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Sample records for patient pain drawings

  1. Use of pain drawing as an assessment tool of sciatica for patients with single level lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Toshiya; Maruo, Keishi; Inoue, Shinichi; Arizumi, Fumihiro; Kusuyama, Kazuki; Yoshiya, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the diagnostic accuracy of pain drawing (PD) in determining the level of involvement and to investigate how the quantitative evaluation results of PD using a grid score (GS) correlates with the results of other clinical evaluation measures in diagnosis and assessment of patients with lumber disc herniation (LDH) involving a single nerve root. Thirty-one patients with single level LDH who were diagnosed and conservatively treated by the first author constituted the study population. In order to assess the diagnostic accuracy of PD, the level of involvement as determined by PD was compared to the final diagnosis. In 26 of the 31 patients who could be followed for more than 6 months of conservative treatment, the GS in PD evaluation was compared to the score assessed by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association scoring system for low back pain (JOA score) and the visual analog scale (VAS) both before and after the treatment. The overall diagnostic accuracy of PD for the determination of the affected level averaged 68.8 %, and the accuracy was higher at the L4/5 and L5/S levels than the L2/3 and L3/4 levels. The average values of VAS and GS significantly decreased and the JOA score significantly improved after the treatment. Moreover, a significant correlation was demonstrated between the scores derived from these three evaluation measures. The present study indicated the potential usefulness of PD in clinical assessment during the treatment course. PMID:27547686

  2. Effectiveness of Splanchnic Nerve Neurolysis for Targeting Location of Cancer Pain: Using the Pain Drawing as an Outcome Variable.

    PubMed

    Novy, Diane M; Engle, Mitchell P; Lai, Emily A; Cook, Christina; Martin, Emily C; Trahan, Lisa; Yu, Jun; Koyyalagunta, Dhanalakshmi

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness of splanchnic nerve neurolysis (SNN) for cancer-related abdominal pain has been investigated using numeric pain intensity rating as an outcome variable. The outcome variable in this study used the grid method for obtaining a targeted pain drawing score on 60 patients with pain from pancreatic or gastro-intestinal primary cancers or metastatic disease to the abdominal region. Results demonstrate excellent inter-rater agreement (intra-class correlation [ICC] coefficient at pre-SNN = 0.97 and ICC at within one month post-SNN = 0.98) for the grid method of scoring the pain drawing and demonstrate psychometric generalizability among patients with cancer-related pain. Using the Wilcoxon signed rank test and associated effect sizes, results show significant improvement in dispersion of pain following SNN. Effect sizes for the difference in pre-SNN to 2 post-SNN time points were higher for the pain drawing than for pain intensity rating. Specifically, the effect size difference from pre- to within one month post-SNN was r = 0.42 for pain drawing versus r = 0.23 for pain intensity rating. Based on a smaller subset of patients who were seen within 1 - 6 months following SNN, the effect size difference from pre-SNN was r = 0.46 for pain drawing versus r = 0.00 for pain intensity rating. Collectively, these data support the use of the pain drawing as a reliable outcome measure among patients with cancer pain for procedures such as SNN that target specific location and dispersion of pain. PMID:27454270

  3. Reliability of Ultrasound Imaging of the Transversus Deep Abdominial, Internal Oblique and External Oblique Muscles of Patients with Low Back Pain Performing the Drawing-in Maneuver

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung doo

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of ultrasound imaging (USI) measurements of muscle thicknesses of patients with low back pain (LBP) performing the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) [Subjects] Twenty patients with LBP were the subjects. [Methods] Muscle thickness measurements of transversus abdominis (Tra), internal obliques (IO), and external obliques (EO) muscles were measured using ultrasound imaging at rest and during performance of the ADIM. [Results] The intra-examiner reliability estimates ranged from 0.55 to 0.97 in the rest position, and from 0.82 to 0.95 during ADIM. The inter-examiner reliability estimates ranged from 0.77 to 0.98 in the rest position, and from 0.86 to 0.98 during ADIM. [Conclusion] ADIM thickness measurements of the TrA, IO, and EO muscles in patients with LBP based on the mean of 2 measures are highly reliable when taken by a single examiner and adequately reliable when taken by different examiners. PMID:24259867

  4. Patients' perspectives on pain.

    PubMed

    Norrbrink, Cecilia; Löfgren, Monika; Hunter, Judith P; Ellis, Jaqueline

    2012-01-01

    Nociceptive and neuropathic pain (NP) are common consequences following spinal cord injury (SCI), with large impact on sleep, mood, work, and quality of life. NP affects 40% to 50% of individuals with SCI and is sometimes considered the major problem following SCI. Current treatment recommendations for SCI-NP primarily focus on pharmacological strategies suggesting the use of anticonvulsant and antidepressant drugs, followed by tramadol and opioid medications. Unfortunately, these are only partly successful in relieving pain. Qualitative studies report that individuals with SCI-related long-lasting pain seek alternatives to medication due to the limited efficacy, unwanted side effects, and perceived risk of dependency. They spend time and money searching for additional treatments. Many have learned coping strategies on their own, including various forms of warmth, relaxation, massage, stretching, distraction, and physical activity. Studies indicate that many individuals with SCI are dissatisfied with their pain management and with the information given to them about their pain, and they want to know more about causes and strategies to manage pain. They express a desire to improve communication with their physicians and learn about reliable alternative sources for obtaining information about their pain and pain management. The discrepancy between treatment algorithms and patient expectations is significant. Clinicians will benefit from hearing the patient´s voice. PMID:23459087

  5. The pain drawing as an instrument for identifying cervical spine nerve involvement in chronic whiplash-associated disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bernhoff, Gabriella; Landén Ludvigsson, Maria; Peterson, Gunnel; Bertilson, Bo Christer; Elf, Madeleine; Peolsson, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a standardized assessment of pain drawing with regard to clinical signs of cervical spine nerve root involvement. Design This cross-sectional study included data collected in a randomized controlled study. Patients: Two hundred and sixteen patients with chronic (≥6 months) whiplash-associated disorders, grade 2 or 3, were included in this study. Methods The validity, sensitivity, and specificity of a standardized pain drawing assessment for determining nerve root involvement were analyzed, compared to the clinical assessment. In addition, we analyzed the interrater reliability with 50 pain drawings. Results Agreement was poor between the standardized pain drawing assessment and the clinical assessment (kappa =0.11, 95% CI: −0.03 to 0.20). Sensitivity was high (93%), but specificity was low (19%). Interrater reliability was good (kappa =0.64, 95% CI: 0.53 to 0.76). Conclusion: The standardized pain drawing assessment of nerve root involvement in chronic whiplash-associated disorders was not in agreement with the clinical assessment. Further research is warranted to optimize the utilization of a pain/discomfort drawing as a supportive instrument for identifying nerve involvement in cervical spinal injuries. PMID:27358576

  6. Patients' perspective: lupus in patients' drawings. Assessing drawing as a diagnostic and therapeutic method.

    PubMed

    Nowicka-Sauer, Katarzyna

    2007-09-01

    This is the first report from a qualitative research on lupus patients' perspective expressed in the disease drawings. The aim of the study was to examine the variety of ways of illness perception and experiences among systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. The goal was also to assess the utility of drawing as an unconventional research method as well as a therapeutic means. Participants were 38 women with SLE. Patients attended 'My life' courses addressed to the lupus patients held in 2000-2002. During the psychological group sessions, subjects were asked to draw their disease and then to comment on their pictures. There were no time limits. The participants were ensured that their drawing abilities had no meaning. Despite initial hesitation, all of the patients drew their pictures. This report presents three lupus patients' drawings. Analysis of disease pictures reveals that they are the priceless source of information on patients' perspective and make many dimensions of living with the disease uncovered, especially psychological. This unconventional, nonverbal method allows patient to know and realize one's emotions and feelings. From health professionals' point of view, the advantage of drawing as a research method is the possibility of gaining much information that cannot be gained from interview or traditional tests alone. Drawing is a 'good beginning' to talk, it makes the patients open up to share their emotions, views, and experiences. Thus, it can be the useful therapeutic method. It can also prevent health professionals from schematization in approach to the patients with the same diagnosis. PMID:17447104

  7. [Back pain: patients versus research].

    PubMed

    Theus, Renske; Zaat, Joost O M; Uijen, Annemarie; Enzing, Joost J

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, approximately 1,559,000 Dutch patients consulted their GP because of back pain. One out of 20 back pain patients is ultimately referred to a specialist, most often to a neurologist. A smaller number (also) go to a neurosurgeon or orthopaedist. Once referred, patients often receive treatments such as pain killers or discectomy. Scientific evidence in systematic reviews is scarce for the treatments we investigated because of small patient groups and a lack of randomised research. We made an infographic to show the numbers of patients with back pain who visit their GP or a specialist. PMID:24988162

  8. Breakthrough pain in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zeppetella, G

    2011-08-01

    Breakthrough pain is a transient exacerbation of pain that occurs either spontaneously or in relation to a specific predictable or unpredictable trigger, despite relatively stable and adequately controlled background pain. A typical episode of breakthrough pain has a fast onset and short duration, yet despite the self-limiting nature of each breakthrough pain, the repeated episodes can have a significant effect on patients' quality of life. Normal-release oral opioids have been the mainstay pharmacological approach for patients who are receiving an around the clock opioid regimen, but the onset and duration of action of oral opioids such as morphine may not be suitable for treating many breakthrough pains. Efforts to provide non-parenteral opioid formulations that could provide more rapid, and more effective, relief of breakthrough pain have led to the development of transmucosal opioid formulations. PMID:21227666

  9. Behind the Veil: Mandala Drawings by Dementia Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couch, Janet Beaujon

    1997-01-01

    Examines the Mandala (circular) drawings of elderly patients diagnosed with dementia in order to explore the drawings' role in artmaking and patients' internal processes. Categorized drawings using the MARI Card Test (a projective psychological instrument). Describes the six MARI stages drawn most frequently and colors used most often. (RJM)

  10. Counseling the Chronic Pain Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Richard S.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the provision of counseling services for chronic pain patients within comprehensive, multifaceted treatment program. Describes the counseling process, including orientation, evaluation, and clarification of client concerns. Cites the use of coping techniques such as relaxation training, biofeedback training, and pain coping skills. (RC)

  11. Altered pain modulation in patients with persistent postendodontic pain

    PubMed Central

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Khan, Junad; Benoliel, Rafael; Feng, Changyong; Yarnitsky, David; Kuo, Fengshen; Hirschberg, Craig; Hartwell, Gary; Huang, Ching-Yu; Heir, Gary; Korczeniewska, Olga; Diehl, Scott R.; Eliav, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Persistent pain may follow nerve injuries associated with invasive therapeutic interventions. About 3% to 7% of the patients remain with chronic pain after endodontic treatment, and these are described as suffering from painful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy (PTTN). Unfortunately, we are unable to identify which patients undergoing such procedures are at increased risk of developing PTTN. Recent findings suggest that impaired endogenous analgesia may be associated with the development of postsurgical chronic pain. We hypothesized that patients with PTTN display pronociceptive pain modulation, in line with other chronic pain disorders. Dynamic (conditioned pain modulation, temporal summation) and static (response to mechanical and cold stimulation) psychophysical tests were performed intraorally and in the forearm of 27 patients with PTTN and 27 sex- and age-matched controls. The dynamic sensory testing demonstrated less efficient conditioned pain modulation, suggesting reduced function of the inhibitory endogenous pain-modulatory system, in patients with PTTN, mainly in those suffering from the condition for more than a year. The static sensory testing of patients with PTTN demonstrated forearm hyperalgesia to mechanical stimulation mainly in patients suffering from the condition for less than a year and prolonged painful sensation after intraoral cold stimulus mainly in patients suffering from the condition for more than a year. These findings suggest that PTTN is associated more with the inhibitory rather than the facilitatory arm of pain modulation and that the central nervous system has a role in PTTN pathophysiology, possibly in a time-dependent fashion. PMID:26098442

  12. Altered pain modulation in patients with persistent postendodontic pain.

    PubMed

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Khan, Junad; Benoliel, Rafael; Feng, Changyong; Yarnitsky, David; Kuo, Fengshen; Hirschberg, Craig; Hartwell, Gary; Huang, Ching-Yu; Heir, Gary; Korczeniewska, Olga; Diehl, Scott R; Eliav, Eli

    2015-10-01

    Persistent pain may follow nerve injuries associated with invasive therapeutic interventions. About 3% to 7% of the patients remain with chronic pain after endodontic treatment, and these are described as suffering from painful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy (PTTN). Unfortunately, we are unable to identify which patients undergoing such procedures are at increased risk of developing PTTN. Recent findings suggest that impaired endogenous analgesia may be associated with the development of postsurgical chronic pain. We hypothesized that patients with PTTN display pronociceptive pain modulation, in line with other chronic pain disorders. Dynamic (conditioned pain modulation, temporal summation) and static (response to mechanical and cold stimulation) psychophysical tests were performed intraorally and in the forearm of 27 patients with PTTN and 27 sex- and age-matched controls. The dynamic sensory testing demonstrated less efficient conditioned pain modulation, suggesting reduced function of the inhibitory endogenous pain-modulatory system, in patients with PTTN, mainly in those suffering from the condition for more than a year. The static sensory testing of patients with PTTN demonstrated forearm hyperalgesia to mechanical stimulation mainly in patients suffering from the condition for less than a year and prolonged painful sensation after intraoral cold stimulus mainly in patients suffering from the condition for more than a year. These findings suggest that PTTN is associated more with the inhibitory rather than the facilitatory arm of pain modulation and that the central nervous system has a role in PTTN pathophysiology, possibly in a time-dependent fashion. PMID:26098442

  13. Pain Coping Strategies in Osteoarthritis Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the relation of pain coping strategies to pain, health status, and psychological distress in a group of osteoarthritis patients with chronic pain. Patients completed various questionnaires. Medical status variables were also used. The Pain Control and Rational Thinking factor derived from the Coping Strategies Questionnaire proved to…

  14. Impaired drawing from memory in a visual agnosic patient.

    PubMed

    Trojano, L; Grossi, D

    1992-11-01

    A case is reported of an associative visual agnosic patient who could not draw from memory objects he could recognize, even though he could copy drawings flawlessly. His ability to generate mental visual images was found to be spared, as was his ability to operate upon mental images. These data suggest that the patient could generate mental images but could not draw from memory because he did not have access to stored knowledge about pictorial attributes of objects. A similar functional impairment can be found in some other visual agnosic patients and in patients affected by optic aphasia. The present case allows a discussion of relationships among drawing from memory, imagery, and copying procedures. PMID:1449762

  15. Dysfunctional pain modulation in somatoform pain disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Klug, Stefanie; Stefanie, Klug; Anderer, Peter; Peter, Anderer; Saletu-Zyhlarz, Gerda; Gerda, Saletu-Zyhlarz; Freidl, Marion; Marion, Freidl; Saletu, Bernd; Bernd, Saletu; Prause, Wolfgang; Wolfgang, Prause; Aigner, Martin; Martin, Aigner

    2011-06-01

    To date, pain perception is thought to be a creative process of modulation carried out by an interplay of pro- and anti-nociceptive mechanisms. Recent research demonstrates that pain experience constitutes the result of top-down processes represented in cortical descending pain modulation. Cortical, mainly medial and frontal areas, as well as subcortical structures such as the brain stem, medulla and thalamus seem to be key players in pain modulation. An imbalance of pro- and anti-nociceptive mechanisms are assumed to cause chronic pain disorders, which are associated with spontaneous pain perception without physiologic scaffolding or exaggerated cortical activation in response to pain exposure. In contrast to recent investigations, the aim of the present study was to elucidate cortical activation of somatoform pain disorder patients during baseline condition. Scalp EEG, quantitative Fourier-spectral analyses and LORETA were employed to compare patient group (N = 15) to age- and sex-matched controls (N = 15) at rest. SI, SII, ACC, SMA, PFC, PPC, insular, amygdale and hippocampus displayed significant spectral power reductions within the beta band range (12-30 Hz). These results suggest decreased cortical baseline arousal in somatoform pain disorder patients. We finally conclude that obtained results may point to an altered baseline activity, maybe characteristic for chronic somatoform pain disorder. PMID:20924589

  16. Episodic pain in patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Zeppetella, Giovambattista; Ribeiro, Maria D C

    2002-01-01

    Episodic pain is a common problem for patients with advanced cancer and is often difficult to manage successfully. In this article, the daily variations in cancer-related episodic pain in a patient with metastatic lung cancer are described. The definition, etiology, prevalence, and pharmacological management of episodic pain are also reviewed PMID:12141792

  17. Experimental manipulations of pain catastrophizing influence pain levels in patients with chronic pain and healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kjøgx, Heidi; Kasch, Helge; Zachariae, Robert; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Troels S; Vase, Lene

    2016-06-01

    Pain catastrophizing (PC) has been related to pain levels in both patients experiencing acute or chronic pain and in healthy volunteers exposed to experimental pain. Still, it is unclear whether high levels of pain catastrophizing lead to high levels of pain or vice versa. We therefore tested whether levels of pain catastrophizing could be increased and decreased in the same participant through hypnotic suggestions and whether the altered level of situation-specific pain catastrophizing was related to increased and decreased pain levels, respectively. Using the spontaneous pain of 22 patients with chronic tension-type headache and experimentally induced pain in 22 healthy volunteers, participants were tested in 3 randomized sessions where they received 3 types of hypnotic suggestions: Negative (based on the 13 items in the Pain Catastrophizing Scale), Positive (coping-oriented reversion of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and Neutral (neutral sentence) hypnotic suggestions. The hypnotic suggestions significantly increased and decreased situation-specific PC in both patients and healthy volunteers (P < 0.001). Also, the levels of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness were significantly altered in both patients and healthy volunteers (P < 0.001). Furthermore, regression analyses showed that changes in pain catastrophizing predicted changes in pain in patients (R = 0.204-0.304; P < 0.045) and in healthy volunteers (R = 0.328-0.252; P < 0.018). This is the first study to successfully manipulate PC in positive and negative directions in both patients with chronic pain and healthy volunteers and to show that these manipulations significantly influence pain levels. These findings may have important theoretical and clinical implications. PMID:26871534

  18. 23. Pain in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Vissers, Kris C P; Besse, Kees; Wagemans, Michel; Zuurmond, Wouter; Giezeman, Maurice J M M; Lataster, Arno; Mekhail, Nagy; Burton, Allen W; van Kleef, Maarten; Huygen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Pain in patients with cancer can be refractory to pharmacological treatment or intolerable side effects of pharmacological treatment may seriously disturb patients' quality of life. Specific interventional pain management techniques can be an effective alternative for those patients. The appropriate application of these interventional techniques provides better pain control, allows the reduction of analgesics and hence improves quality of life. Until recently, the majority of these techniques are considered to be a fourth consecutive step following the World Health Organization's pain treatment ladder. However, in cancer patients, earlier application of interventional pain management techniques can be recommended even before considering the use of strong opioids. Epidural and intrathecal medication administration allow the reduction of the daily oral or transdermal opioid dose, while maintaining or even improving the pain relief and reducing the side effects. Cervical cordotomy may be considered for patients suffering with unilateral pain at the level below the dermatome C5. This technique should only be applied in patients with a life expectancy of less than 1 year. Plexus coeliacus block or nervus splanchnicus block are recommended for the management of upper abdominal pain due to cancer. Pelvic pain due to cancer can be managed with plexus hypogastricus block and the saddle or lower end block may be a last resort for patients suffering with perineal pain. Back pain due to vertebral compression fractures with or without pathological tumor invasion may be managed with percutaneous vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. All these interventional techniques should be a part of multidisciplinary patient program. PMID:21679293

  19. Psychiatric aspects of pain in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Sedat

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this review is to discuss the psychiatric aspects of pain in cancer patients from a biopsychosocial approach. Pain in cancer patients is considered as a complex reaction causing severe suffering and involves many psychological aspects. It has many dimensions such as personality, affect, cognition and social relations. The pain experience may also be influenced by some psychological factors such as anxiety, depression and the meaning of pain. Therefore, a successful management of cancer pain requires a multidisciplinary approach. Since cancer pain is generally treated medically, the psychological impact of pain is often underestimated. However, cancer pain is usually related to high levels of psychological distress. Culture, as an important factor affecting cancer pain, will also be discussed during this review. It is crucial to understand cultural diversity in the treatment of cancer patients with pain. Research shows that a minority patients of various ethnicities have less control of their pain because of the miscommunication problem within the medical setting. By paying attention to patients' cultural diversities, problems such as miscommunication causing inadequate control of pain can be eliminated. In order to manage pain in cancer patients, cognitive-behavioral interventions may be integrated with pharmacotherapy. The main goal of these strategies is to provide a sense of control and better coping skills to deal with cancer. Patients' maladaptive thoughts or behaviors may cause physical and emotional stress. Main behavioral strategies include biofeedback, relaxation training, and hypnosis. Cognitive strategies include guided imagery, distraction, thought monitoring and problem solving. By discussing all of these aspects of cancer pain, the multidimensional characteristic of pain and the relation between cancer pain and psychiatric factors will be clarified. PMID:20590361

  20. Pain management in critically ill obese patients.

    PubMed

    Astle, Sonia M

    2009-09-01

    Achieving pain control in critically ill patients is a challenging problem for the health care team, which becomes more challenging in morbidly obese patients. Obese patients may experience drug malabsorption and distribution, which may lead to either subtherapeutic or toxic drug levels. To manage pain effectively for the critically ill obese patient, nurses must have an understanding of how obesity alters a patient's physiologic response to injury and illness. In addition, nurses must be knowledgeable about physiologic pain mechanisms, types and manifestations of pain, differing patterns of drug absorption and distribution, pharmacokinetic properties of analgesic medications, and pain management strategies. This article explores factors affecting pharmacokinetics in obese patients, trends in pain management, and treatment strategies for the obese patient. PMID:19840712

  1. Postoperative pain: nurses' knowledge and patients' experiences.

    PubMed

    Francis, Lavonia; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding postoperative pain and identify postoperative patients' pain intensity experiences. The assessment and management of acute postoperative pain is important in the care of postoperative surgical patients. Inadequate relief of postoperative pain can contribute to postoperative complications such as atelectasis, deep vein thrombosis, and delayed wound healing. A pilot study with an exploratory design was conducted at a large teaching hospital in the eastern United States. The convenience samples included 31 nurses from the gastrointestinal and urologic surgical units and 14 first- and second-day adult postoperative open and laparoscopic gastrointestinal and urologic patients who received patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). The Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain was used to measure nurses' knowledge about pain management. The Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) was used to measure patients' pain intensity. The nurses' mean score on the Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain was 69.3%. Patients experienced moderate pain, as indicated by the score on the SF-MPQ. There is a need to increase nurses' knowledge of pain management. PMID:24315258

  2. Chronic Pain Patients: Implications for Rehabilitation Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Lori T.

    Chronic pain syndrome appears to have certain dimensions which make it unique as a disabling condition. When pain persists, the resulting anxiety and depression, others' reactions to the patient's sick role behaviors, and situational variables such as disability benefits may all contribute to the pain syndrome and complicate the rehabilitation…

  3. Incidence and Location of Pain in Young, Active Patients Following Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Nam, Denis; Nunley, Ryan M; Sauber, Timothy J; Johnson, Staci R; Brooks, Peter J; Barrack, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Persistent pain following hip arthroplasty remains a concern, especially in young, active patients. Four hundred twenty patients less than 60 years of age with a pre-symptomatic UCLA score ≥ 6 (196 total hip arthroplasty [THA]; 224 surface replacement arthroplasty [SRA]) completed a pain-drawing questionnaire investigating the location, severity, and frequency of pain around the hip. At a mean of 2.9 years of follow-up, 40% reported pain in at least one location around the hip. There was no difference in the incidence of groin pain between SRA and THA patients (32% vs. 29%, P=0.6), but THA patients had a greater incidence of anterior (25% vs. 8%, P<0.001) and lateral (20% vs. 10%, P=0.01) thigh pain. A high percentage of young, active patients experience persistent pain following hip arthroplasty. PMID:26067707

  4. [Drug treatment and interventional pain therapy in back pain patients].

    PubMed

    Sprott, Haiko; Klauke, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    The treatment of chronic, non-malignant low-back pain is based on the patients' history and the clinical examination. It can be assumed that half of the cases present with a neuropathic pain component which needs to be treated with antidepressive and antiepileptic drugs instead of "pure" analgesics. Opioids should be considered with extreme caution because of their toxicity. Chronic non-malignant back pain is the prototype for interdisciplinary treatment approaches and multi-modal interdisciplinary settings, including pain programmes. However, a personalised strategy has to be preferred in most cases. A quick relief of pain is important in order to improve function as well as to re-integrate the patient into professional life. Spinal infiltrations can be of both diagnostic as well as therapeutic benefits. Their indication must be considered carefully, especially if the invasive diagnostic intervention has no therapeutic consequences. The interventional procedures should only be used as part of a multimodal approach in patients without any psychological problem. The sole use of interventions supports the purely somatic orientation of many patients and thus leads us in the wrong direction. PMID:23985154

  5. Usefulness of Cordotomy in Patients With Cancer Who Experience Bilateral Pain: Implications of Increased Pain and New Pain

    PubMed Central

    Higaki, Nobuhiro; Yorozuya, Toshihiro; Tsubota, Shinzo; Fujii, Tomomi; Fukunaga, Tomoe; Moriyama, Mitsuhide; Yoshikawa, Takeki

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although mirror pain occurs after cordotomy in patients experiencing unilateral pain via a referred pain mechanism, no studies have examined whether this pain mechanism operates in patients who have bilateral pain. OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of cordotomy for bilateral pain from the viewpoint of increased pain or new pain caused by a referred pain mechanism. METHODS: Twenty-six patients who underwent percutaneous cordotomy through C1-C2 for severe bilateral cancer pain in the lumbosacral nerve region were enrolled. Pain was dominant on 1 side in 23 patients, and pain was equally severe on both sides in 3 patients. Unilateral cordotomy was performed for the dominant side of pain, and bilateral cordotomy was performed for 13 patients in whom pain on the nondominant side developed or remained severe after cordotomy. RESULTS: After unilateral cordotomy, 19 patients (73.1%) exhibited increased pain, which for 14 patients was as severe as the original dominant pain. After bilateral cordotomy, 7 patients (53.4%) exhibited new pain, which was located cephalad to the region rendered analgesic by cordotomy and was better controlled than the original pain. No pathological organic causes of new pain were found in any patient, and evidence of a referred pain mechanism was found in 3 patients after bilateral cordotomy. CONCLUSION: These results show that a referred pain mechanism causes increased or new pain after cordotomy in patients with bilateral pain. Nevertheless, cordotomy can still be indicated for patients with bilateral pain because postoperative pain is better controlled than the original pain. PMID:25603110

  6. Expression of pain and distress in children during dental extractions through drawings as a projective measure: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Pala, Sai Priya; Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Kamatham, Rekhalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of drawings as a projective measure of pain and distress in children undergoing dental extractions. METHODS: Children in the age range of 4-13 years with existence of untreatable caries or over-retained primary teeth, indicated for extractions were included. Pain was assessed using one behavioral [faces, legs, activity, cry and consolability (FLACC)] scale; and a self report measure; faces pain scale-revised (FPS-R), at two points of time, after completion of local anesthetic administration and after extraction. The general behavior of children was assessed with Wright’s modification of Frankl rating scale. At the end of the session, children were instructed to represent, themselves along with the dentist and their experiences of the dental treatment through drawing. The drawings were scored utilizing Child drawing: Hospital scale (CD: H) manual and correlated with FLACC, FPS-R and Frankl using Pearson correlation test. RESULTS: A positive correlation, though statistically not significant, was observed between CD: H scores and all other considered parameters (Frankl, FPS-R and FLACC) in the present study. CONCLUSION: Drawings could not act as surrogate measure of child’s pain; however, they acted as a narrative of his/her experiences and reflection of inner emotions. Hence, drawings can be used as an additional dental armamentarium. PMID:26862509

  7. Patient Satisfaction with Pain Level in Patients with Cancer.

    PubMed

    Golas, Mary; Park, Chang Gi; Wilkie, Diana J

    2016-06-01

    Interest in satisfaction with pain management as a pain-related outcome variable wavered when investigators found poor correlations with pain intensity when they measured satisfaction with pain management rather than satisfaction with pain level. The aim was to explore the relationship between satisfaction with pain level and pain intensity among patients receiving ongoing outpatient cancer care. In a comparative, secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional sample of 806 cancer patients (57% male, mean age 56 ± 13 years, 77% Caucasian), the authors measured satisfaction with pain level as a single item (yes, no, not sure) and pain intensity as an average of current, least, and worst pain intensity (all 0-10 scales) in the past 24 hours. Of the 806 participants, 447 (56%) subjects were satisfied with their pain level, 291 (36%) were not satisfied and 68 (8%) were not sure. Satisfaction was moderately correlated with API (rho = -0.43, p < .001). Patients satisfied with their pain levels reported statistically lower mean API scores (2.26 ± 1.70) than those who were not satisfied (4.68 ± 2.07) or not sure (4.21 ± 2.2.1), p < .001. With pair wise post hoc comparisons, mean API scores of satisfied patients were significantly lower than those who were not satisfied or not sure. In contrast with other researchers who have not found associations between satisfaction with pain management and pain intensity, the authors demonstrated that when satisfaction is measured specifically, patients with higher pain intensity are not satisfied. The authors recommend that researchers use "satisfaction with pain level" instead of "satisfaction with pain management" as the pain satisfaction outcome. PMID:27283267

  8. Pain management in patients with vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Seretny, M; Colvin, L A

    2016-09-01

    Vascular disease covers a wide range of conditions, including arterial, venous, and lymphatic disorders, with many of these being more common in the elderly. As the population ages, the incidence of vascular disease will increase, with a consequent increase in the requirement to manage both acute and chronic pain in this patient population. Pain management can be complex, as there are often multiple co-morbidities to be considered. An understanding of the underlying pain mechanisms is helpful in the logical direction of treatment, particularly in chronic pain states, such as phantom limb pain or complex regional pain syndrome. Acute pain management for vascular surgery presents a number of challenges, including coexisting anticoagulant medication, that may preclude the use of regional techniques. Within the limited evidence base, there is a suggestion that epidural analgesia provides better pain relief and reduced respiratory complications after major vascular surgery. For carotid endarterectomy, there is again some evidence supporting the use of local anaesthetic analgesia, either by infiltration or by superficial cervical plexus block. Chronic pain in vascular disease includes post-amputation pain, for which well-known risk factors include high pain levels before amputation and in the immediate postoperative period, emphasizing the importance of good pain control in the perioperative period. Complex regional pain syndrome is another challenging chronic pain syndrome with a wide variety of treatment options available, with the strongest evidence being for physical therapies. Further research is required to gain a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in pain associated with vascular disease and the best analgesic approaches to manage it. PMID:27566812

  9. [Therapy of pain in multiborbid elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Junker, Uwe; Lux, Eberhard Albert; Neugebauer, Edmund A G; Basler, Heinz-Dieter

    2009-05-01

    All human organ systems are prone to age-related physiological changes. Functional impairment is especially found in the liver, the kidneys, the nervous system, the gastrointestinal tract and the blood vessels. Changes in metabolism cause, e.g., changes in the composition of blood, reduction in neurotransmitters and the respective receptors, changes in calcium homeostasis with consequences for the stability of bones. As with any pharmacotherapy, the treatment of pain must consider these age-related factors. Adequate pain treatment is especially important in elderly patients, because the number of morbidities increases together with the number of pain conditions of different origin. In Germany, most patients with severe pain are undertreated. Although tumor pain, e.g., can be relieved in up to 95% of patients, up to 40% of patients under medical treatment still have pain, the German Pain League states. The WHO's pain ladder, developed in the 1980ies, is still regarded as an appropriate guideline, albeit too often disregarded by physicians, reflecting the reserve of patients and doctors towards opioids. With progress in opioid therapy, however, experts tend to early prescription of step-III-analgesics without sticking to the steps of the WHO ladder. Constipation, the major side effect of opioids, can be overcome by co-medication with laxatives. The combination of slow-release oxycodone with naloxone, an orally given antagonist of intestinal micro-receptors is effective as analgesic and maintains the normal bowel function. PMID:19469187

  10. Neuropathic pain in the cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Allen, R R

    1998-11-01

    Cancer presents itself in numerous ways, adding to the complexity of any pain syndrome with which it is associated. Neuropathic pain, unlike many other pain syndromes, is difficult to treat even in the absence of cancer. The combination results in a heterogeneous group of patients with a complex set of symptoms. This makes the assessment of pain, classification of syndromes, and clinical study a challenge. If the disease is nonprogressive, general principles of care are essentially the same as in those without cancer. In patients with progressive disease and more refractory painful conditions, spinal anesthetic and neurosurgical therapies must often be considered. Under such circumstances, caregivers are forced to carefully balance uncertain benefits and risks, often without the luxury of time. More careful observation and controlled trials in these patients help facilitate this challenging process. PMID:9767067

  11. Pain management in patients following limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Suzanne

    Phantom limb pain is common in patients who have amputations. This article outlines the different theories that explain the pathophysiology of phantom limb pain, including peripheral, spinal and central mechanisms. Treatment options are targeted at addressing these mechanisms, combining analgesic techniques with physical and psychological rehabilitation. PMID:21287925

  12. Pain management in the pediatric surgical patient.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Vance Y; Zenger, David; Steele, Scott R

    2012-06-01

    Surgeons performing painful, invasive procedures in pediatric patients must be cognizant of both the potential short- and long-term detrimental effects of inadequate analgesia. This article reviews the available tools, sedation procedures, the management of intraoperative, postoperative, and postprocedural pain, and the issues surrounding neonatal addiction. PMID:22595704

  13. PAIN INTENSITY MODERATES THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE AND PAIN INTERFERENCE IN CHRONIC OROFACIAL PAIN PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Boggero, Ian A.; Geiger, Paul J.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.; Carlson, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Study Context Chronic pain is associated with increased interference in daily functioning that becomes more pronounced as pain intensity increases. Based on previous research showing that older adults maintain well-being in the face of pain as well as or better than their younger counterparts, the current study examined the interaction of age and pain intensity on interference in a sample of chronic orofacial pain patients. Methods Data were obtained from the records of 508 chronic orofacial pain patients being seen for an initial evaluation from 2008 to 2012. Collected data included age (range: 18–78) and self-reported measures of pain intensity and pain interference. Bivariate correlations and regression models were used to assess for statistical interactions. Results Regression analyses revealed that pain intensity positively predicted pain interference (R2 = .35, B = 10.40, SE = 0.62, t(507) = 16.70, p < .001). A significant interaction supported the primary hypothesis that aging was associated with reduced interference at high levels of pain intensity (ΔR2 = .01, B = −1.31, SE = 0.63, t(505) = −2.90, p = .04). Conclusion At high levels of pain intensity, interference decreased with age, although the age by pain intensity interaction effect was small. This evidence converges with aging theories, including socioemotional selectivity theory, which posits that as people age, they become more motivated to maximize positive emotions and minimize negative ones. The results highlight the importance of studying the mechanisms older adults use to successfully cope with pain. PMID:26214102

  14. Promethazine use among chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Kara L.; Shapiro, Brad J.; Coffa, Diana; Novak, Scott P.; Kral, Alex H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Concomitant use of opioids and promethazine has been reported in various subpopulations, including methadone maintenance patients, injection drug users, and at-risk teenagers. Promethazine is thought to potentiate the “high” from opioids. However, to date, the prevalence of promethazine use has not been determined among patients prescribed opioids for chronic pain. Methods Urine samples from 921 patients prescribed opioids for chronic pain were analyzed for promethazine. Demographic data, toxicology results, and opioid prescription information were obtained through medical record abstraction. We assessed the prevalence and factors associated with promethazine use with bivariable and multivariable statistics. Results The prevalence of promethazine-positive urine samples among chronic pain patients was 9%. Only 50% of promethazine-positive patients had an active prescription for promethazine. Having benzodiazepine-positive urine with no prescription for a benzodiazepine was statistically associated with promethazine use. Also, having a prescription for methadone for pain or being in methadone maintenance for the treatment of opioid dependence were both statistically associated with promethazine use. Chronic pain patients prescribed only a long-acting opioid were more likely to have promethazine-positive urines than patients prescribed a short-acting opioid. Conclusions The study provides compelling evidence of significant promethazine use in chronic pain patients. Promethazine should be considered as a potential drug of abuse that could cause increased morbidity in opioid-using populations. PMID:25754939

  15. Reducing Cancer Patients' Painful Treatment

    NASA Video Gallery

    A NASA light technology originally developed to aid plant growth experiments in space has proved to reduce the painful side effects resulting from chemotherapy and radiation treatment in bone marro...

