened for depression. Depressed youth completed comprehensive assessments for abdominal pain, psychological (depression and anxiety), and biological (IBD-related, through disease activity indices and laboratory values) realms. Results 217 patients with IBD (161 CD, 56 UC) were depressed. 163 (120 CD, 43 UC) patients had complete API scores. In CD, abdominal pain was associated with depression (r=0.33; p<0.001), diarrhea (r=0.34; p=0.001), ESR (r=0.22; p=0.02), low albumin (r=0.24; p=.01), weight loss (r=0.33; p=0.001), and abdominal tenderness (r=0.38, p=0.002). A multivariate model with these significant correlates represented 32% of the variance in pain. Only depression (p=0.03), weight loss (p=0.04), and abdominal tenderness (p=0.01) predicted pain for CD patients. In UC, pain was associated with depression (r=0.46; p=0.002) and nocturnal stools (r=.32; p=.046). In the multivariate model with these significant correlates 23% of the variance was explained, and only depression (p=0.02) predicted pain. Conclusions The psychological state of pediatric patients with IBD may increase the sensitivity to abdominal pain. Thus, screening for and treating comorbid depression may prevent excessive medical testing and unnecessary escalation of IBD medications. PMID:24983975

  7. Effectiveness of Hypnotherapy with Cancer Patients' Trajectory: Emesis, Acute Pain, and Analgesia and Anxiolysis in Procedures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Néron; Randolph Stephenson

    2007-01-01

    Clinical hypnosis in cancer settings provides symptom reduction (pain and anxiety) and empowers patients to take an active role in their treatments and procedures. The goal of this paper is to systematically and critically review evidence on the effectiveness of hypnotherapy for emesis, analgesia, and anxiolysis in acute pain, specifically in procedures with an emphasis on the period from 1999

  8. Hormone replacement therapy in morphine-induced hypogonadic male chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In male patients suffering from chronic pain, opioid administration induces severe hypogonadism, leading to impaired physical and psychological conditions such as fatigue, anaemia and depression. Hormone replacement therapy is rarely considered for these hypogonadic patients, notwithstanding the various pharmacological solutions available. Methods To treat hypogonadism and to evaluate the consequent endocrine, physical and psychological changes in male chronic pain patients treated with morphine (epidural route), we tested the administration of testosterone via a gel formulation for one year. Hormonal (total testosterone, estradiol, free testosterone, DHT, cortisol), pain (VAS and other pain questionnaires), andrological (Ageing Males' Symptoms Scale - AMS) and psychological (POMS, CES-D and SF-36) parameters were evaluated at baseline (T0) and after 3, 6 and 12 months (T3, T6, T12 respectively). Results The daily administration of testosterone increased total and free testosterone and DHT at T3, and the levels remained high until T12. Pain rating indexes (QUID) progressively improved from T3 to T12 while the other pain parameters (VAS, Area%) remained unchanged. The AMS sexual dimension and SF-36 Mental Index displayed a significant improvement over time. Conclusions In conclusion, our results suggest that a constant, long-term supply of testosterone can induce a general improvement of the male chronic pain patient's quality of life, an important clinical aspect of pain management. PMID:21332999

  9. Isokinetic performance in low back pain patients: The predictive power of the Self-Efficacy Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Kaivanto; A.-M. Estlander; G. B. Moneta; H. Vanharanta

    1995-01-01

    The Self-Efficacy Scale (SES) has been found to predict isokinetic performance better than anthropometric variables. This study tests the predictive power of SES further against other measures of efficacy expectancies as well as measures of depression and perceived disability. A group of 105 chronic back pain patients was administered Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), SES, the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ), and

  10. Psychopathology and pain correlates of dispositional optimism in methadone-maintained patients

    PubMed Central

    Beitel, Mark; Savant, Jonathan D.; Cutter, Christopher J.; Peters, Skye; Belisle, Nicole; Barry, Declan T.

    2012-01-01

    While higher levels of dispositional optimism are associated with decreased levels of psychopathology and pain, and higher levels of mental health functioning—important outcomes in opioid treatment programs—a paucity of studies has examined dispositional optimism among individuals with opioid use disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical correlates (i.e., psychopathology, pain status) of dispositional optimism in opioid dependent patients enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). A survey targeting demographics, pain, psychopathology, and dispositional optimism was administered to 150 MMT patients. In multivariable analyses, higher levels of dispositional optimism were significantly associated with lower levels of depression, screened personality disorder criteria, screened symptoms of PTSD, and pain-related emotional strain. In comparison to those without a history of chronic pain (i.e., non-cancer related physical pain lasting at least 3 months), MMT patients who reported either lifetime or current chronic pain exhibited significantly lower levels of dispositional optimism. The associations among higher levels of dispositional optimism, lower levels of psychopathology, and lower pain-related emotional strain suggest that research focusing on the efficacy of specific interventions to promote dispositional optimism in MMT patients is warranted. PMID:23786512

  11. Investigation and Macroscopic Anatomical Study of Referred Pain in Patients with Hip Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Junya; Morimoto, Yosuke; Ishii, Shun; Nakano, Jiro; Manabe, Yoshitaka; Okita, Minoru; Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the incidence and patterns of referred pain in patients with hip disease, as well as the nerve distribution in the hip and knee joints of 2 cadavers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 113 patients with hip joint disease were included in the investigation. The incidence of regional pain and referred pain patterns were evaluated before and after arthroplasty. Two cadavers were macroscopically observed to verify the nerve innervation of the hip and knee joints. [Results] Anterior knee pain was observed preoperatively in 13.3% (in resting) and 33.6% (in motion) of the patients, which was comparable with the incidence of greater trochanter pain. In addition, the preoperative incidence rates of knee pain in resting and motion markedly decreased postoperatively. Of note is the remarkable incidence of pain radiating to the ventral lower limb. An anteromedial innervation was determined in the cadavers by the articular branches of the obturator and femoral nerve, which supply small branches to the knee joints. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that the distribution of the incidence of pain among the patients with hip disease is diverse owing to the sensory distribution of the femoral and obturator nerves. PMID:24648632

  12. The relationship between cognitive appraisal, affect, and catastrophizing in patients with chronic pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Jones; Gary B. Rollman; Kevin P. White; Marilyn L. Hill; Ralph I. Brooke

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to clarify the nature of catastrophizing, a construct that is frequently referred to in the chronic pain literature. Information regarding 3 affective experience and 3 affect regulation dimensions was gathered from a heterogeneous sample of 104 chronic pain patients by using a semistructured clinical interview and the Affect Regulation and Experience Q-Sort (AREQ). Self-report questionnaires included

  13. A phase II trial of reiki for the management of pain in advanced cancer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Olson; John Hanson; Mary Michaud

    2003-01-01

    This trial compared pain, quality of life, and analgesic use in a sample of patients with cancer pain (n=24) who received either standard opioid management plus rest (Arm A) or standard opioid management plus Reiki (Arm B). Participants either rested for 1.5 hr on Days 1 and 4 or received two Reiki treatments (Days 1 and 4) one hour after

  14. Pain reactivity in Alzheimer patients with different degrees of cognitive impairment and brain electrical activity deterioration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrizio Benedetti; Claudia Arduino; Sergio Vighetti; Giovanni Asteggiano; Luisella Tarenzi; Innocenzo Rainero

    2004-01-01

    Pain perception and autonomic responses to pain are known to be altered in dementia, although the mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) whose cognitive status was assessed through the Mini Mental State Examination test and whose brain electrical activity was measured by means of quantitative electroencephalography. After assessment of both cognitive impairment and brain electrical

  15. The Verbal Rating Scale Is Reliable for Assessment of Postoperative Pain in Hip Fracture Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bech, Rune Dueholm; Lauritsen, Jens; Ovesen, Ole; Overgaard, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Background. Hip fracture patients represent a challenge to pain rating due to the high prevalence of cognitive impairment. Methods. Patients prospectively rated pain on the VRS. Furthermore, patients described the changes in pain after raising their leg, with one of five descriptors. Agreement between paired measures on the VRS at rest and by passive straight leg raise with a one-minute interval between ratings at rest and three-minute interval for straight leg raise was expressed by kappa coefficients. Reliability of this assessment of pain using the VRS was compared to the validity of assessing possible change in pain from the selected descriptors. Cognitive status was quantified by the short Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test. Results. 110 patients were included. Paired scores with maximum disagreement of one scale point reached 97% at rest and 95% at straight leg raise. Linear weighted kappa coefficients ranged from 0.68 (95% CI = 0.59–0.77) at leg raise to 0.75 (95% CI = 0.65–0.85) at rest. Unweighted kappa coefficients of agreement in recalled pain compared to agreement of paired VRS scores ranged from 0.57 (95% CI = 0.49–0.65) to 0.36 (95% CI = 0.31–0.41). Interpretation. The VRS is reliable for assessment of pain after hip fracture. The validity of intermittent questioning about possible change in pain intensity is poor.

  16. PAin SoluTions In the Emergency Setting (PASTIES)—patient controlled analgesia versus routine care in emergency department patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain: randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Rockett, Mark; Creanor, Siobhan; Squire, Rosalyn; Hayward, Chris; Ewings, Paul; Barton, Andy; Pritchard, Colin; Eyre, Victoria; Cocking, Laura; Benger, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether patient controlled analgesia (PCA) is better than routine care in providing effective analgesia for patients presenting to emergency departments with moderate to severe non-traumatic abdominal pain. Design Pragmatic, multicentre, parallel group, randomised controlled trial Setting Five English hospitals. Participants 200 adults (66% (n=130) female), aged 18 to 75 years, who presented to the emergency department requiring intravenous opioid analgesia for the treatment of moderate to severe non-traumatic abdominal pain and were expected to be admitted to hospital for at least 12 hours. Interventions Patient controlled analgesia or nurse titrated analgesia (treatment as usual). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was total pain experienced over the 12 hour study period, derived by standardised area under the curve (scaled from 0 to 100) of each participant’s hourly pain scores, captured using a visual analogue scale. Pre-specified secondary outcomes included total morphine use, percentage of study period in moderate or severe pain, percentage of study period asleep, length of hospital stay, and satisfaction with pain management. Results 196 participants were included in the primary analyses (99 allocated to PCA and 97 to treatment as usual). Mean total pain experienced was 35.3 (SD 25.8) in the PCA group compared with 47.3 (24.7) in the treatment as usual group. The adjusted between group difference was 6.3 (95% confidence interval 0.7 to 11.9). Participants in the PCA group received significantly more morphine (mean 36.1 (SD 22.4) v 23.6 (13.1) mg; mean difference 12.3 (95% confidence interval 7.2 to 17.4) mg), spent less of the study period in moderate or severe pain (32.6% v 46.9%; mean difference 14.5% (5.6% to 23.5%)), and were more likely to be perfectly or very satisfied with the management of their pain (83% (73/88) v 66% (57/87); adjusted odds ratio 2.56 (1.25 to 5.23)) in comparison with participants in the treatment as usual group. Conclusions Significant reductions in pain can be achieved by PCA compared with treatment as usual in patients presenting to the emergency department with non-traumatic abdominal pain. Trial registration European Clinical Trials Database EudraCT2011-000194-31; Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN25343280. PMID:26094712

  17. Differences between patients with chronic widespread pain and local chronic low back pain in primary care - a comparative cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is a common reason for consultation in general practice. Current research distinguishes between chronic localized pain (CLP) and chronic widespread pain (CWP). The aim of this study was to identify differences between CWP and chronic low back pain (CLBP), a common type of CLP, in primary care settings. Methods Fifty-eight German general practitioners (GPs) consecutively recruited all eligible patients who consulted for chronic low back pain during a 5-month period. All patients received a questionnaire on sociodemographic data, pain characteristics, comorbidities, psychosomatic symptoms, and previous therapies. Results GPs recruited 647 eligible patients where of a quarter (n?=?163, 25.2%) met the CWP criteria according to the American College of Rheumatology. CWP patients had significantly more comorbidities and psychosomatic symptoms, showed longer pain duration, and suffered predominantly from permanent pain instead of distinguishable pain attacks. CWP patients were more often females, are less working and reported a current pension application or a state-approved grade of disability more frequently. We found no other differences in demographic parameters such as age, nationality, marital status, number of persons in household, education, health insurance status, or in health care utilization data. Conclusions This project is the largest study performed to date which analyzes differences between CLBP and CWP in primary care settings. Our results showed that CWP is a frequent and particularly severe pain syndrome. Trial registration German Clinical Trial Register, DRKS00003123. PMID:24330525

  18. Parents’ Empathic Responses and Pain and Distress in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Penner, Louis A.; Cline, Rebecca J. W.; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Harper, Felicity W. K.; Peterson, Amy M.; Taub, Jeffrey M.; Ruckdeschel, John C.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between parents’ empathic responses prior to their children undergoing cancer treatment procedures and children’s pain/distress during the procedures. We hypothesized: (1) parents’ empathic distress would be positively associated with children’s pain/distress, (2) parents’ empathic concern would be negatively associated with children’s pain/distress; and (3) parents’ enduring dispositions and social support would be associated with their empathic responses. Parents completed: (1) measures of dispositions and perceived social support several weeks before their children underwent the procedures, and (2) state measures of empathic distress and empathic concern just before the procedures. Empathic distress was positively associated with children’s pain; empathic concern was negatively associated with children’s pain/distress. Predictions about dispositions and social support were also substantially confirmed. PMID:20514359

  19. The impact of pain on the quality of life of Taiwanese oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shu-Yuan; Wu, Shu-Fang; Chao, Ta-Chung; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Wu, Wei-Wen; Wang, Tsae-Jyy; Lu, Yu-Yin

    2015-04-01

    This study explored the relationship between participants' pain experience and quality of life (QOL). One hundred nine patients aged 18 years and older who had taken prescribed opioid analgesics for cancer-related pain at a teaching hospital in Taipei, Taiwan, completed the Brief Pain Inventory and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Group Questionnaire. The results indicated that participants in this study had experienced a mean functional QOL of 55.47 (SD 21.48), a mean symptom QOL of 41.97 (SD 16.89), and a mean global QOL of 42.13 (SD 20.69). Participants reported that in the previous 7 days, they had experienced a mean least pain of 1.75 (SD 0.18) and a mean worst pain of 6.81 (SD 0.24). The mean score for average pain intensity was 4.14 (SD 0.21), whereas the mean for current pain level was 2.53 (SD 0.21). The mean pain interference in the patients' daily activities was 3.50 (SD 0.22) on a scale ranging from 0 to 10. Furthermore, a significant correlation existed between global (r = -0.375, p < .01), functional (r = -0.300, p < .01), and symptom (r = 0.405, p < .01) QOL and worst pain. Moreover, the results indicated a significant correlation between global (r = -0.461, p < .01), functional (r = -0.430, p < .01), and symptom (r = 0.505, p < .01) QOL and pain interference. The current results support the observation that cancer pain substantially affects a patient's quality of life. The findings provide empirical support for the need for better programmatic efforts to improve pain management in Taiwanese oncology outpatients. PMID:25193163

  20. Effect of prescribed sleep surfaces on back pain and sleep quality in patients diagnosed with low back and shoulder pain.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Bert H; Boolani, Ali; Dunklee, Guy; Shepardson, Angela; Acharya, Hom

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess sleep quality and comfort of participants diagnosed with low back pain and stiffness following sleep on individually prescribed mattresses based on dominant sleeping positions. Subjects consisted of 27 patients (females, n=14; males, n=13; age 44.8 yrs ± SD 14.6, weight 174 lb. ± SD 39.6, height 68.3 in. ± SD 3.7) referred by chiropractic physicians for the study. For the baseline (pretest) data subjects recorded back and shoulder discomfort, sleep quality and comfort by visual analog scales (VAS) for 21 days while sleeping in their own beds. Subsequently, participants' beds were replaced by medium-firm mattresses specifically layered with foam and latex based on the participants' reported prominent sleeping position and they again rated their sleep comfort and quality daily for the following 12 weeks. Analysis yielded significant differences between pre- and post means for all variables and for back pain, we found significant (p<0.01) differences between the first posttest mean and weeks 4 and weeks 8-12, thus indicating progressive improvement in both back pain and stiffness while sleeping on the new mattresses. Additionally, the number of days per week of experiencing poor sleep and physical discomfort decreased significantly. It was concluded that sleep surfaces are related to sleep discomfort and that is indeed possible to reduce pain and discomfort and to increase sleep quality in those with chronic back pain by replacing mattresses based on sleeping position. PMID:20579971

  1. A Ubiquitous Approach for Visualizing Back Pain Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tacha Serif; George Ghinea; Andrew O. Frank

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a We describe a wireless enabled solution for the vizualisation of back pain data. Our approach uses pain drawings to record spatial location and type of pain and enables data collection with appropriate time stamping, thus providing a\\u000a means for the seldom-recorded (but often attested) time-varying nature of pain, with consequential impact on monitoring the\\u000a effectiveness of patient treatment regimes. Moreover,

  2. Orofacial pain: patient satisfaction and delay of urgent care.

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Heft, Marc W.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Accomplishing the Healthy People 2010 goal of eliminating disparities in oral disease will require a better understanding of the patterns of health care associated with orofacial pain. This study examined factors associated with pain-related acute oral health care. METHODS: The authors used data on 698 participants in the Florida Dental Care Study, a study of oral health among dentate adults aged 45 years and older at baseline. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of the respondents reported having had at least one dental visit as the result of orofacial pain. The majority of the respondents reportedly delayed contacting a dentist for at least one day; however, there was no difference between respondents reporting pain as the initiating symptom and those with other problems. Once respondents decided that dental services were needed, those with a painful symptom were nearly twice as likely as those without pain to want to be seen immediately. Rural adults were more likely than urban adults to report having received urgent dental care for a painful symptom. When orofacial pain occurred, those who identified as non-Hispanic African American were more likely than those who identified as non-Hispanic white to delay care rather than to seek treatment immediately, and women were more likely then men. Having a pain-related oral problem was associated with significantly less satisfaction with the services provided; non-Hispanic African American respondents were less likely than non-Hispanic white respondents to report being very satisfied, and rural residents were less likely than urban residents. Furthermore, men were more likely than women to suffer with orofacial pain without receiving either scheduled dental care or an urgent visit. CONCLUSIONS: Barriers to care are complex and likely to be interactive, but must be understood before the goals of Healthy People 2010 can be accomplished. PMID:15842115

  3. OPTOELECTRONIC MOVEMENT ANALYSIS TO MEASURE MOTOR PERFORMANCE IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN: TEST OF RELIABILITY1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina U. M. Schon-Ohlsson; Jan A. G. Willen

    Objective: To assess test-retest reliability of the Posturo- Locomotion-Manual (PLM) test in patients with chronic low back pain. Design: A controlled study in which the PLM test was used repeatedly on patients with chronic low back pain and persons without back pain. Subjects: Twelve patients with treatment-resistant chronic low back pain, selected by 2 orthopaedic spine surgeons and 12 age-

  4. Graded exposure in vivo in the treatment of pain-related fear: a replicated single-case experimental design in four patients with chronic low back pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan W. S Vlaeyen; Jeroen de Jong; Mario Geilen; Peter H. T. G Heuts; Gerard van Breukelen

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the effectiveness of a graded exposure in vivo treatment with behavioural experiments as compared to usual graded activity in reducing pain-related fears, catastrophising and pain disability in chronic low back pain patients reporting substantial fear of movement\\/(re)injury. Included in the study were four consecutive CLBP patients who were referred for outpatient behavioural

  5. Safety and efficacy of intranasal ketamine for the treatment of breakthrough pain in patients with chronic pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel B Carr; Leonidas C Goudas; William T Denman; Daniel Brookoff; Peter S Staats; Loralie Brennen; Geoff Green; Randi Albin; Douglas Hamilton; Mark C Rogers; Leonard Firestone; Philip T Lavin; Fred Mermelstein

    2004-01-01

    Few placebo-controlled trials have investigated the treatment of breakthrough pain (BTP) in patients with chronic pain. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of intranasal ketamine for BTP in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Twenty patients with chronic pain and at least two spontaneous BTP episodes daily self-administered up to five doses of intranasal ketamine or placebo at the onset

  6. Flying blind: sources of distress for family caregivers of palliative cancer patients managing pain at home.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Anita; Chan, Lisa S; Cohen, S Robin

    2014-01-01

    Pain requiring treatment is experienced by many cancer patients at the end of life. Family caregivers are often directly implicated in pain management. This article highlights areas of psychosocial concern for family caregivers managing a family member's cancer pain at home as they engage in pain management processes. This article is based on the secondary analysis, guided by interpretive description, of data collected for a grounded theory study that explored the processes used by family caregivers to manage cancer patients' pain in the home. Interviews and field notes from 24 family caregiver interviews were examined to identify areas of family caregiver psychosocial distress. The analysis revealed that family caregivers experienced distress at different phases of the pain management process. Sources of distress for caregivers included feeling as though they were "in a prison" (overwhelmingly responsible), "lambs to slaughter" (unsupported), and "flying blind" (unprepared). In addition, family caregivers expressed distress when witnessing their loved one in pain and when pain crises invoked thoughts of death. In sum, family caregivers managing a loved one's cancer pain at home are at risk for psychosocial distress. This study identified four key sources of distress that can help health care professionals better understand the experiences of these family caregivers and tailor supportive interventions to meet their needs. Knowledge about sources of distress can help healthcare professionals understand the experiences of these family caregivers and tailor supportive interventions to meet their needs. PMID:24428253

  7. CAM therapies among primary care patients using opioid therapy for chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Sara; Rabago, David P; Mundt, Marlon P; Fleming, Michael F

    2007-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is an increasingly common therapy used to treat chronic pain syndromes. However; there is limited information on the utilization and efficacy of CAM therapy in primary care patients receiving long-term opioid therapy. Method A survey of CAM therapy was conducted with a systematic sample of 908 primary care patients receiving opioids as a primary treatment method for chronic pain. Subjects completed a questionnaire designed to assess utilization, efficacy and costs of CAM therapies in this population. Results Patients were treated for a variety of pain problems including low back pain (38.4%), headaches (9.9%), and knee pain (6.5%); the average duration of pain was 16 years. The median morphine equivalent opioid dose was 41 mg/day, and the mean dose was 92 mg/day. Forty-four percent of the sample reported CAM therapy use in the past 12 months. Therapies utilized included massage therapy (27.3%, n = 248), chiropractic treatment (17.8%, n = 162), acupuncture (7.6%, n = 69), yoga (6.1%, n = 55), herbs and supplements (6.8%, n = 62), and prolotherapy (5.9%, n = 54). CAM utilization was significantly related to age female gender, pain severity income pain diagnosis of neck and upper back pain, and illicit drug use. Medical insurance covered chiropractic treatment (81.8%) and prolotherapy (87.7%), whereas patients primarily paid for other CAM therapies. Over half the sample reported that one or more of the CAM therapies were helpful. Conclusion This study suggests CAM therapy is widely used by patients receiving opioids for chronic pain. Whether opioids can be reduced by introducing such therapies remains to be studied. PMID:17506893

  8. Perception of traumatic onset, compensation status, and physical findings: Impact on pain severity, emotional distress, and disability in chronic pain patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis C. Turk; Akiko Okifuji

    1996-01-01

    The primary purposes of the present study were to investigate the roles of physical findings, financial compensation, and types of pain onset (i.e., trauma vs. insidious onset) on adaptation by chronic pain patients. Comparisons between patients who were receiving or seeking compensation and those who were not revealed that, despite comparable degrees of physical findings, the compensation status was associated

  9. The effects of infrared laser and medical treatments on pain and serotonin degradation products in patients with myofascial pain syndrome. A controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yahya Ceylan; Sami Hizmetli; Yavuz Sili?

