IntroductionClassifying symptoms by patient pain drawing (PPD) may be helpful in diagnosing chronic anterior compartment syndrome (CACS). We have investigated the sensitivity and interobserver reliability of the PPD to diagnose CACS among patients with exercise-induced leg pain (EILP).MethodsThis study included 88 consecutive patients (48 men, 40 women; mean age 33, range 13–66, years). Two observers independently diagnosed the causes of
K Rennerfelt; Q Zhang; J Styf
Background Pain drawings are a diagnostic adjunct to history taking, clinical examinations, and biomedical tests in evaluating pain. We hypothesized that somatoform-functional pain, is mirrored in distinctive graphic patterns of pain drawings. Our aim was to identify the most sensitive and specific graphic criteria as a tool to help identifying somatoform-functional pain. Methods We compared 62 patients with somatoform-functional pain with a control group of 49 patients with somatic-nociceptive pain type. All patients were asked to mark their pain on a pre-printed body diagram. An investigator, blinded with regard to the patients’ diagnoses, analyzed the drawings according to a set of numeric or binary criteria. Results We identified 13 drawing criteria pointing with significance to a somatoform-functional pain disorder (all p-values???0.001). The most specific and most sensitive criteria combination for detecting somatoform-functional pain included the total number of marks, the length of the longest mark, and the presence of symmetric patterns. The area under the ROC-curve was 96.3% for this criteria combination. Conclusion Pain drawings are an easy-to-administer supplementary technique which helps to identify somatoform-functional pain in comparison to somatic-nociceptive pain.
Preoperative evaluation of patients with chronic pain is important because it may lead to multidisciplinary preoperative treatment of patients' pain and a multimodal analgesia plan for effective pain control. Preoperative multidisciplinary management of chronic pain and comorbid conditions, such as depression, anxiety, deconditioning, and opioid tolerance, can improve patient satisfaction and surgical recovery. Multimodal analgesia using pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies shifts the burden of analgesia away from simply increasing opioid dosing. In more complicated chronic pain patients, multidisciplinary treatment, including pain psychology, physical therapy, judicious medication management, and minimally invasive interventions by pain specialists, can improve patients' satisfaction and surgical outcome. PMID:24182727
Salama-Hanna, Joseph; Chen, Grace
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Nociceptive and neuropathic pain (NP) are common consequences following spinal cord injury (SCI), with large impact on sleep, mood, work, and quality of life. NP affects 40% to 50% of individuals with SCI and is sometimes considered the major problem following SCI. Current treatment recommendations for SCI-NP primarily focus on pharmacological strategies suggesting the use of anticonvulsant and antidepressant drugs, followed by tramadol and opioid medications. Unfortunately, these are only partly successful in relieving pain. Qualitative studies report that individuals with SCI-related long-lasting pain seek alternatives to medication due to the limited efficacy, unwanted side effects, and perceived risk of dependency. They spend time and money searching for additional treatments. Many have learned coping strategies on their own, including various forms of warmth, relaxation, massage, stretching, distraction, and physical activity. Studies indicate that many individuals with SCI are dissatisfied with their pain management and with the information given to them about their pain, and they want to know more about causes and strategies to manage pain. They express a desire to improve communication with their physicians and learn about reliable alternative sources for obtaining information about their pain and pain management. The discrepancy between treatment algorithms and patient expectations is significant. Clinicians will benefit from hearing the patient´s voice. PMID:23459087
Norrbrink, Cecilia; Löfgren, Monika; Hunter, Judith P; Ellis, Jaqueline
Examines the Mandala (circular) drawings of elderly patients diagnosed with dementia in order to explore the drawings' role in artmaking and patients' internal processes. Categorized drawings using the MARI Card Test (a projective psychological instrument). Describes the six MARI stages drawn most frequently and colors used most often. (RJM)
Couch, Janet Beaujon
Background Detection of nerve involvement originating in the spine is a primary concern in the assessment of spine symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the diagnostic method of choice for this detection. However, the agreement between MRI and other diagnostic methods for detecting nerve involvement has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this diagnostic study was to evaluate the agreement between nerve involvement visible in MRI and findings of nerve involvement detected in a structured physical examination and a simplified pain drawing. Methods Sixty-one consecutive patients referred for MRI of the lumbar spine were - without knowledge of MRI findings - assessed for nerve involvement with a simplified pain drawing and a structured physical examination. Agreement between findings was calculated as overall agreement, the p value for McNemar's exact test, specificity, sensitivity, and positive and negative predictive values. Results MRI-visible nerve involvement was significantly less common than, and showed weak agreement with, physical examination and pain drawing findings of nerve involvement in corresponding body segments. In spine segment L4-5, where most findings of nerve involvement were detected, the mean sensitivity of MRI-visible nerve involvement to a positive neurological test in the physical examination ranged from 16-37%. The mean specificity of MRI-visible nerve involvement in the same segment ranged from 61-77%. Positive and negative predictive values of MRI-visible nerve involvement in segment L4-5 ranged from 22-78% and 28-56% respectively. Conclusion In patients with long-standing nerve root symptoms referred for lumbar MRI, MRI-visible nerve involvement significantly underestimates the presence of nerve involvement detected by a physical examination and a pain drawing. A structured physical examination and a simplified pain drawing may reveal that many patients with "MRI-invisible" lumbar symptoms need treatment aimed at nerve involvement. Factors other than present MRI-visible nerve involvement may be responsible for findings of nerve involvement in the physical examination and the pain drawing.
Both acute and chronic pain are common coexisting problems in patients with heart failure. Because nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids are contraindicated in heart failure, traditional pain management algorithms require modification. This article reviews pertinent pain management principles, including pain vocabulary, barriers to pain management, and general pain assessment and treatment measures. Issues unique to the heart failure patient are discussed and specific interventions for the heart failure patient with acute or chronic pain are then delineated. PMID:15529077
Wheeler, Mary; Wingate, Sue
Chronic pain is a subjective experience and has not only physical, but also psychological and social dimensions. In the present study, we sought to determine whether an ef- fective pain reduction would improve mood, behavioral, and cognitive outcome measures in chronic pain patients. Four-hundred-seventy-seven patients entering pain ther- apy at our university pain center were prospectively stud- ied during the
Sabine M. Sator-Katzenschlager; Andreas W. Schiesser; Sibylle A. Kozek-Langenecker; Gerhard Benetka; Gudrun Langer; Hans-Georg Kress
Objective: To determine the nature of depressive symptoms in a sample of patients with chronic pain, and to examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and physical disability due to pain. Design, participants and setting: Cross-sectional study of 812 patients with complete datasets from a total of 2419 patients with pain who were referred to the Pain Management Research Institute at
Michael K Nicholas; Carissa M Coulston; Ali Asghari; Gin Singh Malhi
Background Chest pain is a common complaint and reason for consultation in primary care. Traditional textbooks still assign pain localization a certain discriminative role in the differential diagnosis of chest pain. The aim of our study was to synthesize pain drawings from a large sample of chest pain patients and to examine whether pain localizations differ for different underlying etiologies. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study including 1212 consecutive patients with chest pain recruited in 74 primary care offices in Germany. Primary care providers (PCPs) marked pain localization and radiation of each patient on a pictogram. After 6 months, an independent interdisciplinary reference panel reviewed clinical data of every patient, deciding on the etiology of chest pain at the time of patient recruitment. PCP drawings were entered in a specially designed computer program to produce merged pain charts for different etiologies. Dissimilarities between individual pain localizations and differences on the level of diagnostic groups were analyzed using the Hausdorff distance and the C-index. Results Pain location in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) did not differ from the combined group of all other patients, including patients with chest wall syndrome (CWS), gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) or psychogenic chest pain. There was also no difference in chest pain location between male and female CHD patients. Conclusions Pain localization is not helpful in discriminating CHD from other common chest pain etiologies.
Background Foot pain drawings (manikins) are commonly used to describe foot pain location in self-report health surveys. Respondents shade the manikin where they experience pain. The manikin is then scored via a transparent overlay that divides the drawings into areas. In large population based studies they are often scored by multiple raters. A difference in how different raters score manikins (inter-rater repeatability), or in how an individual rater scores manikins over time (intra-rater repeatability) can therefore affect data quality. This study aimed to assess inter- and intra-rater repeatability of scoring of the foot manikin. Methods A random sample was generated of 50 respondents to a large population based survey of adults aged 50 years and older who experienced foot pain and completed a foot manikin. Manikins were initially scored by any one of six administrative staff (Rating 1). These manikins were re-scored by a second rater (Rating 2). The second rater then re-scored the manikins one week later (Rating 3). The following scores were compared: Rating 1 versus Rating 2 (inter-rater repeatability), and Rating 2 versus Rating 3 (intra-rater repeatability). A novel set of clinically relevant foot pain regions made up of one or more individual areas on the foot manikin were developed, and assessed for inter- and intra-rater repeatability. Results Scoring agreement of 100% (all 50 manikins) was seen in 69% (40 out of 58) of individual areas for inter-rater scoring (range 94 to 100%), and 81% (47 out of 58) of areas for intra-rater scoring (range 96 to 100%). All areas had a kappa value of ?0.70 for inter- and intra-rater scoring. Scoring agreement of 100% was seen in 50% (10 out of 20) of pain regions for inter-rater scoring (range 96 to 100%), and 95% (19 out of 20) of regions for intra-rater scoring (range 98 to 100%). All regions had a kappa value of >0.70 for inter- and intra-rater scoring. Conclusions Individual and multiple raters can reliably score the foot pain manikin. In addition, our proposed regions may be used to reliably classify different patterns of foot pain using the foot manikin.
6. Photocopy of a 1943 architectural drawing titled: 'Patients & Detachment Mess, MESS-Z-H. Floor Plan, Part B.' 1-13-43 - Madigan Hospital, Patients' & Medical Detachments, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA
5. Photocopy of a 1943 architectural drawing titled: 'Patients & Detachment Mess, MESS-Z-H. Floor Plan, Part A.' 1-13-43 - Madigan Hospital, Patients' & Medical Detachments, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA
Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients often experience pain which can trigger pain behaviors, such as distorted ambulation. Psychological variables, such as individuals' attitudes toward pain, play a role in pain intervention. In this study, we used the cognitive-behavioral model of pain to examine the influence of patients' attitudes toward pain (as measured by the survey of pain attitudes or SOPA) on their pain behaviors (as measured by the pain behaviors checklist). Two hundred-one MBC patients completed surveys at treatment initiation and again 3 and 6 months later. Linear Mixed Model with repeated measures analyses showed that SOPA-solicitude, SOPA-emotions, SOPA-cure, SOPA-disability, and SOPA-medication pain attitudes were consistently significantly associated with pain behaviors at each assessment time point. Additionally, the belief that a medical cure for pain exists buffered the positive association between pain severity and pain behaviors. Our findings support and extend the cognitive-behavioral model of pain and suggest that it may be useful to target pain attitudes in pain management interventions for MBC patients. PMID:23943140
Shen, Megan Johnson; Redd, William H; Winkel, Gary; Badr, Hoda
Background Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional musculoskeletal pain disorder that is caused by myofascial trigger points. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MPS among chronic back pain patients, as well as to identify risk factors and the outcome of this disorder. Methods This was a prospective observational study involving 126 patients who attended the Pain Management Unit for chronic back pain between 1st January 2009 and 31st December 2009. Data examined included demographic features of patients, duration of back pain, muscle(s) involved, primary diagnosis, treatment modality and response to treatment. Results The prevalence of MPS among chronic back pain patients was 63.5% (n = 80). Secondary MPS was more common than primary MPS, making up 81.3% of the total MPS. There was an association between female gender and risk of developing MPS (?2 = 5.38, P = 0.02, O.R. = 2.4). Occupation, body mass index and duration of back pain were not significantly associated with MPS occurrence. Repeated measures analysis showed significant changes (P < 0.001) in Visual Analogue Score (VAS) and Modified Oswestry Disability Score (MODS) with standard management during three consecutive visits at six-month intervals. Conclusions MPS prevalence among chronic back pain patients was significantly high, with female gender being a significant risk factor. With proper diagnosis and expert management, MPS has a favourable outcome.
Nizar, Abd Jalil
The fear of pain is common among cancer patients. The management of cancer pain can raise troubling ethical issues for medicine and society. Medical caregivers have an ethical duty to provide therapy that benefits patients by achieving one or more goals of medicine at all points. Pain and symptom relief may be the only achievable goal when curative therapy has failed. Relief of pain can restore decision-making capacity and enhance the patient's right to self-determination. The underpinning ethical principles and extensions of these principles in the medical context of pain control with varying medical goals in cancer care, including dying patients, is explored. PMID:7516956
Cain, J M; Hammes, B J
Stress has long been viewed as a contributor to the pain experienced by chronic pain patients. The purpose of this research was to study the relationship between anticipated and experienced stress and anticipated and experienced pain levels among three patient groups: chronic pain patients, patients about to receive molar extraction (acute pain group), and a no-pain comparison group. Results showed that chronic pain patients anticipated significantly more stress than did an acute pain or a non-pain comparison patient group but reported non-significant differences in the actual level of stress experienced. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine cognitive factors, such as perceived daily hassles, which may contribute to this increased anticipatory stress. Results showed that there was consistency among the chronic pain patients as to the types of anticipated stressors, which were similar to those previously reported by chronic headache sufferers. The chronic pain group had significantly higher scores than the two remaining groups on the stress they anticipated from hassles related both to practical considerations (F2.45 = 3.5, p < 0.05) and to health (F2.45 = 9.37, p < 0.001). Strategies the dentist can use in combination with dental therapy to reduce cognitive-based anticipatory stress as well as strategies for collaboration with the patient and a mental health therapist are discussed. PMID:9084327
Logan, H L; Risner, A; Muller, P
Objective: To examine the interobserver agreement of commonly used clinical tests and diagnoses in patients with shoulder pain, and the accuracy of these tests and ultrasonographic findings in comparison with arthroscopic findings.Methods: Eighty six patients with longstanding shoulder joint pain were “blindly” examined by two trained doctors using several clinical tests. In all patients an ultrasonographic examination was performed, and
J Nørregaard; M R Krogsgaard; T Lorenzen; E M Jensen
This study examined the degree to which pain catastrophizing and pain-related fear explain pain, psychological disability, physical disability, and walking speed in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Participants in this study were 106 individuals diagnosed as having OA of at least one knee, who reported knee pain persisting six months or longer. Results suggest that pain catastrophizing explained a significant proportion (all P's ? 0.05) of variance in measures of pain (partial r2 [pr2] = 0.10), psychological disability (pr2 = 0.20), physical disability (pr2 = 0.11), and gait velocity at normal (pr2 = 0.04), fast (pr2 = 0.04), and intermediate speeds (pr2 = 0.04). Pain-related fear explained a significant proportion of the variance in measures of psychological disability (pr2 = 0.07) and walking at a fast speed (pr2 = 0.05). Pain cognitions, particularly pain catastrophizing, appear to be important variables in understanding pain, disability, and walking at normal, fast, and intermediate speeds in knee OA patients. Clinicians interested in understanding variations in pain and disability in this population may benefit by expanding the focus of their inquiries beyond traditional medical and demographic variables to include an assessment of pain catastrophizing and pain-related fear.
Somers, Tamara J.; Keefe, Francis J.; Pells, Jennifer J.; Dixon, Kim E.; Waters, Sandra J.; Riordan, Paul A.; Blumenthal, James A.; McKee, Daphne C.; LaCaille, Lara; Tucker, Jessica M.; Schmitt, Daniel; Caldwell, David S.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Sims, Ershela L.; Shelby, Rebecca A.; Rice, John R.
Pain is an understudied problem in frail elderly patients, especially those with cognitive impairment, delirium, or dementia. The focus of this study was to describe the pain experienced by patients in skilled nursing homes, which have a high prevalence of cognitive impairment. A random sample of 325 subjects was selected from ten community skilled nursing homes. Subjects underwent a cross-sectional
Bruce A. Ferrell; Betty R. Ferrell; Lynne Rivera
Investigates patients' responses to drawing experiences while in a hemodialysis unit. It was postulated that patients would be stimulated to talk about issues and experiences and improve their confidence and self-esteem. Results indicate that all patients enjoyed the experience of drawing; they became focused on doing the drawings and the hours…
Neuropathic pain is an increasingly common problem facing the cancer patient. Painful neuropathy can come from various sources\\u000a and significantly impact quality of life. The most commonly observed scenario is paraesthesia and dysesthesia as a result\\u000a of toxic effects of chemotherapies on the distal peripheral nerves. Neuropathic pain should be addressed ideally with the\\u000a help of a neuro-oncologist, and it
Deborah T. Blumenthal
With the increasing number of elderly patients the issue of pain management for older people is of increasing relevance. The alterations with aging of the neurobiology of pain have impacts of pain threshold, tolerance and treatment. In this review the available evidence from animal and human experimentation is discussed to highlight the differences between young and older subjects along with consideration of how these changes have practical effect on drug treatment of pain. Cognitive impairment, physical disability and social isolation can also impact on the accessibility of treatment and have to be considered along with the biological changes with ageing. Conventional pain therapies, while verified in younger adults cannot be automatically applied to the elderly without consideration of all these factors and in no other group of patients is a holistic approach to treatment more important.
This descriptive study described postoperative pain for 106 patients in a midwestern metropolitan hospital undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA, n = 21), total knee arthroplasty (TKA, n = 44), or microlumbar discectomy (MLD, n = 41); and ascertained fac...
D. F. Degner
The purpose of this study was to effects of abdominal draw-in maneuver and core exercise with 4 weeks using the musculoskeletal ultrasonography on muscle thickness and disability in subjects with low back pain. Twenty patients with nonspecific back pain (abdominal draw-in maneuver group: n= 10, core exercise group: n= 10) were recruited in the study. Both group received exercise intervention 3 times a week for 4weeks. The test were based on muscle thickness (transversus abdominis; Tra, internal oblique; IO and external oblique; EO), disability (Oswestry disability index; ODI) measured immediately before and after intervention. The data was measured by SPSS program 12.0 version and analyzed by Paired t-test and Independent t-test. The following results were obtained. The thickness of IO, EO for both group significantly improved except for muscle thickness of Tra. The ODI were significant difference for both groups. As the results of this study, we suggest that it may be effective method to apply to increase for the thickness of Tra, EO using abdominal draw-in maneuver and thickness of IO using core exercise.
Park, Seong-Doo; Yu, Seong-Hun
Pain is one of the cardinal presenting symptoms in cancer patients and often seems to progress in the natural history of the\\u000a disease. In light of the past neglect of this problem, it is becoming crucial for clinicians and researchers in the fields\\u000a of oncology, pain management, and others dealing with this patient population to have a thorough understanding of
Hazem A. Zekry; Eduardo Bruera
There are an estimated 35 million people with dementia across the world, of whom 50% experience regular pain. Despite this, current assessment and treatment of pain in this patient group are inadequate. In addition to the discomfort and distress caused by pain, it is frequently the underlying cause of behavioral symptoms, which can lead to inappropriate treatment with antipsychotic medications. Pain also contributes to further complications in treatment and care. This review explores four key perspectives of pain management in dementia and makes recommendations for practice and research. The first perspective discussed is the considerable uncertainty within the literature on the impact of dementia neuropathology on pain perception and processing in Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, where white matter lesions and brain atrophy appear to influence the neurobiology of pain. The second perspective considers the assessment of pain in dementia. This is challenging, particularly because of the limited capacity of self-report by these individuals, which means that assessment relies in large part on observational methods. A number of tools are available but the psychometric quality and clinical utility of these are uncertain. The evidence for efficient treatment (the third perspective) with analgesics is also limited, with few statistically well-powered trials. The most promising evidence supports the use of stepped treatment approaches, and indicates the benefit of pain and behavioral interventions on both these important symptoms. The fourth perspective debates further difficulties in pain management due to the lack of sufficient training and education for health care professionals at all levels, where evidence-based guidance is urgently needed. To address the current inadequate management of pain in dementia, a comprehensive approach is needed. This would include an accurate, validated assessment tool that is sensitive to different types of pain and therapeutic effects, supported by better training and support for care staff across all settings.
Achterberg, Wilco P; Pieper, Marjoleine JC; van Dalen-Kok, Annelore H; de Waal, Margot WM; Husebo, Bettina S; Lautenbacher, Stefan; Kunz, Miriam; Scherder, Erik JA; Corbett, Anne
Despite widespread use of the 0–10 numeric rating scale (NRS) of pain intensity, relatively little is known about the meaning of decreases in pain intensity assessed by means of this scale to patients. We aimed to establish the meaning to patients of declines in pain intensity and percent pain reduction. Upon arrival to the postanesthesia care unit, postsurgical patients rated
M. Soledad Cepeda; Juan M Africano; Rodolfo Polo; Ramiro Alcala; Daniel B Carr
Perioperative management of opioid-dependent patients can be a challenge to surgeons, anesthesiologists and pain specialist. Our case illustrates the consequences of poor management of this subset of patients. A 60-year-old male with history left renal mass was scheduled for a left open nephrectomy. Preoperative pain medications included fentanyl 50 mcg every 72 hours plus hydromorphone 4mg PO PRN for breakthrough pain. An epidural was placed for post-operative pain control, and opioids were discontinued during hospitalization. Forty-eight to seventy-two hours after surgery, the patient developed withdrawal symptoms. Home medications were restarted and symptoms resolved. PMID:19715249
Grewal, P K; Firnhaber-Burgos, Juan B
Hip pain is a common and disabling condition that affects patients of all ages. The differential diagnosis of hip pain is broad, presenting a diagnostic challenge. Patients often express that their hip pain is localized to one of three anatomic regions: the anterior hip and groin, the posterior hip and buttock, or the lateral hip. Anterior hip and groin pain is commonly associated with intra-articular pathology, such as osteoarthritis and hip labral tears. Posterior hip pain is associated with piriformis syndrome, sacroiliac joint dysfunction, lumbar radiculopathy, and less commonly ischiofemoral impingement and vascular claudication. Lateral hip pain occurs with greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Clinical examination tests, although helpful, are not highly sensitive or specific for most diagnoses; however, a rational approach to the hip examination can be used. Radiography should be performed if acute fracture, dislocations, or stress fractures are suspected. Initial plain radiography of the hip should include an anteroposterior view of the pelvis and frog-leg lateral view of the symptomatic hip. Magnetic resonance imaging should be performed if the history and plain radiograph results are not diagnostic. Magnetic resonance imaging is valuable for the detection of occult traumatic fractures, stress fractures, and osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Magnetic resonance arthrography is the diagnostic test of choice for labral tears. PMID:24444505
Wilson, John J; Furukawa, Masaru
To communicate, understand, and prescribe treatment, it is essential that some consensually validated criteria be used to describe groups of patients who share a set of relevant attributes. Several classification systems have been developed to described relatively homogeneous subgroups of chronic pain patients. These systems have been based on theoretical perspectives of chronic pain syndromes tied to physical pathology. Alternative systems based on a priori psychological categories or empirically derived classifications also have been proposed. Some of the strengths and weaknesses of deductive and inductive approaches to classification are described, and the advantages of polydiagnostic and multiaxial approaches are described as alternatives to the traditional classification. Research on an empirically derived multiaxial classification for chronic pain is described and related to chronic orofacial pain.
Turk, Dennis C.
Patients with low back pain (LBP; N = 102), fibromyalgia (FM; N = 100), and headache (HA; N = 100) were asked to describe their pain in their own words, and the words and phrases they used were then classified into 7 global domains (eg, Pain Quality, Pain Magnitude) and as many specific subdomains as needed to capture all of the ideas expressed (eg, under Pain Quality, subdomains such as sharp, achy, and throbbing). Fifteen pain quality subdomains were identified as most common. Nine of these demonstrated significant between-group differences in frequency. For example, patients with FM described their pain as achy more often than patients with LBP or HA; patients with HA described their pain as more throbbing than patients with LBP or FM; and patients with LBP described their pain as more shooting than patients with FM or HA. With the 15 pain quality subdomains representing the universe of most important pain qualities to assess, only 2 of 8 descriptive measures of pain quality were determined to have content validity. The findings are generally consistent with a study that used similar procedures in other patient samples to identify the most common words patients use to describe pain, supporting their generalizability. The findings also support the use of pain quality measures for discriminating between chronic pain conditions. Finally, the findings have important implications for evaluating and modifying pain quality measures as needed. PMID:23933183
Jensen, Mark P; Johnson, Linea E; Gertz, Kevin J; Galer, Bradley S; Gammaitoni, Arnold R
The aim of this study was to describe the physical therapy diagnosis and treatment in patients with back pain. More specifically, the relationship between the duration of the complaint and the diagnosis and treatment was analysed. Data were used from a representative survey of physical therapeutic practice in the Netherlands. The patients were divided into three groups on the basis
Roelof WA van der Valk; Joost Dekker; Margriet E van Baar
Contents: Cancer pain management--diagnosis and evaluation; Cancer pain management--multidisciplinary pain clinics; Cancer pain management--psychologic technics; Cancer pain management--pharmacologic technics; Cancer pain management--neurosurgical technic...
Bone metastases are prevalent, painful, and carry a poorer prognosis for pain control compared with other cancer pain syndromes. Standard tools to measure pain have not been validated in this patient population, and particular subgroups with more challenging symptoms have yet to be identified and studied. The objectives of this study were 1) to validate the psychometric properties of the
Jackson S. Y. Wu; Dorcas Beaton; Peter M. Smith; Neil A. Hagen
Symptoms of somatization were investigated in pediatric patients with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) and comparison groups of patients with organic etiology for abdominal pain and well patients. Somatization scores were higher in RAP patients than well patients at the clinic visit, and higher than in either well patients or organic patients at a 3- month followup. Higher somatization scores in
Lynn S. Walker; Judy Garber; John W. Greene
One hundred eleven patients with advanced cancer and pain newly referred to a palliative care center completed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) weekly for up to 4 weeks. The aims were (a) to review the numbers and causes of pain, (b) to consider the usefulness of the BPI in the evaluation of pain in cancer patients, and (c) to determine
Robert Twycross; Jean Harcourt; Stephen Bergl
Patients with chronic orofacial pain must be treated with methods different from those used with patients with acute pain. If different methods are not used, the characteristics of chronic pain may become firmly entrenched. Dentists should be aware of the various methods of treatment for this separate pain entity. PMID:291656
Donaldson, D; Kroening, R
This study aimed to identify clinically meaningful profiles of pain coping strategies used by youth with chronic abdominal pain (CAP). Participants (n = 699) were pediatric patients (ages 8–18 years) and their parents. Patients completed the Pain Response Inventory (PRI) and measures of somatic and depressive symptoms, disability, pain severity and pain efficacy, and perceived competence. Parents rated their children’s pain severity and coping efficacy. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on the 13 PRI subscales identified pain coping profiles in Sample 1 (n = 311) that replicated in Sample 2 (n = 388). Evidence was found of external validity and distinctiveness of the profiles. The findings support a typology of pain coping that reflects the quality of patients’ pain mastery efforts and interpersonal relationships associated with pain coping. Results are discussed in relation to developmental processes, attachment styles, and treatment implications.
Walker, Lynn S.; Baber, Kari Freeman; Garber, Judy; Smith, Craig A.
Pain scale preferences may vary among patients. Providing a choice of which pain scale to use might be helpful for patients. The aim of this study was to determine patient pain scale preferences and compare the level of agreement among pain scales commonly used during postoperative pain assessment. A total of 621 patients during the early postoperative period were enrolled in this descriptive study. A questionnaire form, the faces pain scale (FPS), visual analog scale (VAS), numeric rating scale (NRS), verbal descriptor scale (VDS), thermometer pain scale (TPS), McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SFMPQ), and Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) were used to collect data. Most patients reported that their pain was not measured with any of the pain scales. Patient preference for pain scales were as follows: 97.4% FPS, 88.6% NRS, 84.1% VDS, 78.1% TPS, 60.1% SFMPQ, 37.0% BPI, 11.4% VAS, and 10.5% MPQ. Education was an important factor in the preferences for all scales (p < .000). The level of pain determined by the VAS did not correlate with the level of pain identified by the NRS, TPS, FPS, and VDS (p < .05). There was no difference among the levels of pain for the NRS, TPS, FPS and VDS (p > .05), but there was for the VAS (p < .05). The pain scales chosen should be reliable, valid, and able to evaluate the effects of treatment. The results suggest that the NRS, TPS, FPS, and VDS were appropriate pain rating scales for the participants in this study, and that the VAS should be used in combination with one of these scales. PMID:24602433
Yazici Sayin, Yazile; Akyolcu, Neriman
Objective To characterize neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) according to classification used in the study by Baron et al. (Baron classification), a classification of neuropathic pain based on the mechanism. To also compare the patterns of neuropathic pain in SCI patients with those in patients with other etiologies and to determine the differences in patterns of neuropathic pain between the etiologies. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. We used the Baron classification to investigate the characteristics of neuropathic pain in SCI. Sixty-one SCI patients with neuropathic pain (The Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs score ?12) were enrolled in this study between November 2012 and August 2013, after excluding patients <20 of age, patients with visual analog scale (VAS) score <3, pregnant patients, and patients with systemic disease or pain other than neuropathic pain. Results The most common pain characteristic was pricking pain followed by electrical pain and numbness. The mean VAS score of at-level neuropathic pain was 7.51 and that of below-level neuropathic pain was 6.83. All of the patients suffered from rest pain, but 18 (54.6%) patients with at-level neuropathic pain and 20 (50.0%) patients with below-level neuropathic pain suffered from evoked pain. There was no significant difference in between at-level and below-level neuropathic pains. Conclusion The result was quite different from the characteristics of post-herpetic neuralgia, but it was similar to the characteristics of diabetic neuropathy as shown in the study by Baron et al., which means that sensory nerve deafferentation may be the most common pathophysiologic mechanism of neuropathic pain after SCI. Since in our study, we included short and discrete symptoms and signs based on diverse mechanisms, our results could be helpful for determining further evaluation and treatment.
Jang, Joon Young; Lee, Seung Hoon; Kim, MinYoung
Multiple abnormalities in pain processing have been reported in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain syndromes. These changes include mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, decreased thresholds to mechanical and thermal stimuli (allodynia), and central sensitization, all of which are fundamental to the generation of clinical pain. Therefore, we hypothesized that quantitative sensory tests may provide useful predictors of clinical pain intensity of such patients. Our previous studies of fibromyalgia (FM) patients have shown statistically significant correlations of quantitative sensory test results with clinical pain intensity, including mechanical spatial summation, number of pain areas, wind-up, and wind-up aftersensations. Although these tests predicted up to 59% of the variance in FM clinical pain intensity, their expense and technical complexities limited widespread use in clinical practice and trials. Thus, we developed practical tests of primary (mechanical) and secondary (heat) hyperalgesia that also strongly predict clinical pain intensity in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders. Thirty-six individuals with FM, 24 with local musculoskeletal pain, and 23 normal controls underwent testing of mechanical and heat hyperalgesia at the shoulders and hands. All subjects rated experimental pains using an electronic visual analog scale. Using either heat or pressure pain ratings as well as tender point counts and negative affect as predictors, up to 49.4% of the patients' variance of clinical pain intensity could be estimated. Results of this study emphasize the important contributions of peripheral and central factors to both local and widespread chronic pain. Overall, measures of mechanical and heat hyperalgesia in combination with tender point and negative affect provided powerful predictors of clinical pain intensity in chronic musculoskeletal pain patients that can be readily used in clinical practice and trials. Perspective Simple tests of mechanical and heat hyperalgesia can predict large proportions of the variance in clinical pain intensity of chronic musculoskeletal pain patients and thus are feasible to be included in clinical practice and clinical trials.
Staud, Roland; Weyl, Elizabeth E.; Price, Donald D.; Robinson, Michael E.
Assessment is an essential, but challenging, component of any pain management plan. Nurses who care for postoperative patients quantify and document pain by use of unidimensional scales such as the numeric rating scale, the visual analogue scale, or a verbal descriptor scale. Improvements in pain ratings on these scales are viewed as a welcome result by nurses and doctors. Pain, however, is a multidimensional phenomenon. Furthermore, pain is subjective, and therefore no objective measure of pain exists that captures every aspect of the pain experience. Given that clinical decisions are made on the basis of existing scales, it is important to know how much reduction in pain is clinically meaningful from the patient's perspective. The aim of this study was to investigate this issue by comparing levels of postsurgical pain reduction measured by a numeric rating scale (NRS) with the patients' verbal descriptions of how meaningful they consider their pain reduction to be. A convenience sample of 150 postoperative patients was obtained. The patients' postoperative pain intensity levels before and after analgesia were measured and compared with their verbal descriptions of what constitutes a clinically meaningful pain reduction. The results of the study showed a significant correlation between the percentage of reduction in pain severity and the patients' descriptive ratings of pain improvement. A unique finding of the study was that the degree of incremental shift on an NRS of pretreatment and posttreatment pain levels is not a good predictor of clinical relevance from the patient's perspective. A more accurate predictor was found by converting the changes on the NRS to percentages. An important implication of this study is the need to include a scale in pain assessment instruments for assessing the level of clinical meaningfulness of pain reduction from the patient's perspective. PMID:17145489
Sloman, Rod; Wruble, Anna Woloski; Rosen, Gila; Rom, Miriam
Background: There is growing evidence that dialysis patients have a high burden of symptoms, including pain. However, the prevalence, cause, severity, and management of pain in dialysis patients have not been described. Methods: This prospective cohort study of 205 Canadian hemodialysis (HD) patients describes the prevalence, cause, severity, and management of pain in this population. A chart review for demographic
Sara N Davison
Pressure pain thresholds and pressure pain tolerances on non-trigger-point muscle and bone were measured with a dolorimeter in 46 female patients with primary fibromyalgia and in 50 healthy women of the same age. The pressure pain thresholds and the pressure pain tolerances on both muscle and bone were lower in the fibromyalgia patients than in the healthy controls. All the differences were statistically highly significant, though there was a certain degree of overlapping between the patients and the controls. It is concluded that patients with primary fibromyalgia have a generalized amplification of pain sensitivity, a sign that might be useful in the diagnosis of fibromyalgia. PMID:1514890
Mikkelsson, M; Latikka, P; Kautiainen, H; Isomeri, R; Isomäki, H
Background: Pain management in the Emergency Department is challenging. Do we need to ask patients specifically about their pain scores, or does our observational scoring suffice? The objective of this study was to determine the inter-rater differences in pain scores between patients and emergency healthcare (EHC) providers. Pain scores upon discharge or prior to ward admission were also determined. Methods: A prospective study was conducted in which patients independently rated their pain scores at primary triage; EHC providers (triagers and doctors) separately rated the patients’ pain scores, based on their observations. Results: The mean patient pain score on arrival was 6.8 ± 1.6, whereas those estimated by doctors and triagers were 5.6±1.8 and 4.3±1.9, respectively. There were significant differences among patients, triagers and doctors (P< 0.001). There were five conditions (soft tissue injury, headache, abdominal pain, fracture and abscess/cellulites) that were significantly different in pain scores between patients and EHC providers (P<0.005). The mean pain score of patients upon discharge or admission to the ward was 3.3 ± 1.9. Conclusions: There were significant differences in mean patient pain scores on arrival, compared to those of doctors and triagers. Thus, asking for pain scores is a very important step towards comprehensive pain management in emergency medicine.
Baharuddin, Kamarul Aryffin; Mohamad, Nasir; Nik Abdul Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin; Ahmad, Rashidi; Nik Him, Nik Ahmad Shaiffudin
A prospective study of 71 patients with fibromyalgia (Yunus 1981 criteria) experience improved quality of life and management of pain after treatment at a pain school for one year. There was no significant improvement in total pain score (VAS) and sickness impact profile (SIP) for these patients compared with 71 paired controls with fibromyalgia matched by age and sex. The need for health care services was reduced and more patients from the pain school group returned to work. The main programme in the pain school classes consisted of information on chronic, non-malignant pain, psychomotoric physiotherapy and group therapy. The pupils evaluated all three items as important, with group dynamics as most beneficial. Good results have also been achieved in other chronic, non-malignant patients. Organized and structural pain management programmes in pain school classes have a favourable cost benefit profile and we recommend more use of such classes in the Norwegian health care system. PMID:2063381
Kogstad, O; Hintringer, F; Jonsson, Y M
Introduction: Pain related fear and pain intensity have been identified as factors negatively influencing Functional Capacity Evaluation\\u000a (FCE) performances in patients with CLBP. Conflicting results have been reported in the literature. The objective of this\\u000a study was to analyze the relationships between pain intensity and pain-related fear on the one hand, and performances during\\u000a an FCE on the other hand
Michiel F. Reneman; Henrica R. Schiphorts Preuper; Marco Kleen; Jan H. B. Geertzen; Pieter U. Dijkstra
We previously reported that three different electronic visual analogue and numerical pain scales are useful in providing refined capacity to discriminate discrete levels of pain intensity. Using the same subjects and scales, we now investigated whether pain scaling is influenced by past pain events and by recalled memories of these events in the rating of pain. Normal control subjects (NC: 19 male; 30 female) and female fibromyalgia (FM) (n = 17) patients received 5 sec suprathreshold heat stimuli (45 - 49°C) to both forearms. The participants rated these experimental heat stimuli using the previously described electronic pain scales. Subsequently, they were asked to report whether they used any prior pain experiences during the process of rating their pain. Out of 49 NC only 6 females (12.2%) and 7 males (14.3%), and out of 17 FM patients only 3 females (17.6 %) stated to have used past pain experiences during scaling. Notably, pain ratings of experimental heat stimuli did not statistically differ between subjects who used past pain experiences during scaling as compared to those who did not. Furthermore, ratings of their most severe past pains were not significantly correlated with ratings of experimental pain stimuli. These results do not provide support for the strong assertion that pain rating scales are “elastic” i.e. being used differently depending on the severity of past pain events such as childbirth.
Staud, Roland; Robinson, Michael E.; Price, Donald D.