  16. [Pain management of cognitively impaired patients].

    PubMed

    Czarnecki, K; Brauer, H; Köberlein, J

    2014-04-01

    Pain is a significant problem in clinical practice and its control is one of the most important challenging aspects as pain has a major impact on patients' quality of life and health care costs. Particularly vulnerable persons, like cognitively impaired patients are challenging for pain management and underline its increasing relevance.National and international studies showed significant differences concerning pain therapy between cognitively impaired and cognitively intact patients. A possible cause of this may be that patients who are cognitively impaired are only in a restricted way able to express their pain. Furthermore, knowledge gaps and reservations concerning the effect and dosage of analgesics among cognitively impaired patients could be identified on the involved professions.Further investigations in Germany are needed as deficient treatment remains a persistent problem and evidence-based data are missing. These investigations should describe the status quo of pain management for cognitively impaired patients and provide information which processes have to be adapted to the needs of these vulnerable patients. PMID:24668438

  17. Drug management of pain in cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Tuttle, C B

    1985-01-01

    Chronic severe cancer pain is often not well controlled because both patient and physician have a poor understanding of the nature of the pain and of the actions of various potent analgesics. Physicians often fail to tailor analgesic dosages to the needs of the individual and unnecessarily limit the dosage because they have an ill founded fear that the patient will become addicted. The basis of rational management of cancer pain with drugs is an appropriate analgesic given regularly in doses adequate to suppress pain continuously. This review compares the potent analgesics and identifies and discusses those that have a role in treating chronic cancer pain. It emphasizes the value of morphine sulfate and gives information on starting and individualizing dosages and managing side effects. PMID:2856896

  18. Physical performance, pain, pain behavior and subjective disability in patients with subacute low back pain.

    PubMed

    Lindström, I; Ohlund, C; Nachemson, A

    1995-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the physical performance, pain, pain behavior and disability in patients with subacute low back pain (LBP). The patients were blue-collar workers and had been sick-listed for 8 weeks due to subacute low back pain. A total of 103 patients were randomized, 51 of them to the intervention group and the other to a control group. Recordings of physical performance and complaints of LBP were done before and after treatment in the intervention group. The proportion of patients with no complaints of LBP was significantly greater in the intervention group than in the control group at the one-year follow-up. The patients who intra-individually improved their physical performance also intra-individually decreased their complaints of LBP. The intra-individual improvements were suggested to be important for the individual return to work. PMID:8602477

  19. Pain management in patients with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Achterberg, Wilco P; Pieper, Marjoleine JC; van Dalen-Kok, Annelore H; de Waal, Margot WM; Husebo, Bettina S; Lautenbacher, Stefan; Kunz, Miriam; Scherder, Erik JA; Corbett, Anne

    2013-01-01

    There are an estimated 35 million people with dementia across the world, of whom 50% experience regular pain. Despite this, current assessment and treatment of pain in this patient group are inadequate. In addition to the discomfort and distress caused by pain, it is frequently the underlying cause of behavioral symptoms, which can lead to inappropriate treatment with antipsychotic medications. Pain also contributes to further complications in treatment and care. This review explores four key perspectives of pain management in dementia and makes recommendations for practice and research. The first perspective discussed is the considerable uncertainty within the literature on the impact of dementia neuropathology on pain perception and processing in Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, where white matter lesions and brain atrophy appear to influence the neurobiology of pain. The second perspective considers the assessment of pain in dementia. This is challenging, particularly because of the limited capacity of self-report by these individuals, which means that assessment relies in large part on observational methods. A number of tools are available but the psychometric quality and clinical utility of these are uncertain. The evidence for efficient treatment (the third perspective) with analgesics is also limited, with few statistically well-powered trials. The most promising evidence supports the use of stepped treatment approaches, and indicates the benefit of pain and behavioral interventions on both these important symptoms. The fourth perspective debates further difficulties in pain management due to the lack of sufficient training and education for health care professionals at all levels, where evidence-based guidance is urgently needed. To address the current inadequate management of pain in dementia, a comprehensive approach is needed. This would include an accurate, validated assessment tool that is sensitive to different types of pain and therapeutic

  20. Pain Assessment in Noncommunicative Adult Palliative Care Patients.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Deborah B; Kaiser, Karen Snow; Haisfield-Wolfe, Mary Ellen; Iyamu, Florence

    2016-09-01

    Palliative care patients who have pain are often unable to self-report their pain, placing them at increased risk for underrecognized and undertreated pain. Use of appropriate pain assessment tools significantly enhances the likelihood of effective pain management and improved pain-related outcomes. This paper reviews selected tools and provides palliative care clinicians with a practical approach to selecting a pain assessment tool for noncommunicative adult patients. PMID:27497016

  1. Enhanced Brain Responses to Pain-Related Words in Chronic Back Pain Patients and Their Modulation by Current Pain.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alexander; Franz, Marcel; Puta, Christian; Dietrich, Caroline; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Weiss, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in healthy controls (HC) and pain-free migraine patients found activations to pain-related words in brain regions known to be activated while subjects experience pain. The aim of the present study was to identify neural activations induced by pain-related words in a sample of chronic back pain (CBP) patients experiencing current chronic pain compared to HC. In particular, we were interested in how current pain influences brain activations induced by pain-related adjectives. Subjects viewed pain-related, negative, positive, and neutral words; subjects were asked to generate mental images related to these words during fMRI scanning. Brain activation was compared between CBP patients and HC in response to the different word categories and examined in relation to current pain in CBP patients. Pain-related words vs. neutral words activated a network of brain regions including cingulate cortex and insula in subjects and patients. There was stronger activation in medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior midcingulate cortex in CPB patients than in HC. The magnitude of activation for pain-related vs. negative words showed a negative linear relationship to CBP patients' current pain. Our findings confirm earlier observations showing that pain-related words activate brain networks similar to noxious stimulation. Importantly, CBP patients show even stronger activation of these structures while merely processing pain-related words. Current pain directly influences on this activation. PMID:27517967

  2. Memory-for-designs drawing styles of psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Holmes, C B

    1983-07-01

    Studied the relationship between several Memory-For-Designs drawing styles and personality traits using a sample of psychiatric outpatients. Four MFD drawing styles were studied by comparing the MMPI scores of Ss who did or did not draw constricted figures, draw expanded figures, draw along the edges of the paper, or place the figures on the page in a disorganized manner. Contrary to previous work in this area, the present results showed a relationship between certain drawing styles and scores on the MMPI, i.e., certain drawing styles correlate with personality traits. PMID:6874996

  3. Patients' Responses to a Drawing Experience in a Hemodialysis Unit: A Step towards Healing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weldt, Cristina

    2003-01-01

    Investigates patients' responses to drawing experiences while in a hemodialysis unit. It was postulated that patients would be stimulated to talk about issues and experiences and improve their confidence and self-esteem. Results indicate that all patients enjoyed the experience of drawing; they became focused on doing the drawings and the hours…

  4. Evaluation of the patient with hip pain.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John J; Furukawa, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Hip pain is a common and disabling condition that affects patients of all ages. The differential diagnosis of hip pain is broad, presenting a diagnostic challenge. Patients often express that their hip pain is localized to one of three anatomic regions: the anterior hip and groin, the posterior hip and buttock, or the lateral hip. Anterior hip and groin pain is commonly associated with intra-articular pathology, such as osteoarthritis and hip labral tears. Posterior hip pain is associated with piriformis syndrome, sacroiliac joint dysfunction, lumbar radiculopathy, and less commonly ischiofemoral impingement and vascular claudication. Lateral hip pain occurs with greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Clinical examination tests, although helpful, are not highly sensitive or specific for most diagnoses; however, a rational approach to the hip examination can be used. Radiography should be performed if acute fracture, dislocations, or stress fractures are suspected. Initial plain radiography of the hip should include an anteroposterior view of the pelvis and frog-leg lateral view of the symptomatic hip. Magnetic resonance imaging should be performed if the history and plain radiograph results are not diagnostic. Magnetic resonance imaging is valuable for the detection of occult traumatic fractures, stress fractures, and osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Magnetic resonance arthrography is the diagnostic test of choice for labral tears. PMID:24444505

  5. Effective pain management and improvements in patients' outcomes and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Diane

    2015-06-01

    Adequate pain management is a compelling and universal requirement in health care. Despite considerable advancements, the adverse physiological and psychological implications of unmanaged pain remain substantially unresolved. Ineffective pain management can lead to a marked decrease in desirable clinical and psychological outcomes and patients' overall quality of life. Effective management of acute pain results in improved patient outcomes and increased patient satisfaction. Although research and advanced treatments in improved practice protocols have documented progressive improvements in management of acute and postoperative pain, little awareness of the effectiveness of best practices persists. Improved interventions can enhance patients' attitudes to and perceptions of pain. What a patient believes and understands about pain is critical in influencing the patient's reaction to the pain therapy provided. Use of interdisciplinary pain teams can lead to improvements in patients' pain management, pain education, outcomes, and satisfaction. PMID:26033099

  6. [Pain management in patients with liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Antonio; Moreno, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    Pain management in patients with liver cirrhosis is a real challenge and is often inadequate due to a lack of therapeutic efficacy or the high incidence of adverse effects. The focus of treatment differs depending on whether the pain is acute or chronic and involves understanding the causative pathophysiological mechanism. Analgesics should be started with the minimum effective dose and should be titrated slowly with avoidance of polypharmacy. Adverse effects must be monitored, especially sedation and constipation, which predispose the patient to the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The first-line drug is paracetamol, which is safe at doses of 2-3g/day. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents are contraindicated because they can cause acute renal failure and/or gastrointestinal bleeding. Tramadol is a safe option for moderate-severe pain. The opioids with the best safety profile are fentanyl and hydromorphone, with methadone as an alternative. Topical treatment can reduce oral drug consumption. In neuropathic pain the first-line therapeutic option is gabapentin. The use of antidepressants such as amitriptyline can be considered in some patients. Interventional techniques are a valuable tool in moderate to severe pain, since they allow a reduction in drug therapy and consequently its adverse effects. Psychological treatment, physical therapy and rehabilitation should be considered as part of multimodality therapy in the management of chronic pain. PMID:24309482

  7. Neuropathic Pain in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Brandow, Amanda M.; Farley, Rebecca A.; Panepinto, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the suggestion of a neuropathic component to sickle cell disease (SCD) pain, there are minimal data on the systematic assessment of neuropathic pain in patients with SCD. Neuropathic pain is defined as pain primarily initiated by dysfunction of the peripheral or central nervous system. Procedure In a cross-sectional study, we used the painDETECT questionnaire, a one-page validated neuropathic pain screening tool, to determine the presence of neuropathic pain in patients with SCD and to evaluate the relationship between neuropathic pain, age, and gender. We hypothesized that 20% of patients with SCD will experience neuropathic pain and that neuropathic pain will be associated with older age and female gender. The completed painDETECT questionnaire yields a total score between 0–38 (≥19=definite neuropathic pain, 13–18=probable neuropathic pain, ≤12=no neuropathic pain). Scores ≥13 were designated as having evidence of neuropathic pain. Results A total of 56 patients participated. Median age was 20.3 years and 77% were female. We found 37% of patients had evidence of neuropathic pain. Age was positively correlated with total score [r=0.43; p=0.001] suggesting older patients experience more neuropathic pain. Females had higher mean total scores [13 vs 8.4; p=0.04]. Significantly more patients with neuropathic pain were taking hydroxyurea [90% vs 59%; p=0.015]. Despite 37% of patients experiencing neuropathic pain, only 5% were taking a neuropathic pain drug. Conclusions Neuropathic pain exists in SCD. Valid screening tools can identify patients that would benefit from existing and future neuropathic pain therapies and could determine the impact of these therapies. PMID:24167104

  8. Satisfaction with and Perception of Pain Management among Palliative Patients with Breakthrough Pain: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Pathmawathi, Subramanian; Beng, Tan Seng; Li, Lee Mei; Rosli, Roshaslina; Sharwend, Supermanian; Kavitha, Rasaiah R; Christopher, Boey Chiong Meng

    2015-08-01

    Breakthrough pain is a significant contributor to much suffering by patients. The experience of intense pain may interfere with, and affect, daily life functioning and has major consequences on patients' well-being if it is not well managed. The area of breakthrough pain has not been fully understood. This study thus aimed to explore the experiences of breakthrough pain among palliative patients. A qualitative study based on a series of open-ended interviews among 21 palliative patients suffering from pain at an urban tertiary hospital in Malaysia was conducted. Five themes were generated: (i) pain viewed as an unbearable experience causing misery in the lives of patients, (ii) deterioration of body function and no hope of recovery, (iii) receiving of inadequate pain management for pain, (iv) insensitivity of healthcare providers toward patients' pain experience, and (v) pain coping experiences of patients. The findings revealed that nonpharmacologic approaches such as psychosocial support should be introduced to the patients. Proper guidance and information should be given to healthcare providers to improve the quality of patient care. Healthcare providers should adopt a sensitive approach in caring for patients' needs. The aim is to meet the needs of the patients who want to be pain free or to attain adequate relief of their pain for breakthrough pain. PMID:26256219

  9. Postoperative pain 1: understanding the factors affecting patients' experiences of pain.

    PubMed

    Wood, Sharon

    Management of postoperative pain is complex and multidimensionalandits effective management presents challenges to nurses. Failure to control pain can result in long term complications, including chronic post surgical pain. This first article, in a two part series, explores the physiological mechanism involved in the perception of pain and the role of psychological and environmental influences on how patients respond to it. Part 2, to be published next week, explores the principles of patient assessment and management of postoperative pain. PMID:21180335

  10. Depressed Mood Differentially Mediates the Relationship between Pain Intensity and Pain Disability Depending on Pain Duration: A Moderated Mediation Analysis in Chronic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Neumeier, Susanne; Altmeppen, Jürgen; Angerer, Michael; Loew, Thomas; Pieh, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that pain is associated with disability and that depressed mood mediates the relationship between pain and disability. The question of whether duration of pain moderates these effects was addressed in this cross-sectional study with 356 chronic pain patients. A simple mediation model replicated the notion that depressed mood explains a significant proportion of the relationship between pain and disability (in the study at hand: 12%). A moderated mediation model revealed that the indirect effect of pain on disability through depressed mood is moderated by pain duration: while depressed mood did not mediate the effect of pain on disability in chronic pain patients with shorter pain duration, depressed mood significantly mediated the effect pain exerts on disability in chronic pain patients with longer pain duration. Pain duration did not moderate the direct effect of pain on disability. Implications of these findings for the treatment of chronic pain might be that targeting depressed mood is especially relevant in chronic pain patients with longer pain duration to reduce the effect of pain on disability. PMID:27445605

  11. Are physicians' ratings of pain affected by patients' physical attractiveness?

    PubMed

    Hadjistavropoulos, H D; Ross, M A; von Baeyer, C L

    1990-01-01

    The degree to which physical attractiveness and nonverbal expressions of pain influence physicians' perceptions of pain was investigated. Photographs of eight female university students were represented in four experimental conditions created by the manipulation of cosmetics, hairstyles, and facial expressions: (a) attractive-no pain, (b) attractive-pain, (c) unattractive-no pain, and (d) unattractive-pain. Each photograph was accompanied by a brief description of the patient's pain problem that was standard across conditions. Medical residents (N = 60) viewed the photographs and rated each patient's pain, distress, negative affective experience, health, personality, blame for the situation, and the physician's own solicitude for the patient. The results showed that physicians' ratings of pain were influenced both by attractiveness of patients and by nonverbal expressions of pain. Unattractive patients, and patients who were expressing pain, were perceived as experiencing more pain, distress, and negative affective experiences than attractive patients and patients who were not expressing pain. Unattractive patients also received higher ratings of solicitude on the doctor's part and lower ratings of health than attractive patients. Physician's assessments of pain appear to be influenced by the physical attractiveness of the patient. PMID:2367884

  12. A typology of pain coping strategies in pediatric patients with chronic abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lynn S; Baber, Kari Freeman; Garber, Judy; Smith, Craig A

    2008-07-15

    This study aimed to identify clinically meaningful profiles of pain coping strategies used by youth with chronic abdominal pain (CAP). Participants (n=699) were pediatric patients (ages 8-18 years) and their parents. Patients completed the Pain Response Inventory (PRI) and measures of somatic and depressive symptoms, disability, pain severity and pain efficacy, and perceived competence. Parents rated their children's pain severity and coping efficacy. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on the 13 PRI subscales identified pain coping profiles in Sample 1 (n=311) that replicated in Sample 2 (n=388). Evidence was found of external validity and distinctiveness of the profiles. The findings support a typology of pain coping that reflects the quality of patients' pain mastery efforts and interpersonal relationships associated with pain coping. Results are discussed in relation to developmental processes, attachment styles, and treatment implications. PMID:17928144

  13. Assessing and Managing Sleep Disturbance in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Cheatle, Martin D; Foster, Simmie; Pinkett, Aaron; Lesneski, Matthew; Qu, David; Dhingra, Lara

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain is associated with symptoms that may impair a patient's quality of life, including emotional distress, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. There is a high prevalence of concomitant pain and sleep disturbance. Studies support the hypothesis that sleep and pain have a bidirectional and reciprocal relationship. Clinicians who manage patients with chronic pain often focus on interventions that relieve pain, and assessing and treating sleep disturbance are secondary or not addressed. This article reviews the literature on pain and co-occurring sleep disturbance, describes the assessment of sleep disturbance, and outlines nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment strategies to improve sleep in patients with chronic pain. PMID:27208716

  14. Imaging the pregnant patient with abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Graham W; Davis, Melissa A; Semelka, Richard C; Fielding, Julia R

    2012-10-01

    Imaging of pregnant patients with non-obstetric abdominal pain is reviewed, with an accompanying pictorial essay of cases with concentration on magnetic resonance imaging. Non-obstetric causes of abdominal pain during pregnancy are similar to those of non-pregnant patients. The most common causes are appendicitis and cholecystitis. Other causes are myriad and include biliary, gastrointestinal, infectious, inflammatory, and malignant etiologies, among others. The approach to imaging in pregnant patient is unique, as it is imperative to minimize potentially harmful radiation exposures to the fetus. Ultrasound and MRI are the primary modalities for evaluation of the pregnant patient with abdominal pain. The use of intravenous contrast is discouraged, except in highly-selected patients where there is no other way to obtain vital diagnostic information. CT is still used as the mainstay of evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma and is commonly used for diagnosis of small bowel obstruction, stone disease, and work-up of malignancy during pregnancy. A discussion of test selection and underlying rationale is presented. PMID:22160283

  15. Cognitive-emotional sensitization contributes to wind-up-like pain in phantom limb pain patients.

    PubMed

    Vase, Lene; Nikolajsen, Lone; Christensen, Bente; Egsgaard, Line Lindhart; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Svensson, Peter; Staehelin Jensen, Troels

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral mechanisms are known to play a role in phantom pain following limb amputation, and more recently it has been suggested that central mechanisms may also be of importance. Some patients seem to have a psychological sensitivity that predisposes them to react with pain catastrophizing after amputation of a limb, and this coping style may contribute to increased facilitation, impaired modulation of nociceptive signals, or both. To investigate how pain catastrophizing, independently of anxiety and depression, may contribute to phantom limb pain and to alterations in pain processing twenty-four upper-limb amputees with various levels of phantom limb pain were included in the study. Patients' level of pain catastrophizing, anxiety and depression was assessed and they went through quantitative sensory testing (QST) of thresholds (mechanical and thermal) and wind-up-like pain (brush and pinprick). Catastrophizing accounted for 35% of the variance in phantom limb pain (p=0.001) independently of anxiety and depression. Catastrophizing was also positively associated with wind-up-like pain in non-medicated patients (p=0.015), but not to pain thresholds. These findings suggest that cognitive-emotional sensitization contributes to the altered nociceptive processing seen in phantom limb pain patients. The possible interactions between pain catastrophizing, wind-up-like pain, and peripheral input in generating and maintaining phantom limb pain are discussed. PMID:21067864

  16. Patient expectations and anticipated responses to postsurgical pain.

    PubMed

    Jairath, N; Kowal, N

    1999-06-01

    This descriptive study investigated the factors that influenced the intended pain management behaviors of a sample of 186 patients awaiting major surgical procedures. Pain management behaviors were defined as those related to reporting of postsurgical pain and seeking postsurgical pain management. Less than 44% of respondents specified the type of sensation, duration, similarity to previous pain, and source of pain as factors affecting the decision to seek help for pain. Only 9% expected complete relief with appropriate treatment, and 19% of respondents would wait for treatment to be given or offered, if pain returned following treatment. Moreover, less than 5% of respondents identified physicians or nurses as ways "by which you have learned about pain control." These findings underscore the need for comprehensive, individualized pain education protocols throughout the period of care delivery. Special emphasis should be placed on patient empowerment and decision making to seek appropriate pain management. PMID:10633651

  17. A comparison of pain measures used with patients with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Bigatti, Silvia M; Cronan, Terry A

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate instruments used to assess pain in patients with fibromyalgia (FMS). Participants were 602 patients with FMS. Pain was measured with five scales: a visual analog scale (VAS), the Pain Rating, Present Pain, and Number of Words Chosen Indexes from the McGill Pain Questionnaire; and intensity of pain obtained from a manual tender point exam. The VAS had the highest correlations with other measures of pain and with self-efficacy for pain, physical functioning, fatigue, and stiffness. The correlations between the VAS and fatigue and stiffness were significantly higher than those of other pain measures (p < .01). Our findings suggest that the easy-to-administer VAS may be the most useful measure of pain with patients with FMS. PMID:12048970

  18. Perceptions of patients' pain: a study assessing nurses' attitudes.

    PubMed

    Hunt, K

    This study of 35 orthopaedic nurses assessed attitudes to pain and its relief. Using an anonymous questionnaire, nurses gave their views on a range of issues from what patients' expectations of post-operative pain should be, to the use and effectiveness of pain assessment tools. The findings suggest that nurses require re-education in various aspects of pain and analgesia provision to ensure that patients do not feel pain unnecessarily and receive appropriate pain relief promptly. The study recommends that pain assessment tools are used by orthopaedic nurses and that further training is required in the pharmacology of analgesic agents. PMID:7492500

  19. Comparison of pain, kinesiophobia and quality of life in patients with low back and neck pain

    PubMed Central

    Uluğ, Naime; Yakut, Yavuz; Alemdaroğlu, İpek; Yılmaz, Öznur

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare patients with low back and neck pain with respect to kinesiophobia, pain, and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Three-hundred patients with low back (mean age 43.2±11 years) and 300 with neck pain (mean age 42.8±10.2 years) were included in this study. Pain severity was evaluated by using the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, which includes a Visual Analogue Scale, quality of life by the Nottingham Health Profile, and kinesiophobia by the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. [Results] Pain severity was similar in both groups, with a Visual Analogue Scale score of 6.7±2 in the low back pain and 6.8±2 in the neck pain group. Nottingham Health Profile pain [z=−4.132] and physical activity scores [z=−5.640] in the low back pain group were significantly higher. Kinesiophobia was also more severe in the low back pain group, with a mean 42.05±5.91 versus 39.7±6.0 Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia score [z=−4.732]. [Conclusion] Patients with low back pain developed more severe kinesiophobia, regardless of the pain severity, and had greater pain perception and lower physical activity levels. Kinesiophobia adversely affects the quality of life and requires effective management of low back pain. PMID:27064399

  20. Imaging studies in patients with spinal pain

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate an a priori threshold for advanced imaging in patients with spinal pain. Design Patients with spinal pain in any region for 6 to 52 weeks were assessed to determine if radiologic studies beyond x-ray scans were indicated, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide bone scans. An a priori threshold was set before MRI, CT, or bone scans would be considered. Those who did not have MRI, CT, or bone scans ordered were followed for at least 1 year to determine if any of them went on to be diagnosed with a more serious spinal disorder (eg, infection, fracture, spondylitis, tumour, neurologic compression). Setting Four large primary care clinics in Edmonton, Alta. Participants A total of 1003 consecutively presenting patients with symptoms suspected to be related to the spine (for a duration of generally 6 to 52 weeks) who had not already undergone advanced imaging and did not have a diagnosis of nonbenign back pain. Main outcome measures Number of cases of nonbenign spinal disorder in participants who underwent advanced imaging and participants who did not undergo advanced imaging (ie, did not have any red flags). Results There were 399 women (39.8%) and 604 men (60.2%). The mean (SD) age of the group was 47.2 (14.6) years. The mean (SD) duration of symptoms was 15.1 (8.6) weeks. Of the 1003 participants, 110 met an a priori threshold for undergoing at least 1 of MRI, CT, or bone scan. In these 110 participants, there were newly diagnosed cases of radiculopathy (n = 12), including a case of cauda equina syndrome; spondyloarthropathy (n = 6); occult fracture (n = 2); solitary metastasis (n = 1); epidural lipomatosis (n = 1); osteomyelitis (n = 1), and retroperitoneal hematoma (n = 1), each of which was considered likely to be the cause of the patient’s spinal symptoms. The remaining 893 participants were followed for at least 1 year and none showed evidence of a nonbenign cause of his or her

  1. Mania reduces perceived pain intensity in patients with chronic pain: preliminary evidence from retrospective archival data

    PubMed Central

    Boggero, Ian A; Cole, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    Objective Bipolar disorder is associated with poor pain outcomes, but the extant literature has not taken into account how mania or hypomania – a central feature of bipolar disorders – influences pain intensity. The objective of this study was to describe whether patients recalled experiencing reduced pain intensity during manic or hypomanic episodes. Design and setting This study used a retrospective design using archival data from patient’s medical records. Subjects A total of 201 patients with chronic pain with bipolar I (39.6%) or bipolar II (60.4%) disorder who were undergoing a psychological evaluation for an interventional pain procedure were included in this study. Methods Patients underwent a semistructured interview where they were asked if they recalled reductions in pain intensity during their most recent manic or hypomanic episode. The proportion of patients who responded “yes” versus “no” to this question was the primary outcome variable. Results Results reveal that 64.2% of patients recalled experiencing a reduction in pain intensity during their most recent manic or hypomanic episode. Conclusion Perceptions of reduced pain intensity during mania or hypomania may contribute to a cycle of increased activity during manic episodes, which may increase pain over time. It may also lead to false-positive findings on spinal cord stimulator trials and diagnostic pain blocks, among other interventional pain procedures. The preliminary findings of this study highlight the clinical importance of assessing for bipolar disorders in patients with chronic pain. PMID:27099527

  2. Alexithymia and Early Maladaptive Schemas in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Saariaho, Anita S; Saariaho, Tom H; Mattila, Aino K; Karukivi, Max; Joukamaa, Matti I

    2015-08-01

    Psychological factors have an impact on subjective pain experience. The aim of this study was to explore the occurrence of alexithymia and Early Maladaptive Schemas in a sample of 271 first visit chronic pain patients of six pain clinics. The patients completed the study questionnaire consisting of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, the Finnish version of the Young Schema Questionnaire short form-extended, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and pain variables. Alexithymic patients scored higher on Early Maladaptive Schemas and had more pain intensity, pain disability and depression than nonalexithymic patients. Both alexithymia and depression correlated significantly with most Early Maladaptive Schemas. The co-occurrence of alexithymia, Early Maladaptive Schemas and depression seems to worsen the pain experience. Screening of alexithymia, depression and Early Maladaptive Schemas may help to plan psychological treatment interventions for chronic pain patients. PMID:26040835

  3. Are Pain-Related Fears Mediators for Reducing Disability and Pain in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1? An Explorative Analysis on Pain Exposure Physical Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Barnhoorn, Karlijn J.; Staal, J. Bart; van Dongen, Robert T. M.; Frölke, Jan Paul M.; Klomp, Frank P.; van de Meent, Henk; Samwel, Han; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether pain-related fears are mediators for reducing disability and pain in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 when treating with Pain Exposure Physical Therapy. Design An explorative secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Participants Fifty-six patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1. Interventions The experimental group received Pain Exposure Physical Therapy in a maximum of five treatment sessions; the control group received conventional treatment following the Dutch multidisciplinary guideline. Outcome measures Levels of disability, pain, and pain-related fears (fear-avoidance beliefs, pain catastrophizing, and kinesiophobia) were measured at baseline and after 3, 6, and 9 months follow-up. Results The experimental group had a significantly larger decrease in disability of 7.77 points (95% CI 1.09 to 14.45) and in pain of 1.83 points (95% CI 0.44 to 3.23) over nine months than the control group. The potential mediators pain-related fears decreased significantly in both groups, but there were no significant differences between groups, which indicated that there was no mediation. Conclusion The reduction of pain-related fears was comparable in both groups. We found no indication that pain-related fears mediate the larger reduction of disability and pain in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 treated with Pain Exposure Physical Therapy compared to conventional treatment. Trial registration International Clinical Trials Registry NCT00817128 PMID:25919011

  4. The effects of self-pain management on the intensity of pain and pain management methods in arthritic patients.

    PubMed

    Parlar, Serap; Fadiloglu, Cicek; Argon, Gulumser; Tokem, Yasemin; Keser, Gokhan

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of pain management education on the intensity of pain and frequency of utilization of pain management methods in two groups of patients with arthritis of different pathogenesis and clinical features, and to compare whether a significant difference existed between the two groups. The study was carried out between September 2007 and June 2008 on 30 female patients with gonarthrosis and 30 female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) followed at the rheumatology outpatient clinic of a university hospital. Data on sociodemographic characteristics and those related with the illness were collected using a special survey. Each patient was given information about the features, causes, and treatment of the arthritis and how to cope with pain, emphasizing the importance of pain management methods. The intensity of pain and efficacy of pain management methods were assessed using the McGill Pain Questionnaire and the Pain Management Inventory at baseline and the second and sixth weeks after the education. The SPSS (v15.0) statistical package was used for statistical analysis. After education, significant improvements in pain intensity scores compared with baseline scores were observed in both groups (p < .05), and there was no significant difference between the RA and gonarthrosis groups. Among the various pain management methods, the education program led to significantly more utilization of massaging the painful area, exercising, and using complementary methods to control stress in both groups of patients, and there was no significant difference between the groups. In conclusion, the pain management education given in this study alleviated the intensity of pain and significantly increased the use of some pain management methods in both gonarthrosis and RA cases. PMID:23972864

  5. Emergency pulpotomy in relieving acute dental pain among Tanzanian patients

    PubMed Central

    Nyerere, Joachim W; Matee, Mecky I; Simon, Elison NM

    2006-01-01

    Background In Tanzania, oral health services are mostly in the form of dental extractions aimed at alleviating acute dental pain. Conservative methods of alleviating acute dental pain are virtually non-existent. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to determine treatment success of emergency pulpotomy in relieving acute dental pain. Methods Setting: School of Dentistry, Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Study design: Longitudinal study. Participants: 180 patients who presented with dental pain due to acute irreversible pulpitis during the study period between July and August 2001. Treatment and evaluation: Patients were treated by emergency pulpotomy on permanent posterior teeth and were evaluated for pain after one, three and six week's post-treatment. Pain, if present, was categorised as either mild or acute. Results Of the patients with treated premolars, 25 (13.9%) patients did not experience pain at all while 19 (10.6%) experienced mild pain. None of the patients with treated premolars experienced acute pain. Among 136 patients with treated molars 56 (31%) did not experience any pain, 76 (42.2%) experienced mild pain and the other 4 (2.2%) suffered acute pain. Conclusion The short term treatment success of emergency pulpotomy was high being 100% for premolars and 97.1% for molars, suggesting that it can be recommended as a measure to alleviate acute dental pain while other conservative treatment options are being considered. PMID:16426455

  6. Pain volatility and prescription opioid addiction treatment outcomes in patients with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Worley, Matthew J; Heinzerling, Keith G; Shoptaw, Steven; Ling, Walter

    2015-12-01

    The combination of prescription opioid dependence and chronic pain is increasingly prevalent and hazardous to public health. Variability in pain may explain poor prescription opioid addiction treatment outcomes in persons with chronic pain. This study examined pain trajectories and pain volatility in patients with chronic pain receiving treatment for prescription opioid addiction. We conducted secondary analyses of adults with chronic pain (n = 149) who received buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NLX) and counseling for 12 weeks in an outpatient, multisite clinical trial. Good treatment outcome was defined as urine-verified abstinence from opioids at treatment endpoint (Week 12) and during at least 2 of the previous 3 weeks. Pain severity significantly declined over time during treatment (b = -0.36, p < .001). Patients with greater pain volatility were less likely to have a good treatment outcome (odds ratio = 0.55, p < .05), controlling for baseline pain severity and rate of change in pain over time. A 1 standard deviation increase in pain volatility was associated with a 44% reduction in the probability of endpoint abstinence. The significant reduction in subjective pain during treatment provides observational support for the analgesic effects of BUP/NLX in patients with chronic pain and opioid dependence. Patients with greater volatility in subjective pain during treatment have increased risk of returning to opioid use by the conclusion of an intensive treatment with BUP/NLX and counseling. Future research should examine underlying mechanisms of pain volatility and identify related therapeutic targets to optimize interventions for prescription opioid addiction and co-occurring chronic pain. PMID:26302337

  7. Elevated Pain Sensitivity in Chronic Pain Patients at Risk for Opioid Misuse

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Robert R.; Wasan, Ajay D.; Michna, Ed; Greenbaum, Seth; Ross, Ed; Jamison, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    This study employed quantitative sensory testing (QST) to evaluate pain responses in chronic spinal pain patients at low risk and high risk for opioid misuse, with risk classification based on scores on the Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain-Revised (SOAPP-R). Patients were further sub-grouped according to current use of prescription opioids. Of the 276 chronic pain patients tested, approximately 65% were taking opioids; a median split was used to further categorize these patients as being on lower or higher doses of opioids. The highrisk group (n= 161) reported higher levels of clinical pain, had lower pressure and thermal pain thresholds at multiple body sites, had lower heat pain tolerance, and rated repetitive mechanical stimuli as more painful relative to the low-risk group (n= 115; p’s< .01). In contrast, QST measures did not differ across opioid groups. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested that indices of pain-related distress (i.e., anxiety and catastrophizing about pain) were also predictive of hyperalgesia, particularly in patients taking opioids. Collectively, regardless of opioid status, the high-risk group was hyperalgesic relative to the low-risk group; future opioid treatment studies may benefit from the classification of opioid risk, and the examination of pain sensitivity and other factors that differentiate high- and low-risk groups. PMID:21680252

  8. Assessment of patient pain in the postoperative context.

    PubMed

    Manias, Elizabeth; Bucknall, Tracey; Botti, Mari

    2004-11-01

    Because of its subjective nature, the assessment of pain requires the use of comprehensive practices that accurately reflect a patient's experiences of pain. The purpose of this study was to determine how nurses make decisions in their assessment of patients' pain in the postoperative clinical setting. An observational design was chosen as the means of examining pain activities in two surgical units of a metropolitan teaching hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Six fixed observation times were selected. Each 2-hour observation period was examined 12 times thus resulting in 74 observations. In total, 316 pain activities were determined. Five themes relating to assessment were identified from the data analysis: simple questioning, use of a pain scale, complex assessment, the lack of pain assessment, and physical examination for pain. The study identified how nurses' prioritization of work demands created barriers in conducting timely and comprehensive pain assessment decisions. PMID:15466612

  9. Foot massage: effectiveness on postoperative pain in breast surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Ucuzal, Meral; Kanan, Nevin

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of foot massage on pain after breast surgery, and provide guidance for nurses in nonpharmacologic interventions for pain relief. This was a quasiexperimental study with a total of 70 patients who had undergone breast surgery (35 in the experimental group and 35 in the control group). Patients in the control group received only analgesic treatment, whereas those in the experimental group received foot massage in addition to analgesic treatment. Patients received the first dose of analgesics during surgery. As soon as patients came from the operating room, they were evaluated for pain severity. Patients whose pain severity scored ≥4 according to the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire were accepted into the study. In the experimental group, pain and vital signs (arterial blood pressure, pulse, and respiration) were evaluated before foot massage at the time patients complained about pain (time 0) and then 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after foot massage. In the control group, pain and vital signs were also evaluated when the patients complained about pain (time 0) and again at 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes, in sync with the times when foot massage was completed in the experimental group. A patient information form was used to collect descriptive characteristics data of the patients, and the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire was used to determine pain severity. Data were analyzed for frequencies, mean, standard deviation, chi-square, Student t, Pillai trace, and Bonferroni test. The results of the statistical analyses showed that patients in the experimental group experienced significantly less pain (p ≤ .001). Especially notable, patients in the experimental group showed a decrease in all vital signs 5 minutes after foot massage, but patients in the control group showed increases in vital signs except for heart rate at 5 minutes. The data obtained showed that foot massage in breast surgery patients was

  10. [Need of risk reevaluation in morphine dependence in pain patients].