    2004-01-01

    In this controlled study of 46 patients with myofascial pain syndrome, we investigated the effects of infrared (IR) laser application to trigger points and medical treatment on pain reduction and serotonin and its degradation products. Retaining double-blind trial principles, the patients were randomly assigned to two groups. The treatment group received IR laser treatment, whereas the control group received sham

  10. Improvement in Chronic Low Back Pain in an Obese Patient With Topiramate Use.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anita; Kulkarni, Archana; Ramanujam, Vendhan; Zheng, Lu; Treacy, Erin

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate efficacy, benefit, and potential use of topiramate in treating obese patients with chronic low back pain. This is a case report from an outpatient academic pain multidisciplinary clinical center. The patient was a 30-year-old morbidly obese (body mass index [BMI]: 61.4 kg/m(2)) female suffering from chronic low back pain. With a known association between obesity and chronic low back pain, and a possible role of topiramate in treating both simultaneously, the patient was started on a therapeutic trial of topiramate. Over a period of a 12-week topiramate therapy, the patient experienced clinically meaningful and significant weight loss as well as improvement in her chronic low back pain and functionality. With more substantial evidence, pain physicians may start considering using topiramate in the multimodal management of obesity-related chronic low back pain based on their thoughtful consideration of the drug's efficacy and side effects and the patient's comorbidities and preferences. PMID:26095484

  11. Pain and Anxiety versus Sense of Family Support in Lung Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Lekka, Dimitra; Pachi, Argiro; Tselebis, Athanasios; Zafeiropoulos, Georgios; Bratis, Dionisios; Evmolpidi, Argiri; Ilias, Ioannis; Karkanias, Athanasios; Moussas, Georgios; Tzanakis, Nikolaos; Syrigos, Konstantinos N

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is a stressful condition for both patient and family. The anxiety and pain accompanying cancer and its treatment have a significant negative influence on the patient's quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between anxiety, pain, and perceived family support in a sample of lung cancer patients. The sample consisted of a total of 101 lung cancer outpatients receiving treatment at the oncology department of a general hospital. Anxiety, pain (severity and impact on everyday life), and perceived family support were assessed using Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Brief Pain Inventory, and the Family Support Scale, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed correlations between anxiety, pain, and family support as perceived by the patients. The intensity of pain had a positive correlation with both state and trait anxiety and a negative correlation with family support. Anxiety (state and trait) had a significant negative correlation with family support. In conclusion, high prevalence rates of anxiety disorders were observed in lung cancer patients. Females appeared more susceptible to anxiety symptoms with a less sense of family support. A negative correlation was evidenced between family support and anxiety and a positive one between anxiety and pain. PMID:25126424

  12. Pain and Anxiety versus Sense of Family Support in Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lekka, Dimitra; Pachi, Argiro; Zafeiropoulos, Georgios; Evmolpidi, Argiri; Ilias, Ioannis; Karkanias, Athanasios; Moussas, Georgios; Tzanakis, Nikolaos; Syrigos, Konstantinos N.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is a stressful condition for both patient and family. The anxiety and pain accompanying cancer and its treatment have a significant negative influence on the patient's quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between anxiety, pain, and perceived family support in a sample of lung cancer patients. The sample consisted of a total of 101 lung cancer outpatients receiving treatment at the oncology department of a general hospital. Anxiety, pain (severity and impact on everyday life), and perceived family support were assessed using Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Brief Pain Inventory, and the Family Support Scale, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed correlations between anxiety, pain, and family support as perceived by the patients. The intensity of pain had a positive correlation with both state and trait anxiety and a negative correlation with family support. Anxiety (state and trait) had a significant negative correlation with family support. In conclusion, high prevalence rates of anxiety disorders were observed in lung cancer patients. Females appeared more susceptible to anxiety symptoms with a less sense of family support. A negative correlation was evidenced between family support and anxiety and a positive one between anxiety and pain. PMID:25126424

  13. Cancer Patients with Pain: The Spouse/Partner Relationship and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Mary Ann; Small, Brent J.; Donovan, Kristine A.; Overcash, Janine; McMillan, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background A diagnosis of cancer affects not only the patient, but also their spouse/partner. In addition to facing a life-threatening illness, changes in role and financial threats can impact the dyad. Objective This dyadic study examined effects of financial concerns and pain on cancer patients’ and their partners’ quality of life (QOL). The partner relationship and the partners’ coping style were explored for mediating the couples’ outcomes. Methods Participants consisted of 177 dyads with both genders as patients and partners in committed, heterosexual relationships. Patients had a mix of cancer diagnoses and were in various phases of treatment. Each participant completed four of the same instruments. Partners also completed coping and financial concerns measures and patients completed pain and symptom distress measures. Results Pathway analysis, using Structural Equation Modeling, examined effects of pain and financial concerns on relationship quality, partners’ coping style and QOL for the dyad. Partners’ coping style affected only their own QOL .16 (p=0.05). Pain had a significantly negative direct effect -.51 (p=0.05) on patients’ QOL and no direct relationship to the partner’s QOL. Financial concerns affected both participants; patient -.13 (p=0.05) and partner QOL -.36 (p=0.05). The relationship mediated a decrease in patient pain from -.51 to -.58, a significant total effect (p=0.05). Conclusions The partners’ relationship lessened pain’s negative effect. Financial concerns were a significant issue for both dyad members, but the quality of the relationship was not compromised. Implications for Practice Patientspain may be affected by the quality of the marital relationship. PMID:21139453

  14. [Postoperative pain assessment in special patient groups: part II. Children with cognitive impairment].

    PubMed

    Messerer, B; Meschik, J; Gutmann, A; Vittinghoff, M; Sandner-Kiesling, A

    2011-06-01

    Postoperative pain assessment in children with cognitive impairment poses major challenges to healthcare professionals.Children with moderate to severe cognitive impairment are generally unable to communicate effectively and to self-report the level of pain. Difficulties assessing pain have led to their exclusion from clinical trials and rendered them vulnerable to insufficient treatment of pain.The realization of pain is a particularly important step forward for a better care of children with cognitive impairment.Scales based on a child's own perception of pain and its severity play a limited role in this vulnerable population and pain assessment tools which rely on observing pain behavior are essential. The r-FLACC, which is reliable and valid, includes specific behavioral descriptors and can be used simply and effectively postoperatively in clinical practice. Our task has to be assessing pain as a routine procedure in cognitively impaired children as a keystone for an improved and successful pain management in this very sensitive patient population. PMID:21692007

  15. Pain Assessment in the Nonverbal Patient: Position Statement with Clinical Practice Recommendations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keela Herr; Patrick J. Coyne; Tonya Key; Renee Manworren; Margo McCaffery; Sandra Merkel; Jane Pelosi-Kelly; Lori Wild

    2006-01-01

    The article presents the position statement and clinical practice recommendations for pain assessment in the nonverbal patient developed by an appointed Task Force and approved by the ASPMN Board of Directors.

  16. New Insights Found in Pain Processing and Sleep Disturbance Among Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2013 New Insights Found in Pain Processing and Sleep Disturbance Among Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients People with rheumatoid ... in the journal Arthritis and Rheumatism. In addition, sleep disruptions, which are common among people with RA, ...

  17. Micronized Palmitoylethanolamide Reduces the Symptoms of Neuropathic Pain in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schifilliti, Chiara; Cucinotta, Lelio; Fedele, Viviana; Ingegnosi, Carmela; Luca, Salvatore; Leotta, Carmelo

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of micronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-m) treatment in reducing the painful symptoms experienced by diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. PEA-m, a fatty acid amide of the N-acylethanolamine family, was administered (300?mg twice daily) to 30 diabetic patients suffering from painful diabetic neuropathy. Before treatment start, after 30 and 60 days the following parameters were assessed: painful symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening instrument; intensity of symptoms characteristic of diabetic neuropathic pain by the Total Symptom Score; and intensity of different subcategories of neuropathic pain by the Neuropathic Pain Symptoms Inventory. Hematological and blood chemistry tests to evaluate metabolic control and safety were also performed. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) indicated a highly significant reduction in pain severity (P < 0.0001) and related symptoms (P < 0.0001) evaluated by Michigan Neuropathy Screening instrument, Total Symptom Score, and Neuropathic Pain Symptoms Inventory. Hematological and urine analyses did not reveal any alterations associated with PEA-m treatment, and no serious adverse events were reported. These results suggest that PEA-m could be considered as a promising and well-tolerated new treatment for symptomatology experienced by diabetic patients suffering from peripheral neuropathy. PMID:24804094

  18. Identifying specific profiles in patients with different degrees of painful knee osteoarthritis based on serological biochemical and mechanistic pain biomarkers: a diagnostic approach based on cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Egsgaard, Line Lindhardt; Eskehave, Thomas Navndrup; Bay-Jensen, Anne C; Hoeck, Hans Christian; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical and pain biomarkers can be applied to patients with painful osteoarthritis profiles and may provide more details compared with conventional clinical tools. The aim of this study was to identify an optimal combination of biochemical and pain biomarkers for classification of patients with different degrees of knee pain and joint damage. Such profiling may provide new diagnostic and therapeutic options. A total of 216 patients with different degrees of knee pain (maximal pain during the last 24 hours rated on a visual analog scale [VAS]) (VAS 0-100) and 64 controls (VAS 0-9) were recruited. Patients were separated into 3 groups: VAS 10 to 39 (N = 81), VAS 40 to 69 (N = 70), and VAS 70 to 100 (N = 65). Pressure pain thresholds, temporal summation to pressure stimuli, and conditioning pain modulation were measured from the peripatellar and extrasegmental sites. Biochemical markers indicative for autoinflammation and immunity (VICM, CRP, and CRPM), synovial inflammation (CIIIM), cartilage loss (CIIM), and bone degradation (CIM) were analyzed. WOMAC, Lequesne, and pain catastrophizing scores were collected. Principal component analysis was applied to select the optimal variable subset, and cluster analysis was applied to this subset to create distinctly different knee pain profiles. Four distinct knee pain profiles were identified: profile A (N = 27), profile B (N = 59), profile C (N = 85), and profile D (N = 41). Each knee pain profile had a unique combination of biochemical markers, pain biomarkers, physical impairments, and psychological factors that may provide the basis for mechanism-based diagnosis, individualized treatment, and selection of patients for clinical trials evaluating analgesic compounds. These results introduce a new profiling for knee OA and should be regarded as preliminary. PMID:25599306

  19. Finding the person behind the pain: chronic pain management in a patient with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Romayne; Drance, Elisabeth; Higginbotham, Susan

    2006-09-01

    Chronic pain is common after a traumatic brain injury. Cognitive impairment post injury may be a consequence of the brain injury alone, or in combination with pain, clinical depression, and psychological and emotional factors. We present a case of a severely cognitively impaired person post-traumatic brain injury, whose behavior included social withdrawal, irritability, and agitation around direct care--which was unresponsive to psychotropic intervention or care delivery strategies. The introduction of an opioid made a significant improvement in the cognition and quality of life of the individual. This case suggests that clinicians should consider a trial of opioid analgesics in individuals with brain injury who have significant cognitive impairment in association with other behaviors suggestive of depression and pain. PMID:16979087

  20. Self-reported interoceptive awareness in primary care patients with past or current low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Mehling, Wolf E; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Price, Cynthia J; Acree, Mike; Bartmess, Elizabeth; Stewart, Anita L

    2013-01-01

    Background Mind–body interactions play a major role in the prognosis of chronic pain, and mind–body therapies such as meditation, yoga, Tai Chi, and Feldenkrais presumably provide benefits for pain patients. The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) scales, designed to measure key aspects of mind–body interaction, were developed and validated with individuals practicing mind–body therapies, but have never been used in pain patients. Methods We administered the MAIA to primary care patients with past or current low back pain and explored differences in the performance of the MAIA scales between this and the original validation sample. We compared scale means, exploratory item cluster and confirmatory factor analyses, scale–scale correlations, and internal-consistency reliability between the two samples and explored correlations with validity measures. Results Responses were analyzed from 435 patients, of whom 40% reported current pain. Cross-sectional comparison between the two groups showed marked differences in eight aspects of interoceptive awareness. Factor and cluster analyses generally confirmed the conceptual model with its eight dimensions in a pain population. Correlations with validity measures were in the expected direction. Internal-consistency reliability was good for six of eight MAIA scales. We provided specific suggestions for their further development. Conclusion Self-reported aspects of interoceptive awareness differ between primary care patients with past or current low back pain and mind–body trained individuals, suggesting further research is warranted on the question whether mind–body therapies can alter interoceptive attentional styles with pain. The MAIA may be useful in assessing changes in aspects of interoceptive awareness and in exploring the mechanism of action in trials of mind–body interventions in pain patients. PMID:23766657

  1. Reducing Cancer Patients' Painful Treatment - Duration: 3 minutes, 7 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    A NASA light technology originally developed to aid plant growth experiments in space has proved to reduce the painful side effects resulting from chemotherapy and radiation treatment in bone marro...

  2. Middle and long latency somatosensory evoked potentials after painful laser stimulation in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lorenz; K. Grasedyck; B. Bromm

    1996-01-01

    Ten femalespatients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) were investigated with laser evoked potentials (LEPs) after hand stimulations and compared with 10 female pain-free and age-matched control patients. FS patients exhibited significantly lower heat pain thresholds than controls (P < 0.05) and had higher amplitudes of LEP components N170 (P < 0.01) and P390 (P < 0.05) in response to intensities of

  3. Effect of socioeconomic status on out-of-hospital transport delays of patients with chest pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anand Govindarajan; Michael Schull

    2003-01-01

    Study objective: The effect of socioeconomic status on out-of-hospital care has not been widely examined. We determine whether socioeconomic status was associated with out-of-hospital transport delays for patients with chest pain. Methods: A retrospective study of patients with chest pain transported by means of ambulance in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, in 1999 was conducted. The primary outcome measure was the 90th

  4. Ultrasound Detection of a Renal Mass in a Patient with Flank Pain and Hematuria

    PubMed Central

    Marzec, Karl; Mailhot, Thomas; Perera, Phillips

    2013-01-01

    Flank pain with hematuria is a common chief complaint in the emergency department (ED). Patients are often diagnosed with renal calculi or pyelonephritis and discharged with analgesics or antibiotics and follow-up. This case study describes a patient who presented to the ED with a 1 week history of flank pain and hematuria and was subsequently found to have a large renal mass on bedside ultrasound. PMID:23599845

  5. Ultrasound detection of a renal mass in a patient with flank pain and hematuria.

    PubMed

    Marzec, Karl; Mailhot, Thomas; Perera, Phillips

    2013-03-01

    Flank pain with hematuria is a common chief complaint in the emergency department (ED). Patients are often diagnosed with renal calculi or pyelonephritis and discharged with analgesics or antibiotics and follow-up. This case study describes a patient who presented to the ED with a 1 week history of flank pain and hematuria and was subsequently found to have a large renal mass on bedside ultrasound. PMID:23599845

  6. Does folk medicine work? A randomized clinical trial on patients with prolonged back pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heikki M. Hemmilä; Sirkka M. Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi; Sinikka Levoska; Pekka Puska

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether traditional bone-setting or continuous light exercise therapy could ease back pain and improve function better than ordinary physiotherapy.Design: Observer-blinded, randomized clinical trial with a 6-month follow-up.Setting: An outpatient institution for folk medicine research.Patients: Of 147 back pain patients recruited from local health centers and by newspaper announcements, 132 were found eligible (non-retired, no contraindications to manipulation)

  7. Individual differences in the day-to-day experience of chronic pain: a prospective daily study of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Affleck, G; Tennen, H; Urrows, S; Higgins, P

    1991-01-01

    Explored the distribution and temporal patterning of daily pain reported by 47 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for 75 consecutive days. Approximately half the pain series were significantly positively skewed, trended significantly across the recording period, or both. One fourth of the sample had relatively painful "outlier" days that clustered together. Most series displayed a significant autocorrelation in pain intensity across successive days even when the series were detrended. Patients with more active disease had pain that was more intense but more predictable from day to day and reported fewer painful outlying days and briefer episodes of atypically severe pain. Patients describing themselves as more depressed on the Center for Epidemiological Stress Depression Scale also reported more intense pain across the recording period, independent of their level of disease activity and disability. Implications for daily process studies of RA pain are discussed. PMID:1765037

  8. Review Article Intrathecal Drug Delivery System with Programmable Morphine Pump for Pain of Terminally Ill Cancer Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kung-Shing Lee; Kowng-Shing Chu; Chia-Li Chung; Chiuh-Lung Lin; Shiuh-Ling Hwang; Shen-Long Howng

    By following the guidelines of the World Health Organization, cancer pain can be well controlled in 80-90% of patients. However, 10-20% will required more intensive measures to control pain. In terminally ill cancer patients with refractory pain, intrathecal opioid therapy may provide an option. We use the type of totally implanted, programmable pump system as the choice of treatment. It

  9. Evidence Report on the Treatment of Pain in Cancer Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel B. Carr; Leonidas C. Goudas; Ethan M. Balk; Rina Bloch; John P. A. Ioannidis; Joseph Lau

    2004-01-01

    Pain associated with cancer is of widespread concern. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the best available evidence on the efficacy of treatments of cancer-related pain. The sources used were MEDLINE, CancerLit, and the Co- chrane Library from 1966 through April 2001, as well as bibliographies of meta-analyses and review articles. We se- lected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting

  10. Drawing/s

    E-print Network

    Sammis, Kim

    1986-01-01

    Drawing has become essential to the making of architecture. Though some of the most magnificent structures were created without documentation, testified by The Pyramids, the Parthenon, primitive dwellings, treehouses and ...

  11. MRI findings are more common in selected patients with acute low back pain than controls?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Hancock; Chris Maher; Petra Macaskill; Jane Latimer; Walter Kos; Justin Pik

    Purpose  The purpose of this study is to investigate if lumbar disc pathology identified on MRI scans is more common in patients with\\u000a acute, likely discogenic, low back pain than matched controls.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods   We compared rates of MRI findings between 30 cases with low back pain and 30 pain-free controls. Cases were patients presenting\\u000a for care with likely discogenic low back

  12. The efficacy of a multidisciplinary group program for patients with refractory chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Masayuki; Inoue, Shinsuke; Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Arai, Young-Chang P; Nakata, Masatoshi; Miyazaki, Atsuko; Nishihara, Makoto; Kawai, Takashi; Hatakeyama, Noboru; Yamaguchi, Setsuko; Shimo, Kazuhiro; Miyagawa, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Tomomi; Sakurai, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Yoshinobu; Ohmichi, Yusuke; Ushida, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a major problem because it can result in not only a reduction in activities of daily living and quality of life but also requires initiation of social assistance. Seeking only to eliminate pain itself would appear to be too narrow an objective, in addition to often being unachievable; therefore, a multifaceted, comprehensive approach with multiple objectives is needed. OBJECTIVE: To describe the effects of a program (the ‘Chronic Pain Class’) offering cognitive behavioural therapy to small groups of individuals with refractory chronic pain in Japan. Exercise was an important feature of the program. METHODS: A total of 46 patients who were experiencing treatment difficulties and decreased activity participated in the program. The programs were conducted in groups of five to seven patients who met weekly for nine weeks. Weekly sessions, which were approximately 2 h in duration, combined lectures with exercise. Several measures related to pain and physical function were administered at the beginning and the conclusion of the program. RESULTS: Nine patients dropped out during the program. A number of measures (eg, pain intensity, disability, catastrophizing thoughts) showed significant improvements after intervention (P<0.002 after Bonferroni correction). Furthermore, most measures of physical function showed substantial improvement, especially seated forward bends, zig-zag walking, self-care and 6 min walk test (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The results of the present study provide evidence that a combination of cognitive behavioural therapy and exercise should be recommended to patients with refractory chronic pain. PMID:24992454

  13. 6-Month Results of Transdiscal Biacuplasty on Patients with Discogenic Low Back Pain: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Haktan; Tüfek, Adnan; Kavak, Gönül Ölmez; Kaya, Sedat; Yildirim, Zeynep Baysal; Uysal, Ersin; Çelik, Feyzi

    2011-01-01

    Study Design: Prospective observational study. Objective: Our aim is to investigate the efficacy and safety of TransDiscal Biacuplasty. Summary of Background Data: Chronic discogenic pain is one of the leading causes of low back pain; however, the condition is not helped by most non-invasive methods. The results of major surgical operations for these patients are unsatisfactory. Recently, attention has shifted to disk heating methods for treatment. TransDiscal Biacuplasty is one of the minimally invasive treatment methods. The method was developed as an alternative to spinal surgical practices and Intradiscal Electrothermal Therapy for treatment of patients with chronic discogenic pain. Methods: The candidates for this study were patients with chronic discogenic pain that did not respond to conservative treatment. The main criteria for inclusion were: the existence of axial low back pain present for 6 months; disc degeneration or internal disc disruption at a minimum of one level, and maximum of two levels, in MR imaging; and positive discography. Physical function was assessed using the Oswestry Disability Index when measuring the pain with VAS. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using a 4-grade scale. Follow-ups were made 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. Results: 15 patients were treated at one or two levels. The mean patient age was 43.1±9.2 years. We found the mean symptom duration to be 40.5±45.7 months. At the sixth month, 57.1% of patients reported a 50% or more reduction in pain, while 78.6% of patients reported a reduction of at least two points in their VAS values. In the final check, 78.6% of patients reported a 10-point improvement in their Oswestry Disability scores compared to the initial values. No complications were observed in any of the patients. Conclusions: TransDiscal Biacuplasty is an effective and safe method. PMID:21197258

  14. Outcomes of Prolotherapy in Chondromalacia Patella Patients: Improvements in Pain Level and Function

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Ross A.; Sprague, Ingrid Schaefer

    2014-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness of prolotherapy in resolving pain, stiffness, and crepitus, and improving physical activity in consecutive chondromalacia patients from February 2008 to September 2009. Sixty-nine knees that received prolotherapy in 61 patients (33 female and 36 male) who were 18–82 years old (average, 47.2 years) were enrolled. Patients received 24 prolotherapy injections (15% dextrose, 0.1% procaine, and 10% sarapin) with a total of 40 cc in the anterior knee. At least 6 weeks after their last prolotherapy session, patients provided self-evaluation of knee pain upon rest, activities of daily living (ADL) and exercise, range of motion (ROM), stiffness, and crepitus. Symptom severity, sustained improvement of symptoms, number of pain pills needed, and patient satisfaction before treatment and improvement after treatment were recorded. Following prolotherapy, patients experienced statistically significant decreases in pain at rest, during ADL, and exercise. Stiffness and crepitus decreased after prolotherapy, and ROM increased. Patients reported improved walking ability and exercise ability after prolotherapy. For daily pain level, ROM, daily stiffness, crepitus, and walking and exercise ability, sustained improvement of over 75% was reported by 85% of patients. Fewer patients required pain medication. No side effects of prolotherapy were noted. The average length of time from last prolotherapy session was 14.7 months (range, 6 months to 8 years). Only 3 of 16 knees were still recommended for surgery after prolotherapy. Prolotherapy ameliorates chondromalacia patella symptoms and improves physical ability. Patients experience long-term improvement without requiring pain medications. Prolotherapy should be considered a first-line, conservative therapy for chondromalacia patella. PMID:24596471

  15. Outcomes of prolotherapy in chondromalacia patella patients: improvements in pain level and function.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Ross A; Sprague, Ingrid Schaefer

    2014-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness of prolotherapy in resolving pain, stiffness, and crepitus, and improving physical activity in consecutive chondromalacia patients from February 2008 to September 2009. Sixty-nine knees that received prolotherapy in 61 patients (33 female and 36 male) who were 18-82 years old (average, 47.2 years) were enrolled. Patients received 24 prolotherapy injections (15% dextrose, 0.1% procaine, and 10% sarapin) with a total of 40 cc in the anterior knee. At least 6 weeks after their last prolotherapy session, patients provided self-evaluation of knee pain upon rest, activities of daily living (ADL) and exercise, range of motion (ROM), stiffness, and crepitus. Symptom severity, sustained improvement of symptoms, number of pain pills needed, and patient satisfaction before treatment and improvement after treatment were recorded. Following prolotherapy, patients experienced statistically significant decreases in pain at rest, during ADL, and exercise. Stiffness and crepitus decreased after prolotherapy, and ROM increased. Patients reported improved walking ability and exercise ability after prolotherapy. For daily pain level, ROM, daily stiffness, crepitus, and walking and exercise ability, sustained improvement of over 75% was reported by 85% of patients. Fewer patients required pain medication. No side effects of prolotherapy were noted. The average length of time from last prolotherapy session was 14.7 months (range, 6 months to 8 years). Only 3 of 16 knees were still recommended for surgery after prolotherapy. Prolotherapy ameliorates chondromalacia patella symptoms and improves physical ability. Patients experience long-term improvement without requiring pain medications. Prolotherapy should be considered a first-line, conservative therapy for chondromalacia patella. PMID:24596471

  16. Bilateral heel pain in a patient with Diamond-Blackfan anaemia.

    PubMed

    Charles, Loren T R; Mehdi, Adil M S; Baker, Dennis; Edwards, Max R

    2015-06-01

    A rare case of bilateral calcaneal stress fractures in a patient with Diamond-Blackfan anaemia is described. This has not been previously reported in the literature. A calcaneal stress fracture is an important differential diagnosis in a patient presenting with heel pain. Bilaterality of symptoms should not exclude this diagnosis and clinicians should be especially vigilant with predisposed patients. PMID:26004126

  17. PAin SoluTions In the Emergency Setting (PASTIES)—patient controlled analgesia versus routine care in emergency department patients with pain from traumatic injuries: randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Rockett, Mark; Squire, Rosalyn; Hayward, Chris; Ewings, Paul; Barton, Andy; Pritchard, Colin; Eyre, Victoria; Cocking, Laura; Benger, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether patient controlled analgesia (PCA) is better than routine care in patients presenting to emergency departments with moderate to severe pain from traumatic injuries. Design Pragmatic, multicentre, parallel group, randomised controlled trial. Setting Five English hospitals. Participants 200 adults (71% (n=142) male), aged 18 to 75 years, who presented to the emergency department requiring intravenous opioid analgesia for the treatment of moderate to severe pain from traumatic injuries and were expected to be admitted to hospital for at least 12 hours. Interventions PCA (n=99) or nurse titrated analgesia (treatment as usual; n=101). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was total pain experienced over the 12 hour study period, derived by standardised area under the curve (scaled from 0 to 100) of each participant’s hourly pain scores, captured using a visual analogue scale. Pre-specified secondary outcomes included total morphine use, percentage of study period in moderate/severe pain, percentage of study period asleep, length of hospital stay, and satisfaction with pain management. Results 200 participants were included in the primary analyses. Mean total pain experienced was 47.2 (SD 21.9) for the treatment as usual group and 44.0 (24.0) for the PCA group. Adjusted analyses indicated slightly (but not statistically significantly) lower total pain experienced in the PCA group than in the routine care group (mean difference 2.7, 95% confidence interval ?2.4 to 7.8). Participants allocated to PCA used more morphine in total than did participants in the treatment as usual group (mean 44.3 (23.2) v 27.2 (18.2) mg; mean difference 17.0, 11.3 to 22.7). PCA participants spent, on average, less time in moderate/severe pain (36.2% (31.0) v 44.1% (31.6)), but the difference was not statistically significant. A higher proportion of PCA participants reported being perfectly or very satisfied compared with the treatment as usual group (86% (78/91) v 76% (74/98)), but this was also not statistically significant. Conclusions PCA provided no statistically significant reduction in pain compared with routine care for emergency department patients with traumatic injuries. Trial registration European Clinical Trials Database EudraCT2011-000194-31; Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN25343280. PMID:26094763

  18. Altered Brain Structure and Function Correlate with Disease Severity and Pain Catastrophizing in Migraine Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Catherine S.; Khan, Shariq A.; Keaser, Michael L.; Mathur, Vani A.; Goyal, Madhav; Seminowicz, David A.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the neuroanatomical and functional brain changes in migraine patients relative to healthy controls, we used a combined analytical approach including voxel- and surface-based morphometry along with resting-state functional connectivity to determine whether areas showing structural alterations in patients also showed abnormal functional connectivity. Additionally, we wanted to assess whether these structural and functional changes were associated with group differences in pain catastrophizing and migraine-related disease variables in patients. We acquired T1-weighted anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging scans during rest in human subjects with a diagnosis of migraine and healthy controls. Structural analyses revealed greater left hippocampal gray matter volume and reduced cortical thickness in the left anterior midcingulate in patients compared with controls. We also observed negative associations between pain catastrophizing and migraine disease variables and gray matter in areas implicated in processing the sensory, affective, and cognitive aspects of pain in patients. Functional connectivity analyses showed that migraine patients displayed disrupted connectivity between default mode, salience, cognitive, visuospatial, and sensorimotor networks, which was associated with group differences in pain catastrophizing and migraine-related disease variables in patients. Together, our findings show widespread morphological and functional brain abnormalities in migraineurs in affective, cognitive, visual, and pain-related brain areas, which are associated with increased pain catastrophizing, disease chronicity, and severity of symptoms, suggesting that these structural and functional changes may be a consequence of repeated, long-term nociceptive signaling leading to increased pain sensitivity, mood disturbances, and maladaptive coping strategies to deal with unrelenting pain. PMID:25893216

  19. Pharmacotherapeutic Management of Breakthrough Pain in Patients With Chronic Persistent Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Fishbain

    control of the persistent, baseline component of chronic pain, are char- acterized by a slow onset of action and a pharmacokinetic profile with minimal peaks and valleys that result in stable blood levels over the dose period. 1 This class of opioids includes transdermal fentanyl; methadone; morphine controlled-release (CR), sustained-release, and extended- release (ER); oxycodone CR; tramadol ER; and oxymorphone

  20. Pregabalin and placebo responders show different effects on central pain processing in chronic pancreatitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Bouwense, Stefan AW; Olesen, Søren S; Drewes, Asbjørn M; van Goor, Harry; Wilder-Smith, Oliver HG

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain control in chronic pancreatitis is a major challenge; the mechanisms behind analgesic treatment are poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the differences in pain sensitivity and modulation in chronic pancreatitis patients, based on their clinical response (responders vs nonresponders) to placebo or pregabalin treatment. Methods This study was part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the analgesic effects of pregabalin and placebo in chronic pancreatitis. Post hoc, patients were assigned to one of four groups, ie, responders and nonresponders to pregabalin (n=16; n=15) or placebo (n=12; n=17) treatment. Responders were defined as patients with >30% pain reduction after 3 weeks of treatment. We measured change in pain sensitivity before and after the treatment using electric pain detection thresholds (ePDT) in dermatomes C5 (generalized effects) and Ventral T10 (segmental effects). Descending endogenous pain modulation was quantified via conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm. Results Sixty patients were analyzed in a per-protocol analysis. ePDT change in C5 was significant vs baseline and greater in pregabalin (1.3 mA) vs placebo responders (?0.1 mA; P=0.015). This was not so for ePDT in Ventral T10. CPM increased more in pregabalin (9%) vs placebo responders (?17%; P<0.001). CPM changed significantly vs baseline only for pregabalin responders (P=0.006). Conclusion This hypothesis-generating study provides the first evidence that pain relief with pregabalin is associated with anti-hyperalgesic effects and increased endogenous inhibitory modulation. No such effects were observed in patients experiencing pain relief with the placebo treatment. The mechanisms underlying analgesic response to placebo vs drug treatments are different and, together with their interactions, deserve further study.