Chronic pain, lymphoedema, post-irradiation neuropathy and other symptoms are reported in as many as 75% of women following breast cancer treatment. This study examined pain and sensory abnormalities in women following breast cancer surgery. Sensory tests were carried out on operated and contralateral sides in 15 women with spontaneous pain and sensory abnormalities and 11 pain-free women. Testing included the VAS score of spontaneous pain, detection and pain threshold to thermal and mechanical stimuli, temporal summation to repetitive heat and pinprick stimuli, and assessment of skin blood flow during repetitive brush and pinprick stimulation. Sensory threshold to pinprick and thermal stimuli was significantly higher on the operated side in both groups while pressure pain threshold was significantly lower in pain patients on the operated side compared to the contralateral side. No side to side difference was seen in pressure pain threshold in the pain-free group. Evoked pain intensity to repetitive stimuli at 0.2 and 2.0 Hz was significantly higher on the operated side in pain patients compared to the control area while no such difference was seen in pain-free patients. Cutaneous blood flow measured by laser Doppler (flux) was significantly higher when the skin was tapped at 2.0 Hz on the operated side compared to contralaterally in pain patients, while no side to side difference was seen in pain-free patients. Pinprick-evoked pain was correlated to spontaneous pain but not to flux. Spontaneous pain was not correlated to flux. Sensitization seems to be a feature in breast cancer-operated women with pain, but not in pain-free women. PMID:10963907
Gottrup, H; Andersen, J; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Jensen, T S
Pain patterns in patients with polycystic kidney disease.BackgroundPain is a common problem in patients with polycystic kidney disease (PKD), but patterns have not been characterized as to frequency and severity. Physicians should be aware of pain problems so an approach to chronic pain management can be pursued.MethodsOne hundred seventy-one completed questionnaires out of 300 distributed to PKD patients whose renal
ZAHID H BAJWA; KHURAM A SIAL; ATIF B MALIK; THEODORE I STEINMAN
Breakthrough pain (BKP) is a transitory flare of pain that occurs on a background of relatively well controlled baseline pain. Previous surveys have found that BKP is highly prevalent among patients with cancer pain and predicts more severe pain, pain-related distress and functional impairment, and relatively poor quality of life. An international group of investigators assembled by a task force of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of BKP as part of a prospective, cross-sectional survey of cancer pain. Fifty-eight clinicians in 24 countries evaluated a total of 1095 patients with cancer pain using patient-rated items from the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and observer-rated measures. The observer-rated information included demographic and tumor-related data, the occurrence of BKP, and responses on checklists of pain syndromes and pathophysiologies. The clinicians reported BKP in 64.8% of patients. Physicians from English-speaking countries were significantly more likely to report BKP than other physicians. BKP was associated with higher pain scores and functional interference on the BPI. Multivariate analysis showed an independent association of BKP with the presence of more than one pain, a vertebral pain syndrome, pain due to plexopathy, and English-speaking country. These data confirm the high prevalence of BKP, its association with more severe pain and functional impairment, and its relationship to specific cancer pain syndromes. Further studies are needed to characterize subtypes of BKP. The uneven distribution of BKP reporting across pain specialists from different countries suggests that more standardized methods for diagnosing BKP are needed. PMID:15198130
Caraceni, Augusto; Martini, Cinzia; Zecca, Ernesto; Portenoy, Russell K; Ashby, M A; Hawson, G; Jackson, K A; Lickiss, N; Muirden, N; Pisasale, M; Moulin, D; Schulz, V N; Rico Pazo, M A; Serrano, J A; Andersen, H; Henriksen, H T; Mejholm, I; Sjogren, P; Heiskanen, T; Kalso, E; Pere, P; Poyhia, R; Vuorinen, E; Tigerstedt, I; Ruismaki, P; Bertolino, M; Larue, F; Ranchere, J Y; Hege-Scheuing, G; Bowdler, I; Helbing, F; Kostner, E; Radbruch, L; Kastrinaki, K; Shah, S; Vijayaram, S; Sharma, K S; Devi, P Sarashawathi; Jain, P N; Ramamani, P V; Beny, A; Brunelli, C; Maltoni, M; Mercadante, S; Plancarte, R; Schug, S; Engstrand, P; Ovalle, A F; Wang, X; Alves, M Ferraz; Abrunhosa, M R; Sun, W Z; Zhang, L; Gazizov, A; Vaisman, M; Rudoy, S; Gomez Sancho, M; Vila, P; Trelis, J; Chaudakshetrin, P; Koh, M L J; Van Dongen, R T M; Vielvoye-Kerkmeer, A; Boswell, M V; Elliott, T; Hargus, E; Lutz, L
The objectives of this study were to describe (1) coital positions adopted by chronic back pain patients, (2) and to describe sexual function as assessed by Derogatis Inventory of Sexual Functioning (DISF). In addition, patients were asked questions regarding effects of sexual intercourse on severity of pain, influence of pain over sexual functioning, and perceived factors causing sexual problems. This
Trilok N. Monga; Uma Monga; Gabriel Tan; Martin Grabois
The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which pa- tients undergoing flexible bronchoscopy (FOB) experience pain and to identify patient factors and process of care factors that are associated with pain. We conducted a prospective cohort study on 481 patients undergoing FOB. Overall control of pain during FOB was the primary outcome. The mean age of
NOAH LECHTZIN; HAYA R. RUBIN; MOLLIE JENCKES; PETER WHITE; LI-MING ZHOU; DAVID A. THOMPSON; GREGORY B. DIETTE
This study employed quantitative sensory testing (QST) to evaluate pain responses in chronic spinal pain patients at low risk and high risk for opioid misuse, with risk classification based on scores on the Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain-Revised (SOAPP-R). Patients were further sub-grouped according to current use of prescription opioids. Of the 276 chronic pain patients tested, approximately 65% were taking opioids; a median split was used to further categorize these patients as being on lower or higher doses of opioids. The highrisk group (n= 161) reported higher levels of clinical pain, had lower pressure and thermal pain thresholds at multiple body sites, had lower heat pain tolerance, and rated repetitive mechanical stimuli as more painful relative to the low-risk group (n= 115; p’s< .01). In contrast, QST measures did not differ across opioid groups. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested that indices of pain-related distress (i.e., anxiety and catastrophizing about pain) were also predictive of hyperalgesia, particularly in patients taking opioids. Collectively, regardless of opioid status, the high-risk group was hyperalgesic relative to the low-risk group; future opioid treatment studies may benefit from the classification of opioid risk, and the examination of pain sensitivity and other factors that differentiate high- and low-risk groups.
Edwards, Robert R.; Wasan, Ajay D.; Michna, Ed; Greenbaum, Seth; Ross, Ed; Jamison, Robert N.
More than 80% of cancer patients experience cancer pain. Among them, more than 50% experience moderate to severe pain. To control cancer pain, a variety of methods have been used, including medications and nerve blocks. In some patients, however, it is impossible to perform nerve blocks due to caner metastasis into the epidural space, while in other patients, opioid dose escalation is impossible due to opioid side effects; thus, cancer pain management is difficult. Scrambler therapy is a novel approach for pain control that uses EKG-like pads, which are applied above and below the site of pain. Scrambler therapy synthesizes 16 different types of nerve action potentials that provide "non-pain" information via cutaneous nerves. The advantages of this treatment are that it is non-invasive and safe and has no significant side effects. In this case series, we report the treatment results of using scrambler therapy in three cancer patients with intractable pain.
Park, Hong Sik; Sin, Woo Kyung; Kim, Hye Young; Park, Soo Young; Kim, Yong Chul; Lee, Sang Chul
Functional brain imaging of pain over the last years has provided insight into a distributed anatomical matrix involved in pain processing which includes multiple cortical areas. EEG\\/MEG-based imaging studies have mostly relied on settings of evoked nociception. We report here the spontaneous presence of enhanced activations in the pain matrix of the patient group on the basis of continuous EEG
Jair Stern; Daniel Jeanmonod; Johannes Sarnthein
In patients with unresectable peripancreatic carcinoma, pain is generally treated with pain medication or with a celiac plexus\\u000a blockade. Radiotherapy has also been reported to reduce pain. The efficacy of these treatment modalities is still under discussion.\\u000a The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the various types of pain management on patients who underwent palliative\\u000a bypass
Rutger C. I. van Geenen; Claudia M. G. Keyzer-Dekker; Geertjan van Tienhoven; Huug Obertop; Dirk J. Gouma
Shoulder pain affects from 16% to 72% of patients after a cerebrovascular accident. Hemiplegic shoulder pain causes considerable distress and reduced activity and can markedly hinder rehabilitation. The aetiology of hemiplegic shoulder pain is probably multifactorial. The ideal management of hemiplegic stroke pain is prevention. For prophylaxis to be effective, it must begin immediately after the stroke. Awareness of potential injuries to the shoulder joint reduces the frequency of shoulder pain after stroke. The multidisciplinary team, patients, and carers should be provided with instructions on how to avoid injuries to the affected limb. Foam supports or shoulder strapping may be used to prevent shoulder pain. Overarm slings should be avoided. Treatment of shoulder pain after stroke should start with simple analgesics. If shoulder pain persists, treatment should include high intensity transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation or functional electrical stimulation. Intra-articular steroid injections may be used in resistant cases.???Keywords: shoulder pain; stroke
Cognitive-behavioural therapy and maintenance of exercise have emerged as major tools in the treatment of patients with chronic low back pain. Patients' beliefs about their problem may influence their uptake of and responses to particular treatment modalities. In particular, we hypothesised that patients' beliefs about the cause and treatment of pain may mediate changes in physical disability following participation in a multidisciplinary pain management programme. A cohort of 84 patients was invited to respond to booklets of self-report questionnaires prior to, immediately after and 3 months following participation in multidisciplinary pain management programmes. Questionnaires addressed subjects' beliefs about the nature and treatment of pain (Pain Beliefs Questionnaire), and their disability (Likert-modified Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire, Physical Functioning scale of the Short Form-36 Health Survey, and Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire). Patients with chronic low back pain who more strongly endorsed 'organic' concepts about the nature and treatment of pain reported higher levels of physical disability at baseline, and displayed greater reductions in disability following participation in the pain management programmes. Reductions in reported 'organic' pain beliefs were associated with improvements in reported disability. Endorsement of 'psychological' concepts about the nature and treatment of pain was not associated with disability. These findings support a view that patients' beliefs about the nature and treatment of their pain can change during participation in a multidisciplinary pain management programme based on cognitive-behavioural intervention. Modification of these beliefs may be associated with improvements in patients' perceptions of the level of their disability. PMID:12031776
Walsh, David Andrew; Radcliffe, Jenny Clare
Background Pain is a leading symptom which influences patients to seek medical attention. The management of pain among patients attending in-patient care in southern African countries has been little described. Information regarding the prevalence of pain and the quality of its management may be useful in guiding clinical decisions, training of health workers and health care quality improvements. Methods A hospital-based audit was conducted to estimate the prevalence of pain and examine the quality of its management among patients admitted to adult medical wards at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH), Blantyre, Malawi in 2004. Data were abstracted from ward charts of consecutive patients' who had been either been discharged or had died within a specified period. Characteristics of interest included; socio-demographic data, presence or absence of pain at admission, characterization or description of pain when present, and drug treatment given. Data were analyzed to obtain frequencies and proportions of the characteristics and assess the prevalence of pain and quality of care. Results A total of 121 patients' case notes were reviewed and the prevalence of pain was recorded for 91 (75.2%) of the patients. Clinicians had recorded pertinent information regarding pain management with the following frequency: pain severity or intensity 5/91 (5.5%), alleviating factors 5 (5.5%), pain radiation 7 (7.7%), exacerbating factors in 9 (9.9%) and periodicity in 43 (47.3%) of the cases. Males with pain were more than 3 times more likely to receive analgesic as compared to females, p < 0.01. Paracetamol was the commonest analgesic prescribed. Conclusion Inadequate management of pain among patients attending medical wards at QECH was found. There is need for prospective studies to further characterize pain management and identify pain management gaps in Malawi. Interviews of clinicians and documentation of observations within clinical practice are likely to be of value.
Muula, Adamson S; Misiri, Humphreys E
Little is known about how patient functioning changes after completion of multidisciplinary pain programs, and what factors are associated with such changes when they occur; for example, whether improvement or deterioration in functioning corresponds to changes in patient beliefs and coping during this period. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which changes in patient pain and functioning were associated with changes in beliefs and coping after multidisciplinary pain treatment. Patients with chronic pain (N = 141) completed outcome (pain, functioning) and process (beliefs, catastrophizing, coping) measures at the end of multidisciplinary pain treatment and 12 months posttreatment. On average, patients reported similar levels of pain at both times, but showed a small worsening in disability and depression outcomes between posttreatment and follow-up, which were associated significantly with concurrent changes in the process measures. In particular, increased belief in oneself as disabled by pain, catastrophizing, and increased use of resting, guarding and asking for assistance in response to pain were linked with increased disability and depression. Decreased perceived control over pain was also consistently associated with worsening of these outcomes. The results highlight the potential importance of specific pain-related beliefs and coping responses in long-term patient pain and adjustment. Research is needed to determine whether booster interventions after the end of intensive multidisciplinary treatment that target these beliefs and coping responses improve long-term outcomes.
Jensen, Mark P.; Turner, Judith A.; Romano, Joan M.
This study had two primary objectives: (1) characterize the content of presleep cognitions of chronic pain patients and (2) evaluate the association between presleep cognitions and sleep disturbance. Thirty-one outpatients with benign chronic pain completed the Beck Depression Inventory, pain and sleep diaries and participated in an in vivo, presleep thought sampling procedure for 1 week in their homes. The
M. T. Smith; M. L. Perlis; T. P. Carmody; M. S. Smith; D. E. Giles
Though human pain has existed since the dawn of time, formal medical pain relief in the form of anesthesia and analgesia has been available only since the mid-nineteenth century. Even after these measures became available, they were used very selectively for the first 100 years of their existence. The youngest patients, especially, were denied pain relief, probably because they could
Rachel Yaff Zisk
The research focusing on pain in Hispanic/Latino populations suggests that their cultural values and beliefs of stoicism, fatalism, the importance of family, spirituality, and folk healing have an impact on their pain experience. Based on research findings this article suggests strategies nurses can use to assess and suggest pain management interventions for patients of Hispanic/Latino culture. PMID:12637823
The purpose of the study was to address the impact of pain perception, morbidity and mood on functional impairment in elderly chronic pain patients. Multimorbid pain patients beyond the age of 65 in two geriatric hospitals (n = 84), a pain clinic (n = 60) and three general practices (n = 117) provided information about pain perception, comorbidity, additional symptoms and mood by means of the "Structured Pain Interview for Geriatric Patients", the "Cumulative Illness Rating Scale" and a list of symptoms. Data analysis relied on stepwise multiple regression with variables of pain perception entered in the first step, of morbidity entered in the second step and of mood entered in the third step. Although patients believe that pain is the main reason for their functional impairment (71.3%), the data do not support this assumption. Increasing morbidity and bad mood have more impact to reduced functional performance than the pain perception. Our results support the recommendation that a multimodal program should be offered to even multimorbid and older people with chronic pain in order to achieve a maximum of functional rehabilitation. PMID:15338154
Schuler, Matthias S; Basler, H D; Hesselbarth, S; Kaluza, G; Sohn, W; Nikolaus, Th
Analgesics in patients with acute abdominal pain are often withheld for fear that they may change physical examination findings and thus may be unsafe. We conducted a randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled trial to investigate changes in physical examination following the administration of placebo, 5 mg, or 10 mg of morphine to 49 patients with acute abdominal pain. One patient was withdrawn
Frank LoVecchio; Neill Oster; Kai Sturmann; Lewis S. Nelson; Scott Flashner; Ralph Finger
BACKGROUND: Patients with acute chest pain are often referred to the emergency ward and extensively investigated. Investigations are costly and could induce unnecessary complications, especially with invasive diagnostics. Nevertheless, chest pain patients have high mortalities. Fast identification of high-risk patients is crucial. Therefore several strategies have been developed including specific symptoms, signs, laboratory measurements, and imaging. METHODS\\/DESIGN: The Quick Identification
Hendrik M Willemsen; Gonda de Jong; René A Tio; Wybe Nieuwland; Ido P Kema; Iwan CC van der Horst; Mattijs Oudkerk; Felix Zijlstra
Home healthcare nurses play a critical role in pain assessment and management in elderly patients. People 65 years of age and older are the largest consumers of prescription and nonprescription pain medications in the United States and are at increased risk for adverse reactions and inadequate pain management. This article seeks to explore strategies to assist hospice and home healthcare nurses in assessing and managing elderly patients' pain. The goal is to provide tools to assist nurses in streamlining elderly patient care and improving quality of life while decreasing mortality and morbidity for this patient population. PMID:24802598
Macsorley, Robyn; White, Jill; Conerly, Vicki H; Walker, Jean T; Lofton, Susan; Ragland, Gaye; Davey, Debrynda; Robertson, Amy
The number of patients taking long-term opioid therapy for pain is increasing, with opioid use no longer being confined to advanced cancer patients. Challenges to peri- and postoperative pain management in chronic pain patients include complex existing drug regimens and problems arising from tolerance to opioid analgesia. Postoperatively, individualized, multimodal pain therapy involving a round-the-clock regimen of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, paracetamol, and regional blocks should be used. Other considerations may include patients receiving opioids by intrathecal drug delivery systems, spinal cord stimulator (SCS), and potential substance abusers. PMID:23688513
Calciphylaxis, also referred to as calcific uremic arteriolopathy, is a relatively rare but well described syndrome that occurs most commonly in patients with late stage CKD. It is characterized by very painful placques or subcutaneous nodules and violaceous, mottled skin lesions that may progress to nonhealing ulcers, tissue necrosis, and gangrene with a 1-year mortality rate >50%. The pathogenesis of calciphylaxis is poorly understood. Risk factors include female sex, obesity, hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, longer dialysis vintage, hypercoagulable states, and use of calcium-containing phosphate binders and warfarin. Treatment strategies for calciphylaxis are limited by inadequate understanding of its pathophysiology. Therapy is generally focused on correcting disturbances of calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone metabolism. Additional therapy focuses on decreasing inflammation and on dissolution of tissue calcium deposits with sodium thiosulfate and/or bisphosphonates. Successful treatment generally results in improvement of pain and healing of the lesions within 2-4 weeks, but the disorder generally takes many months to completely resolve. PMID:24202137
Sprague, Stuart M
Objective. Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a very common and costly health problem. Patients presenting to rheumatology clinics with chronic pain can be difficult to manage. We studied 354 patients referred to a rheumatology chronic pain clinic over 5 yrs to identify factors affecting their self-efficacy and intensity of pain. Methods. We collected data for each patient, covering demographic and psychosocial
A. Rahman; E. Reed; M. Underwood; M. E. Shipley; R. Z. Omar
The PainDETECT questionnaire (PD-Q), originally developed and validated in a multicentre study of neuropathic pain (NeP) patients with back pain, is increasingly being applied to other pain conditions. The present study assessed whether the PD-Q would be a suitable screening tool for detecting NeP in patients with post-traumatic inferior alveolar nerve injury (IANI) and lingual nerve injury (LNI). A prospective cohort of patients with clinically diagnosed neuropathy was given the PD-Q at their clinic appointment, or it was sent to them after their consultation. Eighty-nine patients (IANI = 56, LNI = 33) were included in the study, 75 of whom suffered from painful neuropathy. Of the patients who completed the questionnaire fully (n = 56), allowing a summary score to be calculated, 34% were classified as having 'likely NeP' according to the PD-Q; 41% of patients scored in the uncertain classification range and the remaining quarter in the 'likely nociceptive' classification. There was a significant association between PD-Q scores and pain intensity levels across the sample, with those classified as likely NeP reporting high levels of pain. The results suggest that the PD-Q in its current format is not a suitable screening tool for NeP associated with IANI or LNI. PMID:23928156
Elias, L-A; Yilmaz, Z; Smith, J G; Bouchiba, M; van der Valk, R A; Page, L; Barker, S; Renton, T
Pain assessment and treatment is challenging and can be influenced by patient demographic characteristics. Few research studies have been able to specifically examine these influences experimentally. The present study investigated the effects of patients' sex, race, age, and pain expression on healthcare students' assessment of pain and pain-related sequelae using virtual human (VH) technology. A lens model design was employed, which is an analogue method for capturing how individuals use environmental information to make judgments. In this study, decision-making policies were captured at the nomothetic and idiographic level. Participants included 107 healthcare students who viewed 32 VH patients that differed in sex, race, age, and pain expression in an online study. Participants provided ratings on a 100-point scale on the VH pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, negative mood, coping, and need for medical treatment. Nomothetic analyses revealed that female, African-American, older, and high pain expression VH were rated higher than male, Caucasian, younger, and low pain expression VH, respectively, on most of the five ratings. Idiographic analyses revealed detailed findings for individuals' decision-making policies. VH technology and the lens model design were shown to be highly effective in examining individuals' decision-making policies. Pain assessment often varied among individuals based on patient demographic and facial expression cues. This study could serve as a model for future investigations of pain assessment and treatment in healthcare students and providers. PMID:20435492
Stutts, Lauren A; Hirsh, Adam T; George, Steven Z; Robinson, Michael E
Objective: To compare responses to trigger point (TrP) injection between patients having both myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) caused by active TrPs and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and patients with MPS due to TrPs but without FMS.Design: Prospective design blinded measurement, before-after trial.Setting: A pain control medical clinic.Patients: Group 1: MPS + FMS; Group 2: MPS only. All patients (9 in each
Chang-Zern Hong; Tse-Chieh Hsueh
.\\u000a Objective: Inflammatory cytokines as well as nitric oxide (NO) play a key role in the pathogenesis of persistent and exaggerated pain\\u000a states. To document this, we investigated whether a range of cytokines and NO were detectable in the plasma of chronic pain\\u000a patients and whether cytokine and NO levels correlated with pain severity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Plasma samples of 94 chronic pain patients
A. Koch; K. Zacharowski; O. Boehm; M. Stevens; P. Lipfert; H. J. von Giesen; A. Wolf; R. Freynhagen
Invasive procedures are commonly required in the diagnosis and management of cancer in adults. However, little is known regarding the prevalence and severity of procedure-related pain in this patient population. This prospective study was conducted to determine the frequency and types of invasive procedures performed in a large comprehensive cancer center, the intensity of pain associated with these procedures, the types of periprocedural analgesics administered, and how these patients would like their procedural pain to be managed in the future. During a 6-week period, 102 cancer patients were interviewed immediately after undergoing an invasive procedure. They were asked to rate the pain they experienced before, during, and after their procedure using a verbal descriptor scale (VDS) ranging from 0 to 10. They also were asked if they would want more, less, or the same amount of pain medication if they were to undergo the same procedure again. The most frequently performed procedures were bone marrow aspirates and biopsies (68%), lumbar punctures (14%), and placements of central venous catheters (10%). The average pain rating during these procedures was 4.2 (standard deviation [SD], 3.0). However, 26% of patients experienced severe pain (VDS score > or = 7) during the procedures. Twenty-four percent of patients surveyed received conscious sedation for their procedure. There was no statistical relationship between patients' pain ratings and their satisfaction with the pain control they received during the procedures. This study represents the largest descriptive study of procedural pain in adult cancer patients. As more than 50% of these patients experienced moderate to severe pain during procedures, further studies are needed to improve the control of procedure-related pain in patients with cancer. PMID:19761075
Portnow, Jana; Lim, Christine; Grossman, Stuart A
Abstract We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures. PMID:24892196
Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D
Background Paramedics are often a first point of contact for people experiencing pain in the community. Wherever possible the patient's self report of pain should be sought to guide the assessment and management of this complaint. Communication difficulty or disability such as cognitive impairment associated with dementia may limit the patient's ability to report their pain experience, and this has the potential to affect the quality of care. The primary objective of this study was to systematically locate evidence relating to the use of pain assessment tools that have been validated for use with cognitively impaired adults and to identify those that have been recommended for use by paramedics. Methods A systematic search of health databases for evidence relating to the use of pain assessment tools that have been validated for use with cognitively impaired adults was undertaken using specific search criteria. An extended search included position statements and clinical practice guidelines developed by health agencies to identify evidence-based recommendations regarding pain assessment in older adults. Results Two systematic reviews met study inclusion criteria. Weaknesses in tools evaluated by these studies limited their application in assessing pain in the population of interest. Only one tool was designed to assess pain in acute care settings. No tools were located that are designed for paramedic use. Conclusion The reviews of pain assessment tools found that the majority were developed to assess chronic pain in aged care, hospital or hospice settings. An analysis of the characteristics of these pain assessment tools identified attributes that may limit their use in paramedic practice. One tool - the Abbey Pain Scale - may have application in paramedic assessment of pain, but clinical evaluation is required to validate this tool in the paramedic practice setting. Further research is recommended to evaluate the Abbey Pain Scale and to evaluate the effectiveness of paramedic pain management practice in older adults to ensure that the care of all patients is unaffected by age or disability.
The sympathetic nervous system has been implicated in pain associated with painful diabetic neuropathy. However, therapeutic intervention targeted at the sympathetic nervous system has not been established. We thus tested the hypothesis that sympathetic nerve blocks significantly reduce pain in a patient with painful diabetic neuropathy who has failed multiple pharmacological treatments. The diagnosis of small fiber sensory neuropathy was based on clinical presentations and confirmed by skin biopsies. A series of 9 lumbar sympathetic blocks over a 26-month period provided sustained pain relief in his legs. Additional thoracic paravertebral blocks further provided control of the pain in the trunk which can occasionally be seen in severe diabetic neuropathy cases, consequent to extensive involvement of the intercostal nerves. These blocks provided sustained and significant pain relief and improvement of quality of life over a period of more than two years. We thus provided the first clinical evidence supporting the notion that sympathetic nervous system plays a critical role in painful diabetic neuropathy and sympathetic blocks can be an effective management modality of painful diabetic neuropathy. We concluded that the sympathetic nervous system is a valuable therapeutic target of pharmacological and interventional modalities of treatments in painful diabetic neuropathy patients.
Cheng, Jianguo; Daftari, Anuj; Zhou, Lan
Chronic, nonmalignant pain is a substantial public health problem in the United States. Research over the past 2 decades has defined chronic pain by using a "biopsychosocial model" that considers a patient's biology and psychological makeup in the context of his or her social and cultural milieu. Whereas this model addresses the pathology of chronic pain, it also places many demands on the physician, who is expected to assess and manage chronic pain safely and successfully. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that opioids can be effective in the management of chronic pain, but there has also been a rise in opioid-related overdoses and deaths. Clinicians should be aware of assessment tools that may be used to evaluate the risk of opioid abuse. A basic understanding of chronic pain pathophysiology and a uniform approach to patient care can satisfy the needs of both patients and physicians. PMID:23918913
Debono, David J; Hoeksema, Laura J; Hobbs, Raymond D
The aim of the present study was to examine pain threshold and pain recovery in patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and matched no-pain controls. Twenty female patients diagnosed with BMS without organic gross changes were enrolled in the study. Twenty control subjects were chosen from age-matched healthy female volunteers. We compared the thermal pain threshold using heat beam dolorimeter on the finger and tongue between patients and controls. Warm (at 50 degrees C for 5 s), cold (at 0 degrees C for 30 s) and mechanical (stimulation by electric tooth brush for 15 s) stimulation was applied to the tongue for both groups. Participants were asked to rate the subjective pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Although there was no significant differences between patients and controls in terms of the threshold on the finger, the threshold on the tongue was significantly higher in patients than in controls. We suggest there were peripheral dysfunction at the tongue, and/or central dysfunction in patients with BMS. Among the three types of stimulation, the patients perceived significantly the highest pain from the mechanical stimulation for the first 5 min after the stimulation. Furthermore, when patients with BMS perceived some pain, they continued to complain of the pain longer and more intricately than the controls. This indicates that the pain of the patients is strongly affected not only at a sensory component but also at an affective/motivational component than the controls. However, we should be cautious of simply advancing psychogenic theory in this etiology. PMID:11952919
Ito, Mikiko; Kurita, Kenichi; Ito, Takako; Arao, Munetaka
The American Society for Pain Management Nursing (ASPMN) has updated its position statement on managing pain in patients with substance use disorders. This position statement is endorsed by the International Nurses Society on Addictions (IntNSA) and includes clinical practice recommendations based on current evidence. It is the position of ASPMN and IntNSA that every patient with pain, including those with substance use disorders, has the right to be treated with dignity, respect, and high quality pain assessment and management. Failure to identify and treat the concurrent conditions of pain and substance use disorders will compromise the ability to treat either condition effectively. Barriers to caring for these patients include stigmatization, misconceptions, and limited access to providers skilled in these two categories of disorders. Topics addressed in this position statement include the scope of substance use and related disorders, conceptual models of addiction, ethical considerations, addiction risk stratification, and clinical recommendations.
Oliver, June; Coggins, Candace; Compton, Peggy; Hagan, Susan; Matteliano, Deborah; Stanton, Marsha; St. Marie, Barbara; Strobbe, Stephen
The aim of this study was to compare the performances of patients with mild, moderate, and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and neuropsychological measures as well as to correlate these measures with outcome assessed by the Extended Glasgow Outcome Score. This study was conducted in an acute care early
Elaine de Guise; Nadia Gosselin; Joanne LeBlanc; Marie-Claude Champoux; Céline Couturier; Julie Lamoureux; Jehane Dagher; Judith Marcoux; Mohammed Maleki; Mitra Feyz
Purpose of review Pain assessment is essential for patient care in many settings, but it proves difficult when the patient is cognitively compromised or otherwise unable to produce a conventional pain report. This review describes progress in pain assessment technology that involves the coding of human facial expression. Recent findings It is possible to quantify facial expression by coding patterns of facial muscle contraction and relaxation. These patterns are action units, and they can gauge the intensity of pain as well as signal its occurrence. The experience of pain seems to generate a unique facial expression comprising several action units. Concerns have existed about whether demented patients produce diagnostically meaningful facial expressions of pain because they tend to generate more non-specific facial expressions and perhaps code pain intensity less well than normals. Recent work shows that facial expression reflects pain as well or better in demented patients compared to normals. Summary Although still nascent, coded facial expression appears to work reliably as a pain assessment tool with cognitively compromised patients. Clinical application awaits the development of technology that can automate facial coding and scoring.
Chapman, C. Richard
Background: Opioid analgesics are the cornerstone of management for malignant pain. Their use in managing chronic, nonmalignant pain, albeit controversial, has increased in recent years. The decisions about whether to initiate opioid therapy or continue it over time should be guided by a comprehensive patient assessment. During long-term treatment, this assessment should focus on a broad range of outcomes, each
Steven D Passik; Kenneth L Kirsh; Laurie Whitcomb; Russell K Portenoy; Nathaniel P Katz; Leah Kleinman; Sheri L Dodd; Jeffrey R Schein
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of relaxing music on pain intensity in patients with neuropathic pain. A quasi-experimental study, repeated measures design was used. Thirty patients, aged 18-70 years, with neuropathic pain and hospitalized in an Algology clinic were identified as a convenience sample. Participants received 60 minutes of music therapy. Classical Turkish music was played to patients using a media player (MP3) and headphones. Participants had pain scores taken immediately before the intervention and at the 30th and 60th minutes of the intervention. Data were collected over a 6-month period in 2012. The patients' mean pain intensity scores were reduced by music, and that decrease was progressive over the 30th and 60th minutes of the intervention, indicating a cumulative dose effect. The results of this study implied that the inclusion of music therapy in the routine care of patients with neuropathic pain could provide nurses with an effective practice for reducing patients' pain intensity. PMID:23375348
Korhan, Esra Ak?n; Uyar, Meltem; Eyigör, Can; Hakverdio?lu Yönt, Gülendam; Çelik, Serkan; Khorsh?d, Leyla
Background. The aim of this report was to evaluate the clinical profile and previous management of patients with uncontrolled neuropathic pain who were referred to pain clinics. Methods. We included adult patients with uncontrolled pain who had a score of ?4 in the DN4 questionnaire. In addition to sociodemographic and clinical data, we evaluated pain levels using a visual analog scale as well as anxiety, depression, sleep, disability, and treatment satisfaction employing validated tools. Results. A total of 755 patients were included in the study. The patients were predominantly referred to pain clinics by traumatologists (34.3%) and primary care physicians (16.7%). The most common diagnoses were radiculopathy (43%) and pain of oncological origin (14.3%). The major cause for uncontrolled pain was suboptimal treatment (88%). Fifty-three percent of the patients were depressed, 43% had clinical anxiety, 50% rated their overall health as bad or very bad, and 45% noted that their disease was severely or extremely interfering with their daily activities. Conclusions. Our results showed that uncontrolled neuropathic pain is a common phenomenon among the specialties that address these clinical entities and, regardless of its etiology, uncontrolled pain is associated with a dramatic impact on patient well-being.
de Andres, Jose; de la Calle, Jose-Luis; Perez, Maria; Lopez, Vanessa
Longitudinal data from quality assurance studies of pain. outcomes (pain severity and patient satisfaction) were critically examined to explore the reasons that patients are satisfied with their care even when they are in pain. Data were acquired from three sources: self-report surveys of patients during inpatient admission or ambulatory clinic visit (N = 306), telephone interviews of patients after discharge
Sandra E. Ward; Debra B. Gordon
Purpose: To investigate postoperative pain control and analgesic use after heart surgery. Methods: 20 patients undergone heart surgery, randomly entered the study. Each patient was asked to score his pain intensity on visual analog scale (VAS) at four different occasions. Results: 120 patients aged 59 year-old; including 81 male were enrolled in the study. 69.2% had coronary artery disease and 16.7% had heart-valve problem. Main types of surgeries were coronary artery bypass surgery (70.5%) and valve repairement (23%). Duration of ICU stay was 4.78±2.7 days and duration of intubations was 17.38 ± 36.46 hours. Pre-surgery pain relief was administrated to 42% of the subjects and morphine and promethazine was the main pre-surgery analgesia medication. Post surgery analgesic included morphine (injection), petidine (injection) and NSAIDS (oral or rectal). According to VAS, mean pain level, 1 and 4 hours after extubation, and before and one hour after transferring to wards was 5.05±2.5, 4.09±2.0, 3.52±1.8, 2.36±1.89, respectively. Although the level of pain reported was mostly moderate, 80% were reported satisfaction with their post-surgery pain management. Conclusion: A closer pain management control is needed for patients after heart surgery. Introduction of newer pain management techniques, medications and dosages could reduce the pain and suffering.
Sattari, Mohammadreza; Baghdadchi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Kheyri, Marzieh; Khakzadi, Hassan; Ozar Mashayekhi, Simin
Pain and suffering are two frequent symptoms in patients who undergo kidney dialysis, which directly affects their quality of life. This present study analyses, by means of a qualitative methodology the pain and suffering registered in commentaries by kidney patients to determine what they refer to when they speak about pain and suffering and to be able to offer health professionals some elements for making judgments which favor more individualized treatment. Patients who undergo dialysis refer to two clearly distinct types of pain: endogenous, or pain caused by secondary effects their disease has, and exogenous, or anxiety or the loss of something, in this instance their health status, which accompanies their suffering. When confronting such a situation, a health professional must find resources which permit him/her to provide a clear and concise response to these two symptoms in the daily life of kidney patients, using innovating tools which are removed from a simple pill or syrup. PMID:20672716
Gómez Alonso, José Fernando
The aim of this study was to explore if self-rated pain intensity and severe pain differed significantly between immigrants\\u000a from different regions, and if other socio-economic, or clinical, characteristics could predict severe pain. A total of 129\\u000a men and 217 women at a primary health centre in Stockholm, Sweden, 27–45 years, on long-term sick leave, were recruited in\\u000a consecutive order and
Monica Löfvander; Marina Taloyan
Chronic pain has long been considered an important risk factor for suicidal behavior. Less well understood are the factors associated with the increased risk for suicide death within chronic pain populations. The purpose of this review is to examine recent research with regard to rates of and risk factors for suicide mortality in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. We conclude that patients with a number of chronic pain states are at increased risk for suicide death, and that this risk appears to be due, at least in part, to other well-known correlates of pain such as depression and substance use disorders. However, in all likelihood, there are aspects of chronic pain itself that add uniquely to an individual's suicide risk profile. Lastly, we address a theoretical perspective and offer recommendations for clinical practice. PMID:24952608
Hassett, Afton L; Aquino, Jordan K; Ilgen, Mark A
As opioid prescribing has dramatically expanded over the past decade, so too has the problem of prescription drug abuse. In response to these now two major public health problems – the problem of poorly treated chronic pain and the problem of opioid abuse – a new paradigm has arisen in pain management, namely risk stratification. Once a prescriber has determined
Tara M. Bohn; Lauren B. Levy; Sheyla Celin; Tatiana D. Starr; Steven D. Passik
BACKGROUND: Knee pain is one of the major sources of pain and disability in developed countries, particularly in aging populations, and is the primary indication for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). OBJECTIVES: To determine the presence of myofascial pain in OA patients waitlisted for TKA and to determine whether their knee pain may be alleviated by trigger point injections. METHODS: Following ethics approval, 25 participants were recruited from the wait list for elective unilateral primary TKA at the study centre. After providing informed consent, all participants were examined for the presence of active trigger points in the muscles surrounding the knee and received trigger point injections of bupivacaine. Assessments and trigger point injections were implemented on the first visit and at subsequent visits on weeks 1, 2, 4 and 8. Outcome measures included the Timed Up and Go test, Brief Pain Inventory, Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. RESULTS: Myofascial trigger points were identified in all participants. Trigger point injections significantly reduced pain intensity and pain interference, and improved mobility. All participants had trigger points identified in medial muscles, most commonly in the head of the gastrocnemius muscle. An acute reduction in pain and improved functionality was observed immediately following intervention, and persisted over the eight-week course of the investigation. CONCLUSION: All patients had trigger points in the vastus and gastrocnemius muscles, and 92% of patients experienced significant pain relief with trigger point injections at the first visit, indicating that a significant proportion of the OA knee pain was myofascial in origin. Further investigation is warranted to determine the prevalence of myofascial pain and whether treatment delays or prevents TKA.
Henry, Richard; Cahill, Catherine M; Wood, Gavin; Hroch, Jennifer; Wilson, Rosemary; Cupido, Tracy; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth
This study was designed to examine the relationship between patients' pain severity and their self-reported quality of life, to evaluate factors that may affect pain and quality of life, and to assess patients' opinions and practices on the use of analgesics. The study was conducted with 260 cancer patients. Data were collected using a Quality of Life Scale and Visual Analog Scale questionnaire. It was found that mean scores of pain, all subdomains of quality of life, and overall mean scores of patients were at a moderate level, the lowest score in the subdomains of quality of life was in the psychological subdomain and the highest was in the spiritual subdomain. It was also found that as severity of pain experienced by patients increased, their general activities, mood, activeness, sleep, and nutrition were negatively affected. As severity of pain experienced by patients increased, their quality of life worsened. Patients were observed to have insufficient knowledge and a poor understanding with respect to the use of analgesics. In conclusion, it is very important for nurses to assess factors that can complicate pain management and to establish an effective pain control. PMID:23480371
Ovayolu, Nimet; Ovayolu, Özlem; Serçe, Sibel; Tuna, Döndü; Pirbudak Çöçelli, Lütfiye; Sevinç, Alper
Respiratory muscle strength is one parameter that is currently proposed to be affected in patients with chronic neck pain. This study was aimed at examining whether patients with chronic neck pain have reduced respiratory strength and with which neck pain problems their respiratory strength is associated. In this controlled cross-sectional study, 45 patients with chronic neck pain and 45 healthy well-matched controls were recruited. Respiratory muscle strength was assessed through maximal mouth pressures. The subjects were additionally assessed for their pain intensity and disability, neck muscle strength, endurance of deep neck flexors, neck range of movement, forward head posture and psychological states. Paired t-tests showed that patients with chronic neck pain have reduced Maximal Inspiratory (MIP) (r = 0.35) and Maximal Expiratory Pressures (MEP) (r = 0.39) (P < 0.05). Neck muscle strength (r > 0.5), kinesiophobia (r < -0.3) and catastrophizing (r < -0.3) were significantly associated with maximal mouth pressures (P < 0.05), whereas MEP was additionally negatively correlated with neck pain and disability (r < -0.3, P < 0.05). Neck muscle strength was the only predictor that remained as significant into the prediction models of MIP and MEP. It can be concluded that patients with chronic neck pain present weakness of their respiratory muscles. This weakness seems to be a result of the impaired global and local muscle system of neck pain patients, and psychological states also appear to have an additional contribution. Clinicians are advised to consider the respiratory system of patients with chronic neck pain during their usual assessment and appropriately address their treatment. PMID:23199797
Dimitriadis, Zacharias; Kapreli, Eleni; Strimpakos, Nikolaos; Oldham, Jacqueline
A qualitative research design was used to identify and describe the pain experience of elderly hospice patients with cancer. Eleven participants over the age of 65 receiving hospice services from a for-profit hospice in east Texas were interviewed in their homes. On the basis of a constant-comparative method of analysis, participants identified: (a) multiple sites of pain; (b) hierarchy of
ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate the use of the Acute Low Back Pain Screening Questionnaire (ALBPSQ) in patients with acute neck pain in general practice. The ALBPSQ is a biopsychosocial screening questionnaire containing 20 items concerning mainly psychosocial variables. Although originally developed for patients with low back pain, it may also be applicable for patients with neck
Cees J. Vos; Arianne P. Verhagen; Bart W. Koes
This study explored the impact of group singing on mood, coping, and perceived pain in chronic pain patients attending a multidisciplinary pain clinic. Singers participated in nine 30-minute sessions of small group singing, while comparisons listened to music while exercising. A short form of The Profile of Mood States (POMS) was administered before and after selected singing sessions to assess whether singing produced short-term elevations in mood. Results indicated that pre to post difference scores were significantly different between singing and control groups for only one of the 15 mood variables (i.e., uneasy). To test the longer term impacts of singing the Profile of Mood States, Zung Depression Inventory, Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, Pain Rating Self-Statement, and Pain Disability Questionnaire were administered immediately before and after the singing sessions. All inventories other than the POMS were re-administered 6 months later. One-way ANCOVAs indicated that participants who attended the singing sessions showed evidence of postintervention improvements in active coping, relative to those who failed to attend, when preintervention differences in active coping were controlled for. While the singing group showed marked improvements from pre to postintervention on all mood, coping, and perceived pain variables, these improvements were also observed among comparison participants. The results of this study suggest that active singing may have some benefits, in terms of enhancing active coping, though the limitations of the study and small effect sizes observed suggest that further research is required to fully explore such effects. PMID:15327342
Kenny, Dianna T; Faunce, Gavin
Purpose: The incidence of painful bone metastases increases with longer survival times. Although external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is an effective palliative treatment, it often requires several days from the start of treatment to produce a measurable reduction in pain scores and a qualitative amelioration of patient pain levels. Meanwhile, the use of analgesics remains the best approach early on in the treatment course. We investigated the role of radiation therapists as key personnel for collecting daily pain scores to supplement assessments by physician and oncology nursing staff and manage pain more effectively during radiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Daily pain scores were obtained by the radiation therapists for 89 patients undertaking a total of 124 courses of EBRT for bone metastases and compared with pretreatment pain scores. The majority of patients (71%) were treated to 30 Gy (range, 20-37.5) in 10 fractions (range, 8-15 fractions). Results: One hundred nineteen treatment courses (96%) were completed. Pain scores declined rapidly to 37.5%, 50%, and 75% of the pretreatment levels by Days 2, 4, and 10, respectively. Pain was improved in 91% of patients with only 4% of worse pain at the end of treatment. Improved pain scores were maintained in 83% of patients at 1-month follow-up, but in 35% of them, the pain was worse than at the end of treatment. Conclusions: Collection of daily pain scores by radiation therapists was associated with an effective reduction in pain scores early on during EBRT of painful osseous metastases.