    PubMed

    Boureau, F; Luu, M; Koskas-Sergent, A S; Doubrere, J F

    1992-11-01

    It is commonly recognized than opioids analgesics have an major place in the treatment of pain. In spite of guidelines, opioids drugs remain underutilized in chronic cancer pain and acute severe pain. Among the possible factors, involved in the insufficient use of opioids drugs, is the fear (opiophoby) of physicians, nurses, patients and family to induce or to maintain an addiction. This review examines the potential of iatrogenic addiction. We will examined the place of morphine-like drugs in the treatment of severe acute pain and chronic cancer pain, the definition of dependency in pain patients, the assessment of the dependency potential in patients treated for pain. Available studies indicate that iatrogenic addiction is quite scarce and that the risk for a major tolerance is very small. Further studies will be necessary, since opioids analgesics may also be useful in some non-cancer chronic pain. PMID:1363796

  11. Fear of pain and movement in a patient with musculoskeletal chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Raudenska, Jaroslava; Javurkova, Alena; Kozak, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Pain-related fear may pose a serious barrier in the management of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, resulting in severe functional impairment in many cases. The paper describes the cognitive-behavioural therapy of a patient with a specific phobia (fear of pain and movement). The principal objective of the therapy was to educate the patient in strategies and skills to manage his fear and to verify the effect of the therapy. Both group and individual therapy was used. Group multimodal therapy of pain was provided by an interdisciplinary team of health care providers, specialising in pain management (psychotherapist, doctors and physiotherapists). The programme was based on operant therapy principles and included pacing and graded exercising and walking, relaxation, group education about ergonomics, and fear and pain relapse prevention. Reduction in the fear of pain and movement was achieved, and social bonds and physical and social activities improved after the psychotherapy, while the results were stable for two years. PMID:24378448

  12. Pain management among medical in-patients in Blantyre, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Muula, Adamson S; Misiri, Humphreys E

    2009-01-01

    Background Pain is a leading symptom which influences patients to seek medical attention. The management of pain among patients attending in-patient care in southern African countries has been little described. Information regarding the prevalence of pain and the quality of its management may be useful in guiding clinical decisions, training of health workers and health care quality improvements. Methods A hospital-based audit was conducted to estimate the prevalence of pain and examine the quality of its management among patients admitted to adult medical wards at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH), Blantyre, Malawi in 2004. Data were abstracted from ward charts of consecutive patients' who had been either been discharged or had died within a specified period. Characteristics of interest included; socio-demographic data, presence or absence of pain at admission, characterization or description of pain when present, and drug treatment given. Data were analyzed to obtain frequencies and proportions of the characteristics and assess the prevalence of pain and quality of care. Results A total of 121 patients' case notes were reviewed and the prevalence of pain was recorded for 91 (75.2%) of the patients. Clinicians had recorded pertinent information regarding pain management with the following frequency: pain severity or intensity 5/91 (5.5%), alleviating factors 5 (5.5%), pain radiation 7 (7.7%), exacerbating factors in 9 (9.9%) and periodicity in 43 (47.3%) of the cases. Males with pain were more than 3 times more likely to receive analgesic as compared to females, p < 0.01. Paracetamol was the commonest analgesic prescribed. Conclusion Inadequate management of pain among patients attending medical wards at QECH was found. There is need for prospective studies to further characterize pain management and identify pain management gaps in Malawi. Interviews of clinicians and documentation of observations within clinical practice are likely to be of value. PMID

  13. Prediction of pain in orthodontic patients based on preoperative pain assessment

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Baoyu; Ren, Manman; Lin, Feiou; Yao, Linjie

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether pretreatment assessment of experimental pain can predict the level of pain after archwire placement. Methods One hundred and twenty-one general university students seeking orthodontic treatment were enrolled in this study. A cold pressor test was performed to estimate the pain tolerance of subjects before treatment. Self-reported pain intensity was calculated using a 10 cm visual analog scale during the 7 days after treatment. The relationship between pain tolerance and orthodontic pain was analyzed using Spearman’s correlation analysis. Results The maximum mean level of pain intensity occurred at 24 hours after bonding (53.31±16.13) and fell to normal levels at day 7. Spearman’s correlation analysis found a moderate positive association between preoperative pain tolerance and self-reported pain after archwire placement (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in pain intensity between male and female patients at any time point (P>0.05). Conclusion A simple and noninvasive preoperative sensory test (the cold pressor test) was useful in predicting the risk of developing unbearable pain in patients after archwire placement. Self-reported pain after archwire placement decreased as individual pain tolerance increased. PMID:27042019

  14. Pain experience and satisfaction with postoperative pain control among surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Pathmawathi; Ramasamy, Suguna; Ng, Kwan Hoong; Chinna, Karuthan; Rosli, Roshaslina

    2016-06-01

    Alleviating acute pain and providing pain relief are central to caring for surgical patients as pain can lead to many adverse medical consequences. This study aimed to explore patients' experience of pain and satisfaction with postoperative pain control. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 107 respondents who had undergone abdominal surgery in the surgical ward of an urban hospital using the Revised American Pain Society's Patient Outcome and Satisfaction Survey Questionnaires (APS-POQ-R). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Chi-square test showed significant association between race (P = 0.038), education level (P ≤ 0.001), previous operation status (P = 0.032) and operation status (P ≤ 0.001). Further analysis on nominal regression, association between dissatisfaction with factors of operation status (46.09 (95% CI 7.456, 284.947)) and previous operation status (13.38 (95% CI 1.39, 128.74)) was found to be significant. Moderate to high levels of pain intensity in the last 24 h after surgery, as well as moderate to high rates of pain-related interference with care activities were most reported. Pain still remains an issue among surgical patients, and effective pain management and health education are needed to manage pain more effectively after surgery. PMID:25355297

  15. Pain in the cancer patient: different pain characteristics CHANGE pharmacological treatment requirements.

    PubMed

    Müller-Schwefe, Gerhard; Ahlbeck, Karsten; Aldington, Dominic; Alon, Eli; Coaccioli, Stefano; Coluzzi, Flaminia; Huygen, Frank; Jaksch, Wolfgang; Kalso, Eija; Kocot-Kępska, Magdalena; Kress, Hans-Georg; Mangas, Ana Cristina; Ferri, Cesar Margarit; Morlion, Bart; Nicolaou, Andrew; Hernández, Concepción Pérez; Pergolizzi, Joseph; Schäfer, Michael; Sichère, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Twenty years ago, the main barriers to successful cancer pain management were poor assessment by physicians, and patients' reluctance to report pain and take opioids. Those barriers are almost exactly the same today. Cancer pain remains under-treated; in Europe, almost three-quarters of cancer patients experience pain, and almost a quarter of those with moderate to severe pain do not receive any analgesic medication. Yet it has been suggested that pain management could be improved simply by ensuring that every consultation includes the patient's rating of pain, that the physician pays attention to this rating, and a plan is agreed to increase analgesia when it is inadequate. After outlining current concepts of carcinogenesis in some detail, this paper describes different methods of classifying and diagnosing cancer pain and the extent of current under-treatment. Key points are made regarding cancer pain management. Firstly, the pain may be caused by multiple different mechanisms and therapy should reflect those underlying mechanisms - rather than being simply based on pain intensity as recommended by the WHO three-step ladder. Secondly, a multidisciplinary approach is required which combines both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment, such as psychotherapy, exercise therapy and electrostimulation. The choice of analgesic agent and its route of administration are considered, along with various interventional procedures and the requirements of palliative care. Special attention is paid to the treatment of breakthrough pain (particularly with fast-acting fentanyl formulations, which have pharmacokinetic profiles that closely match those of breakthrough pain episodes) and chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain, which affects around one third of patients who receive chemotherapy. Finally, the point is made that medical education should place a greater emphasis on pain therapy, both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. PMID:24841174

  16. Quality of Life in Cancer Patients with Pain in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ping; Sun, Li-qiu; Pang, Dong

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the quality of life (QOL) of cancer pain patients in Beijing, and explore the effect of cancer pain control on patients’ QOL. Methods Self-developed demographic questionnaire, numeric rating scale and SF-36 questionnaire were used together among 643 cancer pain patients in 28 Grade 2nd to 3rd general hospitals and 2 Grade 3rd cancer hospitals. Results The SF-36 eight dimensions scores ranged from 31.75 to 57.22 in these cancer pain patients. The t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to compare the QOL between pain controlled (PC) group and pain uncontrolled (PUC) group, and the results showed that patients in PC group had the higher QOL scores in 6 areas of SF-36 (P<0.05). Binary logistic regression results found that pain management satisfaction scores (P<0.001), family average personal monthly income (P=0.029), current receiving chemotherapy (P=0.009) and cancer stage (P<0.001) were the predictors to cancer pain controlled results. Conclusion Cancer patients with pain in Beijing had poor QOL. Pain control will improve the QOL of cancer pain patients. PMID:23359351

  17. Pathogenesis and clinical aspects of pain in patients with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Mediati, Rocco Domenico; Vellucci, Renato; Dodaro, Lucia

    2014-09-01

    Bone pain is one of the most frequent kinds of chronic pain, mainly in elderly patients. It causes a significant worsening of functional capacity and deterioration in the quality of life in people affected. Mechanisms of pain in osteoporosis are poorly known and often extrapolated by other pathologies or other experimental model. One of principal causes would be a "hyper-remodeling" of bone, that involves osteoclasts activity and pathological modifications of bone innervation. Several studies show that osteoclasts play a significant role in bone pain etiology. Pain in osteoporosis is mainly nociceptive, if it become persistent a sensitization of peripheral and central nervous system can occur, so underlining the transition to a chronic pain syndrome. Central sensitization mechanisms are complex and involve several neuromediators and receptors (Substance P, NMDA, etc.). Most common manifestations of osteoporosis are vertebral compression fractures that cause persistent pain, though to differentiate from pain originating in structures as joint or muscle. First manifestation can be an acute pain due to pathological fracture, those of hip often causes disability. Pain in osteoporosis is an important clinical challenge. Often its complications and consequences on patient quality of life are underestimated with not negligible social implications. A balanced and early multimodal pain therapy including opioids as necessary, even in cases of acute pain, improve the functional capacity of patients and helps to prevent neurological alterations that seems to contribute in significant way in causing irreversible pain chronic syndromes. PMID:25568647

  18. Biopsychosocial Approach to Assessing and Managing Patients with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Cheatle, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain affects nearly one-third of the American population. Chronic pain can lead to a variety of problems for a pain sufferer, including developing secondary medical problems, depression, functional and vocational disability, opioid abuse and suicide. Current pain care models are deficient in providing a necessary comprehensive approach. Most patients with chronic pain are managed by primary care clinicians who are typically ill prepared to effectively and efficiently manage these cases. A biopsychosocial approach to evaluate and treat chronic pain is clinically and economically efficacious, but unique delivery systems are required to meet the challenge of access to specialty care. PMID:26614718

  19. Pain sensitivity and tactile spatial acuity are altered in healthy musicians as in chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Zamorano, Anna M.; Riquelme, Inmaculada; Kleber, Boris; Altenmüller, Eckart; Hatem, Samar M.; Montoya, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements, as it occurs in professional classical musicians, may lead to changes in tactile sensitivity and corresponding cortical reorganization of somatosensory cortices. It is also known that professional musicians frequently experience musculoskeletal pain and pain-related symptoms during their careers. The present study aimed at understanding the complex interaction between chronic pain and music training with respect to somatosensory processing. For this purpose, tactile thresholds (mechanical detection, grating orientation, two-point discrimination) and subjective ratings to thermal and pressure pain stimuli were assessed in 17 professional musicians with chronic pain, 30 pain-free musicians, 20 non-musicians with chronic pain, and 18 pain-free non-musicians. We found that pain-free musicians displayed greater touch sensitivity (i.e., lower mechanical detection thresholds), lower tactile spatial acuity (i.e., higher grating orientation thresholds) and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. Moreover, we also found that musicians and non-musicians with chronic pain presented lower tactile spatial acuity and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. The significant increment of pain sensitivity together with decreased spatial discrimination in pain-free musicians and the similarity of results found in chronic pain patients, suggests that the extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements in classical musicians could be considered as a risk factor for developing chronic pain, probably due to use-dependent plastic changes elicited in somatosensory pathways. PMID:25610384

  20. Pain catastrophizing predicts poor response to topical analgesics in patients with neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Mankovsky, Tsipora; Lynch, Mary E; Clark, AJ; Sawynok, J; Sullivan, Michael JL

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that high levels of pain catastrophizing might predict poorer response to pharmacological interventions for neuropathic pain. OBJECTIVE: The present study sought to examine the clinical relevance of the relation between catastrophizing and analgesic response in individuals with neuropathic pain. Clinically meaningful reductions were defined in terms of the magnitude of reductions in pain through the course of treatment, and in terms of the number of patients whose end-of-treatment pain ratings were below 4/10. METHODS: Patients (n=82) with neuropathic pain conditions completed a measure of pain catastrophizing at the beginning of a three-week trial examining the efficacy of topical analgesics for neuropathic pain. RESULTS: Consistent with previous research, high scores on the measure of pain catastrophizing prospectively predicted poorer response to treatment. Fewer catastrophizers than noncatastrophizers showed moderate (≥2 points) or substantial reductions in pain ratings through the course of treatment. Fewer catastrophizers than noncatastrophizers achieved end-of-treatment pain ratings below 4/10. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study suggest that the development of brief interventions specifically targeting catastrophic thinking might be useful for enhancing the effects of pharmacological interventions for neuropathic pain. Furthermore, failure to account for the level of catastrophizing might contribute to null findings in clinical trials of analgesic medication. PMID:22518362

  1. Coping in Chest Pain Patients with and without Psychiatric Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaliano, Peter P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relations between psychiatric disorder and coronary heart disease (CHD) in 77 patients with chest pain, and compared coping profiles of chest pain patients with and without psychiatric disorders and CHD. Psychiatric patients with no medical disease were also studied. Results are discussed in the context of illness behavior and…

  2. Mood spectrum in patients with different painful temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, Daniele; di Poggio, Adolfo Bandettini; Romagnoli, Mario; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Bosco, Mario

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate for difference in the prevalence of mood disorders between patients with different painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD). After a sample size necessary for the study was calculated, 60 patients with a painful TMD were selected and divided into the following groups: myofascial pain (n=20), temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain (n=18), combined myofascial and TMJ pain (n=22). Two distinct comparison groups were selected: subjects with a nonpainful TMD (n=25) and TMD-free subjects (n=29). All participants filled out a self-report validated instrument (MOODS-SR) to evaluate psychopathological symptoms related to mood disturbances. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni's post hoc test for multiple comparisons was performed to investigate for significant differences among the groups. The three groups of patients with painful TMD scored significantly higher than comparison groups in all MOODS-SR domains investigating depression, but no difference was shown between subjects with myofascial pain and those with TMJ pain. No significant differences among the groups emerged for the presence of manic symptoms, indicating that depressive disorders associated with TMD are not an expression of a more complex manic depressive illness. The study concluded that the presence of depressive symptoms in TMD patients seems to be related to the presence of a painful condition and seems to be unrelated to the location of pain. Furthermore, depressive disturbances in painful TMD patients affect the whole spectrum of depressive psychopathology. PMID:15293779

  3. Pain assessment and management strategies for elderly patients.

    PubMed

    MacSorley, Robyn; White, Jill; Conerly, Vicki H; Walker, Jean T; Lofton, Susan; Ragland, Gaye; Davey, DeBrynda; Robertson, Amy

    2014-05-01

    Home healthcare nurses play a critical role in pain assessment and management in elderly patients. People 65 years of age and older are the largest consumers of prescription and nonprescription pain medications in the United States and are at increased risk for adverse reactions and inadequate pain management. This article seeks to explore strategies to assist hospice and home healthcare nurses in assessing and managing elderly patients' pain. The goal is to provide tools to assist nurses in streamlining elderly patient care and improving quality of life while decreasing mortality and morbidity for this patient population. PMID:24802598

  4. Clinical biopsychosocial physiotherapy assessment of patients with chronic pain: The first step in pain neuroscience education.

    PubMed

    Wijma, Amarins J; van Wilgen, C Paul; Meeus, Mira; Nijs, Jo

    2016-07-01

    Pain neuroscience education (PNE) is increasingly used as part of a physical therapy treatment in patients with chronic pain. A thorough clinical biopsychosocial assessment is recommended prior to PNE to allow proper explanation of the neurophysiology of pain and the biopsychosocial interactions in an interactive and patient-centered manner. However, without clear guidelines, clinicians are left wondering how a biopsychosocial assessment should be administered. Therefore, we provided a practical guide, based on scientific research and clinical experience, for the biopsychosocial assessment of patients with chronic pain in physiotherapy practice. The purpose of this article is to describe the use of the Pain - Somatic factors - Cognitive factors - Emotional factors - Behavioral factors - Social factors - Motivation - model (PSCEBSM-model) during the intake, as well as a pain analysis sheet. This model attempts to clearly establish what the dominant pain mechanism is (predominant nociceptive, neuropathic, or non-neuropathic central sensitization pain), as well as to assess the provoking and perpetuating biopsychosocial factors in patients with chronic pain. Using this approach allows the clinician to specifically classify patients and tailor the plan of care, including PNE, to individual patients. PMID:27351769

  5. Pain and Agitation Management in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Julie; Wright, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Pain and agitation may be difficult to assess in a critically ill patient. Pain is best assessed by self-reporting pain scales; but in patients who are unable to communicate, behavioral pain scales seem to have benefit. Patients' sedation level should be assessed each shift and preferably by a validated ICU tool, such as the RASS or SAS scale. Pain is most appropriately treated with the use of opiates, and careful consideration should be given to the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of various analgesics to determine the optimal agent for each individual patient. Sedation levels should preferably remain light or with the use of a daily awakening trial. Preferred treatment of agitation is analgosedation with the addition of nonbenzodiazepine sedatives if necessary. There are risks associated with each agent used in the treatment of pain and agitation, and it is important to monitor patients for effectiveness, signs of toxicity, and adverse drug reactions. PMID:26897427

  6. Clinical values of control over pain and pain coping strategies in surgical treatment for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Control over pain and pain coping strategies are associated with pain intensity as well as psychological status and subjective disability in patients experiencing pain. The present study assessed the clinical values of control over pain and pain coping strategies in surgical treatment for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis using mediation analysis. Methods Sixty-two patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (median age, 70 years; 34 men, 28 women) were evaluated before surgery. The pain intensity and area, psychological status/subjective disability (Japanese Orthopaedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire), and control over pain/pain coping strategies (Coping Strategies Questionnaire) were assessed. Mediation analysis, which consisted of serial regression analyses, mainly tested whether (1) control over pain/pain coping strategies were predicted by pain characteristics and (2) control over pain/pain coping strategies predicted psychological status/subjective disability after controlling for pain characteristics. Results Control over pain was predicted by pain intensity (regression coefficient, -0.33; p = 0.01); moreover, it predicted walking ability (standardized partial regression coefficient, 0.31; p = 0.01) and social function (0.38; p = 0.00) after controlling for pain intensity. Although increasing activity level, one pain coping strategy, was predicted by pain intensity (regression coefficient, -0.30; p = 0.02), it did not predict walking ability (standardized partial regression coefficient, 0.07; p = 0.53) or social function (0.13; p = 0.33) when considering pain intensity. Conclusions In this cohort, mediation analysis demonstrated that pain intensity did not directly affect perceived walking ability or social function, but did affect control over pain; moreover, control over pain affected walking ability and social function. Clinical relevance These findings are useful for a deep understanding of the relationships between pain and

  7. Pain in Hospice Patients With Dementia: The Informal Caregiver Experience

    PubMed Central

    Tarter, Robin; Demiris, George; Pike, Kenneth; Washington, Karla; Oliver, Debra Parker

    2016-01-01

    Introduction At the end of life, patients with dementia often experience high levels of pain due to complex interplay of disease processes and numerous barriers to symptom management. In the hospice setting, informal caregivers play an essential role in pain management. This study describes their experience managing pain in hospice patients with dementia. Methods We conducted a qualitative analysis of audio-recorded interviews with informal caregivers of hospice patients with dementia who had chosen pain as the challenge they wanted to work on within a problem-solving therapy intervention. Results The thematic analysis of sessions with 51 caregivers identified 4 themes: difficulty in communicating with patients, lack of consistent guidance from health-care professionals, perceived uncertainty about the etiology of pain, and secondary suffering. Discussion Our findings indicate the possible need for increased support for caregivers, including educational interventions targeting pain etiology and assessment, and improved communication with health-care professionals. PMID:27303062

  8. Medical-legal issues regarding patients with low back pain.

    PubMed

    Nokes, Shari Elizabeth; Nokes, Beau James

    2012-09-01

    Low back pain can present legal issues that require input from the patient's treating physicians. Because low back pain can lead to partial or complete disability, either on a short-term or long-term basis, patients may be unable to earn a living, which may make it necessary for patients to seek government aid, personal insurance benefits, or insurance benefits through workers compensation or even, when the low back pain was caused by an incident that was the fault of a third party, through a personal injury claim lawsuit. This article reviews the legal issues relevant to low back pain. PMID:22958567

  9. Virtual reality as a distraction technique in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures. PMID:24892196

  10. Virtual Reality as a Distraction Technique in Chronic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures. PMID:24892196

  11. Pain Symptoms in Fibromyalgia Patients with and without Provoked Vulvodynia.

    PubMed

    Ghizzani, Anna; Di Sabatino, Valentina; Suman, Anna Lisa; Biasi, Giovanni; Santarcangelo, Enrica Laura; Carli, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study was to compare the pain symptoms of fibromyalgia patients exhibiting (FMS+PVD) and not exhibiting (FMS) comorbidity with provoked vulvodynia. Study Design. The case control study was performed in 39 patients who had been diagnosed with FMS and accepted to undergo gynaecological examination and in 36 healthy women (C). All patients completed standardized questionnaires for pain intensity, pain area, and psychological functioning. The gynaecological examination included vulvar pain pressure reactivity (Q-tip), pelvic tone assessment (Kegel manoeuver), and a semistructured interview collecting detailed information about pelvic symptoms and sexual function. Results. FMS+PVD patients displayed a higher number of associated symptoms than FMS patients. The vulvar excitability was significantly higher in FMS+PVD than in FMS and in both groups than in Controls. Half of FMS+PVD patients were positive to Kegel manoeuver and displayed higher scores in widespread pain intensity, STAI-Y2, and CESD levels than Kegel negative patients. Conclusions. The study reveals that increased vulvar pain excitability may occur in FMS patients independently of the presence of coital pain. Results suggest that coital pain develops in patients with higher FMS symptoms severity due to the cooperative effects of peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms. PMID:24624294

  12. Neuropathic Pain Components in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    An, Howard S; Moon, Seong Hwan; Lee, Hwan Mo; Suh, Seung Woo; Chen, Ding; Jeon, Jin Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence and characteristics of neuropathic pain (NP) in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) according to subgroup analysis of symptoms. Materials and Methods We prospectively enrolled subjects with LSS (n=86) who were scheduled to undergo spinal surgery. The patients were divided into two groups according to a chief complaint of radicular pain or neurogenic claudication. We measured patient's pain score using the visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Leads Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS). According to LANSS value, the prevalence of NP component pain in patients with LSS was assessed. Statistical analysis was performed to find the relationship between LANSS scores and the other scores. Results From our sample of 86 patients, 31 (36.0%) had a NP component, with 24 (63.4%) in the radicular pain group having NP. However, only seven patients (15.6%) in the neurogenic claudication group had NP. The LANSS pain score was not significantly correlated with VAS scores for back pain, but did correlate with VAS scores for leg pain (R=0.73, p<0.001) and with ODI back pain scores (R=0.54, p<0.01). Conclusion One-third of the patients with LSS had a NP component. The presence of radicular pain correlated strongly with NP. The severity of leg pain and ODI score were also closely related to a NP component. This data may prove useful to understanding the pain characteristics of LSS and in better designing clinical trials for NP treatment in patients with LSS. PMID:26069129

  13. Listening is therapy: Patient interviewing from a pain science perspective.

    PubMed

    Diener, Ina; Kargela, Mark; Louw, Adriaan

    2016-07-01

    The interview of a patient attending physical therapy is the cornerstone of the physical examination, diagnosis, plan of care, prognosis, and overall efficacy of the therapeutic experience. A thorough, skilled interview drives the objective tests and measures chosen, as well as provides context for the interpretation of those tests and measures, during the physical examination. Information from the interview powerfully influences the treatment modalities chosen by the physical therapist (PT) and thus also impacts the overall outcome and prognosis of the therapy sessions. Traditional physical therapy focuses heavily on biomedical information to educate people about their pain, and this predominant model focusing on anatomy, biomechanics, and pathoanatomy permeates the interview and physical examination. Although this model may have a significant effect on people with acute, sub-acute or postoperative pain, this type of examination may not only gather insufficient information regarding the pain experience and suffering, but negatively impact a patient's pain experience. In recent years, physical therapy treatment for pain has increasingly focused on pain science education, with increasing evidence of pain science education positively affecting pain, disability, pain catastrophization, movement limitations, and overall healthcare cost. In line with the ever-increasing focus of pain science in physical therapy, it is time for the examination, both subjective and objective, to embrace a biopsychosocial approach beyond the realm of only a biomedical approach. A patient interview is far more than "just" collecting information. It also is a critical component to establishing an alliance with a patient and a fundamental first step in therapeutic neuroscience education (TNE) for patients in pain. This article highlights the interview process focusing on a pain science perspective as it relates to screening patients, establishing psychosocial barriers to improvement, and pain

  14. Psychiatric Morbidity, Pain Perception, and Functional Status of Chronic Pain Patients in Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Rajmohan, V; Kumar, Suresh K

    2013-01-01

    Context: Psychological factors, such as that exist when we experience pain, can profoundly alter the strength of pain perception. Aim: The study aims to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, and its association with perception of pain and functional status in chronic patients in palliative care. Materials and Methods: The sample was selected via simple randomisation and post consent were assessed using (1) a semi- structured questionnaire to elicit socio-demographic information and medical data (2) Brief Pain Inventory (3) ICD-10 Symptom Checklist (4) ICD-10-Diagnostic Criteria for Research (DCR) (5) Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) (6) Covi Anxiety Rating Scale (7) Karnofsky Performance Status Scale. Data was analysed using independent sample t test and chi square test. Results: The psychiatric morbidity was 67% with depression and adjustment disorders being the major diagnosis. There was a significant association between psychiatric morbidity pain variables (P = 0.000). Psychiatric morbidity significantly impaired activity, mood, working, walk, sleep, relationship, and enjoyment. There was no association between aetiology of pain, type of cancer, treatment for primary condition and treatment for pain and psychiatric morbidity. The functional status of cancer patients was also poorer in patients with psychiatric morbidity (P = 0.008). Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of psychiatric illness in chronic pain patients of any aetiology. Psychiatric morbidity is associated with increased pain perception, impairment in activity and poor functional status. PMID:24347904

  15. Pain sensitivity profiles in patients with advanced knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Frey-Law, Laura A; Bohr, Nicole L; Sluka, Kathleen A; Herr, Keela; Clark, Charles R; Noiseux, Nicolas O; Callaghan, John J; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Rakel, Barbara A

    2016-09-01

    The development of patient profiles to subgroup individuals on a variety of variables has gained attention as a potential means to better inform clinical decision making. Patterns of pain sensitivity response specific to quantitative sensory testing (QST) modality have been demonstrated in healthy subjects. It has not been determined whether these patterns persist in a knee osteoarthritis population. In a sample of 218 participants, 19 QST measures along with pain, psychological factors, self-reported function, and quality of life were assessed before total knee arthroplasty. Component analysis was used to identify commonalities across the 19 QST assessments to produce standardized pain sensitivity factors. Cluster analysis then grouped individuals who exhibited similar patterns of standardized pain sensitivity component scores. The QST resulted in 4 pain sensitivity components: heat, punctate, temporal summation, and pressure. Cluster analysis resulted in 5 pain sensitivity profiles: a "low pressure pain" group, an "average pain" group, and 3 "high pain" sensitivity groups who were sensitive to different modalities (punctate, heat, and temporal summation). Pain and function differed between pain sensitivity profiles, along with sex distribution; however, no differences in osteoarthritis grade, medication use, or psychological traits were found. Residualizing QST data by age and sex resulted in similar components and pain sensitivity profiles. Furthermore, these profiles are surprisingly similar to those reported in healthy populations, which suggests that individual differences in pain sensitivity are a robust finding even in an older population with significant disease. PMID:27152688

  16. The accuracy of pain drawing in identifying psychological distress in low back pain—systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic studies

    PubMed Central

    Bertozzi, Lucia; Rosso, Anna; Romeo, Antonio; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Guccione, Andrew A.; Pillastrini, Paolo; Vanti, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the accuracy of qualitative pain drawings (PDs) in identifying psychological distress in subacute and chronic low back pain (LBP) patients. [Subjects and Methods] Data were obtained from searches of PubMed, EBSCO, Scopus, PsycINFO and ISI Web of Science from their inception to July 2014. Quality assessments of bias and applicability were conducted using the Quality of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2). [Results] The summary estimates were: sensitivity=0.45 (95% CI 0.34, 0.61), specificity=0.66 (95% CI 0.53, 0.82), positive likelihood ratio=1.23 (95% CI 0.93, 1.62), negative likelihood ratio=0.84 (95% CI 0.70, 1.01), and diagnostic odds ratio=1.46 (95% CI 0.79, 2.68). The area under the curve was 78% (CI, 57 to 99%). [Conclusion] The results of this systematic review do not show broad and unqualified support for the accuracy of PDs in detecting psychological distress in subacute and chronic LBP. PMID:26644701

  17. Affective instability in patients with chronic pain: a diary approach.

    PubMed

    Rost, Silke; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L; Koval, Peter; Sütterlin, Stefan; Vögele, Claus; Crombez, Geert

    2016-08-01

    Affective instability, conceptualized as fluctuations in mood over time, has been related to ill-health and psychopathology. In this study, we examined the role of affective instability on daily pain outcomes in 70 patients with chronic pain (Mage = 49.7 years; 46 females) using an end-of-day diary. During a baseline phase, patients completed self-reported questionnaires of pain severity, pain duration, disability, depression, and anxiety. During a subsequent diary phase, patients filled out an electronic end-of-day diary over 14 consecutive days assessing daily levels of pain severity, disability, cognitive complaints, negative affect (NA) and positive affect. Affective instability was operationalized as the mean square of successive differences in daily mood (separately for NA and positive affect), which takes into account the size of affective changes over consecutive days. Results indicated that NA instability was positively associated with daily disability, beyond the effects of daily pain severity. Furthermore, NA instability moderated the relationship between daily pain severity and daily disability and the relationship between daily pain severity and daily cognitive complaints. Positive affect instability, however, showed to be unrelated to all outcomes. Current findings extend previous results and reveal the putative role of affective instability on pain-related outcomes and may yield important clinical implications. Indeed, they suggest that targeting NA instability by improving emotion regulation skills may be a strategy to diminish disability and cognitive complaints in patients with chronic pain. PMID:27075427

  18. Arthroscopic findings in patients with painful wrist ganglia.

    PubMed

    Povlsen, B; Peckett, W R

    2001-09-01

    The aetiology of painful dorsal wrist ganglia remains obscure. In a prospective study we investigated the link between a painful dorsal wrist ganglion and wrist joint abnormality with wrist arthroscopy before excision of the ganglion. Of 16 wrists arthroscoped 12 were abnormal, 10 had an abnormal scapholunate joint, and two had abnormal lunatetriquetral joints. We think that painful dorsal wrist ganglia, like popliteal cysts in the knee, are markers of underlying joint abnormalities. Surgeons who treat painful ganglia should be aware of a possible underlying cause so that they can target treatment more accurately, particularly in recurrent cases and those patients with persistent wrist pain after excision of the ganglion. PMID:11680404

  19. Patient perception of pain vs. observed pain behavior during a standardized electrodiagnostic test

    PubMed Central

    Verson, Josh; Haig, Andrew J.; Sandella, Danielle; Yamakawa, Karen S.J.; London, Zachary; Tomkins-Lane, Christy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Clinicians often assume that observations of pain behavior are adequate for assessment of patient pain perception during procedures. This has not been tested during a standardized electrodiagnostic experience. Methods During a prospective trial including extensive, standardized electrodiagnostic testing on persons with lumbar stenosis, vascular claudication, and asymptomatic volunteers, the subjects and an observer rated levels of pain. Results In 60 subjects, observers significantly under-rated pain (Visual analog scale 3.17 ± 2.23 vs. 4.38 ± 2.01, t = -4.577, df = 59, P < 0.001). Perceived pain during testing related to bodily pain as measured by the visual analog scale, McGill, Pain Disability, and Quebec scales, but not age, duration of symptoms, Tampa kinesiphobia, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, or SF-36 health quality of life. Discussion Persons with worse pain syndromes may perceive more pain during testing than others. Clinicians and researchers need to understand that patients may have more pain than they recognize. PMID:24895249

  20. Brain activations during pain: a neuroimaging meta-analysis of patients with pain and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Karin B; Regenbogen, Christina; Ohse, Margarete C; Frasnelli, Johannes; Freiherr, Jessica; Lundström, Johan N

    2016-06-01

    In response to recent publications from pain neuroimaging experiments, there has been a debate about the existence of a primary pain region in the brain. Yet, there are few meta-analyses providing assessments of the minimum cerebral denominators of pain. Here, we used a statistical meta-analysis method, called activation likelihood estimation, to define (1) core brain regions activated by pain per se, irrelevant of pain modality, paradigm, or participants and (2) activation likelihood estimation commonalities and differences between patients with chronic pain and healthy individuals. A subtraction analysis of 138 independent data sets revealed that the minimum denominator for activation across pain modalities and paradigms included the right insula, secondary sensory cortex, and right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Common activations for healthy subjects and patients with pain alike included the thalamus, ACC, insula, and cerebellum. A comparative analysis revealed that healthy individuals were more likely to activate the cingulum, thalamus, and insula. Our results point toward the central role of the insular cortex and ACC in pain processing, irrelevant of modality, body part, or clinical experience; thus, furthering the importance of ACC and insular activation as key regions for the human experience of pain. PMID:26871535