  1. The Relationships Between Determination of Treatment Success and Emotional Factors in Patients With Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Tae Im; Ha, Seung A; Lim, Ji Young

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship of the patient's criteria of successful treatment to emotional factors in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Methods Patients who visited our outpatient hospital due to chronic musculoskeletal pain were evaluated using a questionnaire survey. Patients were evaluated with the Patient-Centered Outcomes Questionnaire (PCOQ) to investigate their expectation and criteria for success regarding treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain. Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to check for psychological variables. Correlations among each of the variables were evaluated statistically. Results Patients with higher levels of depression and anxiety needed larger improvements to consider the treatment as a success in the pain domain (depression, r=0.398, p=0.04; anxiety, r=0.447, p=0.02) and emotional distress domain (depression, r=0.617, p=0.001; anxiety, r=0.415, p=0.03), but had lower level of expectation of the treatment in the pain domain (depression, r=-0.427, p=0.01; anxiety, r=-0.441, p=0.004), emotional distress domain (depression, r=-0.454, p=0.01; anxiety, r=-0.395, p=0.04), and interference of daily activities domain (depression, r=-0.474, p=0.01; anxiety, r=-0.396, p=0.04). Patients were classified into 3 clusters based on the importance rating of each domain via a hierarchical analysis. The cluster of the patients with the higher rating of importance across all domains (importance of pain domain, 9.54; fatigue domain, 9.08; emotional distress domain, 9.23; interference of daily activities domain, 9.23) had the highest level of depression and anxiety. Conclusion Consideration of psychological factors, especially in patients who require larger improvements in all treatment domains, may be helpful for the successful treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain. PMID:24639930

  2. Drawing Inventors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2012-01-01

    Children are drawing inventors. Their art is certainly not what most adults think of as drawing. Almost instinctively, kids know that drawing is everywhere--that they can draw with almost anything, and that innumerable surfaces can be converted for art use. Teaching drawing is showing interest and enthusiasm for kids' drawing inventions--instead…

  3. Evolving patterns of spinal cord stimulation in patients implanted for intractable low back and leg pain.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Ashwini; Cameron, Tracy; Barolat, Giancarlo

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the programming strategies used in patients with intractable low-back pain treated with epidural spinal cord stimulation (SCS) utilizing paddle electrodes and a radio frequency (RF) stimulator. Programming strategies were examined in a group of patients implanted with a 16-contact paddle electrode and a dual channel RF receiver to treat chronic low-back pain. Baseline data included previous surgical history information, leg and low back pain severity and characteristics, and routine demographic information. Outcome measurements included the visual analog scale (VAS) (1), patient pain relief rating scale, and programming parameters. Patients rated their pain relief on a 5-point scale where 4 = excellent, 3 = good, 2 = fair, 1 = poor and 0 = none. Success was determined to be a pain relief score of "fair" or above. Data were collected during patient visits or by mail, at approximately 6, 12, and 24 months, postoperatively. Immediate postop data were available in 16 patients, 6-month data in 21 patients, 1-year data in 20 patients, and 2-year data in 10 patients, and analyzed for the purposes of examining programming strategies. The most common location for the tip of the electrode (lead) was found to be in the middle of the 8th thoracic vertebrae (N = 26). At the immediate postop assessment, the majority of cathodes were activated in the upper half of T9. By the 6-month follow-up, the majority of cathodes had shifted to the bottom of T9 and top of T10. Overall 88% of cathode locations were changed at one or more study visits. At 2 years, 86% of the programs used four or more active contacts. At 6 months, 83% of the patients reported that the therapy was a success, at 1 year, success was 94%, and by 2 years, success was 75%. Both SCS and chronic pain are dynamic processes. Complex pain patterns, such as the ones of patients who have pain in the low back and in one or both lower extremities, require a high degree of flexibility in the implanted SCS system. The system must provide the capability to redirect the current electronically over at least two segments of the spinal canal, to electronically steer the current in a medio-lateral direction, and to activate multiple electrical contacts simultaneously. The willingness and ability to provide extensive reprogramming in the long term follow-up is also of the utmost importance. Pain and its treatment with SCS is a dynamic process. PMID:22150814

  4. Sex Differences in the Medical Care of VA Patients with Chronic Non-Cancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Weimer, Melissa B.; Macey, Tara A.; Nicolaidis, Christina; Dobscha, Steven K.; Duckart, Jonathan P.; Morasco, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite a growing number of women seeking medical care in the VA system, little is known about the characteristics of their chronic pain or the pain care they receive. This study sought to determine if sex differences are present in the medical care veterans received for chronic pain. Design Retrospective cohort study using VA administrative data. Subjects 17,583 veteran patients with moderate to severe chronic non-cancer pain treated in the Pacific Northwest during 2008. Methods Multivariate logistic regression assessed for sex differences in primary care utilization, prescription of chronic opioid therapy, visits to emergency departments for a pain-related diagnosis, and physical therapy referral. Results Compared to male veterans, female veterans were more often diagnosed with two or more pain conditions and had more of the following pain-related diagnoses: fibromyalgia, low back pain, inflammatory bowel disease, migraine headache, neck or joint pain, and arthritis. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, pain diagnoses, mental health diagnoses, substance use disorders, and medical comorbidity, women had lower odds of being prescribed chronic opioid therapy (AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.58–0.78), greater odds of visiting an emergency department for a pain-related complaint (AOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.18–1.65), and greater odds of receiving physical therapy (AOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.05–1.33). Primary care utilization was not significantly different between sexes. Conclusions Sex differences are present in the care female veterans receive for chronic pain. Further research is necessary to understand the etiology of the observed differences and their associations with clinical outcomes. PMID:23802846

  5. Chronic neuropathic pain management in spinal cord injury patients. What is the efficacy of pharmacological treatments with a general mode of

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Title Chronic neuropathic pain management in spinal cord injury patients. What is the efficacy of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) pain remains challenging despite new available drugs. Such treatment in SCI pain. Key words spinal cord injury pain ­ neuropathic pain ­ pregabalin ­

  6. Matching patients to an intervention for back pain: classifying patients using a latent class approach

    PubMed Central

    Barons, Martine J; Griffiths, Frances E; Parsons, Nick; Alba, Anca; Thorogood, Margaret; Medley, Graham F; Lamb, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives Classification of patients with back pain in order to inform treatments is a long-standing aim in medicine. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to classify patients with low back pain and investigate whether different classes responded differently to a cognitive behavioural intervention. The objective was to provide additional guidance on the use of cognitive behavioural therapy to both patients and clinicians. Method We used data from 407 participants from the full study population of 701 with complete data at baseline for the variables the intervention was designed to affect and complete data at 12 months for important outcomes. Patients were classified using LCA, and a link between class membership and outcome was investigated. For comparison, the latent class partition was compared with a commonly used classification system called Subgroups for Targeted Treatment (STarT). Results Of the relatively parsimonious models tested for association between class membership and outcome, an association was only found with one model which had three classes. For the trial participants who received the intervention, there was an association between class membership and outcome, but not for those who did not receive the intervention. However, we were unable to detect an effect on outcome from interaction between class membership and the intervention. The results from the comparative classification system were similar. Conclusion We were able to classify the trial participants based on psychosocial baseline scores relevant to the intervention. An association between class membership and outcome was identified for those people receiving the intervention, but not those in the control group. However, we were not able to identify outcome associations for individual classes and so predict outcome in order to aid clinical decision making. For this cohort of patients, the STarT system was as successful, but not superior. PMID:24661395

  7. Cancer Pain Control for Advanced Cancer Patients by Using Autonomic Nerve Pharmacopuncture

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hwi-joong; Yoon, Jung-won; Park, Ji-hye; Cho, Chong-kwan; Yoo, Hwa-seung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to report a case series of advanced cancer patients whose cancer pain was relieved by using autonomic nerve pharmacopuncture (ANP) treatment. ANP is a subcutaneous injection therapy of mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture (MGP) along the acupoints on the spine (Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue; 0.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous processes of vertebrae) to enhance the immune system and to balance autonomic nerve function. Methods: Patients with three different types of cancer (gastric cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer with distant metastases) with cancer pain were treated with ANP. 1 mL of MGP was injected into the bilateral Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue on the T1-L5 sites (total 12 ? 20 mL injection) of each patient’s dorsum by using the principle of symptom differentiation. During ANP treatment, the visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain was used to assess their levels of cancer pain; also, the dosage and the frequency of analgesic use were measured. Results: The cancer pain levels of all three patients improved with treatment using ANP. The VAS scores of the three patients decreased as the treatment progressed. The dosage and the frequency of analgesics also gradually decreased during the treatment period. Significantly, no related adverse events were found. Conclusion: ANP has shown benefit in controlling cancer pain for the three different types of cancer investigated in this study and in reducing the dosage and the frequency of analgesics. ANP is expected to be beneficial for reducing cancer pain and, thus, to be a promising new treatment for cancer pain. PMID:25780711

  8. Electrocortical Analysis of Patients with Intercostobrachial Pain Treated with TENS after Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Julio Guilherme; Santana, Camila Gonçalves; Inocêncio, Kelly Rosane; Orsini, Marco; Machado, Sergio; Bergmann, Anke

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Among the physical therapeutic procedures to decrease pain, there is transcutaneous electrical neural stimulation (TENS). There is no consensus about its efficacy for oncological patients, especially for post-mastectomy pain and eletrocortical changes in somatosensory areas. The aim of this study was to analyze acute electrocortical changes after TENS treatment of patients with intercostobrachial post mastectomy pain. [Subjects] Eighteen patients were divided into acupuncture (A) and burst (B) group. [Methods] In this pre and post-intervention study each group was measured for EEG analysis in absulte power in alpha band (8–14?Hz). Outcomes variables were the alpha waveband in the sensorymotor cortex and pain pre-and-post TENS intervention. Data were analyzed using ANOVA to compare times (rest, 10 and 15?min), group and electrodes. Pain was analyzed using percentual pain evaluation (PPE) in both groups. [Results] Outcomes indicate main effects of time and electrodes because of slow (8–10?Hz) and fast alpha (10–12?Hz) wavebands decreased. PPE reduced 88.4% in A and 66.3% in G. [Conclusion] TENS promoted electrical modification in the parietal region and a decrease in pain. Future studies should investigate other wave must be proposed for other bands and use different methods of EEG analysis to elucidate the actual mechanisms behind the efficacy of TENS treatment. PMID:24707082

  9. Assessment of patients with neck pain: a review of definitions, selection criteria, and measurement tools

    PubMed Central

    Misailidou, Victoria; Malliou, Paraskevi; Beneka, Anastasia; Karagiannidis, Alexandros; Godolias, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this literature review was to synthesize the existing literature on various definitions, classifications, selection criteria, and outcome measures used in different studies in patients with neck pain. Methods A literature search of MEDLINE and CINAHL through September 2008 was performed to gather articles on the reliability, validity, and utility of a wide variety of outcome measurements for neck pain. Results Different types of definitions appear in the literature based on anatomical location, etiology, severity, and duration of symptoms. Classifications according to severity and duration of pain and the establishment of selection criteria seem to play a crucial role in study designs and in clinical settings to ensure homogeneous groups and effective interventions. A series of objective tests and subjective self-report measures are useful in assessing physical abilities, pain, functional ability, psychosocial well-being, general health status, and quality of life in patients with neck pain. Self-administered questionnaires are commonly used in clinical practice and research projects. Conclusions Because of multidimensionality of chronic neck pain, more than just one index may be needed to gain a complete health profile of the patient with neck pain. The instruments chosen should be reliable, valid, and able to evaluate the effects of treatment. PMID:21629550

  10. Pain, Affective Symptoms and Cognitive Deficits in Patients with Cerebral Dopamine Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Jarcho, Johanna M.; Mayer, Emeran A.; Jiang, Karen; Feier, Natasha; London, Edythe D.

    2013-01-01

    Converging preclinical, and human epidemiological, neuroimaging and genetic evidence suggests a central role for dopamine neurotransmission in modulating pain perception and analgesia. Dysregulation in dopamine signaling may modulate the experience of pain both directly, by enhancing or diminishing the propagation of nociceptive signals, and indirectly, by influencing affective and cognitive processes, which affect the expectation, experience and interpretation of nociceptive signals. Hypersensitivity to pain, and high rates of comorbid chronic pain, are common in disorders linked with deficits in dopamine system function, including disorders of mood and affect, substance abuse, and Parkinson’s disease. Hyposensitivity to pain, however, is common in patients with schizophrenia, which has been linked with excessive dopamine neurotransimssion. Although patients are typically affected most by the primary symptoms of their disorders, alterations in pain perception may further increase the burden of their illness, compromising their quality of life. The present review focuses on this relationship, and discusses clinical and potential therapeutic implications both for patients with dopamine-related disorders, and those with chronic pain syndromes. PMID:22386471

  11. Relationship of inflammatory markers and pain in patients with head and neck cancer prior to anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, K G; von Zeidler, S V; Lamas, A Z; Podestá, J R V de; Sena, A; Souza, E D; Lenzi, J; Lemos, E M; Gouvea, S A; Bissoli, N S

    2014-07-01

    Pain is a common symptom in patients with cancer, including those with head and neck cancer (HNC). While studies suggest an association between chronic inflammation and pain, levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), have not been correlated with pain in HNC patients who are not currently undergoing anticancer treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between these inflammatory markers and perceived pain in HNC patients prior to anticancer therapy. The study group consisted of 127 HNC patients and 9 healthy controls. Pain was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and serum levels of CRP and TNF-? were determined using the particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and ELISA techniques, respectively. Patients experiencing pain had significantly higher levels of CRP (P<0.01) and TNF-? (P<0.05) compared with controls and with patients reporting no pain. There were significantly positive associations between pain, CRP level, and tumor stage. This is the first study to report a positive association between perceived pain and CRP in HNC patients at the time of diagnosis. The current findings suggest important associations between pain and inflammatory processes in HNC patients, with potential implications for future treatment strategies. PMID:25003634

  12. Cognitive behavioral therapy increases prefrontal cortex gray matter in patients with chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Seminowicz, David A.; Shpaner, Marina; Keaser, Michael L.; Krauthamer, G. Michael; Mantegna, John; Dumas, Julie A.; Newhouse, Paul A.; Filippi, Christopher; Keefe, Francis J.; Naylor, Magdalena R.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have reported reduced cerebral gray matter (GM) volume/density in chronic pain conditions, but there is limited research on plasticity of the human cortex in response to psychological interventions. We investigated GM changes after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with chronic pain. We used voxel based morphometry (VBM) to compare anatomical MRI scans of 13 patients with mixed chronic pain types before and after an 11-week CBT treatment and to 13 healthy control participants. CBT led to significant improvements in clinical measures. Patients did not differ from healthy controls in GM anywhere in the brain. After treatment, patients had increased GM in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC), posterior parietal (PPC), subgenual anterior cingulate (ACC)/orbitofrontal, and sensorimotor cortices, as well as hippocampus, and reduced GM in supplementary motor area. In most of these areas showing GM increases, GM became significantly higher than in controls. Decreased pain catastrophizing was associated with increased GM in left DLPFC and ventrolateral prefrontal (VLPFC), right PPC, somatosensory cortex, and pregenual ACC. While future studies with additional control groups will be needed to determine the specific roles of CBT on GM and brain function, we propose that increased GM in the PFC and PPC reflects greater top-down control over pain and cognitive reappraisal of pain, and that changes in somatosensory cortices reflect alterations in the perception of noxious signals. Perspective An 11-week CBT intervention for coping with chronic pain resulted in increased gray matter volume in prefrontal and somatosensory brain regions, as well as increased dorsolateral prefrontal volume associated with reduced pain catastrophizing. These results add to mounting evidence that CBT can be a valuable treatment option for chronic pain. PMID:24135432

  13. Parental substance abuse, reports of chronic pain and coping in adult patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Christopher; Whitfield, Keith; Sudhakar, Shiv; Pearce, Michele; Byrd, Goldie; Wood, Mary; Feliu, Miriam; Leach-Beale, Brittani; DeCastro, Laura; Whitworth, Elaine; Abrams, Mary; Jonassaint, Jude; Harrison, M. Ojinga; Mathis, Markece; Scott, Lydia; Johnson, Stephanie; Durant, Lauren; Holmes, Anita; Presnell, Katherine; Bennett, Gary; Shelby, Rebecca; Robinson, Elwood

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing interest from a social learning perspective in understanding the role of parental factors on adult health behaviors and health outcomes. Our review revealed no studies, to date, that have evaluated the effects of parental substance abuse on reports of chronic pain and coping in adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). We explored the effects of parental substance (alcohol or drug) abuse on reports of the sensory, affective and summary indices of pain in 67 adult patients, mean age 38.9 (13.5), with SCD. We also explored the effects of parental substance abuse on psychopathology associated with pain and active coping. Twenty-four percent of patients reported that their parent(s) abused substances. Patients whose parent(s) were characterized as substance abusers reported greater sensory (p=0.02), affective (p=0.01) and summary (VAS; p=0.02) indices of pain as compared to their counterparts, whose parent(s) were not characterized as substance abusers. Patients did not differ in average age, education or the propensity to respond in a socially acceptable manner. There was a significant trend towards patients who characterized their parents as abusers scoring higher than their counterparts on active coping. We propose a Social Learning Theory to explain the current findings and suggest a need for additional prospective research to simultaneously explore biological (genetic) and social factors that influence the interpretation, experience and reporting of chronic pain in adult patients with chronic disease. PMID:16573309

  14. Implicit attitude towards pictures of back-stressing activities in pain-free subjects and patients with low back pain: an affective priming study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liesbet Goubert; Geert Crombez; Dirk Hermans; Guy Vanderstraeten

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, it is investigated whether an implicit evaluative-negative attitude towards back-stressing activities exists in pain-free subjects and in chronic low back pain patients. Using an affective priming task, it was investigated whether pictures of threatening back-stressing movements (primes) facilitate (respectively, slow down) the categorisation of subsequent evaluative-negative (evaluative-positive) words (targets). In study 1 using 20 pain-free subjects, the

  15. Self-efficacy, fear avoidance, and pain intensity as predictors of disability in subacute and chronic musculoskeletal pain patients in primary health care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Denison; P. Åsenlöf; P. Lindberg

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relations between disability, as measured by the Pain Disability Index (PDI) and self-efficacy, fear avoidance variables (kinesiophobia and catastrophizing), and pain intensity, using a prospective design. Two primary health care samples (n1=210; n2=161) of patients with subacute, chronic or recurring musculoskeletal pain completed sets of questionnaires at the beginning of a physiotherapy treatment period. Multiple hierarchial

  16. The measurements of health-related quality-of-life and pain assessment in the preoperative patients with low back pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazys Vytautas Ambrozaitis

    2009-01-01

    Summary. Objective. This prospective observational study of the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Oswestry Disability Index, Lithuanian version of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain was performed to evaluate their effectiveness in the additional preoperative screening of patients with disc herniation disease. Patients and methods. In the present study, we investigated a cohort of 100 patients

  17. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 in a pediatric patient: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Demirdal, Ümit Seçil; Bükülmez, Ay?egül; Solak, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 is one of the causes of morbidity of childhood which is also named reflex symphathetic dystrophia. The syndrome is characterized with regional pain and vasomotor, sudomotor and sensory changes in the distal parts of the extremities involved. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 shows difference in children in terms of clinical picture and imaging methods compared to adults. The most important point is that the prognosis is generally better in children if early diagnosis and treatment is provided. On the other hand, causes including presence of psychological factors or less contribution of imaging methods in children lead to delayed diagnosis or erroneous diagnosis. In this article, a 10 year-old male patient who was diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 was described. Thus, we aimed to remind clinicians that this syndrome should also be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of pain in children.