Andrade, Regiane S. [University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, UPMC Shadyside Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); UPMC Radiation Oncology Outreach Program (ROCOG), UPMC McKeesport Hospital, McKeesport, PA (United States); Proctor, Julian W., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [UPMC Jameson Cancer Center, Radiation Oncology Department, New Castle, PA (United States); UPMC Radiation Oncology Outreach Program (ROCOG), UPMC McKeesport Hospital, McKeesport, PA (United States); Slack, Robert; Marlowe, Ursula [UPMC Jameson Cancer Center, Radiation Oncology Department, New Castle, PA (United States); Ashby, Karlotta R. [University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, UPMC Shadyside Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); UPMC Radiation Oncology Outreach Program (ROCOG), UPMC McKeesport Hospital, McKeesport, PA (United States); Schenken, Larry L. [UPMC Radiation Oncology Outreach Program (ROCOG), UPMC McKeesport Hospital, McKeesport, PA (United States)
All eligible patients hospitalized on the general medical, surgical and pediatric wards of a distinct hospital in Kuwait during the first 2 weeks of April 1990 (N = 199) were interviewed about their pain and the medical care provided. Patients rated their current pain using a 0-10 visual analogue scale (VAS) on which 0 was labelled 'no pain' and 10
This study was conducted to determine if use of progressive muscle relaxation could decrease pain perception, analgesic use, and anxiety in post-operative abdominal surgery patients. Review of demographic data showed the experimental and control group to ...
B. A. Mertely
Vasiliadis H-M, Collet J-P, Shapiro S, Venturini A, Trojan DA. Predictive factors and correlates for pain in postpoliomyelitis syndrome patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1109-15. Objective: To identify predictive and associated factors for muscle and joint pain in postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS). Design: Cross-sectional study design. Setting: Postpolio clinics. Participants: Baseline data on 126 PPS patients entered into a multicentered clinical
Helen-Maria Vasiliadis; Jean-Paul Collet; Stan Shapiro; Adriana Venturini; Daria A. Trojan
A vast body of literature supports the idea that exercise training is an important modality in the treatment and rehabilitation\\u000a of the chronic pain patient. Exercise testing and prescription should therefore be incorporated in the therapeutic armamentarium\\u000a of health care professionals working with chronic pain patients. In this chapter we present the scientific basis of the positive\\u000a effects regular exercise
Harriët Wittink; Tim Takken
The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of repeated thermal therapy in patients with chronic pain. Forty-six chronic pain patients were assigned to group A (multidisciplinary treatment, n=24) or group B (combination of multidisciplinary treatment and repeated thermal therapy, n=22). Thermal therapy was performed with 60 °C far-infrared ray dry sauna for 15 min and was then
Akinori Masuda; Masato Hattanmaru; Chuwa Tei
This article presents a comprehensive review of the literature on the diagnosis of pain in the orofacial region of patients suffering from a cognitive impairment or a dementia. This review was based on a literature search yielding 74 papers, most of which dealt with the assessment of pain in general in nonverbal individuals, for which several observational tools were developed. Unfortunately, none of these tools have been designed for the specific assessment of orofacial or dental pain. Thus, none of them can be recommended for use in the dental setting. There is hardly any information available in the literature on how to assess orofacial and/or dental pain in patients with a cognitive impairment or a dementia. Given the expected increase in the incidence of dementia over the upcoming decades, it is of the utmost importance that dentists can use well-tested tools that can help them in the diagnosis of orofacial and dental pain in this vulnerable patient population. Such tools should incorporate specific orofacial/dental pain indicators, such as the patient holding/rubbing the painful orofacial area, limiting his/her mandibular movements, modifying his/her oral behavior, and being uncooperative/resistant to oral care. PMID:21359232
Lobbezoo, Frank; Weijenberg, Roxane A F; Scherder, Erik J A
Background Although acupuncture is widely used for chronic pain, there remains considerable controversy as to its value. We aimed to determine the effect size of acupuncture for four chronic pain conditions: back and neck pain, osteoarthritis, chronic headache, and shoulder pain. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify randomized trials of acupuncture for chronic pain where allocation concealment was determined unambiguously to be adequate. Individual patient data meta-analyses were conducted using data from 29 of 31 eligible trials, with a total of 17,922 patients analyzed. Results In the primary analysis including all eligible trials, acupuncture was superior to both sham and no acupuncture control for each pain condition (all p<0.001). After exclusion of an outlying set of trials that strongly favored acupuncture, the effect sizes were similar across pain conditions. Patients receiving acupuncture had less pain, with scores 0.23 (95% C.I. 0.13, 0.33), 0.16 (95% C.I. 0.07, 0.25) and 0.15 (95% C.I. 0.07, 0.24) standard deviations lower than sham controls for back and neck pain, osteoarthritis, and chronic headache respectively; the effect sizes in comparison to no acupuncture controls were 0.55 (95% C.I. 0.51, 0.58), 0.57 (95% C.I. 0.50, 0.64) and 0.42 (95% C.I. 0.37, 0.46). These results were robust to a variety of sensitivity analyses, including those related to publication bias. Conclusions Acupuncture is effective for the treatment of chronic pain and is therefore a reasonable referral option. Significant differences between true and sham acupuncture indicate that acupuncture is more than a placebo. However, these differences are relatively modest, suggesting that factors in addition to the specific effects of needling are important contributors to the therapeutic effects of acupuncture.
Vickers, Andrew J.; Cronin, Angel M.; Maschino, Alexandra C.; Lewith, George; MacPherson, Hugh; Victor, Norbert; Foster, Nadine E.; Sherman, Karen J.; Witt, Claudia M.; Linde, Klaus
Chronic nonmalignant pain is estimated to affect over 50 million Americans. It frequently results in significant physical, behavioral, psychological, social, and spiritual problems for patients and their families. In spite of its prevalence and consequences, chronic pain is often misunderstood and inadequately managed by healthcare professionals. Advanced practice nurses who are knowledgeable about chronic pain and the complex biopsychosocial-spiritual needs of this patient population serve an important role in recognizing these patients and intervening appropriately in their care. The purpose of this two-part article is to provide that information. Part I outlines the pathophysiology, assessment, biopsychosocial-spiritual aspects, and pharmacological treatment of chronic pain. Part II addresses a variety of nonpharmacologic and self-management interventions one can use in the primary care setting to treat these difficult health problems. PMID:10711057
Wells-Federman, C L
The study sought to determine if symptoms and signs cluster differentially in groups of patients with increasing evidence of neuropathic pain (NP). We prospectively looked at symptoms and signs in 214 patients with suspected chronic NP of moderate to severe intensity. According to a set of clinical criteria the patients were a priori classified as having the so-called ‘Definite NP’
Peter Vestergaard Rasmussen; Søren Hein Sindrup; Troels Staehelin Jensen; Flemming Winther Bach
BACKGROUND: Shoulder pain is a common complaint in primary health care and has an unfavourable outcome in many patients. The objectives were to identify predictors for pain and disability (SPADI) and work status in patients with subacromial shoulder pain. METHODS: Secondary analyses of data from a randomized clinical controlled trial were performed. Outcome measures were the absolute values of the
Kaia Engebretsen; Margreth Grotle; Erik Bautz-Holter; Ole Marius Ekeberg; Jens Ivar Brox
Determining the causes of neuropathic pain is more than an epistemological exercise. At its essence, it is a quest to delineate mechanisms of dysfunction through which treatment strategies can be created that are effective in reducing, ameliorating, or eliminating symptomatology. To date, predictors of which patients will develop neuropathic pain or who will respond to specific therapies are lacking, and present therapies have been developed mainly through trial and error. Our current inability to make therapeutically meaningful decisions based on ancillary test data is illustrated by the following: In a study specifically designed to assess the response of patients with painful distal sensory neuropathies to the 5% lidocaine patch, no relationship between treatment response and distal leg skin biopsy, QST, or sensory nerve conduction study results could be established. From a mechanistic perspective, the hypothesis that the lidocaine patch would be most effective in patients with relatively intact epidermal innervation, whose neuropathic pain is presumed attributable to "irritable nociceptors," and least effective in patients with few surviving epidermal nociceptors, presumably with "deafferentation pain," was unproven. The possible explanations are multiple and outside the scope of this review. However, these findings, coupled with the disparity in C-fiber subtype involvement in diabetic small-fiber neuropathy, and the recently reported inability of enzyme replacement therapy in Fabry disease to influence intraepidermal innervation density, while having mixed effects on cold and warm QST thresholds, and beneficial effects on sudomotor findings, when therapeutic benefit was demonstrated, lead one to conclude that the specificity of ancillary testing in neuropathic pain is inadequate at present, and reinforce the aforementioned caveats about inferential conclusions from indirect data. The diagnosis of neuropathic pain mechanisms is in its nascent stages and ancillary testing remains "subordinate," "subsidiary," and "auxiliary" as defined in Webster's Third New International Dictionary. As a consequence of these difficulties, the recent approach by Bennett and his colleagues may have merit. They have hypothesized (and provide data in support) that chronic pain can be more or less neuropathic on a spectrum between "likely," "possible," and "unlikely," based on patient responses on validated neuropathic pain symptom scales, when compared with specialist pain physician certainty of the presence of neuropathic pain on a 100-mm visual analog scale. The symptoms most associated with neuropathic pain were dysesthesias, evoked pain, paroxysmal pain, thermal pain, autonomic complaints, and descriptions of the pain as being sharp, hot, or cold, with high sensitivity. Higher scores for these symptoms correlated with greater clinician certainty of the presence of neuropathic pain mechanisms. Considering each individual patient's chronic pain as being somewhere on a continuum between "purely nociceptive" and "purely neuropathic" may have diagnostic and therapeutic relevance by enhancing specificity, but this requires clinical confirmation. Thus, symptom assessment remains indispensable in the evaluation of neuropathic pain, ancillary testing notwithstanding PMID:17164102
Horowitz, Steven H
Atypical facial pain (AFP) is characterized by a constant, poorly defined anatomically aching pain, lacking the paroxysmal quality, trigger point activation, and well-defined anatomical distribution of trigeminal neuralgia. This study examines a set of AFP patients with respect to their responses to external decompression (4 patients) and neurectomy (11 patients). Criteria for trigeminal nerve exploration were: failure of non-operative treatments, the ability to control pain temporarily with local anesthetic nerve blocks, and pain generally located within the anatomical distribution of the affected nerve. Decision as whether to perform an external decompression or neurectomy was based on gross anatomical findings during exploration. A retrospective interview was conducted to evaluate the effects of the chosen procedure in regard to subjective level of pain, freedom from restrictions placed on activities of daily living, and past medical history, including history of the facial pain. The neurectomy procedure (p = 0.022), medical history of autoimmune disease (p = 0.004), and preoperative pain distribution on the left side (p = 0.042), were all found to have a positive effect on outcome. History of psychiatric treatment (p = 0.055) and preoperative affected activities of daily living (p = 0.026) significantly adversely affected the outcome. PMID:7884007
Ziccardi, V B; Janosky, J E; Patterson, G T; Jannetta, P J
Masticatory myofascial pain (MFP) condition is a musculoskeletal disorder that compromises the functional capacities of the masticatory system. As such, the incorporation of an intensive chewing test as a discriminatory exercise for the diagnosis of this condition and evaluation of treatment success has considerable potential. Various splint designs have been used successfully, which have posed a question of whether the therapeutic effect of the splint is a placebo or has some other curative properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the stabilization appliance to reduce signs and symptoms in MFP patients and to compare the pain experience during the chewing test between two groups of patients, with and without splints. Myofascial pain patients (n = 37) who reported exacerbation of pain in function participated in the study. Patients perfomed a 9-min chewing test, followed by 9-min rest and marked their pain intensity on a visual analogue scale every 3 min. Of the 37 patients, 21 received a stabilization flat occlusal splint for night use and 16 were equally monitored clinically without a splint. At the end of 8 weeks, a second clinical examination and chewing test were performed. Student's t-test was used to analyse differences between study groups. Analysis of variance and covariance (ancova) with repeated measures was applied to analyse the effect of treatment. Level of pain at baseline prior to the chewing test (P0) was introduced as a co-variant. At baseline both groups showed relatively high scores of pain intensity and did not show any significant differences among the collected variables. At the end of the experiment, the splint group had a statistically significant reduction in pain intensity, in mean muscle sensitivity to palpation and in the pain experience during the chewing test compared with no change in the controls. A stabilization splint has a therapeutic value beyond its placebo effects. Thus, it should be an integral part of the treatment modalities in MFP disorder patients. An intensive chewing test is an effective tool to evaluate the treatment modality efficacy in MFP patients. PMID:12472855
Gavish, A; Winocur, E; Ventura, Y S; Halachmi, M; Gazit, E
Background Animal studies have shown that surgical trauma activates the descending noradrenergic pathway. However, perioperative patients have decreased concentrations of noradrenaline (NA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We proposed that the descending monoaminergic pathway is altered in post-traumatic pain patients and that CSF monoamine neurotransmitters may be more closely related to affective symptoms. We investigated the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and assessed pain in these patients. Methods Patients were divided into a post-traumatic pain group, a pain-free group, a painful labor group, and a pain-free labor group. CSF was collected from all patients, and concentrations of NA, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), dopamine, homovanillic acid, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results In the post-traumatic pain group, lumbar CSF concentrations of NA and MHPG were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) compared to the control group. The post-traumatic pain group displayed a significant negative correlation between NA and the respective total value of the short form of the McGill pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ), SF-MPQ (affective), and visual analog scale (r = –0.388, r = –0.433, and r = –0.367; P < 0.05). Conclusions Post-traumatic pain patients demonstrated decreased concentrations of NAin CSF, indicating that descending noradrenergic pain control pathways may be inhibited. NA is more closely related to negative affects in post-traumatic pain patients.
Cui, Yulong; Dai, Ruping; He, Liang
A total of 64 patients with musculoskeletal pain syndromes in the lumbosacral area for more than three months were studied.\\u000a Patients were divided into age groups: 30–50 years (41 patients) and 51–60 years (23 patients). The reference group consisted\\u000a of 20 healthy volunteers comparable in terms of gender, age, and level of education. Patients underwent neurological, neuro-orthopedic,\\u000a clinical-pathopsychological, and neuropsychological
K. A. Melkumova; E. V. Podchufarova; N. N. Yakhno
Chronic pain is often associated with comorbidities such as anxiety and depression, resulting in a low health-related quality of life. The mechanisms underlying this association are not clear, but a disturbance in the pain control systems from the brain stem has been suggested. Thirty neuropathic pain (NP) patients, 28 patients with fibromyalgia (FM), and 26 pain-free age- and gender-matched controls
Lise Gormsen; Raben Rosenberg; Flemming W. Bach; Troels S. Jensen
Valid and reliable assessment of pain is fundamental for both clinical trials and effective pain management. The nature of pain makes objective measurement impossible. Chronic musculoskeletal pain assessment and its impact on physical, emotional and social functions require multidimensional qualitative tools and healthrelated quality of life instruments. The recommendations concerning outcome measurements for pain trials are useful for making routine assessments that should include an evaluation of pain, fatigue, disturbed sleep, physical functioning, emotional functioning, patient global ratings of satisfaction, and quality of life. Despite the growing availability of instruments and theoretical publications related to measuring the various aspects of chronic pain, there is still little agreement and no unified approach has been devised. There is, therefore, still a considerable need for the development of a core set of measurement tools and response criteria, as well as for the development and refinement of the related instruments, standardized assessor training, the cross-cultural adaptation of health status questionnaires, electronic data capture, and the introduction of valid, reliable and responsive standardized quantitative measurement procedures into routine clinical care. This article reviews a selection of the instruments used to assess chronic musculoskeletal pain, including validated newly developed and well-established screening instruments, and discusses their advantages and limitations. PMID:23024966
Salaffi, F; Ciapetti, A; Carotti, M
Evaluation of healthcare services by patients is an essential component of quality improvement. We studied association between patient satisfaction and accessibility of healthcare services to patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. A hundred patients from the Pain Clinic, Split University Hospital Center, Split, Croatia, completed a 27-item questionnaire about their condition, duration of chronic pain treatment, access to healthcare, waiting times for various healthcare services, and their satisfaction with the pain clinic and health system. Patients were referred to the pain clinic after median of 4.5 years of chronic nonmalignant pain duration. Median waiting time for pain clinic appointment, seeing a specialist and performing diagnostic procedures was 10, 30 and 90 days, respectively. However, some patients waited for an appointment to a specialist and diagnosis for up to one year. Negative association was found between waiting time for pain clinic appointment and healthcare system grade (r = -0.34, P = 0.02). Patient suggestions for improving pain clinic were more staff, better approach to each patient, and better organization. In conclusion, access to public healthcare for patients with chronic nonmalignant pain should be better to improve patient satisfaction and provide better care. PMID:23837276
Triva, Petra; Juki?, Marko; Puljak, Livia
The aim of this pilot study was to add weight to a hypothesis according to which patients presenting with chronic neck pain could have a predisposition towards respiratory dysfunction. Twelve patients with chronic neck pain and 12 matched controls participated in this study. Spirometric values, maximal static pressures, forward head posture and functional tests were examined in all subjects. According to the results, chronic neck patients presented with a statistically significant decreased maximal voluntary ventilation (P = 0.042) and respiratory muscle strength (Pimax and Pemax), (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). Furthermore, the current study demonstrated a strong association between an increased forward head posture and decreased respiratory muscle strength in neck pateits. The connection of neck pain and respiratory function could be an important consideration in relation to patient assessment, rehabilitation and consumption of pharmacological agents. PMID:19187335
Kapreli, E; Vourazanis, E; Billis, E; Oldham, J A; Strimpakos, N
Educating patients about their condition is regarded as a fundamental step in pain manage- ment. This study used focus groups with patients to explore their experiences and perceptions of the information on phantom pain that they received before and after amputation, and their views on improving this information. Thirty- one patients with a lower limb amputation attended one of seven
C. M. Mortimer; W. M. Steedman; I. R. McMillan; D. J. Martin; J. Ravey
Background The perceptions of patients who are restrained and sedated while being treated with mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit are not well understood. The effectiveness of sedation used to aid in recovery and enhance comfort during intubation is unknown. Objective To explore the perceptions of patients who were intubated and receiving pain medication while sedated and restrained in the intensive care unit, in particular, their experience and their memories of the experience. Methods In a phenomenological study, 14 patients who were intubated and receiving pain medication while sedated and restrained were interviewed at the bedside. A semistructured interview guide was used. Data were analyzed by using an inductive method consistent with qualitative research. Results Three major themes were identified from the data: lack of memory of being restrained; a perception of being intubated as horrific; nursing behaviors that were helpful and comforting. An unexpected discovery was that sedation may be interfering with pain assessment and management. Conclusion Being intubated can be painful and traumatic despite administration of sedatives and analgesics. Sedation may mask uncontrolled pain for intubated patients and prevent them from communicating this condition to a nurse. Nurses may need to evaluate current interventions in order to provide maximum comfort and promote optimal positive outcomes for intensive care patients who are intubated. PMID:24786809
Clukey, By Lory; Weyant, Ruth A; Roberts, Melanie; Henderson, Ann
Fifty cases of chronic non-specific abdominal pain were studied prospectively. All patients were subjected to a detailed clinical examination and investigations related to gastrointestinal system. A full psychiatric assessment was done with application of Goldberg's 60 item's General Health Questionnaire. Thirty four (68%) patients had psychiatric symptoms, of whom twenty six (52%) had a definite psychiatric illness while the remaining eight patients had organic illness. Sixteen patients (32%) had a pure organic illness. Dysthymic disorder constituted the main (22%) psychiatric illness.
Kachhwaha, S.S.; Chadda, V.S.; Singhwal, A.K.; Bhardwaj, P.
This Special Listing of Current Cancer Research Projects is a publication of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute. Each Listing contains descriptions of ongoing projects in one selected cancer research area. The research areas include: Infectious disease in cancer patients; Immunological aspects of supportive care of cancer patients; Nutritional evaluation and support of cancer patients; Pain management of cancer patients.
Background: Stimuli arousing sympathetic activity can increase ratings of clinical pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Objective: To determine whether the increase in pain is mediated by peripheral sympathetic activity. Methods: The effect of sympathetic ganglion blockade on pain evoked by a startle stimulus and cooling the forehead was investigated in 36 CRPS patients. Results: Loss of vasoconstrictor reflexes and warming of the limb indicated that sympathetic blockade was effective in 26 cases. Before sympathetic blockade, pain increased in 12 of these 26 patients when they were startled. Pain increased in seven of the 12 patients and in another five cases when their forehead was cooled. As expected, pain that increased during sympathetic arousal generally subsided in patients with signs of sympathetic blockade. However, pain still increased in three of 12 of patients after the startle stimulus and in six of 12 of patients during forehead cooling, despite indisputable sympathetic blockade. Conclusions: These findings suggest that stimuli arousing sympathetic activity act by a central process to exacerbate pain in some patients, independent of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. This may account for the lack of effect of peripheral sympathetic blockade on pain in some CRPS patients.
Drummond, P; Finch, P
The prevalence of pain is high in the elderly and increases with the occurrence of cancer. Pain treatment is challenging because of age-related factors such as co-morbidities, and over half of the patients with cancer pain experience transient exacerbation of pain that is known as breakthrough pain (BTP). As with background pain, BTP should be properly assessed before being treated. The first step to be taken is optimizing around-the-clock analgesia with expert titration of the painkiller. Rescue medication should then be provided as per the requested need, while at the same time preventing identified potential precipitating factors. In the elderly, starting treatment with a lower dose of analgesics may be justified because of age-related physiological changes such as decreased hepatic and renal function. Whenever possible, oral medication should be provided prior to a painful maneuver. In the case of unpredictable BTP, immediate rescue medication is mandatory and the subcutaneous route is preferred unless patient-controlled analgesia via continuous drug infusion is available. Recently, transmucosal preparations have appeared in the medical armamentarium but it is not yet known whether they represent a truly efficient alternative, although their rapid onset of activity is already well recognized. Adjuvant analgesics, topical analgesics, anesthetic techniques and interventional techniques are all valid methods to help in the difficult management of pain and BTP in elderly patients with cancer. However, none has reached a satisfying scientific level of evidence as to nowadays make the development of undisputed best practice guidelines possible. Further research is therefore on the agenda. PMID:24817569
Pautex, Sophie; Vogt-Ferrier, Nicole; Zulian, Gilbert B
Pain management is a societal problem because of concerns about the use of drugs, the belief that patients are not good judges of the severity of their pain, and an alarming level of ignorance about pain and its treatment among physicians, nurses, and other healthcare providers. The result is that patients suffer pain unnecessarily, even up to the point of their death. Pain management is also a clinical-practice problem. Courses in pain and symptom management are not readily available to medical and nursing students. And in clinical practice, good pain assessment is not easy to accomplish because pain is so subjective. Fortunately, with education, doctors and nurses can vastly improve their ability to assess and manage patients' pain. Additional problems in pain management relate to the manner in which healthcare is provided today: an acute disease-oriented model of hospital care, frequent transfers, fragmented care, inadequate reimbursement, market forces that drive up costs, and maldistribution of clinical services. In improving their ability to manage pain, professionals must understand the difference between pain and suffering, acute and chronic pain, and the sensory and emotional aspects of pain. Guiding principles include Church teaching and ethical principles, such as patient self-determination, holistic care, the principle of beneficence, distributive justice, and the common good. Pain management strategies that will be instrumental in formulating effective responses to these problems include expanding professional and community education, affording pain funding priority, establishing institutional policies and protocols, forming clinical teams, encouraging hospice and home care, and requiring accreditation in pain and symptom management. PMID:10145758
Background: Low back pain can cause severe debilitating pain that may lead to loss of productivity. The pain is usually non-specific and imaging request protocols varies. However, physicians may order lumbo-sacral x-ray in the initial radiologic assessment of the patient. This study aims to determine the frequency of occurrence of radiographic findings in patients reporting low back pain including the presence of osteophytes, spondylolisthesis and degenerative disc diseases and determine the relationship with patients’ features including age, sex, marital status, level of education, body mass index and other radiographic findings. Method: Patients who presented at our department for radiographic assessment of the lumbo-sacral spine were voluntarily recruited. Their radiographs were reviewed and questionnaire administered. Height and weight were measured. The radiographic findings were documented and data analysis using Chi square with significant level set at p < 0.05. Result: Lumbo-sacral x-rays of 337 patients were reviewed with more females than males, ratio 1:1.4. Osteophytes were demonstrable in 73.6%; spondylolisthesis, 13.4%; and disc degeneration, 28.2%. Disc degeneration correlated with age, educational status, osteophytosis, osteopenia and spondylolisthesis. Osteophytosis correlated with age, BMI and educational level. While spondylolisthesis correlated with educational level and sex. Conclusion: Osteophytosis was the commonest finding in patients presenting with LBP. Disc degeneration shows a strong association with osteophytosis and spondylolisthesis and it is reported to herald these changes. Radiography still shows some correlations between the findings in LBP and patients’ characteristics.
Igbinedion, B. O. E; Akhigbe, A.
Background: It has been reported that local thermal therapy with a hot pack or paraffin relieves pain. We hypothesized that systemic warming may decrease pain and improve the outcomes in patients with chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of systemic thermal therapy in patients with chronic pain. Methods: Group A (n = 24) patients
Akinori Masuda; Yasuyuki Koga; Masato Hattanmaru; Shinichi Minagoe; Chuwa Tei
There has been a need for a brief assessment tool for providers who treat chronic pain patients to determine potential risk of abuse when prescribed opioids for pain. The purpose of this study was to develop and begin the validation of a self-administered screening tool (Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain, SOAPP) for chronic pain patients considered for
Stephen F. Butler; Simon H. Budman; Kathrine Fernandez; Robert N. Jamison
Chest pain is a common reason for presentation in hospital emergency departments and general practice. Some patients presenting with chest pain to emergency departments and, to a lesser extent, general practice will be found to have a life-threatening cause, but most will not. The challenge is to identify those who do in a safe, timely and cost-effective manner. An acute coronary syndrome cannot be excluded on clinical grounds alone. In patients with ongoing symptoms of chest pain, without an obvious other cause, ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction should be excluded with a 12-lead electrocardiogram at the first available opportunity. Significant recent advances in the clinical approach to patients with acute chest pain, including better understanding of risk stratification, increasingly sensitive cardiac biomarkers and new non-invasive tests for coronary disease, can help clinicians minimise the risk of unexpected short-term adverse cardiac events. An approach that integrates these advances is needed to deliver the best outcomes for patients with chest pain. All hospital emergency departments should adopt such a strategic approach, and general practitioners should be aware of when and how to access these facilities. PMID:23829259
Parsonage, William A; Cullen, Louise; Younger, John F
Translational research has not yet elucidated whether alterations in central pain processes are related to peripheral inflammatory processes in chronic pain patients. We tested the hypothesis that the concentration of cytokines in the peritoneal fluid of endometriosis patients with chronic pain correlate with parameters of hyperexcitability of the nociceptive system. The concentrations of 15 peritoneal fluid cytokines were measured in 11 patients with chronic pelvic pain and a diagnosis of endometriosis. Six parameters assessing central pain processes were recorded. Positive correlations between concentration of some cytokines in the peritoneal fluid and amplification of central pain processing were found. The results suggest that inflammatory mechanisms may be important in the pathophysiology of altered central pain processes and that cytokines produced in the environment of endometriosis could act as mediators between the peripheral lesion and changes in central nociceptive processes. PMID:24694998
Neziri, Alban Y; Bersinger, Nick A; Andersen, Ole K; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Mueller, Michael D; Curatolo, Michele
It is easy to overlook osteochondral lesions (OCLs) of the ankle in patients with chronic lower limb pain, such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) or thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO, Buerger's disease). A 57-year-old woman diagnosed with type 1 CRPS, and a 58-year-old man, diagnosed with TAO, complained of tactile and cold allodynia in their lower legs. After neurolytic lumbar sympathethic ganglion block and titration of medications for neuropathic pain, each subject could walk without the aid of crutches. However, they both complained of constant pain on the left ankle during walking. Focal tenderness was noted; subsequent imaging studies revealed OCLs of her talus and his distal tibia, respectively. Immediately after percutaneous osteoplasties, the patients could walk without ankle pain. It is important to consider the presence of a hidden OCL in chronic pain patients that develop weight-bearing pain and complain of localized tenderness on the ankle.
Ri, Hyun Su; Lee, Dong Heon
Children are drawing inventors. Their art is certainly not what most adults think of as drawing. Almost instinctively, kids know that drawing is everywhere--that they can draw with almost anything, and that innumerable surfaces can be converted for art use. Teaching drawing is showing interest and enthusiasm for kids' drawing inventions--instead…
Background Pain is common in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients and may be attributed to the malignancy and/or cancer treatment. Pain mechanisms and patient report of pain in HNC are expected to include both nociceptive and neuropathic components. The purpose of this study was to assess the trajectory of orofacial and other pain during and following treatment, using patient reports of neuropathic pain and nociceptive pain and pain impact. Methods 124 consecutive HNC patients receiving radiation therapy (RT) (95 men, 29 women; mean age: 54.7 ± 12.3 years) participated in a patient-reported outcome (PRO) assessment. Patients completed the McGill Pain Questionnaire three times during therapy and 3 months following study entry. Results The majority of patients related their pain to the tumor and/or cancer treatment. Whereas 59% reported their pain to be less severe than they expected, 29% were not satisfied with their level of pain despite pain management during cancer therapy. Worst pain was 3.0 ± 1.3 on a 0- to 5-point verbal descriptor scale. Pain intensity was present at entry, highest at 2-week follow-up, declining towards the end of treatment and persisting at 3-month follow-up. The most common neuropathic pain descriptors chosen were aching (20%) and burning (27%); nociceptive words chosen were dull (22%), sore (32%), tender (35%), and throbbing (23%), and affective/evaluative descriptors were tiring (25%) and annoying (41%). 57% of patients reported continuous pain, and combined continuous and intermittent pain was reported by 79% of patients. Discussion This study provides evidence that patients with HNC experience nociceptive and neuropathic pain during RT despite ongoing pain management. The affective and evaluative descriptors chosen for head and neck pain indicate considerable impact on quality of life even with low to moderate levels of pain intensity. These findings suggest that clinicians should consider contemporary management for both nociceptive and neuropathic pain in head and neck cancer patients.
Epstein, Joel B; Wilkie, Diana J; Fischer, Dena J; Kim, Young-Ok; Villines, Dana
Endometriosis has been traditionally included among the most important causes of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) in women of reproductive age. The main clinical manifestations of endometriosis are dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and chronic nonmenstrual pain. Despite the high prevalence of endometriosis in women suffering from CPP, controversy still exists regarding the true association between the stage and extent of this peculiar disease and the severity of pain. Over the last decade, advances in endoscopic technology have enabled gynecologic surgeons to recognize many atypical appearances of the endometriotic implants not known to exist before, thus allowing their complete excision or destruction. Laparoscopic surgery may offer considerable relief in patients with endometriosis and CPP. Although cases with advanced endometriosis seem to benefit the most, we also support surgical treatment in patients with early endometriosis diagnosed using laparoscopy, as many will experience improvement in their symptoms. PMID:14644834
Milingos, Spyros; Protopapas, Athanasios; Drakakis, Peter; Liapi, Anthoula; Loutradis, Dimitrios; Kallipolitis, George; Milingos, Dimitrios; Michalas, Stylianos
Purpose: Pain is a common symptom among cancer patients, yet many patients do not receive adequate pain management. Few data exist quantifying analgesic use by radiation oncology patients. This study evaluated the causes of pain in cancer patients and investigated the reasons patients fail to receive optimal analgesic therapy. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved, Internet-based questionnaire assessing analgesic use and pain control was posted on the OncoLink (available at (www.oncolink.org)) Website. Between November 2005 and April 2006, 243 patients responded. They were predominantly women (73%), white (71%), and educated beyond high school (67%) and had breast (38%), lung (6%), or ovarian (6%) cancer. This analysis evaluated the 106 patients (44%) who underwent radiotherapy. Results: Of the 106 patients, 58% reported pain from their cancer treatment, and 46% reported pain directly from their cancer. The pain was chronic in 51% and intermittent in 33%. Most (80%) did not use medication to manage their pain. Analgesic use was significantly less in patients with greater education levels (11% vs. 36%, p = 0.002), with a trend toward lower use by whites (16% vs. 32%, p 0.082) and women (17% vs. 29%, p = 0.178). The reasons for not taking analgesics included healthcare provider not recommending medication (87%), fear of addiction or dependence (79%), and inability to pay (79%). Participants experiencing pain, but not taking analgesics, pursued alternative therapies for relief. Conclusions: Many radiation oncology patients experience pain from their disease and cancer treatment. Most study participants did not use analgesics because of concerns of addiction, cost, or failure of the radiation oncologist to recommend medication. Healthcare providers should have open discussions with their patients regarding pain symptoms and treatment.
Simone, Charles B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)], E-mail: email@example.com; Vapiwala, Neha; Hampshire, Margaret K.; Metz, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
A 42-year-old female patient presented with acute pain of the upper abdomen, postprandial vomiting and hematemesis. An operation for gastric banding had been carried out 1 month prior to presentation. The abdominal X-ray and radioscopy revealed a posterior slippage of the gastric fundus following the gastric banding operation. PMID:21512762
Simon, M; Borberg, T; Jungbluth, T; Kovács, A; Barkhausen, J; Hunold, P
Patients with severe and chronic neurogenic pain are known to exhibit excess EEG oscillations in the 4- to 9-Hz theta frequency band in comparison with healthy controls. The generators of these excess EEG oscillations are localized in the cortical pain matrix. Since cortex and thalamus are tightly interconnected anatomically, we asked how thalamic activity and EEG are functionally related in these patients. During the surgical intervention in ten patients with neurogenic pain, local field potentials were recorded from the posterior part of the central lateral nucleus (CL). The highest thalamocortical coherence was found in the 4- to 9-Hz theta frequency band (median 7.7 Hz). The magnitude of thalamocortical theta coherence was comparable to the magnitude of EEG coherence between scalp electrode pairs. Median thalamocortical theta coherence was 27%, reached up to 68% and was maximal with frontal midline scalp sites. The observed high thalamocortical coherence underlines the importance of the thalamus for the synchronization of scalp EEG. We discuss the pathophysiology within the framework of a dysrhythmic thalamocortical interplay, which has important consequences for the choice of therapeutic strategy in patients with chronic and severe forms of neurogenic pain. PMID:18060808
Sarnthein, Johannes; Jeanmonod, Daniel
Abstract Background: Substance use is overrepresented in dental clinics that provide affordable care and dental clinics provide potential access to opioid analgesics. Research is needed to better understand prescription opioid misuse in this population. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of the misuse of prescription opioids in adults seeking dental care from a low-cost dental training clinic. Methods: Patients were recruited from a university school's dentistry patient emergency and admission services clinic. Patients (n?=?369) within the waiting area of the clinic completed a self-report questionnaire about their nonmedical use of prescription pain medications, medication diversion and use of substances. Results: Approximately 37.9% (140/369) of those who completed the study survey reported at least some nonmedical use of pain medications within the past 30 days. Use was associated with diversion of medication, and use of tobacco, marijuana, and sedatives. Conclusions: Within this sample from a dental clinic, nonmedical use of prescription pain medications was more common than in the general population. This suggests that dental clinics may be an appropriate setting for provider education and patient-based intervention strategies to reduce nonmedical use of pain medications. PMID:24963730
Ashrafioun, Lisham; Edwards, Paul C; Bohnert, Amy S B; Ilgen, Mark A
Clinicians may face pragmatic, ethical, and legal issues when treating addicted patients. Equal pressures exist for clinicians to always address the health care needs of these patients in addition to their addiction. Although controversial, mainly because of the lack of evidence regarding their long-term efficacy, the use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain management is widespread. Their use for pain management in the addicted population can present even more challenges, especially when evaluating the likelihood of drug-seeking behavior. As the misuse and abuse of opioids continues to burgeon, clinicians must be particularly vigilant when prescribing chronic opioid therapy. The purpose of this article is to summarize recommendations from a recent meeting of experts convened to recommend how primary care physicians should approach treatment of chronic pain for addicted patients when an addiction specialist is not available for a referral. As there is a significant gap in guidelines and recommendations in this specific area of care, this article serves to create a foundation for expanding chronic pain guidelines in the area of treating the addicted population. This summary is designed to be a practical how-to guide for primary care physicians, discussing risk assessment, patient stratification, and recommended therapeutic approaches. PMID:24138341
Cheatle, Martin; Comer, Dominique; Wunsch, Martha; Skoufalos, Alexis; Reddy, Yeshwant
The realities of treating chronic pain do not reflect the attention that marginaliza- tion of patients taking opioids has received. Physicians continue the same preju- dices and biases that were present decades ago. One theory proposed to explain this poor treatment has been titled, the \\
John F. Peppin
diagnosed or suspected fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and\\/or chronic myofascial pain (CMP) were interviewed. A chart was prepared for each patient, combining information from these interviews with information gleaned from medical records they had provided. While further insights were gained over the course of gathering these data, the information presented here is summarized only from those questions which did not change
Chronic pain has been associated with impaired cognitive function. We examined cognitive performance in patients with severe chronic pancreatitis pain. We explored the following factors for their contribution to observed cognitive deficits: pain duration, comorbidity (depression, sleep disturbance), use of opioids, and premorbid alcohol abuse. The cognitive profiles of 16 patients with severe pain due to chronic pancreatitis were determined
Marijtje L. A. Jongsma; Simone A. E. Postma; Pierre Souren; Martijn Arns; Evian Gordon; Kris Vissers; Oliver Wilder-Smith; Clementina M. van Rijn; Harry van Goor
The patient with a history of current opioid consumption presenting in the acute postoperative setting presents a challenge for pain management. Standard treatment dosages and strategies are often ineffective in providing pain relief. This retrospective case-control study reviews 4 years' experience of the Acute Pain Service (APS) at our institution providing care for 202 chronic pain and opioid-consuming (CPOC) patients,
Suzanne E. Rapp; L. Brian Ready; Michael L. Nessly
BACKGROUND: Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) has chronic unexplained abdominal pain and is similar to the psychiatric diagnosis of somatoform pain disorder. A patient with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) also has chronic unexplained abdominal pain, and rectal hypersensitivity is observed in a majority of the patients. However, no reports have evaluated the visceral sensory function of FAPS precisely. We aimed
Tsukasa Nozu; Miwako Kudaira
Patients with fibromyalgia often present with increased levels of disability and physical functioning, for which the determinants are still unclear. In patients with other musculoskeletal pain syndromes, such as chronic low back pain, physical performance and disability levels are shown to be strongly associated with pain-related fear, and even stronger than pain severity. The present study was aimed at examining
Marieke de Gier; Madelon L Peters; Johan W. S Vlaeyen
Few studies have evaluated sex differences in the adequacy of pain management in cancer. Existing studies have been marked by methodological limitations and results have been mixed. The present study sought to determine whether sex was associated with pain severity and pain management in cancer patients newly referred by their primary oncology team to a multidisciplinary cancer pain clinic. One hundred thirty-one cancer patients completed the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form and medical chart review was conducted to obtain patients' clinical characteristics and pain treatment data. There were no differences between males and females in ratings of worst pain in the last week. Females were significantly less likely to have been prescribed high potency opioids by their primary oncology team and significantly more likely to report inadequate pain management as measured by Pain Management Index scores. These results suggest a sex bias in the treatment of cancer pain and support the routine examination of the effect of sex in cancer pain research. PMID:18395398
Donovan, Kristine A; Taliaferro, Lindsay A; Brock, Charles W; Bazargan, Sadaf
A patient with severe right chest pain and mechanical allodynia induced by an intercostal drainage tube to his chest is presented. It was not relieved by treatment with diclofenac sodium and was worsened by movement and touch to the right chest wall. Mechanical allodynia was also present. The patient's wrenching pain disappeared immediately after stitch removal, but the dull pain and mechanical allodynia persisted, gradually decreasing to zero in 7 days. PMID:20206852
Kato, Jitsu; Gokan, Dai; Hirose, Noriya; Baba, Miyako; Ehara, Toru; Ogawa, Setsuro
This study was designed to evaluate whether the nurses' assessment of postoperative pain can be an alternative to patients' self-reporting. We examined 187 patients receiving postoperative intravenous patient-controlled analgesia. The nurses assessed the patients' pain with three pain indices (therapeutic efficacy, pain intensity, and facial pain expression) 8 hr after operation. The patients recorded their resting and movement pain using 100-mm visual analog scales immediately following the nurses' assessment. There was an acceptable correlation between overall pain measurement assessed by patients and that assessed by nurses (canonical correlation coefficient=0.72, p=0.0001). The resting pain was more reliably reflected than the movement pain in overall measurement assessed both by nurses and by patients. Among the three pain indices assessed by nurses, the pain intensity most reliably reflected the patients' self-reports. The pain intensity assessed with a simple verbal descriptor scale therefore is believed to be an effective alternative to the patients' self-reports of postoperative pain at rest. However, it mirrored the patients' self-reports during movement less reliably. Therapeutic efficacy and facial pain expression indices were not effective alternatives to patients' self-reporting. PMID:11748363
Chung, I S; Sim, W S; Kim, G S; Park, S H; Park, Y S; Cha, K J; Park, Y S; Lim, Y J; Lee, S C; Kim, Y C
This study was designed to evaluate whether the nurses' assessment of postoperative pain can be an alternative to patients' self-reporting. We examined 187 patients receiving postoperative intravenous patient-controlled analgesia. The nurses assessed the patients' pain with three pain indices (therapeutic efficacy, pain intensity, and facial pain expression) 8 hr after operation. The patients recorded their resting and movement pain using 100-mm visual analog scales immediately following the nurses' assessment. There was an acceptable correlation between overall pain measurement assessed by patients and that assessed by nurses (canonical correlation coefficient=0.72, p=0.0001). The resting pain was more reliably reflected than the movement pain in overall measurement assessed both by nurses and by patients. Among the three pain indices assessed by nurses, the pain intensity most reliably reflected the patients' self-reports. The pain intensity assessed with a simple verbal descriptor scale therefore is believed to be an effective alternative to the patients' self-reports of postoperative pain at rest. However, it mirrored the patients' self-reports during movement less reliably. Therapeutic efficacy and facial pain expression indices were not effective alternatives to patients' self-reporting.