  1. Caring for patients with chronic pain: pearls and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Debono, David J; Hoeksema, Laura J; Hobbs, Raymond D

    2013-08-01

    Chronic, nonmalignant pain is a substantial public health problem in the United States. Research over the past 2 decades has defined chronic pain by using a "biopsychosocial model" that considers a patient's biology and psychological makeup in the context of his or her social and cultural milieu. Whereas this model addresses the pathology of chronic pain, it also places many demands on the physician, who is expected to assess and manage chronic pain safely and successfully. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that opioids can be effective in the management of chronic pain, but there has also been a rise in opioid-related overdoses and deaths. Clinicians should be aware of assessment tools that may be used to evaluate the risk of opioid abuse. A basic understanding of chronic pain pathophysiology and a uniform approach to patient care can satisfy the needs of both patients and physicians. PMID:23918913

  2. Effects of coping statements on experimental pain in chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Roditi, Daniela; Robinson, Michael E; Litwins, Nola

    2009-01-01

    The present study measured the effects of catastrophizing self-statements and positive coping self-statements on cold pressor-induced pain. Participants were 58 adult chronic pain patients with current facial pain. It was hypothesized that catastrophizing would lead to a decrease in pain endurance whereas positive coping would lead to an increase in pain endurance. It was also hypothesized that catastrophizing would lead to an increase in peak pain intensity whereas positive coping would lead to a decrease in peak pain intensity. At pretest, participants submerged their nondominant hand in the cold pressor. Pain sensitivity ranges (PSR) were subsequently determined by calculating the difference between tolerance and threshold times. Ratings of peak pain intensity were measured using a pressure sensitive bladder/transducer. Participants underwent random assignment to either a catastrophizing group or a positive coping self-statement group. ANCOVA results revealed that on average, participants employing catastrophizing statements as a coping strategy experienced significantly lower PSR (M = 35.53, SD = 39.71) compared to participants employing positive coping self-statements (M = 73.70, SD = 86.14) when controlling for pretest PSR. Group assignment had no significant influence on peak pain intensity ratings. Thus, our results reveal that manipulation of coping causes changes in pain endurance. PMID:21197299

  3. Enhancing cancer pain control regimens through patient education.

    PubMed

    Rimer, B; Levy, M H; Keintz, M K; Fox, L; Engstrom, P F; MacElwee, N

    1987-12-01

    The problem of cancer-related pain afflicts millions of people annually. The study described here was aimed at improving cancer patients' pain control through a planned patient education program. A randomized clinical trial with a Solomon Four-Group design was used to assess the effectiveness of a patient education intervention consisting of nurse counseling and printed materials. The sample included 230 cancer patients. One month later, patients in the experimental group were more likely to have taken their pain medicine on the correct schedule and to have taken the correct dosage. The experimental group also was significantly less likely to report stopping the medicine when they felt better. In addition, they were significantly less worried about tolerance and addiction to pain medicines. Forty-four percent of the experimental group compared to 24% of the control group reported no or mild pain at the posttest. PMID:10315745

  4. Relieving patients' pain with expectation interventions: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Peerdeman, Kaya J; van Laarhoven, Antoinette I M; Keij, Sascha M; Vase, Lene; Rovers, Maroeska M; Peters, Madelon L; Evers, Andrea W M

    2016-06-01

    Patients' expectations are important predictors of the outcome of analgesic treatments, as demonstrated predominantly in research on placebo effects. Three commonly investigated interventions that have been found to induce expectations (verbal suggestion, conditioning, and mental imagery) entail promising, brief, and easy-to-implement adjunctive procedures for optimizing the effectiveness of analgesic treatments. However, evidence for their efficacy stems mostly from research on experimentally evoked pain in healthy samples, and these findings might not be directly transferable to clinical populations. The current meta-analysis investigated the effects of these expectation inductions on patients' pain relief. Five bibliographic databases were systematically searched for studies that assessed the effects of brief verbal suggestion, conditioning, or imagery interventions on pain in clinical populations, with patients experiencing experimental, acute procedural, or chronic pain, compared with no treatment or control treatment. Of the 15,955 studies retrieved, 30 met the inclusion criteria, of which 27 provided sufficient data for quantitative analyses. Overall, a medium-sized effect of the interventions on patients' pain relief was observed (Hedges g = 0.61, I = 73%), with varying effects of verbal suggestion (k = 18, g = 0.75), conditioning (always paired with verbal suggestion, k = 3, g = 0.65), and imagery (k = 6, g = 0.27). Subset analyses indicated medium to large effects on experimental and acute procedural pain and small effects on chronic pain. In conclusion, patients' pain can be relieved with expectation interventions; particularly, verbal suggestion for acute procedural pain was found to be effective. PMID:26945235

  5. Progress in Pain Assessment: The Cognitively Compromised Patient

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, C. Richard

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Pain assessment is essential for patient care in many settings, but it proves difficult when the patient is cognitively compromised or otherwise unable to produce a conventional pain report. This review describes progress in pain assessment technology that involves the coding of human facial expression. Recent findings It is possible to quantify facial expression by coding patterns of facial muscle contraction and relaxation. These patterns are action units, and they can gauge the intensity of pain as well as signal its occurrence. The experience of pain seems to generate a unique facial expression comprising several action units. Concerns have existed about whether demented patients produce diagnostically meaningful facial expressions of pain because they tend to generate more non-specific facial expressions and perhaps code pain intensity less well than normals. Recent work shows that facial expression reflects pain as well or better in demented patients compared to normals. Summary Although still nascent, coded facial expression appears to work reliably as a pain assessment tool with cognitively compromised patients. Clinical application awaits the development of technology that can automate facial coding and scoring. PMID:18784487

  6. Substance P and Acute Pain in Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lisowska, Barbara; Siewruk, Katarzyna; Lisowski, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is a limited information about the role of Substance P (SP) in acute pain nociception following surgical stimulation in patients with a chronic inflammatory state not to mention the link between this neuropeptide level changes and intensity of pain. The goal of the research was to find the correlation between SP level changes and acute pain intensity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis undergoing elective orthopedic surgery. Material and Methods Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were enrolled in the study. The correlation between acute pain intensity and concentration of SP in serum as well as in drainage fluid from postoperative wound was assessed in patients with RA who underwent Total Knee Replacement (TKA) under spinal anesthesia. Results In patients with RA a correlation between intensity of acute pain and serum SP was found postoperatively, whereas there was no correlation between intensity of acute pain and concentration of SP in drainage fluid. Conclusions 1. The correlation between acute pain intensity and SP serum concentration was found postoperatively in patients with RA. 2. The correlation between acute pain intensity and SP concentration in drainage fluid was not found postoperatively in patients with RA. PMID:26731421

  7. American Society for Pain Management Nursing Position Statement: Pain Management in Patients with Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, June; Coggins, Candace; Compton, Peggy; Hagan, Susan; Matteliano, Deborah; Stanton, Marsha; St. Marie, Barbara; Strobbe, Stephen; Turner, Helen N.

    2013-01-01

    The American Society for Pain Management Nursing (ASPMN) has updated its position statement on managing pain in patients with substance use disorders. This position statement is endorsed by the International Nurses Society on Addictions (IntNSA) and includes clinical practice recommendations based on current evidence. It is the position of ASPMN and IntNSA that every patient with pain, including those with substance use disorders, has the right to be treated with dignity, respect, and high quality pain assessment and management. Failure to identify and treat the concurrent conditions of pain and substance use disorders will compromise the ability to treat either condition effectively. Barriers to caring for these patients include stigmatization, misconceptions, and limited access to providers skilled in these two categories of disorders. Topics addressed in this position statement include the scope of substance use and related disorders, conceptual models of addiction, ethical considerations, addiction risk stratification, and clinical recommendations. PMID:22929604

  8. American Society for Pain Management Nursing Position Statement: Pain Management in Patients with Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, June; Coggins, Candace; Compton, Peggy; Hagan, Susan; Matteliano, Deborah; Stanton, Marsha; St. Marie, Barbara; Strobbe, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The American Society for Pain Management Nursing (ASPMN) has updated its position statement on managing pain in patients with substance use disorders. This position statement is endorsed by the International Nurses Society on Addictions (IntNSA) and includes clinical practice recommendations based on current evidence. It is the position of ASPMN and IntNSA that every patient with pain, including those with substance use disorders, has the right to be treated with dignity, respect, and high quality pain assessment and management. Failure to identify and treat the concurrent conditions of pain and substance use disorders will compromise the ability to treat either condition effectively. Barriers to caring for these patients include stigmatization, misconceptions, and limited access to providers skilled in these two categories of disorders. Topics addressed in this position statement include the scope of substance use and related disorders, conceptual models of addiction, ethical considerations, addiction risk stratification, and clinical recommendations. PMID:24335741

  9. Pain Patients and Their Partners: The Role of Collusion in Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delvey, Joseph, Jr.; Hopkins, Linda

    1982-01-01

    Uses the concept of collusion to explain the formation and persistence of patient-caretaker dyads which may help explain the role of family dynamics in cases of chronic pain. Suggests the caretaking role may be extreme and contibute to the maintenance of a chronic pain role. (Author/JAC)

  10. Intrathecal pain pumps: indications, patient selection, techniques, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bolash, Robert; Mekhail, Nagy

    2014-10-01

    Intrathecal drug delivery represents an advanced modality for refractory chronic pain patients as well as intractable spasticity. This article reviews the advantages and indications for intrathecal therapy, as well as recommendations for proper patient selection using a multidisciplinary team to provide a global assessment of the impact of chronic pain on the patient's well-being. The goals and expectations of trialing are discussed alongside advantages and disadvantages of several trialing techniques. A discussion of outcomes is presented for patients with chronic pain due to both malignant and nonmalignant causes. PMID:25240660

  11. Fentanyl sublingual spray for breakthrough pain in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zeppetella, Giovambattista

    2013-06-01

    Breakthrough pain is a transient exacerbation of pain that occurs either spontaneously, or in relation to a specific predictable or unpredictable trigger, despite relatively stable and adequately controlled background pain. Typically, breakthrough pain has a fast onset and short duration, and a significant impact on patients' quality of life. Normal-release oral opioids are the traditional pharmacological approach for patients who are receiving an around the clock opioid regimen; however, their onset and duration of action may not be suitable for treating many breakthrough pains. Efforts to provide nonparenteral opioid formulations that could provide more rapid, and more effective, relief of breakthrough pain have led to the development of transmucosal opioid formulations including fentanyl sublingual spray (FSLS). This is a formulation of fentanyl available in doses of 100, 200, 400, 600, and 800 μg strengths approved for the management of breakthrough pain in adult cancer patients already receiving and who are tolerant to opioid therapy for their underlying persistent cancer pain. Published pharmacokinetic, efficacy, tolerability, and safety data suggest that FSLS has a valuable role to play in the symptomatic pharmacological management of breakthrough pain. The effective dose of FSLS is determined by titration according to the needs of the individual patient. PMID:25135032

  12. A clinical contrast: physical therapists with low back pain treating patients with low back pain.

    PubMed

    Louw, Adriaan; Puentedura, Emilio J; Zimney, Kory

    2015-01-01

    Patients with low back pain (LBP) often display faulty beliefs and cognitions regarding their pain experience. Pain neuroscience education (PNE) aims to alter the pain experience by targeting these faulty beliefs and cognitions. One PNE strategy aims specifically to reframe commonly held beliefs about tissues by patients with LBP as the single source of pain. In line with this reasoning, it is hypothesized that physical therapists (PT) treating patients with LBP may indeed experience similar, if not worse, pain experiences while treating a patient with LBP. To date, this assumption has never been studied. A PT LBP questionnaire was developed, validated and distributed to a convenience sample of attendees of an international PT conference. One-hundred and ten PTs completed the questionnaire for a 71% response rate. Ninety percent of the PTs reported having experienced LBP, with 27% at the conference experiencing LBP at the time. Of the PTs that have experienced LBP 75% reported not having received any imaging; 81% no formal diagnoses, 58% no treatment and 86% not having missed work due to LBP. Eighty-six percent of therapists reported having experienced LBP while treating a patient with LBP, with 50% convinced their LBP was higher than the LBP experienced by the patient they were treating. The results from this study indicate PTs often treat patients with LBP while suffering LBP. It is suggested that this knowledge may potentially help patients with LBP reconceptualize their LBP experience leading to expedited recovery. PMID:26451623

  13. Opioid use behaviors, mental health and pain-Development of a typology of chronic pain patients*

    PubMed Central

    Banta-Green, Caleb J.; Merrill, Joseph O.; Doyle, Suzanne R.; Boudreau, Denise M.; Calsyn, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The intersection of pain, addiction and mental health has not been adequately described. We describe the roles of these three conditions in a chronic pain patient population using opioid analgesics. Aims were to improve our understanding of this population as well as to explore ways of identifying different types of patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a large integrated group medical practice in Washington State with persons using opioids chronically (n=704). Patient classes were derived with latent class analysis using factors representing DSM-IV opioid abuse and dependence, opioid misuse, pain, anxiety and depression. Regression analyses explored the utility of automated and interview data to distinguish the empirically-derived patient groups. Results Three classes were identified: a Typical group, the substantial majority that had persistent, moderate mental health and pain symptoms; an Addictive Behaviors group with elevated mental health symptoms and opioid problems, but pain similar to the Typical class; and a Pain Dysfunction class with significantly higher pain interference as well as elevated mental health and opioid problems. Prescribed average daily dose of opioids was three times higher for those in the two atypical groups and was strongly associated with class membership after adjusting for other variables. Conclusion We describe three distinct types of patient classes as well as data elements that could help identify the two atypical types. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and determine the utility of this approach in other clinical settings. PMID:19473786

  14. Painful prosthesis: approaching the patient with persistent pain following total hip and knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Piscitelli, Prisco; Iolascon, Giovanni; Innocenti, Massimo; Civinini, Roberto; Rubinacci, Alessandro; Muratore, Maurizio; D’Arienzo, Michele; Leali, Paolo Tranquilli; Carossino, Anna Maria; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Symptomatic severe osteoarthritis and hip osteoporotic fractures are the main conditions requiring total hip arthroplasty (THA), whereas total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is mainly performed for pain, disability or deformity due to osteoarthritis. After surgery, some patients suffer from “painful prosthesis”, which currently represents a clinical problem. Methods A systematic review of scientific literature has been performed. A panel of experts has examined the issue of persistent pain following total hip or knee arthroplasty, in order to characterize etiopathological mechanisms and define how to cope with this condition. Results Four major categories (non infective, septic, other and idiopathic causes) have been identified as possible origin of persistent pain after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Time to surgery, pain level and function impairment before surgical intervention, mechanical stress following prosthesis implant, osseointegration deficiency, and post-traumatic or allergic inflammatory response are all factors playing an important role in causing persistent pain after joint arthroplasty. Diagnosis of persistent pain should be made in case of post-operative pain (self-reported as VAS ≥3) persisting for at least 4 months after surgery, or new onset of pain (VAS ≥3) after the first 4 months, lasting ≥2 months. Acute pain reported as VAS score ≥7 in patients who underwent TJA should be always immediately investigated. Conclusions The cause of pain needs always to be indentified and removed whenever possible. Implant revision is indicated only when septic or aseptic loosening is diagnosed. Current evidence has shown that peri-and/or post-operative administration of bisphosphonates may have a role in pain management and periprosthetic bone loss prevention. PMID:24133526

  15. Myofascial pain in patients waitlisted for total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Richard; Cahill, Catherine M; Wood, Gavin; Hroch, Jennifer; Wilson, Rosemary; Cupido, Tracy; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knee pain is one of the major sources of pain and disability in developed countries, particularly in aging populations, and is the primary indication for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). OBJECTIVES: To determine the presence of myofascial pain in OA patients waitlisted for TKA and to determine whether their knee pain may be alleviated by trigger point injections. METHODS: Following ethics approval, 25 participants were recruited from the wait list for elective unilateral primary TKA at the study centre. After providing informed consent, all participants were examined for the presence of active trigger points in the muscles surrounding the knee and received trigger point injections of bupivacaine. Assessments and trigger point injections were implemented on the first visit and at subsequent visits on weeks 1, 2, 4 and 8. Outcome measures included the Timed Up and Go test, Brief Pain Inventory, Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. RESULTS: Myofascial trigger points were identified in all participants. Trigger point injections significantly reduced pain intensity and pain interference, and improved mobility. All participants had trigger points identified in medial muscles, most commonly in the head of the gastrocnemius muscle. An acute reduction in pain and improved functionality was observed immediately following intervention, and persisted over the eight-week course of the investigation. CONCLUSION: All patients had trigger points in the vastus and gastrocnemius muscles, and 92% of patients experienced significant pain relief with trigger point injections at the first visit, indicating that a significant proportion of the OA knee pain was myofascial in origin. Further investigation is warranted to determine the prevalence of myofascial pain and whether treatment delays or prevents TKA. PMID:23061082

  16. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF NEUROPATHIC CHRONIC PAIN IN ONCOLOGY PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Zhumaliyeva, V; Cialkowska-Rysz, A; Sirota, V; Kulishov, V; Omarova, I

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the primary prevalence of chronic neuropathic pain syndrome in oncology patients of Karaganda (Kazakhstan), to estimate the structure of pain syndrome in randomly chosen patients, to assess the effectiveness of analgesic therapy in oncology patients. All the patients with confirmed cancer admitted to hospital in Karaganda regional oncologic dispensary were studied. The study period was limited to 60 consecutive days. The results were statistically processed using 6.0 «STATISTICA» program. In 11,2±1,6% of the cases, oncology patients that got combined modality treatment suffered from the chronic neuropathic pain syndrome; 66,7±7,3% patients of them had the III cancer stage. 2. While studying the chronic neuropathic pain structure it was revealed that: 52,4±7,7% of the patients suffered from a mild pain, from average - 38,1±7,5% of the patients, from severe pain - 9,5±4,5%. Neuropathic pain syndrome in the form of numbness occurred in 47,6±7,7% of the respondents, tingling - in 38,1±7,5% of the patients and 14,3±5,4% of the respondents described it as «electric shock». 52,4±7,7% of the patients described temperature changes of the skin, 28,6±7,0% of them told about allodynia. The given pain can be correctly diagnosed on rare occasions. It brings about the low efficiency of currently prescribed standard pain treatment. It was 20%-effective only for ¼ of the patients. In sum, it can be brought into focus that each 10th oncology patient of the II clinical group in Kazakhstan may potentially suffer from the chronic neuropathic pain syndrome. The given syndrome in cancer patients requires selective differential diagnostics and constant management of the pain treatment regimen because of occurrence of standard regimens incapacity, progression of tolerance to the actual pain treatment and significant deterioration of oncology patients' life quality. PMID:27348160

  17. Monoamines in the brain cerebrospinal fluid of facial pain patients.

    PubMed Central

    Bouckoms, A. J.; Sweet, W. H.; Poletti, C.; Lavori, P.; Carr, D.; Matson, W.; Gamache, P.; Aronin, N.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assay monoamines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from the trigeminal cistern of 64 patients with intractable facial pain. The CSF was analyzed for homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), end-product markers of activity for the dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine systems, respectively. HVA averaged 121 ng/mL in these facial pain patients, compared to 150 to 550 ng/mL in 10 studies of ventricular brain CSF in assorted psychiatric and pain patients. 5-HIAA averaged 29 to ng/mL in our facial pain patients compared to 60 to 120 ng/mL in nine studies of ventricular brain CSF in assorted psychiatric and neurological patients. Trigeminal cistern CSF MHPG averaged 9 ng/mL, similar to the range of 13 studies of lumbar CSF of assorted psychiatric and pain diagnoses. These results indicate that (1) the electrochemical detection method provides a unique way of accurately measuring nanogram concentrations of multiple monoamines in a little as 0.25 mL of CSF; (2) trigeminal cistern and posterior fossa brain CSF monoamine metabolites reflect a different profile of dopaminergic and serotonergic functioning in these facial pain patients from that previously reported with lumbar CSF measurements of other patients; and (3) trigeminal sensory ganglion or brain dopamine and serotonin systems may be concomitantly dysfunctional in intractable facial pain. PMID:7504420

  18. Effect of Massage on Pain Management for Thoracic Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dion, Liza; Rodgers, Nancy; Cutshall, Susanne M.; Cordes, Mary Ellen; Bauer, Brent; Cassivi, Stephen D.; Cha, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Integrative therapies such as massage have gained support as interventions that improve the overall patient experience during hospitalization. Thoracic surgery patients undergo long procedures and commonly have postoperative back, neck, and shoulder pain. Purpose: Given the promising effects of massage therapy for alleviation of pain, we studied the effectiveness and feasibility of massage therapy delivered in the postoperative thoracic surgery setting. Methods: Patients who received massage in the postoperative setting had pain scores evaluated pre and post massage on a rating scale of 0 to 10 (0 = no pain, 10 = worst possible pain). Results: In total, 160 patients completed the pilot study and received massage therapy that was individualized. Patients receiving massage therapy had significantly decreased pain scores after massage (p ≤ .001), and patients’ comments were very favorable. Patients and staff were highly satisfied with having massage therapy available, and no major barriers to implementing massage therapy were identified. Conclusions: Massage therapy may be an important additional pain management component of the healing experience for patients after thoracic surgery. PMID:21847428

  19. Brain morphological alternation in chronic pain patients with neuropathic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sugimine, Satomi; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Obata, Hideaki; Saito, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Background Neuropathic characteristics are highly involved in the development of chronic pain both physically and psychologically. However, little is known about the relationship between neuropathic characteristics and brain morphological alteration. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms of chronic pain development by examining the above-mentioned relationships by voxel-based morphometry in patients with chronic pain. Methods First, we assessed neuropathic characteristics using the painDETECT Questionnaire in 12 chronic pain patients. Second, to assess the gray matter volume changes by voxel-based morphometry, we conducted magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. We applied multiregression analysis of these two assessment methods. Results There were significant positive correlations between painDETECT Questionnaire scores and the gray matter volume in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex and right posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusions Our findings suggest that neuropathic characteristics strongly affect the brain regions related to modulation of pain in patients with chronic pain and, therefore, contribute to the severity of chronic pain. PMID:27284013

  20. Modifiable Risk Factors in Patients With Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Shemory, Scott T; Pfefferle, Kiel J; Gradisar, Ian M

    2016-05-01

    Low back pain is one of the most common reasons for physician visits in the United States and is a chief complaint frequently seen by orthopedic surgeons. Patients with chronic low back pain can experience recurring debilitating pain and disability, decreasing their quality of life. A commercially available software platform, Explorys (Explorys, Inc, Cleveland, Ohio), was used to mine a pooled electronic health care database consisting of the medical records of more than 26 million patients. According to the available medical history data, 1.2 million patients had a diagnosis of low back pain (4.54%). The information was used to determine the incidence of low back pain in patients with a history of nicotine dependence, obesity (body mass index, >30 kg/m(2)), depressive disorders, and alcohol abuse. Relative risk was then calculated for the defined modifiable risk factors. Patients with nicotine dependence, obesity, depressive disorders, and alcohol abuse had a relative risk of 4.489, 6.007, 5.511, and 3.326 for low back pain, respectively, compared with patients without the defined risk factor. A statistically significant difference was found in the incidence of low back pain between all 4 groups with the risk factors evaluated and the general population (P<.05). By determining treatable patient risk factors for low back pain, physicians can monitor at-risk patients and focus on prevention and control of debilitating disease. These approaches can decrease the number of patients with isolated low back pain who are seen by orthopedic surgeons. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e413-e416.]. PMID:27064774

  1. Life satisfaction in patients with chronic pain – relation to pain intensity, disability, and psychological factors

    PubMed Central

    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Aims To investigate pain intensity, posttraumatic stress, depression, anxiety, disability, and life satisfaction in patients with injury-related chronic pain and to analyze differences in these variables regarding gender. Methods Questionnaires addressing pain intensity (visual analogue scale [VAS]), anxiety and depression (hospital anxiety and depression [HAD] scale), posttraumatic stress (impact of event scale), disability (disability rating index, and life satisfaction [LiSat-11]) were answered by 160 patients at assessment at the Pain Rehabilitation Clinic at the Umeå University Hospital (Umeå, Sweden). Results High level of pain intensity was scored on the VAS (mean value 64.5 ± 21.1 mm) together with high levels of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress. Activity limitations in everyday life and decreased life satisfaction were reported, especially on the items physical health and psychological health. A multivariate logistic regression model showed a statistically significant association between low scores on the overall life satisfaction on LiSat-11 and high scores on HAD-depression (odds ratio = 1.141, confidence interval 1.014–1.285). Few gender differences were found. Conclusion These findings highlight the value of a broad screening in patients with injury-related chronic pain with respect to the relationship of life satisfaction with pain intensity, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and disability. In addition, these findings support the biopsychosocial approach to assess and treat these patients optimally. PMID:22128253

  2. For Cancer Patients, Pain May Rise as Finances Dwindle

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157508.html For Cancer Patients, Pain May Rise as Finances Dwindle Suffering can escalate ... policy. More Health News on: Cancer--Living with Cancer Pain Stress Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ...

  3. Pathogenesis and treatment of pain in patients with chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Gordon; Cean, Conrad; Duron, Vincent; Tarnovskaya, Alina; Brem, Harold

    2003-01-01

    Pain must be managed during treatment of a patient with a chronic wound. Failure to do so will impair the patient's ability to heal significantly. Understanding the wound's etiology is essential for designing the wound-healing protocol and implementing its pain management regimen, of which a critical part is the chronic-wound patient's self-assessed scores of pain and functionality. In this report we present a paradigm for treating all chronic wounds, which was subsequently applied to 32 consecutive patients. Our integrated-team approach to managing the treatment of wounds includes accurate evaluation of the progression of patients' pain. Directors of the pain-management team and wound team have jointly managed hundreds of patients--either hospitalized or seen in both outpatient clinical practices. The three general categories for etiologies of the 10 most common types of chronic wounds are: ischemia, neuropathy, and direct tissue damage (e.g. pressure ulcers and venous stasis ulcers). Each of these are treated with unique analgesic regimens focused on surgical/medical management of the wound: oral and parenteral medications in combinations designed to facilitate specific additive analgesic effects and nerve blocks and implantable devices for correcting underlying wound pathophysiology. Successful treatment of pain generally results in increased functional independence and improvement of the patient's quality of life. We integrated wound-care pain-management team established guidelines that delineate the causes of chronic wounds and categorize treatment options for practical clinical use. The expectation is that all pain should be resolved in all patients if both the wound-healing and pain-healthcare providers use current technologies and drugs. PMID:12931299

  4. Changes in proprioception and pain in patients with neck pain after upper thoracic manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jinmo; Lee, Byoungkwon; Kim, Changbeom

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to conduct cervical stability training and upper thoracic manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain and then investigate the changes of cervical proprioception and pain. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 30 workers with mechanical neck pain, who were randomly divided into an upper thoracic manipulation group and a cervical stability training group. Upper thoracic manipulation after cervical stability training was conducted for the upper thoracic manipulation group, and only stability training was conducted for the cervical stability training group. The intervention period was six weeks, and consisted of three sessions a week, each of which lasted for 30 minutes. For proprioception measurement, an electro-goniometer was used to measure reposition sense before and after the intervention. The visual analogue scale was used to assess pain. [Results] After the intervention, the error angle was significantly smaller in flexion and right left side-bending, and pain was significantly reduced in the upper thoracic manipulation group. According to the post intervention comparison of the two groups, there were significant differences in the proprioception and pain values. [Conclusion] Conducting both cervical stability training and upper thoracic manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain was more helpful for the improvement of proprioception and pain than cervical stability training alone. PMID:25931733

  5. Knee muscle forces during walking and running in patellofemoral pain patients and pain-free controls.

    PubMed

    Besier, Thor F; Fredericson, Michael; Gold, Garry E; Beaupré, Gary S; Delp, Scott L

    2009-05-11

    One proposed mechanism of patellofemoral pain, increased stress in the joint, is dependent on forces generated by the quadriceps muscles. Describing causal relationships between muscle forces, tissue stresses, and pain is difficult due to the inability to directly measure these variables in vivo. The purpose of this study was to estimate quadriceps forces during walking and running in a group of male and female patients with patellofemoral pain (n = 27, 16 female; 11 male) and compare these to pain-free controls (n = 16, 8 female; 8 male). Subjects walked and ran at self-selected speeds in a gait laboratory. Lower limb kinematics and electromyography (EMG) data were input to an EMG-driven musculoskeletal model of the knee, which was scaled and calibrated to each individual to estimate forces in 10 muscles surrounding the joint. Compared to controls, the patellofemoral pain group had greater co-contraction of quadriceps and hamstrings (p = 0.025) and greater normalized muscle forces during walking, even though the net knee moment was similar between groups. Muscle forces during running were similar between groups, but the net knee extension moment was less in the patellofemoral pain group compared to controls. Females displayed 30-50% greater normalized hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle forces during both walking and running compared to males (p<0.05). These results suggest that some patellofemoral pain patients might experience greater joint contact forces and joint stresses than pain-free subjects. The muscle force data are available as supplementary material. PMID:19268945

  6. Chronic facial pain in the female patient: treatment updates.

    PubMed

    Stavropoulos, Franci; Hastie, Barbara A

    2007-05-01

    Over the past decade, gender-related differences in pain and analgesia have been examined in experimental settings with conflicting evidence on whether men and women differ in their response to pain. New advances in research have begun to investigate the influence of genetic factors in moderating sex differences in analgesic response. This article provides oral and maxillofacial surgeons with evidence-based data on the issues of chronic pain between the sexes to suggest alternative approaches to the management of pain in their male and female patients. PMID:18088882

  7. Slow Temporal Summation of Pain for Assessment of Central Pain Sensitivity and Clinical Pain of Fibromyalgia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Staud, Roland; Weyl, Elizabeth E.; Riley, Joseph L.; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    Background In healthy individuals slow temporal summation of pain or wind-up (WU) can be evoked by repetitive heat-pulses at frequencies of ≥.33 Hz. Previous WU studies have used various stimulus frequencies and intensities to characterize central sensitization of human subjects including fibromyalgia (FM) patients. However, many trials demonstrated considerable WU-variability including zero WU or even wind-down (WD) at stimulus intensities sufficient for activating C-nociceptors. Additionally, few WU-protocols have controlled for contributions of individual pain sensitivity to WU-magnitude, which is critical for WU-comparisons. We hypothesized that integration of 3 different WU-trains into a single WU-response function (WU-RF) would not only control for individuals’ pain sensitivity but also better characterize their central pain responding including WU and WD. Methods 33 normal controls (NC) and 38 FM patients participated in a study of heat-WU. We systematically varied stimulus intensities of.4 Hz heat-pulse trains applied to the hands. Pain summation was calculated as difference scores of 1st and 5th heat-pulse ratings. WU-difference (WU-Δ) scores related to 3 heat-pulse trains (44°C, 46°C, 48°C) were integrated into WU-response functions whose slopes were used to assess group differences in central pain sensitivity. WU-aftersensations (WU-AS) at 15 s and 30 s were used to predict clinical FM pain intensity. Results WU-Δ scores linearly accelerated with increasing stimulus intensity (p<.001) in both groups of subjects (FM>NC) from WD to WU. Slope of WU-RF, which is representative of central pain sensitivity, was significantly steeper in FM patients than NC (p<.003). WU-AS predicted clinical FM pain intensity (Pearson’s r = .4; p<.04). Conclusions Compared to single WU series, WU-RFs integrate individuals’ pain sensitivity as well as WU and WD. Slope of WU-RFs was significantly different between FM patients and NC. Therefore WU-RF may be useful

  8. Pain threshold correlates with functional scores in osteoarthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Kuni, Benita; Wang, Haili; Rickert, Markus; Ewerbeck, Volker; Schiltenwolf, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Pain sensitization may be one of the reasons for persistent pain after technically successful joint replacement. We analyzed how pain sensitization, as measured by quantitative sensory testing, relates preoperatively to joint function in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) scheduled for joint replacement. Patients and methods We included 50 patients with knee OA and 49 with hip OA who were scheduled for joint replacement, and 15 control participants. Hip/knee scores, thermal and pressure detection, and pain thresholds were examined. Results Median pressure pain thresholds were lower in patients than in control subjects: 4.0 (range: 0–10) vs. 7.8 (4–10) (p = 0.003) for the affected knee; 4.5 (2–10) vs. 6.8 (4–10) (p = 0.03) for the affected hip. Lower pressure pain threshold values were found at the affected joint in 26 of the 50 patients with knee OA and in 17 of the 49 patients with hip OA. The American Knee Society score 1 and 2, the Oxford knee score, and functional questionnaire of Hannover for osteoarthritis score correlated with the pressure pain thresholds in patients with knee OA. Also, Harris hip score and the functional questionnaire of Hannover for osteoarthritis score correlated with the cold detection threshold in patients with hip OA. Interpretation Quantitative sensory testing appeared to identify patients with sensory changes indicative of mechanisms of central sensitization. These patients may require additional pain treatment in order to profit fully from surgery. There were correlations between the clinical scores and the level of sensitization. PMID:25323797

  9. Intensity of pain due to separators in adolescent orthodontic patients

    PubMed Central

    Aldrees, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the intensity of pain adolescent orthodontic patients experience following the insertion of separators. Materials and Methods: Elastomeric separators were placed mesially and distally to the first molars in 62 adolescents (20 male, 42 female, age 12–15 years), and the participants were given self-administrated questionnaires to document perceived pain, pain upon chewing, and the severity of pain's affecting daily life, using a visual analog scale for seven days. Results: The mean perceived pain scores out of 100 on the first 3 days were 54.6 ± 32.7, 51.7 ± 29.9, and 32.3 ± 28.4, respectively; chewing pain scores were: 61.9 ± 35.3, 52.6 ± 30.4, and 39.5 ± 32.1, respectively; the pain's affecting daily life scores were 24.9 ± 35.5, 21.1 ± 30.9, and 11.9 ± 23.7, respectively. A Kruskal–Wallis test showed a statistically significant difference in the reported pain between the three studied parameters. A Mann–Whitney U-test showed an insignificant difference between male and female adolescents. Conclusion: Pain perception varies among adolescent patients, but it decreases significantly after the first 2 days, with no gender differences. PMID:26955630

  10. Sensory detection and pain thresholds in spinal cord injury patients with and without dysesthetic pain, and in chronic low back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M J; Song, Z K; Schandler, S L; Ho, W H; Vulpe, M

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to understand the mechanisms involved in dysesthetic pain syndrome (DPS) in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, four groups of 13 subjects each--SCI subjects with DPS, SCI subjects without pain, chronic low back pain subjects, and control subjects--were examined for sensory detection and pain thresholds at forearm, neck, and rostral trunk areas. Results indicated that the SCI pain group had significantly lower pain thresholds at all skin sites, compared to the SCI no-pain and chronic low back pain groups, and at the rostral trunk skin site, compared to the control group. The SCI pain group also showed a lower sensory detection threshold at the rostral trunk skin site than did the SCI no-pain group. Equally important, the SCI no-pain group had detection and pain thresholds significantly higher than those of the control group. The results suggest fundamental differences in somatosensory processing when DPS is or is not a consequence of SCI. PMID:8725646

  11. Associates of Physical Function and Pain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Piva, Sara R.; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley; Irrgang, James J.; Fritz, Julie M.; Wisniewski, Stephen; McGinty, Gerald T.; Childs, John D.; Domenech, Manuel A.; Jones, Scott; Delitto, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore whether impairment of muscle strength, soft tissue length, movement control, postural and biomechanic alterations, and psychologic factors are associated with physical function and pain in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Rehabilitation outpatient. Participants Seventy-four patients diagnosed with PFPS. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Measurements were self-reported function and pain; strength of quadriceps, hip abduction, and hip external rotation; length of hamstrings, quadriceps, plantar flexors, iliotibial band/tensor fasciae latae complex, and lateral retinaculum; foot pronation; Q-angle; tibial torsion; visual observation of quality of movement during a lateral step-down task; anxiety; and fear-avoidance beliefs. Results After controlling for age and sex, anxiety and fear-avoidance beliefs about work and physical activity were associated with function, while only fear-avoidance beliefs about work and physical activity were associated with pain. Conclusions Psychologic factors were the only associates of function and pain in patients with PFPS. Factors related to physical impairments did not associate to function or pain. Our results should be validated in other samples of patients with PFPS. Further studies should determine the role of other psychologic factors, and how they relate to anxiety and fear-avoidance beliefs in these patients. PMID:19236982