  18. An exploratory study of patient preferences for pain management during intravenous insertion: maybe we should sweat the small stuff.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Francesca C; Ziemba-Davis, Mary

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to add to the body of knowledge about patient preferences for pain management during intravenous (IV) insertion. A convenience sample of 30 patients who were scheduled to undergo surgical or nonsurgical procedures requiring an IV catheter were given a choice among intradermal lidocaine, guided imagery, or no pain control strategy. Only four participants chose no pain management strategy, the traditional standard of care. Most (86.6%) desired a pain control strategy. Mean pain ratings on IV insertion were very low for all the three groups, although pain was significantly lower in the intradermal lidocaine group. This study illustrates that patients have preferences for pain control during IV insertion and believe that they should be involved in decisions about pain management. PMID:23886287

  19. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation therapy: An adjuvant pain controlling modality in TMD patients — A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Shanavas, Muhammad; Chatra, Laxmikanth; Shenai, Prashanth; Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Jagathish, Veena; Kumar, Sreeja Prasanna; Naduvakkattu, Bilahari

    2014-01-01

    Background: The use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in dentistry was first described in 1967, by Shane and Kessler, but it has yet to gain widespread acceptance in dentistry. A study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of TENS therapy as an adjuvant modality and to compare it with the conventional medication in controlling pain in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Yenepoya Dental College and Hospital, Mangalore. A total of 40 patients with the clinical symptom of pain associated with TMDs were randomly divided into two groups. Group A (control) patients were treated with medication (analgesics and muscle relaxants) alone, while group B patients were treated with TENS therapy in combination with medication. The intensity of the pain was assessed using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The results were analyzed with the student's ‘t’ test. A P-value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: A significant improvement was observed in both the TENS and the control group in terms of pain control. On comparative analysis, adjuvant TENS therapy was found to be more effective than medication alone, in controlling pain. (P value = 0.019). Conclusion: The observed data suggest that TENS therapy can be used as an adjuvant modality in the management of pain associated with TMDs. This study justifies the use of TENS therapy in the management of TMD. PMID:25540662

  20. Younger and older chronic somatoform pain patients in psycho-diagnostics, physician-patient relationship and treatment outcome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Patients with chronic pain are found with highly variable clinical presentation and differing physical complaints. They are seen as a heterogenic group. Based on clinical observations, elderly patients seem to differ from younger patients with chronic pain. We examined whether there were systematic differences between young and old pain patients. Methods As part of a routine evaluation of university hospital care, a newly developed psychosomatic treatment model for chronic somatoform pain disorders was examined. The basis for treatment efficacy was a target-oriented, specific somatic and psychological intervention that included a stable physician-patient relationship. Particular attention was paid to differences in treatment outcome with regard to changes in both physical and psychopathological symptom levels. We hypothesised that younger pain patients had higher psychological burden and benefitted more from our treatment than older pain patients. Results Overall, 179 inpatients (57.5% women) with chronic pain were examined (age between 16 and 79 years). The group as a whole yielded high scores on the somatisation dimension (SCL-90) and showed a considerable amount of psychopathological symptoms, such as depressive mood and anxiety (HADS) and a great emotional instability (FPI-R). Age differences were only found with regards to patients’ degree of aggression (SCl-90): younger patients showed higher aggressive tendencies than older ones (p< 0.05). The treatment offered helped patients in both age groups especially with regard to reduction of depressive mood (HADS, p< 0.01) and anxiety levels (HADS, p< 0.01). Regression analysis showed different age groups and gender as significant predictors of anxiety reduction under therapy (R2=.108; model: p< 0.01). Discussion and conclusion Results show that younger chronic pain patients suffer more from a considerable amount of psychological distress than older ones, but our treatment approach was equally effective in both groups. However, age and gender differences, as well as the patient’s baseline level of anxiety influenced the outcome. These factors need to be studied in future research. PMID:23379640

  1. Effect of patient position on pain scales during transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeong Uk; Ji, Yoon Seob; Ko, Young Hwii

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy is the most useful technique for the diagnosis of prostate cancer; however, many patients describe the procedure as uncomfortable and painful. We investigated the effect of the patient's position on pain scales during TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods Between July 2012 and June 2013, a total of 128 consecutive patients who underwent TRUS-guided prostate biopsy were included in this study. Seventy patients underwent the procedure in the lithotomy position performed by a urologist and the other patients (n=58) underwent the procedure in the left lateral decubitus (LLD) position performed by a radiologist. Pain was assessed by using visual analogue scale (VAS) scores from 0 to 10. Using a linear regression model, we analyzed the correlation between pain scale score and clinical variables with a focus on patient position. Results No significant differences related to age, body mass index, prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), hematuria, pyuria, International Prostate Symptom Score, or the cancer detection rate were observed between the lithotomy and the LLD groups. In the correlation analysis, VAS score showed a significant correlation with diabetes mellitus, PSA level, and lithotomy position (p<0.05). In the multiple linear regression model, VAS score showed a significant correlation with lithotomy position (?=-0.772, p=0.003) and diabetes mellitus (?=-0.803, p=0.033). Conclusions We suggest that the lithotomy position may be the proper way to reduce pain during TRUS-guided prostate biopsy.

  2. Use of ethyl chloride topical anesthetic to reduce procedural pain in pediatric oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Zappa, S C; Nabors, S B

    1992-04-01

    Pediatric cancer patients often become anxious, agitated, combative, and uncooperative due to the pain or fear of pain during invasive procedures. Generally, it is not the actual administration of medicines that produces this reaction, but the fear of the needle stick itself. Increased education and implementation of coping mechanisms is often not enough to allay this fear. The tangible solution of using ethyl chloride, an anesthetic spray, before port sticks, lumbar punctures, and bone marrow aspirations, was instituted by the hematology-oncology clinic to determine if the pain, emotional trauma, and fear of cancer treatments could be reduced in oncology patients. Survey results on 60 patients and 60 parents/caretakers showed that when given the choice to use the spray or to refuse its use, 68% of the parents thought that the patient had more of a sense of control and, thus, involvement in their treatment. Seventy-eight percent of the patients reported experiencing less pain associated with procedures. Staff noted an increase in cooperation, less combativeness, and more compliance with treatment. Perceiving the child's discomfort diminished, 87% of the parents/caretakers report feeling less anxious and, therefore, more capable of being supportive to each other and their child. These results verified the staff's perceptions of the advantages of using this noninvasive anesthetic. Ethyl chloride is an easy, effective, concrete approach to reducing procedural pain in pediatric oncology patients. PMID:1617619

  3. Impact of Clinical Experience and Diagnostic Performance in Patients with Acute Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Laurell, Helena; Hansson, Lars-Erik; Gunnarsson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aims were to evaluate the importance of the formal competence of the emergency department physician, the patient's time of arrival at the emergency department, and the use of a structured schedule for investigation of patients with acute abdominal pain. Methods. Patients attending the Mora Hospital with acute abdominal pain from 1997 to 2000 were registered prospectively according to a structured schedule. Registration included history, symptoms, signs, preliminary diagnosis, surgery and final diagnosis after at least one year. ?Results. 3073 acute abdominal pain patients were included. The preliminary diagnosis, as compared with the final diagnosis, was correct in 54% (n = 1659). Previously, during 1996, a base-line registration of 790 patients had a 58% correct diagnoses??(n = 458). A majority of the patients (n = 2699; 88%) were managed by nonspecialists. The proportion of correct diagnoses was 54% (n = 759) for pre-registrar house officers and 55% (n = 443) for senior house officers. Diagnostic performance at the emergency department was independent of patient's time of arrival. Conclusions. A structured schedule for investigation did not improve the diagnostic precision at the emergency department in patients with acute abdominal pain. The diagnostic performance was independent of the formal competence of the physician and the patient's time of arrival. PMID:25685146

  4. Assessment of Patient Pain Experience during Intravitreal 27-Gauge Bevacizumab and 30-Gauge Ranibizumab Injection

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin, Burak; Çapk?n, Musa; ?im?ek, Ali; Bilak, ?emsettin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare pain scores of patients during intravitreal 27-gauge bevacizumab and 30-gauge ranibizumab injection procedures. Methods Seventy eyes of 70 patients who had not previously undergone intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy were included in this study. Thirty-five patients received ranibizumab and 35 patients received bevacizumab. The diagnoses of the patients were: 27 age related macular degeneration, 15 diabetic macular edema, 9 diabetic vitreous hemorrhage, 6 central retinal vein occlusion, 11 branch retinal vein occlusion and 2 central serous chorioretinopathy. Bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 mL) was injected into the vitreous cavity using a 27-gauge needle, and ranibizumab (0.5 mg/0.05 mL) was injected with 30-gauge needle. Patients were asked just after the injection to rate their perceived pain during the injection using the visual analogue scale (VAS) of 0 (no pain) to 10 (unbearable/worst pain). The average of these scores was used as the primary outcome. Results The VAS pain scores in the ranibizumab and bevacizumab groups were 1.06 ± 0.91 (range, 0 to 3) and 1.94 ± 1.55 (range, 0 to 7), respectively, a significant difference (p = 0.005). Patients <65 and ?65 years of age in both the ranibizumab and bevacizumab groups were then compared. For patients <65, there was a significant difference in the average VAS pain scores between groups (p = 0.003). However, for patients ?65 years, there was not a significant difference in the average VAS pain scores between groups (p = 0.238). Female and male patients in both ranibizumab and bevacizumab groups were also compared. For female patients, there was a significant difference in the average VAS pain scores between groups (p = 0.016), although not for male patients (p = 0.078). Conclusions Thirty-gauge intravitreal injection is more comfortable than 27-gauge injection. Injection of bevacizumab with 30-gauge needle syringes may be more tolerable for patients. PMID:26028948

  5. Association between work-family conflict and musculoskeletal pain among hospital patient care workers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Boden, Leslie I.; Hashimoto, Dean M.; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence suggests that work-family conflict is an important risk factor for workers' health and well-being. The goal of this study is to examine association between work-family conflict and musculoskeletal pain among hospital patient care workers. Methods We analyzed a cross-sectional survey of 1119 hospital patient care workers in 105 units in two urban, academic hospitals. Work-family conflict was measured by 5-item Work-Family Conflict Scale questionnaire. Multilevel logistic regression was applied to examine associations between work-family conflict and self-reported musculoskeletal pain in the past 3 months, adjusting for confounders including work-related psychosocial factors and physical work factors. Results In fully adjusted models, high work-family conflict was strongly associated with neck or shoulder pain (OR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.64 - 3.34), arm pain (OR: 2.79, 95% CI: 1.64 - 4.75), lower extremity pain (OR: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.54- 3.15) and any musculoskeletal pain (OR: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.56 - 3.85), and a number of body areas in pain (OR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.82 - 3.36) in the past 3 months. The association with low back pain was attenuated and became non-significant after adjusting for confounders. Conclusions Given the consistent associations between work-family conflict and self-reported musculoskeletal pains, the results suggest that work-family conflict could be an important domain for health promotion and workplace policy development among hospital patient care workers. PMID:23019044

  6. Knowledge and attitudes of Italian medical staff towards the approach and treatment of patients in pain.

    PubMed

    Visentin, M; Trentin, L; de Marco, R; Zanolin, E

    2001-11-01

    This study is part of the project, "Towards a Pain-Free Hospital," which aims at improving the approach and treatment of the patient in pain. The objective of the study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of doctors and nurses on the wards of a 1000-bed general hospital located in a rather densely-populated, industrialized area of Italy regarding the following topics: attention paid to pain, the use of analgesic drugs, and pain in children. In total, 669 nurses and 225 doctors completed a 16-item questionnaire evaluating knowledge and beliefs about pain. The overall percentage of correct answers was 61% (9.7/16). The score varied among the different wards and ranged from 48% (7.8/16) to 76% (12.3/16). Physicians scored 65% and nurses 59% (p < 0.001). The percentage of correct answers varied widely among the different items (from 30% to 96%). From these results, we conclude that there are still significant knowledge deficits and erroneous beliefs that may hamper treatment of the patient in pain. These results will help in conducting educational programs aimed at improving pain treatment in the different departments of the hospital. PMID:11728795

  7. Cancer pain in the opioid-addicted patient: can we treat it right?

    PubMed

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Girard, Lisa; Chaplin, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Although cancer elicits an array of physical and emotional symptoms, pain is often identified as the most distressing. Cancer pain may result from the primary tumor, metastasis, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or medical comorbidities. Although treatment with opioid analgesics is accepted as appropriate therapy for cancer-related pain, under treatment may persist among certain patients. Opioid-addicted individuals represent a challenging and heterogeneous population to treat. Addiction is linked to psychopathology and antisocial behaviors (eg, lying) which often complicate evaluation. Chronic exposure to opioids may lead to physiologic dependence and its correlates, tolerance and hyperalgesia. Given the variability and subjectivity of the cancer pain experience, there are no objective measures which capture the adequacy of pain control. Thus, when faced with complaints of uncontrolled pain, clinicians must consider a differential diagnosis of tolerance, disease progression, addiction, pseudoaddiction, chemical coping, or even criminal behavior. This article explores the cognitive, behavioral, and physiological correlates of opioid addiction that may impact cancer pain management. It also discusses risk reduction strategies for opioid misuse and research directions that may lead to improved clinical outcomes in these patients. PMID:22798177

  8. Management of Persistent Pain in the Older Patient A Clinical Review

    PubMed Central

    Makris, Una E.; Abrams, Robert C.; Gurland, Barry; Reid, M. Carrington

    2015-01-01

    Importance Persistent pain is highly prevalent, costly, and frequently disabling in later life. Objective To describe barriers to the management of persistent pain among older adults, summarize current management approaches, including pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic modalities; present rehabilitative approaches; and highlight aspects of the patient-physician relationship that can help to improve treatment outcomes. This review is relevant for physicians who seek an age-appropriate approach to delivering pain care for the older adult. Evidence Acquisition Search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane database from January 1990 through May 2014, using the search terms older adults, senior, ages 65 and above, elderly, and aged along with non-cancer pain, chronic pain, persistent pain, pain management, intractable pain, and refractory pain to identify English-language peer-reviewed systematic reviews, meta-analyses, Cochrane reviews, consensus statements, and guidelines relevant to the management of persistent pain in older adults. Findings Of the 92 identified studies, 35 evaluated pharmacologic interventions, whereas 57 examined nonpharmacologic modalities; the majority (n = 50) focused on older adults with osteoarthritis. This evidence base supports a stepwise approach with acetaminophen as first-line therapy. If treatment goals are not met, a trial of a topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, tramadol, or both is recommended. Oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not recommended for long-term use. Careful surveillance to monitor for toxicity and efficacy is critical, given that advancing age increases risk for adverse effects. A multimodal approach is strongly recommended–emphasizing a combination of both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments to include physical and occupational rehabilitation, as well as cognitive-behavioral and movement-based interventions. An integrated pain management approach is ideally achieved by cultivating a strong therapeutic alliance between the older patient and the physician. Conclusions and Relevance Treatment planning for persistent pain in later life requires a clear understanding of the patient's treatment goals and expectations, comorbidities, and cognitive and functional status, as well as coordinating community resources and family support when available. A combination of pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, and rehabilitative approaches in addition to a strong therapeutic alliance between the patient and physician is essential in setting, adjusting, and achieving realistic goals of therapy. PMID:25157726

  9. Pain syndrome with stress fractures in transplanted patients treated with calcineurin inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gohh, Reginald; Evangelista, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Bone disease remains a major cause of morbidity after renal transplantation. Post-transplant osseous complications include osteoporosis and osteonecrosis, both historically associated with glucocorticoids, and a newer syndrome of bone pain associated with calcineurin inhibitors. Calcineurin inhibitor-induced pain syndrome (CIPS) is a reversible etiology of lower extremity bone pain and bone marrow edema reported in patients receiving cyclosporine or tacrolimus after solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. While the syndrome’s pathophysiology is unclear, bone insufficiency and epiphyseal impaction may play a role. We review the literature on this increasingly important post-transplant entity and describe a case illustrating the syndrome’s key features.

  10. Hormone replacement therapy in morphine-induced hypogonadic male chronic pain patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Maria Aloisi; Ilaria Ceccarelli; Maria Carlucci; Annalisa Suman; Gianfranco Sindaco; Sergio Mameli; Valentina Paci; Laura Ravaioli; Giandomenico Passavanti; Valeria Bachiocco; Gilberto Pari

    2011-01-01

    Background  In male patients suffering from chronic pain, opioid administration induces severe hypogonadism, leading to impaired physical\\u000a and psychological conditions such as fatigue, anaemia and depression. Hormone replacement therapy is rarely considered for\\u000a these hypogonadic patients, notwithstanding the various pharmacological solutions available.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  To treat hypogonadism and to evaluate the consequent endocrine, physical and psychological changes in male chronic pain patients\\u000a treated

  11. Outcome of a Hepatitis C Outbreak Among Patients in a Pain Management Clinic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javid Fazili; Sue Mallonee; William M. Tierney; Teddy F. Bader; Arun K. Sachdev; Philip C. Bird; Robert D. Schmidt; Sikander A. Mesiya; Charles L. Lackey

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims  The aims of this study are to evaluate the natural history and response to therapy of patients following a hepatitis C outbreak\\u000a in a pain management clinic.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients who acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV) at a pain management clinic. Medical\\u000a records were retrospectively reviewed for 77% of patients with hepatitis C included in the

  12. Can Chronic Pain Patients Be Adequately Treated Using Generic Pain Medications to the Exclusion of Brand-Name Ones?

    PubMed

    Candido, Kenneth D; Chiweshe, Joseph; Anantamongkol, Utchariya; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2014-08-26

    According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reports, approximately 8 in 10 prescriptions filled in the United States are for generic medications, with an expectation that this number will increase over the next few years. The impetus for this emphasis on generics is the cost disparity between them and brand-name products. The use of FDA-approved generic drugs saved 158 billion dollars in 2010 alone. In the current health care climate, there is continually increasing pressure for prescribers to write for generic alternative medications, occasionally at the expense of best clinical practices. This creates a conflict wherein both physicians and patients may find brand-name medications clinically superior but nevertheless choose generic ones. The issue of generic versus brand medications is a key component of the discussion of health payers, physicians and their patients. This review evaluates some of the important medications in the armamentarium of pain physicians that are frequently used in the management of chronic pain, and that are currently at the forefront of this issue, including Opana (oxymorphone; Endo Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Malvern, PA), Gralise (gabapentin; Depomed, Newark, CA), and Horizant (gabapentin enacarbil; XenoPort, Santa Clara, CA) that are each available in generic forms as well. We also discuss the use of Lyrica (pregabalin; Pfizer, New York, NY), which is currently unavailable as generic medication, and Cymbalta (duloxetine; Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, IN), which has been recently FDA approved to be available in a generic form. It is clear that the use of generic medications results in large financial savings for the cost of prescriptions on a national scale. However, cost-analysis is only part of the equation when treating chronic pain patients and undervalues the relationships of enhanced compliance due to single-daily dosing and stable and reliable pharmacokinetics associated with extended-duration preparations using either retentive technologies or delayed absorption strategies. Medications given to chronic pain patients should be individualized to best serve analgesic needs and assure patient safety primarily, based on high levels of scientific and economic evidence. Decisions regarding utilization should not be made based solely on limited or faulty assessments of cost-benefit analyses. PMID:24914505

  13. Comparison of pain management in paediatric surgical patients in two hospitals in France and Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia Prot-Labarthe; Élaine Pelletier; Ursula Winterfeld; Edith Villeneuve; Chantal Wood; Jean-François Bussières; Françoise Brion; Olivier Bourdon

    2008-01-01

    Objective Pain management in children has improved substantially over the last few years but continues to vary widely across institutions.\\u000a Our objective was to describe the evaluation and treatment of pain in paediatric patients in two hospitals (Robert Debré in\\u000a Paris, France, and Sainte-Justine, Montréal, Canada) and to compare conformity with quality criteria. Method Retrospective medical chart of a total

  14. The Role of Anger in Psychosocial Subgrouping for Patients with Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Nisenzon, Anne N.; George, Steven Z.; Beneciuk, Jason M.; Wandner, Laura D.; Torres, Calia; Robinson, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common and costly condition that often becomes chronic if not properly addressed. Recent research has shown that psychosocial symptoms can complicate LBP, necessitating more comprehensive screening measures. The present study investigated the role of psychosocial factors, including anger regulation, in pain and disability using a screening measure designed for LBP treated with physical therapy. One-hundred and three LBP patients initiating physical therapy completed an established screening measure to assess risk for developing chronic pain, as well as psychosocial measures assessing anger, depression, anxiety, fear-avoidance, and pain-catastrophizing before and after four weeks of treatment. Dependent variables were pain intensity, physical impairment, and patient-reported disability. Risk subgrouping based on anger and other psychosocial measures was examined using established screening methods and through employing an empirical statistical approach. Analyses revealed that risk subgroups differed according to corresponding levels of negative affect, as opposed to anger alone. General psychosocial distress also predicted disability post-treatment, but, interestingly, did not have a strong relationship to pain. Subsequent hierarchical agglomerative clustering procedures divided patients into overall High and Low Distress groups, with follow-up analyses revealing that the High Distress group had higher baseline measures of pain, disability, and impairment. Findings suggest that anger may be part of generalized negative affect rather than a unique predictor when assessing risk for pain and disability in LBP treatment. Continued research in the area of screening for psychosocial prognostic indicators in LBP may ultimately guide treatment protocols in physical therapy for more comprehensive patient care. PMID:24281272

  15. Access to opioid analgesics and pain relief for patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Shalini; Bruera, Eduardo

    2013-02-01

    Access to pain relief is a crucial concern for patients with cancer, and remains so at all stages of the illness trajectory. This Review covers the scope of the problem and considers the optimal palliative strategy, mainly through the use of opioids. It also discusses various barriers to effective pain management around the world, including regulatory and attitudinal barriers towards opioids, and the unwillingness of national governments to integrate palliative care effectively in cancer control efforts. PMID:23319138

  16. Knowledge and Attitudes of Italian Medical Staff Towards the Approach and Treatment of Patients in Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Visentin; Leonardo Trentin; Roberto de Marco; Elisabetta Zanolin

    2001-01-01

    This study is part of the project, “Towards a Pain-Free Hospital,” which aims at improving the approach and treatment of the patient in pain. The objective of the study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of doctors and nurses on the wards of a 1000-bed general hospital located in a rather densely-populated, industrialized area of Italy regarding the following

  17. Patient-related barriers to pain management: the barriers questionnaire II (BQ-II)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sigridur Gunnarsdottir; Heidi S Donovan; Ronald C Serlin; Catherine Voge; Sandra Ward

    2002-01-01

    Patients' beliefs can act as barriers to optimal management of cancer pain. The Barriers Questionnaire (BQ) is a tool used to evaluate such barriers. Here, the BQ has been revised to reflect changes in pain management practices, resulting in the Barriers Questionnaire-II (BQ-II), a 27-item, self report instrument. This paper presents the results from two studies where the psychometric properties

  18. Spinal cord stimulation attenuates temporal summation in patients with neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Elon; Burstein, Yulia; Suzan, Erica; Treister, Roi; Aviram, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    Evidence has shown that electrical stimulation at the dorsal columns attenuated the "wind-up" phenomenon in dorsal horn neurons in nerve-injured rats. This study was aimed to test the effect of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) on temporal summation (TS), the clinical correlate of the wind-up phenomenon in patients with radicular leg pain. Eighteen patients with SCS implants were tested both 30 minutes after SCS activation ("ON") and 2 hours after turning it off ("OFF"), in a random order. Temporal summation was evaluated in the most painful site in the affected leg and in the corresponding area in the contralateral leg by applying a tonic painful heat stimulus (46.5°C; 120 seconds) and simultaneous recording of the perceived heat pain intensity. Patients were also requested to report their clinical pain intensity (0-100 numerical pain scale) during SCS "ON" and "OFF". The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used in the comparisons between SCS "ON" and "OFF". Spinal cord stimulation activation significantly attenuated clinical pain intensity (from 66 ± 18 to 27 ± 31, P < 0.001). In the nonpainful leg, SCS activation failed to produce an effect on TS (24 ± 20 vs 21 ± 24 in SCS "OFF" and "ON", respectively; P = 0.277). In contrast, a significant decrease in the magnitude of TS in the affected leg was observed in response to SCS activation (from 32 ± 33 to 19 ± 24; P = 0.017). These results suggest that attenuation of TS, which likely represents suppression of hyperexcitability in spinal cord neurons, is a possible mechanism underlying SCS analgesia in patients with neuropathic pain. PMID:25599230

  19. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in the management of painful muscle spasm in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PG Mattison

    1993-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was used to treat eight patients with multiple sclerosis who presented with painful lower limb muscle spasms. All eight had experienced a deterioration in functional ability following initial treatment with spasmolytic agents which had produced an undesirable fall in resting muscle tone. Six of the eight patients experienced a significant improvement in symptoms with TENS

  20. Virtual reality as an adjunctive pain control during burn wound care in adolescent patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hunter G. Hoffman; Jason N; David R. Patterson; Gretchen J. Carrougher; Thomas A. Furness III

    2000-01-01

    For daily burn wound care procedures, opioid analgesics alone are often inadequate. Since most burn patients experience severe to excruciating pain during wound care, analgesics that can be used in addition to opioids are needed. This case report provides the first evidence that entering an immersive virtual environment can serve as a powerful adjunctive, nonpharmacologic analgesic. Two patients received virtual

  1. Clinical characteristics and economic costs of patients with painful neuropathic disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariel Berger; Ellen M Dukes; Gerry Oster

    2004-01-01

    Using a large US health insurance claims database, we identified all persons aged 18 years or older with 2 or more medical encounters in calendar year 2000 for painful neuropathic disorders (PNDs). We also identified an age- and gender-matched group of patients without PNDs (matched control subjects). We then compared the clinical characteristics and economic costs of PND patients with

  2. Dextropropoxyphene versus morphine in Opioid-Naive cancer patients with pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastiano Mercadante; Leonardo Salvaggio; Gabriella Dardanoni; Antonio Agnello; Serena Garofalo

    1998-01-01

    The role of opiods for moderate pain (so-called “weak” opioids) in the second step of the World Health Organization's analgesic ladder has been investigated in a prospective randomized study. Sixteen patients were administered dextropropoxyphene (DPP) in a dosage ranging from 120 mg to 240 mg daily (group 1), and 16 patients were administered the lowest doses (20 mg daily) of

  3. Comprehensive Strategy for the Evaluation and Triage of the Chest Pain Patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L Tatum; Robert L Jesse; Michael C Kontos; Christopher S Nicholson; Kristin L Schmidt; Charlotte S Roberts; Joseph P Ornato

    1997-01-01

    See related editorial, p 168.Study objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a systematic evaluation and triage strategy including immediate resting myocardial perfusion imaging in patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain of possible ischemic origin. Methods: We conducted an observational study of 1,187 consecutive patients seen in the ED of an urban tertiary care hospital with

  4. Prognostic value of exercise thallium-201 imaging in patients presenting for evaluation of chest pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth A. Brown; Charles A. Boucher; Robert D. Okada; Timothy E. Guiney; John B. Newell; H. William Strauss; Gerald M. Pohost

    1983-01-01

    Accurate prognostic information is important in determining optimal management of patients presenting for evaluation of chest pain. In this study, the ability of exercise thallium-201 myocardial imaging to predict future cardiac events (cardiovascular death or nonfatal myocardial infarction) was correlated with clinical, coronary and left ventricular angiographic and exercise electrocardiographic data in 139 consecutive, nonsurgically managed patients followed-up over a

  5. Opioid regimens in patients with chronic pain with multiple cytochrome P450 defects.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Forest

    2015-01-01

    There is a subgroup of patients with chronic pain who have multiple cytochrome P450 enzyme defects. These patients tend to use opioids that are not metabolized by the CYP450 system and most apparently require a higher than average dosage. A significant number require nonoral administration. PMID:25985808

  6. Obtaining informed consent for clinical pain research: patients' concerns and information needs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Casarett; Jason Karlawish; Pamela Sankar; Karen B Hirschman; David A Asch

    2001-01-01

    Investigators who conduct clinical pain research are required to obtain voluntary informed consent from patients. However, little is known about what information patients expect when they decide whether to enroll in such studies. It is important that investigators understand these information needs so they can effectively and clearly describe the research risks and potential benefits that matter to potential subjects.