Chung, I. S.; Sim, W. S.; Kim, G. S.; Park, S. H.; Park, Y. S.; Cha, K. J.; Park, Y. S.; Lim, Y. J.; Lee, S. C.; Kim, Y. C.
The present study investigated the ability of sociodemographic variables to predict the short-term effect of multidisciplinary pain treatment in 286 chronic non-malignant pain patients consecutively referred to a Danish multidisciplinary pain centre. At inclusion and 3 and 6 months later the patients' pain and health related quality of life (HRQL) was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Sociodemographic variables measured were: age,
Niels Becker; Jette Højsted; Per Sjøgren; Jørgen Eriksen
Short stature skeletal dysplasia (SD) patients have orthopedic and neurologic complications causing significant pain and physical disability. We conducted a large cross-sectional online survey in 361 people with short stature SD (>10?years) to describe pain prevalence, characteristics, and the relationship between pain and function. Chronic pain prevalence per Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) was 70.3%. Women reported more pain than men (73% vs 63% p?=?0.04). Pain Severity Score (average of current, worst, least and average pain) averaged 3.3?±?2, while the Pain Interference Score (with daily activities) averaged 3.4?±?2.7 on a 10-point scale. Per Bleck scale, 20.5% had little or no functional capacity. Increasing age and decreased ambulation independently predicted chronic pain. Chronic pain is prevalent in short stature SD patients and associated with poor physical function. Further study is required to clarify the temporal relationship among pain, function and treatments. PMID:23106480
Alade, Y; Tunkel, D; Schulze, K; McGready, J; Jallo, G; Ain, M; Yost, T; Hoover-Fong, J
Tested the predictive power of self-efficacy expectations of physical capabilities, expectations of pain, and expectations of reinjury on physical function in chronic back pain patients. Before assessment of function, patients rated their abilities to perform essential job tasks--functional self-efficacy (FSE)--and the likelihood working would…
Lackner, Jeffrey M.; And Others
Low back pain (LBP) is a common disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 85%. The pathophysiology of LBP can be various depending on the underlying problem. Only in about 10% of the patients specific underlying disease processes can be identified. Patients with scoliosis, spondylolisthesis, herniated discs, adjacent disc disease, disc degeneration, failed back surgery syndrome or pseudoartrosis all have symptoms of LBP in different ways. Chronic low back pain patients are advised to stay active, however, there is no strong evidence that exercise therapy is significantly different than other nonsurgical therapies. Not every patient with symptoms of LBP is an appropriate candidate for surgery. Even with thorough systematic reviews, no proof can be found for the benefit of surgery in patients with low back pain, without serious neurologic deficit. And subjects like psychologic and socio-demographic factors also seem to be influencing a patients perception of back pain, expectations of treatment, and outcomes of treatment. Open lumbar fusion procedures are typically lengthy procedures and require a long exposure, which may result in ischemic necrosis of the paraspinal musculature, atrophy, and prolonged back pain. Minimally invasive spine surgery needed to take care of a decrease in muscle injuries due to retraction and avoidance of disruption of the osseotendineous complex of the paraspinal muscles, especially the multifidus attachment to the spinous process and superior articular process. Therefore, effort has been made to develop percutaneous fusion, as well as fixation methods, which avoid the negative effects of open surgery. Several minimally invasive fusion strategies have been described, like anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and two lateral approaches (XLIF and DLIF), all with pro's and con's compared to open surgery and each other. The effect of MIS of all type is that patients have less blood loss, faster postoperative ambulation, lower use of opioids, and shorter in hospital stay, which is nearly always significantly better than an open procedure. And most of the studies show a significant improvement of VAS leg-and back pain, Oswestry Disability Index and a high fusion rate, but most of the times not significantly different than the open counterpart. When it comes to cost-effectiveness there is a trend in favor of MIS, but to when we want to differentiate MIS from open surgery, comorbidities and complications significantly affect general and disease-specific outcome measures. In our opinion, the actual better outcome of minimal invasive surgery comes down to obtain a good cost-effectiveness study, provided that minimally invasive surgery has an equal or better clinical and radiologic outcome, given that socio-economic, demographic and psychological influencers are equal for both types of surgery. There are no studies done on the subject MIS and low back pain solely. Deriving answers from the difference in VAS back pain in MIS studies reveal a 100% improvement of back pain after surgery. But that does not imply that this procedure, which is still in its childhood, will be the solution to all low back pain patients. PMID:23877267
Spoor, A B; Öner, F C
The objective of this study was to investigate spirituality and blood parameters associated with stress in patients with facial musculoskeletal pain. Twenty-four women with chronic facial musculoskeletal pain (CFMP) and 24 healthy women were evaluated with a protocol for orofacial characteristics, research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders and the Spiritual Perspective Scale. Blood samples were collected to analyze blood count, cortisol, ACTH, C3, C4, thyroid hormones, total immunoglobulin, C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor. The study group was more spiritualized than control group. Individuals with a high score of spirituality had less myofascial pain, less bruxism and fewer complaints. They also had lower levels of ACTH and IgE. Spirituality was higher in the study group and can be considered an important tool for coping with CFMP. PMID:23990038
Lago-Rizzardi, Camilla Domingues; de Siqueira, Jose Tadeu T; de Siqueira, Silvia Regina D T
Context Although many previous studies have examined the preference of patients for different pain measurement scales, preference for anchor descriptors has not been thoroughly discussed. Objectives To examine (1) the preferred end-phrases used in the VAS as anchor labels for Japanese patients with chronic pain, and (2) whether the preference differs according to factors such as age, sex, educational level, duration of pain, and pain intensity. Methods We performed an observational study in patients suffering from non-cancer chronic pain for more than 3 months at a pain center in Japan. The patients were asked to rate their pain intensity using four types of VAS that used the following different anchor descriptors: “worst pain” (“Worst”), “worst pain bearable” (“Bearable”), “worst pain imaginable” (“Imaginable”), and “worst pain you have ever experienced” (“Experienced”). They were also asked to rank the four scales according to ease of responding, and asked which descriptor best reflected their perceived pain. Results In total, 183 patients participated in the study. They consisted of 119 (65.0%) women and 64 (35.0%) men aged 18–84 years with the mean age of 56.9 years. “Experienced” was most preferred (69.8%), followed by “Bearable” (66.3%), “Worst” (48.8%), and “Imaginable” (16.9%). Factors such as age, sex, educational background, duration of pain, and pain intensity did not significantly affect the results. In 83.1% of patients, the preferred descriptor corresponded to the descriptor that best reflected patients' perceived pain. Conclusion The frequently used expression “worst pain imaginable” is considered to be difficult to understand for most patients. Widely preferred descriptors, such as “worst pain you have ever experienced” and “worst pain bearable”, should be used when evaluating perceived pain. The preference of anchor descriptors was not significantly affected by the factors such as age, sex, educational level, duration of pain, and pain intensity.
Yokobe, Junya; Kitahara, Masaki; Matsushima, Masato; Uezono, Shoichi
Purpose The primary assessment tool used by hospitals to measure the outcomes of pain management programs is the 0–10 numerical pain rating scale. However, it is unclear if this assessment should be used as the sole indicator of positive outcomes by pain management programs. Although it is assumed that pain intensity scores would be correlated with patient satisfaction, few studies have evaluated the association between pain intensity scores and patient satisfaction. Methods In this pilot study, we investigated the relationship between pain intensity and patient satisfaction by evaluating 88 patients who received opioid analgesics at a 1018-bed acute care institution. A 14-question survey was adapted from a questionnaire developed by the American Pain Society to assess patient pain control and overall satisfaction with our institution’s pain management strategies. Results This study found no association between pain intensity score and patient satisfaction with overall pain management (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient = ?0.31; 95% confidence interval = ?0.79 to 0.39). The majority of the surveyed patients were satisfied or very satisfied with their overall pain management, regardless of their pain intensity score. Conclusion These findings contribute to the general understanding that institutions should use pain intensity scores together with a measure of patient pain satisfaction when assessing regulatory and quality control programs.
Phillips, Shay; Gift, Maja; Gelot, Shyam; Duong, Minh; Tapp, Hazel
The Pain Research Group of the world health organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre for Symptom Evaluation in Cancer Care had developed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), a pain assessment tool for use with cancer patients. The BPI measures both the intensity of pain (sensory dimension) and interference of pain in the patient's life (reactive dimension). The objective of this review paper was to provide a detailed update of existing evidence on applicability of BPI in evaluation of patients with cancer pain. The BPI demonstrated good construct and concurrent validity. It was translated and validated into many languages – Brazilian, Chinese, Greek, Hindi, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Malay, Norwegian, Polish, Russian, Spanish, Taiwanese and Thai. The BPI was validated in patient populations such as bone metastases, breast cancer and postoperative cancer patients. The BPI can be used both as a quantitative or a qualitative measure for statistical analysis. The BPI was a powerful tool and, having demonstrated both reliability and validity across cultures and languages, was being adopted in many countries for clinical pain assessment, epidemiological studies, and in studies on the effectiveness of pain treatment. Future studies are warranted on its responsiveness and cross-cultural adaptation into other cancer pain syndromes and into other Indian languages.
Kumar, Senthil P
The present study investigated performance of unimanual and bimanual anti-phase and in-phase upper limb line drawing using three different types of cues. Fifteen Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, 15 elderly, and 15 young adults drew lines away from and towards their body on a tabletop every 1000 ms for 30 s under three different cueing conditions: (1) verbal (‘up’, ‘down’); (2) auditory (high tone, low tone); (3) visual (target line switched from top to bottom). PD patients had larger and more variable amplitudes which may be related to the finding that they also produced more curvilinear movements than young and elderly adults. Consistent with previous research, when compared to the elderly and young adult group PD patients produced a mean relative phase which deviated more from the instructed coordination modes and they showed larger variability of relative phase in bimanual coordination, especially in anti-phase conditions. For all groups, auditory and verbal cues resulted in lower coefficient of variance of cycle time, lower variability of amplitude and lower variability of relative phase than visual cues. The benefit of auditory cues may be related to the timing nature of the task or factors related to the auditory cues (e.g., reduced attentional demands, more kinesthetic focus).
Ringenbach, Shannon D. R.; Van Gemmert, Arend W. A.; Shill, Holly A.; Stelmach, George E.
The aim of this study is to characterize patients with chronic pain in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Between September and December, 2003, 170 consecutive patients from an MMT clinic participated in a questionnaire survey on pain (duration and severity). Chronic pain was defined as current pain lasting for >or=6 months. The patients' maintenance methadone dosage and urine tests for drug abuse during the month before and of the survey were recorded. Of the 170 patients, 94 (55.3%) experienced chronic pain. They had a significantly higher proportion of chronic illness (74.5%) compared to non-pain patients (44.7%) (Fisher's Exact Test P<0.0005). Twelve (12.8%) of the chronic pain patients scored their pain as mild, 38 (40.4%) as moderate, 22 (23.4%) as severe and 22 (23.4%) as very severe. Pain duration significantly correlated with pain severity (Pearson R=0.3, P>0.0005) and was significantly associated with methadone daily dosage: patients with pain duration of >or=10 years (n=26) were receiving the highest methadone dosage (182.1+/-59.2 mg/day), those with pain duration from 1 to 10 years (n=59) 160.9+/-56.2 mg/day, and those with pain duration of <1 year (n=9) 134.2+/-73.2 mg/day. Patients in the non-pain group (n=76) were receiving 147.1+/-52.8 mg/day of methadone (ANOVA, F=3.1, P=0.03). We conclude that pain duration and severity significantly correlated. Although methadone was not prescribed for the treatment of pain but rather for opiate addiction, the patients in the MMT clinic with prolonged pain were prescribed a significantly higher methadone dosage compared to patients with short pain duration, and non-pain patients. PMID:15661442
Peles, Einat; Schreiber, Shaul; Gordon, Jacob; Adelson, Miriam
Background Increased center of pressure excursions are well documented in patients suffering from non-specific low back pain, whereby the altered postural sway includes both higher mean sway velocities and larger sway area. No investigation has been conducted to evaluate a relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in adults (aged 50 or less) with non-specific low back pain. Methods Seventy-seven patients with non-specific low back pain and a matching number of healthy controls were enrolled. Center of pressure parameters were measured by three static bipedal standing tasks of 90 sec duration with eyes closed in narrow stance on a firm surface. The perceived pain intensity was assessed by a numeric rating scale (NRS-11), an equal number of patients (n = 11) was enrolled per pain score. Results Generally, our results confirmed increased postural instability in pain sufferers compared to healthy controls. In addition, regression analysis revealed a significant and linear increase in postural sway with higher pain ratings for all included COP parameters. Statistically significant changes in mean sway velocity in antero-posterior and medio-lateral direction and sway area were reached with an incremental change in NRS scores of two to three points. Conclusions COP mean velocity and sway area are closely related to self-reported pain scores. This relationship may be of clinical use as an objective monitoring tool for patients under treatment or rehabilitation.
In this study, a portable electromyogram (EMG) system and a stimulator are developed for patellofemoral pain syndrome patients, with the objective of reducing the pain experienced by these patients; the patellar pain is caused by an imbalance between the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and the vastus lateralis (VL). The EMG measurement circuit and the electrical stimulation device proposed in this study are specifically designed for the VMO and the VL; they are capable of real-time waveform recording, possess analyzing functions, and can upload their measurement data to a computer for storage and analysis. The system can calculate and record the time difference between the EMGs of the VMO and the VL, as well as the signal strengths of both the EMGs. As soon as the system detects the generation of the EMG of the VL, it quickly calculates and processes the event and stimulates the VMO as feedback through electrical stimulation units, in order to induce its contraction. The system can adjust the signal strength, time length, and the sequence of the electrical stimulation, both manually and automatically. The output waveform of the electrical stimulation circuit is a dual-phase asymmetrical pulse waveform. The primary function of the electrical simulation circuit is to ensure that the muscles contract effectively. The performance of the device can be seen that the width of each pulse is 20-1000 ?s, the frequency of each pulse is 10-100 Hz, and current strength is 10-60 mA.
Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Lin, Guo-Hong; Hsu, Ar-Tyan
Background: The European Pain in Cancer survey sought to increase understanding of cancer-related pain and treatment across Europe. Patients and methods: Patients with all stages of cancer participated in a two-phase telephone survey conducted in 11 European countries and Israel in 2006-2007. The survey screened for patients experiencing pain at least weekly, then randomly selected adult patients with pain of
H. Breivik; N. Cherny; B. Collett; F. de Conno; M. Filbet; A. J. Foubert; R. Cohen; L. Dow
The moral imperative to adequately manage pain is being increasingly recognized worldwide. A comprehensive pain management approach that addresses the various presentations of pain in patients with cancer is required, including appropriate management of breakthrough pain. Breakthrough pain commonly occurs in patients with advanced cancer and is disabling to the individual and burdensome to society, yet it is often inadequately managed. Because pain is heterogeneous, the best management of an individual's pain, including breakthrough pain in cancer, requires a thorough assessment to tailor the treatment strategies. Recently developed guidelines support this approach and recommend treating breakthrough pain using rapid- or short-acting opioids with pharmacodynamics that mirror the rapid onset and short duration of the presenting pain. This approach should be part of a comprehensive strategy to treat pain within the context of the primary disease trajectory, offering continuity of care and access to specialized palliative care when appropriate. PMID:23520183
Caraceni, Augusto; Davies, Andrew; Poulain, Philippe; Cortés-Funes, Hernán; Panchal, Sunil J; Fanelli, Guido
The effectiveness of exercise-treadmill testing in diagnosing coronary-artery disease in hypertensive patients is limited by a high rate of false positivity. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography, however, relies on different criteria (ejection fraction and wall motion), and we have evaluated this procedure in 37 hypertensive and 109 normotensive patients with chest pain, using coronary arteriography as an indicator of coronary disease. In the hypertensive cohort there was no difference in the ejection fraction at rest between the 17 patients with coronary disease and the 20 without it. Neither group had a significant mean (+/- S.E.M.) change in ejection fraction from rest to exercise (-1.9 +/- 2 and 1.4 +/- 1%, respectively). A wall-motion abnormality developed during exercise in 5 of the 17 hypertensive patients with coronary disease (29%) and in 4 of the 20 without it (20%) (P = not significant). In the normotensive cohort, however, the peak-exercise ejection fractions were significantly different. The 71 patients with coronary disease had a mean decrease of 3.6 +/- 1%, in contrast to the patients without coronary disease, who had an increase of +/- 1% (P < 0.001). An exercise-induced wall-motion abnormality was seen in 35 of the 71 patients with coronary disease (48%), as compared with 3 of the 38 without it (8%) (P < 0.001). We conclude that exercise radionuclide ventriculography is inadequate as a screening test for coronary atherosclerosis in hypertensive patients with chest pain. 28 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.
Wasserman, A.G.; Katz, R.J.; Varghese, P.J.; Leiboff, R.H.; Bren, G.G.; Schlesselman, S.; Varma, V.M.; Reba, R.C.; Ross, A.M.
Due to the lack of a specific diagnostic tool for neuropathic pain, a grading system to categorize pain as ‘definite’, ‘probable’, ‘possible’ and ‘unlikely’ neuropathic was proposed. Somatosensory abnormalities are common in neuropathic pain and it has been suggested that a greater number of abnormalities would be present in patients with ‘probable’ and ‘definite’ grades. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the presence of somatosensory abnormalities by means of Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) in patients with a clinical diagnosis of neuropathic pain and correlated the number of sensory abnormalities and sensory profiles to the different grades. Of patients who were clinically diagnosed with neuropathic pain, only 60% were graded as ‘definite’ or ‘probable’, while 40% were graded as ‘possible’ or ‘unlikely’ neuropathic pain. Apparently, there is a mismatch between a clinical neuropathic pain diagnosis and neuropathic pain grading. Contrary to the expectation, patients with ‘probable’ and ‘definite’ grades did not have a greater number of abnormalities. Instead, similar numbers of somatosensory abnormalities were identified for each grade. The profiles of sensory signs in ‘definite’ and ‘probable’ neuropathic pain were not significantly different, but different from the ‘unlikely’ grade. This latter difference could be attributed to differences in the prevalence of patients with a mixture of sensory gain and loss and with sensory loss only. The grading system allows a separation of neuropathic and non-neuropathic pain based on profiles but not on the total number of sensory abnormalities. Our findings indicate that patient selection based on grading of neuropathic pain may provide advantages in selecting homogenous groups for clinical research.
Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; van Wijhe, Marten
Pain hypersensitivity has been consistently detected in chronic pain conditions, but the underlying mechanisms are difficult to investigate in humans and thus poorly understood. Patients with endometriosis pain display enlarged reflex receptive fields (RRF), providing a new perspective in the identification of possible mechanisms behind hypersensitivity states in humans. The primary hypothesis of this study was that RRF are enlarged in patients with musculoskeletal pain. Secondary study end points were subjective pain thresholds and nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) thresholds after single and repeated (temporal summation) electrical stimulation. Forty chronic neck pain patients, 40 chronic low back pain patients, and 24 acute low back pain patients were tested. Electrical stimuli were applied to 10 sites on the sole of the foot to quantify the RRF, defined as the area of the foot from where a reflex was evoked. For the secondary end points, electrical stimuli were applied to the cutaneous innervation area of the sural nerve. All patient groups presented enlarged RRF areas compared to pain-free volunteers (P<.001). Moreover, they also displayed lower NWR and pain thresholds to single and repeated electrical stimulation (P<.001). These results demonstrate that musculoskeletal pain conditions are characterized by enlarged RRF, lowered NWR and pain thresholds, and facilitated temporal summation, most likely caused by widespread spinal hyperexcitability. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these pain conditions, and it supports the use of the RRF and NWR as objective biomarkers for pain hypersensitivity in clinical and experimental pain research. PMID:23707309
Biurrun Manresa, José A; Neziri, Alban Y; Curatolo, Michele; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Andersen, Ole K
BACKGROUND: Patients frequently fail to receive adequate pain relief from, or are intolerant of, first-line therapies prescribed for neuropathic pain (NeP). This refractory chronic pain causes psychological distress and impacts patient quality of life. Published literature for treatment in refractory patients is sparse and often published as conference abstracts only. The aim of this study was to identify published data
Melanie Plested; Sangeeta Budhia; Zahava Gabriel
This study investigated attentional biases for pain and social threat versus neutral stimuli in 54 youth with functional abdominal pain (FAP) and 53 healthy control subjects (ages 10 to 16 years). We assessed attentional bias using a visual probe detection task (PDT) that presented pain and social threat words in comparison to neutral words at conscious (1250 ms) and preconscious (20 ms) presentation rates. We administered the PDT before and after random assignment of participants to a laboratory stressor--failure versus success feedback regarding their performance on a challenging computer game. All analyses controlled for trait anxiety. At the conscious rate of stimulus presentation, FAP patients exhibited preferential attention toward pain compared with neutral stimuli and compared with the control group. FAP patients maintained preferential attention toward conscious pain stimuli after performance feedback in both failure and success conditions. At the preconscious rate of stimulus presentation, FAP patients' attention was neutral at baseline but increased significantly toward pain stimuli after performance feedback in both failure and success conditions. FAP patients' somatic symptoms increased in both failure and success conditions; control youth's somatic symptoms only increased after failure. Regarding social threat, neither FAP nor control youth exhibited attentional bias toward social threat compared with neutral stimuli at baseline, but both FAP and control youth in the failure condition significantly increased attention away from social threat after failure feedback. Results suggest that FAP patients preferentially attend to pain stimuli in conscious awareness. Moreover, performance evaluation may activate their preconscious attention to pain stimuli. PMID:21420789
Beck, Joy E; Lipani, Tricia A; Baber, Kari F; Dufton, Lynette; Garber, Judy; Smith, Craig A; Walker, Lynn S
This study investigated attentional biases for pain and social threat versus neutral stimuli in 54 youth with functional abdominal pain (FAP) and 53 healthy control subjects (ages 10 to 16 years). We assessed attentional bias using a visual probe detection task (PDT) that presented pain and social threat words in comparison to neutral words at conscious (1250 ms) and preconscious (20 ms) presentation rates. We administered the PDT before and after random assignment of participants to a laboratory stressor—failure versus success feedback regarding their performance on a challenging computer game. All analyses controlled for trait anxiety. At the conscious rate of stimulus presentation, FAP patients exhibited preferential attention toward pain compared with neutral stimuli and compared with the control group. FAP patients maintained preferential attention toward conscious pain stimuli after performance feedback in both failure and success conditions. At the preconscious rate of stimulus presentation, FAP patients’ attention was neutral at baseline but increased significantly toward pain stimuli after performance feedback in both failure and success conditions. FAP patients’ somatic symptoms increased in both failure and success conditions; control youth’s somatic symptoms only increased after failure. Regarding social threat, neither FAP nor control youth exhibited attentional bias toward social threat compared with neutral stimuli at baseline, but both FAP and control youth in the failure condition significantly increased attention away from social threat after failure feedback. Results suggest that FAP patients preferentially attend to pain stimuli in conscious awareness. Moreover, performance evaluation may activate their preconscious attention to pain stimuli.
Beck, Joy E.; Lipani, Tricia A.; Baber, Kari F.; Dufton, Lynette; Garber, Judy; Smith, Craig A.; Walker, Lynn S.
Background Gabapentin increasingly is being used to treat chronic pain in addition to seizures, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. Chorea has been reported as a potential side effect of gabapentin. Case Report We report the case of a patient with chronic low back pain who was treated with a host of modalities, including gabapentin. After she increased her dose of gabapentin, she developed chorea of the upper extremities, neck, and head. With cessation of gabapentin, the bulk of her symptoms resolved within 24 hours, and symptoms completely resolved in the following months. Conclusions Chorea is thought to appear when the basal ganglia are deregulated. Gabapentin interferes with gamma-aminobutyric acid, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the motor pathway. Chorea associated with gabapentin has been reported in several case studies, but not at a dose as low as the patient took in this case.
Souzdalnitski, Dmitri; Chang, Anita Kumar; Guirguis, Maged
Utilizes the Kinetic Family Drawings-Revised (KFD-R) to measure siblings' (N=44) feelings and attitudes toward bone marrow transplants. Data from drawings and discussions with siblings underscore that not all children are affected by stress in the same way. How a particular child responds depends on factors such as life history, personality,…
Packman, Wendy L.; Crittenden, Mary R.; Fischer, Jodie B. Rieger; Cowan, Morton J.; Long, Janet K.; Gruenert, Carol; Schaeffer, Evonne; Bongar, Bruce
Objectives: A recent clinical prediction rule (CPR) identified characteristics that may predict an immediate reduction in pain following lumbopelvic manipulation in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. The purpose of this single-arm cohort study was to replicate the proposed CPR in a different population and investigate changes in self-reported pain, hip range of motion, strength, and function immediately following lumbopelvic manipulation. Methods: Forty-four subjects (63·6% female; mean age 27·4 years) met inclusion criteria. Hip internal rotation range of motion, lower extremity strength using a handheld dynamometer, and single/triple hop tests were assessed prior to and immediately following a spinal manipulation. A global rating of change questionnaire was administered after testing and telephonically at 1 week. Paired t-tests compared pre- and post-manipulation range of motion, strength, and hop test limb symmetry indices (??=?0·05). Results: Fifty-seven percent of subjects had a successful outcome measured by the numerical pain rating scale immediately following manipulation. Twenty-five of subjects experienced a successful outcome as measured by the global rating of change questionnaire at 1 week. No single individual or combination of predictor variables predicted a positive outcome immediately following the lumbopelvic manipulation (+likelihood ratio 0·7 with three of five predictor variables present). Statistically significant differences (P<0·05) were found in hip extension and abduction strength and hip internal rotation symmetry post-manipulation, but do not appear to be clinically meaningful. Discussion: The previously identified CPR was not able to be replicated and no clinically meaningful changes in range of motion, strength, or function were apparent. Future research should focus on a comprehensive impairment-based treatment approach in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome.
Crowell, Michael S; Wofford, Nancy H
In considering the care of patients with incurable and terminal diseases, there are three types of interventions: (1) palliative care and symptom management; (2) experimental therapies; and (3) active life-ending interventions. Relief of pain, other symptoms, and suffering should be the basic and standard treatment; the other interventions are meant to supplement, not replace, this intervention. This means the physician's primary obligation is to inform patients about the options for palliative care and to provide quality palliative care. Thus, physicians who care for terminally ill patients have an obligation to keep their knowledge base and skills in palliative care current. In those circumstances in which a patient's needs exceeds the physician's knowledge and skills, physicians have a responsibility to refer the patient to a palliative care specialist. With regard to experimental therapies, physicians must obtain full informed consent, provide especially accurate data on the risks and benefits of experimental therapies, and ensure that the patient understands the aims of the proposed therapy. Regarding active life-ending therapies, physicians have the obligation to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatment if the patient so desires and to provide adequate pain medication even if this hastens death. Even if euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide are legalized, there is unlikely to be an obligation to provide this intervention. PMID:8821559
Emanuel, E J
The purpose of this study was to determine the arthroscopic findings in patients with recalcitrant retropatellar pain syndrome (RPPS) and correlate them with the patient's long-term clinical course. All patients undergoing arthroscopy for recalcitrant retropatellar pain syndrome were evaluated. Patients were excluded from the study if there was any history consistent with a meniscal or cruciate injury or if they had previously had knee surgery. Long-term follow-up was obtained in 41 of 81 patients (51%) (range, 24 to 73 months; mean, 51 months). The arthroscopic findings were recorded, and the status of chrondral surfaces graded and correlated with clinical ratings, which utilized a modification of the Insall rating system. Debridement of cartilage irregularities was performed routinely. At follow-up, nearly equal numbers of patients improved, stayed the same, or got worse. No correlation was seen between the findings at arthroscopy and the long-term results. Debridement of cartilage lesions was not found to be beneficial as a treatment modality. Missed intra-articular pathology was found at arthroscopy in only two (4%) of the 81 patients. Based on this study, conservative treatment remains the treatment of choice. PMID:2682479
Osgood, J C; Kneisl, J S; Barrack, R L; Alexander, A H
Background Incorporating the patient's view on care and treatment has become increasingly important for health care. Patients describe the variety of consequences of their chronic pain conditions as significant pain intensity, depression, and anxiety. We hypothesised that intensities of common symptoms in chronic pain conditions carry important information that can be used to identify clinically relevant subgroups. This study has three aims: 1) to determine the importance of different symptoms with respect to participation and ill-health; 2) to identify subgroups based on data concerning important symptoms; and 3) to determine the secondary consequences for the identified subgroups with respect to participation and health factors. Methods and Subjects This study is based on a cohort of patients referred to a multidisciplinary pain centre at a university hospital (n?=?4645, participation rate 88%) in Sweden. The patients answered a number of questionnaires concerning symptoms, participation, and health aspects as a part of the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation (SQRP). Results Common symptoms (such as pain intensity, depression, and anxiety) in patients with chronic pain showed great variability across subjects and 60% of the cohort had normal values with respect to depressive and anxiety symptoms. Pain intensity more than psychological symptoms showed stronger relationships with participation and health. It was possible to identify subgroups based on pain intensity, depression, and anxiety. With respect to participation and health, high depressive symptomatology had greater negative consequences than high anxiety. Conclusions Common symptoms (such as pain intensity and depressive and anxiety symptoms) in chronic pain conditions carry important information that can be used to identify clinically relevant subgroups.
Bromley Milton, Maria; Borsbo, Bjorn; Rovner, Graciela; Lundgren-Nilsson, Asa; Stibrant-Sunnerhagen, Katharina; Gerdle, Bjorn
Background Numerical rating scales (NRS), and verbal rating scales (VRS) showed to be reliable and valid tools for subjective cancer pain measurement, but no one of them consistently proved to be superior to the other. Aim of the present study is to compare NRS and VRS performance in assessing breakthrough or episodic pain (BP-EP) exacerbations. Methods In a cross sectional multicentre study carried out on a sample of 240 advanced cancer patients with pain, background pain and BP-EP intensity in the last 24 hours were measured using both a 6-point VRS and a 0-10 NRS. In order to evaluate the reproducibility of the two scales, a subsample of 60 patients was randomly selected and the questionnaire was administered for a second time three to four hours later. The proportion of "inconsistent" (background pain intensity higher than or equal to peak pain intensity) evaluations was calculated to compare the two scales capability in discriminating between background and peak pain intensity and Cohen's K was calculated to compare their reproducibility. Results NRS revealed higher discriminatory capability than VRS in distinguishing between background and peak pain intensity with a lower proportion of patients giving inconsistent evaluations (14% vs. 25%). NRS also showed higher reproducibility when measuring pain exacerbations (Cohen's K of 0.86 for NRS vs. 0.53 for VRS) while the reproducibility of the two scales in evaluating background pain was similar (Cohen's K of 0.80 vs. 0.77). Conclusions Our results suggest that, in the measurement of cancer pain exacerbations, patients use NRS more appropriately than VRS and as such NRS should be preferred to VRS in this patient's population.
Professor Jane Phillips, Professor of Palliative Nursing at Notre Dame’s Sydney School of Nursing and The Cunningham Centre for Palliative Care, has been awarded a $100,000 research grant to deliver novel online learning modules for clinicians working to improve the management of pain experienced by cancer patients.\\u000aProfessor Phillips’ research proposal has been funded by the Translational Cancer Research Network
Study Design Resident's case problem. Background The purpose of this report was to describe (1) the clinical reasoning that led a clinician to identify an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in a patient with low back pain requiring immediate medical referral, and (2) an evidence-based approach to clinical evaluation of patients with suspected AAA. Diagnosis The patient was unable to identify a specific mechanism of injury for his low back pain, lacked aggravating/easing factors for his symptoms, and complained of night pain and an inability to ease his symptoms with position changes. While the patient's symptoms remained unchanged during physical examination of the lumbar spine and hip, abdominal palpation revealed a strong, nontender pulsation over the midline of the upper and lower abdominal quadrants. Due to concern for an AAA, the patient was immediately referred to his physician. Subsequent computed tomography imaging revealed a prominent AAA, which measured up to 5.5 cm in greatest dimension and extended from below the renal arteries to the bifurcation of the iliac arteries. The patient initially deferred surgical intervention but eventually consented 6 months later, after repeat computed tomography imaging revealed that the AAA had progressed to 6.7 cm in greatest dimension. Discussion It is essential for physical therapists to be familiar with a diagnostic pathway to help identify AAA in patients presenting with apparent musculoskeletal complaints. Knowledge of the risk factors for AAA, understanding how to screen for nonmusculoskeletal symptoms, and a basic competence in abdominal palpation and how to interpret findings will help with the clinician's clinical decision making. Level of Evidence Differential diagnosis, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2014;44(7):500-507. Epub 25 April 2014. doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.4935. PMID:24766359
Van Wyngaarden, Joshua J; Ross, Michael D; Hando, Benjamin R
Recent studies have reported a high prevalence of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among individuals with chronic pain. Studies suggest that persons with pain and PTSD also display higher levels of affective disturbance. In the present study we examined self-reports of pain, affective disturbance, and disability among pain patients with and without symptoms of PTSD. Patients without PTSD symptoms
Michael E. Geisser; Randy S. Roth; Jan E. Bachman; Thomas A. Eckert
Purpose Pain is one of the most common and devastating symptoms in cancer patients, and misunderstandings on the patient’s part can cause major obstacles in pain management. Method We evaluated factors associated with patient’s high barrier score to managing cancer-associated pain by having 201 patients complete the Korean Barriers Questionnaire II, the Brief Pain Inventory—Korean, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30, and the Korean Beck Depression Inventory. The Pain Management Index (PMI) was also assessed. Results The patients were from nine oncology clinics in university hospitals and a veterans’ hospital in South Korea. The median pain score (0–10 scale) was 4, with a median percentage of pain improvement during the last 24 h of 70 %. A total of 150 patients (75 %) received strong opioids, and 177 (88 %) achieved adequate analgesia (positive PMI). Mean scores ± SD for the Barriers Questionnaire II ranged from 1.5 ± 1 to 2.8 ± 1.1, with the harmful effects subscale the highest. In the multiple regression model, depression was significantly associated with total barrier score to pain management (p < 0.0001). Pain reduction was significantly associated with the fatalism subscale. Conclusions Depression was associated with high barrier score in patients with cancer pain. Management of cancer pain should include screening for depression, and management of depression could reduce patient-reported barriers to pain management.
Kwon, Jung Hye; Oh, Sung Yong; Chisholm, Gary; Lee, Jung-Ae; Lee, Jae Jin; Park, Keon Woo; Nam, Seung-Hyun; Song, Hun Ho; Lee, Keehyun; Zang, Dae Young; Kim, Ho Young; Choi, Dae Ro; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Jung Han; Jung, Joo Young; Jang, Geundoo; Kim, Hyeong Su; Won, Ji Yun
Although frequently prescribed to relieve acute pain in patients, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with dose-related gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and renal complications. Investigational, submicron particle NSAIDs are being developed that could provide effective pain relief at lower doses than currently available oral NSAIDs. This is the first phase 3 study evaluating the analgesic efficacy and safety of lower-dose indomethacin submicron particle capsules in patients following elective surgery. This multicenter, double-blind study enrolled patients aged 18 to 68 years who underwent bunionectomy under regional anesthesia. Patients with a pain intensity rating of ?40 mm on a 100-mm Visual Analog Scale were randomized to receive indomethacin submicron particle capsules (40 mg 3 times daily [TID], 40 mg twice daily [BID], or 20 mg TID), celecoxib (400 mg loading dose, then 200 mg BID), or placebo. The primary efficacy parameter was the overall (summed) pain intensity difference measured by a Visual Analog Scale during a period of 48 hours. Scheduled assessments measured secondary efficacy parameters such as patient pain intensity differences. Indomethacin submicron particle capsules 40 mg 3 times daily (509.6 ± 91.9 overall [summed] pain intensity difference), 40 mg twice daily (328.0 ± 92.9 overall [summed] pain intensity difference), and 20 mg 3 times daily (380.5 ± 92.9 overall [summed] pain intensity difference) reduced pain intensity from 0 to 48 hours (P ? 0.046 for all 3 groups) compared with placebo (67.8 ± 91.4 overall [summed] pain intensity difference). There was some evidence of patient analgesia for celecoxib (279.4 ± 91.9 overall [summed] pain intensity difference; P = 0.103). Some evidence of pain control was observed in patients as early as 2 hours following administration of indomethacin submicron particle capsules and was sustained throughout the treatment period. Indomethacin submicron particle capsules were generally well tolerated by patients. These results suggest that lower-dose indomethacin submicron particle capsules are a potentially promising treatment option for patients with acute pain. PMID:24231592
Altman, Roy; Daniels, Stephen; Young, Clarence L
Pain is one of the most common and distressing symptoms in patients with cancer. In this review, we discuss an evidence-based approach to personalized pain assessment and management. Recent insights into the pain expression pathway have led to a paradigm shift in pain management, allowing clinicians to deliver personalized treatments tailored to the individual's needs. Personalized pain management begins with systematic screening, followed by comprehensive pain assessment. Impeccable characterization of pain informs its etiology and the mechanism to guide treatment choices. Identification of modulators of pain expression such as psychological distress, alcoholism, substance use, and delirium allow clinicians to further tailor treatment recommendations. Documentation of a personalized pain goal provides an individualized response criterion. A multidimensional treatment plan is then formulated targeting the pain mechanism, etiologic factors, and modulators. Finally, longitudinal monitoring customized to the individual's needs allows clinicians to improve adherence and, ultimately, to optimize pain control over time. PMID:24799495
Hui, David; Bruera, Eduardo
Limbic associated pelvic pain is a proposed pathophysiology designed to explain features commonly encountered in patients with chronic pelvic pain, including the presence of multiple pain diagnoses, the frequency of previous abuse, the minimal or discordant pathologic changes of the involved organs, the paradoxical effectiveness of many treatments, and the recurrent nature of the condition. These conditions include endometriosis, interstitial cystitis, irritable bowel syndrome, levator ani syndrome, pelvic floor tension myalgia, vulvar vestibulitis, and vulvodynia. The hypothesis is based on recent improvements in the understanding of pain processing pathways in the central nervous system, and in particular the role of limbic structures, especially the anterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus and amygdala, in chronic and affective pain perception. Limbic associated pelvic pain is hypothesized to occur in patients with chronic pelvic pain out of proportion to any demonstrable pathology (hyperalgesia), and with more than one demonstrable pain generator (allodynia), and who are susceptible to development of the syndrome. This most likely occurs as a result of childhood sexual abuse but may include other painful pelvic events or stressors, which lead to limbic dysfunction. This limbic dysfunction is manifest both as an increased sensitivity to pain afferents from pelvic organs, and as an abnormal efferent innervation of pelvic musculature, both visceral and somatic. The pelvic musculature undergoes tonic contraction as a result of limbic efferent stimulation, which produces the minimal changes found on pathological examination, and generates a further sensation of pain. The pain afferents from these pelvic organs then follow the medial pain pathway back to the sensitized, hypervigilant limbic system. Chronic stimulation of the limbic system by pelvic pain afferents again produces an efferent contraction of the pelvic muscles, thus perpetuating the cycle. This cycle is susceptible to disruption through blocking afferent signals from pelvic organs, either through anesthesia or muscle manipulation. Disruption of limbic perception with psychiatric medication similarly produces relief. Without a full disruption of both the central hypervigilance and pelvic organ dysfunction, pain recurs. To prevent recurrence, clinicians will need to include some form of therapy, either medical or cognitive, targeted at the underlying limbic hypervigilance. Further research into novel, limbic targeted therapies can hopefully be stimulated by explicitly stating the role of the limbic system in chronic pain. This hypothesis provides a framework for clinicians to rationally approach some of the most challenging patients in medicine, and can potentially improve outcomes by including management of limbic dysfunction in their treatment. PMID:17292560
Fenton, Bradford W
In this study over a 10-year period, 1584 patients complaining of infertility of more than 1 year duration were evaluated for their laparoscopic findings in relation to the presence or not of chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Infertility was the only complaint in 1215 cases (group 1), whereas 369 patients complained of infertility and CPP (group 2). All cases underwent routine infertility investigation and pelvic ultrasonography, followed by diagnostic laparoscopy, with infertility-only cases acting as a control group. At laparoscopy 76.7% of patients with CPP were found with pelvic pathology, compared with only 42.6% of cases without CPP (P < or = 0.0001). Omental-abdominal wall adhesions, advanced endometriosis, endometriomas with adhesions, pelvic venous congestion, and hydrosalpinges with pelvic adhesions were significantly more frequent in cases with CPP. Dysmenorrhoea was the most frequent type of CPP. Cases with CPP and a negative laparoscopy were further investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. In conclusion, chronic pelvic pain can be the result of several pelvic pathologies. Infertile patients with CPP are much more frequently found with an abnormal pelvis in comparison with cases without CPP. Laparoscopy is an invaluable diagnostic tool especially for symptomatic patients and should be used early in their diagnostic infertility work-up. PMID:16569325
Milingos, Spyros; Protopapas, Athanasios; Kallipolitis, George; Drakakis, Petros; Makrigiannakis, Antonios; Liapi, Anthi; Milingos, Dimitrios; Antsaklis, Aris; Michalas, Stylianos
Background Increased postural sway is well documented in patients suffering from non-specific low back pain, whereby a linear relationship between higher pain intensities and increasing postural sway has been described. No investigation has been conducted to evaluate whether this relationship is maintained if pain levels change in adults with non-specific low back pain. Methods Thirty-eight patients with non-specific low back pain and a matching number of healthy controls were enrolled. Postural sway was measured by three identical static bipedal standing tasks of 90 sec duration with eyes closed in narrow stance on a firm surface. The perceived pain intensity was assessed by a numeric rating scale (NRS-11). The patients received three manual interventions (e.g. manipulation, mobilization or soft tissue techniques) at 3-4 day intervals, postural sway measures were obtained at each occasion. Results A clinically relevant decrease of four NRS scores in associated with manual interventions correlated with a significant decrease in postural sway. In contrast, if no clinically relevant change in intensity occurred (? 1 level), postural sway remained similar compared to baseline. The postural sway measures obtained at follow-up sessions 2 and 3 associated with specific NRS level showed no significant differences compared to reference values for the same pain score. Conclusions Alterations in self-reported pain intensities are closely related to changes in postural sway. The previously reported linear relationship between the two variables is maintained as pain levels change. Pain interference appears responsible for the altered sway in pain sufferers. This underlines the clinical use of sway measures as an objective monitoring tool during treatment or rehabilitation.