  12. Management of insomnia in patients with chronic pain conditions.

    PubMed

    Stiefel, Frederic; Stagno, Daniele

    2004-01-01

    The management of insomnia in patients experiencing chronic pain requires careful evaluation, good diagnostic skills, familiarity with cognitive-behavioural interventions and a sound knowledge of pharmacological treatments. Sleep disorders are characterised by a circular interrelationship with chronic pain such that pain leads to sleep disorders and sleep disorders increase the perception of pain. Sleep disorders in individuals with chronic pain remain under-reported, under-diagnosed and under-treated, which may lead--together with the individual's emotional, cognitive and behavioural maladaptive responses--to the frequent development of chronic sleep disorders. The moderately positive relationship between pain severity and sleep complaints, and the specificity of pain-related arousal and mediating variables such as depression, illustrate that insomnia in relation to chronic pain is multifaceted and poorly understood. This may explain the limited success of the available treatments. This article discusses the evaluation of patients with chronic pain and insomnia and the available pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions to manage the sleep disorder. Non-pharmacological interventions should not be considered as single interventions, but in association with one another. Some non-pharmacological interventions especially the cognitive and behavioural approaches, can be easily implemented in general practice (e.g. stimulus control, sleep restriction, imagery training and progressive muscle relaxation). Hypnotics are routinely prescribed in the medically ill, regardless of their adverse effects; however, their long-term efficacy is not supported by robust evidence. Antidepressants provide an interesting alternative to hypnotics, since they can improve pain perception as well as sleep disorders in selected patients. Sedative antipsychotics can be considered for sleep disturbances in those patients exhibiting psychotic features, or for those with

  13. Quick identification of acute chest pain patients study (QICS)

    PubMed Central

    Willemsen, Hendrik M; de Jong, Gonda; Tio, René A; Nieuwland, Wybe; Kema, Ido P; van der Horst, Iwan CC; Oudkerk, Mattijs; Zijlstra, Felix

    2009-01-01

    Background Patients with acute chest pain are often referred to the emergency ward and extensively investigated. Investigations are costly and could induce unnecessary complications, especially with invasive diagnostics. Nevertheless, chest pain patients have high mortalities. Fast identification of high-risk patients is crucial. Therefore several strategies have been developed including specific symptoms, signs, laboratory measurements, and imaging. Methods/Design The Quick Identification of acute Chest pain Study (QICS) will investigate whether a combined use of specific symptoms and signs, electrocardiography, routine and new laboratory measures, adjunctive imaging including electron beam (EBT) computed tomography (CT) and contrast multislice CT (MSCT) will have a high diagnostic yield for patients with acute chest pain. All patients will be investigated according a standardized protocol in the Emergency Department. Serum and plasma will be frozen for future analysis for a wide range of biomarkers at a later time point. The primary endpoint is the safe recognition of low-risk chest pain patients directly at presentation. Secondary endpoint is the identification of a wide range of sensitive predictive clinical markers, chemical biomarkers and radiological markers in acute chest pain patients. Chemical biomarkers will be compared to quantitative CT measurements of coronary atherosclerosis as a surrogate endpoint. Chemical biomarkers will also be compared in head to head comparison and for their additional value. Discussion This will be a very extensive investigation of a wide range of risk predictors in acute chest pain patients. New reliable fast and cheap diagnostic algorithm resulting from the test results might improve chest pain patients' prognosis, and reduce unnecessary costs and diagnostic complications. PMID:19527487

  14. Patients' perceptions of pain management and use of coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Tasso, Kay; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S

    2004-01-01

    As a result of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations accreditation standards for 2001, pain management for hospitalized patients has become a top priority of healthcare facilities. In addition to using the traditional pharmacological approach to pain management, many patients also use complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) treatments. However, CAM treatments may not be discussed or offered to patients by healthcare providers who lack awareness about these alternatives. The purpose of this study was to assess patients' perceptions of pain, their beliefs about the use of pharmacological and CAM pain management techniques, and their satisfaction with pain management. Researchers verbally administered a survey to patients by using a combination of open-ended questions and a 0-10 rating scale, and they recorded their responses. This study was conducted in a not-for-profit teaching hospital in the southeast United States. Convenience sampling was used to select the 137 patients who completed the surveys. No treatment intervention was provided. Pharmacological treatment was the primary method expected and used by the majority of patients for pain management. Chi-squared statistics were used to analyze nonparametric data. An analysis of variance was used to analyze parametric data. The frequency with which nonpharmacological CAM options were used ranged from 6 to 34 percent. The most commonly used CAM method was distraction, such as watching television or reading. PMID:15898400

  15. A Simple and Effective Daily Pain Management Method for Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy for Painful Bone Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Andrade, Regiane S.; Proctor, Julian W.; Slack, Robert; Marlowe, Ursula; Ashby, Karlotta R.; Schenken, Larry L.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: The incidence of painful bone metastases increases with longer survival times. Although external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is an effective palliative treatment, it often requires several days from the start of treatment to produce a measurable reduction in pain scores and a qualitative amelioration of patient pain levels. Meanwhile, the use of analgesics remains the best approach early on in the treatment course. We investigated the role of radiation therapists as key personnel for collecting daily pain scores to supplement assessments by physician and oncology nursing staff and manage pain more effectively during radiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Daily pain scores were obtained by the radiation therapists for 89 patients undertaking a total of 124 courses of EBRT for bone metastases and compared with pretreatment pain scores. The majority of patients (71%) were treated to 30 Gy (range, 20-37.5) in 10 fractions (range, 8-15 fractions). Results: One hundred nineteen treatment courses (96%) were completed. Pain scores declined rapidly to 37.5%, 50%, and 75% of the pretreatment levels by Days 2, 4, and 10, respectively. Pain was improved in 91% of patients with only 4% of worse pain at the end of treatment. Improved pain scores were maintained in 83% of patients at 1-month follow-up, but in 35% of them, the pain was worse than at the end of treatment. Conclusions: Collection of daily pain scores by radiation therapists was associated with an effective reduction in pain scores early on during EBRT of painful osseous metastases.

  16. Many Patients with Cancer Need Better Treatments for Pain

    Cancer.gov

    Inadequate pain treatment in patients with cancer remains a significant problem and appears to be more frequent among minorities, according to a new study published online April 16, 2012, in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

  17. Predictors of Pain among Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shuman, Andrew G.; Terrell, Jeffrey E.; Light, Emily; Wolf, Gregory T.; Bradford, Carol R.; Chepeha, Douglas; Jiang, Yunyun; McLean, Scott; Ghanem, Tamer A.; Duffy, Sonia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Pain is a strong contributor to cancer patients’ quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine predictors of pain 1 year after the diagnosis of head and neck cancer. Design Prospective, multi-site cohort study. Setting Three academically-affiliated medical centers. Patients Previously untreated patients with carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract (n=374). Main Outcome Measures Participants were surveyed pre-treatment and 1 year thereafter. Multivariate analyses were conducted to determine predictors of the SF-36 bodily pain score 1 year after diagnosis. Results The mean SF-36 bodily pain score at 1 year was 65, compared to 61 at diagnosis (p=.004), compared to 75 among population norms (lower scores indicate worse pain). Variables independently associated with pain included pre-treatment pain score (p<0.001), less education (p=0.02), neck dissection (p=0.001), feeding tube (p=0.05), xerostomia (p<0.001), depressive symptoms (p<0.001), taking more pain medication (p<0.001), less physical activity (p=.02), and poor sleep quality (p=0.006). Current smoking and problem drinking were marginally significant (p=0.07 and 0.08, respectively). Conclusions Aggressive pain management may be indicated for head and neck cancer patients who undergo neck dissections, complain of xerostomia, require feeding tubes, and have medical comorbidities. Treatment of modifiable risk factors such as depression, poor sleep quality, tobacco and alcohol abuse may also reduce pain and improve quality of life among head and neck cancer patients. PMID:23165353

  18. Occurrence, Characteristics, and Predictors of Pain in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Vivi Lycke; Holm, Are Martin; Kongerud, Johny; Bentsen, Signe Berit; Paul, Steven M; Miaskowski, Christine; Rustøen, Tone

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have provided a detailed characterization of pain in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aims of this cross-sectional study were to describe the occurrence, intensity, locations, and level of interference associated with pain, as well as pain relief; to identify differences in demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics between COPD patients with and without pain; and to determine which demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics were associated with average pain, worst pain, and pain interference. A total of 258 patients with COPD provided information on demographic characteristics; comorbidities; respiratory parameters including dyspnea; body mass index; and symptom characteristics (i.e., anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, and fatigue). Pain was measured using the Brief Pain Inventory. Of these 258 COPD patients, 157 (61%) reported pain. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine which demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics were associated with average pain severity, worst pain severity, and mean pain interference. Lower stages of COPD were associated with higher worst pain and higher pain interference scores. Higher depression scores were associated with higher average pain and higher pain interference scores. In addition, higher number of pain locations was associated with higher average and higher worst pain severity scores. Findings from this study confirm that pain is a significant problem and highlights the need for specific pain management interventions for patients with COPD. More research is needed about specific pain characteristics and symptoms to gain an increased knowledge about the causes of pain in these patients. PMID:27095390

  19. Psychological variables associated with foot function and foot pain in patients with plantar heel pain.

    PubMed

    Cotchett, Matthew P; Whittaker, Glen; Erbas, Bircan

    2015-05-01

    It is widely accepted that psychological variables are associated with self-reported pain and self-reported physical function in patients with musculoskeletal pain. However, the relationship between psychological variables and foot pain and foot function has not been evaluated in people with plantar heel pain. Eighty-four participants with plantar heel pain completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale short version (DASS-21) and Foot Health Status Questionnaire. Using a hierarchical regression analysis, a baseline model with age, sex and BMI explained 10 % of the variability in foot function. The addition of depression and stress in separate models explained an additional 7.3 % and 8.1 % of foot function scores, respectively. In the respective models, depression was a significant predictor (β = -0.28; p = 0.009) as was stress (β = -0.29; p = 0.006). Females drove the effect between stress and foot function (β = -0.50; p = 0.001) and depression and foot function (β = -0.53; p < 0.001). In regression models for foot pain, depression, anxiety and stress did not contribute significantly to pain scores. When the data was stratified by sex, stress (β = -0.36; p = 0.024) and depression (β = -0.41; p = 0.013) were significantly associated with foot pain in females but not in males. For participants with plantar heel pain, stress and depression scores were significantly associated with foot function but not foot pain. When the data was stratified by sex, stress and depression were significant predictors of foot pain and function in females. PMID:24647980

  20. Managing a chronic pain patient in the perioperative period.

    PubMed

    Kopf, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    The chronic pain patient with and without chronic opioid medication is at risk for under- and overtreatment perioperatively. Careful planning of the perioperative period by the anesthesiologist, the pain service and the surgeon is crucial. Epidural analgesia requires reduction of preoperative opioid doses to a maximum of 50% to avoid withdrawal as well as continuous postanesthesia care unit-monitoring for the first 24 hours. Brief cognitive behavioral interventions pre- and postoperatively contribute to successful pain management. The perioperative period may be used to re-evaluate the patient's opioid requirements. A follow-up by an experienced pain management service should be available after discharge of the chronic pain patient. Individualized assessment by a pain management team is necessary for this increasing group of patients. This report is adapted from paineurope 2013; Issue 2, ©Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd., and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, LTD. and is distributed free of charge to healthcare professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be accessed via the website: http://www.paineurope.com at which European health professionals can register online to receive copies of the quarterly publication. PMID:24303836

  1. Body image concerns of psoriasis patients as reflected in human figure drawings.

    PubMed

    Leichtman, S R; Burnett, J W; Robinson, H M

    1981-10-01

    Human figure drawings of patients with severe (n = 85) and mild (n = 38) psoriasis were compared on dimensions of nudity, sexual overemphasis, and omissions of exposed body parts. For female patients significant differences were found for percentages of undressed figures and omissions. For male patients only omissions were significant. When compared to 30 patients with other mild dermatologic conditions, mildly affected psoriatic males drew significantly fewer omissions. Discussion of results focussed on body image concerns of dermatology patients as related to issues of nudity, sexuality, and exhibition of exposed body parts. PMID:7288544

  2. The relationship between pain severity and patient-reported outcomes among patients with chronic low back pain in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, William; Vietri, Jeffrey; Shi, Jing; Ogawa, Kei; Kariyasu, Sawako; Alev, Levent; Nakamura, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of pain severity on patient-reported outcomes among individuals diagnosed with chronic low back pain in Japan. Methods Data were provided by the 2012 Japan National Health and Wellness Survey (N=29,997), a web-based survey of individuals in Japan aged ≥18 years. This analysis included respondents diagnosed with low back pain of ≥3-month duration. Measures included the revised Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Survey Instrument, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale, the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment: General Health questionnaire, and self-reported all-cause health care visits (6 months). Generalized linear models were used to assess the relationship between outcomes and severity of pain in the past week as reported on a numeric rating scale ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (pain as bad as you can imagine), controlling for length of diagnosis, sociodemographics, and general health characteristics. Results A total of 290 respondents were included in the analysis; mean age was 56 years, 41% were females, and 56% were employed. Pain severity was 3/10 for the first quartile, 5/10 for the median, and 7/10 for the third quartile of this sample. Increasing severity was associated with lower scores for mental and physical component summaries and Short-Form 6D health utility, higher depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) and anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7) scores, greater absenteeism and presenteeism, greater activity impairment, and more health care provider visits (all P<0.0001). Conclusion The impact of chronic low back pain on health-related quality of life, depression and anxiety symptoms, impairment to work and daily activities, and health care use increases with the severity of pain. Interventions reducing the severity of pain may improve numerous health outcomes even if the pain cannot be eliminated. PMID:27330326

  3. The pain experience of patients with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Jacob, E

    2001-09-01

    Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder that affects 1 in 600 black infants in the United States. The painful crisis is one of its most characteristic manifestations and consists of pain in the extremities, back, abdomen, or chest. It may occur in 4 phases and may be precipitated by a variety of factors. The frequency, location, duration, severity, and character of pain differ both within and among patients. The pain may be localized, involve several areas, be diffuse, or be migratory. The intensity of pain varies from mild to excruciating and is perceived to be more intense by those who have experienced other forms of pain such as postoperative pain. Patients with sickle cell anemia who experience frequent painful crises exhibit problems with self-concept and low self-esteem, anxiety, depression, dissatisfaction with body image, poor school performance, social isolation, decreased participation in normal activities of daily living, and poor peer and family relationships. The periodic and unpredictable episodes can be incapacitating and may affect the way children see and feel about themselves, the way they relate to other people, the goals they set for themselves, and the way they approach a range of activities and situations. Research is very limited, and most of the available literature is based on personal observations, opinions, and anecdotal reports. The purpose of this report is to describe the phases of a painful episode as well as to examine the predisposing factors to, defining characteristics of, and patient outcomes associated with a painful crisis from sickle cell anemia. PMID:11710089

  4. Acupuncture for chronic pain: individual patient data meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Andrew J.; Cronin, Angel M.; Maschino, Alexandra C.; Lewith, George; MacPherson, Hugh; Victor, Norbert; Foster, Nadine E.; Sherman, Karen J.; Witt, Claudia M.; Linde, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Background Although acupuncture is widely used for chronic pain, there remains considerable controversy as to its value. We aimed to determine the effect size of acupuncture for four chronic pain conditions: back and neck pain, osteoarthritis, chronic headache, and shoulder pain. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify randomized trials of acupuncture for chronic pain where allocation concealment was determined unambiguously to be adequate. Individual patient data meta-analyses were conducted using data from 29 of 31 eligible trials, with a total of 17,922 patients analyzed. Results In the primary analysis including all eligible trials, acupuncture was superior to both sham and no acupuncture control for each pain condition (all p<0.001). After exclusion of an outlying set of trials that strongly favored acupuncture, the effect sizes were similar across pain conditions. Patients receiving acupuncture had less pain, with scores 0.23 (95% C.I. 0.13, 0.33), 0.16 (95% C.I. 0.07, 0.25) and 0.15 (95% C.I. 0.07, 0.24) standard deviations lower than sham controls for back and neck pain, osteoarthritis, and chronic headache respectively; the effect sizes in comparison to no acupuncture controls were 0.55 (95% C.I. 0.51, 0.58), 0.57 (95% C.I. 0.50, 0.64) and 0.42 (95% C.I. 0.37, 0.46). These results were robust to a variety of sensitivity analyses, including those related to publication bias. Conclusions Acupuncture is effective for the treatment of chronic pain and is therefore a reasonable referral option. Significant differences between true and sham acupuncture indicate that acupuncture is more than a placebo. However, these differences are relatively modest, suggesting that factors in addition to the specific effects of needling are important contributors to the therapeutic effects of acupuncture. PMID:22965186

  5. Abdominal Pain in the Geriatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Leuthauser, Amy; McVane, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain in the elderly can be a challenging and difficult condition to diagnose and treat. The geriatric population has significant comorbidities and often takes polypharmacy that can mask symptoms. The presentation of common conditions can be different than that in the younger population, often lacking the traditional indicators of disease, making it of pivotal importance for the clinician to consider a wide differential during their workup. It is also important to consider extra-abdominal abnormality that may manifest as abdominal pain. PMID:27133249

  6. Care of the patient with chronic pain: Part I.

    PubMed

    Wells-Federman, C L

    1999-07-01

    Chronic nonmalignant pain is estimated to affect over 50 million Americans. It frequently results in significant physical, behavioral, psychological, social, and spiritual problems for patients and their families. In spite of its prevalence and consequences, chronic pain is often misunderstood and inadequately managed by healthcare professionals. Advanced practice nurses who are knowledgeable about chronic pain and the complex biopsychosocial-spiritual needs of this patient population serve an important role in recognizing these patients and intervening appropriately in their care. The purpose of this two-part article is to provide that information. Part I outlines the pathophysiology, assessment, biopsychosocial-spiritual aspects, and pharmacological treatment of chronic pain. Part II addresses a variety of nonpharmacologic and self-management interventions one can use in the primary care setting to treat these difficult health problems. PMID:10711057

  7. Somatic focus/awareness: Relationship to negative affect and pain in chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Erin M.; Atchison, James W.; Gremillion, Henry A.; Waxenberg, Lori B.; Robinson, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    Somatic focus refers to the tendency to notice and report physical symptoms, and has been investigated in relation to chronically painful conditions. This study investigated the relationship between somatic focus, as measured by the Pennebaker Inventory of Limbic Languidness (PILL), negative affect and pain. A secondary purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in these relationships. Participants included 280 chronic pain patients (69.6% females, 88.9% Caucasian), who completed a battery of self-report measures on somatic focus, pain, negative affect, coping, and dysfunction. Results for the overall sample revealed that the PILL shares considerable variance with measures of negative affect, particularly with the physiological components of anxiety and depression. When the results were analyzed separately for male and female patients, it was found that several components of negative affect and cognitive factors play a stronger role in predicting somatic focus among men compared to women. Additional analyses then examined whether somatic focus was predictive of male and female patients’ pain reports. Results indicated that somatic focus explained a small, but unique amount of variance in female patients’ pain reports, which differed from the relationship observed among male patients. PMID:17524684

  8. Evaluation of abdominal pain in the AIDS patient.

    PubMed Central

    Potter, D A; Danforth, D N; Macher, A M; Longo, D L; Stewart, L; Masur, H

    1984-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a recently recognized entity characterized by a deficiency in cell mediated immune response. The syndrome is manifested by the development of otherwise rare malignant neoplasms and severe life-threatening opportunistic infections. Case histories of five AIDS patients evaluated for abdominal pain are presented to demonstrate the unusual spectrum of intra-abdominal pathology that may be encountered in the AIDS patient. As the number of patients with AIDS continues to escalate, surgical evaluation and intervention will be required more frequently. An understanding of this syndrome and its complications is mandatory for the surgeon to adequately evaluate AIDS patients with abdominal pain. PMID:6322708

  9. Characteristics and associations of pain intensity in patients referred to a specialist cancer pain clinic

    PubMed Central

    Pina, Paulo; Sabri, Elham; Lawlor, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled cancer pain (CP) may impair quality of life. Given the multidimensional nature of CP, its poor control is often attributed to poor assessment and classification. OBJECTIVES: To determine the characteristics and associations of pain intensity in a specialist CP clinic. METHODS: Consecutive patients referred to the CP clinic of the Portuguese Cancer Institute (Lisbon, Portugal) had standardized initial assessments and status documentation of the following: Brief Pain Inventory ratings for ‘pain now’ as the outcome variable; initial pain intensity (iPI) on a 0 to 10 scale; pain mechanism (using the Douleur Neuropathique 4 tool to assess neuropathic pain); episodic pain; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group rating; oral morphine equivalent daily dose (MEDD); Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale and Emotional Thermometer scores; and cancer diagnosis, metastases, treatment and pain duration. Univariable analyses were conducted to test the association of independent variables with iPI. Variables with P<0.1 were entered into a multivariable regression model, using backward elimination and a cut-point of P=0.2 for final model selection. RESULTS: Of 371 participants, 285 (77%) had moderate (4 to 6) or severe (7 to 10) iPI. The initial median MEDD was relatively low (30 mg [range 20 mg to 60 mg]). In the multivariable model, higher income, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group rating 3 to 4, cancer diagnosis (head and neck, genitourinary and gastrointestinal), adjuvant use and initial MEDD were associated with iPI (P<0.05). The model’s R2 was 18.6, which explained only 19% of iPI variance. CONCLUSIONS: The diversity of factors associated with pain intensity and their limited explanation of its variance underscore the biopsychosocial complexity of CP. Adequacy of CP management warrants further exploration. PMID:26291125

  10. Enhancing Nurses' Pain Assessment to Improve Patient Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Diana L; Hoffman, Leslie A; Fioravanti, Marie; Medley, Deborah Poskus; Zullo, Thomas G; Tuite, Patricia K

    2016-01-01

    Patient satisfaction with pain management has increasing importance with Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) scores tied to reimbursement. Previous studies indicate patient satisfaction is influenced by staff interactions. This single-group pre/post design study aimed to improve satisfaction with pain management in older adults undergoing total joint replacement. This was a single-group pre-/posttest design. Nurse (knowledge assessment) and patient (American Pain Society Patient Outcomes Questionnaire Revised [APS-POQ-R], HCAHPS) responses evaluated pre- and postimplementation of the online educational program. Nurse focus group followed intervention. Nurses' knowledge improved significantly (p < .006) postintervention. HCAHPS scores (3-month average) for items reflecting patient satisfaction improved from 70.2 ± 9.5 to 73.9 ± 6.0. APS-POQ-R scores did not change. Focus group comments indicated need for education regarding linkages between pain management and patient satisfaction. Education on linkages between patient satisfaction and pain management can improve outcomes; education on strategies to further improve practice may enhance ability to achieve benchmarks. PMID:27028687

  11. Current Challenges in Pain Management in Hip Fracture Patients.

    PubMed

    Sanzone, Anthony G

    2016-05-01

    The high incidence of hip fracture, together with considerable associated morbidity, mortality, and cost of care, makes this injury a major clinical challenge. Of particular importance is the pain associated with hip fracture, which can have potentially severe consequences and may lead to delayed recovery. The prevailing opioid-dependent model of analgesia, however, presents multiple drawbacks and risks that can compromise outcomes in the hip fracture population. The pain management process has essential preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative components, yet data on the comparative effectiveness of different pain management interventions in patients undergoing surgery for hip fracture are not clear cut. A Cochrane database review that included 83 different pain management studies indicated that there are not enough well-designed studies to show unequivocally which pain management approaches work well after hip fracture surgery. Yet a growing body of data on certain interventions, such as nerve blocks and multimodal analgesia, supports consideration of these options. PMID:27101319

  12. Multi-centre European study of breakthrough cancer pain: pain characteristics and patient perceptions of current and potential management strategies.

    PubMed

    Davies, Andrew; Zeppetella, Giovambattista; Andersen, Steen; Damkier, Anette; Vejlgaard, Tove; Nauck, Friedemann; Radbruch, Lukas; Sjolund, Karl-Frederik; Stenberg, Mariann; Buchanan, Alison

    2011-08-01

    This study involved 320 cancer patients from four Northern European countries. Patients with breakthrough pain were questioned about the characteristics of their pain, the current management of their pain, and the acceptability/utility of alternative routes of administration. The median number of episodes was 3/day. Forty-four percent patients reported incident-type pain, 39% spontaneous-type pain, and 17% a combination of these pains. The median duration was 60 min, and the median time to peak intensity was 15 min. Three percent patients reported "mild" pain, 37% "moderate" pain, and 60% "severe" pain. Ninety percent patients stated that the pain interfered with their daily activities. All patients were using opioids as rescue medication (mainly oral morphine/oxycodone), whilst 28% patients were using non-opioids, and 50% patients were using non-pharmacological interventions. Only 55% patients took rescue medication every time they experienced breakthrough pain. Sixty-five percent patients would definitely consider using an oral transmucosal product; patients from Denmark were less likely to answer positively, and a positive response was associated with previous use of the route for breakthrough pain. Seventy-three percent patients reported regular oral problems. Forty-two percent patients would definitely consider using an intranasal product, with 26% patients stating they would definitely not use such a preparation; patients from Denmark and Sweden were less likely to answer positively, and a positive response was associated with male gender, and previous use of the route. Forty-four percent patients reported regular nasal problems. Sixty percent patients would definitely consider using a subcutaneous product, and 44% patients would definitely consider using an intrapulmonary product. PMID:21251860

  13. Patients With Chronic Pelvic Pain: Endometriosis or Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome share similar symptoms. Interstitial cystitis was once considered rare, but it is now recognized as more common than previously thought. This review examines evidence that patients presenting with symptoms typically attributed to endometriosis or with unresolved pelvic pain after treatment for endometriosis may, in fact, have interstitial cystitis, and suggests approaches for appropriate diagnosis. Methods: A MedLine search using “chronic pelvic pain,” “endometriosis,” “interstitial cystitis,” and “bladder origin pain” as key words was performed for the most recent English-language articles. Additional references were obtained through cross-referencing the bibliography cited in each publication. Discussion: The symptoms of endometriosis and inter-stitial cystitis frequently overlap, and these 2 conditions may even coexist in the same patient. In cases of unresolved endometriosis and persistent pelvic pain, patients may have interstitial cystitis. A variety of tools are available to aid in identifying interstitial cystitis. Conclusion: Gynecologists should be alert to the possible presence of interstitial cystitis in patients who present with chronic pelvic pain typical of endometriosis. PMID:17761077

  14. Evaluation of Pain Assessment Tools in Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Al Darwish, Zainab Q; Hamdi, Radwa; Fallatah, Summayah

    2016-01-01

    Pain assessment poses a great challenge for clinicians in intensive care units. This descriptive study aimed to find the most reliable, sensitive, and valid tool for assessing pain. The researcher and a nurse simultaneously assessed 47 nonverbal patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit by using 3 tools: the Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS), the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT), and the adult Nonverbal Pain Scale (NVPS) before, during, and after turning and suctioning. All tools were found to be reliable and valid (Cronbach α = 0.95 for both the BPS and the CPOT, α = 0.86 for the NVPS), and all subscales of both the BPS and CPOT were highly sensitive for assessing pain (P < .001). The NVPS physiology (P = .21) and respiratory (P = .16) subscales were not sensitive for assessing pain. The BPS was the most reliable, valid, and sensitive tool, with the CPOT considered an appropriate alternative tool for assessing pain. The NVPS is not recommended because of its inconsistent psychometric properties. PMID:27153305

  15. Smoking Cessation Related to Improved Patient-Reported Pain Scores Following Spinal Care in Geriatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Behrend, Caleb; Coombs, Andre; Coyne, Ellen; Prasarn, Mark; Rechtine, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We examined rates of smoking cessation and the effect of smoking cessation on pain and disability scores in a geriatric patient population. Methods: Prospectively maintained database records of 6779 patients treated for painful spinal disorders were examined. The mean duration of care was 8 months. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed with independent variables including smoking status, secondary gain status, gender, treatment type, depression, and age. Results: Of the patients seeking care for painful spinal disorders, 8.9% over the age of 55 smoked compared with 23.9% of those under 55 years of age. Rates of smoking cessation did not differ for those older than 55 years (25.1%) and younger patients (26.1%). Current smokers in both age-groups reported greater pain than those who had never smoked in all pain ratings (P < .001). Mean improvement in reported pain over the course of treatment was significantly different in nonsmokers and current smokers in both age-groups (P < .001). Those who quit smoking during the course of care reported greater improvement in pain than those who continued to smoke. The mean improvement in pain ratings was clinically significant in patients in all 3 groups of nonsmokers whereas those who continued to smoke had no clinically significant improvement in reported pain. Conclusion: The results support the need for smoking cessation programs, given a strong association between improved patient-reported pain and smoking cessation. Fewer older patients smoke but they are equally likely to quit. PMID:26246941

  16. Diagnosis of chest pain with foregut symptoms in Chinese patients

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Bo; Wang, Ru-Wen; Jiang, Yao-Guang; Tan, Qun-You; Liao, Xiang-Li; Zhou, Jing-Hai; Zhao, Yun-Ping; Gong, Tai-Qian; Ma, Zheng

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the diagnosis of chest pain with foregut symptoms in Chinese patients. METHODS: Esophageal manometric studies, 24-h introesophageal pH monitoring and 24-h electrocardiograms (Holter electrocardiography) were performed in 61 patients with chest pain. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients were diagnosed with non-specific esophageal motility disorders (29 patients with abnormal gastroesophageal reflux and eight patients with myocardial ischemia). Five patients had diffuse spasm of the esophagus plus abnormal gastroesophageal reflux (two patients had concomitant myocardial ischemia), and one patient was diagnosed with nutcracker esophagus. CONCLUSION: The esophageal manometric studies, 24-h intra-esophageal pH monitoring and Holter electrocardiography are significant for the differential diagnosis of chest pain, particularly in patients with foregut symptoms. In cases of esophageal motility disorders, pathological gastroesophageal reflux may be a major cause of chest pain with non-specific esophageal motility disorders. Spasm of the esophageal smooth muscle might affect the heart-coronary smooth muscle, leading to myocardial ischemia. PMID:19222101

  17. The analysis of drawing from memory performance in brain-damaged patients.

    PubMed

    Leek, E C; Rapp, B C; Turnbull, O H

    2000-01-01

    The drawing from memory task is frequently used in cognitive neuropsychology to investigate visual processing impairments. However, in surprising contrast to most other neuropsychological tests, the analyses of results on this task are most often based solely on qualitative judgements about the normality of a patient's performance. In most case reports, these judgements are not made with reference to normative data and are not made by individuals who are impartial with respect to the study (that is, using a blind rating procedure). There are several grounds for arguing that such analyses are inadequate. First, seemingly abnormal drawings made by a patient may well be within the range of performance shown by control subjects. Second, judgments that are not based on a blind rating procedure are likely to be influenced by knowledge about the patient's performance on other tasks. We describe an alternative assessment procedure that addresses both of these concerns. PMID:10857715

  18. Evaluating the Patient with Right Upper Quadrant Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Avegno, Jennifer; Carlisle, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    Right upper quadrant (RUQ) pain is among the most common complaints in the emergency department. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI causes for pain. Evaluation of patients requires a combination of history, physical examination, laboratory testing, and diagnostic imaging. This article details the anatomy and physiology of the right upper abdomen and approach to the history and physical examination of the most common diseases encountered in the emergency department. "Can't miss," non-GI diagnoses are discussed. Best practices of laboratory and imaging, and treatment of most common diagnoses of RUQ pain are reviewed. PMID:27133241

  19. Approach to Patients with Epigastric Pain.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Patrick; Perkins, John C

    2016-05-01

    Epigastric pain is an extremely common complaint in the emergency department and has an associated broad differential diagnosis. In the differential it is important to consider cardiac causes that may be mistaken for gastrointestinal disorders as well as various serious intra-abdominal causes. This article highlights the limitations in laboratory testing and guides providers through the appropriate considerations for advanced imaging. Special attention is focused on acute pancreatitis, esophageal emergencies, and peptic ulcer disease/gastritis and their associated complications. PMID:27133240

  20. Access to public healthcare services and waiting times for patients with chronic nonmalignant pain: feedback from a tertiary pain clinic.

    PubMed

    Triva, Petra; Jukić, Marko; Puljak, Livia

    2013-03-01

    Evaluation of healthcare services by patients is an essential component of quality improvement. We studied association between patient satisfaction and accessibility of healthcare services to patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. A hundred patients from the Pain Clinic, Split University Hospital Center, Split, Croatia, completed a 27-item questionnaire about their condition, duration of chronic pain treatment, access to healthcare, waiting times for various healthcare services, and their satisfaction with the pain clinic and health system. Patients were referred to the pain clinic after median of 4.5 years of chronic nonmalignant pain duration. Median waiting time for pain clinic appointment, seeing a specialist and performing diagnostic procedures was 10, 30 and 90 days, respectively. However, some patients waited for an appointment to a specialist and diagnosis for up to one year. Negative association was found between waiting time for pain clinic appointment and healthcare system grade (r = -0.34, P = 0.02). Patient suggestions for improving pain clinic were more staff, better approach to each patient, and better organization. In conclusion, access to public healthcare for patients with chronic nonmalignant pain should be better to improve patient satisfaction and provide better care. PMID:23837276

  1. Chronic Neck Pain and Cervico-Craniofacial Pain Patients Express Similar Levels of Neck Pain-Related Disability, Pain Catastrophizing, and Cervical Range of Motion

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-García, Daniel; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; López-López, Almudena; Lopez-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; La Touche, Roy; Fernández-Carnero, Josué

    2016-01-01

    Background. Neck pain (NP) is strongly associated with cervico-craniofacial pain (CCFP). The primary aim of the present study was to compare the neck pain-related disability, pain catastrophizing, and cervical and mandibular ROM between patients with chronic mechanical NP and patients with CCFP, as well as asymptomatic subjects. Methods. A total of 64 participants formed three groups. All participants underwent a clinical examination evaluating the cervical range of motion and maximum mouth opening, neck disability index (NDI), and psychological factor of Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Results. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with NP and CCFP for NDI and PCS (P > 0.05). One- way ANOVA revealed significant differences for all ROM measurements. The post hoc analysis showed no statistically significant differences in cervical extension and rotation between the two patient groups (P > 0.05). The Pearson correlation analysis shows a moderate positive association between NDI and the PCS for the group of patients with NP and CCFP. Conclusion. The CCFP and NP patient groups have similar neck disability levels and limitation in cervical ROM in extension and rotation. Both groups had positively correlated the NDI with the PCS. PMID:27119020

  2. Effects of music on pain in patients with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Alparslan, Güler Balcı; Babadağ, Burcu; Özkaraman, Ayşe; Yıldız, Pınar; Musmul, Ahmet; Korkmaz, Cengiz

    2016-05-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic syndrome characterized by diffuse musculoskeletal system pain and painful tender points in certain areas of the body. The aim of the investigation was to determine the effects of music on pain in fibromyalgia patients. This randomized clinical trial was carried out with 37 fibromyalgia outpatients as an experimental group (n = 21) and control group (n = 16) at a University Hospital Internal Medicine and Rheumatology Clinic between 1 June and 1 December 2014. The research instruments used were descriptive characteristics questionnaire, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), music CD which includes water and wave sounds recommended by the Turkish Psychological Association for psychological relaxation, and pain evaluation form. According to the findings, the average age of patients was 43.59 years ± 10.30, 94.6 % were women and 81.1 % were married. The fibromyalgia patients had the disease ranged from 1 month to 20 years, the average of disease duration was 23.6 ± 45.5 months, and the average of pain intensity was 6.89 ± 1.64 on the VAS. Average pain was reported in the experimental group in VAS on day 1 (5.45 ± 2.73), day 7 (4.57 ± 2.71), and day 14 (4.14 ± 2.45), and significant reduction in pain in the listening music group was seen (p = 0.026). A repeated measure analysis of variance controlling for differences between days demonstrated a significant decrease in pain between day 1 and day 14 (p = 0.022). There was no significant decrease in pain among control group participants. The effect of music has been found to control pain in fibromyalgia patients. Music therapy should be suggested in pain management for fibromyalgia patients as an non-pharmacologic nursing intervention. PMID:26245724

  3. Cancer patient supportive care and pain management. Special listing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    This Special Listing of Current Cancer Research Projects is a publication of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute. Each Listing contains descriptions of ongoing projects in one selected cancer research area. The research areas include: Infectious disease in cancer patients; Immunological aspects of supportive care of cancer patients; Nutritional evaluation and support of cancer patients; Pain management of cancer patients.