  7. Oral opioid administration and hyperalgesia in patients with cancer or chronic nonmalignant pain

    PubMed Central

    Reznikov, Igor; Pud, Dorit; Eisenberg, Elon

    2005-01-01

    Aims Previous research has reported on reduced paw withdrawal latencies to heat and mechanical stimuli after parenteral administration of opioids in animals and on increased pain sensitivity in humans subsequent to postoperative infusions of short-acting opioids or in drug addicts. The aim of the present study was to explore the possibility that oral opioid treated patients with cancer-related or chronic nonmalignant pain differ in their pain sensitivity from patients treated with non-opioid analgesics. Methods The study population consisted of 224 patients, including 142 in the opioid-treated group and 82 in the non-opioid-treated group. Pain thresholds for punctuate measured by von Frey filaments (g), mechanical pressure measured by pressure algometer (mmHg), heat stimuli measured by quantitative sensory testing (°C), as well as suprathreshold tonic heat pain intensity (46.5 °C for 1 min) measured by 0–10 numerical pain scale (NPS) were obtained at a nonpainful site (thenar eminence) in all patients. Results No differences between the groups were found for gender, age, duration of pain, or duration of treatment (independent variables). No significant differences between the groups were found in punctuate (difference = 17.0 g (95% CI ?8.8, 42.8), P = 0.19), pressure (2.2 mmHg (?28.7, 33.2), P = 0.89) and heat (?0.3 °C (?1.5, 0.9), P = 0.70) pain thresholds, or in suprathreshold heat pain intensity (difference between maximal pain intensities ?0.4 NPS units (95% CI ?1.2, 0.4), P = 0.31). Pearson correlations within the opioid-treated group failed to show significant relationships between any of the independent variables and the outcome measures. A further comparison of the outcomes between the ‘weak’ opioid-treated subgroup and the ‘strong’ opioid-treated subgroup again revealed insignificant results. Conclusions These results suggest that the administration of ‘commonly used’ dosages of oral opioids does not result in abnormal pain sensitivity beyond that of patients receiving non-opioid analgesia. PMID:16120071

  8. Experiences by patients and health professionals of a multidisciplinary intervention for long-term orofacial pain

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Håkan; Samuelsson, Mats; Ekdahl, Susanne; Halling, Yvonne; Öster, Anders; Perseius, Kent-Inge

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe patients’ and health professionals’ experiences of a multidisciplinary stress-focused clinical evaluation with prolonged engagement as an intervention for patients with long-term orofacial pain. Data in the patient part of this study were collected by free-text questionnaires using open-ended questions. Data were collected by group interview in the part of the study concerning health professionals. All data were analyzed according to qualitative content analysis. Data from patients revealed three categories for the intervention, ie, “helpful for most and crucial for some”, “being listened to, respected and validated”, and “gives important coping strategies”. The results showed that a vast majority of patients described themselves as having been helped by the intervention. Some patients reported that meeting with the orofacial pain consultant team was crucial to the future course of their lives. Most patients described still having residual pain and symptoms, and only a few described their pain as being fully remitted. However, because of the intervention, the patients reported being able to adopt more constructive coping strategies. They also described their perception of the pain as being different, in that it was not so frightening once they had been given a model with which to understand it. Data from the health professionals revealed similar categories. Concordance between the patients’ and health professionals’ experiences was striking. In their descriptions, the health professionals and patients underscored the same components as being effective, with understanding, respect, and validation being the most important. The multidisciplinary approach was highlighted as being key to success by both the patients and health professionals. PMID:24082788

  9. [The Perioperative Management of Pain in Patients Who Are Addicted to Heroin].

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Yi; Weng, Chia-Hsing; Hsu, Yu-Ping; Lin, Pao-Chen

    2015-06-01

    Heroin addicts admitted to the hospital for surgery should be treated as high-risk patients because these patients face a significantly higher risk of experiencing severe drug withdrawal symptoms and of pain management complications during hospitalization. The lack of proper pain management often suffered by heroin addicts during hospitalization has been attributed to care providers' insufficient knowledge regarding opioid medications and their addicting effects as well as fears that opioid medications may cause addiction symptoms to reemerge. The objective of this article is to illustrate the pain management process across the entire hospitalization period for heroin-addicted patients undergoing surgical procedures. This process includes management of the heroin-related physical and psychological reactions from surgery, of the mechanism of pain induced specifically from surgery, and of the heroin addiction during the surgical procedure and subsequent clinical management and nursing care. It is hoped that this article assists healthcare providers to better understand the need for the proper pain management and care of heroin-addicted surgical patients over the entire period of hospitalization and thus the enhancement of the overall quality and safety of patient care management procedures. PMID:26073959

  10. Translating Research into Practice Intervention Improves Management of Acute Pain in Older Hip Fracture Patients

    PubMed Central

    Titler, Marita G; Herr, Keela; Brooks, John M; Xie, Xian-Jin; Ardery, Gail; Schilling, Margo L; Marsh, J Lawrence; Everett, Linda Q; Clarke, William R

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test an interdisciplinary, multifaceted, translating research into practice (TRIP) intervention to (a) promote adoption, by physicians and nurses, of evidence-based (EB) acute pain management practices in hospitalized older adults, (b) decrease barriers to use of EB acute pain management practices, and (c) decrease pain intensity of older hospitalized adults. Study Design Experimental design with the hospital as the unit of randomization. Study Setting Twelve acute care hospitals in the Midwest. Data Sources (a) Medical records (MRs) of patients ?65 years or older with a hip fracture admitted before and following implementation of the TRIP intervention and (b) physicians and nurses who care for those patients. Data Collection Data were abstracted from MRs and questions distributed to nurses and physicians. Principal Findings The Summative Index for Quality of Acute Pain Care (0–18 scale) was significantly higher for the experimental (10.1) than comparison group (8.4) at the end of the TRIP implementation phase. At the end of the TRIP implementation phase, patients in the experimental group had a lower mean pain intensity rating than those in the comparison group (p<.0001). Conclusion The TRIP intervention improved quality of acute pain management of older adults hospitalized with a hip fracture. PMID:19146568

  11. A patient-based national survey on postoperative pain management in France reveals significant achievements and persistent challenges

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A patient-based national survey on postoperative pain management in France reveals significant both progress and persistent challenges in POP management. Key words Postoperative pain, national , Philippe Aegerter2, Pain and regional anesthesia committee of the French Anesthesia and Intensive Care

  12. Differences in motor recruitment and resulting kinematics between low back pain patients and asymptomatic participants during lifting exertions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sue A. Ferguson; William S. Marras; Deborah L. Burr; Kermit G. Davis; Purnendu Gupta

    2004-01-01

    Background. Low back disorders are a prevalent problem in society today and may lead to chronic debilitating low back pain. Developing our understanding of temporal muscle and kinematic patterns during manual material handling tasks may provide insight for preventing the cascading series of events leading to chronic low back pain. Methods. Sixty-two low back pain patients and 61 asymptomatic participants

  13. Chronic pain patients are impaired on an emotional decision-making task A. Vania Apkariana,*, Yamaya Sosaa

    E-print Network

    Chialvo, Dante R.

    Chronic pain patients are impaired on an emotional decision-making task A. Vania Apkariana pain can result in anxiety, depression and reduced quality of life. However, its effects on cognitive hypothesized that performance on an emotional decision- making task may be impaired in chronic pain since human

  14. Psychometric properties of the pain stages of change questionnaire as evaluated by rasch analysis in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Our objective was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Pain Stages of Change Questionnaire (PSOCQ) and its four subscales Precontemplation, Contemplation, Action and Maintenance. Methods A total of 231 patients, median age 42 years, with chronic musculoskeletal pain responded to the 30 items in PSOCQ. Thresholds for item scores, and unidimensionality and invariance of the PSOCQ and its four subscales were evaluated by Rasch analysis, partial credit model. Results The items had disordered threshold and needed to be rescored. The 30 items in the PSOCQ did not fit the Rasch model Chi- square item trait statistics. All subscales fitted the Rasch models. The associations to pain (11 point numeric rating scale), emotional distress (Hopkins symptom check list v 25) and self-efficacy (Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale) were highest for the Precontemplation subscale. Conclusion The present analysis revealed that all four subscales in PSOCQ fitted the Rasch model. No common construct for all subscales were identified, but the Action and Maintenance subscales were closely related. PMID:24646065

  15. Treatment of pain in patients with renal insufficiency: The World Health Organization three-step ladder adapted

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Launay-Vacher; Svetlana Karie; Jean-Baptiste Fau; Hassane Izzedine; Gilbert Deray

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization established official recommendations for managing pain in cancer patients. Since then, this stepladder approach has been widely adopted as a conceptual framework to treat all types of pain. However, those guidelines have not been critically evaluated for use in patients with renal insufficiency. In these patients, the questions of drug dosage adjustment and renal toxicity must

  16. Hypovitaminosis D in female patients with chronic low back pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Lotfi; Ahmed M. Abdel-Nasser; Ahmed Hamdy; Ahmed A. Omran; Mahmoud A. El-Rehany

    2007-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (LBP) is an extremely common problem in practice, where it is often labeled idiopathic. No sufficient\\u000a studies have been conducted to analyze the contribution of hypovitaminosis D to the etiology of chronic LBP in populations\\u000a wherein vitamin D deficiency is endemic. The present study was, therefore, carried out to examine hypovitaminosis D and its\\u000a determinants in

  17. Cancer-related neuropathic pain in out-patient oncology clinics: a European survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although pain is frequently experienced by patients with cancer, it remains under-treated. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of cancer-related neuropathic pain (CRNP) in patients with chronic pain who attended an outpatient clinic for standard care in Europe (irrespective of the reason or stage of the cancer). The secondary aims of this study were to characterise pain and cancer in patients with CRNP (including treatment) and to evaluate the usefulness of the painDETECT (PD-Q) screening tool to help physicians identify a potential neuropathic component of cancer-related pain. Methods An observational, non-interventional, cross-sectional, multi-centre study of adult patients with cancer using patient and physician case report forms (CRFs). Patients with CRNP were identified by physicians’ clinical assessments after examining the completed PD-Q. Results A total of 951 patients visiting outpatient clinics across Europe were enrolled in this study between August 2010 and July 2011. Of these, 310 patients (32.60%; 95% confidence interval 29.62, 35.58) were identified as having CRNP. Twenty-nine of 39 (74.4%) physicians who completed the CRF relating to the PD-Q considered it a useful tool to help detect CRNP in daily practice and 28 of 39 (71.8%) indicated that they would use this tool in the future for most or some of their patients. Data from physicians before and after review of the completed PD-Qs showed a shift in clinical opinion (either to positive CRNP diagnosis [yes] or negative CRNP diagnosis [no]) in respect of 142 patients; about half of which (74) were categorised with an initial diagnosis of unknown. Opinions also shifted from a no to a yes diagnosis in 10 patients and from a yes to a no diagnosis in 51 patients. Conclusions Approximately one-third of adults with cancer experiencing chronic pain attending outpatient clinics as part of routine care were considered to have CRNP in the opinion of the physicians after considering scores on the PD-Q. While physicians did not consider the PD-Q to be a useful tool for all patients, shifts in diagnosis before and after the use of this tool indicate that it may help physicians identify CRNP, especially where there is initial uncertainty. PMID:24200014

  18. The Etiologies of Low Back Pain in Patients With Lumbar Disk Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Samini, Fariborz; Gharedaghi, Mohammad; Khajavi, Mahdi; Samini, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common complaint in population that lowers the quality of life. The main etiology of LBP is recognized in about 20% of patients while it is attributed to lumbar disk herniation (LDH) in 80% of cases and causes some unnecessary lumbar surgeries without realizing the definite cause. Objectives: This study was planned to evaluate the etiologies of LBP in patients who had LDH to clarify whether the disc herniation is the main cause of patients` pain or other diseases were responsible for this kind of pain. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the medical profiles of the patients with proven LDH in a private clinic in Mashhad City, Iran, between 2005 and 2012, for demographic and the etiologies of LBP with clinical and paraclinical studies. We also calculated the incidence of each etiology by SPSS 13. Results: In our study, among 1250 patients with proven LDH by MRI, 500 patients (40%) had chronic LBP and the most common causes of LBP were heavy constant working (40.2%), osteoporosis (35.6%), and sacroiliac joint pain (34.6%), consecutively. Interestingly, LDH had the ninth rank among the common cause of LBP. Conclusions: In this study, we found that in spite of previous beliefs, discopathies were not common etiologies of LBP. Thus, even in patients with proven LDH by imaging studies, the physician should perform a thorough evaluation for other causes of LBP to avoid unnecessary lumbar surgeries. PMID:25763198

  19. Does adherence to treatment mediate the relationship between patients' treatment outcome expectancies and the outcomes of pain intensity and recovery from acute low back pain?

    PubMed

    Haanstra, Tsjitske M; Kamper, Steven J; Williams, Christopher M; Spriensma, Alette S; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine; Maher, Christopher G; de Vet, Henrica C W; Ostelo, Raymond W J G

    2015-08-01

    It is believed that patients' expectancies about the effectiveness of treatment influence their treatment outcomes, but the working mechanism is rarely studied in patients with low back pain. Theoretical models suggest that adherence to treatment may be an important pathway. The aim of this study was to assess the mediating role of adherence to treatment in the relationship between expectancies and the outcomes of recovery and pain intensity in patients with acute low back pain. This study used data from a randomized placebo-controlled trial of paracetamol for acute low back pain. Expectancies were measured with the Credibility Expectancy Questionnaire. Adherence was measured with a medication diary. Pain intensity was recorded daily in a diary on a 0 to 10 pain scale, and recovery was defined as the first of 7 consecutive days scoring 0 or 1 on a 6-point pain scale. Cox regression (dependent variable: recovery) and linear mixed-model analyses (dependent variable: daily pain intensity scores) were performed. The "difference in coefficients" approach was used to establish mediation. A total of 1573 participants were included in current analyses. There was a small but highly significant relationship between expectancies and outcomes; 3.3% of the relationship between expectancies and recovery and 14.2% of the relationship between expectancies and pain intensity were mediated by adherence to treatment. This study does not convincingly support the theory that adherence is a key pathway in the relationship between treatment outcome expectancies and recovery and pain intensity in this acute low back pain population. PMID:25906348

  20. The reluctance to generalize corrective experiences in chronic low back pain patients: a questionnaire study of dysfunctional cognitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liesbet Goubert; Geert Crombez; Lieven Danneels

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated whether pain catastrophizing and pain-related fear is related to a reluctance to generalize an experience of lesser pain than expected to other similar situations. Eighty-five patients with chronic low back pain (40 males; 45 females; age range=21–63 years) completed a series of vignettes assessing catastrophizing, overgeneralization, personalization and selective abstraction related to general life experiences and

  1. Effect of music on postoperative pain and physiologic parameters of patients after open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Özer, Nadiye; Karaman Özlü, Zeynep; Arslan, Sevban; Günes, Nezihat

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of listening to personal choice of music on self-report of pain intensity and the physiologic parameters in patients who have undergone open heart surgery. The study design was quasiexperimental. Patients were selected through convenience sampling in the Cardiovascular Surgery Intensive Care Unit at a university hospital. The study was conducted with a total of 87 patients who underwent open heart surgery: 44 in the music group, 43 in the control group, ages between 18 and 78 years. Through pretest-posttest design, postoperative first-day data were collected. First, physiologic parameters (blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate) were recorded and a unidimensional verbal pain intensity scale applied to all participants. Later, the control group had a rest in their beds while the music group listened to their choice of music for 30 minutes. Physiologic data were then collected and the pain intensity scale applied once more. In the music group, there was a statistically significant increase in oxygen saturation (p = .001) and a lower pain score (p = .001) than in the control group. There was no difference between the groups in the other physiologic parameters. Results of this research provide evidence to support the use of music. Music might be a simple, safe, and effective method of reducing potentially harmful physiologic responses arising from pain in patients after open heart surgery. PMID:23452523

  2. Prevalence and management of back pain in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Théroux, Jean; Le May, Sylvie; Fortin, Carole; Labelle, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Back pain (BP) has often been associated with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), which is a three-dimensional deviation of the vertebral column. In adolescents, chronic pain appears to be a predictor of health care utilization and has a negative impact on physical, psychological and family well-being. In this population, BP tends to be persistent and may be a predictor of BP in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To document the prevalence and management of BP in AIS patients. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of AIS patients who were referred to Sainte-Justine University Teaching Hospital (Montreal, Quebec) from 2006 to 2011 was conducted. RESULTS: A total of 310 randomly selected charts were reviewed. Nearly one-half of the patients (47.3%) mentioned that they experienced BP, most commonly in the lumbar (19.7%) and thoracic regions (7.7%). The type of BP was documented in only 36% (n=112) of the charts. Pain intensity was specified in only 21% (n=65) of the charts. In approximately 80% (n=248) of the charts, no pain management treatment plan was documented. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of BP was moderately high among the present sample of adolescents with AIS. An improved system for documenting BP assessment, type, treatment plan and treatment effectiveness would improve pain management for these patients. PMID:25831076

  3. Chronic pleuritic pain in four patients with asbestos induced pleural fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A

    1990-01-01

    Four patients occupationally exposed to asbestos, each suffering at least eight years of disabling, persistent, and often bilateral pleuritic pain are described. Radiographic evidence of pleural disease ranged from plaques seen only on computed tomography to typical bilateral plaques or diffuse thickening to extensive diffuse and circumscribed pleural fibrosis and calcification. There was no history or evidence of acute pleuritis or pleural effusion in three patients. Intermittent pleural friction rubs have been present in all four; one patient showed pleural uptake of gallium-67. Extensive workups including repeated pulmonary ventilation-perfusion scans and cardiac catheterisation have not yielded other diagnoses to explain the pain. It is proposed that persistent pleuritic pain be added to the manifestations of benign asbestos induced pleural disease. Images PMID:2328221

  4. Evaluation of microcurrent electrical nerve stimulation (MENS) effectiveness on muscle pain in temporomandibular disorders patients.

    PubMed

    Zuim, Paulo Renato Junqueira; Garcia, Alicio Rosalino; Turcio, Karina Helga Leal; Hamata, Marcelo Matida

    2006-01-01

    The effect of Microcurrent Electrical Nerve Stimulation (MENS) was evaluated and compared with occlusal splint therapy in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients with muscle pain. Twenty TMD patients were divided into four groups. One received occlusal splint therapy and MENS (I); other received splints and placebo MENS (II); the third, only MENS (III) and the last group, placebo MENS (IV). Sensitivity derived from muscle palpation was evaluated using a visual analogue scale. Results were submitted to analysis of variance (p<0.05). There was reduction of pain level in all groups: group I (occlusal splint and MENS) had a 47.7% reduction rate; group II (occlusal splint and placebo MENS), 66.7%; group III (MENS), 49.7% and group IV (placebo MENS), 16.5%. In spite of that, there was no statistical difference (analysis of variance / p<0.05) between MENS and occlusal splint therapy regarding muscle pain reduction in TMD patients after four weeks. PMID:19089032

  5. Chronic opioid induced constipation in patients with nonmalignant pain: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Alfred D.

    2015-01-01

    With the recent introduction and approval of medications directed at the treatment of opioid induced constipation (OIC) in patients with nonmalignant pain, there is increased interest and understanding of the unmet need and opportunities to enhance patient management. The high incidence of OIC is associated with rapid increase of narcotic analgesic prescriptions for nonmalignant chronic pain. This review addresses briefly the mechanisms of action of opioids that lead to OIC, the differential tolerance of gastrointestinal organs to the effects of opioids, the size and scope of the problem, the definition and outcome measures for OIC, current differential diagnosis and management algorithms, and the pharmacology and efficacy of treatments for OIC in patients with nonmalignant pain. PMID:26136838

  6. Patients' experiences and providers' observations on pain during intrauterine device insertion.

    PubMed

    Akintomide, Hannat; Brima, Nataliya; Sewell, Robert D E; Stephenson, Judith M

    2015-08-01

    Objective To determine women's (patients') experiences of intrauterine device (IUD) insertion under our current practice and the extent to which these agreed with the observations of the health professionals (providers) who had performed the IUD insertion procedures. Method Questionnaires were used to collect information on women's experiences of the IUD insertion procedure from both patients and providers in a sexual and reproductive health service. Results Overall response rates were high (77%, 284 responses in total). Seventy-three percent of patients were nulliparous and over half nulligravid. The providers predominantly used local anaesthesia for IUD insertions (93%). Most patients reported being anxious before their procedure (86%). Patients mainly described the overall experience of their IUD insertion procedure as being associated with 'minimal discomfort/nothing' (42%) or 'uncomfortable' (41%). 'Minimal discomfort/nothing' (56%) and 'uncomfortable' (33%) were the main observations of providers. When responses of patients and their providers were compared, agreement was slight for reported pain levels (k = 0.167 CI [0.13-0.24]). Patients' reported pain levels were significantly higher than those reported to have been observed by their providers (p < 0.001). Conclusion Patients' and providers' responses suggested that the IUD insertion procedure under our current practice appeared acceptable to most patients. However, providers were not usually accurate in their observations and tended to underestimate the degree of pain experienced by their patients during IUD insertion procedures. PMID:25857221

  7. Panic anxiety and hyperventilation in patients with chest pain: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bass, C; Chambers, J B; Kiff, P; Cooper, D; Gardner, W N

    1988-12-01

    We studied the relation between mood disorder and hyperventilation (hypocapnia) before and during exercise treadmill testing in 113 chest pain patients attending a cardiac clinic and 30 healthy controls. In most patients end-tidal PCO2 (PCO2) rose in the normal way on exercise but in a subset of 24 (21 per cent) there was no rise: these patients with initial hyperventilation had significantly higher anxiety scores than those with a normal exercise-induced rise in PCO2. Two of the 24 had ischaemic heart disease and 10 (42 per cent) complained of recent panic anxiety compared with 12 (13 per cent) of the 89 with normal rise in PCO2 (p less than 0.05). Rates of psychiatric morbidity were similar in patients with 'typical' and 'atypical' chest pain. Resting hypocapnia occurred more often in patients with panic anxiety than in either anxious or non-anxious patients without panic. Panic patients also reported more symptoms of breathlessness and hyperventilation-related complaints than those without panic. Our findings confirm the important association between panic and hyperventilation in patients with chest pain. Furthermore, patients with exercise-induced hyperventilation are more likely to have a psychiatric than a cardiac disorder. Early detection and treatment of these patients may reduce the potential morbidity associated with unnecessary invasive investigations. PMID:3270082

  8. A review and critique of assessment instruments for patients with persistent pain

    PubMed Central

    Grimmer-Somers, Karen; Vipond, Nic; Kumar, Saravana; Hall, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Background Early identification of individuals at risk of developing persistent pain is important to decrease unnecessary treatment costs and disability. However there is scant comprehensive information readily available to assist clinicians to choose appropriate assessment instruments with sound psychometric and clinical properties. Objective A national insurer commissioned the development of a compendium of assessment instruments to identify adults with, or at-risk of developing, persistent pain. This paper reports on the instrument identification and review process. Methods A comprehensive systematic literature review was undertaken of assessment instruments for persistent pain of noncancer origin, and their developmental literature. Only assessment instruments which were developed for patients with pain, or tested on them, were included. A purpose-built ‘Ready Reckoner’ scored psychometric properties and clinical utility. Results One hundred sixteen potentially useful instruments were identified, measuring severity, psychological, functional and/or quality of life constructs of persistent pain. Forty-five instruments were short-listed, with convincing psychometric properties and clinical utility. There were no standard tests for psychometric properties, and considerable overlap of instrument purpose, item construct, wording, and scoring. Conclusion No one assessment instrument captured all the constructs of persistent pain. While the compendium focuses clinicians’ choices, multiple instruments are required for comprehensive assessment of adults with persistent pain. PMID:21197292

  9. Relieving pain in rheumatology patients: repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a developing approach.