Development of treatments for acute and chronic pain conditions remains a challenge, with an unmet need for improved sensitivity and reproducibility in measuring pain in patients. Here we used pulsed-continuous arterial spin-labelling [pCASL], a relatively novel perfusion magnetic-resonance imaging technique, in conjunction with a commonly-used post-surgical model, to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow [rCBF] associated with the experience of being in ongoing pain. We demonstrate repeatable, reproducible assessment of ongoing pain that is independent of patient self-report. In a cross-over trial design, 16 participants requiring bilateral removal of lower-jaw third molars underwent pain-free pre-surgical pCASL scans. Following extraction of either left or right tooth, repeat scans were acquired during post-operative ongoing pain. When pain-free following surgical recovery, the pre/post-surgical scanning procedure was repeated for the remaining tooth. Voxelwise statistical comparison of pre and post-surgical scans was performed to reveal rCBF changes representing ongoing pain. In addition, rCBF values in predefined pain and control brain regions were obtained. rCBF increases (5–10%) representing post-surgical ongoing pain were identified bilaterally in a network including primary and secondary somatosensory, insula and cingulate cortices, thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, midbrain and brainstem (including trigeminal ganglion and principal-sensory nucleus), but not in a control region in visual cortex. rCBF changes were reproducible, with no rCBF differences identified across scans within-session or between post-surgical pain sessions. This is the first report of the cerebral representation of ongoing post-surgical pain without the need for exogenous tracers. Regions of rCBF increases are plausibly associated with pain and the technique is reproducible, providing an attractive proposition for testing interventions for on-going pain that do not rely solely on patient self-report. Our findings have the potential to improve our understanding of the cerebral representation of persistent painful conditions, leading to improved identification of specific patient sub-types and implementation of mechanism-based treatments.
Howard, Matthew A.; Krause, Kristina; Khawaja, Nadine; Massat, Nathalie; Zelaya, Fernando; Schumann, Gunter; Huggins, John P.; Vennart, William; Williams, Steven C. R.; Renton, Tara F.
Background The objective of this study is to use the pain numeric rating scale (NRS) to evaluate associations between change in pain\\u000a severity and changes in sleep, function, and mood assessed via patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with posttraumatic\\u000a pain.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods This is a secondary analysis of a clinical trial evaluating pregabalin in patients with posttraumatic peripheral neuropathic\\u000a pain (N = 254).
Robert van Seventer; Michael Serpell; Flemming W Bach; Bart Morlion; Gergana Zlateva; Andrew G Bushmakin; Joseph C Cappelleri; Meryem Nimour
OBJECTIVE:Abdominal pain is thought to be a hallmark of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), although currently used symptom criteria do not differentiate between abdominal pain and discomfort. By focusing on viscerosensory symptoms, we sought to determine: 1) which type of symptoms are most commonly reported by IBS patients, and 2) whether patients who report pain as their most bothersome symptom
Tony Lembo; Bruce Naliboff; Julie Munakata; Steve Fullerton; Lynn Saba; Scott Tung; Max Schmulson; Emeran A Mayer
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the presence of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain and the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of internal derangement (ID) and effusion. Study Design: The study was comprised of 41 consecutive patients with TMJ pain. Criteria for including a patient were report of unilateral pain near the TMJ, with the
Ansgar Rudisch; Katharina Innerhofer; Stefan Bertram; Rüdiger Emshoff
It has been proposed that high anxiety sensitivity amplifies a number of fears and anxiety reactions. The purpose of this study was to examine whether anxiety sensitivity influences pain-related anxiety and associated cognitive and affective reactions in patients with physically unexplained chronic back pain. Seventy patients with chronic back pain without demonstrable organic pathology completed a battery of questionnaires prior
Gordon J. G. Asmundson; G. Ron Norton
Objectives: The aims of this study were to evaluate changes in occupational performance among chronic pain patients after a pain management program and to explore relationships between these changes and demographic and clinical factors, psychosocial functioning and psychological well-being. Subjects: 188 consecutive patients were included. Methods: Changes were registered by using Canadian Occu- pational Performance Measure, Multidimensional Pain Inventory and
Elisabeth Persson; Marcelo Rivano-Fischer; Mona Eklund
Obesity paradox has been described in various populations of coronary artery disease, mainly asymptomatic subjects. However, relationship between obesity and coronary artery calcification detected by cardiac CT in symptomatic patients has rarely been demonstrated. This study seeks to investigate whether the paradoxical relationship between obesity and coronary artery calcification exists in patients with acute chest pain. A final cohort of 1030 chest pain patients presenting at our emergency department who underwent coronary evaluation by multidetector cardiac CT were examined. With absent-to-mild coronary calcification (CAC score < 100) as a referent, multivariable analysis showed that presence of obesity (OR 0.564; 95% CI 0.395, 0.806; P 0.002), body mass index (OR 0.945; 95% CI 0.920, 0.971; P < 0.001), body weight (OR 0.987; 95% CI 0.979, 0.995; P 0.001), and body surface area (OR 0.582; 95% CI 0.369, 0.920; P 0.020) were inversely associated with moderate-to-severe coronary calcification (CAC score ? 100). This study extends the concept of obesity paradox to symptomatic patients undergoing coronary artery calcium score assessment. However, biological explanation(s) of this paradox remains unanswered.
Kassi, Mahwash; Khaleel bala, Sayf; Nabi, Faisal
The aim of this quality assessment was to evaluate the specific satisfaction issues of the referring physician and of the patient after the rheumatological interdisciplinary pain assessment (RIPA). The prevalence of chronic pain disorders appear to grow worldwide. In the daily routine we are confronted with the problem, that the waiting list for such assessments is increasing. Our opinion is that the RIPA could be helpful for a second opinion, to improve the therapeutic alliance and the management of the patient. The study population was analysed in a longitudinal cross-sectional design with a follow up at three months after an interdisciplinary assessment (rheumatologist, physiotherapist, occupational therapist and psychologist). On the average reported the patients acceptable satisfaction values. The feedback of the referrers after RIPA was positive. It was remarkable that most of the referrers would recommend this kind of interdisciplinary assessment to other colleagues. From the clinicians perspective seems that such triages might be advantageous in order to achieve an effective patient-management. PMID:17330409
Scascighini, L; Sprott, H
Pain, agitation, and delirium (PAD) are common in critically ill patients. Consequently, analgesic and sedative medications are frequently administered to critically ill patients to treat PAD, to improve synchrony with mechanical ventilation, and to decrease the physiological stress response. However, prolonged, continuous deep sedation of intensive care unit (ICU) patients is associated with numerous adverse outcomes, including longer durations of mechanical ventilation, prolonged ICU stays, acute brain dysfunction, and an increased risk of death. The 2013 ICU PAD Guidelines were developed to provide a clear, evidence-based road map for clinicians to better manage PAD in critically ill patients. Significant knowledge gaps in these areas still remain, but if widely adopted, the PAD Guidelines can help bridge these gaps and will be transformative in terms of their impact on ICU care. Strong evidence indicates that linking PAD management strategies with ventilator weaning, early mobility, and sleep hygiene in ICU patients will result in significant synergistic benefits to patient care and reductions in costs. An interdisciplinary team-based approach, using proven process improvement strategies, and ICU patient and family activation and engagement, will help ensure successful implementation of the ICU PAD Care Bundle in ICUs. This paper highlights the major recommendations of the 2013 ICU PAD Guidelines. We hope this review will help ICU physicians and other health care providers advance the management of PAD in critically ill patients, and improve patients' clinical outcomes. PMID:24424616
Pandharipande, Pratik P; Patel, Mayur B; Barr, Juliana
Patients with chronic low back pain exhibit characteristics such as clinical pain, psychological symptoms and neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent contribution of clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations to disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Clinical pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety, neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain were assessed in 52 patients with chronic low back pain. Lumbar muscle electromyographic activity was assessed during a flexion-extension task (flexion relaxation phenomenon) to assess both chronic neuromuscular adaptations and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain during the task. Multiple regressions showed that independent predictors of disability included neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain (?=0.25, p=0.006, sr(2)=0.06), neuromuscular responses to experimental pain (?=-0.24, p=0.011, sr(2)=0.05), clinical pain intensity (?=0.28, p=0.002, sr(2)=0.08) and psychological factors (?=0.58, p<0.001, sr(2)=0.32). Together, these predictors accounted for 65% of variance in disability (R(2)=0.65 p<0.001). The current investigation revealed that neuromuscular adaptations are independent from clinical pain intensity and psychological factors, and contribute to inter-individual differences in patients' disability. This suggests that disability, in chronic low back pain patients, is determined by a combination of factors, including clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations. PMID:24837629
Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Abboud, Jacques; St-Pierre, Charles; Piché, Mathieu; Descarreaux, Martin
BACKGROUND: Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal problem that is often chronic or recurrent. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) cause shoulder pain and are prevalent in patients with shoulder pain. However, few studies have focused on MTrP therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of multimodal treatment of MTrPs in patients with chronic shoulder pain. METHODS: A
Carel Bron; Arthur de Gast; Jan Dommerholt; Boudewijn Stegenga; Michel Wensing; Rob AB Oostendorp
Summary Aims The aim of this research is to verify the quality and quantity of heavy metals (HM) of dental origin in TMD patients. Methods A population of 100 subject was studied and divided in two homogeneous groups: Study Group (SG) and Control Group (CG). Organism heavy metals were tested by a spot sampling method in which the first urine of the day, through Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), were analyzed. The results obtained were compared with reference values (RV) of Italian people. Descriptive statistical analysis and student’s t-test has been applied (statistical significance for p > 0.05). Results The SG presented the absolute highest levels of HM compared to the CG (p=0.787). As regards the relation between pain and HM, the subjects that refer “severe/very severe” values of pain present the highest levels of HM in urines. Conclusions The obtained results seem to highlight a possible direct proportionality between the level of pain the increase of the concentration of heavy metals in all the examined groups and subgroups.
Di Paolo, Carlo; Serritella, Emanuela; Panti, Fabrizio; Falisi, Giovanni; Manna, Fedele
Background Plantar heel pain is a common disorder of the foot for which patients seek medical treatment. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between duration of symptoms in plantar fasciitis patients and demographic factors, the intensity and location of pain, extent of previous treatment and self reported pain and function. Methods The charts of patients presenting with plantar heel pain between June 2008 and October 2010 were reviewed retrospectively and 182 patients with a primary diagnosis of plantar fasciitis were identified. Patients with symptoms less than 6 months were identified as acute and patients with symptoms greater than or equal to six months were defined as having chronic symptoms. Comparisons based on duration of symptoms were performed for age, gender, BMI, comorbidities, pain location and intensity, and a functional score measured by the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM). Results The two groups were similar in age, BMI, gender, and comorbidities. Pain severity, as measured by a VAS, was not statistically significant between the two groups (6.6 and 6.2). The acute and chronic groups of patients reported similar levels of function on both the activity of daily living (62 and 65) and sports (47 and 45) subscales of the FAAM. Patients in the chronic group were more likely to have seen more providers and tried more treatment options for this condition. Conclusion As plantar fasciitis symptoms extend beyond 6 months, patients do not experience increasing pain intensity or functional limitation. No specific risk factors have been identified to indicate a risk of developing chronic symptoms.
Klein, Sandra E.; Dale, Ann Marie; Hayes, Marcie Harris; Johnson, Jeffrey E.; McCormick, Jeremy J.; Racette, Brad A.
Naltrexone is effective in treating opioid dependence by blocking µ, ? and ? opiate receptors. Naltrexone is mainly metabolized to an active metabolite 6?-naltrexol by dihydrodiol dehydrogenase enzymes. Concomitant opioids will not be effective while patients are taking this antagonist. This was a retrospective analysis of urinary excretion data collected from patients being treated with pain between November 2011 and May 2012. Naltrexone, 6?-naltrexol and concomitant opiate concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Interpatient variability was calculated from first-visit specimens, and intrapatient variability was calculated from patients with two or more visits. Relationships of the metabolic ratio (MR; 6?-naltrexol/naltrexone) with age, gender and urinary pH were also explored. From 88 first-visit patient specimens, the median MR was 3.28 (range 0.73-17.42). The MR was higher in women than men (5.00 vs. 3.14, P< 0.05). The MR showed no association based on age and urinary pH. Eighteen of 88 patients taking oral naltrexone tested positive for concomitant opiate use. Urinary MRs of 6?-naltrexol/naltrexone were highly variable, which may contribute to variability in efficacy, toxicity and patient willingness to take naltrexone as directed. Twenty percent of patients tested positive for opiates and naltrexone, thus showing the importance of monitoring patients taking naltrexone. PMID:24659754
Liu, Janet C; Ma, Joseph D; Morello, Candis M; Atayee, Rabia S; Best, Brookie M
There are several therapies designed to increase body awareness. They are commonly known as body awareness therapies (BAT) and include Basic BAT, Mensendieck and Feldenkrais therapy. A focus on emotions is important in all these therapies. In this article the aim and development of Basic BAT is described together with evaluations of treatments including Basic BAT. Multidisciplinary studies have shown that Basic BAT can increase health-related quality of life and cost-effectiveness. However Basic BAT needs to be further studied in relation to patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic pain. Studies so far indicate that Basic BAT has positive effects. PMID:16012065
Objective Previous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) studies have demonstrated anti-nociceptive effects, and recent non-invasive approaches; termed transcutaneous-VNS, or t-VNS, have utilized stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve in the ear. The dorsal medullary vagal system operates in tune with respiration, and we propose that supplying vagal afferent stimulation gated to the exhalation phase of respiration can optimize t-VNS. Design counterbalanced, crossover study. Patients patients with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) due to endometriosis in a specialty pain clinic. Interventions/Outcomes We evaluated evoked pain analgesia for Respiratory-gated Auricular Vagal Afferent Nerve Stimulation (RAVANS) compared with Non-Vagal Auricular Stimulation (NVAS). RAVANS and NVAS were evaluated in separate sessions spaced at least one week apart. Outcome measures included deep tissue pain intensity, temporal summation of pain, and anxiety ratings, which were assessed at baseline, during active stimulation, immediately following stimulation, and 15 minutes after stimulus cessation. Results RAVANS demonstrated a trend for reduced evoked pain intensity and temporal summation of mechanical pain, and significantly reduced anxiety in N=15 CPP patients, compared to NVAS, with moderate to large effect sizes (eta2>0.2). Conclusion Chronic pain disorders such as CPP are in great need of effective, non-pharmacological options for treatment. RAVANS produced promising anti-nociceptive effects for QST outcomes reflective of the noted hyperalgesia and central sensitization in this patient population. Future studies should evaluate longer-term application of RAVANS to examine its effects on both QST outcomes and clinical pain.
Napadow, Vitaly; Edwards, Robert R; Cahalan, Christine M; Mensing, George; Greenbaum, Seth; Valovska, Assia; Li, Ang; Kim, Jieun; Maeda, Yumi; Park, Kyungmo; Wasan, Ajay D.
This research aimed to check the effectiveness of Therapeutic Touch on decreased pain intensity, depression self-assessment scores and improved sleep quality. A clinical before-after trial is presented. The study was carried out at a Basic Health Unit in Fernandópolis, SP-Brazil, involving 30 elderly patients with chronic non-oncologic pain who received 8 sessions of Therapeutic Touch in accordance with the Krieger-Kunz method. The Visual Analogue Scale for pain was applied before and after each session, and Beck Depression Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index before the first and after the last session. Data analysis showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in pain intensity, depression self-assessment scores and the sleep quality index. It is concluded that the Therapeutic Touch was effective to decrease pain intensity and depressive attitudes and symptoms, as well as to improve sleep quality. PMID:21337796
Marta, Ilda Estefani Ribeiro; Baldan, Sueli Santiago; Berton, Ani Fabiana; Pavam, Michele; da Silva, Maria Júlia Paes
Although pediatric functional abdominal pain (FAP) has been linked to abdominal pain later in life, childhood predictors of long-term outcomes have not been identified. This study evaluated whether distinct FAP profiles based on patterns of pain and adaptation in childhood could be identified and whether these profiles predicted differences in clinical outcomes and central sensitization (wind-up) on average 9 years later. In 843 pediatric FAP patients, cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups at initial FAP evaluation based on profiles of pain severity, gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI symptoms, pain threat appraisal, pain coping efficacy, catastrophizing, negative affect, and activity impairment. Three profiles were identified: High Pain Dysfunctional, High Pain Adaptive, and Low Pain Adaptive. Logistic regression analyses controlling for age and sex showed that, compared to pediatric patients with the Low Pain Adaptive profile, those with the High Pain Dysfunctional profile were significantly more likely at long-term follow-up to meet criteria for pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) (OR: 3.45; CI: 1.95–6.11), FGID with comorbid non-abdominal chronic pain (OR: 2.6; CI:1.45–4.66), and FGID with comorbid anxiety or depressive psychiatric disorder (OR: 2.84; CI: 1.35–6.00). Pediatric patients with the High Pain Adaptive profile had baseline pain severity comparable to the High Pain Dysfunctional profile, but had outcomes as favorable as the Low Pain Adaptive profile. In laboratory pain testing at follow-up, High Pain Dysfunctional patients exhibited significantly greater thermal wind-up than Low Pain Adaptive patients, suggesting that a subgroup of FAP patients has outcomes consistent with widespread effects of heightened central sensitization.
Walker, Lynn S.; Sherman, Amanda L.; Bruehl, Stephen; Garber, Judy; Smith, Craig A.
Pain is a common complication after spinal cord injury with prevalence estimates ranging 77% to 81%, which highly affects a patient's lifestyle and well-being. In the current clinical setting paper-based forms are used to classify pain correctly, however, the accuracy of diagnoses and optimal management of pain largely depend on the expert reviewer, which in many cases is not possible because of very few experts in this field. The need for a clinical decision support system that can be used by expert and non-expert clinicians has been cited in literature, but such a system has not been developed. We have designed and developed a stand-alone tool for correctly classifying pain type in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, using Bayesian decision theory. Various machine learning simulation methods are used to verify the algorithm using a pilot study data set, which consists of 48 patients data set. The data set consists of the paper-based forms, collected at Long Beach VA clinic with pain classification done by expert in the field. Using the WEKA as the machine learning tool we have tested on the 48 patient dataset that the hypothesis that attributes collected on the forms and the pain location marked by patients have very significant impact on the pain type classification. This tool will be integrated with an imaging informatics system to support a clinical study that will test the effectiveness of using Proton Beam radiotherapy for treating spinal cord injury (SCI) related neuropathic pain as an alternative to invasive surgical lesioning.
Verma, Sneha K.; Chun, Sophia; Liu, Brent J.
Background Patients with pressure ulcers (PUs) report that pain is their most distressing symptom, but there are few PU pain prevalence studies. We sought to estimate the prevalence of unattributed pressure area related pain (UPAR pain) which was defined as pain, soreness or discomfort reported by patients, on an “at risk” or PU skin site, reported at a patient level. Methods We undertook pain prevalence surveys in 2 large UK teaching hospital NHS Trusts (6 hospitals) and a district general hospital NHS Trust (3 hospitals) during their routine annual PU prevalence audits. The hospitals provide secondary and tertiary care beds in acute and elective surgery, trauma and orthopaedics, burns, medicine, elderly medicine, oncology and rehabilitation. Anonymised individual patient data were recorded by the ward nurse and PU prevalence team. The analysis of this prevalence survey included data summaries; no inferential statistical testing was planned or undertaken. Percentages were calculated using the total number of patients from the relevant population as the denominator (i.e. including all patients with missing data for that variable). Results A total of 3,397 patients in 9 acute hospitals were included in routine PU prevalence audits and, of these, 2010 (59.2%) patients participated in the pain prevalence study. UPAR pain prevalence was 16.3% (327/2010). 1769 patients had no PUs and of these 223 patients reported UPAR pain, a prevalence of 12.6%. Of the 241 people with pressure ulcers, 104 patients reported pain, a UPAR pain prevalence of 43.2% (104/241). Conclusion One in six people in acute hospitals experience UPAR pain on ‘at risk’ or PU skin sites; one in every 8 people without PUs and, more than 2 out of every five people with PUs. The results provide a clear indication that all patients should be asked if they have pain at pressure areas even when they do not have a PU.
Background While pain is frequently associated with unipolar depression, few studies have investigated the link between pain and bipolar depression. In the present study we estimated the prevalence and characteristics of pain among patients with bipolar depression treated by psychiatrists in their regular clinical practice. The study was designed to identify factors associated with the manifestation of pain in these patients. Methods Patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (n=121) were selected to participate in a cross-sectional study in which DSM-IV-TR criteria were employed to identify depressive episodes. The patients were asked to describe any pain experienced during the study, and in the 6 weeks beforehand, by means of a Visual Analogical Scale (VAS). Results Over half of the bipolar depressed patients (51.2%, 95% CI: 41.9%–60.6%), and 2/3 of the female experienced concomitant pain. The pain was of moderate to severe intensity and prolonged duration, and it occurred at multiple sites, significantly limiting the patient’s everyday activities. The most important factors associated with the presence of pain were older age, sleep disorders and delayed diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Conclusions Chronic pain is common in bipolar depressed patients, and it is related to sleep disorders and delayed diagnosis of their disorder. More attention should be paid to study the presence of pain in bipolar depressed patients, in order to achieve more accurate diagnoses and to provide better treatment options.
Myofascial pelvic pain (MFPP) is a major component of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and often is not properly identified by healthcare providers. The hallmark diagnostic indicator of MFPP is myofascial trigger points in the pelvic floor musculature that refer pain to adjacent sites. Effective treatments are available to reduce MFPP, including myofascial trigger point release,
Pastore, Elizabeth Anne; Katzman, Wendy B.
Objective: To study various characteristics of chest pain in acute myocardial infarction patients. Methodology: A total of 331 patients of AMI admitted at Cardiology unit Nishtar Hospital Multan and Chaudhry Pervez Elahi Institute of Cardiology Multan, irrespective of the age and gender, were included in this study. The study duration was one year starting from June 2011 to June 2012. Non-probability purposive sampling technique was used in this descriptive study. Informed consent to participate in this study was taken. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS-11. Results: A total number of 331 patients with AMI were included in the study. Mean age was 54.99±11.25 years with minimum age 20 years and maximum age 90 years. It included 264(79.8%) male and 67(20.2%) female patients with male to female ratio of 3.9:1. Out of these 331 patients 308 (93.1%) patients reported chest pain as the presenting complaint. Remaining 23(6.9%) presented with clinical features other than chest pain. There were 127(38.4%) patients with pre-cordial chest pain, 115(34.7%) had retrosternal chest pain, 58(17.5%) were having epigastric pain. Severe chest pain was seen in 281(84.9%) patients while 26(7.9%) had only mild chest discomfort. Radiation of the pain to shoulder, neck and jaw was seen in 75 (22.7%) patients. In 42(12.7%) patients, pain radiated to both sides of chest. Another 55(16.6%) patients had pain radiation to chest, shoulder, upper arm and ulnar side of left forearm. Chest pain radiation to interscapular region along with both sides of chest was present in 10(3.0%) patients. In 11(3.3%) patients’ pain radiated only to left side of chest. Pain persisting for >20 minutes was reported by 298 (90%) patients while only 10(3.1%) had pain persisting for <20 minutes. Conclusion: There is considerable overlap in chest pain of cardiac as well as non cardiac causes. However, vigilant evaluation of characteristics of chest pain in history taking may help to overcome this dilemma. Severe and prolonged precordial chest pain in a male patient between the age of 41-70 years, with pain radiation to left shoulder, neck and jaw is highly suggestive of AMI.
Malik, Muhammad Ajmal; Alam Khan, Shahzad; Safdar, Sohail; Taseer, Ijaz-Ul-Haque
There is little research on the psychological impact of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) on family members. This study uses the Human Figure Drawing (HFD) to measure siblings' emotional distress toward BMT. Among the siblings, feelings of isolation, anger, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem emerged as major themes. Findings indicate the…
Packman, Wendy L.; Beck, Vanessa L.; VanZutphen, Kelly H.; Long, Janet K.; Spengler, Gisele
Some chronic painful conditions including e.g. fibromyalgia, whiplash associated disorders, endometriosis, and irritable bowel syndrome are associated with generalized musculoskeletal hyperalgesia. The aim of the present study was to determine whether generalized deep-tissue hyperalgesia could be demonstrated in a group of patients with chronic low-back pain with intervertebral disc herniation. Twelve patients with MRI confirmed lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and 12 age and sex matched controls were included. Subjects were exposed to quantitative nociceptive stimuli to the infraspinatus and anterior tibialis muscles. Mechanical pressure (thresholds and supra-threshold) and injection of hypertonic saline (pain intensity, duration, distribution) were used. Pain intensity to experimental stimuli was assessed on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Patients demonstrated significantly higher pain intensity (VAS), duration, and larger areas of pain referral following saline injection in both infraspinatus and tibialis anterior. The patients rated significantly higher pain intensity to supra-threshold mechanical pressure stimulation in both muscles. In patients, the pressure pain-threshold was lower in the anterior tibialis muscle compared to controls. In conclusion, generalized deep-tissue hyperalgesia was demonstrated in chronic low-back pain patients with radiating pain and MRI confirmed intervertebral disc herniation, suggesting that this central sensitization should also be addressed in the pain management regimes. PMID:16815054
O'Neill, Søren; Manniche, Claus; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars
Background Occipital condyle fractures (OCF) are rare traumatic injuries and are of critical clinical importance because of the anatomic considerations of the occipitoatlantoaxial joint complex. OCF can be a diagnostic challenge because of the inability to diagnose this injury with plain radiographs. This is especially true in the emergency department (ED) setting. A high degree of clinical suspicion and careful investigation of the craniocervical junction is warranted in patients presenting to the ED with head and cervical trauma. Findings We present a case of a 45-year-old male who presented to the ED with complaints of neck pain and headache four days after an assault. The classification, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of his injury are discussed, and pertinent literature is reviewed. Conclusions OCF can be easily overlooked due to multiple factors; including the conscious state of the patient or the inability to diagnose it through plain radiographs. Early recognition and diagnosis of OCF is crucial to prevent neurological involvement.
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that strengthening masticatory muscles using a controlled chewing exercise protocol improves muscle function, as evaluated quantitatively by electromyogram, and reduces pain at rest and during function. The study included 20 patients diagnosed with myofascial pain according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders with low masseter volume increase during maximal clench. The exercise group (ten patients) was subjected to a controlled gum chewing exercise protocol for eight weeks: the control group (ten patients) received only support and encouragement. Patients were examined at the beginning and at the end of the experiment which included an electromyogram (EMG) to assess muscle performance, masticatory muscle tenderness to palpation, mouth opening range, subjective anamnestic indices to evaluate pain perception and pain relief, and chewing tests. The EMG showed that the masticatory muscle exercise did produce objective physiologic results. In the exercise group, a significant increase was found in the electric muscle activity of the masseters during maximal voluntary clench (p=0.007). The exercise group showed significant reduction in pain during rest, pain during the chewing test, and a disability score. At the end of the study, a difference between the two groups was shown in the Pain Relief Scale: significantly greater pain relief was found in the exercise group as compared to the control group (p=0.019). For all other clinical parameters, there was no difference between the two groups or interaction between time and treatment. The results of this study seem to be equivocal. Additional experiments on larger population groups with extended chewing protocols are necessary before a more substantial conclusion can be reached. PMID:16933459
Gavish, Anat; Winocur, Ephraim; Astandzelov-Nachmias, Tamara; Gazit, Esther
Development of treatments for acute and chronic pain conditions remains a challenge, with an unmet need for improved sensitivity and reproducibility in measuring pain in patients. Here we used pulsed-continuous arterial spin-labelling [pCASL], a relatively novel perfusion magnetic-resonance imaging technique, in conjunction with a commonly-used post-surgical model, to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow [rCBF] associated with the experience
Matthew A. Howard; Kristina Krause; Nadine Khawaja; Nathalie Massat; Fernando Zelaya; Gunter Schumann; John P. Huggins; William Vennart; Steven C. R. Williams; Tara F. Renton; Bernhard Baune
Purpose: To investigate physiotherapy entry-level students' preferences in prioritizing patients, specifically, patients with chronic pain. Methods: After a group discussion, 249 Canadian entry-level physiotherapy students completed a questionnaire that used five distinct scenarios (fictitious patient cases). Respondents were asked to prioritize the patients (P1=highest priority, P5=lowest priority). Results: Physiotherapy students accorded the highest priority to the patient with chronic pain and the post-surgical patients; the elderly patient and the patient with cognitive impairment were given low priority. Conclusions: A diagnosis of chronic pain is given the highest level of priority by physiotherapy students. The literature shows, however, that chronic pain is given the lowest priority in physiotherapy department triage tools. There may be a shift in preferences with respect to patients with chronic pain between the pre-licensure (student) phase and the post-licensure (clinician) phase. PMID:24396163
Laliberté, Maude; Ehrmann Feldman, Debbie
Objective There is some evidence for the efficacy of acupuncture in chronic low back pain, but it remains unclear which acupuncture modes are most effective. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of two different modes of trigger point acupuncture on pain and quality of life in chronic low back pain patients compared to standard acupuncture treatment.Methods Thirty five consecutive
Kazunori Itoh; Yasukazu Katsumi; Hiroshi Kitakoji
Chronic postoperative pain may lead to physical disability and psychosocial distress. In this longitudinal observational study, for the first time we evaluated the relative frequency of chronic postoperative pain in patients operated for chronic otitis media (COM) at two university hospitals. Patients were questioned about pain at the site of the surgical incision 3-6 months after the operation, and again 3 months after the first visit. Pain intensity was quantified by visual analogue scale (VAS). T test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression were used for analyzing data and multivariate analysis. In 155 patients (42 male, 113 female, mean age: 38.57 ± 10.66 years), chronic postoperative pain was observed in 50 cases (32.3 %). A significant decrease in the average score of VAS was observed from 5.18 to 2.64 within 3 months (P = 0.0001). Statistically significant correlation was observed between chronic postoperative pain and age, sex, acute postoperative pain and history of Irritable Bowel Syndrome or migraine, but after multivariate analysis, only the age group and severe acute post-operation pain were effective on incidence of chronic post-operative pain. In conclusion, surgery for COM is followed by chronic pain in about 32 % of patients, and some risk factors for the development of chronic postoperative pain after this surgery exist, including age and severe acute post-operation pain. PMID:24052248
Nemati, Shadman; Okhovvat, S Ahmadreza; Naghavi, S Ebrahim; Shakiba, Maryam; Mikaeeli, Saman
Not considering cancer patients’ own views and experience with pain, especially gender and ethnic differences in their cancer pain experience, was reported to be a major contributor to the miscommunication that frequently results in inadequate cancer pain management. The purpose of this study was to explore white cancer patients’ perception of gender and ethnic differences in pain experience through an online forum. This was a descriptive qualitative study among 29 white cancer patients based on a feminist approach. Nine topics related to cancer pain experience were used. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis: 5 themes were identified. First, the participants perceived that pain accompanies cancer throughout the diagnosis and treatment process. Second, the specific characteristics of the participants’ individual culture and its view of pain and cancer could result in different cancer pain experience even among white cancer patients. Third, the participants complained that women’s pain was not taken seriously by health care providers. Fourth, the participants reported highly individualized pain experience with emotional pain. Finally, the participants wanted to have a control of their own pain management process. Based on the findings, implications for nursing research and practice are proposed.
Background Foot pain is a common problem for people aged 50 and over and occurs more often in women than in men. About 60% of the foot problems are forefoot problems and slightly more than half of these patients seek medical help, mainly in the form of podiatric care. Podiatric treatment of forefoot problems is known to be heterogeneous. The aims of the present study are to describe the podiatric treatment of patients with forefoot pain and to evaluate the podiatric examination and treatment using an expert panel. Method We invited twenty-five randomly selected subjects with forefoot problems who had received podiatric treatment in a pragmatic randomised clinical trial to participate in an analysis of their treatment by an expert panel. The panel retrospectively established the cause of the foot problem as well as the therapeutic goals and evaluated the treatment. These findings were compared to those reported by the treating podiatrist. Results Two fundamentally different approaches were found in approach of podiatric examination; a functional approach (n?=13) and a non-functional approach (n?=12). In nine cases the expert panel agreed with the cause recorded by the podiatrist. In five other cases the expert panel concluded that the treatment of the podiatrist was not consistent with the cause of the problem recorded by the podiatrist. Of the 10 patients for whom the podiatrist had recorded to have given shoe advice, only two were able to recollect the proper advice. Three patients did not remember receiving advice at all. Conclusion In this study almost half of the podiatrists worked according to a non-functional approach where the other half (like the expert panel) chose a functional strategy that analyses the underlying problem. Fundamental differences in treatment plans and thus heterogeneous treatments could be a consequence.
Objective Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of distal chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and its impact on quality of life, mood, anxiety, sleep and healthcare utilization. Methods In total, 885 patients were screened and 766 diabetic patients (38.7% with type 1 diabetes mellitus, 44.8% women, mean age: 57.2±14.9 years) were enrolled consecutively over a three-month period in this observational study by 85 diabetes specialists working in a hospital department or in private practice. All the patients completed a series of questionnaires for the detection of chronic pain (i.e. daily pain for more than three months) in the lower limbs and assessment of health-related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Short Form 12 scale), sleep disturbances (MOS sleep scale), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale). Patients with chronic pain were also assessed with the 7-item DN4-interview questionnaire, the monofilament test and the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). Results The overall prevalence of chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics was 20.3% [95% CI 17.4–23.1]. The MNSI examination score suggested that pain was related to polyneuropathy, in 80.1% of these patients (89.5% of those with bilateral pain). Patients with chronic pain had a poorer quality of life and more sleep disturbances, anxiety and depression than patients without pain and the presence of neuropathic characteristics was predictive of such impairments. Only 38.6% of the patients had received appropriate treatment for neuropathic pain. Conclusions Chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics concerns one in five diabetic patients, has a significant impact on quality of life and is not adequately managed. The close correlation between the DN4 questionnaire and MNSI results suggests that screening tools for neuropathic pain could be used in daily practice for the identification of painful diabetic polyneuropathy.
Bouhassira, Didier; Letanoux, Martine; Hartemann, Agnes
Chronic low back pain is identified by the length of time a patient suffers from low back pain, the location of the pain and the etiology of the symptoms. Approximately 5-10% of patients with low back pain develop chronic low back pain that lasts longer than 3 months. There has been no consensus regarding the definition of low back pain; therefore, there is a wide variation in the prevalence estimates reported in the literature. Commonly used drugs for chronic low back pain include antidepressants, analgesics, antiepileptic drugs and muscle relaxants. In the USA, back pain is one of the most frequent reasons for hospitalization and physician visits, resulting in high medical care costs. PMID:20528528
Parthan, Anju; Evans, Christopher J; Le, Kim
Fourteen patients with Stage II or III impingement syndrome (average age 58 years) were studied. Nine patients had full-thickness rotator cuff tears documented by arthrograms. Patients initially underwent a thorough shoulder examination followed by baseline isokinetic strength testing. Abduction/adduction testing was performed utilizing a Biodex dynamometer. Maximum concentric contractions were performed, and values for peak torque (PT), total work (W), and power (P) were obtained. All patients received a subacromial injection of 5 cc 1% lidocaine plus 5 cc 0.5% bupivacaine (Marcaine). After 5 minutes the testing sequence was repeated. Clinically, patients demonstrated marked improvement following injection. Eighty-six percent reported complete pain relief; the remaining two patients reported only mild discomfort at the extremes of motion. Improvement in functional activity of the affected shoulder was noted by all subjects. On manual muscle testing, 13 of 14 patients (93%) demonstrated increased abduction strength; 11 of 14 (79%) had improvement in external rotation. Mean increases in active forward elevation and external rotation were 36 degrees and 11 degrees, respectively (P < .01). Postinjection isokinetic changes in PT, W, and P for abduction/adduction were dramatic. For abduction, all patients showed significant increases in P (mean 82%), W (mean 90%), and PT (mean 48%) (all P < .05). No significant differences in range of motion testing or strength parameters were noted based on the presence or absence of a rotator cuff tear. For adduction, all patients showed significant increases in P (mean 208%), W (mean 183%), and PT (mean 41%) (all P < .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7971520
Ben-Yishay, A; Zuckerman, J D; Gallagher, M; Cuomo, F
Objective. The primary purpose of this paper was to evaluate the influence of pain distribution on gait characteristics in subjects with low back problems (LBP) during walking at preferred and fastest speeds. Design. Cross-sectional, observational study. Setting. Gait analysis laboratory in a health professions university. Participants. A convenience age- and gender-matched sample of 20 subjects with back pain only (BPO), 20 with referred leg pain due to back problems (LGP), and 20 pain-free individuals (CON). Methods and Measures. Subjects completed standardized self-reports on pain and disability and were videotaped as they walked at their preferred and fastest speeds along a walkway embedded with a force plate. Temporal and spatial gait characteristics were measured at the midsection of the walkway, and peak medial, lateral, anterior, and posterior components of horizontal ground reaction forces (hGRFs) were measured during the stance phase. Results. Patients with leg pain had higher levels of pain intensity and affect compared to those with back pain only (t = 4.91, P < .001 and t = 5.80, P < 0.001, resp.) and walking had an analgesic effect in the BPO group. Gait velocity was highest in the control group followed by the BPO and LGP group and differed between groups at both walking speeds (F2.57 = 13.62, P < .001 and F2.57 = 9.09, P < .001, for preferred and fastest speed condition, resp.). When normalized against gait velocity, the LGP group generated significantly less lateral force at the fastest walking speed (P = .005) and significantly less posterior force at both walking speeds (P ? .01) compared to the control group. Conclusions. Pain intensity and distribution differentially influence gait velocity and hGRFs during gait. Those with referred leg pain tend to utilize significantly altered gait strategies that are more apparent at faster walking speeds.