  4. Pain after total knee arthroplasty: a narrative review focusing on the stratification of patients at risk for persistent pain.

    PubMed

    Lavand'homme, P; Thienpont, E

    2015-10-01

    The patient with a painful arthritic knee awaiting total knee arthroplasty (TKA) requires a multidisciplinary approach. Optimal control of acute post-operative pain and the prevention of chronic persistent pain remains a challenge. The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether stratification of patients can help identify those who are at particular risk for severe acute or chronic pain. Intense acute post-operative pain, which is itself a risk factor for chronic pain, is more common in younger, obese female patients and those suffering from central pain sensitisation. Pre-operative pain, in the knee or elsewhere in the body, predisposes to central sensitisation. Pain due to osteoarthritis of the knee may also trigger neuropathic pain and may be associated with chronic medication like opioids, leading to a state of nociceptive sensitisation called 'opioid-induced hyperalgesia'. Finally, genetic and personality related risk factors may also put patients at a higher risk for the development of chronic pain. Those identified as at risk for chronic pain would benefit from specific peri-operative management including reduction in opioid intake pre-operatively, the peri-operative use of antihyperalgesic drugs such as ketamine and gabapentinoids, and a close post-operative follow-up in a dedicated chronic pain clinic. PMID:26430086

  5. Treatment Considerations for Elderly and Frail Patients With Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Schmader, Kenneth E.; Baron, Ralf; Haanpää, Maija L.; Mayer, John; O'Connor, Alec B.; Rice, Andrew S. C.; Stacey, Brett

    2010-01-01

    Currently, an estimated 38 million individuals 65 years or older live in the United States, and more than 11 million of these individuals are 80 years or older. Older people are at high risk of neuropathic pain because many diseases that cause neuropathic pain increase in incidence with age. Depending on their underlying health, older adults with neuropathic pain may have to cope with multiple coexisting diseases, polypharmacy, and impaired functional ability. The objective of this article is to review how aging and frailty affect the treatment of older adults with neuropathic pain. Specific topics reviewed include the complexity of treatment decisions in older patients due to aged heterogeneity, multimorbidity, and polypharmacy; selection of treatment in an effort to maximize patients' functional abilities in addition to relieving their pain; more careful dosing (usually lower) and monitoring of pharmacotherapy relative to younger patients due to age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics; and underrepresentation of older adults in clinical trials of neuropathic pain treatments, which further compromises physicians' ability to make informed treatment decisions. PMID:20194145

  6. Goals matter: Both achievement and pain-avoidance goals are associated with pain severity and disability in patients with low back and upper extremity pain.

    PubMed

    Karsdorp, Petra A; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2011-06-01

    It has been proposed that goal pursuit plays a role in the development of chronic pain disorders. On the basis of (affective) motivational theories, it was hypothesized that both long-term achievement goals and short-term hedonic goals would be related to increased levels of pain and disability, particularly in patients with high negative affect. Participants with musculoskeletal pain complaints (N=299) completed a battery of questionnaires including a novel goal pursuit questionnaire (GPQ) measuring the extent to which participants preferred hedonic goals (mood-management or pain-avoidance goals) over achievement goals in various situations. Explorative factor analysis of the GPQ resulted in a reliable pain-avoidance (α=.88) and mood-management subscale (α=.76). A nonlinear, U-shaped relationship was found among the pain-avoidance scale (but not the mood-management scale) and pain and disability. This indicated that participants who strongly endorsed either achievement or pain-avoidance goals also reported higher pain and disability levels while controlling for biographical variables and pain catastrophizing. For pain but not disability, these relationships were only found among patients with high negative affect. For disability, goal pursuit and negative affect were independently related to disability. These findings provide support for the validity of an affective-motivational approach to chronic pain, suggesting that the experience of pain and the interference of pain on daily life activities depends on goal pursuit and negative affect. Interventions aimed at improving disability in chronic pain should address both patient's goal pursuit and negative affect. An affective-motivational approach to chronic pain indicates that achievement and pain-avoidance goals are associated with pain severity and disability, particularly in patients with high negative affect. PMID:21392886

  7. Pain relief model for a COX-2 inhibitor in patients with postoperative dental pain

    PubMed Central

    Rohatagi, Shashank; Kastrissios, Helen; Sasahara, Kunihiro; Truitt, Kenneth; Moberly, James B; Wada, Russell; Salazar, Daniel E

    2008-01-01

    AIM To develop a pain relief model for a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, CS-706, that permits prediction of doses for acute pain relief in Japanese and Western populations. METHODS A categorical response model was developed to describe the probability of pain relief (PR) over time for a Phase 2a study. Models were also developed to describe patient's use of rescue medication and onset of pain relief. RESULTS The placebo response was described by a first-order increase in PR that achieved a stable response after 4 h. The effect of CS-706 on PR was described using an Emax model; the plasma concentration of CS-706 producing 50% of the maximum response was estimated to be 87 ng ml−1, the median peak plasma concentration achieved after a 50-mg oral dose. The probability of rescue medication (REMD) decreased over time and was a function of the last observed PR score. This probability was < 16% for patients with a PR score ≥2. The probability of experiencing meaningful PR was 98% in patients who did not require REMD and 47% in those who required REMD. For patients who did not require REMD, the median onset time of meaningful pain relief (TMPR) decreased with increasing doses. In patients who required REMD, there was a saturable decline in TMPR, with the greatest improvement occurring from placebo to 50-mg doses. CONCLUSIONS The set of models developed permitted compilation of multiple dose–response curves for dose selection of CS-706 in Westerners and facilitated scaling of doses to a Japanese population. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT Modelling and simulation are being increasingly used to support decision-making in new drug development.Novel modelling methods are required to capture the complexity of multiple end-points for a disease and to address questions such as dose selection in various populations.The focus of this study was to present a novel pain relief model to address such questions. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS New contributions of this work to the

  8. Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... realize you have a medical problem that needs treatment. Once you take care of the problem, pain ... Fortunately, there are many ways to treat pain. Treatment varies depending on the cause of pain. Pain ...

  9. Repeatability of gait analysis for measuring knee osteoarthritis pain in patients with severe chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Asay, Jessica L; Boyer, Katherine A; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2013-07-01

    Gait measures are receiving increased attention in the evaluation of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Yet, there remains a need to assess variability of gait analysis in patients with knee osteoarthritis over time and how pain affects variation in these gait parameters. The purpose of this study was to determine if important gait parameters, such as the knee adduction moment, knee flexion moment, peak vertical ground reaction force, and speed, were repeatable in patients with mild-to-moderate knee OA over a trial period of 12 weeks. Six patients were enrolled in this cross-over study design after meeting strict inclusion criteria. Gait tests were conducted three times at 4 week intervals and once after the placebo arm of a randomized treatment sequence; each gait test followed a 2-week period of receiving a placebo for a pain modifying drug. Repeatability for each gait variable was found using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) with a two-way random model. This study found that the knee adduction moment was repeatable throughout the four gait tests. However, normalized peak vertical ground reaction force and knee flexion moment were not as repeatable, varying with pain. This suggests that these gait outcomes could offer a more objective way to measure a patient's level of pain. PMID:23508626

  10. Evidence for brain glial activation in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Loggia, Marco L; Chonde, Daniel B; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Arabasz, Grae; Catana, Ciprian; Edwards, Robert R; Hill, Elena; Hsu, Shirley; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Ji, Ru-Rong; Riley, Misha; Wasan, Ajay D; Zürcher, Nicole R; Albrecht, Daniel S; Vangel, Mark G; Rosen, Bruce R; Napadow, Vitaly; Hooker, Jacob M

    2015-03-01

    Although substantial evidence has established that microglia and astrocytes play a key role in the establishment and maintenance of persistent pain in animal models, the role of glial cells in human pain disorders remains unknown. Here, using the novel technology of integrated positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging and the recently developed radioligand (11)C-PBR28, we show increased brain levels of the translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of glial activation, in patients with chronic low back pain. As the Ala147Thr polymorphism in the TSPO gene affects binding affinity for (11)C-PBR28, nine patient-control pairs were identified from a larger sample of subjects screened and genotyped, and compared in a matched-pairs design, in which each patient was matched to a TSPO polymorphism-, age- and sex-matched control subject (seven Ala/Ala and two Ala/Thr, five males and four females in each group; median age difference: 1 year; age range: 29-63 for patients and 28-65 for controls). Standardized uptake values normalized to whole brain were significantly higher in patients than controls in multiple brain regions, including thalamus and the putative somatosensory representations of the lumbar spine and leg. The thalamic levels of TSPO were negatively correlated with clinical pain and circulating levels of the proinflammatory citokine interleukin-6, suggesting that TSPO expression exerts pain-protective/anti-inflammatory effects in humans, as predicted by animal studies. Given the putative role of activated glia in the establishment and or maintenance of persistent pain, the present findings offer clinical implications that may serve to guide future studies of the pathophysiology and management of a variety of persistent pain conditions. PMID:25582579

  11. The Effect of Pressure Pain Sensitivity and Patient Factors on Self-Reported Pain-Disability in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Zakir; MacDermid, Joy C.; Woodhouse, Linda J.; Triano, John J.; Galea, Victoria; Gross, Anita R.

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to estimate the extent to which pressure pain sensitivity (PPS) and patient factors predict pain-related disability in patients with neck pain (NP), and to determine if PPS differs by gender. Forty-four participants with a moderate level of chronic NP were recruited for this cross sectional study. All participants were asked to complete self-reported assessments of pain, disability and comorbidity and then underwent PPS testing at 4-selected body locations. Pearson`s r w was computed to explore relationships between the PPS measures and the self-reported assessments. Regression models were built to identify predictors of pain and disability. An independent sample t-test was done to identify gender-related differences in PPS, pain-disability and comorbidity. In this study, greater PPS (threshold and tolerance) was significantly correlated to lower pain-disability (r = -.30 to -.53, p≤0.05). Age was not correlated with pain or disability but comorbidity was (r= 0.42-.43, p≤0.01). PPS at the 4-selected body locations was able to explain neck disability (R2=25-28%). Comorbidity was the strongest predictor of neck disability (R2 =30%) and pain (R2=25%). Significant mean differences for gender were found in PPS, disability and comorbidity, but not in pain intensity or rating. This study suggests that PPS may play a role in outcome measures of pain and disability but between-subject comparisons should consider gender and comorbidity issues. PMID:25320651

  12. Pain, power and patience - A narrative study of general practitioners' relations with chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic pain patients are common in general practice. In this study "chronic pain" is defined as diffuse musculoskeletal pain not due to inflammatory diseases or cancer. Effective patient-physician relations improve treatment results. The relationship between doctors and chronic pain patients is often dysfunctional. Consultation training for physicians and medical students can improve the professional ability to build effective relations, but this demands a thorough understanding of the problems in the relation. Several studies have defined the issues that frequently cause problems, but few have described the process. The aim of this study was to understand and illustrate what GPs' experience in contact with chronic pain patients and what works and does not work in these consultations. Methods Our theoretical perspective is constructivist, based upon the relativist view that individuals construct realities to understand and navigate the world. Five Swedish General Practitioners (GPs), two male and three female, were interviewed and asked to tell a story about a difficult encounter with a chronic pain patient. Tapes of the interviews were transcribed and analysed using narrative analysis. Three GPs told narratives suited for our analytic tools and these were included in the final results. Results Each narrative highlights a certain dilemma and a strategy. The dilemmas were: power game; good intentions that fail when a patient is persuaded against her own conviction; persuasion of the unwilling; transferred tiredness; distrust and dissociation from the patient. Professional strategies of listening, encouraging and teamwork were central to handling difficult situations. Conclusions The narratives show that GP's consultations with chronic pain patients sometimes are characterized by conflicts and difficult situations. They are facilitated by methods such as active listening and teamwork, but still may remain hard to handle. This has not before been studied

  13. Optimising postoperative pain management in the ambulatory patient.

    PubMed

    Shang, Allan B; Gan, Tong J

    2003-01-01

    Over 60% of surgery is now performed in an ambulatory setting. Despite improved analgesics and sophisticated drug delivery systems, surveys indicate that over 80% of patients experience moderate to severe pain postoperatively. Inadequate postoperative pain relief can prolong recovery, precipitate or increase the duration of hospital stay, increase healthcare costs, and reduce patient satisfaction. Effective postoperative pain management involves a multimodal approach and the use of various drugs with different mechanisms of action. Local anaesthetics are widely administered in the ambulatory setting using techniques such as local injection, field block, regional nerve block or neuraxial block. Continuous wound infusion pumps may have great potential in an ambulatory setting. Regional anaesthesia (involving anaesthetising regional areas of the body, including single extremities, multiple extremities, the torso, and the face or jaw) allows surgery to be performed in a specific location, usually an extremity, without the use of general anaesthesia, and potentially with little or no sedation. Opioids remain an important component of any analgesic regimen in treating moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. However, the incorporation of non-opioids, local anaesthetics and regional techniques will enhance current postoperative analgesic regimens. The development of new modalities of treatment, such as patient controlled analgesia, and newer drugs, such as cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, provide additional choices for the practitioner. While there are different routes of administration for analgesics (e.g. oral, parenteral, intramuscular, transmucosal, transdermal and sublingual), oral delivery of medications has remained the mainstay for postoperative pain control. The oral route is effective, the simplest to use and typically the least expensive. The intravenous route has the advantages of a rapid onset of action and easier titratibility, and so is recommended for the

  14. Care of the patient with chronic pain: part II.

    PubMed

    Wells-Federman, C L

    2000-01-01

    Chronic nonmalignant pain frequently results in significant physical, behavioral, psychological, social, and spiritual issues for patients and their families. It is often misunderstood and unsuccessfully managed. Advanced practice nurses who are knowledgeable about chronic pain and the complex biopsychosocial-spiritual needs of this patient population serve an important role in recognizing these patients and intervening appropriately in their care. The purpose of this two-part article is to provide that information. Part I [Clinical Excellence for Nurse Practitioners, 3 (4), 192-204] outlined the pathophysiology, assessment, biopsychosocial-spiritual aspects, and pharmacologic treatment of chronic pain. In Part II, a variety of nonpharmacologic and self-management interventions one can use in the primary care setting to treat these difficult health problems are introduced. PMID:11858295

  15. Pain management. Theological and ethical principles governing the use of pain relief for dying patients. Task Force on Pain Management, Catholic Health Association.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Pain management is a societal problem because of concerns about the use of drugs, the belief that patients are not good judges of the severity of their pain, and an alarming level of ignorance about pain and its treatment among physicians, nurses, and other healthcare providers. The result is that patients suffer pain unnecessarily, even up to the point of their death. Pain management is also a clinical-practice problem. Courses in pain and symptom management are not readily available to medical and nursing students. And in clinical practice, good pain assessment is not easy to accomplish because pain is so subjective. Fortunately, with education, doctors and nurses can vastly improve their ability to assess and manage patients' pain. Additional problems in pain management relate to the manner in which healthcare is provided today: an acute disease-oriented model of hospital care, frequent transfers, fragmented care, inadequate reimbursement, market forces that drive up costs, and maldistribution of clinical services. In improving their ability to manage pain, professionals must understand the difference between pain and suffering, acute and chronic pain, and the sensory and emotional aspects of pain. Guiding principles include Church teaching and ethical principles, such as patient self-determination, holistic care, the principle of beneficence, distributive justice, and the common good. Pain management strategies that will be instrumental in formulating effective responses to these problems include expanding professional and community education, affording pain funding priority, establishing institutional policies and protocols, forming clinical teams, encouraging hospice and home care, and requiring accreditation in pain and symptom management. PMID:10145758

  16. Evidence for brain glial activation in chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Loggia, Marco L.; Chonde, Daniel B.; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Arabasz, Grae; Catana, Ciprian; Edwards, Robert R.; Hill, Elena; Hsu, Shirley; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Ji, Ru-Rong; Riley, Misha; Wasan, Ajay D.; Zürcher, Nicole R.; Albrecht, Daniel S.; Vangel, Mark G.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Napadow, Vitaly; Hooker, Jacob M.

    2015-01-01

    Although substantial evidence has established that microglia and astrocytes play a key role in the establishment and maintenance of persistent pain in animal models, the role of glial cells in human pain disorders remains unknown. Here, using the novel technology of integrated positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging and the recently developed radioligand 11C-PBR28, we show increased brain levels of the translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of glial activation, in patients with chronic low back pain. As the Ala147Thr polymorphism in the TSPO gene affects binding affinity for 11C-PBR28, nine patient–control pairs were identified from a larger sample of subjects screened and genotyped, and compared in a matched-pairs design, in which each patient was matched to a TSPO polymorphism-, age- and sex-matched control subject (seven Ala/Ala and two Ala/Thr, five males and four females in each group; median age difference: 1 year; age range: 29–63 for patients and 28–65 for controls). Standardized uptake values normalized to whole brain were significantly higher in patients than controls in multiple brain regions, including thalamus and the putative somatosensory representations of the lumbar spine and leg. The thalamic levels of TSPO were negatively correlated with clinical pain and circulating levels of the proinflammatory citokine interleukin-6, suggesting that TSPO expression exerts pain-protective/anti-inflammatory effects in humans, as predicted by animal studies. Given the putative role of activated glia in the establishment and or maintenance of persistent pain, the present findings offer clinical implications that may serve to guide future studies of the pathophysiology and management of a variety of persistent pain conditions. PMID:25582579

  17. Temporomandibular disorders in fibromyalgia patients: are there different pain onset?

    PubMed

    Fujarra, Fábio J C; Kaziyama, Helena Hideko Seguchi; Siqueira, Silvia Regina D T de; Yeng, Lin Tchia; Camparis, Cinara M; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Siqueira, José Tadeu Tesseroli de

    2016-03-01

    Objective To identify temporomandibular disorders (TMD) symptoms in two groups of fibromyalgia patients according to the temporal relation between the onset of facial pain (FP) and generalized body pain (GBP). Cross-sectional study design: Fifty-three consecutive women with fibromyalgia and FP were stratified according to the onset of orofacial pain: Group-A (mean age 47.30 ± 14.20 years old), onset of FP preceded GBP; Group-B (mean age 51.33 ± 11.03 years old), the FP started concomitant or after GBP. Clinical assessment Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders and the Visual Analogue Scale. Results Myofascial pain with mouth opening limitation (p = 0.038); right disc displacement with reduction (p = 0.012) and jaw stiffness (p = 0.004) were predominant in Group A. Myofascial pain without mouth opening limitation (p = 0.038) and numbness/burning were more common in Group B. Conclusion All patients had temporomandibular joint symptoms, mainly muscle disorders. The prevalence of myofascial pain with limited mouth opening and right TMJ disc displacement with reduction were higher in Group A. PMID:27050847

  18. Characteristics of highly impaired children with severe chronic pain: a 5-year retrospective study on 2249 pediatric pain patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prevalence of pain as a recurrent symptom in children is known to be high, but little is known about children with high impairment from chronic pain seeking specialized treatment. The purpose of this study was the precise description of children with high impairment from chronic pain referred to the German Paediatric Pain Centre over a 5-year period. Methods Demographic variables, pain characteristics and psychometric measures were assessed at the first evaluation. Subgroup analysis for sex, age and pain location was conducted and multivariate logistic regression applied to identify parameters associated with extremely high impairment. Results The retrospective study consisted of 2249 children assessed at the first evaluation. Tension type headache (48%), migraine (43%) and functional abdominal pain (11%) were the most common diagnoses with a high rate of co-occurrence; 18% had some form of musculoskeletal pain disease. Irrespective of pain location, chronic pain disorder with somatic and psychological factors was diagnosed frequently (43%). 55% of the children suffered from more than one distinct pain diagnosis. Clinically significant depression and general anxiety scores were expressed by 24% and 19% of the patients, respectively. Girls over the age of 13 were more likely to seek tertiary treatment compared to boys. Nearly half of children suffered from daily or constant pain with a mean pain value of 6/10. Extremely high pain-related impairment, operationalized as a comprehensive measure of pain duration, frequency, intensity, pain-related school absence and disability, was associated with older age, multiple locations of pain, increased depression and prior hospital stays. 43% of the children taking analgesics had no indication for pharmacological treatment. Conclusion Children with chronic pain are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge as they often have two or more different pain diagnoses, are prone to misuse of analgesics and are severely

  19. My patient has abdominal and flank pain: Identifying renal causes.

    PubMed

    Cox, Christopher; MacDonald, Scott; Henneberry, Ryan; Atkinson, Paul R

    2015-11-01

    Acute flank and abdominal pain are common presenting complaints in the emergency department. With increasing access to point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS), emergency physicians have an added tool to help identify renal problems as a cause of a patient's pain. PoCUS for hydronephrosis has a sensitivity of 72-83.3% and a varying specificity, similar to radiology-performed ultrasonography. In addition to assessment for hydronephrosis, PoCUS can help emergency physicians to exclude other serious causes of flank and abdominal pain such as the presence of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, or free fluid in the intraperitoneal space, which could represent hemorrhage. Use of PoCUS for the assessment of flank pain has resulted in more rapid diagnosis, decreased use of computed tomography, and shorter emergency department length of stay. PMID:27433264

  20. Clinical assessment of patients with orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Stern, Ilanit; Greenberg, Martin S

    2013-07-01

    Accurate diagnosis of chronic pain disorders of the mouth, jaws, and face is frequently complex. It is common for patients with chronic orofacial pain to consult multiple clinicians and receive ineffective treatment before a correct diagnosis is reached. This problem is a significant public health concern. Clinicians can minimize error by starting the diagnostic procedure with a careful, accurate history and thorough head and neck examination followed by a thoughtfully constructed differential diagnosis. The possibility that the patient has symptoms of a life-threatening underlying disease rather than a more common dental, sinus, or temporomandibular disorder must always be considered. PMID:23809299

  1. A Practical Approach to Improving Pain Control in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Brigden, Malcolm L.; Barnett, Jeffrey B.

    1987-01-01

    Despite a wealth of recent articles, many patients with cancer pain continue to suffer needlessly. The satisfactory treatment of cancer pain requires a variety of practical management strategies. Practicing physicians need a wider understanding of both the basic principles of analgesic therapy and the pharmacologic features of analgesics. Certain analgesics are best not used in cancer care. The use of pharmacologic adjuncts may lessen overall narcotic requirements and side effects. The appropriate use of alternative therapies can dramatically improve the quality of patients' overall survival. PMID:2884781

  2. Diagnosis of acute abdominal pain in older patients.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Corey; Clark, Dwayne C

    2006-11-01

    Acute abdominal pain is a common presenting complaint in older patients. Presentation may differ from that of the younger patient and is often complicated by coexistent disease, delays in presentation, and physical and social barriers. The physical examination can be misleadingly benign, even with catastrophic conditions such as abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture and mesenteric ischemia. Changes that occur in the biliary system because of aging make older patients vulnerable to acute cholecystitis, the most common indication for surgery in this population. In older patients with appendicitis, the initial diagnosis is correct only one half of the time, and there are increased rates of perforation and mortality when compared with younger patients. Medication use, gallstones, and alcohol use increase the risk of pancreatitis, and advanced age is an indicator of poor prognosis for this disease. Diverticulitis is a common cause of abdominal pain in the older patient; in appropriately selected patients, it may be treated on an outpatient basis with oral antibiotics. Small and large bowel obstructions, usually caused by adhesive disease or malignancy, are more common in the aged and often require surgery. Morbidity and mortality among older patients presenting with acute abdominal pain are high, and these patients often require hospitalization with prompt surgical consultation. PMID:17111893

  3. Temporal Summation of Heat Pain in Temporomandibular Disorder Patients

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, Karen G.; Janal, Malvin N.; Ananthan, Sowmya; Cook, Dane B.; Staud, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Aims One possible mechanism underlying myofascial temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is altered central nervous system processing of painful stimuli. The current study aimed to compare TMD cases to controls on two measures of central processing, i.e., temporal summation of heat pain and decay of subsequent aftersensations, following thermal stimulation in both a trigeminal and extratrigeminal area. Methods Using a “wind-up” (WU) protocol, 19 female TMD patients and 17 controls were exposed to 15 heat stimuli at a rate of 0.3 Hz. Numeric pain ratings were elicited after the 1st, 5th, 10th and 15th stimulus presentation and every 15 seconds after final presentation (aftersensations), for up to 2 minutes. In separate trials, the thermode was placed on the thenar eminence of the hand and the skin overlying the masseter muscle. Results Groups did not differ with respect to the slope of WU when stimulated at either anatomic site, although asymptote occurred sooner for TMD patients than controls. In analysis of aftersensations, a significant group x site x time interaction was detected, in which TMD patients experienced more prolonged painful aftersensations than controls when stimulated on the skin overlying the masseter muscles. Conclusions These results are consistent with the presence of enhanced central sensitivity in TMD and suggest that this sensitivity may be largely confined to the region of clinical pain. This contrasts with conditions such as fibromyalgia, where central sensitivity appears to be widespread. PMID:19264036

  4. Pain management and regional anesthesia for the dental patient.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Tony M

    2008-05-01

    Current standards of care in veterinary medicine dictate an adequate level of pain control for our patients. Effective pain control uses a proactive, multimode approach that starts with preoperative medications, includes the anesthetic protocol selected, and continues into the postoperative period. A basic understanding of the physiology of pain assists in selecting those agents and modalities best suited for individual patients. Analgesic drug selection and local anesthesia are both integral parts of pain control when performing surgery in the oral cavity. Local (regional) anesthesia plays an important part in the pain control of oral surgical patients. Regional anesthetic techniques are used for many common oral procedures, including extractions, periodontal flap surgery, treatment of traumatic injuries of the oral cavity, tumor removal, palatal surgery, periodontal therapy, and root canal therapy. This presentation will cover strategies for analgesia and the techniques and materials used in local/regional anesthesia in the oral cavity. Anatomic landmarks and guidelines for effective regional blocks will be covered. PMID:18482711

  5. Patient Satisfaction with Spanish Pain Centers: Observational Study with More than 3,000 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Puiggròs, Patricia; Tesedo Nieto, Javier; Acín Lázaro, María Pilar; Carrera González, Alfredo; Soler, Miguel José Arranz; Maldonado Vega, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain is a serious problem in Spain. This multicenter, epidemiological 3-month follow-up study investigates pain management efficacy in Spanish centers using patient satisfaction criteria. 3,414 eligible adult patients (65,6% female) with moderate to severe chronic pain from 146 pain centers were included. Patient satisfaction was assessed based onto question 18 of Spanish healthcare barometer-CSI. Pain evolution (Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF) and visual analog scale (VAS)), quality of life/EuroQol-5, and pain control expectations fulfillment were also assessed. Mean age was 61.3 years. 64.4% of participating centers employed multidisciplinary pain management approach. After 3 months, mean patient satisfaction was 7.8 (1–10) on the CIS barometer. Medical staff received the highest scores, whereas waiting for tests, appointment request to appointment date time, and waiting times at the center the lowest. Mean pain decreased from 7.4 to 4.0; BPI-SF intensity decreased from 6.5 to 3.8; pain control expectations were met in 78.7% of patients; EuroQoL-5D utility index increased from 0.37 to 0.62, p < 0.001, and health status (VAS) from 40.6 to 61.9, p < 0.001. Chronic pain patients (90%) are satisfied with Spanish centers care; 80% had their pain control expectations met. Quality of life improved remarkably: 71% felt moderately to significantly better. However, waiting times need improvement. PMID:27516902

  6. Review of perioperative pain management of opioid-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Mitra, Sukanya; Kai, Alice M; Kodumudi, Gopal; Gritsenko, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Opioid dependence can occur due to prescription opioid use, recreational opioid use, or as a result of opioid use for the treatment of drug addiction. Pain control in these patients is truly a challenge. It is important to understand the patient's condition such as the phenomenon of drug dependence, drug addiction, and pseudoaddiction to provide effective analgesia. This may be accomplished using appropriate multimodal therapies and by treatment of coexisting diseases such as anxiety. The goal is to provide effective analgesia, prevent cognitive and emotional problems, and produce a positive postoperative rehabilitation process. Multimodal options include pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches, psychological support, and interventional pain procedures, all focused toward providing optimal pain control while preventing undertreatment, withdrawal symptoms, and other complications. PMID:27575830

  7. Effect of Therapeutic Modalities on Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lake, David A.; Wofford, Nancy H.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a common orthopaedic condition for which operative and nonoperative treatments have been used. Therapeutic modalities have been recommended for the treatment of patients with PFPS—including cold, ultrasound, phonophoresis, iontophoresis, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, electrical stimulation for pain control, electromyographic biofeedback, and laser. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of therapeutic modalities for the treatment of patients with PFPS. Data Sources: In May and August 2010, Medline was searched using the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science Citation Index, Science Direct, ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health, and Your Journals@OVID. Study Selection: Selected studies were randomized controlled trials that used a therapeutic modality to treat patients with PFPS. The review included articles with all outcome measures relevant for the PFPS patient: knee extension and flexion strength (isokinetic and isometric), patellofemoral pain assessment during activities of daily life, functional tests (eg, squats), Kujala patellofemoral score, and electromyographic recording from knee flexors and extensors and quadriceps femoris cross-sectional areas. Data Extraction: Authors conducted independent quality appraisals of studies using the PEDro Scale and a system designed for analysis of studies on interventions for patellofemoral pain. Results: Twelve studies met criteria: 1 on the effects of cold and ultrasound together, ice alone, iontophoresis, and phonophoresis; 3, neuromuscular electrical stimulation; 4, electromyographic biofeedback; 3, electrical stimulation for control of pain; and 1, laser. Discussion: Most studies were of low to moderate quality. Some reported that therapeutic modalities, when combined with other treatments, may be of some benefit for pain management or other symptoms. There was no consistent evidence of any beneficial effect when a therapeutic modality was used alone

  8. Validity, Sensitivity, and Responsiveness of the 11-Face Faces Pain Scale to Postoperative Pain in Adult Orthopedic Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Van Giang, Nguyen; Chiu, Hsiao-Yean; Thai, Duong Hong; Kuo, Shu-Yu; Tsai, Pei-Shan

    2015-10-01

    Pain is common in patients after orthopedic surgery. The 11-face Faces Pain Scale has not been validated for use in adult patients with postoperative pain. To assess the validity of the 11-face Faces Pain Scale and its ability to detect responses to pain medications, and to determine whether the sensitivity of the 11-face Faces Pain Scale for detecting changes in pain intensity over time is associated with gender differences in adult postorthopedic surgery patients. The 11-face Faces Pain Scale was translated into Vietnamese using forward and back translation. Postoperative pain was assessed using an 11-point numerical rating scale and the 11-face Faces Pain Scale on the day of surgery, and before (Time 1) and every 30 minutes after (Times 2-5) the patients had taken pain medications on the first postoperative day. The 11-face Faces Pain Scale highly correlated with the numerical rating scale (r = 0.78, p < .001). When the scores from each follow-up test (Times 2-5) were compared with those from the baseline test (Time 1), the effect sizes were -0.70, -1.05, -1.20, and -1.31, and the standardized response means were -1.17, -1.59, -1.66, and -1.82, respectively. The mean change in pain intensity, but not gender-time interaction effect, over the five time points was significant (F = 182.03, p < .001). Our results support that the 11-face Faces Pain Scale is appropriate for measuring acute postoperative pain in adults. PMID:25962544

  9. Internet-Based Survey Evaluating Use of Pain Medications and Attitudes of Radiation Oncology Patients Toward Pain Intervention

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, Charles B. Vapiwala, Neha; Hampshire, Margaret K.; Metz, James M.

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: Pain is a common symptom among cancer patients, yet many patients do not receive adequate pain management. Few data exist quantifying analgesic use by radiation oncology patients. This study evaluated the causes of pain in cancer patients and investigated the reasons patients fail to receive optimal analgesic therapy. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved, Internet-based questionnaire assessing analgesic use and pain control was posted on the OncoLink (available at (www.oncolink.org)) Website. Between November 2005 and April 2006, 243 patients responded. They were predominantly women (73%), white (71%), and educated beyond high school (67%) and had breast (38%), lung (6%), or ovarian (6%) cancer. This analysis evaluated the 106 patients (44%) who underwent radiotherapy. Results: Of the 106 patients, 58% reported pain from their cancer treatment, and 46% reported pain directly from their cancer. The pain was chronic in 51% and intermittent in 33%. Most (80%) did not use medication to manage their pain. Analgesic use was significantly less in patients with greater education levels (11% vs. 36%, p = 0.002), with a trend toward lower use by whites (16% vs. 32%, p 0.082) and women (17% vs. 29%, p = 0.178). The reasons for not taking analgesics included healthcare provider not recommending medication (87%), fear of addiction or dependence (79%), and inability to pay (79%). Participants experiencing pain, but not taking analgesics, pursued alternative therapies for relief. Conclusions: Many radiation oncology patients experience pain from their disease and cancer treatment. Most study participants did not use analgesics because of concerns of addiction, cost, or failure of the radiation oncologist to recommend medication. Healthcare providers should have open discussions with their patients regarding pain symptoms and treatment.

  10. Sudden chest pain and cardiac emergencies in the obstetric patient.

    PubMed

    Mabie, W C; Freire, C M

    1995-03-01

    The differential diagnosis and work-up of a patient with chest pain during pregnancy is presented in this article. This is followed by discussions of cardiac emergencies including hypertensive crisis, pulmonary edema, arrhythmias, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, myocardial infarction, and aortic dissection. PMID:7784039

  11. [Health maintenance, relaxation and hypnosis for chronic pain patients].

    PubMed

    Boiron, Clare

    2014-10-01

    The treatment of chronic pain patients integrates more and more complementary therapies such as relaxation and hypnosis, implemented by specially trained nurses. These techniques are offered on the basis of nurses' diagnoses carried out in the framework of a clinical approach. PMID:25518140

  12. [Care-related pain in patients with cancer].