    PubMed

    Pérocheau, Dominique; Laroche, Françoise; Perrot, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive method for activating specific areas of the brain. There are two variants, repetitive TMS (rTMS) and direct TMS. Rapid changes in an electrical current induce a magnetic field, which in turn induces an electrical current in a nearby conductor. When a coil is positioned over the brain, rTMS delivers very brief and painless magnetic pulses to the brain. Initially, rTMS was developed as a treatment for depression. Since then, potential indications have been extended to the treatment of chronic pain, most notably in patients with rheumatic diseases. Thus, active research is being conducted into rTMS effects in fibromyalgia, chronic low back pain, and type I complex regional pain syndrome. Studies have established that rTMS is safe; provides pain relief, at least in the short-term; and improves the psychological correlates of chronic pain. These data support further development efforts with the goal of using rTMS in patients with chronic pain, including those with rheumatic diseases. French physicians have shown a high level of interest in rTMS, and the first French recommendations for using this method were issued in 2011. Further research is needed to determine the optimal stimulation parameters, session frequency, and session duration, as well as the best indications. Physicians who see many patients with chronic pain, such as rheumatologists, should be aware of this developing non-pharmacological and safe treatment modality, which can be of considerable help to their patients. PMID:23787057

  10. Chiropractic management of a patient with lumbar spine pain due to synovial cyst: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Cox, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study is to report the findings resulting from chiropractic care using flexion distraction spinal manipulation for a patient with low back and radicular pain due to spinal stenosis caused by a synovial cyst. Case Report A 75-year-old man presented with low back pain radiating to the right anterior thigh and down the left posterior leg of 3 years' duration. Physical and imaging examinations showed a synovial cyst–induced spinal stenosis at the right L3-L4 level and bilateral L4-L5 spinal stenosis. Intervention and Outcomes Flexion distraction spinal manipulation and physiological therapeutics were applied at the levels of stenosis. After 4 visits, the patient noted total absence of the right and left lower extremity pain and no adverse reaction to treatment. After 3 months of treatment and 16 visits, his low back and buttock pain were minimal; and he had no leg pain. Conclusion Lumbar synovial cyst and stenosis–generated low back and radicular pain was 80% relieved in a 75-year-old man following Cox flexion distraction spinal manipulation. PMID:22942836

  11. Functional network architecture predicts psychologically mediated analgesia related to treatment in chronic knee pain patients.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Javeria Ali; Kong, Jian; Spaeth, Rosa; Khan, Sheraz; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Gollub, Randy L

    2014-03-12

    Placebo analgesia is an indicator of how efficiently the brain translates psychological signals conveyed by a treatment procedure into pain relief. It has been demonstrated that functional connectivity between distributed brain regions predicts placebo analgesia in chronic back pain patients. Greater network efficiency in baseline brain networks may allow better information transfer and facilitate adaptive physiological responses to psychological aspects of treatment. Here, we theorized that topological network alignments in resting state scans predict psychologically conditioned analgesic responses to acupuncture treatment in chronic knee osteoarthritis pain patients (n = 45). Analgesia was induced by building positive expectations toward acupuncture treatment with verbal suggestion and heat pain conditioning on a test site of the arm. This procedure induced significantly more analgesia after sham or real acupuncture on the test site than in a control site. The psychologically conditioned analgesia was invariant to sham versus real treatment. Efficiency of information transfer within local networks calculated with graph-theoretic measures (local efficiency and clustering coefficients) significantly predicted conditioned analgesia. Clustering coefficients in regions associated with memory, motivation, and pain modulation were closely involved in predicting analgesia. Moreover, women showed higher clustering coefficients and marginally greater pain reduction than men. Overall, analgesic response to placebo cues can be predicted from a priori resting state data by observing local network topology. Such low-cost synchronizations may represent preparatory resources that facilitate subsequent performance of brain circuits in responding to adaptive environmental cues. This suggests a potential utility of network measures in predicting placebo response for clinical use. PMID:24623770

  12. [Invasive tumor pain therapy in the final stage of a cervix cancer patient].

    PubMed

    Ofenschüssl, Adolf; Ilias, Wilfried

    2010-02-01

    Cancer disease is associated with a lot of very burdening symptoms. Pain is with dyspnea and emesis in the first time in a rate of about 50%, in the terminal stage up to 90% the most tormenting symptom. For more than 90% of patients the 3-step-WHO-regimen for cancer pain is able to relieve pain successfully. But a little group of cancer patients need invasive measures and methods to relieve pain sufficiently. This would be the 4th step, according to the enlarged WHO-regimen. Intravenous or intrathecal applications, eventually regional blockades should be considered. The following case-report shows the steps of a difficult cancer pain therapy in a regional general hospital. It is sometimes not evidence based, on the one hand because of necessary organizational, staff-related, or other makeshifts in daily clinical practice, on the other hand because of the lack of appropriate EBM-guidelines. The pressure to reduce the pain effectively and as simple as possible produces sometimes polypragmatic, retrospective not always satisfying measures. PMID:20300922

  13. Breakthrough pain in advanced cancer patients followed at home: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Costanzo, Benedetta Veruska; Fusco, Flavio; Buttà, Valeria; Vitrano, Valentina; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to longitudinally assess breakthrough pain (BP) in advanced cancer patients who were admitted to home palliative care. One hundred and one consecutive patients who were admitted to one of the two home care programs and were representative of the cancer population followed at home in Italy were included. Patients were excluded only if at admission they were cognitively impaired or too unwell to provide reliable answers to questions regarding data collection. At admission (T(0)), and one month later (T(1)), data were recorded about the pharmacological treatment of background pain and its effectiveness; the presence of BP and its intensity, duration, and number of episodes; the occurrence of BP induced by movement; spontaneous relief after stopping activity and limitation of physical activity because of pain on movement; the analgesic drugs prescribed for BP; and the effectiveness of BP medication. After the initial assessment, patients received analgesics for background pain and BP, as well as symptomatic treatment usually provided at home, according to local policies and protocols. At T(0), 70.2% of patients were receiving analgesic drugs, and 52% of them had uncontrolled pain. BP was reported by 49.2% of these patients and had a mean duration and number of episodes per day of 35.1 minutes (+/-35.0) and 2.4 (+/-1.5), respectively. Of patients with BP, 65.7% had pain on movement, which decreased spontaneously after stopping activity in 73.9%. Physical activity was strongly limited in 78.2% of these patients. Most patients did not have a BP medication prescription. At T(1), a larger number of patients were receiving analgesics (P<0.002), and the number of patients with BP medication significantly increased (P<0.001). The incidence of BP and pain on movement decreased (33% and 38.5%, respectively). This longitudinal study suggests that BP is a dynamic entity dependent on several factors, including analgesic treatment and the course of disease. This helps explain the different incidences reported in previous studies performed in different settings and conditions. PMID:19692200

  14. Pain Phenotype in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis: Classification and Measurement Properties of painDETECT and Self-Report Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs Scale in a Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Moreton, Bryan J; Tew, Victoria; das Nair, Roshan; Wheeler, Maggie; Walsh, David A; Lincoln, Nadina B

    2015-01-01

    Objective Multiple mechanisms are involved in pain associated with osteoarthritis (OA). The painDETECT and Self-Report Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) questionnaires screen for neuropathic pain and may also identify individuals with musculoskeletal pain who exhibit abnormal central pain processing. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate painDETECT and S-LANSS for classification agreement and fit to the Rasch model, and to explore their relationship to pain severity and pain mechanisms in OA. Methods A total of 192 patients with knee OA completed questionnaires covering different aspects of pain. Another group of 77 patients with knee OA completed questionnaires and underwent quantitative sensory testing for pressure–pain thresholds (PPTs). Agreement between painDETECT and S-LANSS was evaluated using kappa coefficients and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. Rasch analysis of both questionnaires was conducted. Relationships between screening questionnaires and measures of pain severity or PPTs were calculated using correlations. Results PainDETECT and S-LANSS shared a stronger correlation with each other than with measures of pain severity. ROC curves identified optimal cutoff scores for painDETECT and S-LANSS to maximize agreement, but the kappa coefficient was low (? = 0.33–0.46). Rasch analysis supported the measurement properties of painDETECT but not those of S-LANSS. Higher painDETECT scores were associated with widespread reductions in PPTs. Conclusion The data suggest that painDETECT assesses pain quality associated with augmented central pain processing in patients with OA. Although developed as a screening questionnaire, painDETECT may also function as a measure of characteristics that indicate augmented central pain processing. Agreement between painDETECT and S-LANSS for pain classification was low, and it is currently unknown which tool may best predict treatment outcome. PMID:25155472

  15. Ultrasonographic assessment of patients referred with chronic anal pain to a tertiary referral centre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Beer-Gabel; D. Carter; M. Venturero; O. Zmora; A. P. Zbar

    2010-01-01

    Background  Chronic anal pain is relatively common as a presentation to specialist physicians and surgeons. Currently, it is regarded\\u000a as a functional disorder upon the exclusion of occult intersphincteric sepsis. Our study assessed an unselected cohort of\\u000a patients presenting with chronic previously undiagnosed anal pain using routine ultrasonography.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  All patients referred to a tertiary gastroenterology service between January 2005 and January

  16. Pregabalin, the lidocaine plaster and duloxetine in patients with refractory neuropathic pain: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients frequently fail to receive adequate pain relief from, or are intolerant of, first-line therapies prescribed for neuropathic pain (NeP). This refractory chronic pain causes psychological distress and impacts patient quality of life. Published literature for treatment in refractory patients is sparse and often published as conference abstracts only. The aim of this study was to identify published data for three pharmacological treatments: pregabalin, lidocaine plaster, and duloxetine, which are typically used at 2nd line or later in UK patients with neuropathic pain. Methods A systematic review of the literature databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and CCTR was carried out and supplemented with extensive conference and grey literature searching. Studies of any design (except single patient case studies) that enrolled adult patients with refractory NeP were included in the review and qualitatively assessed. Results Seventeen studies were included in the review: nine of pregabalin, seven of the lidocaine plaster, and one of duloxetine. No head-to-head studies of these treatments were identified. Only six studies included treatments within UK licensed indications and dose ranges. Reported efficacy outcomes were not consistent between studies. Pain scores were most commonly assessed in studies including pregabalin; trials of pregabalin and the lidocaine plaster reported the proportion of responders. Significant improvements in the total, sensory and affective scores of the Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire, and in function interference, sleep interference and pain associated distress, were associated with pregabalin treatment; limited or no quality of life data were available for the other two interventions. Limitations to the review are the small number of included studies, which are generally small, of poor quality and heterogeneous in patient population and study design. Conclusions Little evidence is available relevant to the treatment of refractory neuropathic pain despite the clinical need. There is a notable lack of high-quality comparative studies. It is evident that there is a need for future, high quality trials, particularly "gold-standard" RCTs in this refractory patient population. PMID:21092100

  17. Diagnosis and successful surgical management of posterior nutcracker syndrome in a patient with loin pain hematuria.

    PubMed

    Syed, Fahd; Lam, Quynh; Maharjan, Najindra; Portilla, Didier; Smeds, Matthew R; Borja-Cacho, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The syndrome of loin pain hematuria in the absence of stones is poorly understood but must be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients with clinical manifestations resembling nephrolithiasis. A 22-year-old white female with a 4-year history of left flank pain and hematuria underwent an extensive workup with normal renal ultrasound and cystourethroscopies. CT scan and MRI revealed a retro-aortic left renal vein. Posterior nutcracker syndrome was considered the most likely diagnosis. The patient underwent a left laparoscopic nephrectomy with auto-transplantation in the right iliac fossa. She developed azotemia shortly after, which resolved and since then has become asymptomatic. PMID:25966600

  18. Evaluation of Alexithymia, Somatosensory Sensitivity, and Health Anxiety Levels in Patients with Noncardiac Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt Zincir, Selma; Sunbul, Murat; Aydin Sunbul, Esra; Dalkilic, Bahar; Cengiz, Fatma; Kivrak, Tarik; Durmus, Erdal

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) is seen more frequently in young population and in these patients loss of function is evolving in social and professional areas. The aim of the study is to evaluate the levels of anxiety and somatic perception in patients with chest pain presenting to cardiology clinic. Methods. Fifty-one patients with noncardiac chest pain and 51 healthy controls were included in the study. All participants performed self-report based health anxiety inventory (HAI), somatosensory amplification scale (SAS), and Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS). Results. The patient group had significantly higher scores on the SAS, HAI-1, and HAI-T scales compared to controls (P < 0.001, P = 0.006, and P = 0.038, resp.). SAS, HAI-1, and HAI-T scores were significantly higher in female patients than male (P = 0.002, 0.036, and 0.039, resp.). There were significant differences in all TAS subscale scores between two groups. Patients, who had total TAS score more than 50, also presented higher levels of health anxiety (P = 0.045). Conclusions. Anxiety, somatic symptoms, and the exaggerated sense of bodily sensations are common in patients with NCCP. These patients unnecessarily occupy the cardiology outpatient clinics. These negative results can be eliminated when consultation-liaison psychiatry evaluates these patients in collaboration with cardiology departments. PMID:24967410

  19. Morphine, Nortriptyline and their Combination vs. Placebo in Patients with Chronic Lumbar Root Pain

    PubMed Central

    Khoromi, Suzan; Cui, Lihong; Nackers, Lisa; Max, Mitchell B.

    2007-01-01

    Although lumbar radicular pain is the most common chronic neuropathic pain syndrome, there have been few randomized studies of drug treatments. We compared the efficacy of morphine (15–90 mg), nortriptyline (25 –100 mg), their combination, and a benztropine “active placebo” (0.25-1 mg) in patients with chronic sciatica. Each period consisted of 5 weeks of dose escalation, 2 weeks of maintenance at the highest tolerated doses, and 2 weeks of dose tapering. The primary outcome was the mean daily leg pain score on a 0–10 scale during the maintenance period. Secondary outcomes included a 6-point ordinal global pain relief scale, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Oswestry Back Pain Disability Index (ODI) and the SF-36. In the 28 out of 61 patients who completed the study, none of the treatments produced significant reductions in average leg pain or other leg or back pain scores. Pain reduction, relative to placebo treatment was 14% for nortriptyline (95% CI= [?2%, 30%]), 7% for morphine (95% CI= [?8%, 22%]), and 7% for the combination treatment (95% CI= [?4%, 18%]). Mean doses were: nortriptyline alone, 84 +/? 24.44 (SD)mg/day; morphine alone, 62 +/?29mg/day; and combination, morphine, 49 +/?27 mg/day plus nortriptyline, 55 mg+/? 33.18 mg/day. Over half of the study completers reported some adverse effect with morphine, nortriptyline or their combination. Within the limitations of the modest sample size and high dropout rate, these results suggest that nortriptyline, morphine and their combination may have limited effectiveness in the treatment of chronic sciatica. PMID:17182183

  20. Prevalence of illicit drug use in patients without controlled substance abuse in interventional pain management.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Beyer, Carla D; Barnhill, Renee C

    2003-04-01

    Drug abuse with illicit drugs and licit drugs has been increasing steadily over the past decade. A recent National Household Survey on Drug Abuse found statistically significant increases between 2000 and 2001 in the use of multiple drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, and non-medical use of pain relievers and tranquilizers. Prescription controlled substance abuse is a major issue in chronic pain management. Various means suggested to avoid or monitor abuse in patients in treatment include urine/serum drug screening whenever requested, along with other precautions including one prescribing physician and one designated pharmacy, etc. Based on the present evidence, physicians assume that patients adhering to controlled substance agreements and without obvious dependency behavior do not abuse either illicit or licit drugs. Thus, it is accepted that there is no necessity to perform routine urine/drug testing in this specific group of the patient population. One hundred patients undergoing interventional pain management and receiving controlled substances were randomly selected for evaluation of illicit drug abuse by urine drug testing. They were selected from a total of 250 patients who were identified as non-abusers of prescription drugs. Results showed that illicit drug abuse in patients without history of controlled substance abuse was seen in 16 patients. Thirteen of the 16 patients tested positive for marijuana and 3 patients tested positive for cocaine. Only one patient tested positive for a combined use of both marijuana and cocaine. This study showed that, in an interventional pain management setting, there is significant use of illicit drugs (16%) with 13% use of marijuana and 3% use of cocaine in patients who are considered as non-abusers of prescription controlled substances and those who are adherent to controlled substance agreements. However, if cocaine is considered as a hardcore drug in contrast to marijuana, abuse of hardcore illicit drugs is only 3%. PMID:16883377

  1. Assessing pain in persons with dementia: relationships among the non-communicative patient's pain assessment instrument, self-report, and behavioral observations.

    PubMed

    Horgas, Ann L; Nichols, Austin Lee; Schapson, Caissy A; Vietes, Krystel

    2007-06-01

    Pain is a common problem for many older adults, with up to 50% of community-dwelling and 70% to 80% of nursing home residents experiencing pain regularly. Effective pain management requires thorough assessment, appropriate intervention, and systematic reassessment. Pain assessment, however, is complicated by dementia, which impairs memory, reasoning, recognition, and communication, and affects elders' ability to verbally report pain. As such, observational measures are needed to assess pain in this vulnerable population. The Non-communicative Patient's Pain Assessment Instrument (NOPPAIN) was developed for this purpose, but more validation of this measure is needed. Thus, the purpose of this study was to (1) evaluate reliability of the NOPPAIN tool when used by nurses and to (2) compare NOPPAIN ratings with self-report and other well-established behavioral rating procedures. Forty participants (20 cognitively intact and 20 impaired) were randomly selected for this study from a larger sample. In the parent study, participants were asked to perform everyday activities (i.e., sit, stand, walk in place, transfer in and out of bed) while being videotaped. The tapes, all previously scored using microanalytic observational coding, were rated again by naïve raters using the NOPPAIN measure. Results indicated (1) high inter- and intrarater reliability of the NOPPAIN and (2) significant correlations of the NOPPAIN with self-reported pain and detailed behavioral coding. Findings support the reliability and validity of the NOPPAIN measurement tool and suggest this easy-to-use tool may be adequate for measuring pain indicators in older adults. PMID:17544127

  2. A review of rapid-onset opioids for breakthrough pain in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Simon, Steven M; Schwartzberg, Lee S

    2014-01-01

    Pain management in patients with cancer remains suboptimal. Breakthrough pain (BTP) is characterized by abrupt onset of severe pain in a background of otherwise stable managed pain and presents a substantial burden to patients, as it disrupts activities and quality of life. Rapid-onset opioids (ROOs), with an appropriate onset and duration of effect, provide new options for effective and well-tolerated management of BTP. All currently available ROOs are various formulations of transmucosal immediate-release fentanyl (TIRF) and, although they were originally developed and approved for use in children before painful procedures, are only approved for use in opioid-tolerant adult patients with cancer and BTP. The formulation options include oral lozenge, buccal tablet, buccal film, sublingual tablet, nasal spray, and a sublingual spray; each has practical considerations that vary with the product and route of administration. All have the common advantage of rapid entry into the systemic circulation via transmucosal absorption, avoiding hepatic and intestinal first-pass metabolism and allowing a rapid onset of action that rivals intravenous injections. Rapid onset and short duration of action allow good patient control of analgesia. The pharmacokinetic and analgesic properties of ROOs may allow reduction of the total opioid burden and associated adverse effects, while still providing effective pain relief. The shared TIRF risk evaluation and mitigation strategy program implemented in March 2012 has simplified enrollment and administration of these products to help mitigate the risks of abuse and misuse and to help ensure safe use in patients with cancer suffering from BTP. PMID:24944071

  3. Effect of hospice nonprofessional caregiver barriers to pain management on adherence to analgesic administration recommendations and patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mayahara, Masako; Foreman, Marquis D; Wilbur, JoEllen; Paice, Judith A; Fogg, Louis F

    2015-06-01

    Nonprofessional caregivers frequently experience barriers to using analgesics for pain in patients in home hospice settings, and patients in pain may suffer needlessly. For example, caregiver adherence to the administration of analgesics is lower for as-needed (PRN) regimens than for standard around-the-clock regimens. But little is known about the barriers caregivers experience and the effects of those barriers. Accordingly, we determined caregiver barriers to using analgesics to manage the pain of patients in the home hospice care setting, and how such barriers affected caregiver adherence and patient quality of life. To this end, we measured barriers, caregiver adherence to PRN analgesic regimens, and patient health outcomes (pain, depression, quality of life [QoL]). A 3-day longitudinal design was used. We recruited 46 hospice nonprofessional caregiver-patient dyads from a local community hospice agency. Barriers were measured with the Barrier Questionnaire II. Adherence to the PRN analgesic regimen was obtained with a 3-day pain and medication diary. Patient outcome measures included pain intensity, the Hospital Depression Scale, and the Brief Hospice Inventory for QoL. Barrier scores were moderate to low. Caregivers adhered to PRN analgesic regimens approximately 51% of the time. Higher caregiver adherence to PRN analgesic regimens was associated with lower patient pain intensity and higher patient QoL, but not, surprisingly, with barriers to pain management. Longitudinal studies are now needed to identify factors besides caregiver barriers that may unduly lower caregiver adherence to PRN analgesic regimens. PMID:25434499

  4. Infrared thermography and acupuncture of the lobe of the outer ear in patients with facial pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Ricardo; Lluesma, Eliseo G.

    2001-03-01

    We have assessed the thermal camera to complement the clinical odontology with the clinical assistance of acupuncture. Relevant cases of study were those of patients with facial pain. This work has registered the temperatures of the microsystem of the lobe of the outer ear. The recordings were made before, during and after removing the needles. Measurements of patients' temperatures were made very two minutes for 20 minutes, and a gradual increase of temperature was observed. The thermal camera allowed to register maps (thermography) that show an area affected with pain. After thermograms were performed to odontology patients treated with acupuncture, we were able to compare the temperature distribution maps and we found that they were quasi repetitive in the same zones in several patients for a specific illness. We made this technique available to different patients with lack of good irrigation on face and neck with the aim to establish patterns.

  5. Impact of epidural analgesia on quality of life and pain in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    He, Qun-Hui; Liu, Qing-Ling; Li, Zhen; Li, Ke-Zhong; Xie, Yong-Gang

    2015-06-01

    Patients with advanced cancer often experience chronic postoperative pain and poor quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine if epidural self-controlled analgesia reduced the incidence of chronic pain and improved the quality of life when compared with intravenous self-controlled analgesia. A total of 50 patients diagnosed with advanced cancer who received analgesia treatment were randomly divided into two groups, epidural self-controlled analgesia group (EA group, n = 26) and intravenous self-controlled analgesia group (IA group, n = 24). Visual analog scale (VAS) and Karnofsky score were used to assess the pain and the quality of life, respectively. A multifunction monitor was used to continuously record the physical signs of patients after treatment. The physical signs, such as heart failure, respiration, pulse, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation, in the two groups were better after analgesia treatment. Meanwhile, the respiration and oxygen saturation in the EA group were significantly improved compared with that of the IA group (p < .05). The VAS in the EA group was significantly lower than that in the IA group (p < .05), and the Karnofsky score in the EA group was significantly higher than that in the IA group (p < .05). Moreover, patients treated with EA felt more satisfied and experienced fewer complications than those with IA (p < .05). The epidural self-controlled analgesia may greatly improve the quality of life and relieve the pain in patients with advanced cancer. PMID:25439118

  6. Pain relief through expectation supersedes descending inhibitory deficits in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Goffaux, Philippe; de Souza, Juliana Barcellos; Potvin, Stéphane; Marchand, Serge

    2009-09-01

    In healthy adults, expectations can modulate the activity of inhibitory bulbo-spinal projections, and can even block the analgesic properties of counter-irritation - a phenomenon that triggers descending inhibition. Since descending inhibition is known to be deficient in fibromyalgia (FM) patients, we tested the possibility that expectancy-mediated analgesia would improve, or even kick-start, the deficient inhibitory responses of FM patients. By measuring subjective pain ratings, spinal withdrawal reflexes, and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP), it was possible to test whether or not expectancy-mediated analgesia involved descending inhibition in FM patients. Here, we show that expectations of analgesia radically change the subjective experience of pain, but do not eliminate evidence of spinal hyperexcitability in FM patients. We found that expectations of analgesia reduce subjective pain ratings and decrease SEP amplitudes, confirming that expectations influence thalamocortical processes. However, even when analgesia was experienced, the spinal activity of FM patients was abnormal, showing heightened reflex responses. This demonstrates that, unlike healthy subjects, the modulation of pain by expectations in FM fails to influence spinal activity. These results indicate that FMs are capable of expectancy-induced analgesia but that, for them, this form of analgesia does not depend on the recruitment of descending inhibitory projections. PMID:19524367

  7. Are tactile acuity and clinical symptoms related to differences in perceived body image in patients with chronic nonspecific lower back pain?

    PubMed

    Nishigami, Tomohiko; Mibu, Akira; Osumi, Michihiro; Son, Kouki; Yamamoto, Shyogo; Kajiwara, Saori; Tanaka, Katsuyoshi; Matsuya, Ayako; Tanabe, Akihito

    2015-02-01

    Clinically, perceived image of the lower back and the two-point discrimination (TPD) test are used as markers for evaluating alterations of cortical reorganization. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether TPD and selected clinical findings are different in subgroups of individuals with chronic nonspecific lower back pain (CNLBP) based on body image drawings. Forty-two patients with CNLBP and seventeen healthy individuals were recruited. Perceived body image, TPD and clinical profiles was measured. Of the patients with CNLBP, 42.8% had a normal perceived body image, 28.5% an expanded image, and 28.5% a shrunken image. The TPD distance threshold was significantly larger for the expanded subgroup (13.3 ± 6.8 mm) compared with the control (5.5 ± 3.8 mm; Difference, 7.8; 95%CI, 1.83 to 13.66; p < 0.05) and normal subgroups (4.5 ± 5.5 mm; Difference, 8.8; 95%CI, 2.90 to 14.59; p < 0.05). No significant differences in pain intensity, duration of pain, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ), and Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) scores were found between three body image subgroups. Our results suggest that TPD is increased in patients who report an expanded perceived image of the lower back compared with healthy individuals and patients who report a normal image. The effectiveness of new rehabilitation techniques may be evaluated by assessing perceived image of the lower back and TPD values for patients with CNLBP before and after treatment. PMID:25081221

  8. SUPPLEMENTAL CARE WITH MEDICATION-ASSISTED MANIPULATION VERSUS SPINAL MANIPULATION THERAPY ALONE FOR PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank J. Kohlbeck; Scott Haldeman; Eric L. Hurwitz; Simon Dagenais

    Objectives: To measure changes in pain and disability for chronic low-back pain patients receiving treatment with medication-assisted manipulation (MAM) and to compare these to changes in a group only receiving spinal manipulation. Study Design: Prospective cohort study of 68 chronic low-back pain patients. Methods: Outcomes were measured using the 1998 Version 2.0 American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons\\/Council of Musculoskeletal Specialty

  9. Validation of a Spanish language version of the pain self-perception scale in patients with fibromyalgia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J García-Campayo; B Rodero; Y López del Hoyo; JV Luciano; M Alda; M Gili

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Pain Self-Perception Scale (PSPS) is a 24-item questionnaire used to assess mental defeat in chronic pain patients. The aim of this study was to develop a Spanish language version of the PSPS (PSPS-Spanish), to assess the instrument's psychometric properties in a sample of patients with fibromyalgia and to confirm a possible overlapping between mental defeat and pain catastrophizing.