Simmonds, Maureen J.; Lee, C. Ellen; Etnyre, Bruce R.; Morris, G. Stephen
We studied the associations between psychosocial variables and sick-leave among patients with musculoskeletal pain. Patients (n=586) seeking care to relieve their pain at health care and physiotherapy centres, completed a questionnaire about such variables as clinical characteristics (e.g. pain intensity), psychological well-being (e.g. burnout, depression) and coping strategies. The results show that the patients who had been on sick-leave for
Giorgio Grossi; Joaquim J. F Soares; Jocelyne Ängeslevä; Aleksander Perski
Background and Purpose. Determining the source of a patient's pain in the upper thoracic region can be difficult. Costovertebral (CV) and costotransverse (CT) joint hypomobility and active trigger points (TrPs) are possible sources of upper thoracic pain. This case report describes the clinical decision-making process for a patient with posterior upper thoracic pain. Case Description. The patient had a 4-month
Stacie J Fruth
Recent studies have hypothesized that peripheral glutamate receptors could be implicated in deep craniofacial pain conditions. In this study 18 temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthralgia patients received intra-articular injections of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, ketamine, or normal saline to study in a cross-over, double-blinded, placebo-controlled manner the effect on TMJ pain and somatosensory function. Spontaneous pain and pain on jaw
Emad E. Ayesh; Troels S. Jensen; Peter Svensson
Ninety-six adults with a supportive or unsupportive attributional style participated in an experiment that examined the effects of contextual (i.e., coping and medical evidence) information on evaluations of pain severity, the pain sufferer, and treatment choice for shoulder pain patients. Respondents accurately detected a patient's pain level from the vid eotaped facial displays, but patients who were coping with the
Linda M. Lundquist; N. C. Higgins; Kenneth M. Prkachin
This study was planned to investigate the utility of the vertical Faces Pain Scale (FPS) in the assessment of pain in stroke patients using the shoulder pain model and to assess its utility in the Turkish patient population. The secondary aim was to analyze the association of FPS with the quality of life and depression in the study population.…
Dogan, Sebnem Koldas; Ay, Saime; Oztuna, Derya; Aytur, Yesim Kurtais; Evcik, Deniz
The aims were to “diagnose” the need for redesigning jobs for patients with chronic pain, and to investigate their job satisfaction. A prospective, descriptive investigation was used. A consecutive series of 84 chronic-pain patients completed the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) and the Job Diagnostic Index (JDI). The patients' perception of psychosocial job components varied. Approximately 20% needed their jobs to
Marie-Louise Schult; Ingrid Söderback
Studies of patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (NES) typically focus upon the phenomenology and outcome of NES episodes. Little is known, however, about the frequency and nature of other somatic symptoms such as pain, in this population. To assess the frequency, location and severity of symptoms of pain among NES patients, we administered structured interviews to 56 patients, 6 or
Alan B Ettinger; Orrin Devinsky; Deborah M Weisbrot; Amit Goyal; Shivaramaiah Shashikumar
Each year, hundreds of thousands of women undergo excisional breast biopsies for definitive diagnosis. Not only do these patients experience pain associated with the procedure, but they also endure distress associated with the threat of cancer. Hypnosis has been demonstrated as effective for controlling patients' pain in other surgical settings, but breast surgery patients have received little attention. To determine
Guy H. Montgomery; Christina R. Weltz; Megan Seltz; Dana H. Bovbjerg
Study Design Case report. Background Pain can lead to a significant reduction in quality of life. A pain mechanisms-based classification scheme has been outlined to improve management of patients with pain, but studies describing its use are limited. Evidence for physical therapy interventions in those with chronic pain and multiple health conditions is also lacking. This case report describes management of a patient with chronic pain and multiple health conditions. Case Description A 29-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of low back pain and 11-month history of lower extremity paresthesia. Current health conditions included left-sided hemiparesis secondary to a stroke, pancreatic kidney transplant, left-sided blindness, and osteoporosis secondary to hyperparathyroidism. Inability to walk to school and sit through class, and pain-related sleep disruption were the primary activity and participation restrictions. Outcome measures included the numeric pain rating scale, global rating of change, Oswestry Disability Index, and pain medication usage. A score of 12 on the Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs (LANSS) pain scale indicated the presence of neuropathic pain, but other pain mechanisms were also hypothesized to be present. Treatment was designed to improve patient goals considering these pain mechanisms. Outcomes The patient was seen for 20 visits over 6 months. Ten months after the initial evaluation, the patient's Oswestry Disability Index scores improved by more than 50% and the patient achieved all initially stated goals without pain medication. Discussion A pain mechanisms-based approach assisted in the management of a patient with chronic pain and multiple health conditions. Using this approach may enhance clinical decision making when managing individuals with chronic pain. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2014;44(6):403-414. Epub 25 April 2014. doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.4861. PMID:24766360
Hensley, Craig P; Courtney, Carol A
Background Incidence of postoperative pain has been reported to be between 47–100%. Ineffective postoperative pain management results in tangible and intangible costs. The purpose of this study was to assess the processes and outcomes of pain management in the surgical wards of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. Methods and Findings A prospective cross sectional study was conducted among 252 postoperative patients during February 13 to April 30, 2012. A contextually modified and validated (Cronbach’s ? coefficient of 0.78) American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire was used to assess pain experience of patients. Patients’ charts were reviewed to assess the pattern of analgesic use. Incidence of postoperative pain was 91.4%, and remained high over 3 measurements (McNemar’s; p<0.05), and 80.1% of the patients were undertreated. The mean pain intensity, and pain interference on functional status were 6.72±1.44 and 5.61±1.13 on a 10 point Numerical rating scale respectively; both being strongly correlated(r?=?0.86: p<0.001). Pain intensity was varied by ethnicity, education and preoperative information (ANOVA; P<0.05). Only 50% of the patients were adequately satisfied with their pain management. As needed (prn), solo analgesic, null analgesic, and intramuscular orders were noted for 31.3%, 89.29%, 9.7% and 20.1% of the prescription orders respectively. Though under dose, diclofenac and tramadol were the top prescribed medications, and only 57% of their dose was administered. Linear regression model showed that the predictors of satisfaction were sex of an individual and pain interference with functional status. Conclusion Despite patients’ paradoxical high satisfaction with pain management, the majority of patients were inadequately and inappropriately treated. Thus, further research is needed to determine how best to break down current barriers to effective pain management.
Woldehaimanot, Tewodros Eyob; Eshetie, Tesfahun Chanie; Kerie, Mirkuzie Woldie
Fibromyalgia is associated with an increased rate of mortality from suicide. In fact, this disease is associated with several characteristics that are linked to an increased risk of suicidal behaviors, such as being female and experiencing chronic pain, psychological distress, and sleep disturbances. However, the literature concerning suicidal behaviors and their risk factors in fibromyalgia is sparse. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the prevalence of suicidal ideation and the risk of suicide in a sample of patients with fibromyalgia compared with a sample of healthy subjects and a sample of patients with chronic low-back pain. We also aimed to evaluate the relevance of pain intensity, depression, and sleep quality as variables related to suicidal ideation and risks. Logistic regression was applied to estimate the likelihood of suicidal ideation and the risk of suicide adjusted by age and sex. We also used two logistic regression models using age, sex, pain severity score, depression severity, sleep quality, and disease state as independent variables and using the control group as a reference. Forty-four patients with fibromyalgia, 32 patients with low-back pain, and 50 controls were included. Suicidal ideation, measured with item 9 of the Beck Depression Inventory, was almost absent among the controls and was low among patients with low-back pain; however, suicidal ideation was prominent among patients with fibromyalgia (P<0.0001). The risk of suicide, measured with the Plutchik Suicide Risk Scale, was also higher among patients with fibromyalgia than in patients with low-back pain or in controls (P<0.0001). The likelihood for suicidal ideation and the risk of suicide were higher among patients with fibromyalgia (odds ratios of 26.9 and 48.0, respectively) than in patients with low-back pain (odds ratios 4.6 and 4.7, respectively). Depression was the only factor associated with suicidal ideation or the risk of suicide.
Jimenez-Rodriguez, Irene; Garcia-Leiva, Juan Miguel; Jimenez-Rodriguez, Beatriz M; Condes-Moreno, Emilia; Rico-Villademoros, Fernando; Calandre, Elena P
Symptomatic thoracic disc herniation is an uncommon condition and early surgical approaches were associated with significant morbidity and even mortality. We are the first to describe the technique of percutaneous thoracic nucleoplasty in three patients with severe radicular pain due to thoracic disc herniation. Two of the patients experienced more than 75% pain relief and one patient experienced more than 50% pain relief. Post-procedural pain relief was maintained up to an average of 10 months after nucleoplasty. One patient with preoperative neurological signs improved postoperatively. There were no reported complications in all three patients. In view of the reduced morbidity and shorter operating time, thoracic intervertebral disc nucleoplasty can be considered in patients with pain due to thoracic disc herniation, with no calcification of the herniated disc, and in patients who may be otherwise be unfit for conventional surgery.
Gultuna, Ismail; Riezebos, Patricia; Beems, Tjemme; Vissers, Kris C.
Pain can be a significant problem for treated leprosy patients. It can be nociceptive due to tissue inflammation occurring during episodes of immune mediated reactions, or neuropathic due to leprosy affecting the somatosensory system. There are sparse epidemiological data on the prevalence and impact of neuropathic pain in treated leprosy patients. Tools for assessing neuropathic pain have not been validated in leprosy. We have examined nature of pain in a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of neuropathic pain (NP) in 80 recently treated leprosy patients in Ethiopia. Pain and depression were evaluated using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) questionnaire. The Douleur Neuropathique en 4 Questions (DN4) and the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) were used as screening tools for NP. Pain of any type was experienced by 60% of the patients. Pure nociceptive pain was experienced by 43%, pure NP by 11%, and mixed pain by 6%. Of the 14 patients who had NP either alone or in combination with nociceptive pain, 12 had high GHQ-12 scores, indicating possible depression. The DN4 had sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 45%, whereas the LANSS had 85% and 42%, respectively. This is the first study to differentiate nociceptive from NP in leprosy patients. The prevalence of NP is high in recently treated Ethiopian leprosy patients. We have validated the use of DN4 in leprosy and it is easier to use than LANSS. Depression is a common co-morbidity in patients with NP. The high prevalence and morbidity of NP in treated leprosy patients warrant clinical trials to assess the efficacy of pain therapies for leprosy-associated NP. PMID:22727538
Haroun, Omer M O; Hietaharju, Aki; Bizuneh, Elizabeth; Tesfaye, Fasil; Brandsma, J Wim; Haanpää, Maija; Rice, Andrew S C; Lockwood, Diana N J
The management of pain is a primary issue in burn care. Patients hospitalized for burn injuries experience severe pain on a daily basis, immediately after the injury and during the healing of the burn wound. Our clinical experience is that the intensity of pain is increased by wound infection. The purpose of this study was to investigate retrospectively whether patients experience increased pain intensity in conjunction with wound infection. A total of 165 patients with burn injuries were included, 60 of whom were diagnosed with infection. The results of this study showed a significant increase in pain intensity in association with infection. An increase in pain is one of the factors to be considered among the many assessments, tests, and treatments for patients with burn injuries. PMID:17145492
Tengvall, Oili M; Björnhagen, Viveca C; Lindholm, Christina; Jonsson, Carl-Evert; Wengström, Yvonne
Introduction: Recently, multimodal pain control has been used to manage postoperative pain in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This approach combines numerous modalities, such as opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, local anesthetics, and acetaminophen, in an effort to reduce overall opioid consumption and also to provide better pain control. Gabapentinoids are a class of drugs that have been used as part of multimodal approach, and may be effective in patients who are previous users of chronic pain medication. The hypothesis of this study was that the addition of pregabalin reduces opioid consumption and/or improves pain after TKA, even in patients who are previous users of chronic pain medications. Methods: Using a prospectively collected database, 262 consecutive patients undergoing primary TKA between December 2011 and April 2012 were identified who received multimodal analgesia after surgery that included pregabalin. Using the same database, these patients were compared with 268 patients undergoing TKA from January to December 2010 who also received multimodal analgesia but were not given pregabalin. The clinical records of these patients were reviewed in detail to determine the incidence and nature of postoperative complications, opioid consumption, and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores. Results: The incidence of respiratory, renal, and hemodynamic complications was significantly lower in the patients who received pregabalin. Gastrointestinal complications, which included nausea, were not significantly different between the groups. Patients receiving pregabalin had a lower average opioid consumption, and their minimum and maximum levels of opioid consumption were also reduced. Previous users of chronic pain medications had higher VAS scores but the same opioid consumption compared with those who were not previous users of chronic pain medications. No difference was seen in the maximum VAS scores between patients who received pregabalin and those who did not. Conclusion: Pregabalin in the context of multimodal pain management may be associated with reduced opioid consumption and other medical complications in patients undergoing TKA, including previous users of chronic pain medications. PMID:24875968
Sawan, Hind; Chen, Antonia F; Viscusi, Eugene R; Parvizi, Javad; Hozack, William J
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are functional diseases of the masticatory system; their symptoms are clicking, difficulty opening the mouth wide, ear pain, facial pain and headaches. The relationships among distress, emotional factors and TMD are well known. It was shown that patients with TMD have little awareness of their inner states and emotions, and it was found that those reporting oro-facial pain presented higher alexithymia than did asymptomatic people. Other authors confirmed that alexithymia was higher in the painful TMD group than controls. This study was aimed to evaluate whether alexithymia and its components can be considered as predisposing factors for pain severity, poor health and greater social difficulties in patients with TMD. One hundred thirty-three patients received a diagnosis of TMD and completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Multiple stepwise regressions showed that alexithymia and age explained 10% of the pain and 31% of poor health and also that alexithymia explained 7% of social difficulty. A direct comparison of patients with TMD based on alexithymia revealed a higher presence of pain in alexithymic patients with TMD than in those characterised by moderate or no alexithymia. In conclusion, alexithymia partly predicts pain, poor health and social difficulties in patients with TMD. Furthermore, alexithymic patients have more pain than those with moderate or low alexithymia. PMID:23869944
Mingarelli, A; Casagrande, M; Di Pirchio, R; Nizzi, S; Parisi, C; Loy, B C; Solano, L; Rampello, A; Di Paolo, C
The efficacy of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for patients with chronic painful osteoporotic compression fractures remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of PVP and conservative treatment (CT) for pain relief and functional outcome in patients with chronic compression fractures and persistent pain. Ninety-six patients with chronic compression fractures confirmed by MRI and persistent severe pain for 3 months or longer were prospectively randomly assigned to undergo PVP (n=46, Group A) or CT (n=50, Group B). The primary outcome was pain relief and functional outcome at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year. A total of 89 patients (46 in Group A and 43 in Group B) completed the 1 year follow-up assessment. Pain relief and functional outcomes were significantly better in Group A than in Group B, as determined by visual analogue scale scores, Oswestry Disability Index scores, and Roland Morris Disability scores at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year (all p<0.001). The final clinical follow-up assessment indicated complete pain relief in 39 Group A patients and 15 Group B patients (p<0.001). PVP for patients with chronic compression fractures and persistent severe pain was associated with better pain relief and improved functional outcomes at 1 year compared to CT. PMID:24315046
Chen, Dong; An, Zhi-Quan; Song, Sa; Tang, Jian-Fei; Qin, Hui
The number of individuals seeking treatment for prescription opioid dependence has increased dramatically, fostering a need for research on this population. The aim of this study was to examine reasons for prescription opioid use among 653 participants with and without chronic pain, enrolled in the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study, a randomized controlled trial of treatment for prescription opioid dependence. Participants identified initial and current reasons for opioid use. Participants with chronic pain were more likely to report pain as their primary initial reason for use; avoiding withdrawal was rated as the most important reason for current use in both groups. Participants with chronic pain rated using opioids to cope with physical pain as more important, and using opioids in response to social interactions and craving as less important, than those without chronic pain. Results highlight the importance of physical pain as a reason for opioid use among patients with chronic pain. PMID:24814051
Weiss, Roger D; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Griffin, Margaret L; McHugh, R Kathryn; Haller, Deborah; Jacobs, Petra; Gardin, John; Fischer, Dan; Rosen, Kristen D
Postoperative pain is the most important factor od so called "tumor-promotive effect of surgery" i.e. of endocrine-metabolic changes having the consequence drop in immune, antiinfective and antitumor defense. Due to presence of organic involutive changes, old people (= 65 years), often have serious side effects during application of usual analgetics. Since hypertonic glucose (33%) given i.v. or per os, works analgesically in small children there is assumption that it can be used in treatment of postoperative pain in old oncology patients. We tested the hypothesis that postoperative pain in old oncology patients can be treated with i.v. application of 50% of glucose solution. 37 oncology patients over 65 years, 26 females and 11 males, operated for breast cancer and soft tissue cancer, were investigated. Average age of the patients was 72 +/- 4 years. 50% Glucose solution was given in two boluses of 20 ml each: the first bolus was given to all patients at the end of anesthesia, and the other bolus was given individually after appearance of post-operative pain. Pain intensity (in coefficients of the visual analogue scale VAK = 1-100) and its characteristics were tested by oral testing of operated patients; after weakening from anesthesia, after the first appearance of the pain and 15 minutes after giving of the second glucose bolus. None patient had pain weakening from anesthesia. All tested patients experienced pain during the first 70 minutes and it could be categorized as very strong pain (= 82 VAK). The pain was decreased with another glucose bolus by approximately (= 56% VAK) so it was classifies in category of bearable pains (= 36 VAK). In 9 patients (24.3%) the pain had neuropathic component (filing of "burning") which could not be eliminated by hypertonic glucose, but only with application of tramadol. Activation of the central cholinergic transmission is the most significant mechanism of analgesic glucose effect, but, probably there is another one: facilitation of entrance of formerly given analgesics in the brain cells. As energetic substrate, entering all organism cells, glucose could make easier intracell breakthrough of any other analgesic drug, of the peripheral or central action, and final antipain effect could be potential or additional one. It was concluded that 40 ml of 50% glucose solution given in two identical boluses, has good analgesic effect in treatment of postoperative pain in old oncology patient: the pain was not completely eliminated, but it was significantly decreased and became tolerable. Hypertonic glucose neither eliminates, nor decreases neuropathic component of the pain, so, when the pain appears the therapy should be supplemented with other drugs, which may completely eliminate all pain components. PMID:14608864
Jovanovi?, Nikola C; Dzodi?, Radan; Celebi?, Aleksandar; Zegarac, Milan; Djurisi?, Igor; Stojiljkovi?, Dejan
Background Pain conditions of the musculoskeletal system are very common and have tremendous socioeconomic impact. Despite its high prevalence, musculoskeletal pain remains poorly understood and predominantly non-specifically and insufficiently treated. The group of chronic musculoskeletal pain patients is supposed to be heterogeneous, due to a multitude of mechanisms involved in chronic pain. Psychological variables, psychophysiological processes, and neuroendocrine alterations are expected to be involved. Thus far, studies on musculoskeletal pain have predominantly focused on the general aspects of pain processing, thus neglecting the heterogeneity of patients with musculoskeletal pain. Consequently, there is a need for studies that comprise a multitude of mechanisms that are potentially involved in the chronicity and spread of pain. This need might foster research and facilitate a better pathophysiological understanding of the condition, thereby promoting the development of specific mechanism-based treatments for chronic pain. Therefore, the objectives of this study are as follows: 1) identify and describe subgroups of patients with musculoskeletal pain with regard to clinical manifestations (including mental co-morbidity) and 2) investigate whether distinct sensory profiles or 3) distinct plasma levels of pain-related parameters due to different underlying mechanisms can be distinguished in various subgroups of pain patients. Methods/Design We will examine a population-based chronic pain sample (n?=?100), a clinical tertiary care sample (n?=?100) and pain-free patients with depression or post-traumatic stress disorder and pain-free healthy controls (each n?=?30, respectively). The samples will be pain localisation matched by sex and age to the population-based sample. Patients will undergo physical examination and thorough assessments of mental co-morbidity (including psychological trauma), perceptual and central sensitisation (quantitative sensory testing), descending inhibition (conditioned pain modulation, the diffuse noxious inhibitory control-like effect), as well as measurement of the plasma levels of nerve growth factor and endocannabinoids. Discussion The identification of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms in different subgroups of chronic musculoskeletal pain patients will contribute to a mechanism-based subgroup classification. This will foster the development of mechanism-based treatments and holds promise to treat patients more sufficient.
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of applying joint mobilization at symptomatic and asymptomatic cervical levels in patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain. Forty-eight patients aged between 18 and 65 years and presenting nonspecific neck pain with a minimum duration of 3 months were recruited for the study. Included patients were randomized to one of two treatment groups: (i) control group: the most symptomatic vertebral level was mobilized; (ii) experimental group: a randomly selected vertebral level was chosen and mobilized. All patients received one treatment session. Pain intensity in resting position during the most painful active cervical movement as well as during vertebral palpation was quantified using an 11-point pain scale. Follow-up measures were taken immediately after intervention by a blinded assessor. The results showed no significant difference in pain intensity immediately after treatment between groups (symptomatic level treated vs. randomly chosen cervical vertebral level treated) during resting position, painful active movement, or vertebral palpation. Within-group comparisons showed significant pain relief after treatment during the most painful active movement as well as during vertebral palpation for both groups, but not during resting position. Significant change in immediate pain intensity during painful active movement and vertebral palpation was achieved after vertebral mobilization. however, both groups presented similar pain reductions suggesting that pain reduction due to joint mobilization is not specific to the vertebral level being mobilized.
Aquino, Rafaela L; Caires, Priscila M; Furtado, Fernanda C; Loureiro, Aline V; Ferreira, Paulo H; Ferreira, Manuela L
Ever since the application in 1980 of morphine for spinal analgesia in patients with refractory cancer pain, spinal infusion\\u000a therapy has become one of the cornerstones for the management of chronic, medically intractable pain. Initially, spinal infusion\\u000a therapy was indicated only for patients with cancer pain that could not be adequately controlled with systemic narcotics.\\u000a However, over the past decade,
Richard K. Osenbach; Susan Harvey
Background Factors associated with abdominal pain in gastroparesis are incompletely evaluated and comparisons of pain versus other symptoms are limited. This study related pain to clinical factors in gastroparesis and contrasted pain/discomfort- with nausea/vomiting-predominant disease. Methods Clinical and scintigraphy data were compared in 393 patients from 7 centers of the NIDDK Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium with moderate-severe (Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Disorders Symptoms [PAGI-SYM] score ?3) vs. none-mild (PAGI-SYM <3) upper abdominal pain and predominant pain/discomfort vs. nausea/vomiting. Key Results Upper abdominal pain was moderate-severe in 261 (66%). Pain/discomfort was predominant in 81 (21%); nausea/vomiting was predominant in 172 (44%). Moderate-severe pain was more prevalent with idiopathic gastroparesis and with lack of infectious prodrome (P?0.05) and correlated with scores for nausea/vomiting, bloating, lower abdominal pain/discomfort, bowel disturbances, and opiate and antiemetic use (P<0.05) but not gastric emptying or diabetic neuropathy or control. Gastroparesis severity, quality of life, and depression and anxiety were worse with moderate-severe pain (P?0.008). Factors associated with moderate-severe pain were similar in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis. Compared to predominant nausea/vomiting, predominant pain/discomfort was associated with impaired quality of life, greater opiate, and less antiemetic use (P<0.01), but similar severity and gastric retention. Conclusions & Inferences Moderate-severe abdominal pain is prevalent in gastroparesis, impairs quality of life, and is associated with idiopathic etiology, lack of infectious prodrome, and opiate use. Pain is predominant in one fifth of gastroparetics. Predominant pain has at least as great an impact on disease severity and quality of life as predominant nausea/vomiting.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate elderly intensive care unit (ICU) patients' experiences of pain and distress, as well as interventions aimed at reducing these conditions, and to compare these experiences with the way nurses and assistant nurses, respectively, assess their patients' responses related to these issues.DESIGN: Descriptive, correlational, comparative.SETTING: Two medical-surgical ICUs at county hospitals in two medium-sized cities in Sweden.SUBJECTS: Fifty-one
Marie Louise Hall-Lord; Gerry Larsson; Bertil Steen
This study examined low back pain patients’ (N=50) perceptions of what they considered to be helpful and unhelpful social support from various sources over the previous\\u000a six months. Among types of social support, tangible support was most likely to be rated as helpful, whereas emotional support\\u000a was the type of support most likely to be rated as unhelpful. Patients reported
Kevin S. Masters; Alexandra M. Stillman; Glen I. Spielmans
Mechanical disorders of the lumbar spine have been identified as a cause of pelvic pain and organic dysfunction (PPOD). Categorically, the clinical features indicative of mechanically induced PPOD fall into three areas: the history of the development or onset of pelvic symptomatology attributable to lower sacral nerve root compression (LSNRC), identification of related symptomatology on presentation, and the recognition of clinical findings indicative of mechanically induced PPOD on examination. Characteristic features of each category are presented. The clinical signs that most reliably indicate the presence of PPOD secondary to a mechanical lesion of the low back are of a sensory nature, and the disappearance or lack of improvement of these signs closely parallels the patient's overall response to manipulative treatment. Without a thorough understanding of the salient features of mechanically induced PPOD, the practitioner is likely to overlook this as a diagnostic possibility. As a result, efforts to document chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy in relieving disorders of pelvic organic function may be hampered. The empirical efficacy of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy for treating disorders of pelvic organic function would be enhanced if more chiropractors were apprised of the salient features indicating the presence of mechanically induced PPOD. PMID:2532677
Browning, J E
BACKGROUND: Opioid misuse can complicate chronic pain management, and the non-medical use of opioids is a growing public health problem. The incidence and risk factors for opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain, however, have not been well characterized. We conducted a prospective cohort study to determine the one-year incidence and predictors of opioid misuse among patients enrolled in a
Timothy J Ives; Paul R Chelminski; Catherine A Hammett-Stabler; Robert M Malone; J Stephen Perhac; Nicholas M Potisek; Betsy Bryant Shilliday; Darren A DeWalt; Michael P Pignone
Purpose: Many older patients with common chronic conditions also experience chronic pain. We examined how chronic pain affects patients' difficulty with recommended self-management activities and the potential intervening role of self-efficacy (the level of confidence in one's own ability to perform a specific task). Design and Methods: We…
Krein, Sarah L.; Heisler, Michele; Piette, John D.; Butchart, Amy; Kerr, Eve A.
Objective: This study was conducted to describe the prevalence of pain in the emergency department and to identify factors that may contribute to its treatment. Methods: Interviews were conducted with 203 patients who entered the emergency department during the study period. Patients were interviewed regarding various aspects of their pain. Medical records were reviewed to determine what treatments were provided.
Paula Tanabe; MaryBeth Buschmann
The aim of this study was to replicate, in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), the three-cluster cognitive-behavioral classification proposed by Turk and Rudy. Sixty-two patients attending a tertiary MS rehabilitation center completed the Pain Impact Rating questionnaire measuring activity interference, pain intensity, social support, and…
Khan, Fary; Pallant, Julie F.; Amatya, Bhasker; Young, Kevin; Gibson, Steven
Patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) hold various knowledge, perceptions and beliefs about their pain which are based on prior learning and social conditions. Since LBP is a bio- psycho-social phenomenon and there are not any reports about awareness and attitude of Iranian patients' views regarding it, this descriptive study was employed to earn this information P to apply
SS Tavafian; H Eftekhar; K Mohammad; AR Jamshidi; N Assasi
Purpose: Prior research in nursing homes has shown that cognitive impairment may reduce self-reported pain, but this relation has not been systematically explored among hospice patients. The assessment and treatment of pain is a primary goal of hospice care, and both disease pro- cesses and the use of opioid analgesics may lead to cog- nitive impairment among hospice patients. However,
Rebecca S. Allen; William E. Haley; Brent J. Small; Susan C. McMillan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, severity, and management of pain in Korean patients with advanced cancer, and to identify the predictors of inadequate management of cancer pain in Korea. From 8 university hospitals, 655 patients with advanced cancer were surveyed. Information concerning analgesics prescribed was acquired from the medical records by the investigator. Physicians, nurses
Young Ho Yun; Dae Seog Heo; In Goo Lee; Hyun Sik Jeong; Hyo Jin Kim; Si-Young Kim; Yeul Hong Kim; You Ja Ro; Sung Soo Yoon; Ki Hyeong Lee; Bong Yul Huh
Data were collected retrospectively from insurance information forms and histories of 111 patients (ages 14-84) referred to physical therapy for evaluation of back and/or neck pain. Analysis indicated that patients with compensable (work-related or motor vehicle accident) injuries infrequently acknowledged prior episodes of back or neck pain. (JDD)
Pellecchia, Geraldine L.
Pressure pain threshold (PPT) is defined as the minimum force applied which induces pain. This measure has proven to be commonly useful in evaluating tenderness symptom. Our aim was to study the intra-examiner reproducibility of PPT measurement, define cutoffs in normal groups, and compare these results with patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Fifty healthy females, 50 healthy males, and 20 patients
Didier Maquet; Jean-Louis Croisier; Christophe Demoulin; Jean-Michel Crielaard
Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract AIM: To compare the effects of neurolytic celiac plexus block (NCPB) and videothoracoscopic splanchnicectomy (VSPL) on pain and quality of life of chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients. METHODS: Forty-eight small duct CP patients were treated invasively with NCPB (n = 30) or VSPL (n = 18) in two non-randomized, prospective, case-controlled protocols due to chronic pain syndrome,
Andrzej Basinski; Tomasz Stefaniak; Ad Vingerhoets; Wojciech Makarewicz; Lukasz Kaska; Aleksander Stanek; Andrzej J. Lachinski; Zbigniew Sledzinski
Oncologists often manage cancer-associated symptoms including pain. When symptoms are severe, anesthesia-pain medicine (APM) and/or palliative medicine (PM) can effectively treat symptoms. Nevertheless, symptom management may be suboptimal, leading to diminished quality of life (QOL). We assessed the value of PM vs. APM consultation in cancer patients referred for pain management alone. Patients referred to an APM-based Cancer Pain Clinic (CPC) over an 8-month period were evaluated by PM or APM based on the first available appointment. Symptoms and QOL were assessed by the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory and Linear Analog Self-Assessment at baseline and 4-6 weeks after initial encounter. Data were analyzed on an available-case basis. Sixty-two patients (37 PM, 25 APM) completed the initial survey, with 48 patients (31 PM, 17 APM) completing followup. Mean pain score improved from 7.97 to 5.47 in the PM group (P < 0.0001) and from 7.1 to 4.5 (P = 0.29) in the APM group. The PM group demonstrated a clinically significant improvement in 8/19 symptoms vs. 3/19 in the APM group and in 3/5 QOL parameters in the PM group vs. 1/5 in the APM group. Our small sample size weakens our power and ability to detect significant differences between the groups. Only one follow-up symptom-assessment point was obtained. PM consultation is as effective as APM in improving cancer pain but may be more effective with symptom management and improving QOL. PMID:21702403
Pachman, Deirdre R; Swetz, Keith M; Mauck, William D; Pingree, Matthew J; Hoelzer, Bryan C; Haugland, Anita J; Novotny, Paul J; Sloan, Jeff A; Moynihan, Timothy J; Rho, Richard H
Objective. To systematically evaluate the evidence of whether massage therapy (MT) is effective for neck pain. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified through searches of 5 English and Chinese databases (to December 2012). The search terms included neck pain, neck disorders, cervical vertebrae, massage, manual therapy, Tuina, and random. In addition, we performed hand searches at the library of Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Two reviewers independently abstracted data and assessed the methodological quality of RCTs by PEDro scale. And the meta-analyses of improvements on pain and neck-related function were conducted. Results. Fifteen RCTs met inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed that MT experienced better immediate effects on pain relief compared with inactive therapies (n = 153; standardised mean difference (SMD), 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.09 to 2.50; P = 0.03) and traditional Chinese medicine (n = 125; SMD, 0.73; 95% CI 0.13 to 1.33; P = 0.02). There was no valid evidence of MT on improving dysfunction. With regard to follow-up effects, there was not enough evidence of MT for neck pain. Conclusions. This systematic review found moderate evidence of MT on improving pain in patients with neck pain compared with inactive therapies and limited evidence compared with traditional Chinese medicine. There were no valid lines of evidence of MT on improving dysfunction. High quality RCTs are urgently needed to confirm these results and continue to compare MT with other active therapies for neck pain.
Therapeutic options for chronic pelvic pain in women offer only a limited symptom relief. Especially in the patient with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), where overlap of pain, storage and voiding symptoms is common, data on the efficacy of treatment of pain are limited. We conducted a literature review to detect articles which pertained to female patients with LUTS and pelvic pain and we included articles which evaluated the efficacy of the treatment of pelvic pain. Forty-one articles were detected, which included nerve stimulation (sacral and pudendal), intravesical instillations and injections, oral pharmacological treatments, periurethral injections as well as physical and manual therapy as treatment options. Only five controlled trials were found, which did not show superiority of the active treatment versus placebo. Although some treatment options show promising results in the treatment of pelvic pain in patients with LUTS, more randomised controlled trials are needed to confirm these results. PMID:22270729
Kavvadias, Tilemachos; Baessler, Kaven; Schuessler, Bernhard
HIV infection is a global pandemic, currently affecting approximately 77,000 people in the UK and 33 million people around the world. The infection has widespread effects on the body and can involve the musculoskeletal system. It is therefore important that orthopaedic surgeons are aware of the condition and its sequelae. We present the case of a 46-year-old man with a 10-year history of HIV who presented with acute hip pain, difficulty weight-bearing, and constitutional symptoms. Following radiological, microbiological, and serological tests a diagnosis of pseudogout was established following microscopic analysis of the hip joint aspirate. The patient's symptoms resolved completely following the joint aspiration and NSAID therapy. Studies have shown a relationship between HIV infection and gout. The virus has also been linked to osteonecrosis, osteopenia, bone and joint tuberculosis, and septic arthritis from rare pathogens. However, it is difficult to fully ascertain whether these conditions are related to the HIV infection itself or the HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy). There are no previously reported cases of HIV-infected patients with pseudogout. The case is discussed with reference to the literature.
Dala-Ali, Benan M.; Welck, Matthew; Lloyd, Mary Anne; Atkinson, Henry D.
This study analyses the relationships between patients' dispositional optimism and pessimism and the coping strategies they use. In addition, the coping strategies repercussions on adjustment to chronic pain were studied. Ninety-eight patients with heterogeneous chronic pain participated. The assessment tools were as follows: Life Orientation Test (LOT), the Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory (VPMI), the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Impairment and Functioning Inventory for Chronic Pain Patients (IFI). The hypothetical model establishes positive relationships between optimism and the use of active coping strategies, whereas pessimism is related to the use of passive coping. Active coping is associated with low levels of pain, anxiety, depression and impairment and high levels of functioning. However, passive coping is related to high levels of pain, anxiety, depression and impairment and low levels of functioning. The hypothetical model was empirically tested using the LISREL 8.20 software package and the unweighted least squares method. The results support the hypotheses formulated regarding the relations among optimism, pessimism, coping and adjust of chronic pain patients. By analysing optimism among chronic pain patients, clinicians could make better predictions regarding coping and adjustment. PMID:22379718
Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen; Esteve, Rosa; López, Alicia E
This website on GPS Drawing was created by Jeremy Wood and features his artwork and a few other GPS artists. The drawings posted in the Gallery "are of journeys captured using GPS receivers" and "were created by treating travel like a geodetic pencil or a cartographic crayon." He has created images of animals and objects through travels by foot, boat, bicycle and plane. The project is also meant to provide "a platform for creativity and innovation with GPS software and technology." One section describes the software used to make the drawings, but also notes that it is currently not available to the public. The Projects section includes various GPS animations, documentation of exhibitions, and workshops conducted in galleries, museums, and schools, as well as computer and cardboard models that make the drawings three dimensional.
We investigated the relationship between parents' empathic responses prior to their children undergoing cancer treatment procedures and children's pain\\/distress during the procedures. We hypothesized: (1) parents' empathic distress would be positively associated with children's pain\\/distress, (2) parents' empathic concern would be negatively associated with children's pain\\/distress; and (3) parents' enduring dispositions and social support would be associated with their empathic
Louis A. Penner; Rebecca J. W. Cline; Terrance L. Albrecht; Felicity W. K. Harper; Amy M. Peterson; Jeffrey M. Taub; John C. Ruckdeschel
The Drawing Board consists of a marking pen that remains stationary and a platform that swings beneath the pen, acting as a pendulum. As the platform swings, the pen marks a sheet of paper that is fastened to the platform, generating beautiful repetitive patterns. These colorful designs contain hidden lessons in physics. This resource includes instructions for making a large-scale Drawing Board as well.
\\u000a Communication between members of the design team must be open, free, continuous, and complete. There is no place for guesswork\\u000a or thoughtless inclusions. Responsibility is imposed on everyone from the project architect to junior drafters. Working drawings\\u000a are the graphic communication between the designer and the contractor. Therefore, to convey the designer’s concept in full,\\u000a the working drawings must be
Ralph W. Liebing
Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Pain; Precancerous/Nonmalignant Condition; Small Intestine Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific
The study group identified 107 patients who left against advice from the emergency departments of three university and four\\u000a community hospitals after presenting for evaluation of acute chest pain. In comparison with other emergency department patients\\u000a with acute chest pain, patients who left against advice had findings that suggested they were at higher risk for myocardial\\u000a infarction than patients for
Thomas H. Lee; Letitia W. Short; Donald A. Brand; Yveline D. Jean-Claude; Monica C. Weisberg; Gregory W. Rouan; Lee Goldman
Study objective Assessment of patients’ perception of pain control in hospitals in the United States. Background Limited data are available regarding the quality of pain care in the hospitalized patient. This is particularly valid for data that allow for comparison of pain outcomes from one hospital to another. Such data are critical for numerous reasons, including allowing patients and policy-makers to make data-driven decisions, and to guide hospitals in their efforts to improve pain care. The Hospital Quality Alliance was recently created by federal policy makers and private organizations in conjunction with the Centers for Medicare and Medicare Services to conduct patient surveys to evaluate their experience including pain control during their hospitalization. Methods In March 2008, the results of the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey was released for review for health care providers and researchers. This survey includes a battery of questions for patients upon discharge from the hospital including pain-related questions and patient satisfaction that provide valuable data regarding pain care nationwide. This study will review the results from the pain questions from this available data set and evaluate the performance of these hospitals in pain care in relationship to patient satisfaction. Furthermore, this analysis will be providing valuable information on how hospital size, geographic location and practice setting may play a role in pain care in US hospitals. Results The data indicates that 63% of patients gave a high rating of global satisfaction for their care, and that an additional 26% of patients felt that they had a moderate level of global satisfaction with the global quality of their care. When correlated to satisfaction with pain control, the relationship with global satisfaction and “always” receiving good pain control was highly correlated (r >0.84). In respect to the other HCAHPS components, we found that the patient and health care staff relationship with the patient is also highly correlated with pain relief (r >0.85). The patients’ reported level of pain relief was significantly different based upon hospital ownership, with government owned hospitals receiving the highest pain relief, followed by nonprofit hospitals, and lastly proprietary hospitals. Hospital care acuity also had an impact on the patient’s perception of their pain care; patients cared for in acute care hospitals had lower levels of satisfaction than critical access hospitals. Conclusions The results of this study are a representation of the experiences of patients in US hospitals with regard to pain care specifically and the need for improved methods of treating and evaluating pain care. This study provides the evidence needed for hospitals to make pain care a priority in to achieve patient satisfaction throughout the duration of their hospitalization. Furthermore, future research should be developed to make strategies for institutions and policy-makers to improve and optimize patient satisfaction with pain care.