    PubMed

    Arbiol, Évelyne; Brasy, Sonia; Morlière, Lise

    2015-04-01

    The pathway of a patient suffering from cancer can stretch over years, marked by multiple examinations, treatments and procedures. These can all result in induced pain which can be prevented thanks to the knowledge and skills of the caregivers along with pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. PMID:26145418

  13. Treating Pain in Addicted Patients: Recommendations from an Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Cheatle, Martin; Wunsch, Martha; Skoufalos, Alexis; Reddy, Yeshwant

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Clinicians may face pragmatic, ethical, and legal issues when treating addicted patients. Equal pressures exist for clinicians to always address the health care needs of these patients in addition to their addiction. Although controversial, mainly because of the lack of evidence regarding their long-term efficacy, the use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain management is widespread. Their use for pain management in the addicted population can present even more challenges, especially when evaluating the likelihood of drug-seeking behavior. As the misuse and abuse of opioids continues to burgeon, clinicians must be particularly vigilant when prescribing chronic opioid therapy. The purpose of this article is to summarize recommendations from a recent meeting of experts convened to recommend how primary care physicians should approach treatment of chronic pain for addicted patients when an addiction specialist is not available for a referral. As there is a significant gap in guidelines and recommendations in this specific area of care, this article serves to create a foundation for expanding chronic pain guidelines in the area of treating the addicted population. This summary is designed to be a practical how-to guide for primary care physicians, discussing risk assessment, patient stratification, and recommended therapeutic approaches. (Population Health Management 2014;17:79–89) PMID:24138341

  14. Associations between Neuroticism and Depression in Relation to Catastrophizing and Pain-Related Anxiety in Chronic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kadimpati, Sandeep; Zale, Emily L.; Hooten, Michael W.; Ditre, Joseph W.; Warner, David O.

    2015-01-01

    Several cognitive-affective constructs, including pain catastrophizing and pain-related anxiety, have been implicated in the onset and progression of chronic pain, and both constructs have been identified as key targets for multidisciplinary pain treatment. Both neuroticism and depression have been linked to these constructs (and to each other), but how each may contribute to the pain experience is unknown. This study tested associations between neuroticism, depression, and indices of catastrophizing and pain-related anxiety among persons seeking treatment for chronic non-malignant pain. We hypothesized, as a higher-order personality trait, neuroticism would remain uniquely associated with both pain catastrophizing and pain-related anxiety, even after accounting for current symptoms of depression. A retrospective study design assessed depression (as measured by the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale), neuroticism (measured with the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory), the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Pain Anxiety Symptom Score in a consecutive series of patients (n=595) admitted to a 3-week outpatient pain treatment program from March 2009 through January 2011. Hierarchical regression indicated that neuroticism was independently associated with greater pain catastrophizing and pain-related anxiety, above-and-beyond the contributions of sociodemographic characteristics, pain severity, and depression. A depression by neuroticism interaction was not observed, suggesting that associations between neuroticism and cognitive-affective pain constructs remained stable across varying levels of current depression. These findings represent an early but important step towards the clarification of complex associations between trait neuroticism, current depression, and tendencies toward catastrophic and anxiety-provoking appraisals of pain among persons seeking treatment for chronic pain. PMID:25902153

  15. What is the pain source? A case report of a patient with low back pain and bilateral hip osteonecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Minkalis, Amy L.; Vining, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Low back pain is a common symptom arising from many possible sources and includes the possibility of the contribution of remote pathology. This report describes a patient with bilateral osteonecrosis of the femoral heads presenting with a primary symptom of low back pain. Case presentation: A 37-year-old male presented for evaluation of dominant pain that existed for approximately 6–12 months and was located in the right low back. Milder pain was also reported in the right hip. Low back and hip pain were both aggravated by weight-bearing activities. An evidence-based diagnostic evaluation revealed little indication for a primary pain source originating from low back structures. Radiographs revealed bilateral osteonecrosis with evidence of left femoral head collapse. Conclusion: Hip osteonecrosis may have contributed to an atypical presentation of low back pain due to aberrant localization of pain and/or combined with altered biomechanical loading of musculoskeletal structures. PMID:26500365

  16. [Diagnosis in patients with a painful arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Carrega, Giuliana; Antonini, Andrea; Burastero, Giorgio; Casalino-Finocchio, Giorgetta; Ronca, Agostina; Salomone, Carlo; Riccio, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    The differential diagnosis between asepting loosening or prosthetic joint infection is not always easy. Tc-99m-labelled leucocyte scans, frozen section and histology can help recognise doubtful cases. We report the experience of the Unit for Infectious Diseases and Septic Orthopaedics of the ASL-2 Liguria, Italy, with a Tc-99m-labelled leucocyte scan and intraoperative frozen section to choose the best therapeutic approach: one-stage or two-stage exchange or arthrodesis-arthroplastica. All cases underwent histology and intraoperative cultures to confirm the diagnosis, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated at follow up after 18 months. From January 2011 to December 2012, 36 patients were evaluated (21 hip and 15 knee arthroprosthesis). The Tc-99m-labelled leukocyte scan was positive in 31 and negative in 5 patients. Frozen section was negative in 7 patients. Five of them were patients with a negative Tc-99m-labelled leucocyte scan and were treated successfully with one-stage exchange, even if, in one of them, Enterococcus faecalis was isolated at replacement and suppressive antibiotic treatment was needed. The other 31 patients were treated with arthrodesis arthroplasty (3 patients) or a two-stage exchange. In this group the Tc-99m-labelled leucocyte scan was positive in all patients and the frozen section was positive in 29/31 cases with 6% false negative. Histology was positive in 27/31 with 13% of false negative. The sensitivity and specificity value was respectively 90% and 100% in the frozen section, 84% and 100% in histology. Cultures were positive in 23/31 cases. Patients subjected to two-stage exchange were evaluated again during prosthesis replacement but the results of the Tc-99m-labelled leucocyte scan and histology showed unclear results more frequently: the Tc-99m-labelled leucocyte scan was positive in two cases, the frozen section in three and histology in seven in spite of positive culture in three cases and one relapse in a patient

  17. Characteristics and prognostic factors for pain management in 152 patients with lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lei; Liu, Yumei; He, Hua; Wang, Cong; Li, Hongwei; Wang, Nanya

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to analyze the pain characteristics and factors influencing the outcome of pain control in patients with lung cancer having pain. Methods Pain characteristics, the effectiveness, and prognostic factors for pain control were analyzed in 152 patients with lung cancer having moderate or severe chronic pain admitted to Cancer Center of The First Hospital of Jilin University, People’s Republic of China, between January 2012 and May 2013. Information about sex, age, pathological type, TNM stage, presence/absence of bone metastases, characteristics of pain, methods, and effectiveness of pain management was recorded. Results Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and small-cell carcinoma accounted for 132/152 (86.8%) and 20/152 (13.2%) cases, respectively. Among them, moderate (72.4%) or severe pain (27.6%) was reported in 73.7% of the cases at stage IV, chest or back pain was reported in 76.3% of the cases, and pain in other locations in the rest of the cases. Bone metastases were apparent in 44.1% of the patients. Neuropathic pain was noted in 46.7% of the patients, and frequent breakthrough pain was noted in 25.7% of the patients. High pain intensity was associated with frequent breakthrough pain. Pain was adequately controlled in 81.6% of the patients prescribed 3 days of analgesics. More patients reported a KPS higher than or equal to 80 after 3 days of analgesic treatment (P<0.001). Severe pain, frequent breakthrough pain, and presence of bone metastases were independent risk factors for poor pain control. Severe pain, frequent breakthrough pain, or neuropathic pain in the patients using opioids required higher doses of analgesic for pain control. Opioids plus nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs offered better pain control than opioids alone. Conclusion High pain intensity is associated with frequent breakthrough pain in patients with lung cancer, which can be largely controlled with analgesics. Severe pain, frequent

  18. Etifoxine for pain patients with anxiety.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun Mi; Kim, Kyung Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Etifoxine (etafenoxine, Stresam®) is a non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic with an anticonvulsant effect. It was developed in the 1960s for anxiety disorders and is currently being studied for its ability to promote peripheral nerve healing and to treat chemotherapy-induced pain. In addition to being mediated by GABAAα2 receptors like benzodiazepines, etifoxine appears to produce anxiolytic effects directly by binding to β2 or β3 subunits of the GABAA receptor complex. It also modulates GABAA receptors indirectly via stimulation of neurosteroid production after etifoxine binds to the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) of the outer mitochondrial membrane in the central and peripheral nervous systems, previously known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR). Therefore, the effects of etifoxine are not completely reversed by the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil. Etifoxine is used for various emotional and bodily reactions followed by anxiety. It is contraindicated in situations such as shock, severely impaired liver or kidney function, and severe respiratory failure. The average dosage is 150 mg per day for no more than 12 weeks. The most common adverse effect is drowsiness at the initial stage. It does not usually cause any withdrawal syndromes. In conclusion, etifoxine shows less adverse effects of anterograde amnesia, sedation, impaired psychomotor performance, and withdrawal syndromes than those of benzodiazepines. It potentiates GABAA receptor-function by a direct allosteric effect and by an indirect mechanism involving the activation of TSPO. It seems promising that non-benzodiazepine anxiolytics including etifoxine will replenish shortcomings of benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors according to animated studies related to TSPO. PMID:25589941

  19. Acute Abdominal Pain in the Bariatric Surgery Patient.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kyle D; Takenaka, Katrin Y; Luber, Samuel D

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is present in epidemic proportions in the United States, and bariatric surgery has become more common. Thus, emergency physicians will undoubtedly encounter many patients who have undergone one of these procedures. Knowledge of the anatomic changes specific to these procedures aids the clinician in understanding potential complications and devising an organized differential diagnosis. This article reviews common bariatric surgery procedures, their complications, and the approach to acute abdominal pain in these patients. PMID:27133251

  20. Pain Expectancies, Pain, and Functional Self-Efficacy Expectancies as Determinants of Disability in Patients with Chronic Low Back Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackner, Jeffrey M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tested the predictive power of self-efficacy expectations of physical capabilities, expectations of pain, and expectations of reinjury on physical function in chronic back pain patients. Before assessment of function, patients rated their abilities to perform essential job tasks--functional self-efficacy (FSE)--and the likelihood working would…

  1. Cancer-related pain in older adults receiving palliative care: Patient and family caregiver perspectives on the experience of pain

    PubMed Central

    McPherson, Christine J; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Lobchuk, Michelle M; Kilgour, Kelly N

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite an emphasis on pain management in palliative care, pain continues to be a common problem for individuals with advanced cancer. Many of those affected are older due to the disproportionate incidence of cancer in this age group. There remains little understanding of how older patients and their family caregivers perceive patients’ cancer-related pain, despite its significance for pain management in the home setting. OBJECTIVES: To explore and describe the cancer pain perceptions and experiences of older adults with advanced cancer and their family caregivers. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive approach was used to describe and interpret data collected from semistructured interviews with 18 patients (≥65 years of age) with advanced cancer receiving palliative care at home and their family caregivers. RESULTS: The main category ‘Experiencing cancer pain’ incorporated three themes. The theme ‘Feeling cancer pain’ included the sensory aspects of the pain, its origin and meanings attributed to the pain. A second theme, ‘Reacting to cancer pain’, included patients’ and family caregivers’ behavioural, cognitive (ie, attitudes, beliefs and control) and emotional responses to the pain. A third theme, ‘Living with cancer pain’ incorporated individual and social-relational changes that resulted from living with cancer pain. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide an awareness of cancer pain experienced by older patients and their family caregivers within the wider context of ongoing relationships, increased patient morbidity and other losses common in the aged. PMID:23957019

  2. Non-inflammatory Causes of Pain in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Boyden, Sean D; Hossain, Imtiyaz N; Wohlfahrt, Alyssa; Lee, Yvonne C

    2016-06-01

    Although pain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is frequently thought to be inflammatory in nature, the association between measures of inflammation and pain intensity is low. This observation is likely due to the multifactorial nature of pain. In addition to pain from joint inflammation, RA patients may also have pain due to structural damage or central etiologies, such as aberrancies in the central nervous system (CNS) pain regulatory pathways. These CNS pathways include mechanisms that facilitate pain, as well as mechanisms that inhibit pain. Other factors, such as sleep disturbances, depression, anxiety, and catastrophizing, may also impact the perception of pain in RA patients. Since pain is frequently used as a proxy for inflammation in the assessment of RA disease activity, it is important that patients and physicians recognize that not all pain is inflammatory, and alternative management strategies, other than escalating disease-modifying antirheumatic drug treatment, may need to be considered. PMID:27097817

  3. Continuous Quality Improvement for Patients with Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Deyo, Richard A; Schall, Marie; Berwick, Donald M; Nolan, Tom; Carver, Penny

    2000-01-01

    Recent evidence has changed traditional approaches to low back pain, suggesting minimal bed rest, highly selective imaging, and early return to normal activities. However, there are wide geographical variations in care, and substantial gaps between practice and evidence. This project sought to merge scientific evidence about back pain and knowledge about behavior change to help organizations improve care for back pain. Participating insurance plans, HMOs, and group practices focused on problems they themselves identified. The year-long program included quarterly meetings, coaching for rapid cycles of change, a menu of potential interventions, and recommendations for monitoring outcomes. Participants interacted through meetings, e-mail, and conference calls. Of the 22 participating organizations, 6 (27%) made major progress. Typical changes were reduced imaging, bed rest, and work loss, and increased patient education and satisfaction. Specific examples were a 30% decrease in plain x-rays, a 100% increase in use of patient education materials, and an 81% drop in prescribed bed rest. Despite the complexity of care for back pain, rapid improvements appear feasible. Several organizations had major improvements, and most experienced at least modest improvements. Key elements of successful programs included focus on a small number of clinical goals, frequent measurement of outcomes among small samples of patients, vigilance in maintaining gains; involvement of office staffs as well as physicians, and changes in standard protocols for imaging, physical therapy, and referral. PMID:11029679

  4. Opioid endocrinopathy: A clinical problem in patients with cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    MERDIN, ALPARSLAN; MERDIN, FATMA AVCI; GÜNDÜZ, ŞEYDA; BOZCUK, HAKAN; COŞKUN, HASAN ŞENOL

    2016-01-01

    Opioids are commonly used in cancer pain management. The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of endocrine dysfunction in patients with cancer pain treated with opioids. The study included 20 patients with cancer-associated pain. All data were obtained from malignant tumors diagnosed and followed up at the Oncology Clinic of Akdeniz University Hospital (Akdeniz, Turkey) between May 2009 and December 2013. Serum samples were collected to determine the levels of hypophyseal, gonadal and thyroid hormones. The inclusion criteria for the study were as follows: Chronic cancer pain, daily treatment with a morphine equivalent daily dose (MEDD) of ≥25 mg/dl for ≥1 month, and a visual analog score of <2. All independent predictors were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. The results did not demonstrate any significant association between MEDD and gender, or the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. However, the levels of testosterone (P=0.040) and of free testosterone (P=0.041) were significantly affected by the MEDD. Conversely, prolactin levels were demonstrated to significantly increase with MEDD (P=0.083). The results also indicated that the required opioid analgesic dose and MEDD were significantly affected by age (P≤0.001). Opioid therapy in patients with cancer may inhibit gonadal function and cause hyperprolactinemia. PMID:27168810

  5. Pain in IBD Patients: Very Frequent and Frequently Insufficiently Taken into Account

    PubMed Central

    Ak, Melike; Müller-Mottet, Séverine; Scharl, Sylvie; Biedermann, Luc; Fournier, Nicolas; Frei, Pascal; Pittet, Valerie; Scharl, Michael; Fried, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Pain is a common symptom related to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In addition to abdominal pain, pain can also be an extraintestinal manifestation of IBD. Pain treatment is challenging and a substantial part of IBD patients are treated with opioids. Therefore, a better knowledge on pain symptoms is crucial for a better therapeutic approach to this clinical problem. Methods Patients of the Swiss IBD Cohort Study (SIBDCS) (n = 2152) received a questionnaire regarding pain intensity, pain localization and impact of pain on daily life and social activities. Furthermore, the questionnaire investigated the use of pain-specific medication. Results A vast majority of patients (71%) experienced pain during the disease course. For a substantial part of patients (49% in UC and 55% in CD) pain is a longstanding problem (>5 years). Pain in UC was of shorter duration compared to CD (p < 0.01). Abdominal pain (59.5%) and back pain (38.3%) were the main pain localizations. 67% of patients took pain medication; 24% received no pain treatment. The general quality of life was significantly lower in patients suffering of pain compared to those without pain (38 vs. 77; (-100 very bad; 100 very good) p<0.0001). Conclusions Prevalence of pain is high in patients of the SIBDCS. It is a longstanding problem for the majority of the patients affected. Pain was found to be undertreated in the SIBDCS and was significantly associated with health-related quality of life. Thus, an increased awareness is mandatory to address this frequent complication in the course of IBD. PMID:27332879

  6. Reflecting on pain management for patients with osteoarthritis and other rheumatic disorders: there's more to pain management than managing pain

    PubMed Central

    Perret, Danielle; Chang, Eric Y; Pang, Winnie; Shinada, Shuntaro; Panush, Richard S

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Medical progress is measured by advances in science and technology. The pace of discovery will surely accelerate. We are increasingly challenged not only to assimilate new information, but also to reconcile our learning with our art. We present the common clinical problem of managing pain in osteoarthritis as a paradigm for this dilemma in contemporary patient care. We do not yet have the understanding and interventions to do this optimally for all with osteoarthritis, leaving us with uncertainties as we struggle to care for these patients. In a world of growing complexity and sophistication we must not overlook the person who is our patient. It is easy to be seduced by electronic and informational advances, to be entranced by machinery, and to forget the unique individuality and needs of each patient. Osler taught that “the practice of medicine is an art, based on science”. This doesn't change. PMID:24654815

  7. Reflecting on pain management for patients with osteoarthritis and other rheumatic disorders: there's more to pain management than managing pain.

    PubMed

    Perret, Danielle; Chang, Eric Y; Pang, Winnie; Shinada, Shuntaro; Panush, Richard S

    2013-07-01

    SUMMARY Medical progress is measured by advances in science and technology. The pace of discovery will surely accelerate. We are increasingly challenged not only to assimilate new information, but also to reconcile our learning with our art. We present the common clinical problem of managing pain in osteoarthritis as a paradigm for this dilemma in contemporary patient care. We do not yet have the understanding and interventions to do this optimally for all with osteoarthritis, leaving us with uncertainties as we struggle to care for these patients. In a world of growing complexity and sophistication we must not overlook the person who is our patient. It is easy to be seduced by electronic and informational advances, to be entranced by machinery, and to forget the unique individuality and needs of each patient. Osler taught that "the practice of medicine is an art, based on science". This doesn't change. PMID:24654815

  8. Classification and identification of opioid addiction in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Højsted, Jette; Nielsen, Per Rotbøll; Guldstrand, Sally Kendall; Frich, Liv; Sjøgren, Per

    2010-11-01

    Addiction is a feared consequence of long-term opioid treatment of chronic pain patients. The ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic addiction criteria may not be appropriate in these patients. Therefore Portenoy's criteria (PC) were launched. The aim was to estimate the prevalence of addiction, to investigate whether PC were applicable and to compare these criteria with the ICD-10 criteria. The study was cross-sectional and included 253 patients with chronic pain at a tertiary pain centre. Patients were screened for addiction by a physician and a nurse. The addiction prevalence was 14.4% according to ICD-10 and 19.3% according to PC. A significant difference between the prevalence of addiction according to ICD-10 and to PC was found. The inter-rater reliability was 0.95 for ICD-10 and 0.93 for PC. The sensitivity of PC was 0.85 and the specificity was 0.96. According to PC patients classified as addicted were treated with significantly higher opioid doses, drank more alcohol, smoked more tobacco, used benzodiazepines and had higher levels of depression. According to ICD-10 patients classified as addicted used higher doses of opioids, drank more alcohol and had higher scores of anxiety and depression. High opioid doses, concomitant use of alcohol and younger age were risk factors. The risk profile for PC was different to ICD-10 by adding risk factors as concomitant use of benzodiazepines, having depression and low educational level. PC seems to be appropriate for diagnosing addiction in opioid treated pain patients and seems to be more sensitive and specific than ICD-10 criteria. PMID:20494598

  9. Changes in and predictors of pain characteristics in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Astrup, Guro Lindviksmoen; Rustøen, Tone; Miaskowski, Christine; Paul, Steven M; Bjordal, Kristin

    2015-05-01

    Pain is a common symptom in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) that is associated with significant decrements in physical and psychological functioning. Only 4 studies have evaluated for changes in and predictors of different pain characteristics in these patients. In this longitudinal study of patients with HNC, changes in pain intensity (i.e., average pain, worst pain), pain interference with function, and pain relief were evaluated from the initiation of radiotherapy and through the following 6 months. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to evaluate for changes over time in these 4 pain characteristics, as well as to identify predictors of interindividual variability in each characteristic. Overall, pain intensity and interference with function scores were in the mild-to-moderate range, while pain relief scores were in the moderate range. The occurrence of pain, as well as scores for each pain characteristic, increased from the initiation to the completion of radiotherapy, followed by a gradual decrease to near pretreatment levels at 6 months. However, interindividual variability existed in patients' ratings of each pain characteristic. Predictors of more severe pain characteristic scores were more comorbidities, worse physical functioning, not having surgery before radiotherapy, difficulty swallowing, mouth sores, sleep disturbance, fatigue, more energy, and less social support. Patients with more depressive symptoms had better pain relief. Although some of the predictors cannot be modified (e.g., rrence of surgery), other predictors (e.g., symptoms) can be treated. Therefore, information about these predictors may result in decreased pain in patients with HNC. PMID:25719616

  10. Treatment of patients with hypertension and arthritis pain: new concepts.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michael A

    2009-05-01

    Arthritis pain often occurs concurrently with hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors. Treating patients with hypertension who have arthritis and other painful conditions can be a challenge because of potential risks associated with the agents commonly used to treat pain and inflammation. Hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction and decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). Naproxcinod, an investigational drug, is the first in a new class of agents called cyclooxygenase-inhibiting NO donators. They differ from traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in their ability to donate NO, a signaling molecule known to have potentially beneficial effects on the vasculature and the gastrointestinal tract. Naproxcinod, by donating NO, offers a therapeutic option that might mitigate the negative blood pressure effects and adverse gastrointestinal effects associated with traditional arthritis therapies. This article reviews some preliminary preclinical and clinical studies of key safety data of an investigational new NO-donating anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:19393822

  11. Analysis of patient-related barriers in cancer pain management in Turkish patients.

    PubMed

    Bağçivan, Gülcan; Tosun, Nuran; Kömürcü, Seref; Akbayrak, Nalan; Ozet, Ahmet

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Barriers Questionnaire II (BQ-II) for Turkish patients and to define the patient-related barriers to cancer pain management in Turkey. For this, 170 patients with cancer who used or were still using analgesic medication for pain related to cancer participated in the study. It was found that patients have beliefs that may be barriers to optimal pain management, mostly in relation to addiction, and to a small extent, physical side effects. It was ascertained that male, unmarried patients, patients with cancer who also have another chronic disease, patients whose "average pain" intensity is more than 5 for the past 24 hours, and patients who use an inadequate analgesic have more beliefs that may be barriers to optimal pain management. It was concluded that the BQ-II is a valid and reliable scale in Turkey for defining patient-related barriers to cancer pain management. PMID:19692202

  12. Cognitive profile of patients with rotated drawing at copy or recall: a controlled group study.

    PubMed

    Molteni, Federica; Traficante, Debora; Ferri, Francesca; Isella, Valeria

    2014-03-01

    When copying or recalling a figure from memory, some patient with dementia or focal brain lesions may rotate the drawing through ±90° or 180°. We have tried to clarify the nature of this phenomenon by investigating the cognitive profile of 22 patients who rotated the copy of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure and 27 who rotated (only) the recall, and two control groups of cases with the same neuropsychiatric diagnoses, but no misorientation deficit. Brain MRI and FDG-PET images were also analysed. Predictor of rotation at the copy versus rotation at the recall was visuospatial impairment as measured by the copy of the Rey Figure; predictors of rotation at the copy versus no rotation were, again, visuospatial deficits, in addition to an abnormal performance at the task of selective attention. No specific profile of cognitive impairment distinguished patients with and without rotation at the recall. Disproportionate temporo-parieto-occipital atrophy or hypometabolism were evident in cases with misorientation of the copy, while predominant frontal abnormalities were found in cases of rotated recall. Based on these findings, rotated drawing at the copy is interpreted as a dorsal visual stream deficit, whose occurrence is more probable when attentional control is impaired. Rotation at recall seems to have a distinct, more anterior, neural substrate, but its dysexecutive nature has yet to be demonstrated. PMID:24509088

  13. Compassionate Care for Patients With Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Melissa A; Smith, Carolyn E; Pomidor, Michelle A

    2015-08-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a debilitating condition characterized by specific symptoms such as intense pain and loss of function. This syndrome can be so devastating that it affects quality of life. Often, CRPS is misdiagnosed and misunderstood, which can be extremely frustrating for patients. The purpose of the survey in this study was to query actual patients living with CRPS to gain additional knowledge and suggestions to help improve their care. Respondents expressed a variety of emotions when asked about their healthcare experiences, which suggests that healthcare providers need to be better educated about CRPS so they can provide more compassionate care for patients trying to cope with this condition. PMID:26153786

  14. Discrete Pathophysiology is Uncommon in Patients with Nonspecific Arm Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kortlever, Joost T.P.; Janssen, Stein J.; Molleman, Jeroen; Hageman, Michiel G.J.S.; Ring, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nonspecific symptoms are common in all areas of medicine. Patients and caregivers can be frustrated when an illness cannot be reduced to a discrete pathophysiological process that corresponds with the symptoms. We therefore asked the following questions: 1) Which demographic factors and psychological comorbidities are associated with change from an initial diagnosis of nonspecific arm pain to eventual identification of discrete pathophysiology that corresponds with symptoms? 2) What is the percentage of patients eventually diagnosed with discrete pathophysiology, what are those pathologies, and do they account for the symptoms? Methods: We evaluated 634 patients with an isolated diagnosis of nonspecific upper extremity pain to see if discrete pathophysiology was diagnosed on subsequent visits to the same hand surgeon, a different hand surgeon, or any physician within our health system for the same pain. Results: There were too few patients with discrete pathophysiology at follow-up to address the primary study question. Definite discrete pathophysiology that corresponded with the symptoms was identified in subsequent evaluations by the index surgeon in one patient (0.16% of all patients) and cured with surgery (nodular fasciitis). Subsequent doctors identified possible discrete pathophysiology in one patient and speculative pathophysiology in four patients and the index surgeon identified possible discrete pathophysiology in four patients, but the five discrete diagnoses accounted for only a fraction of the symptoms. Conclusion: Nonspecific diagnoses are not harmful. Prospective randomized research is merited to determine if nonspecific, descriptive diagnoses are better for patients than specific diagnoses that imply pathophysiology in the absence of discrete verifiable pathophysiology. PMID:27517064

  15. Pain in patients with COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Dam van Isselt, Eléonore F; Groenewegen-Sipkema, Karin H; Spruit-van Eijk, Monica; Chavannes, Niels H; de Waal, Margot W M; Janssen, Daisy J A; Achterberg, Wilco P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To systematically investigate the prevalence of pain, factors related with pain and pain management interventions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources and study eligibility criteria PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychINFO from 1966 to December 2013. Studies were included if they presented clinical data on pain or symptom burden in patients with COPD, or pain as a domain of quality of life (QoL). All types of study designs were included. Results Of the 1571 articles that were identified, 39 met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Fourteen studies focused on pain and symptom burden (including pain) in patients with COPD and 25 studies focused on QoL using a questionnaire that included a separate pain domain. Reported pain prevalence in high-quality studies ranged from 32 to 60%. Included studies report that pain is more prevalent in patients with COPD compared to participants from the general population. Comorbidity, nutritional status, QoL and several symptoms were related to pain. None of the included studies reported a significant relationship between lung function and pain prevalence or severity. However, studies investigating pain in patients with moderate COPD reported higher pain prevalence compared to studies in patients with severe of very severe COPD. Conclusions Although literature on this topic is limited and shows substantial heterogeneity, pain seems to be a significant problem in patients with COPD and is related to several other symptoms, comorbidity and QoL. Data synthesis suggests that pain is more prevalent in patients with moderate COPD compared to patients with severe or very severe COPD. Further research is needed and should focus on determining a more accurate pain prevalence, investigating the relationship between pain prevalence, disease severity and comorbidity and explore implementation and efficacy of pain management

  16. Severe limb pain suppresses chest pain in a patient with anterior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Canpolat, U; Kaya, E B; Aytemir, K; Kabakçı, G

    2012-09-01

    Cardiac complications of chest trauma range from arrhythmias and valvular avulsions to myocardial contusion, rupture, and--rarely--myocardial infarction. Herein, we described a 44-year-old male patient who presented to the hospital after receiving a blow from a fist directly to the chest and fingertip amputation during a fight; anterior myocardial infarction without any chest pain was coincidentally detected. Our case illustrates the importance of electrocardiography in the initial evaluation of patients with chest trauma and suspected injury to the coronary arteries. PMID:22407423

  17. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Pain in Critically Ill Cancer Patients: A Prospective Nonrandomized Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mayank; Sahi, Malvinder Singh; Bhargava, AK; Talwar, Vineet

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pain is a distressing symptom common to all stages and ubiquitous at all levels of care in cancer patients. However, there is a lack of scientific literature on prevalence, severity, predictors, and the quality of pain in cancer patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Objectives: To elucidate the prevalence of pain, moderate to severe pain, neuropathic pain, chronic pain, and pain as the most distressing symptom in critically ill-cancer patients at the time of ICU admission. Methods: We prospectively interviewed 126 patients within first 24 h of admission to a medical ICU. The patients were assessed for the presence of pain, its severity, sites, duration, nature, and its impact as a distressing symptom. Numerical Rating Scale and self-report version of Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Signs and Symptoms were used to elucidate intensity of pain and neuropathic pain, respectively. Demographic characteristics such as age and sex, primary site, and stage of cancer were considered for a possible correlation with the prevalence of pain. Results: Of 126 patients included in the study 95 (75.40%), 79 (62.70%), 34 (26.98%), and 17 (13.49%) patients had pain, moderate-severe, chronic, and neuropathic pain, respectively. The average duration of pain was 171.16 ± 716.50 days. Totally, 58 (46.03%) and 42 (42.01%) patients had at least one and more than equal to 2 neuropathic pain symptoms, respectively. The primary malignancies associated with the highest prevalence of pain were genitourinary, hematological, and head and neck whereas breast and lung cancers were associated with the highest prevalence of neuropathic and chronic pain, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of pain among critically ill-cancer patients is high. Assessment for pain at the time of ICU admission would ensure appropriate assessment for the presence, type, severity, and the significance imparted to it. PMID:26600692

  18. Exercise radionuclide ventriculographic responses in hypertensive patients with chest pain

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, A.G.; Katz, R.J.; Varghese, P.J.; Leiboff, R.H.; Bren, G.G.; Schlesselman, S.; Varma, V.M.; Reba, R.C.; Ross, A.M.

    1984-11-15

    The effectiveness of exercise-treadmill testing in diagnosing coronary-artery disease in hypertensive patients is limited by a high rate of false positivity. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography, however, relies on different criteria (ejection fraction and wall motion), and we have evaluated this procedure in 37 hypertensive and 109 normotensive patients with chest pain, using coronary arteriography as an indicator of coronary disease. In the hypertensive cohort there was no difference in the ejection fraction at rest between the 17 patients with coronary disease and the 20 without it. Neither group had a significant mean (+/- S.E.M.) change in ejection fraction from rest to exercise (-1.9 +/- 2 and 1.4 +/- 1%, respectively). A wall-motion abnormality developed during exercise in 5 of the 17 hypertensive patients with coronary disease (29%) and in 4 of the 20 without it (20%) (P = not significant). In the normotensive cohort, however, the peak-exercise ejection fractions were significantly different. The 71 patients with coronary disease had a mean decrease of 3.6 +/- 1%, in contrast to the patients without coronary disease, who had an increase of +/- 1% (P < 0.001). An exercise-induced wall-motion abnormality was seen in 35 of the 71 patients with coronary disease (48%), as compared with 3 of the 38 without it (8%) (P < 0.001). We conclude that exercise radionuclide ventriculography is inadequate as a screening test for coronary atherosclerosis in hypertensive patients with chest pain. 28 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Patient-related barriers to pain management in ambulatory AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Breitbart, W; Passik, S; McDonald, M V; Rosenfeld, B; Smith, M; Kaim, M; Funesti-Esch, J

    1998-05-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that pain is dramatically undertreated among patients with AIDS and that opioids in particular are rarely prescribed. To date, however, there has been no systematic attempt to examine patient-related barriers to the management of pain in AIDS. This study examines potential patient-related barriers to pain management in patients with AIDS using the Barriers Questionnaire (Ward et al., Pain, 52 (1993) 319-324), and assesses gender, racial, and other demographic differences in the endorsement of these barriers. We surveyed 199 ambulatory patients with AIDS, recruited from numerous sites in New York City, as part of an ongoing study of pain and quality of life in ambulatory AIDS patients. In addition to obtaining demographic and medical data, we administered a number of self-report questionnaires including the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Brief Symptom Index (BSI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS). Barriers to pain management were assessed using a modified version of the Barriers Questionnaire (BQ), including the original 27 questions from this self-report instrument along with an additional 12 items developed for an AIDS population. Results indicated that the most frequently endorsed BQ items were those concerning the addiction potential of pain medications and physical discomfort associated with opioid administration (e.g. injections) or side effects (e.g. nausea, constipation). There were no associations between age, gender, or HIV transmission risk factor and total scores on the BQ; however, Caucasian patients endorsed significantly fewer BQ items than did non-Caucasian patients and years of education was negatively correlated with BQ scores. Scores on the BQ were also significantly correlated with number of physical symptoms (MSAS) and scores on several self-report measures of psychological distress (the BSI Global Distress Index, BDI total scores). Patient

  20. Cognitive-Somatic Anxiety Response Patterning in Chronic Pain Patients and Nonpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGood, Douglas E.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined group differences in self-reporting anxiety for one hundred chronic pain patients, an equal number of college students, and two smaller comparison samples. Pain patients, relative to nonpatients, acknowledged dramatically fewer total signs of anxiety. Also, pain patients endorsed significantly more somatic than cognitive indicators of…

  1. Sex Differences and Correlates of Pain in Patients with Comorbid Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder.