  10. The relationship between fibromyalgia and pressure pain threshold in patients with dyspareunia

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Hasan; Terzi, Rabia; Kale, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the number of tender points, pressure pain threshold and presence of fibromyalgia among women with or without dyspareunia. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study included 40 patients with dyspareunia and 30 healthy controls. The participants were asked if they had engaged in sexual intercourse during the previous four weeks, and dyspareunia was rated from 0 to 3 based on the Marinoff Dyspareunia Scale. A pressure algometer (dolorimeter) was used to measure the pressure pain threshold. Fibromyalgia was diagnosed based on the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria. The depression status of the participants was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found with regard to age, body mass index, habits (alcohol use and smoking), educational status and occupational status between the two groups. Total myalgic score, total control score and tender point mean pain threshold were significantly lower in the group with dyspareunia. The number of tender points was significantly higher in patients with dyspareunia. The mean Beck Depression Inventory score was 14.7±8.4 in the dyspareunia group compared with 11.2±7.1 in the control group. Five (12.5%) of the patients with dyspareunia were diagnosed with fibromyalgia, whereas no patients in the control group were diagnosed with fibromyalgia. There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to the presence of fibromyalgia. CONCLUSION: The finding of lower pressure pain thresholds and a higher number of tender points among patients with dyspareunia suggests that these patients may have increased generalized pain thresholds. Additional studies involving a larger number of patients are required to investigate the presence of central mechanisms in the pathogenesis of dyspareunia. PMID:25996766

  11. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty for Pain Management in Patients with Multiple Myeloma: Is Radiofrequency Ablation Necessary?

    SciTech Connect

    Orgera, Gianluigi [Sapienza Rome University, Department of Radiology, S. Andrea Hospital (Italy); Krokidis, Miltiadis, E-mail: mkrokidis@hotmail.com [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Matteoli, Marco; Varano, Gianluca Maria [Sapienza Rome University, Department of Radiology, S. Andrea Hospital (Italy); La Verde, Giacinto [Sapienza Rome University, Department of Medical Oncology, S. Andrea Hospital (Italy); David, Vincenzo; Rossi, Michele [Sapienza Rome University, Department of Radiology, S. Andrea Hospital (Italy)

    2013-05-08

    PurposeThis study was designed to investigate the added role of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) to vertebroplasty on the pain management of patients with multiple myeloma (MM).MethodsThirty-six patients (51–82 years) with vertebral localization of MM were randomly divided into two groups: 18 patients (group A) who underwent RFA and then vertebroplasty, and 18 patients (group B) who underwent only vertebroplasty. Primary endpoints were technical success and pain relief score rate measured by the visual analogue pain scores (VAS) and Roland–Morris Questionnaire (RMQ); secondary endpoint was the amount of administered analgesia. Survival and complications were compared.ResultsTechnical success was 100 % in both groups. The VAS score (at 24 h and 6 weeks postprocedure) decreased in equal manner for both groups from a mean of 9.1–3.4 and 2.0 for group A and from a mean of 9.3–3.0 and 2.3 for group B; RMQ mean score was 19.8 for group A and 19.9 for group B and decreased to a mean of 9.6 and 8.2 for group A and 9.5 and 8.7 for group B. The amount of medication was equally decreased in the two groups. No statistically significant difference was noted. No major complication occurred and two patients died from other causes.ConclusionsThe use of percutaneous vertebroplasty alone appears to be effective for the pain management of the patients with vertebral involvement of multiple myeloma. The use of RFA that includes cost and time does not offer any clear added benefit on the midterm pain management of such patients.

  12. Clinical characteristics in patients with non-cardiac chest pain could favor gastroesophageal reflux disease diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Karlaftis, Anastasios; Karamanolis, George; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Polymeros, Demetrios; Gaglia, Asimina; Triantafyllou, Maria; Papanikolaou, Ioannis S.; Ladas, Spiros D.

    2013-01-01

    Background In patients with non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is thought to be the commonest cause. Ambulatory pH monitoring and/or endoscopy are usually performed in order to confirm GERD diagnosis. At present, clinical diagnosis of reflux in patients with NCCP is uncertain.The aim of the study was to determine clinical characteristics that could identify GERD in patients with NCCP. Methods A total of 52 (age 52.8±1.8 yrs, 29 women) patients with NCCP underwent combined impedance-pH monitoring and gastroscopy. GERD diagnosis was based on the presence of esophagitis and/or a positive impedance-pH study (symptom index >50% and/or esophageal acid exposure time >4.0%). Patients were then divided into 2 groups: GERD- and non-GERD-related NCCP. Demographic and clinical parameters were compared between these two groups. Results GERD-related NCCP was found in 30 (58%) patients. Demographic characteristics were similar in both groups. Chest pain showed no difference in severity, radiation, relation to exercise and relation to sleep between the two groups. In the GERD-related NCCP group, chest pain was more prevalent during the postprandial period (P<0.05) and was relieved by spontaneous use of antireflux drugs (P<0.05). The presence of typical reflux symptoms favored a GERD diagnosis (P<0.05). Conclusions A proportion of patients with NCCP showed clinical characteristics suggesting a GERD diagnosis. Typical reflux symptoms, postprandial chest pain and use of anti-reflux drugs for pain relief were the best predictors for GERD-related NCCP. PMID:24714293

  13. Evaluation of concomitant methylphenidate and opioid use in patients with pain.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Joy Y; Best, Brookie M; Morello, Candis M; Atayee, Rabia S; Ma, Joseph D

    2014-09-01

    Methylphenidate is a central nervous system simulant that is used for management of opioid-induced sedation. Sparse data exist regarding use patterns of methylphenidate and opioids in patients with pain. This retrospective data analysis evaluated concomitant methylphenidate and opioid use from physician-reported medication lists and in urine specimens of patients with pain. All specimens were analyzed and quantified with LC-MS-MS. Concomitant methylphenidate and opioid use (e.g., sample population) were compared with a baseline population of patients taking opioids. There were 3,326 patients with physician-reported use of methylphenidate. Of these, 1,089 patients were tested for the presence of methylphenidate in urine. Methylphenidate was positive in urine for 551 patients (detection rate of 50.6%). Ritalinic acid was positive in 776 patients (detection rate of 71.3%). The current study observed differences in the use pattern of methylphenidate based on opioid type. Physician-reported use revealed methadone had the highest percent difference between the sample and baseline populations (77%, P ? 0.05). Fentanyl, morphine and hydromorphone also had higher percent differences of 19.6, 25.3 and 32.3%, respectively. Further studies need to examine the apparent discrepancies between the physician-reported medication lists and urine drug testing of concomitant methylphenidate and opioid use in patients with pain. PMID:24907143

  14. Does a continuous local anaesthetic pain treatment after immediate tissue expander reconstruction in breast carcinoma patients more efficiently reduce acute postoperative pain - a prospective randomised study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immediate breast reconstruction with an expander is a reasonable option for properly selected patients. After reconstruction, patients have severe postoperative pain, which responds poorly to opioids. Our aim was to evaluate if continuous wound infusion of a local anaesthetic into the surgical wound reduces postoperative pain, consumption of opioids and incidence of chronic pain compared to standard intravenous piritramide after primary breast reconstruction in breast carcinoma patients. Methods Altogether, 60 patients were enrolled in our study; one half in the group with wound infusion of a local anaesthetic, and the other half in the standard (piritramide) group. Parameters measured included: pain intensity (visual analogue scale), drug requirements, alertness, hospitalisation, side-effects and late complications. A p-value of?pain at rest (P?=?0.03) and at activity (P?=?0.01), and on the day of the surgical procedure they reported less pain at activity (P?=?0.003). Consumption of piritramide and metoclopramide was lower in this group (P?pain (P?=?0.01). Conclusions After primary tissue expander breast reconstruction, wound infusion of a local anaesthetic significantly reduces acute pain and enables reduced opioid consumption, resulting in less postoperative sedation and reduced need for antiemetic drugs. Wound infusion of a local anaesthetic reduces chronic pain. PMID:24433317

  15. The effect of transdermal fentanyl treatment on serum cortisol concentrations in patients with non-cancer pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emine Ozyuvaci; Nergis Yanmaz Alnigenis; Aysel Altan

    2004-01-01

    We treated 50 patients with chronic nonmalignant pain using transdermal fentanyl (TDF) 25 ?g\\/hr and concurrently measured pain using a visual analog scale (VAS) and serum cortisol concentration. We determined these outcomes at baseline and on days 30, 60, and 90 of the therapy. The patients also were asked to document any adverse effects. We found that mean cortisol concentrations

  16. Unexplained chest pain in patients with normal coronary arteriograms: a follow-up study of functional status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ira S. Ockene; Marilyn J. Shay; Joseph S. Alpert; Bonnie H. Weiner; James E. Dalen

    1980-01-01

    Approximately 10 per cent of patients referred for coronary arteriography because of chest pain have angiographically normal coronary arteries and no other heart disease. We examined the functional status of 57 patients who had undergone catheterization (23 men and 34 women), all of whom were told that their hearts were normal, that their pain was noncardiac, and that no limitation

  17. Preliminary outcomes of a pilot physical therapy program for HIV-infected patients with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Mgbemena, Okechukwu; Westfall, Andrew O; Ritchie, Christine S; Hicks, Jennifer; Raper, James L; Overton, Edgar Turner; Norton, Wynne E; Merlin, Jessica S

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain in HIV-infected individuals is common and often undertreated. Physical therapy (PT) is an evidence-based nonpharmacologic treatment for chronic pain. Our objective is to present the results of a pilot PT program in an HIV pain/palliative care clinic, which is embedded within a Ryan White-funded multidisciplinary HIV primary care clinic. Medical records of HIV-infected patients participating in a PT program between November 2012 and July 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Pain scores on a 0-10 scale and cost data were collected and analyzed. Among 43 patients referred, 27 collectively attended 86 sessions. Median age of enrolled patients was 54 (IQR 49-58). Sixteen (59%) were African-American and 20 (77%) had an undetectable HIV viral load. Mean pain score at initial visit was 6.5 (SD = 1.1). The average session-level decrease was 2.6 (SD = 1.7) and patient-level decrease was 2.5 (SD = 1.2). The largest payors were Medicare managed care (28%), Medicaid (21%), and Ryan White grant-related funds (18%). When the first four months of the program are excluded to account for slow start-up, the program's monthly net revenue during the remaining five months was $163. We present preliminary data from a low-cost pilot PT program integrated into an HIV clinic in a primary care setting associated with clinically significant improvements in pain. Further investigation into the implementation of such programs is essential. PMID:25062028

  18. The role of additional information in the compliance, satisfaction, psychological, and emotion responses of non-surgical patients with low back pain: An exploratory investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oney d. Fitzpatrick JR

    1995-01-01

    Noncompliance and the psychological and emotional states of patients with low back pain are major concerns for health professionals. The current study evaluated whether amount of information available to patients enhanced compliance to a medical regimen and whether it reduced negative emotions in patients with low back pain. Forty-five orthopaedic non-surgical patients with low back pain were randomly assigned to

  19. Pain Management in Frail, Community-Living Elderly Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Landi; Graziano Onder; Matteo Cesari; Giovanni Gambassi; Knight Steel; Andrea Russo; Fabrizia Lattanzio; Roberto Bernabei

    2001-01-01

    Methods: We analyzed data from a large collaborative observational study group, the Italian Silver Network Home Care project, that collected data on patients ad- mitted to home health care programs. Twelve home health care agencies participated in the project evaluating the implementation of the Minimum Data Set for Home Care instrument. We enrolled 3046 patients, 65 years and older, in

  20. Qualitative Investigation of a Brief Chronic Pain Screening Tool in HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Walcott, Melonie M.; Herbey, Ivan; Chamot, Eric; Ritchie, Christine; Saag, Michael S.; Kertesz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chronic pain in HIV-infected patients is prevalent but understudied. A limitation of HIV/chronic pain research to date is the lack of a widely used chronic pain screening tool. A Brief Chronic Pain Screening tool (BCPS) has been described, but has not yet been tested in a clinical population. This study sought to evaluate how the BCPS is experienced by HIV-infected individuals, and adapt its questions if necessary. We conducted cognitive interviews using cognitive inquiry in participants from the UAB 1917 HIV Clinic Cohort. Data were analyzed using a process of inductive, iterative coding by three investigators. Results: Of 30 participants, most were male, African American, and less than 50 years old. Participants reported that the questions were understandable; however, feedback suggested concerns regarding lack of specificity in regard to the intensity and consistency of pain. An introductory statement aimed at improving clarity resulted in more divergent responses. This research team concluded that the version of the BCPS used in the first 30 interviews was optimum. Its inclusive language allows the respondent to decide what pain merits reporting. This study is the first investigation of the BCPS in a clinical population, and should lead to further quantitative validation studies of this tool. PMID:24621145

  1. Spinal cord stimulation normalizes abnormal cortical pain processing in patients with cardiac syndrome X.

    PubMed

    Sestito, Alfonso; Lanza, Gaetano Antonio; Le Pera, Domenica; De Armas, Liala; Sgueglia, Gregory Angelo; Infusino, Fabio; Miliucci, Roberto; Tonali, Pietro Attilio; Crea, Filippo; Valeriani, Massimiliano

    2008-09-30

    Cardiac syndrome X (CSX) is characterized by effort angina, ST-segment depression during stress tests and normal coronary arteries. Abnormal nociception was suggested in these patients by studies showing a reduced cardiac pain threshold; furthermore, we recently found a lack of habituation to pain stimuli using recording of laser evoked potentials (LEPs). In CSX patients with severe angina, spinal cord stimulation (SCS) was shown to improve symptoms. In this study we investigated whether, in these patients, SCS has any effects on the excitability of the nociceptive system, assessed by LEPs recording. We studied 16 CSX patients (61.6+/-7 years; 4 men) who underwent SCS for refractory angina. Cortical LEPs were recorded during stimulation of the chest and right-hand during active SCS (SCS-ON) and in the absence of SCS (SCS-OFF), using a randomized cross-over design. Three sequences of painful stimuli were applied at each site during each test. During the first sequence of chest stimuli, the N2/P2 LEP amplitude was higher during the SCS-ON, compared to the SCS-OFF phase (18.2+/-7.8 vs. 11.5+/-4.4 microV, P=0.006). The N2/P2 amplitude did not change significantly across the three stimulation sequences during the SCS-OFF phase (P=0.22), whereas it decreased progressively during the second and third sequence (to 87.1+/-29.5% and 76.4+/-24.1%, respectively) compared with the first sequence, during the SCS-ON phase (P=0.014). Similar results were observed during right-hand stimulation. Our study shows that in CSX patients SCS is able to restore habituation to peripheral pain stimuli. This effect might contribute to restore the ability of CSX patients to better tolerate cardiac pain. PMID:18440702

  2. Testing of Low-Risk Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department With Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Amsterdam, Ezra A.; Kirk, J. Douglas; Bluemke, David A.; Diercks, Deborah; Farkouh, Michael E.; Garvey, J. Lee; Kontos, Michael C.; McCord, James; Miller, Todd D.; Morise, Anthony; Newby, L. Kristin; Ruberg, Frederick L.; Scordo, Kristine Anne; Thompson, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    The management of low-risk patients presenting to emergency departments is a common and challenging clinical problem entailing 8 million emergency department visits annually. Although a majority of these patients do not have a life-threatening condition, the clinician must distinguish between those who require urgent treatment of a serious problem and those with more benign entities who do not require admission. Inadvertent discharge of patients with acute coronary syndrome from the emergency department is associated with increased mortality and liability, whereas inappropriate admission of patients without serious disease is neither indicated nor cost-effective. Clinical judgment and basic clinical tools (history, physical examination, and electrocardiogram) remain primary in meeting this challenge and affording early identification of low-risk patients with chest pain. Additionally, established and newer diagnostic methods have extended clinicians' diagnostic capacity in this setting. Low-risk patients presenting with chest pain are increasingly managed in chest pain units in which accelerated diagnostic protocols are performed, comprising serial electrocardiograms and cardiac injury markers to exclude acute coronary syndrome. Patients with negative findings usually complete the accelerated diagnostic protocol with a confirmatory test to exclude ischemia. This is typically an exercise treadmill test or a cardiac imaging study if the exercise treadmill test is not applicable. Rest myocardial perfusion imaging has assumed an important role in this setting. Computed tomography coronary angiography has also shown promise in this setting. A negative accelerated diagnostic protocol evaluation allows discharge, whereas patients with positive findings are admitted. This approach has been found to be safe, accurate, and cost-effective in low-risk patients presenting with chest pain. PMID:20660809

  3. Use of spinal manipulation in a rheumatoid patient presenting with acute thoracic pain: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chadwick L. R.; Mior, Silvano A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is limited research related to spinal manipulation of uncomplicated thoracic spine pain and even less when pain is associated with comorbid conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. In the absence of trial evidence, clinical experience and appropriate selection of the type of intervention is important to informing the appropriate management of these cases. Case presentation: We present a case of a patient with long standing rheumatoid arthritis who presented with acute thoracic pain. The patient was diagnosed with costovertebral joint dysfunction and a myofascial strain of the surrounding musculature. The patient was unresponsive to treatment involving a generalized manipulative technique; however, improved following the administration of a specific applied manipulation with modified forces. The patient was deemed recovered and discharged with ergonomic and home care recommendations. Discussion: This case demonstrates a clinical situation where there is a paucity of research to guide management, thus clinicians must rely on experience and patient preferences in the selection of an appropriate and safe therapeutic intervention. The case highlights the need to contextualize the apparent contraindication of manipulation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and calls for further research. Finally the paper advances evidence based decision making that balances the available research, clinical experience, as well as patient preferences. PMID:26136606

  4. Perseveration Found in a Human Drawing Task: Six-Fingered Hands Drawn by Patients with Right Anterior Insula and Operculum Damage

    PubMed Central

    Niki, Chiharu; Maruyama, Takashi; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Kumada, Takatsune

    2014-01-01

    Background. Perseveration has been observed in a number of behavioural contexts, including speaking, writing, and drawing. However, no previous report describes patients who show perseveration only for drawing a human figure. Objective. The present report describes a group of patients who show body awareness-related cognitive impairment during a human figure drawing task, a different presentation from previously described neuropsychological cases. Methods. Participants were 15 patients who had a frontal lobe brain tumour around the insula cortex of the right hemisphere and had subsequently undergone a neurosurgical resective operation. Participants were asked to draw a human figure in both “hands-down” and “hands-up” configurations. Results. Eight of the 15 patients drew a human figure with six fingers during the “hands-up” and the “hands-down” human figure drawing tasks (one patient drew eight fingers). A statistical analysis of potential lesion areas revealed damage to the right anterior frontal insula and operculum in this group of patients relative to the five-finger drawing group. Conclusions. Our findings reveal a newly described neuropsychological phenomenon that could reflect impairment in attention directed towards body representations. PMID:24876665

  5. Utility of Selected MMPI2 Scales in the Outcome Prediction for Patients With Chronic Back Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander A. Vendrig; Jan J. L. Derksen; Hubert R. de Mey

    1999-01-01

    The predictive utility of selected scales from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2 (MMPI-2; J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989) was examined in relation to a number of physical and psychosocial measures of treatment outcome in patients reporting chronic back pain. MMPI-2 scales assessing manifestations of emotional distress were considered: anxiety (Scale

  6. Creating Mandalas for the Management of Acute Pain Symptoms in Pediatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinley, Nora E.; Norris, Deborah O.; Hinds, Pamela S.

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled clinical trial explored the feasibility of implementing a fast-acting mandala intervention to reduce physical pain and psychological anxiety experienced during needle sticks. Forty pediatric patients participated in this two-group study: 20 participants created a mandala on an iPad (Treatment Group) and 20 participants…

  7. Assessment of patients' wound-related pain experiences in University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obilor, Helen N; Adejumo, Prisca O; Ilesanmi, Rose E

    2014-08-14

    This study was necessitated by the international recognition of wound-related pain (WRP) as a must-address issue and patient-centred concerns. The aim of this study was to assess patients' WRP experiences at rest and in relation to dressing change. This descriptive study utilised a WRP questionnaire which incorporated a visual analogue scale of 0-10 for data collection. A total of 109 patients participated in this study; 95·4% of the participants experienced wound pain at rest and during performance of activities of daily living, which were moderate (47·1%) and severe (30·8%) in intensity. Also, 91·7% of the participants experienced wound dressing change-related pain, mostly as moderate (47·0%) and severe (28·0%) pain. The major factors that worsened WRP experiences were touch/handling, change in position/movement, wound cleansing, removal of dressings and usage of honey as a dressing agent, while the use of analgesic and brief rest between dressing change were considered the major strategies that can relieve WRP. WRP experiences have been reported by patients at rest, during performance of activities of daily living and at wound dressing change. A need to incorporate WRP assessment has been observed, which is vital in improving wound care outcome. PMID:25123165

  8. Treatment Expectations for CAM Interventions in Pediatric Chronic Pain Patients and their Parents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennie C. I. Tsao; Marcia Meldrum; Brenda Bursch; Margaret C. Jacob; Su C. Kim; Lonnie K. Zeltzer; John C. Liebeskind; Louise M. Darling

    2005-01-01

    Patient expectations regarding complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions have important implications for treatment adherence, attrition and clinical outcome. Little is known, however, about parent and child treatment expectations regarding CAM approaches for pediatric chronic pain problems. The present study examined ratings of the expected benefits of CAM (i.e. hypnosis, massage, acupuncture, yoga and relaxation) and conventional medicine (i.e. medications,

  9. High-fiber diet reduces bleeding and pain in patients with hemorrhoids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flemming Moesgaard; Lykkegaard Nielsen; Jørgen Bech Hansen; Jens Thiis Knudsen

    1982-01-01

    High-fiber diet in the treatment of symptomatic hemorrhoids in 51 patients was evaluated in a double-blind placebo-controlled\\u000a trial. Bleeding and pain at defecation were significantly reduced during six weeks' treatment with Vi-Siblin® (P<0.025), and this effect was still recognizable three months later.

  10. The bothersomeness of sciatica: patients’ self-report of paresthesia, weakness and leg pain

    PubMed Central

    Haugen, Anne Julsrud; Keller, Anne; Natvig, Bård; Brox, Jens Ivar; Grotle, Margreth

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate how patients with sciatica due to disc herniation rate the bothersomeness of paresthesia and weakness as compared to leg pain, and how these symptoms are associated with socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 411 patients with clinical signs of radiculopathy. Items from the Sciatica Bothersomeness Index (0 = none to 6 = extremely) were used to establish values for paresthesia, weakness and leg pain. Associations with socio-demographic and clinical variables were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Mean scores (SD) were 4.5 (1.5) for leg pain, 3.4 (1.8) for paresthesia and 2.6 (2.0) for weakness. Women reported higher levels of bothersomeness for all three symptoms with mean scores approximately 10% higher than men. In the multivariate models, more severe symptoms were associated with lower physical function and higher emotional distress. Muscular paresis explained 19% of the variability in self-reported weakness, sensory findings explained 10% of the variability in paresthesia, and straight leg raising test explained 9% of the variability in leg pain. In addition to leg pain, paresthesia and weakness should be assessed when measuring symptom severity in sciatica. PMID:19488793

  11. From guideline to patient: a review of recent recommendations for pharmacotherapy of painful diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Dan; Fonseca, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus, affecting, by some estimates, up to one quarter of diabetic patients. Since 2010, no fewer than 5 major international treatment guidelines for painful DPN have been issued, and there are meaningful differences among them. Duloxetine, pregabalin, gabapentin, and tricyclic antidepressants are the mainstays of treatment, but the choice of which class or agent to use in any given patient should be informed by patient characteristics. This review seeks to describe the differences among the recently issued guidelines, to assess the evidence on which they are based, and to offer insight into the most appropriate treatment choices based on patient characteristics. PMID:25239450

  12. Children in Chronic Pain: Promoting Pediatric Patients’ Symptom Accounts in Tertiary Care

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Ignasi; Lee, Seung-Hee; Heritage, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how clinicians promote pediatric patients’ symptom accounts at the beginning of visits in three pediatric tertiary care clinics at a university hospital in the US: pain, gastroenterology and neurology. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected for 69 patient-parent pairs, including videotaped intake visits. Two forms of child account promotion, together with their corresponding distribution across clinics, were identified: (1) Epistemic prefaces were used to upgrade the patient’s epistemic status and to establish the child as primary informant; and, (2) non-focused questioning was used to permit children latitude in the formulation of symptoms and experiences. In general, epistemic prefaces were characteristic of the gastroenterology and neurology visits, while non-focused questioning was found overwhelmingly in the pain encounters. PMID:18272275

  13. The impact of patient expectations on outcomes in four randomized controlled trials of acupuncture in patients with chronic pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Linde; Claudia M. Witt; Andrea Streng; Wolfgang Weidenhammer; Stefan Wagenpfeil; Benno Brinkhaus; Stefan N. Willich; Dieter Melchart

    2007-01-01

    In a pooled analysis of four randomized controlled trials of acupuncture in patients with migraine, tension-type headache, chronic low back pain, and osteoarthritis of the knee we investigated the influence of expectations on clinical outcome. The 864 patients included in the analysis received either 12 sessions of acupuncture or minimal (i.e. sham) acupuncture (superficial needling of non-acupuncture points) over an

  14. Auricular acupressure for managing postoperative pain and knee motion in patients with total knee replacement: a randomized sham control study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ling-Hua; Hsu, Chung-Hua; Jong, Gwo-Ping; Ho, Shungtai; Tsay, Shiow-Luan; Lin, Kuan-Chia