Gupta, Anita; Daigle, Sarah; Mojica, Jeffrey; Hurley, Robert W
This randomised controlled study investigated the effect of outpatient multidisciplinary pain centre treatment (MPT) compared with treatment by a general practitioner after initial supervision by a pain specialist (GP-group) and with a group of patients waiting for 6 months before treatment was initiated (WL-group). One-hundred-and-eighty-nine chronic non-malignant pain patients were studied. At referral, and after 3 and 6 months patients
Niels Becker; Per Sjøgren; Per Bech; Alf Kornelius Olsen; Jørgen Eriksen
Background. Perseveration has been observed in a number of behavioural contexts, including speaking, writing, and drawing. However, no previous report describes patients who show perseveration only for drawing a human figure. Objective. The present report describes a group of patients who show body awareness-related cognitive impairment during a human figure drawing task, a different presentation from previously described neuropsychological cases. Methods. Participants were 15 patients who had a frontal lobe brain tumour around the insula cortex of the right hemisphere and had subsequently undergone a neurosurgical resective operation. Participants were asked to draw a human figure in both “hands-down” and “hands-up” configurations. Results. Eight of the 15 patients drew a human figure with six fingers during the “hands-up” and the “hands-down” human figure drawing tasks (one patient drew eight fingers). A statistical analysis of potential lesion areas revealed damage to the right anterior frontal insula and operculum in this group of patients relative to the five-finger drawing group. Conclusions. Our findings reveal a newly described neuropsychological phenomenon that could reflect impairment in attention directed towards body representations.
Niki, Chiharu; Maruyama, Takashi; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Kumada, Takatsune
Pain is a common problem for cancer patients and can result in substantial medical costs, but little is known about the characteristics of pain that may predict these costs. This study applied telephone survey methodology to investigate the relationship between breakthrough pain (BTP) and the use of medical resources in a cancer population with pain. A nonrandom sample of 1,000 cancer patients was contacted by using standard telephone survey techniques. Eligible patients were questioned about the occurrence of BTP and pain-related hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and physician office visits. Patients who indicated that they had experienced BTP were compared with similar patients who had not experienced BTP by using cost estimations derived from patient reports of health care use. The analysis indicated that BTP patients were more likely to have experienced pain-related hospitalizations and physician office visits. When statistical control was made for patient ratings of the effectiveness of scheduled analgesics, BTP had higher costs associated with pain-related hospitalizations and physician office visits. The total cost of pain-related hospitalizations, emergency visits, and physician office visits was 12,000 US dollars/yr per BTP patient and 2,400 US dollars/yr per non-BTP patient. Cancer patients with BTP may sustain higher direct medical costs than patients without BTP. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed, and studies that will further clarify the relationship between BTP and medical costs are encouraged. PMID:14622852
Fortner, Barry V; Okon, Theodore A; Portenoy, Russell K
Background Troponin I (TnI) measurement is important in decision making and management of patients who present with chest pain. Undetectable levels of TnI in these patients are associated with a low risk of death or myocardial infarction at 30 days, and may allow early discharge from hospital. Methods An audit was performed tracking patients who presented with chest pain and
DW Motherwell; J Rogers; M Kellagher; D Craig; DSJ O'Reilly; SM Cobbe
The aim of this study is to describe current post-operative pain management practices for patients with dementia and hip fracture in Finland. Older adults with hip fracture are at high risk of under treatment for pain, especially if they also have a cognitive disorder at the stage of dementia. Previous studies have provided limited information about the quality of acute pain treatment for persons with dementia. In this study data concerning current pain management practices was collected by questionnaire from 333 nursing staff. They worked in surgical wards of seven universities and ten city-centre hospitals. The response rate to the questionnaire was 53%. The data was analysed using factor analysis and parametric methods. Half the respondents (53%) considered that post-operative pain management was sufficient for patients with dementia. Less than one third of respondent nurses reported that pain scales were in use on their unit: the most commonly used scale was VAS. The use of pain scales was significantly related to the respondents’ opinion of the sufficiency of post-operative pain management in this patient group (p<0.001). The findings can be utilised in nursing practice and research when planning suitable complementary educational interventions for nursing staff of surgical wards. Further research is needed to explain the current situation of pain management practices from the viewpoint of patients with dementia.
Rantala, Maija; Kankkunen, Paivi; Kvist, Tarja; Hartikainen, Sirpa
Substance use disorders (SUDs), whether active or in remission, are often encountered in patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. Clinicians are challenged when managing chronic pain while facing substance abuse issues during the course of chronic opioid therapy (COT). Further, the interrelated behavioral symptomatology of addiction and chronic pain suggests that if one disorder is untreated, effective treatment of the other in not possible. Incomplete understanding of the overlapping presentations of the two disorders, coupled with insufficient management of both conditions, leads to undertreated pain and premature discharge of SUD patients from pain treatment. In order to achieve pain relief and optimal functionality, both conditions need to be carefully managed. This paper reviews the prevalence of SUDs in chronic pain patents; the overlapping presentation of the two disorders; risk factors and stratification for addiction; identification of addiction in the chronic pain population; and suggestions for treating patients with COT, with an emphasis on relapse prevention. With appropriate assessment and treatment, COT for chronic pain patients with a history of SUD can be successful, leading to improved functionality and quality of life.
Chronic pain has been associated with impaired cognitive function. We examined cognitive performance in patients with severe chronic pancreatitis pain. We explored the following factors for their contribution to observed cognitive deficits: pain duration, comorbidity (depression, sleep disturbance), use of opioids, and premorbid alcohol abuse. The cognitive profiles of 16 patients with severe pain due to chronic pancreatitis were determined using an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Data from three cognitive domains (psychomotor performance, memory, executive functions) were compared to data from healthy controls matched for age, gender and education. Multivariate multilevel analysis of the data showed decreased test scores in patients with chronic pancreatitis pain in different cognitive domains. Psychomotor performance and executive functions showed the most prominent decline. Interestingly, pain duration appeared to be the strongest predictor for observed cognitive decline. Depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance, opioid use and history of alcohol abuse provided additional explanations for the observed cognitive decline in some of the tests, but to a lesser extent than pain duration. The negative effect of pain duration on cognitive performance is compatible with the theory of neurodegenerative properties of chronic pain. Therefore, early and effective therapeutic interventions might reduce or prevent decline in cognitive performance, thereby improving outcomes and quality of life in these patients.
Souren, Pierre; Arns, Martijn; Gordon, Evian; Vissers, Kris; Wilder-Smith, Oliver; van Rijn, Clementina M.; van Goor, Harry
Background Pain is one of the most common reasons for seeking medical care. The purpose of this study was to characterize patients visiting the complementary medicine clinic for a pain complaint. Methods This is a cross-sectional study. The study took place at Clalit Health Services (CHS) complementary clinic in Beer-Sheva, Israel. Patients visiting the complementary clinic, aged 18 years old and older, Hebrew speakers, with a main complaint of pain were included. Patients were recruited consecutively on random days of the month during a period of six months. Main outcome measures were: pain levels, location of pain, and interference with daily activities. Once informed consent was signed patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire by a qualified nurse. The questionnaire included socio-demographic data, and the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). Results Three-hundred and ninety-five patients were seen at the complementary medicine clinic during the study period, 201 (50.8%) of them met the inclusion criteria. Of them, 163 (81.1%) agreed to participate in the study and were interviewed. Pain complaints included: 69 patients (46.6%) with back pain, 65 (43.9%) knee pain, and 28 (32.4%) other limbs pain. Eighty-two patients (50.3%) treated their pain with complementary medicine as a supplement for their conventional treatment, and 55 (33.7%) felt disappointed from the conventional medicine experience. Eighty-three patients (50.9%) claimed that complementary medicine can result in better physical strength, or better mental state 51 (31.3%). Thirty-seven patients (22.7%) were hoping that complementary medicine will prevent invasive procedures. Conclusion Given the high proportion of patients with unsatisfactory pain relief using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), general practitioners should gain knowledge about CAM and CAM providers should gain training in pain topics to improve communication and counsel patients. More clinical research to evaluate safety and efficiency of CAM for pain is needed to provide evidence based counseling.
The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to examine the effect of acupuncture on postoperative pain in day surgery patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Twenty-two participants scheduled to undergo arthroscopic shoulder surgery were included. The results showed that on postoperative day one pain decreased (-1.1) in patients receiving acupuncture compared to the control group in which pain increased (2.0), p=.014. Sleep quality was also significantly higher in the acupuncture group compared to the control group, p=.042. In conclusions, acupuncture seems to have a reducing effect on postoperative pain as well as increase sleep quality in day surgery patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. In regards to application, nurses should be encouraged to use additional nonpharmacologic approaches like acupuncture in postoperative pain management, as this can be a part of the multimodal analgesic regimes to improve patients care. PMID:22843248
Ward, Ulla; Nilsson, Ulrica G
Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common but misunderstood muscular pain disorder involving pain referred from small, tender trigger points within myofascial structures in or distant from the area of pain. Misdiagnosis or inadequate management of this disorder after onset may lead to development of a complex chronic pain syndrome. A review of the clinical characteristics of 164 patients whose chief complaints led to the diagnosis of MPS revealed that these patients had (1) tenderness at points in firm bands of skeletal muscle that were consistent with past reports, (2) specific patterns of pain referral associated with each trigger point, (3) frequent emotional, postural, and behavioral contributing factors, and (4) frequent associated symptoms and concomitant diagnoses. PMID:3865133
Fricton, J R; Kroening, R; Haley, D; Siegert, R
This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Importance of the Problem; Neurophysiology and Biochemistry of Pain; Assessment of Pain in Patients with Cancer; Drug Therapy; Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy for Cancer Pain; Sympton Control as it Relates to Pain Control; and Palliative Surgery in Cancer Pain Treatment.
M. Swerdlow; V. Ventafridda
Insomnia and limb pain are common problems in dialysis patients. In addition, restless leg syndrome (RLS) as a specific cause of insomnia and limb pain has been reported in many studies. The purpose of this study was to estimate incidence of insomnia and RLS as a cause of insomnia in these patients. Twenty-six patients undergoing hemodialysis were investigated for insomnia, limb pain and RLS as per the defined criteria. They were evaluated for dialysis quality, dialysis duration, hemoglobin, serum phosphorous, ionized calcium, iron and ferritin levels. These variables between patients with insomnia and those with normal sleep were evaluated by independent "t" test. Without considering the etiology or pathogenesis of insomnia, we evaluated the occurrence of insomnia and limb pain in these patients, and specifically, restless leg syndrome. Insomnia and limb pain were common in dialytic patients. 46% of patients had insomnia. 91% of sleepless group had limb pain as a persistent, annoying complaint. Limb pain was not seen in groups with a normal sleep pattern. Restless leg syndrome was found in 8% of total cases (2 out of 26) and 17% among the insomnia group (2 out of 12). In spite of high incidence of insomnia among patients undergoing regular hemodialysis, role of RLS is trivial. There is a strong relationship between hemoglobin levels and duration of renal replacement therapy to insomnia occurrence. PMID:22237212
Malaki, Majid; Mortazavi, Fakhr Sadat; Moazemi, Sussan; Shoaran, Maryam
Background In therapeutic settings, patients with shoulder pain often exhibit deficient coordinative abilities in their trunk and lower extremities. The aim of the study was to investigate 1) if there is a connection between shoulder pain and deficits in balance ability and postural stability, 2) if pain intensity is related to balance ability and postural stability, and 3) if there is a connection between body mass index (BMI) and balance ability and postural stability. Methods In this case–control study, patients (n?=?40) with pathological shoulder pain (> 4 months) were matched with a healthy controls (n?=?40) and were compared with regard to their balance ability and postural stability. Outcome parameters were postural stability, balance ability and symmetry index which were measured using the S3-Check system. In addition, the influence of shoulder pain intensity and BMI on the outcome parameters was analysed. Results Patients with shoulder pain showed significantly worse results in measurements of postural stability right/left (p?0.01) and front/back (p?0.01) as well as balance ability right/left (p?=?0.01) and front/back (p?0.01) compared to healthy controls. There were no significant group differences with regard to symmetry index. However, there was a significant (p?0.01) symmetry shift towards the affected side within the shoulder pain group. There was no correlation between pain intensity and measurements of balance ability or postural stability. Likewise, no correlation between BMI and deficiencies in balance ability and postural stability was established. Conclusions Patients with pathological shoulder pain (> 4 months) have deficiencies in balance ability and postural stability; however the underlying mechanisms for this remain unclear. Neither pain intensity nor BMI influenced the outcome parameters. Patients with shoulder pain shift their weight to the affected side. Further research is needed to determine if balance training can improve rehabilitation results in patients with shoulder pathologies.
Introduction: Patients with abdominal pain often return multiple times despite no definitive diagnosis. Our objective was to determine if repeat emergency department (ED) use among patients with non-specific abdominal pain might be associated with a diagnosis of moderate to severe depressive disorder. Methods: We screened 987 ED patients for major depression during weekday daytime hours from June 2011 through November 2011 using a validated depression screening tool, the PHQ-9. Each subject was classified as either no depression, mild depression or moderate/severe depression based on the screening tool. Within this group, we identified 83 patients with non-specific abdominal pain by either primary or secondary diagnosis. Comparing depressed patients versus non-depressed patients, we analyzed demographic characteristics and number of prior ED visits in the past year. Results: In patients with non-specific abdominal pain, 61.9% of patients with moderate or severe depression (PHQ9?10) had at least one visit to our ED for the same complaint within a 365-day period, as compared to 29.2% of patients with no depression (PHQ9<5), (p=0.013). Conclusion: Repeat ED use among patients with non-specific abdominal pain is associated with moderate to severe depressive disorder. Patients with multiple visits for abdominal pain may benefit from targeted ED screening for depression. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(3):325–328.
Meltzer, Andrew Charles; Bregman, Benjamin; Blanchard, Janice
Introduction: Patients with abdominal pain often return multiple times despite no definitive diagnosis. Our objective was to determine if repeat emergency department (ED) use among patients with non-specific abdominal pain might be associated with a diagnosis of moderate to severe depressive disorder. Methods: We screened 987 ED patients for major depression during weekday daytime hours from June 2011 through November 2011 using a validated depression screening tool, the PHQ-9. Each subject was classified as either no depression, mild depression or moderate/severe depression based on the screening tool. Within this group, we identified 83 patients with non-specific abdominal pain by either primary or secondary diagnosis. Comparing depressed patients versus non-depressed patients, we analyzed demographic characteristics and number of prior ED visits in the past year. Results: In patients with non-specific abdominal pain, 61.9% of patients with moderate or severe depression (PHQ9?10) had at least one visit to our ED for the same complaint within a 365-day period, as compared to 29.2% of patients with no depression (PHQ9<5), (p=0.013). Conclusion: Repeat ED use among patients with non-specific abdominal pain is associated with moderate to severe depressive disorder. Patients with multiple visits for abdominal pain may benefit from targeted ED screening for depression. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(3):325-328.]. PMID:24868312
Meltzer, Andrew Charles; Bregman, Benjamin; Blanchard, Janice
The causes of knee pain in patients with cancer with are different from those without cancer, and the purpose of this study was to evaluate these differences. Thirty-six patients with cancer who had knee pain who had undergone 1 or more modalities of treatment, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and bone marrow transplant, for a primary diagnosis of cancer were compared with a cohort of 40 patients without cancer who had knee pain. All patients were evaluated clinically and underwent radiographic examination, and some underwent computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging examination. Among patients with a primary diagnosis of cancer, the most common diagnosis was lymphoma (n=10), and the most common causes of knee pain were avascular necrosis of bone, osteoarthritis, insufficiency fractures, and septic arthritis. In 5 patients, the classical signs of a septic knee were not present. Other causes of knee pain included meniscus tear and anterior cruciate ligament rupture with instability. The most common diagnosis in patients without cancer was osteoarthritis of the knee. No patient without cancer was diagnosed with avascular necrosis, metastatic lesion, or insufficiency fracture. Two patients without cancer were diagnosed with septic arthritis of the knee. This study showed that the causes of knee pain in patients with cancer are different from those without cancer. Septic arthritis may present without the classical clinical signs in patients with cancer, and a high index of suspicion should be maintained for it. PMID:22868602
Chen, Eileen; Sethi, Sajiv; Lee, Adrienne; Sethi, Anil; Vaidya, Rahul
Context: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the most common conditions limiting athletes. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that dysfunction at the hip may be a contributing factor in PFPS. Data Sources: MEDLINE (1950–September 2010), CINAHL (1982–September 2010), and SPORTDiscus (1830–September 2010) were searched to identify relevant research to this report. Study Selection: Studies were included assessing hip strength, lower extremity kinematics, or both in relation to PFPS were included. Data Extraction: Studies included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental designs, prospective epidemiology, case-control epidemiology, and cross-sectional descriptive epidemiology in a scientific peer-reviewed journal. Results: PFPS is associated with decreased hip strength, specifically at the abductors and external rotators. There is a correlation between PFPS and faulty hip mechanics (adduction and internal rotation). Conclusions: There is a link between the strength and position of the hip and PFPS. These patients have a common deficit once symptomatic. Hip strengthening and a coordination program may be useful in a conservative treatment plan for PFPS.
Meira, Erik P.; Brumitt, Jason
OBJECTIVE: Accomplishing the Healthy People 2010 goal of eliminating disparities in oral disease will require a better understanding of the patterns of health care associated with orofacial pain. This study examined factors associated with pain-related acute oral health care. METHODS: The authors used data on 698 participants in the Florida Dental Care Study, a study of oral health among dentate adults aged 45 years and older at baseline. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of the respondents reported having had at least one dental visit as the result of orofacial pain. The majority of the respondents reportedly delayed contacting a dentist for at least one day; however, there was no difference between respondents reporting pain as the initiating symptom and those with other problems. Once respondents decided that dental services were needed, those with a painful symptom were nearly twice as likely as those without pain to want to be seen immediately. Rural adults were more likely than urban adults to report having received urgent dental care for a painful symptom. When orofacial pain occurred, those who identified as non-Hispanic African American were more likely than those who identified as non-Hispanic white to delay care rather than to seek treatment immediately, and women were more likely then men. Having a pain-related oral problem was associated with significantly less satisfaction with the services provided; non-Hispanic African American respondents were less likely than non-Hispanic white respondents to report being very satisfied, and rural residents were less likely than urban residents. Furthermore, men were more likely than women to suffer with orofacial pain without receiving either scheduled dental care or an urgent visit. CONCLUSIONS: Barriers to care are complex and likely to be interactive, but must be understood before the goals of Healthy People 2010 can be accomplished.
Riley, Joseph L.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Heft, Marc W.
BACKGROUND Cancer pain initiatives recommend using the personalized pain goal (PPG) to tailor pain management. This study was conducted to examine the feasibility and stability of PPG, and how it compares to the clinical pain response criteria. METHODS Records of 465 consecutive cancer patients seen in consultation at the Supportive Care Clinic were reviewed. Pain relief was assessed as clinical response (?30% or ?2 point pain reduction), and PPG-response (pain?PPG). RESULTS 152 (34%), 95 (21%), and 163 (37%) patients presented with mild (1-4), moderate (5-6), and severe (7-10) pain, respectively. Median age (59 years), males(52%), advanced cancer status (84%) did not differ by pain category. Median PPG at initial clinic consult was 3 (interquartile range 2-3), similar across pain groups, and remained unchanged (p=0.57) at follow-up (median 14 days). Clinical response was higher among patients with severe pain (60%) as compared to moderate (40%) and mild pain (33%, p<0.001). PPG-response was higher among patients with mild pain (63%) as compared to moderate (44%) and severe pain (27%, p< 0.001). Using PPG-response as gold standard for pain relief, the sensitivity of clinical response was highest (98%) among patients with severe pain, but had low specificity (54%). In patients with mild pain, clinical response was most specific for pain relief (98%), but had low sensitivity (52%). CONCLUSION PPG is a simple patient reported outcome for pain goals. Majority of patients were capable of stating their desired level for pain-relief. The median PPG was 3, and it was highly stable at follow-up assessment.
Dalal, Shalini; Hui, David; Nguyen, Linh; Chacko, Ray; Scott, Cheryl; Roberts, Lynn; Bruera, Eduardo
Chronic pain is a leading health care problem with a wide range of physical and psychosocial outcomes. This report reviews the key intake findings of the first 227 patients admitted to a comprehensive inpatient/outpatient program for the treatment of chronic pain. Key trends in the data which suggest the different presentations of the chronic pain syndrome are highlighted and indications for future research are given. PMID:3015292
Snow, B R; Pinter, I; Gusmorino, P; Jiminez, A; Rosenblum, A
This descriptive, correlational study was conducted to determine orthopedic patients’ night-time pain characteristics, their quality of sleep and the contributing factors to poor sleep experiences, and the relationship between pain and sleep. Data were collected by using the McGill Pain Questionnaire-SF (MPQ-SF) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) on the second postoperative day. Data were analyzed using the SPSS version
Funda Esen Büyüky?lmaz; Merdiye ?endir; Rengin Acaro?lu
We examined differences in demographic\\/financial characteristics, burnout, job demands\\/control\\/strain and symptoms of depression as measured by GHQ among primary care patients with (n=838) and without pain (n=135). In addition, we examined factors associated with the presence of pain by means of logistic regression analyses among all participants, and inter-relations between demographic\\/financial\\/pain\\/health variables, symptoms of depression, burnout, and disability by means
Joaquim J. F. Soares; Beata Jablonska
This study of 2,163 adult chronic, non-cancer-pain, long-term opioid therapy patients examines the relationship of depression to functional disability by measuring average pain interference, activity limitation days, and employment status. Those with more depression symptoms compared to those with fewer were more likely to have worse disability on all 3 measures (average pain interference score >5, OR = 5.36, p < .0001; activity limitation
Tina A. Valkanoff; Andrea H. Kline-Simon; Stacy Sterling; Cynthia Campbell; Michael Von Korff
Patients with musculoskeletal pain often report limitations in daily functioning due to pain. Recently, the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended in their International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to accentuate patients remaining possibilities in functioning instead of focussing on restrictions. In patients with musculoskeletal pain, this would imply that a person's "daily activity level" rather than his/her "disability level" has to be focussed upon. At this moment, broad consensus about how to measure physical activity in daily life in patients with pain has not been established. The objectives of this study were twofold, firstly to identify instruments assessing the level of physical activity in daily life in patients with musculoskeletal pain and secondly to review psychometric properties of the instruments identified. In all, 42 articles derived from the literature on musculoskeletal pain were included in the review. Thirty four assessment instruments for physical activity were identified; fourteen questionnaires, ten diaries and ten instruments based on movement registration. Only, 10 out of these 34 instruments contained full or partial information regarding pain specific psychometric properties. At this moment, for quantitative assessment of physical activity, movement registration seems to be favoured based on its higher degree of objectivity in comparison with self report. Taken together more research is needed to evaluate psychometric properties of instruments measuring physical activity in musculoskeletal pain. PMID:18547847
Verbunt, Jeanine A; Huijnen, Ivan P J; Köke, Albere
The pain associated with burn injuries is intense, unremitting and often exacerbated by anxiety, depression and other complicating patient factors. On top of this, modern burn care involves the repetitive performance - often on a daily basis for weeks to months - of painful and anxiety-provoking procedures that create additional treatment-related pain, such as wound care, dressing changes and rehabilitation activities. Pain management in burn patients is primarily achieved by potent pharmacologic analgesics (e.g., opioids), but is necessarily complemented by nonpharmacologic techniques, including distraction or hypnosis. Immersive virtual reality provides a particularly intense form of cognitive distraction during such brief, painful procedures, and has undergone preliminary study by several research groups treating burn patients over the past decade. Initial reports from these groups are consistent in suggesting that immersive virtual reality is logistically feasible, safe and effective in ameliorating the pain and anxiety experienced in various settings of post-burn pain. Furthermore, the technique appears applicable to a wide age range of patients and may be particularly well-adapted for use in children, one of the most challenging populations of burn victims to treat. However, confirmation and extension of these results in larger numbers of patients in various types of burn-related pain is necessary to more clearly define the specific benefits and limitations of virtual reality analgesia in the burn care setting. PMID:18986237
Sharar, Sam R; Miller, William; Teeley, Aubriana; Soltani, Maryam; Hoffman, Hunter G; Jensen, Mark P; Patterson, David R
This descriptive, correlational study was conducted to determine orthopedic patients' night-time pain characteristics, their quality of sleep and the contributing factors to poor sleep experiences, and the relationship between pain and sleep. Data were collected by using the McGill Pain Questionnaire-SF (MPQ-SF) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) on the second postoperative day. Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 10.0 for Windows. Mean age of the 75 patients was 49.55 ± 21.10 years and were hospitalized in the orthopedic wards for 10.56 ± 14.74 days. Of the sample, 65.3% were female and 36% had hip/knee arthroplasty surgery. Pain (45%) and noise (23%) were found to be the most cited factors affecting the sleep of patients in postoperative periods. They experienced "external" pain at the surgical site and verbalized their pain as "stabbing" and "tiring-exhausting." Patients' night-time pain was determined to be severe (6.59 ± 1.62); their quality of sleep was also poor (9.24 ± 3.53). A statistically significant correlation was found between patients' pain intensity and quality of sleep (p?.05). PMID:21521827
Büyükyilmaz, Funda Esen; ?endir, Merdiye; Acaro?lu, Rengin
Because we have a clinical impression that elderly patients have low back pain while in motion and standing, but less pain when sitting, we investigate characteristics of nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP), using a new detailed visual analog scale (VAS) scoring system. One hundred eighty-nine patients with NSLBP were divided into an elderly group (?65 years old, n = 56) and a young group (<65 years old, n = 133). Low back pain was evaluated by a traditional VAS scoring system, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and a new detailed VAS scoring system in which pain is independently evaluated in three different postural situations (in motion, standing, and sitting). No significant differences were observed in traditional VAS and ODI scores between the two groups. The results of the detailed VAS showed no significant differences between the two groups while in motion and standing. However, the elderly group showed significantly lower VAS score while sitting compared to the young group. In this study of the first use of a new detailed VAS scoring system, differences in characteristics of NSLBP between elderly and young patients were successfully detected. This minor modification of the traditional VAS may be useful for characterizing and evaluating low back pain.
Aoki, Yasuchika; Sugiura, Shiro; Nakagawa, Koichi; Nakajima, Arata; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ohtori, Seiji; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Nishikawa, Satoru
In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold). Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%.
Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M.R.F.; van Wijhe, Marten
In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold). Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%. PMID:22629414
Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A; Struys, Michel M R F; van Wijhe, Marten
The Smithsonian and the National Anthropological Archives offer online a substantial collection of the vividly colored drawings of the Kiowa Indians. This collection includes hundreds of images of Kiowa art from the nineteenth century on buffalo hide and more recent work on paper. The works are fascinating, particularly because of the thematic emphasis in these drawing on the interaction (often compelled) between the Kiowa -- a tribe of the Southern Plains -- and white Americans. Included here are drawings of anthropological field notes by the Kiowa for the Smithsonian's Bureau of American Ethnology, scenes of the Kiowa in captivity at an army garrison, and a copy of one of the Kiowan calendars, which were complex in their charting of the cycles of Kiowan life.
Purpose: Many older patients with common chronic conditions also experience chronic pain. We exam- ined how chronic pain affects patients' difficulty with recommended self-management activities and the potential intervening role of self-efficacy (the level of confidence in one's own ability to perform a specific task). Design and Methods: We obtained data from a cross-sectional nationwide survey of older patients, primarily
Sarah L. Krein; Michele Heisler; John D. Piette; Amy Butchart; Eve A. Kerr
Results. In most visits, providers did not assess functional limitations related to pain and did not discuss how to resume normal activities, although this was a highly rated goal for most patients. Providers did not appear to assess or respond to patients differently according to how much pain interfered with their activities. However, in patients with high interference of pain
Judith A. Turner; Michael Von
Procedures involving phlebotomy are critical for obtaining diagnostic blood specimens and represent a well known and recognized problem, probably among the most important issues in laboratory medicine. The aim of this report is to show spurious hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia due to inadequate phlebotomy procedure. The diagnostic blood specimens were collected from a male outpatient 45 years old, with no clinical complaints. The tubes drawing order were as follows: i) clot activator and gel separator (serum vacuum tube), ii) K3EDTA, iii) a needleless blood gas dedicated-syringe with 80 I.U. lithium heparin, directly connected to the vacuum tube holder system. The laboratory testing results from serum vacuum tube and dedicated syringe were 4.8 and 8.5 mmol/L for potassium, 2.36 and 1.48 mmol/L for total calcium, respectively. Moreover 0.15 mmol/L of free calcium was observed in dedicated syringe. A new blood collection was performed without K3EDTA tube. Different results were found for potassium (4.7 and 4.5 mmol/L) and total calcium (2.37 and 2.38 mmol/L) from serum vacuum tube and dedicated syringe, respectively. Also free calcium showed different concentration (1.21 mmol/L) in this new sample when compared with the first blood specimen. Based on this case we do not encourage the laboratory managers training the phlebotomists to insert the dedicated syringes in needle-holder system at the end of all vacuum tubes. To avoid double vein puncture the dedicated syringe for free calcium determination should be inserted immediately after serum tubes before EDTA vacuum tubes.
Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare
Procedures involving phlebotomy are critical for obtaining diagnostic blood specimens and represent a well known and recognized problem, probably among the most important issues in laboratory medicine. The aim of this report is to show spurious hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia due to inadequate phlebotomy procedure. The diagnostic blood specimens were collected from a male outpatient 45 years old, with no clinical complaints. The tubes drawing order were as follows: i) clot activator and gel separator (serum vacuum tube), ii) K,EDTA, iii) a needleless blood gas dedicated-syringe with 80 I.U. lithium heparin, directly connected to the vacuum tube holder system. The laboratory testing results from serum vacuum tube and dedicated syringe were 4.8 and 8.5 mmol/L for potassium, 2.36 and 1.48 mmol/L for total calcium, respectively. Moreover 0.15 mmol/L of free calcium was observed in dedicated syringe. A new blood collection was performed without K3EDTA tube. Different results were found for potassium (4.7 and 4.5 mmol/L) and total calcium (2.37 and 2.38 mmol/L) from serum vacuum tube and dedicated syringe, respectively. Also free calcium showed different concentration (1.21 mmol/L) in this new sample when compared with the first blood specimen. Based on this case we do not encourage the laboratory managers training the phlebotomists to insert the dedicated syringes in needle-holder system at the end of all vacuum tubes. To avoid double vein puncture the dedicated syringe for free calcium determination should be inserted immediately after serum tubes before EDTA vacuum tubes. PMID:23894868
Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare
Spirituality is an important though often neglected aspect of pain in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and/or cancer, for both patients and nurses. The spiritual domain involves: (1) meaning, (2) hope and (3) love and relatedness. The author examines spiritual aspects of pain in persons with HIV and/or cancer, as supported by the literature. Understanding spiritual aspects of pain carries implications for nursing. One of these implications is that it is important for the nurse to be closer to his/her own spirit in order to be there for the patient in pain. Other nursing implications include spiritual assessment and interventions, such as presence, attentive listening, acceptance and judicious self-disclosure, for promoting comfort and diminishing pain. PMID:9888368
The purpose of this study was to quantify the degree to which fibromyalgia patients perceive the cause of their pain to be inexplicable or difficult to understand. The author developed two simple Likert scales, Understand Pain Scale and Explain Pain Scale, which ask the subject to indicate the degree to which they are able to, respectively, understand the cause of their pain and to explain the cause of their pain to others. A total of 104 subjects who met the 1990 American College of Rheumatology Diagnostic Criteria for fibromyalgia (FM group), and 272 subjects with widespread pain who did not meet these criteria (non-FM group) completed these two instruments. On the Understand Pain Scale, 67.3 % of FM subjects endorsed either the item "understand very little about the cause of my pain (the reason I have pain)" or "cannot understand at all the cause of my pain (the reason I have pain)". By comparison, 16.2 % of the non-FM group with widespread pain endorsed either of these Understand Pain Scale items. On the Explain Scale, 84.6 % of fibromyalgia subjects endorsed either the item "can very little or not very often explain the cause of my pain (the reason I have pain) to others" or "cannot at all explain the cause of my pain (the reason I have pain) to others". In contrast, 21.7 % of non-FM group subjects with widespread pain endorsed either of the aforementioned items. Compared to other patients with chronic, widespread pain, fibromyalgia patients report a much greater degree of difficulty in understanding the cause of their pain and explaining the cause of their pain to others. This phenomenon may reflect the narrative of "inexplicability" in fibromyalgia patients that distinguishes them from other widespread pain populations. PMID:22820966
Pain perception and autonomic responses to pain are known to be altered in dementia, although the mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) whose cognitive status was assessed through the Mini Mental State Examination test and whose brain electrical activity was measured by means of quantitative electroencephalography. After assessment of both cognitive impairment and brain electrical
Fabrizio Benedetti; Claudia Arduino; Sergio Vighetti; Giovanni Asteggiano; Luisella Tarenzi; Innocenzo Rainero
Background A 33-year-old white female with a history of cholecystectomy presented to the emergency department with intermittent severe abdominal pain radiating from the left upper quadrant to the right upper quadrant, associated with nausea and emesis. Three weeks previously the patient had presented to the emergency department with similar pain in the abdomen. Laboratory investigations had revealed elevated bilirubin, transaminase,
John Hart; Smruti R Mohanty; Rajesh N Keswani
Nurses should not hesitate to use full and effective doses of pain medication for the proper management of pain in the dying patient. The increasing titration of medication to achieve adequate symptom control, even at the expense of life, thus hastening death secondarily, is ethically justified. PMID:1557456
Hockenberg, S J
Background In male patients suffering from chronic pain, opioid administration induces severe hypogonadism, leading to impaired physical and psychological conditions such as fatigue, anaemia and depression. Hormone replacement therapy is rarely considered for these hypogonadic patients, notwithstanding the various pharmacological solutions available. Methods To treat hypogonadism and to evaluate the consequent endocrine, physical and psychological changes in male chronic pain patients treated with morphine (epidural route), we tested the administration of testosterone via a gel formulation for one year. Hormonal (total testosterone, estradiol, free testosterone, DHT, cortisol), pain (VAS and other pain questionnaires), andrological (Ageing Males' Symptoms Scale - AMS) and psychological (POMS, CES-D and SF-36) parameters were evaluated at baseline (T0) and after 3, 6 and 12 months (T3, T6, T12 respectively). Results The daily administration of testosterone increased total and free testosterone and DHT at T3, and the levels remained high until T12. Pain rating indexes (QUID) progressively improved from T3 to T12 while the other pain parameters (VAS, Area%) remained unchanged. The AMS sexual dimension and SF-36 Mental Index displayed a significant improvement over time. Conclusions In conclusion, our results suggest that a constant, long-term supply of testosterone can induce a general improvement of the male chronic pain patient's quality of life, an important clinical aspect of pain management.
The value of chronic opioid therapy (COT) for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) patients is determined by a balance of poorly understood benefits and harms. Traditionally, this balance has been framed as the potential for improved pain control versus risks of iatrogenic addiction, drug diversion, and aberrant drug-related behaviors. These potential harms are typically defined from the providers’ perspective. This paper
Mark D. Sullivan; Michael Von Korff; Caleb Banta-Green; Joseph O. Merrill; Kathleen Saunders
Background Many pain patients appreciate biofeedback interventions because of the integration of psychological and physiological aspects.\\u000a Therefore we wanted to investigate in a sample of chronic back pain patients whether biofeedback ingredients lead to improved\\u000a outcome of psychological interventions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method One hundred and twenty-eight chronic back pain patients were randomly assigned to cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), cognitive-behavioural\\u000a therapy including biofeedback tools (CBT-B) or
Julia Anna Glombiewski; Jens Hartwich-Tersek; Winfried Rief
Wound pain is a serious problem for elderly patients suffering from chronic leg ulcers, and it may lead to reduced wound healing rates and reduced quality of life. Biatains-Ibu Non-adhesive (Coloplast A\\/S), a new pain-reducing moist wound healing dressing containing ibuprofen was tested for pain reduction, safety, and efficacy on 1012 patients in a single-blinded crossover study against Biatain Non-adhesive
Bo Jorgensen; Gitte Juel Friis; Finn Gottrup
Pain is the predominant symptom of degenerative knee arthritis and the main reason patients undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Variation in patient response to pain has proved difficult to quantify. The effect of removing pain by testing TKA patients' range of motion (ROM) before and after the administration of anesthesia has not previously been analyzed. This study objectively quantifies the effect of eliminating pain on knee joint ROM for a typical group of TKA patients with osteoarthritis. We prospectively recruited 141 patients with osteoarthritis admitted for TKA to assess the inhibitory effect of pain on ROM. Passive maximum flexion, extension, and ROM were measured preoperatively before and after administration of anesthesia (spinal anesthetic followed by femoral and sciatic regional nerve blocks). Following pain abolition, passive maximum flexion increased by an average of 13.4 degrees (SD=11.9 degrees), passive maximum extension improved by an average of 3.0 degrees (SD=4.2 degrees), and passive ROM increased by an average of 16.4 degrees (SD=13.1 degrees). The change in each parameter was statistically significant (P<.0001). Improvements in flexion (P=.01) and ROM (P=.005) were significantly greater in women. Measurements taken before anesthesia reflect knee ROM that the patient will tolerate before pain becomes the limiting factor, while measurements taken after anesthesia is achieved suggest the knee ROM possible once pain is eliminated. Abolition of pain led to significant increases in knee flexion, extension, and ROM, suggesting that pain has a significant inhibitory effect on knee motion. PMID:19388620
Bennett, Damien; Hanratty, Brian; Thompson, Neville; Beverland, David E
Background: Acute and severe pain is common in patients postoperatively and should be correctly managed. In the past years studies on preparing better postoperative pain control have resulted in development of postoperative pain management guidelines. Perhaps, one of the major improvements in managing postoperative pain is the development of the patient-controlled analgesia systems (PCA), especially through intra venous (IV), extradural and transdermal routes, which has resulted in marked improvements in acute postoperative pain management. Physicians administrate potent opioids for moderate to severe post-surgical pains. Morphine is the most commonly IV-PCA administrated analgesic. The fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system (fentanyl ITS) is also another efficient option for pain management. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic effects of these two routine postoperative pain control systems. Patients and Methods: We enrolled 281 patients (224 males, 57 females) in this blind randomized controlled clinical trial, who had undergone an orthopedic surgery, with the mean age of 33.91 ± 14.45 years. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; in group A patients received IV-morphine PCA pump and in group B fentanyl transdermal patches were attached on patients’ arms. The severity of the pain was registered according to Visual Analogue Scale in specially designed forms by pain-trained nurses in two steps; first after the surgery and next before the beginning of analgesic effects. After 24 hours, the pain score was assessed again. Results: No significant difference was observed in mean pain intensity score at the first patient assessment. Mean pain intensity scores were also similar in both groups at the last measured time point (P > 0.05). Differential pain intensity scores, showing the impacts of analgesic system on the pain experience of the patients was also similar between fentanyl patches (6.48 ± 2.20) and morphine PCIA (6.40 ± 1.80). (P > 0.05) Mean patient satisfactory score (scale: 0–100) was also similar in both groups (P > 0.05). The percentage of patients, whose differential pain intensity scores at 24 hours reached our pain management goal was similar between fentanyl and morphine groups (P > 0.05). The percentage of patients with at least one adverse event was significantly higher in fentanyl group (P < 0.05). The most frequent adverse events were nausea, vomiting and itching. In none of the groups, no patient experienced serious adverse events related to the studied medications. Conclusions: Although both pain killing therapeutic regimens are safe and effective for postoperative pain management, regarding the easy usage of the patches, lower risk of abuse and cost-effectiveness in the Iranian market, it is recommended for use in Iranian hospitals and trauma centers and in countries with similar socioeconomic situations.