    PubMed

    Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    Sex differences and correlates of pain were examined in a sample of patients with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity. One hundred fifty-two treatment-seeking patients with BED completed the Brief Pain Inventory. Analysis of covariance was utilized to compare women and men on pain, and correlational analysis, overall and by sex, was performed to examine relationships among pain, eating behaviour and metabolic risk factors. Women reported significantly greater pain severity and pain interference than men. Among women, eating behaviour and metabolic markers were not associated with pain. Among men, however, binge frequency was significantly associated with pain, as was high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting glucose. In sum, while women in this sample had more pain than men, the presence of pain in men was associated with increased behavioural and metabolic risk factors. Findings have clinical implications for the assessment of comorbid pain and obesity-related health risks among individuals with BED. PMID:26841114

  2. Sex Differences and Correlates of Pain in Patients with Comorbid Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences and correlates of pain were examined in a sample of patients with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity. One hundred fifty-two treatment-seeking patients with BED completed the Brief Pain Inventory. Analysis of covariance was utilized to compare women and men on pain, and correlational analysis, overall and by sex, was performed to examine relationships among pain, eating behaviour and metabolic risk factors. Women reported significantly greater pain severity and pain interference than men. Among women, eating behaviour and metabolic markers were not associated with pain. Among men, however, binge frequency was significantly associated with pain, as was high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting glucose. In sum, while women in this sample had more pain than men, the presence of pain in men was associated with increased behavioural and metabolic risk factors. Findings have clinical implications for the assessment of comorbid pain and obesity-related health risks among individuals with BED. PMID:26841114

  3. Anger Suppression and Subsequent Pain Behaviors among Chronic Low Back Pain Patients: Moderating Effects of Anger Regulation Style

    PubMed Central

    Quartana, Phillip; Bruehl, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Background Suppression of anger is linked to subsequent pain intensity among chronic low back patients, but it is not clear whether anger regulation style (trait anger-out, anger-in) moderates these effects or if aroused anger accounts for links between anger regulation style and pain. Method Chronic low back pain patients (N=58) were assigned to Suppression or No Suppression conditions for a task with harassing confederate and then underwent structured pain behavior procedures. Spielberger Anger Expression Inventory tapped trait anger-out (AOS) and anger-in (AIS). Results Regressions tested Emotion Regulation condition × AOS and AIS effects on outcomes. AOS was related to grimacing and sighing for Suppression condition patients. AIS was related negatively to guarding and bracing for Suppression condition patients. Anger report partly mediated effects for AOS and AIS. Conclusions Anger regulation style moderated effects of state anger suppression on subsequent pain behaviors, effects that were partly explained by aroused anger. PMID:21544702

  4. Effects of Kamishoyosan, a Traditional Japanese Kampo Medicine, on Pain Conditions in Patients with Intractable Persistent Dentoalveolar Pain Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Young-Chang P.; Makino, Izumi; Aono, Shuichi; Yasui, Hiromichi; Isai, Hideya; Nishihara, Makoto; Hatakeyama, Noboru; Kawai, Takashi; Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Inoue, Shinsuke; Ushida, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    There are patients who suffer from persistent dentoalveolar pain disorder (PDAP) which is a pain of the teeth, either dentoalveolar pain or nonodontogenic toothache, and its cause has not yet been identified. An effective intervention for PDAP has not yet been established. Interventions for patients with PDAP are generally pharmacological treatments such as antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and pregabalin. However, these medicines are not always effective for patients. The pain disorder in the orofacial region including temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and PDAP was effectively treated with our original exercise therapy. However, we did observe some intractable cases of PDAP even when our original exercise therapy was used. This paper presents our findings in which Kamishoyosan improved the pain intensity in 14 out of 15 PDAP patients refractory to our original exercise therapy. PMID:26495024

  5. Correlations of Radiographic Findings in Patients with Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Igbinedion, B. O. E; Akhigbe, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Low back pain can cause severe debilitating pain that may lead to loss of productivity. The pain is usually non-specific and imaging request protocols varies. However, physicians may order lumbo-sacral x-ray in the initial radiologic assessment of the patient. This study aims to determine the frequency of occurrence of radiographic findings in patients reporting low back pain including the presence of osteophytes, spondylolisthesis and degenerative disc diseases and determine the relationship with patients’ features including age, sex, marital status, level of education, body mass index and other radiographic findings. Method: Patients who presented at our department for radiographic assessment of the lumbo-sacral spine were voluntarily recruited. Their radiographs were reviewed and questionnaire administered. Height and weight were measured. The radiographic findings were documented and data analysis using Chi square with significant level set at p < 0.05. Result: Lumbo-sacral x-rays of 337 patients were reviewed with more females than males, ratio 1:1.4. Osteophytes were demonstrable in 73.6%; spondylolisthesis, 13.4%; and disc degeneration, 28.2%. Disc degeneration correlated with age, educational status, osteophytosis, osteopenia and spondylolisthesis. Osteophytosis correlated with age, BMI and educational level. While spondylolisthesis correlated with educational level and sex. Conclusion: Osteophytosis was the commonest finding in patients presenting with LBP. Disc degeneration shows a strong association with osteophytosis and spondylolisthesis and it is reported to herald these changes. Radiography still shows some correlations between the findings in LBP and patients’ characteristics. PMID:21969104

  6. The relationship between the fear-avoidance model of pain and personality traits in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Martínez, María Pilar; Sánchez, Ana Isabel; Miró, Elena; Medina, Ana; Lami, María José

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between several cognitive-affective factors of the fear-avoidance model of pain, the big five model of personality, and functional impairment in fibromyalgia (FM). Seventy-four FM patients completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20, the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire, and the Impairment and Functioning Inventory. Results indicated that the cognitive-affective factors of pain are differentially associated with personality traits. Neuroticism and conscientiousness were significant predictors of pain catastrophizing, and neuroticism, openness, and agreeableness were significant predictors of pain anxiety. Personality traits did not contribute significantly to vigilance to pain. The effect of neuroticism upon pain anxiety was mediated by pain catastrophizing, and neuroticism showed a trend to moderate the relationship between impairment and pain anxiety. Results support the fear-avoidance model of pain. Implications of the findings for the understanding and management of FM are discussed. PMID:21964824

  7. Profile of sexuality in Moroccan chronic low back pain patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sexual life had an important role in preserving the good quality of life for patients and for their partner. Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) as other musculoskeletal diseases may affect all aspects of life including sexual functioning. The purpose of this study is to describe the impact of CLBP on the sexual life of patients and to identify the factors that affect their Sexual Quality of Life (SQOL). Methods One hundred CLBP sexually active patients were included. Patients and disease Characteristics were collected. Impact on sexual life (sexual intercourse and SQOL) was also assessed. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to analyze significant determinants associated with the SQOL disturbance. Results Eighty one percent of our patients complained about sexual difficulties related to CLBP. Libido decrease and painful intercourse position were reported respectively in 14.8 and 97.5% of cases. The most pain generating position was supine. Mean of sexual intercourse frequency decrease was at −10.4 ± 4.8 per month. SQOL score mean was at 44.6 ± 17.4%. Men suffered more than women from sexual problems (respectively 90% vs. 72%; p = 0.02). Men had worse SQOL than women (respectively 38.9 ± 17.2 vs. 50.3 ± 15.7%; p = 0.001). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that advanced age (p = 0.009), poor functional status (p = 0.03), male gender (p = 0.03) and sexual intercourse frequency decrease (p = 0.005) were the independent variables associated with the SQOL disturbance. Conclusion Our study suggests that sexuality is profoundly disturbed in CLBP patients; both their sexual intercourse and SQOL were affected. This disturbance seems to be associated with patient and disease characteristics. Sexuality should be taken into account in managing CLBP patients. PMID:23413914

  8. Implementation of a portable electronic system for providing pain relief to patellofemoral pain syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Chien, Jia-Ren Chang; Lin, Guo-Hong; Hsu, Ar-Tyan

    2011-10-01

    In this study, a portable electromyogram (EMG) system and a stimulator are developed for patellofemoral pain syndrome patients, with the objective of reducing the pain experienced by these patients; the patellar pain is caused by an imbalance between the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and the vastus lateralis (VL). The EMG measurement circuit and the electrical stimulation device proposed in this study are specifically designed for the VMO and the VL; they are capable of real-time waveform recording, possess analyzing functions, and can upload their measurement data to a computer for storage and analysis. The system can calculate and record the time difference between the EMGs of the VMO and the VL, as well as the signal strengths of both the EMGs. As soon as the system detects the generation of the EMG of the VL, it quickly calculates and processes the event and stimulates the VMO as feedback through electrical stimulation units, in order to induce its contraction. The system can adjust the signal strength, time length, and the sequence of the electrical stimulation, both manually and automatically. The output waveform of the electrical stimulation circuit is a dual-phase asymmetrical pulse waveform. The primary function of the electrical simulation circuit is to ensure that the muscles contract effectively. The performance of the device can be seen that the width of each pulse is 20-1000 μs, the frequency of each pulse is 10-100 Hz, and current strength is 10-60 mA. PMID:22047323

  9. Implementation of a portable electronic system for providing pain relief to patellofemoral pain syndrome patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Lin, Guo-Hong; Hsu, Ar-Tyan

    2011-10-01

    In this study, a portable electromyogram (EMG) system and a stimulator are developed for patellofemoral pain syndrome patients, with the objective of reducing the pain experienced by these patients; the patellar pain is caused by an imbalance between the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and the vastus lateralis (VL). The EMG measurement circuit and the electrical stimulation device proposed in this study are specifically designed for the VMO and the VL; they are capable of real-time waveform recording, possess analyzing functions, and can upload their measurement data to a computer for storage and analysis. The system can calculate and record the time difference between the EMGs of the VMO and the VL, as well as the signal strengths of both the EMGs. As soon as the system detects the generation of the EMG of the VL, it quickly calculates and processes the event and stimulates the VMO as feedback through electrical stimulation units, in order to induce its contraction. The system can adjust the signal strength, time length, and the sequence of the electrical stimulation, both manually and automatically. The output waveform of the electrical stimulation circuit is a dual-phase asymmetrical pulse waveform. The primary function of the electrical simulation circuit is to ensure that the muscles contract effectively. The performance of the device can be seen that the width of each pulse is 20-1000 μs, the frequency of each pulse is 10-100 Hz, and current strength is 10-60 mA.

  10. Somatosensory Profiles but Not Numbers of Somatosensory Abnormalities of Neuropathic Pain Patients Correspond with Neuropathic Pain Grading

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; van Wijhe, Marten

    2012-01-01

    Due to the lack of a specific diagnostic tool for neuropathic pain, a grading system to categorize pain as ‘definite’, ‘probable’, ‘possible’ and ‘unlikely’ neuropathic was proposed. Somatosensory abnormalities are common in neuropathic pain and it has been suggested that a greater number of abnormalities would be present in patients with ‘probable’ and ‘definite’ grades. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the presence of somatosensory abnormalities by means of Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) in patients with a clinical diagnosis of neuropathic pain and correlated the number of sensory abnormalities and sensory profiles to the different grades. Of patients who were clinically diagnosed with neuropathic pain, only 60% were graded as ‘definite’ or ‘probable’, while 40% were graded as ‘possible’ or ‘unlikely’ neuropathic pain. Apparently, there is a mismatch between a clinical neuropathic pain diagnosis and neuropathic pain grading. Contrary to the expectation, patients with ‘probable’ and ‘definite’ grades did not have a greater number of abnormalities. Instead, similar numbers of somatosensory abnormalities were identified for each grade. The profiles of sensory signs in ‘definite’ and ‘probable’ neuropathic pain were not significantly different, but different from the ‘unlikely’ grade. This latter difference could be attributed to differences in the prevalence of patients with a mixture of sensory gain and loss and with sensory loss only. The grading system allows a separation of neuropathic and non-neuropathic pain based on profiles but not on the total number of sensory abnormalities. Our findings indicate that patient selection based on grading of neuropathic pain may provide advantages in selecting homogenous groups for clinical research. PMID:22927981

  11. Translation of random painful stimuli into numerical responses in fibromyalgia and perioperative patients.

    PubMed

    Oudejans, Linda; van Velzen, Monique; Olofsen, Erik; Beun, Robert; Dahan, Albert; Niesters, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    Number-based assessment tools are used to evaluate pain perception in patients and determine the effect of pain management. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of chronic and acute pain patients to score their response to randomly applied noxious stimuli and assess the effect of opioid treatment. Thirty-seven healthy controls, 30 fibromyalgia patients, and 62 postoperative patients with acute pain received random heat pain (Hp) and electrical pain (Ep) stimuli. All subjects rated their pain on an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS). The data were analyzed using a penalty score system, based on the assumption that stimuli of higher intensity are scored with a greater NRS, and stratified into cohorts corresponding to "good," "mediocre," and "poor" scoring. Healthy controls were well able to score pain with 73% (Hp) and 81% (Ep) of subjects classified into cohort "good." Fibromyalgia had a negative effect on scoring with 45% (Hp, P = 0.03 vs controls) and 67% (Ep) of patients in cohort "good." In controls, scoring deteriorated during opioid administration leaving just 40% (Hp, P = 0.015 vs baseline) and 70% (Ep) of subjects in the cohort "good." Similar observations were made in fibromyalgia patients (P = 0.02) but not in surgical patients with postoperative pain. Consistency to grade pain using an NRS is high in healthy volunteers but deteriorates in chronic pain and during opioid administration to volunteers and chronic pain patients but not to acute pain patients. PMID:26307857

  12. Mild, moderate, and severe pain in patients recovering from major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Zalon, Margarete L

    2014-06-01

    Pain interferes with various activities, such as coughing, deep breathing, and ambulation, designed to promote recovery and prevent complications after surgery. Determining appropriate cutpoints for mild, moderate, and severe pain is important, because specific interventions may be based on this classification. The purpose of this research was to determine optimal cutpoints for postoperative patients based on their worst and average pain during hospitalization and after discharge to home, and whether the optimal cutpoints distinguished patients with mild, moderate, or severe pain regarding patient outcomes. This secondary analysis consisted of 192 postoperative patients aged ≥60 years. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to stratify the sample into mild, moderate, and severe pain groups using eight cutpoint models for worst and average pain in the last 24 hours. One-way analyses of variance were conducted to determine whether patients experiencing mild, moderate, or severe pain were different in outcome. Optimal cutpoints were similar to those previously reported, with the boundary between mild and moderate pain ranging from 3 to 4 and the boundary between moderate and severe pain ranging from 5 to 7. Worst pain cutpoints were most useful in distinguishing patients regarding fatigue, depression, pain's interference with function, and morphine equivalent administered in the previous 24 hours. A substantial proportion of patients experienced moderate to severe pain. The results suggest a narrow boundary between mild and severe pain that interferes with function. The findings indicate that clinicians should seek to aggressively manage postoperative pain ratings greater than 3. PMID:24882032

  13. [Multimodal pain management in a patient with atypical cervicogenic headache].

    PubMed

    Flöther, Lilit; Raspé, Christoph; Bucher, Michael; Benndorf, Ralf A

    2015-11-01

    A 45-year-old patient presented with an eight-year history of persistent unilateral headache associated with recurrent episodes of ipsilateral conjunctival injections, eyelid edema and ptosis. Prior ineffective pharmacological treatment strategies included tramadol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and triptans. Palpation of right suboccipital trigger points revealed tenderness in the area of the greater occipital nerve and reinforced the symptoms. The diagnosis of cervicogenic headache was confirmed by symptom resolution following right greater occipital nerve blockade. A multimodal treatment strategy (physical therapy, nerve blockade, pharmacological treatment) was chosen and an emphasis was put on optimizing pharmacological pain relief using the opioid analgesic tapentadol and the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline as an adjuvant analgesic. Importantly, the patient reported a substantial and consistent pain reduction and considerable quality of life improvement during implementation of the treatment regimen. PMID:26742212

  14. Aural symptoms in patients referred for temporomandibular pain/dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mejersjö, Christina; Näslund, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of studying frequency of aural symptoms and associations with symptoms of TMD new patients referred to the Orofacial Pain Clinic, Odontologen, Göteborg, were asked, at their first appointment and before meeting a specialist, to report any symptoms regarding pain or fullness/swelling of the ear, impaired hearing, sensitivity to sound, and irritation/itching of the ear. They also answered a standardized questionnaire regarding temporomandibular pain and/or dysfunction, and classified their degree of TMD symptoms on a five-point verbal scale and a visual analogue scale. 108 consecutive patients were included in the study, they completed the questionnaires and were examined and diagnosed by different specialists at the clinic. Any ear symptoms were reported by 68% of the patients, fullness of ear by 44% and impaired hearing by 37%. 38% of the patients had previously consulted a physician, and most of them had had pharmacological treatment due to their ear symptoms. Females reported more pain in the ear (P = 0.034) and more sensitivityto sound (P = 0.046) than men. No significant association was found between age and aural symptoms. The degree of TMD- symptoms, as reported by the five grade scale, showed significant association with aural symptoms (P < 0.001), as did the clinical dysfunction index of Helkimo (P = 0.005). The diagnoses of myalgia, arthralgia, arthritis and headache showed significant association with aural symptoms, while no association with crepitus (osteoartrosis) and disc displacement. Itching in the ear was frequently reported (24%) and was associated with myalgia (P = 0.003) and tension headache (P = 0.018). A medical examination by an ear-nose-throat specialist of 19 patients reporting a sensation of fullness of ear, did not reveal any objectifiable ear disease. To conclude, aural symptoms are common in patients with temporomandibular pain and/or dysfunction, are associated with TMD-symptoms and should be regarded as possible symptoms

  15. Partnering With a Patient and Family Advisory Council to Improve Patient Care Experiences With Pain Management.

    PubMed

    Bookout, Michelle L; Staffileno, Beth A; Budzinsky, Christine M

    2016-04-01

    Patient-centered care is a key driver for the nation's health system, yet patient experience surveys indicate that hospitals are far from achieving favorable outcomes. Partnering with patients and families through a patient and family advisory council (PFAC) advances the practice of patient-centered care to improve outcomes and experiences. This article describes the process of implementing a PFAC and presents outcomes related to patients' perception of pain management in the acute care hospital setting. PMID:26963442

  16. Recall of Dental Pain and Anxiety in a Cohort of Oral Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Kyle, B N; McNeil, D W; Weaver, B; Wilson, T

    2016-06-01

    Dental patients generally recall more pain than they originally report, with ratings of pain related to state anxiety and dental fear, but the role of depression in recall of dental pain remains uncertain. This study examined the relative contributions of different variables in explaining dental pain recalled after tooth extraction. Patients presenting for tooth extraction, prior to extraction, rated their current dental pain and state anxiety, prediction of pain and state anxiety during extraction, depression, and dental fear. Immediately postprocedure and then 1 mo later, patients rated their pain and state anxiety during extraction. Hierarchical linear regression equations were used to explain variance in recalled pain and state anxiety. In addition, patients were divided into high and low dental fear and depression groups and compared on ratings of pain and state anxiety across time. In a final sample of 157 patients, the most important predictors of recalled pain were pain reported during extraction (β = .53) and recalled state anxiety (β = .52). Dental fear and depression had a significant interaction: only when patients reported less depression did those patients who reported more dental fear also report more pain than patients who reported less dental fear (P < 0.05, ω(2) = .07). Patients who reported more depression entered the dental operatory reporting more pain, but all patients generally reported less pain during extraction than they predicted or recalled. Memory of state anxiety and pain reported during tooth extraction, not depression or state anxiety at the time of extraction, were critical factors in memory of the pain associated with the procedure. At higher levels of depression, patients higher and lower in dental fear did not differ in report of pain. Future studies are needed to further clarify interactions of depression and dental fear over time. PMID:26908629

  17. Lumbopelvic manipulation in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Michael S; Wofford, Nancy H

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A recent clinical prediction rule (CPR) identified characteristics that may predict an immediate reduction in pain following lumbopelvic manipulation in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. The purpose of this single-arm cohort study was to replicate the proposed CPR in a different population and investigate changes in self-reported pain, hip range of motion, strength, and function immediately following lumbopelvic manipulation. Methods: Forty-four subjects (63·6% female; mean age 27·4 years) met inclusion criteria. Hip internal rotation range of motion, lower extremity strength using a handheld dynamometer, and single/triple hop tests were assessed prior to and immediately following a spinal manipulation. A global rating of change questionnaire was administered after testing and telephonically at 1 week. Paired t-tests compared pre- and post-manipulation range of motion, strength, and hop test limb symmetry indices (α = 0·05). Results: Fifty-seven percent of subjects had a successful outcome measured by the numerical pain rating scale immediately following manipulation. Twenty-five of subjects experienced a successful outcome as measured by the global rating of change questionnaire at 1 week. No single individual or combination of predictor variables predicted a positive outcome immediately following the lumbopelvic manipulation (+likelihood ratio 0·7 with three of five predictor variables present). Statistically significant differences (P<0·05) were found in hip extension and abduction strength and hip internal rotation symmetry post-manipulation, but do not appear to be clinically meaningful. Discussion: The previously identified CPR was not able to be replicated and no clinically meaningful changes in range of motion, strength, or function were apparent. Future research should focus on a comprehensive impairment-based treatment approach in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:23904749

  18. Attentional bias to pain and social threat in pediatric patients with functional abdominal pain and pain-free youth before and after performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Beck, Joy E; Lipani, Tricia A; Baber, Kari F; Dufton, Lynette; Garber, Judy; Smith, Craig A; Walker, Lynn S

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated attentional biases for pain and social threat versus neutral stimuli in 54 youth with functional abdominal pain (FAP) and 53 healthy control subjects (ages 10 to 16 years). We assessed attentional bias using a visual probe detection task (PDT) that presented pain and social threat words in comparison to neutral words at conscious (1250 ms) and preconscious (20 ms) presentation rates. We administered the PDT before and after random assignment of participants to a laboratory stressor--failure versus success feedback regarding their performance on a challenging computer game. All analyses controlled for trait anxiety. At the conscious rate of stimulus presentation, FAP patients exhibited preferential attention toward pain compared with neutral stimuli and compared with the control group. FAP patients maintained preferential attention toward conscious pain stimuli after performance feedback in both failure and success conditions. At the preconscious rate of stimulus presentation, FAP patients' attention was neutral at baseline but increased significantly toward pain stimuli after performance feedback in both failure and success conditions. FAP patients' somatic symptoms increased in both failure and success conditions; control youth's somatic symptoms only increased after failure. Regarding social threat, neither FAP nor control youth exhibited attentional bias toward social threat compared with neutral stimuli at baseline, but both FAP and control youth in the failure condition significantly increased attention away from social threat after failure feedback. Results suggest that FAP patients preferentially attend to pain stimuli in conscious awareness. Moreover, performance evaluation may activate their preconscious attention to pain stimuli. PMID:21420789

  19. Associations Between Pain, Current Tobacco Smoking, Depression, and Fibromyalgia Status Among Treatment-Seeking Chronic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Goesling, Jenna; Brummett, Chad M.; Meraj, Taha S.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Hassett, Afton L.; Ditre, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective As smoking impacts physiological pathways in the central nervous system, it is important to consider the association between smoking and fibromyalgia, a pain condition caused predominantly by central nervous system dysfunction. The objectives were to assess the prevalence of current smoking among treatment-seeking chronic pain patients with (FM+) and without (FM−) a fibromyalgia-like phenotype; test the individual and combined influence of smoking and fibromyalgia on pain severity and interference; and examine depression as a mediator of these processes. Methods Questionnaire data from 1566 patients evaluated for a range of conditions at an outpatient pain clinic were used. The 2011 Survey Criteria for Fibromyalgia were used to assess the presence of symptoms associated with fibromyalgia. Results Current smoking was reported by 38.7% of FM+ patients compared to 24.7% of FM− patients. FM+ smokers reported higher pain and greater interference compared to FM+ nonsmokers, FM− smokers, and FM− nonsmokers. There was no interaction between smoking and fibromyalgia. Significant indirect effects of fibromyalgia and smoking via greater depression were observed for pain severity and interference. Conclusions Current smoking and positive fibromyalgia status were associated with greater pain and impairment among chronic pain patients, possibly as a function of depression. Although FM+ smokers report the most negative clinical symptomatology (i.e., high pain, greater interference) smoking does not appear to have a unique association with pain or functioning in FM+ patients, rather the effect is additive. The 38.7% smoking rate in FM+ patients is high, suggesting FM+ smokers present a significant clinical challenge. PMID:25801019

  20. Pain management in a patient with intractable spinal cord injury pain: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Que, Jocelyn C; Siddall, Philip J; Cousins, Michael J

    2007-11-01

    Chronic pain is one of the more disturbing sequelae of spinal cord injury, often interfering with the basic activities, effective rehabilitation, and quality of life of the patient. Pain in the cord-injured patient is often recalcitrant to treatment. This dilemma is amplified by the limited availability of effective pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment options. We identified relevant articles regarding pain after spinal cord injury from the Medline database from 1975 to 2005 using the search terms "spinal cord injury" or "spinal cord injuries" and "pain" or "spasticity or "muscle spasms." We also searched by hand the review articles in a recently published book from the International Association for the Study of Pain Press on spinal cord injury pain, and identified relevant articles through reference lists. We present a patient with intractable spinal cord injury pain who was successfully treated with a pain management plan that addressed the various aspects of spinal cord injury pain. The evidence for treatment options is reviewed. PMID:17959984

  1. Comparison of two pain assessment tools in nonverbal critical care patients.

    PubMed

    Paulson-Conger, Melissa; Leske, Jane; Maidl, Carolyn; Hanson, Andrew; Dziadulewicz, Laurel

    2011-12-01

    It is recommended that patient's self-report of pain should be obtained as often as possible as the "gold standard." Unfortunately in critical care, many factors can alter verbal communication with patients, making pain assessment more difficult. Scientific advances in understanding pain mechanisms, multidimensional methods of pain assessment, and analgesic pharmacology have improved pain management strategies. However, pain assessment for nonverbal patients in critical care continues to present a challenge for clinicians and researchers. The purpose of this study was to compare the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD) and the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT) scores for assessment in nonverbal critical care patients. A descriptive, comparative, prospective design was used in this study. A convenience sample of 100 critical care, nonverbal, adult patients of varying medical diagnoses who required pain evaluation were assessed with the PAINAD and CPOT scales. Data were collected over a 6-month period in all critical care areas. Observations of pain assessments for nonverbal patients who required pain evaluation were recorded on the PAINAD and the CPOT successively. Internal consistency reliability for the PAINAD was 0.80 and for the CPOT 0.72. Limits of agreement indicated that there was no difference in PAINAD and CPOT scores for assessing pain in nonverbal patients in critical care. Further research in the area of pain assessment for nonverbal patients in critical care is needed. PMID:22117753

  2. Static Balance in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Citaker, Seyit; Kaya, Defne; Yuksel, Inci; Yosmaoglu, Baran; Nyland, John; Atay, Ozgur Ahmet; Doral, Mahmut Nedim

    2011-01-01

    Background: The relationship between one-leg static standing balance (OLSSB) and patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is unknown. Hypothesis: OLSSB decreases in patients with PFPS. Design: Prospective case series. Methods: Fifty-two women with unilateral PFPS were enrolled in this study. OLSSB was evaluated with a stabilometer. Q angle was measured with a lengthened-arm universal goniometer. Lower extremity alignment was analyzed with full-length standing anteroposterior teleroentgenograms. Quadriceps and hamstring strength was measured on an isokinetic dynamometer. Results: There were significant differences in OLSSB, Q angle, and strength of quadriceps and hamstring between the symptomatic and asymptomatic sides. There was a correlation between the strength of the quadriceps and hamstring and OLSSB, while there was no correlation between OLSSB and the severity of pain, lower extremity alignment, and Q angle on the symptomatic side. Conclusions: OLSSB and quadriceps and hamstring strength decreased and Q angle increased on the symptomatic side in PFPS patients. A relationship between OLSSB and pain, Q angle, and lower extremity alignment was not detected, while there was a correlation between the strength of the quadriceps and hamstring and OLSSB. Clinical Relevance: A quadriceps and hamstring strengthening may be beneficial to improve OLSSB in patients with PFPS. PMID:23016053

  3. Cardiac computed tomography in patients with acute chest pain.

    PubMed

    Nieman, Koen; Hoffmann, Udo

    2015-04-14

    The efficient and reliable evaluation of patients with acute chest pain is one of the most challenging tasks in the emergency department. Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography may play a major role, since it permits ruling out coronary artery disease with high accuracy if performed with expertise in properly selected and prepared patients. Several randomized trials have established early cardiac CT as a viable safe and potentially more efficient alternative to functional testing in the evaluation of acute chest pain. Ongoing investigations explore whether advanced anatomic and functional assessments such as high-risk coronary plaque, resting myocardial perfusion, and left ventricular function, or the simulation of the fractional coronary flow reserve will add information to the anatomic assessment for stenosis, which would allow expanding the benefits of cardiac CT from triage to treatment decisions. Especially, the combination of high-sensitive troponins and coronary computed tomography angiography may play a valuable role in future strategies for the management of patients presenting with acute chest pain. PMID:25687351

  4. Neck pain and headaches in a patient after a fall.

    PubMed

    Young, Brian A; Ross, Michael D

    2009-05-01

    The patient was a 64-year-old woman who reported a sudden onset of neck pain and headaches following a fall 2.5 months prior to her initial physical therapy visit. Cervical spine radiographs, which were ordered by the referring physician, revealed extensive degenerative disc disease of the lower cervical spine. At her initial physical therapy evaluation, cervical spine range of motion was within functional limits except for bilateral rotation, which was limited to 45 degrees due to pain and stiffness. The patient's headache symptoms were abolished with the Sharp-Purser test. Although assessment of symptoms was not the intent of the Sharp-Purser test, a reduction of symptoms during the test would warrant further evaluation. Therefore, the physical therapist ordered cervical spine flexion-extension radiographic views to assess for atlantoaxial instability. The radiologist's report noted a stable atlantodens interval that did not change with cervical flexion and extension and a course of physical therapy was initiated. At the time of discharge from physical therapy, the patient reported no neck pain and only very mild occasional headaches, which she believed she could manage on her own. PMID:19411772

  5. Impact of pain on health-related quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Schirbel, Anja; Reichert, Anne; Roll, Stephanie; Baumgart, Daniel C; Büning, Carsten; Wittig, Bianca; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Dignass, Axel; Sturm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate intensity, localization and cofactors of pain in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis patients in connection with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and disease activity. METHODS: We reviewed and analyzed the responses of 334 patients to a specifically designed questionnaire based on the short inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (SIBDQ) and the German pain questionnaire. Pain intensity, HRQOL, Crohn’s disease activity index (CDAI) and colitis activity index (CAI) were correlated and verified on a visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS: 87.9% of patients reported pain. Females and males reported comparable pain intensities and HRQOL. Surgery reduced pain in both genders (P = 0.023), whereas HRQOL only improved in females. Interestingly, patients on analgesics reported more pain (P = 0.003) and lower HRQOL (P = 0.039) than patients not on analgesics. A significant correlation was found in UC patients between pain intensity and HRQOL (P = 0.023) and CAI (P = 0.027), and in CD patients between HRQOL and CDAI (P = 0.0001), but not between pain intensity and CDAI (P = 0.35). No correlation was found between patients with low CDAI scores and pain intensity. CONCLUSION: Most IBD patients suffer from pain and have decreased HRQOL. Our study reinforces the need for effective individualized pain therapy in IBD patients. PMID:20593502

  6. Relationships between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability in patients with cervico-craniofacial pain

    PubMed Central

    López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; Beltran-Alacreu, Hector; Paris-Alemany, Alba; Angulo-Díaz-Parreño, Santiago; La Touche, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This cross-sectional correlation study explored the relationships between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability in patients with chronic cervico-craniofacial pain (CCFP). Moreover, we investigated the test–retest intrarater reliability of two craniocervical posture measurements: head posture (HP) and the sternomental distance (SMD). Methods Fifty-three asymptomatic subjects and 60 CCFP patients were recruited. One rater measured HP and the SMD using a cervical range of motion device and a digital caliper, respectively. The Spanish versions of the neck disability index and the craniofacial pain and disability inventory were used to assess pain-related disability (neck disability and craniofacial disability, respectively). Results We found no statistically significant correlations between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability variables (HP and neck disability [r=0.105; P>0.05]; HP and craniofacial disability [r=0.132; P>0.05]; SMD and neck disability [r=0.126; P>0.05]; SMD and craniofacial disability [r=0.195; P>0.05]). A moderate positive correlation was observed between HP and SMD for both groups (asymptomatic subjects, r=0.447; CCFP patients, r=0.52). Neck disability was strongly positively correlated with craniofacial disability (r=0.79; P<0.001). The test–retest intrarater reliability of the HP measurement was high for asymptomatic subjects and CCFP patients (intraclass correlation coefficients =0.93 and 0.81, respectively) and for SMD (intra-class correlation coefficient range between 0.76 and 0.99); the test–retest intrarater reliability remained high when evaluated 9 days later. The HP standard error of measurement range was 0.54–0.75 cm, and the minimal detectable change was 1.27–1.74 cm. The SMD standard error of measurement was 2.75–6.24 mm, and the minimal detectable change was 6.42–14.55 mm. Independent t-tests showed statistically significant differences between the asymptomatic individuals and CCFP

  7. Assessment and detection of pain in noncommunicative severely brain-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Schnakers, Caroline; Chatelle, Camille; Majerus, Steve; Gosseries, Olivia; De Val, Marie; Laureys, Steven

    2010-11-01

    Detecting pain in severely brain-injured patients recovering from coma represents a real challenge. Patients with disorders of consciousness are unable to consistently or reliably communicate their feelings and potential perception of pain. However, recent studies suggest that patients in a minimally conscious state can experience pain to some extent. Pain monitoring in these patients is hence of medical and ethical importance. In this article, we will focus on the possible use of behavioral scales for the assessment and detection of pain in noncommunicative patients. PMID:20977329

  8. The Effect of Milnacipran on Pain in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients with Widespread Pain: A Randomized Blinded Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yvonne C.; Massarotti, Elena; Edwards, Robert R.; Lu, Bing; Liu, ChihChin; Lo, Yuanyu; Wohlfahrt, Alyssa; Kim, Nancy D.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Solomon, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clinical trials have shown that serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, such as milnacipran, decrease pain in non-inflammatory pain conditions like fibromyalgia and osteoarthritis. We examined the effect of milnacipran on self-reported pain intensity and experimental pain sensitivity among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with widespread pain and stable RA disease activity. Methods In this double-blind, crossover study, RA patients with widespread pain, on a stable treatment regimen, were randomized (via a random number generator) to receive milnacipran 50 mg twice daily or placebo for 6 weeks, followed by a 3-week washout and crossed over to the other arm for the remaining 6 weeks. The primary outcome was change in average pain intensity, assessed by the Brief Pain Inventory short form. The sample size was calculated to detect a 30% improvement in pain with power = 0.80 and alpha = 0.05. Results Of the 43 randomized subjects, 41 received study drug, and 32 completed the 15-week study per protocol. On a 0–10 scale, average pain intensity decreased by 0.39 (95% CI −1.27, 0.49; P = 0.37) more points during 6 weeks of milnacipran treatment compared to placebo. In the subgroup of subjects with swollen joint count ≤ 1, average pain intensity decreased by 1.14 (95% CI −2.26, −0.01; P= 0.04) more points during 6 weeks of milnacipran compared to placebo. Common adverse events included nausea (26.8%) and loss of appetite (9.7%). Conclusion Compared to placebo, milnacipran did not improve overall, self-reported pain intensity among subjects with widespread pain taking stable RA medications. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01207453 PMID:26628607

  9. Does weather affect daily pain intensity levels in patients with acute low back pain? A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Duong, Vicky; Maher, Chris G; Steffens, Daniel; Li, Qiang; Hancock, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of various weather parameters on pain intensity levels in patients with acute low back pain (LBP). We performed a secondary analysis using data from the PACE trial that evaluated paracetamol (acetaminophen) in the treatment of acute LBP. Data on 1604 patients with LBP were included in the analysis. Weather parameters (precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and air pressure) were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Pain intensity was assessed daily on a 0-10 numerical pain rating scale over a 2-week period. A generalised estimating equation analysis was used to examine the relationship between daily pain intensity levels and weather in three different time epochs (current day, previous day, and change between previous and current days). A second model was adjusted for important back pain prognostic factors. The analysis did not show any association between weather and pain intensity levels in patients with acute LBP in each of the time epochs. There was no change in strength of association after the model was adjusted for prognostic factors. Contrary to common belief, the results demonstrated that the weather parameters of precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and air pressure did not influence the intensity of pain reported by patients during an episode of acute LBP. PMID:26759130

  10. Can cancer patients influence the pain agenda in oncology outpatient consultations?

    PubMed

    Rogers, Margaret S; Todd, Chris

    2010-02-01

    Pain in cancer patients is common, yet it is often inadequately managed. Although poor assessment has been implicated, how patients contribute to this process has not been explicated. This study aims to uncover patients' contributions to discussions about pain during oncology outpatient consultations. Seventy-four medical encounters were observed and audiotaped. Verbatim transcriptions of pain talk were examined using conversational analysis. Thirty-nine of 74 patients talked about pain with 15 different doctors during consultations for follow-up or active treatment. Patients' talk about pain varied consistently according to how pain talk was initiated. In 20 consultations where pain was put on the agenda by patients, they used communication tactics that emphasized their pain experiences, seemingly to attract and maintain their doctors' attention. These tactics appear necessary, as the cancer treatment agenda restricts opportunities for patients to have supportive care needs addressed. On the other hand, in 19 consultations where doctors elicited information about pain, patients used communication tactics that minimized their pain experiences, seemingly to conceal potential disease progression or recurrence, the very focus of these specialist consultations. Where cancer was implicated as the source of pain, chemotherapy or radiotherapy was offered, and where cancer was suspected, referrals for investigations were made. Two of the 20 patients appeared to influence the treatment-focused agenda and were given referrals to pain clinic rather than further cancer therapy as initially recommended. PMID:19963336