    2012-01-01

    Background. Postoperative pain management remains a significant challenge for all healthcare providers. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the adjuvant effects of auricular acupressure on relieving postoperative pain and improving the passive range of motion in patients with total knee replacement (TKR). Method. Sixty-two patients who had undergone a TKR were randomly assigned to the acupressure group and the sham control group. The intervention was delivered three times a day for 3 days. A visual analog scale (VAS) and the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire were used to assess pain intensity. Pain medication consumption was recorded, and the knee motion was measured using a goniometer. Results. The patients experienced a moderately severe level of pain postoperatively (VAS 58.66 ± 20.35) while being on the routine PCA. No differences were found in pain scores between the groups at all points. However, analgesic drug usage in the acupressure group patients was significantly lower than in the sham control group (P < 0.05), controlling for BMI, age, and pain score. On the 3rd day after surgery, the passive knee motion in the acupressure group patients was significantly better than in the sham control group patients (P < 0.05), controlling for BMI. Conclusion. The application of auricular acupressure at specific therapeutic points significantly reduces the opioid analgesia requirement and improves the knee motion in patients with TKR. PMID:22844334

  15. Upper trapezius muscle activation patterns in neck–shoulder pain patients and healthy controls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Voerman; M. M. R. Vollenbroek-Hutten; H. J. Hermens

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating whether patients with neck–shoulder complaints from different aetiologies (work-related\\u000a musculo-skeletal disorders, WMSD; whiplash associated disorders, WAD) show comparable muscle activation patterns, characterised\\u000a by higher activation and lower relaxation levels of the trapezius muscles compared to healthy controls. Twenty healthy controls,\\u000a 21 WMSD and 20 WAD patients with non-acute neck-shoulder pain were recruited for this cross-sectional

  16. The bothersomeness of sciatica: patients’ self-report of paresthesia, weakness and leg pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Grøvle; Anne Julsrud Haugen; Anne Keller; Bård Natvig; Jens Ivar Brox; Margreth Grotle

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate how patients with sciatica due to disc herniation rate the bothersomeness of\\u000a paresthesia and weakness as compared to leg pain, and how these symptoms are associated with socio-demographic and clinical\\u000a characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 411 patients with clinical signs of radiculopathy. Items from the\\u000a Sciatica Bothersomeness Index (0 = none to

  17. Influence of pain severity on health-related quality of life in Chinese knee osteoarthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Jian; Cao, Yue-Long; Zheng, Yu-Xin; Gao, Ning-Yang; Wang, Xue-Zong; Chen, Bo; Gu, Xin-Feng; Yuan, Weian; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Ting; Zhan, Hong-Sheng; Shi, Yin-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship among pain and other symptoms intensity, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Chinese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: The study was cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlational. A convenience sample of 466 patients with knee OA was recruited in the study. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), duration of disease, and Kellgren- Lawrence (KL) scores were recorded. HRQoL and symptoms were assessed using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Western Ontario and McMaster (WOMAC) index in participants. Results: The sample was predominantly female (82%) with mean age 56.56 years and mean BMI 24.53 kg/m2. We found that WOMAC subscale scores significantly negative correlated with the majority of SF-36 subscale scores in knee OA patients (P < 0.05). There were no correlations between BMI, duration of disease, KL score and the vast majority of SF-36 subscale scores in patients (P > 0.05). In addition, there was a significant correlation between age and PCS, gender and MCS in patients (P < 0.05). Regression analysis showed, WOMAC subscale scores significantly negative correlated with the vast majority of SF-36 subscale scores. WOMAC-pain score had the strongest relationship with SF-36 PCS and MCS scores. Conclusions: In summary, pain severity has a greater impact on HRQoL than patient characteristics, other joint symptoms and radiographic severity in Chinese knee OA patients. Relieving of knee symptoms may help to improve patients’ HRQOL. The study provided the evidence that relieving pain should be the first choice of therapy for knee osteoarthritis. PMID:26064371

  18. Trochanteric Advancement in Patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease Does Not Improve Pain or Limp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun Young Joo; Ki Seok Lee; Il Hyun Koh; Hui Wan Park; Hyun Woo Kim

    2008-01-01

    Premature closure of the proximal epiphysis in patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease can cause overgrowth of the greater\\u000a trochanter. We asked whether distal transfer of the greater trochanter relieved pain and improved limp and whether the operation\\u000a changed frontal plane kinematic and kinetic parameters of the hip and pelvis in the gait analysis. We reviewed 15 patients\\u000a (15 hips) with an

  19. Evaluation of thermal, pain, and vibration sensation thresholds in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Ziegler; P Mayer; F A Gries

    1988-01-01

    Small and large fibre function was studied in 40 non-ketotic, newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetic patients and 48 age-matched controls, using 12 quantitative tests for assessment of cutaneous sensation. Patients were aged 10-39 years and had been treated with insulin for 4-31 days. Thermal discrimination (foot), warm and cold thermal perception (thenar eminence and foot), and heat and cold pain

  20. Interventional spine and pain procedures in patients on antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications: guidelines from the american society of regional anesthesia and pain medicine, the European society of regional anaesthesia and pain therapy, the american academy of pain medicine, the international neuromodulation society, the north american neuromodulation society, and the world institute of pain.

    PubMed

    Narouze, Samer; Benzon, Honorio T; Provenzano, David A; Buvanendran, Asokumar; De Andres, José; Deer, Timothy R; Rauck, Richard; Huntoon, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Interventional spine and pain procedures cover a far broader spectrum than those for regional anesthesia, reflecting diverse targets and goals. When surveyed, interventional pain and spine physicians attending the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) 11th Annual Pain Medicine Meeting exhorted that existing ASRA guidelines for regional anesthesia in patients on antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications were insufficient for their needs. Those surveyed agreed that procedure-specific and patient-specific factors necessitated separate guidelines for pain and spine procedures.In response, ASRA formed a guidelines committee. After preliminary review of published complication reports and studies, committee members stratified interventional spine and pain procedures according to potential bleeding risk as low-, intermediate-, and high-risk procedures. The ASRA guidelines were deemed largely appropriate for the low- and intermediate-risk categories, but it was agreed that the high-risk targets required an intensive look at issues specific to patient safety and optimal outcomes in pain medicine.The latest evidence was sought through extensive database search strategies and the recommendations were evidence-based when available and pharmacology-driven otherwise. We could not provide strength and grading of these recommendations as there are not enough well-designed large studies concerning interventional pain procedures to support such grading. Although the guidelines could not always be based on randomized studies or on large numbers of patients from pooled databases, it is hoped that they will provide sound recommendations and the evidentiary basis for such recommendations. PMID:25899949

  1. Assessing Pain in Persons with Dementia: Relationships Among the Non-communicative Patient’s Pain Assessment Instrument, Self-report, and Behavioral Observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann L. Horgas; Austin Lee Nichols; Caissy A. Schapson; Krystel Vietes

    2007-01-01

    Pain is a common problem for many older adults, with up to 50% of community-dwelling and 70% to 80% of nursing home residents experiencing pain regularly. Effective pain management requires thorough assessment, appropriate intervention, and systematic reassessment. Pain assessment, however, is complicated by dementia, which impairs memory, reasoning, recognition, and communication, and affects elders’ ability to verbally report pain. As

  2. The Role of the Three Phase Bone Scintigraphy in the Management of the Patients with Costochondral Pain

    PubMed Central

    Koç, Zehra P?nar; Balc?, Tansel Ansal; Özyurtkan, M. O?uzhan

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The bone scintigraphy is indicated in patients with costochondral pain in order to identify the organic etiology. We aimed to investigate the local and projecting pain, or incidental findings in the three phase bone scintigraphy of the patients referred for costochondral pain. Methods: We included 50 patients (36F, 24M; mean: 41±18 years-old) referred to our department for three phase bone scintigraphy for costochondral pain between January 2009-July 2012. Results: Among the 50 patients 22 had normal scintigraphy. An increased activity accumulation in the sternoclavicular joint was observed in 12 patients (right in 4, left in 4 and bilateral in 4) only in late phase and in 9 patients (right in 2, left in 1 and bilateral in 6) with increased vascularity. Among projecting pain causes, activity was present on sternum in 4 patients, on humerus in 2 patients and on the first costae in 2 patients. For the characterization of inflammatory pathology, the three phase bone scintigraphy showed sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values of 43%, 94%, 78%, 77% and 78% respectively. Conclusion: Bone scintigraphy is an effective diagnostic method for the identification of local or projecting pain, and additionally unexpected incidental pathologies ssociated with costochondral pain. However regarding the characterization of inflammatory process false negatives should be considered. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24416624

  3. A particular effect of sleep, but not pain or depression, on the blood-oxygen-level dependent response during working memory tasks in patients with chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Elvemo, Nicolas A; Landrø, Nils I; Borchgrevink, Petter C; Håberg, Asta K

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic pain (CP) are often reported to have deficits in working memory. Pain impairs working memory, but so do depression and sleep problems, which are also common in CP. Depression has been linked to changes in brain activity in CP during working memory tasks, but the effect of sleep problems on working memory performance and brain activity remains to be investigated. Methods Fifteen CP patients and 17 age-, sex-, and education-matched controls underwent blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T while performing block design 0-back, 2-back, and paced visual serial addition test paradigms. Subjects also reported their level of pain (Brief Pain Inventory), depression (Beck Depression Inventory II), and sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and were tested outside the scanner with neuropsychological tests of working memory. Results The CP group reported significantly higher levels of pain, depression, and sleep problems. No significant performance difference was found on the neuropsychological tests in or outside the scanner between the two groups. There were no correlations between level of pain, depression, and sleep problems or between these and the neuropsychological test scores. CP patients exhibited significantly less brain activation and deactivation than controls in parietal and frontal lobes, which are the brain areas that normally show activation and deactivation during working memory tasks. Sleep problems independently and significantly modulated the BOLD response to the complex working memory tasks and were associated with decreased brain activation in task-positive regions and decreased deactivation in the default mode network in the CP group compared to the control group. The pain and depression scores covaried with working memory activation. Discussion Sleep problems in CP patients had a significant impact on the BOLD response during working memory tasks, independent of pain level and depression, even when performance was shown not to be significantly affected. PMID:26185465

  4. Sedation with sufentanil and midazolam decreases pain in patients undergoing upper limb surgery under multiple nerve block.

    PubMed

    Kinirons, B P; Bouaziz, H; Paqueron, X; Ababou, A; Jandard, C; Cao, M M; Bur, M L; Laxenaire, M C; Benhamou, D

    2000-05-01

    Multiple nerve blocks may be painful and a source of discomfort. We assessed the efficacy of sufentanil 5 microg combined with midazolam 1 mg in decreasing pain in outpatients after a midhumeral multiple nerve stimulation technique. Visual analog scores for pain were significantly lower in those patients who received sedation before the block, both at the time of block performance (14 +/- 1 vs 27 +/- 2 mm, P < 0.0001) and at discharge (11 +/- 1 vs 24 +/- 2 mm, P < 0. 0001). We conclude that the association of sufentanil and midazolam produced minimal sedation while significantly reducing pain experienced by patients undergoing multiple nerve stimulation. PMID:10781464

  5. Incidental diagnosis of vaginal schwannoma in a patient with thigh pain

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Woo; Hwang, Sung Ook; Choi, Suk-Jin; Lee, Byoung Ick; Park, Jee Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Schwannoma commonly arises from Schwann cells of the neural sheath, and is rare in the groin region. Here, we describe a vaginal schwannoma incidentally detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a patient with thigh pain. A 43-year-old woman presented with thigh pain with burning and tingling sensations in the medial aspect of her left thigh. MRI revealed a mass lesion of heterogeneous intensity 5.2 × 5.7 cm in the left vaginal wall. The mass was resected and histology revealed schwannoma. PMID:24596825

  6. The Major Brain Endocannabinoid 2-AG Controls Neuropathic Pain and Mechanical Hyperalgesia in Patients with Neuromyelitis Optica

    PubMed Central

    Pellkofer, Hannah L.; Havla, Joachim; Hauer, Daniela; Schelling, Gustav; Azad, Shahnaz C.; Kuempfel, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent myelitis is one of the predominant characteristics in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). While paresis, visual loss, sensory deficits, and bladder dysfunction are well known symptoms in NMO patients, pain has been recognized only recently as another key symptom of the disease. Although spinal cord inflammation is a defining aspect of neuromyelitis, there is an almost complete lack of data on altered somatosensory function, including pain. Therefore, eleven consecutive patients with NMO were investigated regarding the presence and clinical characteristics of pain. All patients were examined clinically as well as by Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) following the protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS). Additionally, plasma endocannabinoid levels and signs of chronic stress and depression were determined. Almost all patients (10/11) suffered from NMO-associated neuropathic pain for the last three months, and 8 out of 11 patients indicated relevant pain at the time of examination. Symptoms of neuropathic pain were reported in the vast majority of patients with NMO. Psychological testing revealed signs of marked depression. Compared to age and gender-matched healthy controls, QST revealed pronounced mechanical and thermal sensory loss, strongly correlated to ongoing pain suggesting the presence of deafferentation-induced neuropathic pain. Thermal hyperalgesia correlated to MRI-verified signs of spinal cord lesion. Heat hyperalgesia was highly correlated to the time since last relapse of NMO. Patients with NMO exhibited significant mechanical and thermal dysesthesia, namely dynamic mechanical allodynia and paradoxical heat sensation. Moreover, they presented frequently with either abnormal mechanical hypoalgesia or hyperalgesia, which depended significantly on plasma levels of the endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerole (2-AG). These data emphasize the high prevalence of neuropathic pain and hyperalgesia in patients with NMO. The degree of mechanical hyperalgesia reflecting central sensitization of nociceptive pathways seems to be controlled by the major brain endocannabinoid 2-AG. PMID:23951176

  7. Reliability and responsiveness of algometry for measuring pressure pain threshold in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Ebru Kaya; Ozdincler, Arzu Razak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to establish the intrarater reliability and responsiveness of a clinically available algometer in patients with knee osteoarthritis as well as to determine the minimum-detectable-change and standard error of measurement of testing to facilitate clinical interpretation of temporal changes. [Subjects] Seventy-three patients with knee osteoarthritis were included. [Methods] Pressure pain threshold measured by algometry was evaluated 3 times at 2-min intervals over 2 clinically relevant sites—mediolateral to the medial femoral tubercle (distal) and lateral to the medial malleolus (local)—on the same day. Intrarater reliability was estimated by intraclass correlation coefficients. The minimum-detectable-change and standard error of measurement were calculated. As a measure of responsiveness, the effect size was calculated for the results at baseline and after treatment. [Results] The intrarater reliability was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.93–0.97). The standard error of measurement and minimum-detectable-change were 0.70–0.66 and 1.62–1.53, respectively. The pressure pain threshold over the distal site was inadequately responsive in knee osteoarthritis, but the local site was responsive. The effect size was 0.70. [Conclusion] Algometry is reliable and responsive to assess measures of pressure pain threshold for evaluating pain patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:26180358

  8. Effectiveness of Elastic Resistance in Rehabilitation of Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Page, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Context: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is associated with muscle imbalance at the knee and hip. Therapeutic exercise is effective at reducing pain associated with PFPS. Objective: To identify and analyze clinical trials of elastic resistance in patients with PFPS to determine its efficacy. Data Sources: PubMed, CINAHL, and PEDro databases were searched for terms relevant to PFPS rehabilitation in patients aged 12 to 40 years. Study Selection: Only peer-reviewed clinical trials lasting at least 4 weeks and specifying the use of elastic resistance in their protocols were included. Data Extraction: Eight eligible studies were analyzed for design, sample, intervention, outcomes, and clinical application. Results: The studies included in this review lacked high-quality design, often using exercise as a “quasi-control” condition. Most studies did not provide specific exercise prescription or progression. Although participants in each study reported significant improvements in pain, deficiencies in scientific design limit the conclusion. Conclusion: Elastic resistance exercise may reduce pain and improve function and strength in patients with PFPS. PMID:23016008

  9. Patients with chronic pain lack somatic markers during decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Elvemo, Nicolas-Andreas; Nilsen, Kristian Bernhard; Landrø, Nils Inge; Borchgrevink, Petter Christian; Håberg, Asta Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain have impaired cognitive functions, including decision making, as shown with the Iowa gambling task (IGT). The main aim of this study was to elucidate whether patients’ decision making is associated with a lack of the anticipatory skin conductance response (SCR). An increase in anticipatory SCR before making unfavorable choices is known to guide decisions in healthy controls during the IGT. Since several brain regions involved in decision making are reported to have altered morphology in patients with chronic pain, the second aim was to explore the associations between IGT performance and brain structure volumes. Eighteen patients with chronic pain of mixed etiology and 19 healthy controls matched in terms of age, sex, and education were investigated with a computerized IGT during the recording of SCR, heart rate, and blood pressure. The participants also underwent neuropsychological testing, and three-dimensional T1-weighted cerebral magnetic resonance images were obtained. Contrary to controls, patients did not generate anticipatory SCRs before making unfavorable choices, and they switched between decks of cards during the late phase of the IGT significantly more often, and this was still observed after adjusting for depression scores. None of the other autonomic measures differed during IGT performance in either group or between groups. In patients, IGT scores correlated positively with total cortical grey matter volume. In controls, there was no such association, but their IGT scores correlated with the anticipatory SCR. It may be speculated that the reduction in anticipatory SCRs makes the chronic pain patients rely more on cortical resources during decision making. PMID:25075199

  10. Pain in the Frail or Elderly Patient: Does Tapentadol Have a Role?

    PubMed

    Veal, Felicity C; Peterson, Gregory M

    2015-06-01

    Persistent pain affects the elderly disproportionally, occurring in 50 % of elderly community-dwelling patients and 80 % of aged care residents. The management of pain in the elderly and frail patient is complicated because of the risks posed by changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, polypharmacy, and drug-disease interactions. Trials evaluating the efficacy of analgesics have often excluded elderly patients and universally excluded frail patients; therefore, the true efficacy and side-effect profiles in these population groups are largely unknown, especially for long-term use. A stepwise approach is recommended to managing pain, commencing with paracetamol and adding on opioids when needed to manage pain. However, because of the short duration of clinical trials, exclusion of frail patients, and minimal inclusion of elderly patients, the decision as to which opioid should be added on to paracetamol is a difficult one. This article reviews the evidence surrounding a newer opioid, tapentadol. Tapentadol acts on both the mu receptors and on neuronal reuptake of noradrenaline, and has no significant analgesically active metabolites, which theoretically presents some advantages, particularly in comparison with tramadol. However, the evidence to support tapentadol is weak and the trials were often methodologically poor and sponsored almost universally by the drug company. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of tapentadol over other opioids, which have been on the market longer, are less expensive, and have better established safety profiles. As a first-line agent after the failure of paracetamol alone, morphine, oxycodone, fentanyl, or buprenorphine are still the preferred evidence-based choices for add-on opioid therapy for elderly or frail patients. PMID:26025117

  11. Combining Ketamine and Virtual Reality Pain Control During Severe Burn Wound Care: One Military and One Civilian Patient

    PubMed Central

    Maani, Christopher V.; Hoffman, Hunter G.; Fowler, Marcie; Maiers, Alan J.; Gaylord, Kathryn M.; DeSocio, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Background US soldiers injured in Iraq, and civilian burn trauma patients are treated at the US Army Institute of Surgical Research. Burn patients experience extrem pain during wound care, and they typically receive opioid analgesics and anxiolytics for debridement. Virtual Reality (VR) has been applied as an adjunct to opioid analgesics for procedural pain. We describe the first use of ketamine combined with immersive VR to reduce excessive pain during wound care. Case Report A 21-year-old male US Army soldier stationed in Iraq, and a 41-year-old civilian male sustained a 13% and 50% total body surface area (TBSA) burn, respectively. Each patient received 40 mg ketamine intraveneous (IV) for wound care. Using a within-subject design, nurses conducted half of a painful segment of wound care treatments with no VR and the other half with immersive VR. Graphic pain rating scores for each of the two treatment conditions served as the dependent variables. Results Compared to ketamine + no VR, both patients reported less pain during ketamine + VR for all three pain ratings. Both patients rated wound care during no VR as “no fun at all”, but those same patients rated wound care during virtual reality as either “pretty fun” or “extremely fun”, and rated nausea as either “mild” or “none”. Conclusions Results from these first two cases suggest that a moderate dose of ketamine combined with immersive virtual reality distraction may be an effective multimodal analgesic regimen for reducing acute procedural pain during severe burn wound cleanings. PMID:21481162

  12. Drawing Feat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Describes an art activity for a beginning drawing class in which students draw pictures of feet using either a foot model or their own feet. Explains three choices of papers and techniques that could be used for the assignment. (CMK)

  13. A multicenter study of the revised Edmonton Staging System for classifying cancer pain in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Fainsinger, Robin L; Nekolaichuk, Cheryl L; Lawlor, Peter G; Neumann, Catherine M; Hanson, John; Vigano, Antonio

    2005-03-01

    The comparative analysis of analgesic interventions for cancer pain is greatly compromised by the lack of well-validated and clinically acceptable tools, which allow a composite classification of pain and patient population characteristics. Although the Edmonton Staging System (ESS) for cancer pain was developed for this purpose, clinical and research utility has been limited due to problems associated with the assessment of some items, especially in relation to definitions and terminology. To overcome these limitations, we designed a revised ESS (rESS) and conducted a multicenter study to determine its inter-rater reliability and predictive value. In revising the rESS, we hypothesized that patients with less problematic pain features would require a shorter time to achieve stable pain control, require less complicated analgesic regimens, be more responsive to opioid therapy, and use lower opioid doses. The rESS items include mechanism of pain, presence or absence of incidental pain, presence or absence of psychological distress and addictive behavior, and level of cognitive function. Patients with cancer pain who were consecutively admitted to two different hospice centers, an acute care consultation service in a teaching hospital or a tertiary palliative care unit in a second teaching hospital were evaluated for study entry. Two independent palliative care specialists completed the rESS where possible within 24 hours of each other. Patients' pain ratings and opioid consumption were recorded daily until the study endpoint (i.e. achievement of stable pain control, discharge or death). Seven hundred and forty-six patients were eligible for study entry and of these, 619 (83%) had a pain syndrome. Inter-rater reliability estimates ranged from 0.67 (pain mechanism) to 0.95 (presence of addiction). In the univariate Cox regression analysis, younger patients (<60), as well as patients with neuropathic pain, incidental pain, psychological distress, or co-morbid psychological distress and addiction, required a significantly longer time to achieve stable pain control (P<0.05). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, only age (<60), neuropathic pain and incidental pain were significantly associated with time to reach stable pain control (PPatients with neuropathic or incidental pain used significantly more modalities to achieve stable pain control (P<0.01). Patients with neuropathic pain, incidental pain, as well as the presence of psychological distress or addiction, required a higher final mean morphine equivalent daily dose (MEDD) (P<0.001). A comparison of the rESS with the ESS demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the ESS prognostic staging system for predicting achievement of stable pain control. These findings confirm the study hypothesis, suggesting that the rESS appears to have good predictive value and a moderate to high inter-rater reliability. We suggest the rESS should prove to be a useful tool in clinical practice, and in the comparison of cancer pain populations in research studies. PMID:15781173

  14. Isokinetic performance in low back pain patients: The predictive power of the Self-Efficacy Scale.

    PubMed

    Kaivanto, K K; Estlander, A M; Moneta, G B; Vanharanta, H

    1995-06-01

    The Self-Efficacy Scale (SES) has been found to predict isokinetic performance better than anthropometric variables. This study tests the predictive power of SES further against other measures of efficacy expectancies as well as measures of depression and perceived disability. A group of 105 chronic back pain patients was administered Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), SES, the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ), and the Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire (OSWESTRY). Total isokinetic work done was measured at slow, medium and high speeds, for which multiple regression models were fitted controlling for sex, age, weight and height. The results confirmed SES to be the best overall predictor of isokinetic performance. BDI was not significant as a predictor of isokinetic performance. The models also revealed that SES predicts less well with increases in the test speed, particularly in extension. These results provide further evidence of the diagnostic value of SES relative to OSWESTRY and PSEQ. PMID:24234579

  15. A successful case of pain management using metformin in a patient with adiposis dolorosa.

    PubMed

    ?abuzek, Krzysztof; Liber, Sebastian; Suchy, Dariusz; Okopie?, Bogus?aw

    2013-06-01

    In this case report, we describe a patient with Dercum's disease who was successfully managed with metformin. The administration of metformin reduced pain intensity from 9/10 to 3/10 and favorably affected the profile of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., TNF a, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-10), adipokines (i.e., adiponectin, leptin, and resistin), and ?-endorphin. Because each variable was affected moderately by the drug, in the range of 20 - 30%, it follows that these effects are additive, i.e., they act independently of each other. However, taking into account advances in the pharmacology of metformin, it seems that other phenomena, such as modulation of synaptic plasticity, activation of microglia, and autophagy of the afferents supplying painful lipomas should be taken into consideration. Nonetheless, metformin deserves further exploration in the biology of pain. PMID:23611575

  16. Postoperative oxycodone toxicity in a patient with chronic pain and end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Tran, Bryant W; Kohan, Lynn R; Vorenkamp, Kevin E

    2015-02-15

    We present this case to review the metabolism of oxycodone and the effects of end-stage renal disease on the elimination of oxycodone and its metabolites. A 42-year-old female with end-stage renal disease who was dependent on hemodialysis presented for left hamstring posterior capsule release. She had been receiving methadone for 2 years for chronic leg pain. On postoperative day 1, the patient's medication was changed from IV hydromorphone to oral oxycodone to treat breakthrough pain. By the next day, the patient was unarousable with notable respiratory depression. She did not fully recover after urgent hemodialysis but did have full recovery after receiving an IV naloxone infusion for 22 hours. Further study of the safety of oxycodone in hemodialysis patients is warranted. PMID:25689360

  17. Negative effects of smoking, workers’ compensation, and litigation on pain/disability scores for spine patients

    PubMed Central

    Prasarn, Mark L.; Horodyski, Mary B.; Behrend, Caleb; Wright, John; Rechtine, Glenn R.