Ebrahimzadeh, Mohamad Hossein; Mousavi, Seyed Kamal; Ashraf, Hami; Abubakri, Rahil; Birjandinejad, Ali
Within an oncology setting, certain chemotherapy drugs, such as cisplatin, may lead to magnesium loss causing nephropathy. Neurological and cardiovascular symptoms caused by hypomagnesaemia are well known. The relationship between serious hypomagnesemia and severe pain is not well documented but nevertheless, when faced with unexplained episodes of pain which do not respond to powerful analgesics, it is important to review blood magnesium levels. We present two cases of opioid-refractory pain attacks. Patients received drugs which have been linked to hypomagnesemia. In both cases, endovenous magnesium replacement led to a drastic improvement in pain management. PMID:23207922
López-Saca, José Mario; López-Picazo, José Maria; Larumbe, Ana; Urdíroz, Juli; Centeno, Carlos
Objective To observe the adjuvant analgesic efficacy of Han’s Acupoint Nerve Stimulator (HANS) in opioid tolerant patients with cancer pain. Methods A prospective non-controlled study was conducted. Opioid tolerant patients with cancer pain were enrolled and treated with both routinely analgesics and adjuvant HANS (2/100 Hz for 30 min/d, 5 d on and 2 d off for two weeks). Cancer pain, quality of life (QOL), anxiety and depression were assessed before enrollment and on d 8 and d 15 with the BPI-C, EORTC QLQ-C30, and self-rating anxiety scale (SAS)/self-rating depression scale (SDS), respectively; the therapeutic frequency of breakthrough pain (BP) and daily opioid dose were also recorded. Results Totally 47 patients meeting the inclusion criteria participated in this study; 43 patients completed the two-week treatment and assessment. The mean scores of patient’s “worst” and “least” pain intensity assessed with BPI-C decreased significantly on d 8 and d 15; the therapeutic frequency of BP also significantly decreased; but the average daily dose of opioids did not change significantly. For the nine symptoms in EORTC QLQ-C30 assessment, the mean scores of pain, fatigue, constipation and insomnia were significantly lower on d 8 and d 15 compared with baseline; the mean scores of the overall health status, nausea/vomiting and the incidence rates of both anxiety and depression also decreased significantly on d 15. Conclusions To opioid tolerant patients with cancer pain, adjuvant treatment with HANS could improve pain release and patients’ QOL by decreasing the severity of pain, fatigue, constipation, insomnia and other concomitant symptoms; it could also decrease the incidence rates of anxiety and depression.
Li, Xiaomei; Zhu, Jianhua; Li, Pingping; Zhu, Guangqing; Wu, Xiaoming; Chen, Huoming; Zhao, Huixia; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Duanqi
We studied the effects of acetyl-L-carnitine on pain in 16 HIV+ patients affected by painful distal symmetrical neuropathy. Patients were treated with 0.5-1 gr per day of acetyl-L-carnitine either i.m. or i.v. for 3 weeks. Pain intensity was measured before and after the treatment by the Huskisson's analogic scale. Ten patients (62.5%) reported an improvement of symptoms, five patients (31.25%) were unchanged, one patient worsened. The results of this open study show that acetyl-L-carnitine can have a role in the treatment of pain in distal symmetrical polyneuropathy related to HIV infection. However, further double-blind, placebo-controlled studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results. PMID:10975731
Scarpini, E; Sacilotto, G; Baron, P; Cusini, M; Scarlato, G
A method uses body images and computer hardware and software to collect and analyze clinical data in patients experiencing pain. Pain location information is obtained by the drawing of an outline of the pain on a paper copy or electronic display of the body image. Composite images are generated representing aggregate data for specified patient groups. The coordinates of common anatomic landmarks on differently designed body images are mapped to each other, permitting integrated analysis of pain data, e.g., pain shape, centroid, meta centroid, from multiple body image designs and display of all pain data on a single body image design. Differences and similarities between groups of patients are displayed visually and numerically, and are used to assign the probability of a given patient belonging to a particular diagnostic group or category of disease severity.
Drawing conclusions involves comparing initial ideas with new evidence and then deciding whether the ideas fit or need to be changed. It is the key to the investigation, where mental and practical activity comes together. This is how scientists approach i
Klentschy, Michael P.
Explores how the universal stages of graphic language development manifest themselves in children living in the Amish community and how the uniqueness of this subculture is reflected in their drawings. Explains that Amish children focus on an agrarian environment and use copying as a means to finding an accepted place in the community. (CMK)
The treatment and evaluation of a stiff and painful shoulder, characteristic of adhesive capsulitis and "frozen" shoulders, is a dilemma for orthopedic rehabilitation specialists. A stiff and painful shoulder is all-inclusive of Adhesive capsulitis and Frozen Shoulder diagnoses. Adhesive capsulitis and frozen shoulder will be referred to as a stiff and painful shoulder, throughout this paper. Shoulder motion occurs in multiple planes of movement. Loss of shoulder mobility can result in significant functional impairment. The traditional treatment approach to restore shoulder mobility emphasizes mobilization of the shoulder overhead. Forced elevation in a stiff and painful shoulder can be painful and potentially destructive to the glenohumeral joint. This manuscript will introduce a new biomechanical approach to evaluate and treat patients with stiff and painful shoulders. PMID:24315683
Donatelli, Robert; Ruivo, R M; Thurner, Michael; Ibrahim, Mahmoud Ibrahim
Background The objective of this exploratory study was to identify patient-related predictors of communication preferences in patients with chronic low back pain for various dimensions of patient-physician communication (patient participation and orientation, effective and open communication, emotionally supportive communication, communication about personal circumstances). Methods Eleven rehabilitation centers from various parts of Germany participated in collection of data between 2009 and 2011. A total of 701 patients with chronic low back pain were surveyed at the start of rehabilitation. The patient questionnaire captured communication preferences, pain impact, pain intensity, and psychologic variables (fear avoidance beliefs, illness coherence, control beliefs, communication self-efficacy, and personality characteristics). The rehabilitation physicians filled out a documentation sheet containing information on diagnosis, inability to work, duration of the illness, and comorbidity at the beginning and end of rehabilitation. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Results On average, effective, open, and patient-centered communication was very important for patients with back pain, emotionally supportive communication was important, and communication about personal circumstances was somewhat important. The variance in communication preferences explained by the predictors studied here was 8%–19%. Older patients showed a lower preference for patient-centered and open communication, but a higher preference for communication about personal circumstances. Patients with psychologic risk factors (eg, fear avoidance beliefs), extroverted patients, and patients with high self-efficacy in patient-physician interaction generally had higher expectations of the physician’s communicative behavior. Conclusion Providers should take into consideration the fact that patients with back pain have a strong need for effective, open, and patient-centered communication. A flexible approach to communication needs appears to be especially important for communication about emotional and personal circumstances, because the patients differ most clearly in this respect. Personal characteristics provided only initial clues to possible preferences; for more precision, an individual assessment (by means of questionnaires or discussion) is needed.
Farin, Erik; Gramm, Lukas; Schmidt, Erika
ObjectiveCoaching patients to be more active in health encounters may improve communication with physicians but does not necessarily improve health outcomes. We explored this discrepancy by examining relationships between self-efficacy for communicating with physicians and pain control self-efficacy and subsequent pain severity among cancer patients participating in a coaching trial.
Anthony Jerant; Peter Franks; Richard L. Kravitz
Objective To assess validity of pain and patient global scales in gout. Methods We used data from pegloticase clinical trials in chronic refractory gout to examine the validity of Visual analog scale (VAS) pain (0–100; 100=worst pain), Short-Form 36® (SF-36®) bodily pain (0–100; 100=no pain) and VAS patient global assessment (0–100; 100= worst score). Convergent/divergent validity was tested by examining their correlation with tender and swollen joints, disease duration, gout flares, comorbidities, plasma urate, health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) and SF-36® physical and mental component summary scores. For discriminant ability, we compared the change at 6 months between placebo and pegloticase arms and calculated effect size and standardized response mean (SRM). Results 212 patients (mean age, 55.4 years, 82% men; 73% with tophaceous gout) provided data. VAS pain was statistically significantly correlated with baseline tender and swollen joints, SF-36® summary and HAQ scores (all p-values <0.0001), but not disease duration (p=0.84), gout flares (p=0.08), comorbidities (p=0.47) or plasma urate (p=0.89). Same correlations were noted for patient global assessment (p<0.006 for all) and similar for SF-36 pain (p<0.002 for all). Pegloticase group had significantly more improvement than placebo at 6-months: VAS pain, -9.2(29.3) vs. 1.9(26.4), p=0.0002; SF-36® pain, 14.6(25.6) vs. -0.04(21.1), p<0.0001; and patient global, ?9.3(26.5) vs. 3.4(22.8), p<0.0001. Effect size in pegloticase and placebo groups were as follows: VAS pain, 0.34 and ?0.06; SF-36 pain, 0.69 and 0.00; patient global, 0.49 and ?0.09. Conclusion VAS pain, SF-36 pain and patient global VAS are validated outcome measures in patients with chronic gout.
Singh, Jasvinder A; Yang, Shuo; Strand, Vibeke; Simon, Lee; Forsythe, Anna; Hamburger, Steve; Chen, Lang
Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is an increasingly common therapy used to treat chronic pain syndromes. However; there is limited information on the utilization and efficacy of CAM therapy in primary care patients receiving long-term opioid therapy. Method A survey of CAM therapy was conducted with a systematic sample of 908 primary care patients receiving opioids as a primary treatment method for chronic pain. Subjects completed a questionnaire designed to assess utilization, efficacy and costs of CAM therapies in this population. Results Patients were treated for a variety of pain problems including low back pain (38.4%), headaches (9.9%), and knee pain (6.5%); the average duration of pain was 16 years. The median morphine equivalent opioid dose was 41 mg/day, and the mean dose was 92 mg/day. Forty-four percent of the sample reported CAM therapy use in the past 12 months. Therapies utilized included massage therapy (27.3%, n = 248), chiropractic treatment (17.8%, n = 162), acupuncture (7.6%, n = 69), yoga (6.1%, n = 55), herbs and supplements (6.8%, n = 62), and prolotherapy (5.9%, n = 54). CAM utilization was significantly related to age female gender, pain severity income pain diagnosis of neck and upper back pain, and illicit drug use. Medical insurance covered chiropractic treatment (81.8%) and prolotherapy (87.7%), whereas patients primarily paid for other CAM therapies. Over half the sample reported that one or more of the CAM therapies were helpful. Conclusion This study suggests CAM therapy is widely used by patients receiving opioids for chronic pain. Whether opioids can be reduced by introducing such therapies remains to be studied.
Fleming, Sara; Rabago, David P; Mundt, Marlon P; Fleming, Michael F
Objective: To determine the prevalence of interstitial cystitis and endometriosis in patients with chronic pelvic pain. Methods: A prospective analysis was conducted in 178 women with CPP who presented with bladder base/anterior vaginal wall and/or uterine tenderness, with or without irritative voiding symptoms. The Potassium Sensitivity Test was used to assess bladder epithelial dysfunction. Patients were evaluated with concurrent laparoscopy and cystoscopy with hydrodistention. Results: Laparoscopic findings among the 178 patients with chronic pelvic pain supported a diagnosis of endometriosis in 134 (75%) patients, and cystoscopy confirmed a diagnosis of interstitial cystitis in 159 (89%) patients. Both interstitial cystitis and endometriosis were diagnosed in 115 patients (65%). The Potassium Sensitivity Test was positive in 146 (82%) patients, with 140 (96%) of these patients diagnosed with interstitial cystitis and 105 (72%) with endometriosis. Conclusions: Results of this prospective study show that interstitial cystitis and endometriosis may frequently coexist in patients with chronic pelvic pain. A positive Potassium Sensitivity Test accurately predicted the presence of interstitial cystitis in 96% of these patients with chronic pelvic pain, as confirmed by cystoscopic hydrodistention. It is necessary to consider the diagnosis of endometriosis and interstitial cystitis concurrently in the evaluation of patients with chronic pelvic pain to avoid unnecessary delay in identifying either condition.
Chung, Rosemary P.; Gordon, David
Ten per cent of patients with angina pectoris have normal coronary arteries and cardiac function and, despite this reassurance, continue to have chest pain. Since pain of cardiac or esophageal origin is clinically difficult to differentiate, 50 patients with severe chest pain, normal cardiac function, and normal coronary arteriography with ergotamine provocation were evaluated with a symptomatic questionnaire and esophageal function test. On 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring, 23 patients had abnormal reflux, and 27 were normal. There was no difference in the incidence and severity of chest pain, esophageal symptoms, or medication taken between refluxers and nonrefluxers. Ten refluxers and ten nonrefluxers had chest pain on exercise electrocardiography. Thirteen refluxers documented chest pain during the pH monitoring period, and in 12 it coincided with a reflux episode. Fifteen nonrefluxers documented chest pain during the monitoring period, and in only one did it coincide with a reflux episode. Of the 23 refluxers, 12 were treated with medical therapy and 11 by a surgical antireflux procedure, and all followed for two to three years. Ten (91%) of the 11 surgically treated patients are totally free of chest pain compared with five (42%) of the 12 medically treated patients. All 12 patients who had chest pain coincide with a documented reflux episode responded positively to antireflux therapy, eight surgical and four medical. It is concluded that 46% of patients complaining of angina pectoris with normal cardiac function and coronary arteriography have gastroesophageal reflux as a possible etiology. Seventy-three per cent of these patients have total abolition of chest pain by either surgical or medical antireflux therapy. Patients whose experience of chest pain coincided with a documented reflux episode on 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring had a 100% response to medical or surgical therapy. Overall, surgical therapy gave better results (91%) but was associated with an 18% temporary morbidity. Objective evaluation of reflux status and its correlation to the symptom of chest pain by 24-hour pH monitoring allows for selective therapy in these difficult to manage patients.
DeMeester, T R; O'Sullivan, G C; Bermudez, G; Midell, A I; Cimochowski, G E; O'Drobinak, J
The present study evaluated the effectiveness of micronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-m) treatment in reducing the painful symptoms experienced by diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. PEA-m, a fatty acid amide of the N-acylethanolamine family, was administered (300?mg twice daily) to 30 diabetic patients suffering from painful diabetic neuropathy. Before treatment start, after 30 and 60 days the following parameters were assessed: painful symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening instrument; intensity of symptoms characteristic of diabetic neuropathic pain by the Total Symptom Score; and intensity of different subcategories of neuropathic pain by the Neuropathic Pain Symptoms Inventory. Hematological and blood chemistry tests to evaluate metabolic control and safety were also performed. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) indicated a highly significant reduction in pain severity (P < 0.0001) and related symptoms (P < 0.0001) evaluated by Michigan Neuropathy Screening instrument, Total Symptom Score, and Neuropathic Pain Symptoms Inventory. Hematological and urine analyses did not reveal any alterations associated with PEA-m treatment, and no serious adverse events were reported. These results suggest that PEA-m could be considered as a promising and well-tolerated new treatment for symptomatology experienced by diabetic patients suffering from peripheral neuropathy.
Schifilliti, Chiara; Cucinotta, Lelio; Fedele, Viviana; Ingegnosi, Carmela; Luca, Salvatore; Leotta, Carmelo
The present study evaluated the effectiveness of micronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-m) treatment in reducing the painful symptoms experienced by diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. PEA-m, a fatty acid amide of the N-acylethanolamine family, was administered (300?mg twice daily) to 30 diabetic patients suffering from painful diabetic neuropathy. Before treatment start, after 30 and 60 days the following parameters were assessed: painful symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening instrument; intensity of symptoms characteristic of diabetic neuropathic pain by the Total Symptom Score; and intensity of different subcategories of neuropathic pain by the Neuropathic Pain Symptoms Inventory. Hematological and blood chemistry tests to evaluate metabolic control and safety were also performed. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) indicated a highly significant reduction in pain severity (P < 0.0001) and related symptoms (P < 0.0001) evaluated by Michigan Neuropathy Screening instrument, Total Symptom Score, and Neuropathic Pain Symptoms Inventory. Hematological and urine analyses did not reveal any alterations associated with PEA-m treatment, and no serious adverse events were reported. These results suggest that PEA-m could be considered as a promising and well-tolerated new treatment for symptomatology experienced by diabetic patients suffering from peripheral neuropathy. PMID:24804094
Schifilliti, Chiara; Cucinotta, Lelio; Fedele, Viviana; Ingegnosi, Carmela; Luca, Salvatore; Leotta, Carmelo
Cardiovascular risk factors (CRF) such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus favour the development of both vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The resulting deafferentation may increase the experience of pain in VaD and in AD. The goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between CRF and pain in a sample of 107 cognitively impaired nursing home patients who had also a chronic pain condition. The prevalence of pain in patients with hypertension or diabetes mellitus was higher (25/41=61% of them had pain) than those without diabetes or hypertension (of whom 24/66=36.4% had pain, p=0.017). In a multivariate logistic regression model (adjusted for gender, age and depression) the presence of diabetes or hypertension was a risk indicator for pain: odds ratio: 3.48, p=0.005, 95% CI: 1.45-8.38. This finding supports the hypothesis that as a result of CRF, disruptions of cortico-cortico and cortico-subcortical pathways occur, and consequently, enhances pain in this group of patients. PMID:17157543
Achterberg, W P; Scherder, E; Pot, A M; Ribbe, M W
In the present study, we investigated longitudinally (baseline, 10 weeks, 16 weeks) whether patient personality traits, such as dispositional optimism and mastery, play a role in patients' ability to effectively control the severity of their pain and fatigue in the context of a symptom control intervention among patients with cancer. Two hundred fourteen patients currently undergoing chemotherapy received a baseline
Margot E. Kurtz; Jay C. Kurtz; Charles W. Given; Barbara A. Given
The traditional cornerstones of analgesic therapy for patients with acute pain have been oral therapies; however, all oral agents exhibit a variety of potentially dose-limiting or intolerable adverse effects in patients. Elderly patients and those with concomitant conditions already being managed with multiple systemic drugs may be particularly susceptible to systemic toxicities with oral analgesic therapies. Topical agents offer an alternative to oral modalities and can effectively treat patients with acute pain while offering lower systemic absorption and conferring little risk of systemic toxicity. The objective of this article is to review the therapeutic usefulness of available topical therapies in their most thoroughly investigated applications, the treatment of patients with acute musculoskeletal and herpetic pain. For example, although heating pads/wraps and cold packs are widely used to alleviate pain associated with sprains, strains, and contusions, evidence of the effectiveness of these methods is lacking. However, there are sufficient data supporting the use of various topical formulations of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for these indications (ketoprofen gel or patch, ibuprofen gel or cream, and diclofenac gel or patch), and demonstrating markedly less patient risk of systemic toxicity than is associated with oral NSAID therapy. A ketoprofen patch was shown to be effective and well tolerated in the treatment of patients with tendinopathies. In the treatment of acute neck or low back pain, cold and heat therapies have demonstrated limited effectiveness for patients, and the efficacy of topical NSAIDs has not been established. Use of topical NSAID therapy has been useful in reducing acute-phase herpes zoster pain, and the lidocaine 5% patch has been shown to reduce acute herpetic pain intensity once lesions have healed (the patch cannot be applied to open skin lesions). Topical analgesics represent an alternative treatment modality for patients experiencing acute pain who cannot or choose not to take oral therapies. PMID:24547600
McCarberg, Bill; D'Arcy, Yvonne
It is an experience report developed next to nurses of a public hospital of Florianópolis-SC, about pain measurement of cancer patient in palliative cares. A total of six nurses had participated of six meeting distributed at three educative moments of this practical. The analysis of undertaken dialogue evidenced that, for the nurses, measurable and objective data are not only enough to measure pain. According to them, it is imperative consider biopsicosociais aspects, valuing integrally the pain that the patient relates. The concluding nurses detach that she has necessity to construct a pain measurement systematization to allow strengthens the importance of pain control to base the practical one, make possible the register of information and the continued education. PMID:20521010
Waterkemper, Roberta; Reibnitz, Kenya Schmidt; Monticelli, Marisa
Aim. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of pain in subjects affected by Diabetes Mellitus (DM), to assess approach and therapeutically valid outcomes as well as the knowledge of the Law n. 38/15/03/2010 of the Italian Government ("Dispositions to guarantee the access to the Palliative Cares and Pain Therapy"). Materials and methods. We have enrolled 462 patients affected by DM [242 (52.4%) males, 209 (42.5%) females; while in 11 (5.1%) cases the gender has not been specified], with characteristics as follows: 62 patients (13.4%) affected by T1DM (37 males and 25 females) e 400 patients (86.6%) affected by T2DM (224 males e 176 females). The average age was of 65.2 years old (range 20-91). All the patients have been presented with an original questionnaires based on 10 questions. Results. 221 subjects (48%) have claimed to have experienced pain; 60% within the females, 38% within the males (p<0.001). 31% of these are to be included among the patients with T1DM, 50.5% among those with T2DM (p<0.01). The presence of chronic pain has been acknowledged by 162 subjects (35%). As per chronic pain, this has been described as articular pain by 128 patients (80%), while 63 (38%) located the pain through the spine and 29 (18%) throughout the muscles. Chronic pain was described as moderate by 73 subjects (45%), intense by 59 (36%), feeble by 15 (9%), utterly intense by 5 (3%), moderate/intense by 1 (1%). The drugs for treating the chronic pain used by the patients have been enlisted as follows: FANS (41%), paracetamol (30%), glucocorticoids (3%), weak opioids (2%); 27% of subjects have received no therapy. As for the Law 38/2010, only 8% have said they have had news of it. Conclusions. The data gathered in this study have drawn attention on the fact that the presence of pain is higher in female gender, with a prevalence of 60% compared to the 38% of the male gender. It has been observed no relation with the age range, in particular no proportional increase level of pain has been observed, although the higher peak of prevalence has been experienced in the age range between 70-79, both for pain in general and for chronic pain. Speaking about efficacy of the treatment, almost 50% of the subjects have received no improvement from the therapy. PMID:24770541
Coaccioli, Stefano; Celi, Giorgio; Masia, Francesco; Grandone, Ilenia; Crapa, Mariano E; Fatati, Giuseppe
The deep cervical extensors are anatomically able to control segmental movements of the cervical spine in concert with the deep cervical flexors. Several investigations have confirmed changes in cervical flexor muscle control in patients with neck pain and as a result, effective evidence-based therapeutic exercises have been developed to address such dysfunctions. However, knowledge on how the deep extensor muscles behave in patients with neck pain disorders is scare. Structural changes such as higher concentration of fat within the muscle, variable cross-sectional area and higher proportions of type II fibres have been observed in the deep cervical extensors of patients with neck pain compared to healthy controls. These findings suggest that the behaviour of the deep extensors may be altered in patients with neck pain. Consistent with this hypothesis, a recent series of studies confirm that patients display reduced activation of the deep cervical extensors as well as less defined activation patterns. This article provides an overview of the various different structural and functional changes in the deep neck extensor muscles documented in patients with neck pain. Relevant recommendations for the management of muscle dysfunction in patients with neck pain are presented. PMID:23849933
Schomacher, Jochen; Falla, Deborah
Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between the severity of pretreatment pain and response to palliative radiotherapy (RT) for painful bone metastases. Methods and Materials: The database for patients with bone metastases seen at the Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program at the Odette Cancer Center from 1999 to 2006 was analyzed. The proportion of patients with mild (scores 1-4), moderate (scores 5-6), or severe (scores 7-10) pain at baseline who experienced a complete response, partial response, stable response, or progressive response after palliative RT was determined according to International Bone Metastases Consensus definitions. Results: During the 7-year study period 1,053 patients received palliative radiation for bone metastases. The median age was 68 years and the median Karnofsky performance status was 70. Of the patients, 53% had a complete or partial response at 1 month, 52% at 2 months, and 54% at 3 months post-RT. Conclusions: There was no significant difference in terms of the proportion of responders (patients with complete or partial response) and nonresponders in terms of painful bone metastases among patients presenting with mild, moderate, or severe pain. Patients with moderate pain should be referred for palliative RT.
Kirou-Mauro, Andrea; Hird, Amanda; Wong, Jennifer; Sinclair, Emily; Barnes, Elizabeth A.; Tsao, May; Danjoux, Cyril [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Center, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Chow, Edward [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Center, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
... 2013 New Insights Found in Pain Processing and Sleep Disturbance Among Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients People with rheumatoid ... in the journal Arthritis and Rheumatism. In addition, sleep disruptions, which are common among people with RA, ...
The article presents the position statement and clinical practice recommendations for pain assessment in the nonverbal patient developed by an appointed Task Force and approved by the ASPMN Board of Directors.
Keela Herr; Patrick J. Coyne; Tonya Key; Renee Manworren; Margo McCaffery; Sandra Merkel; Jane Pelosi-Kelly; Lori Wild
Neuropathic pain is one of the major problems of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), which remains refractory to treatment despite a variety of therapeutic approach. Multimodal neuroimaging could provide complementary information for brain mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain, which could be based on development of more effective treatment strategies. Ten patients suffering from chronic neuropathic pain after SCI and 10 healthy controls underwent FDG-PET, T1-anatomical MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. We found decreases of both metabolism and the gray matter volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients compared to healthy controls, as well as hypometabolism in the medial prefrontal cortex and gray matter volume loss in bilateral anterior insulae and subgenual anterior cingulate cortices. These brain regions are generally known to participate in pain modulation by affective and cognitive processes. Decreases of mean diffusivity (MD) in the right internal capsule including, cerebral peduncle, pre-and post-central white matter, and prefrontal white matter as components of the corticospinal and thalamocortical tracts were demonstrated in patients. Further, lower MD value of prefrontal white matter was correlated with decreased metabolism of medial prefrontal cortex in patients. These results indicated that white matter changes imply abnormal pain modulation in patients as well as motor impairment. Our study showed the functional and structural multimodal imaging modality commonly identified the possible abnormalities in the brain regions participating pain modulation in neuropathic pain. Multifaceted imaging studies in neuropathic pain could be useful elucidating precise mechanisms of persistent pain, and providing future directions for treatment. PMID:24125807
Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Shin, Hyung Ik; Lee, Youngjo; Kim, Sang Eun
Background Mind–body interactions play a major role in the prognosis of chronic pain, and mind–body therapies such as meditation, yoga, Tai Chi, and Feldenkrais presumably provide benefits for pain patients. The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) scales, designed to measure key aspects of mind–body interaction, were developed and validated with individuals practicing mind–body therapies, but have never been used in pain patients. Methods We administered the MAIA to primary care patients with past or current low back pain and explored differences in the performance of the MAIA scales between this and the original validation sample. We compared scale means, exploratory item cluster and confirmatory factor analyses, scale–scale correlations, and internal-consistency reliability between the two samples and explored correlations with validity measures. Results Responses were analyzed from 435 patients, of whom 40% reported current pain. Cross-sectional comparison between the two groups showed marked differences in eight aspects of interoceptive awareness. Factor and cluster analyses generally confirmed the conceptual model with its eight dimensions in a pain population. Correlations with validity measures were in the expected direction. Internal-consistency reliability was good for six of eight MAIA scales. We provided specific suggestions for their further development. Conclusion Self-reported aspects of interoceptive awareness differ between primary care patients with past or current low back pain and mind–body trained individuals, suggesting further research is warranted on the question whether mind–body therapies can alter interoceptive attentional styles with pain. The MAIA may be useful in assessing changes in aspects of interoceptive awareness and in exploring the mechanism of action in trials of mind–body interventions in pain patients.
Mehling, Wolf E; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Price, Cynthia J; Acree, Mike; Bartmess, Elizabeth; Stewart, Anita L
Objective To assess the usefulness of a pressure algometer to measure pressure pain threshold (PPT) for diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) in the upper extremity and trunk muscles. Method A group of 221 desk workers complaining of upper body pain participated in this study. Five physiatrists made the diagnosis of MPS using physical examination and PPT measurements. PPT measurements were determined for several muscles in the back and upper extremities. Mean PPT data for gender, side, and dominant hand groups were analyzed. Sensitivity and specificity of Fischer's standard method were evaluated. PPT cut-off values for each muscle group were determined using an ROC curve. Results Cronbach's alpha for each muscle was very high. The PPT in men was higher than in females, and the PPT in the left side was higher than in the right side for all muscles tested (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in PPT for all muscles between dominant and non-dominant hand groups. Diagnosis of MPS based on Fischer's standard showed relatively high specificity and poor sensitivity. Conclusion The digital pressure algometer showed high reliability. PPT might be a useful parameter for assessing a treatment's effect, but not for use in diagnosis or even as a screening method.
Park, Giburm; Kim, Chan Woo; Park, Si Bog; Kim, Mi Jung
The effect of pre-operative back pain on outcome following total hip replacement (THR) is ill defined. Patient-reported outcome\\u000a following THR was assessed using a general health status questionnaire (Short Form 36 Health Evaluation (SF-36)). A regional\\u000a arthroplasty database was used. Pre-operatively, patients were asked regarding the presence or absence of back pain, and the\\u000a Harris hip score (HHS) was used
Terence SavaridasRobert; Robert E. Elton; Ivan J. Brenkel; James A. Ballantyne
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracorporal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in tennis elbow and painful heel.\\u000a Nineteen patients with tennis elbow and 44 patients with painful heel in which conservative treatment had failed underwent\\u000a ESWT. Both groups received 3000 shock waves of 0.12 mJ\\/mm2 three times at weekly intervals. After a follow-up of 5
Dietrich S. Hammer; Stefan Rupp; Stefan Ensslin; Dieter Kohn; Romain Seil
BACKGROUND: The increasing number of patients with chronic pain in Japan has become a major issue in terms of the patient's quality of life, medical costs, and related social problems. Pain is a multi-dimensional experience with physiological, affective, cognitive, behavioral and social components, and recommended to be managed via a combination of bio-psycho-social aspects. However, a biomedical approach is still
Kazumi Yamamoto; Kenji Kanbara; Hiromi Mutsuura; Ikumi Ban; Yasuyuki Mizuno; Tetsuya Abe; Maki Yoshino; Aran Tajika; Yoshihide Nakai; Mikihiko Fukunaga
. The purpose of our study is to demonstrate the value of CT in the emergency department (ED) for patients with non-traumatic\\u000a abdominal pain. Between August 1998 and April 1999, 536 consecutive patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain were entered\\u000a into our study. Using a computer order entry system, physicians were asked to identify: (a) their most likely diagnosis; (b)\\u000a their
Max P. Rosen; Bettina Siewert; Daniel Z. Sands; Rebecca Bromberg; Jonathan Edlow; Vassilios Raptopoulos
The original Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain (SOAPP) is a conceptually derived self-report questionnaire designed to predict aberrant medication-related behaviors among chronic pain patients considered for long-term opioid therapy. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an empirically derived version of the SOAPP (SOAPP-R) that addresses some limitations of the original SOAPP. In successive
Stephen F. Butler; Kathrine Fernandez; Christine Benoit; Simon H. Budman; Robert N. Jamison
This article evaluated a drug-free oral hydrogel wound dressing composed entirely of natural food ingredients for its ability to relieve pain in immediate denture patients. Evaluation occurred at a 24-hour postoperative appointment. For this crossover study, 44 patients who were taking oral narcotics evaluated their discomfort (using a scale of 0-10) at 1, 3, 5, and 10 minutes after denture insertion with no topical treatment and again after SockIt! Oral Pain Gel was applied to the dentures. The gel provided statistically significant pain relief at all time points beyond that provided by oral narcotic alone (p < 0.0001). PMID:19903626
Kennedy, Thomas J; Hall, John E
Purpose Our aim was to analyze the physiopsychosocial variables in patients with long-term opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain\\u000a (CNCP) in Taiwan.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Patients registered in the database of the National Bureau of Controlled Drugs (NBCD), Taiwan, were interviewed and completed\\u000a questionnaires on pain assessment and interference in quality of life, using the Taiwanese version of the Brief Pain Inventory,\\u000a and questionnaires
Tso-Chou Lin; Che-Hao Hsu; Chih-Cherng Lu; Yu-Chuan Tsai; Shung-Tai Ho
Objective: This experiment evaluated the response of acute neck pain patients to an intervention utilizing a single manipulation to either a) the same side of pain (ipsilateral) or b) opposite side (contralateral) and compared the results to a placebo group. Design: In this pre-test — post-test study, 36 subjects were randomly allocated to one of the three groups: (1) SMT applied to the same side as the pain (ipsilateral) (2) SMT applied to the side opposite the pain (contralateral) (3) A placebo group receiving only detuned ultrasound therapy Subjects: In a private chiropractic office, patients with acute unilateral neck pain and stiffness were studied. Inclusion criteria included the presence of acute unilateral neck pain, no prior similar history, no history of trauma, and no neurological deficit. Subjects had no previous chiropractic treatment of the cervical spine. Intervention: Patients in the two manipulation groups received a single cervical manipulation. Patients in the placebo group received detuned ultrasound therapy over the area of pain. Main Outcome Measures: There were two outcome measures. Pain intensity was rated on the 100 mm. visual analog scale (VAS) prior to and immediately following the intervention. Pre and Post test measurements of cervical spine range of motion utilizing the CROM instrument were also taken. Results: Degrees of ipsilateral lateral flexion, contralateral flexion, and VAS improved when ipsilateral versus contralateral spinal manipulative therapy was applied. Conclusions: Immediately following a single manipulation to acute neck pain patients there is less pain intensity and a greater range of motion when spinal manipulative therapy is applied to the side of neck pain versus manipulation on the side opposite the pain or to a placebo group.
Pikula, John R
Patients with sickle-cell disease suffer from lifelong pain. Many prefer to receive emergent rather than managed health care, which results in these people being termed “noncompliant.” This paper explores the contributing factors of such noncompliance in the adult patient with painful chronic illness. In the earliest stages of development, internal pain is attributed to external origins, and the effects of
BACKGROUND: Neck pain is a significant health problem in modern society. There is evidence to suggest that neck muscle strength is reduced in patients with neck pain. This article provides a critical analysis of the research literature on the clinimetric properties of tests to measure neck muscle strength or endurance in patients with non-specific neck pain, which can be used
Chantal HP de Koning; SP van den Heuvel; J Bart Staal; Bouwien CM Smits-Engelsman; Erik JM Hendriks
Sustained postural loading of the cervical spine during work or recreational tasks may contribute to the development of neck pain. The aim of this study was to compare neck muscle endurance and fatigue characteristics during sub-maximal isometric endurance tests in patients with postural neck pain, with asymptomatic subjects. Thirteen female patients with postural neck pain and 12 asymptomatic female control
Stephen Edmondston; Guðný Björnsdóttir; Thorvaldur Pálsson; Hege Solgård; Kasper Ussing; Garry Allison
Objectives: We sought to investigate whether the finding of temporomandibular joint (TMJ)-related pain may be linked to magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of TMJ internal derangement and TMJ osteoarthrosis. Study Design: The study consisted of 194 consecutive TMJ patients. Criteria for including a patient with a painful TMJ were as follow: report of orofacial pain in the TMJ, with the
Rüdiger Emshoff; Katharina Innerhofer; Ansgar Rudisch; Stefan Bertram
Background Neuropathic pain has been little studied in leprosy. We assessed the prevalence and clinical characteristics of neuropathic pain and the validity of the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire as a screening tool for neuropathic pain in patients with treated leprosy. The association of neuropathic pain with psychological morbidity was also evaluated. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult patients who had completed multi-drug therapy for leprosy were recruited from several Bombay Leprosy Project clinics. Clinical neurological examination, assessment of leprosy affected skin and nerves and pain evaluation were performed for all patients. Patients completed the Douleur Neuropathique 4 and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire to identify neuropathic pain and psychological morbidity. Conclusions/Significance One hundred and one patients were recruited, and 22 (21.8%) had neuropathic pain. The main sensory symptoms were numbness (86.4%), tingling (68.2%), hypoesthesia to touch (81.2%) and pinprick (72.7%). Neuropathic pain was associated with nerve enlargement and tenderness, painful skin lesions and with psychological morbidity. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 92% in diagnosing neuropathic pain. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 is a simple tool for the screening of neuropathic pain in leprosy patients. Psychological morbidity was detected in 15% of the patients and 41% of the patients with neuropathic pain had psychological morbidity.
Lasry-Levy, Estrella; Hietaharju, Aki; Pai, Vivek; Ganapati, Ramaswamy; Rice, Andrew S. C.; Haanpaa, Maija; Lockwood, Diana N. J.
Abstract Background Clinical trials of acupuncture in chronic pain have largely failed to demonstrate efficacy of traditional over sham acupuncture. However, it should be noted that sham acupuncture is not inert. Objective To determine if experimental-pressure pain assessment and chemical neuroimaging can identify differential responsiveness to sham as opposed to traditional acupuncture. Patients and Intervention Fifty patients with fibromyalgia were randomized to either 9 traditional (TA) or sham (SA) acupuncture treatments over a period of 4 weeks. Both participants and assessors were blinded. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures were pressure-pain sensitivity at the thumbnail, insular glutamate+glutamine (Glx), and clinical pain. Results Patients with low pain sensitivity (LPS), but not with high pain sensitivity (HPS), had a significantly reduced clinical pain response to SA (change in mean [standard deviation (SD)]: HPS ?8.65 [7.91]; LPS ?2.14 [6.68]; p=0.03). This relationship was not the case for TA (HPS ?6.90 [4.51]; LPS ?6.41 [9.25]; p=0.88). SA-treated patients who were more sensitive also had greater baseline levels of insular Glx than patients who were less sensitive (Glx mean [SD]: HPS 11.3 [1.18]; LPS 10.2 [0.54]; p=0.04). Conclusions Pressure-pain testing may identify patients who are less likely to respond to SA. This effect may relate to the levels of brain excitatory neurotransmitters.
Harte, Steven E.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Napadow, Vitaly
Background Experimental stress has been shown to have analgesic as well as allodynic effect in animals. Despite the obvious negative influence of stress in clinical pain conditions, stress-induced alteration of pain sensitivity has not been tested in humans so far. Therefore, we tested changes of pain sensitivity using an experimental stressor in ten female healthy subjects and 13 female patients with fibromyalgia. Methods Multiple sensory aspects of pain were evaluated in all participants with the help of the quantitative sensory testing protocol before (60 min) and after (10 and 90 min) inducing psychological stress with a standardized psychosocial stress test (“Trier Social Stress Test”). Results Both healthy subjects and patients with fibromyalgia showed stress-induced enhancement of pain sensitivity in response to thermal stimuli. However, only patients showed increased sensitivity in response to pressure pain. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for stress-induced allodynia/hyperalgesia in humans for the first time and suggest differential underlying mechanisms determining response to stressors in healthy subjects and patients suffering from chronic pain. Possible mechanisms of the interplay of stress and mediating factors (e.g. cytokines, cortisol) on pain sensitivity are mentioned. Future studies should help understand better how stress impacts on chronic pain conditions.
Crettaz, Benjamin; Marziniak, Martin; Willeke, Peter; Young, Peter; Hellhammer, Dirk; Stumpf, Astrid; Burgmer, Markus
Study Design: Prospective observational study. Objective: Our aim is to investigate the efficacy and safety of TransDiscal Biacuplasty. Summary of Background Data: Chronic discogenic pain is one of the leading causes of low back pain; however, the condition is not helped by most non-invasive methods. The results of major surgical operations for these patients are unsatisfactory. Recently, attention has shifted to disk heating methods for treatment. TransDiscal Biacuplasty is one of the minimally invasive treatment methods. The method was developed as an alternative to spinal surgical practices and Intradiscal Electrothermal Therapy for treatment of patients with chronic discogenic pain. Methods: The candidates for this study were patients with chronic discogenic pain that did not respond to conservative treatment. The main criteria for inclusion were: the existence of axial low back pain present for 6 months; disc degeneration or internal disc disruption at a minimum of one level, and maximum of two levels, in MR imaging; and positive discography. Physical function was assessed using the Oswestry Disability Index when measuring the pain with VAS. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using a 4-grade scale. Follow-ups were made 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. Results: 15 patients were treated at one or two levels. The mean patient age was 43.1±9.2 years. We found the mean symptom duration to be 40.5±45.7 months. At the sixth month, 57.1% of patients reported a 50% or more reduction in pain, while 78.6% of patients reported a reduction of at least two points in their VAS values. In the final check, 78.6% of patients reported a 10-point improvement in their Oswestry Disability scores compared to the initial values. No complications were observed in any of the patients. Conclusions: TransDiscal Biacuplasty is an effective and safe method.
Karaman, Haktan; Tufek, Adnan; Kavak, Gonul Olmez; Kaya, Sedat; Yildirim, Zeynep Baysal; Uysal, Ersin; Celik, Feyzi
We retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness of prolotherapy in resolving pain, stiffness, and crepitus, and improving physical activity in consecutive chondromalacia patients from February 2008 to September 2009. Sixty-nine knees that received prolotherapy in 61 patients (33 female and 36 male) who were 18-82 years old (average, 47.2 years) were enrolled. Patients received 24 prolotherapy injections (15% dextrose, 0.1% procaine, and 10% sarapin) with a total of 40 cc in the anterior knee. At least 6 weeks after their last prolotherapy session, patients provided self-evaluation of knee pain upon rest, activities of daily living (ADL) and exercise, range of motion (ROM), stiffness, and crepitus. Symptom severity, sustained improvement of symptoms, number of pain pills needed, and patient satisfaction before treatment and improvement after treatment were recorded. Following prolotherapy, patients experienced statistically significant decreases in pain at rest, during ADL, and exercise. Stiffness and crepitus decreased after prolotherapy, and ROM increased. Patients reported improved walking ability and exercise ability after prolotherapy. For daily pain level, ROM, daily stiffness, crepitus, and walking and exercise ability, sustained improvement of over 75% was reported by 85% of patients. Fewer patients required pain medication. No side effects of prolotherapy were noted. The average length of time from last prolotherapy session was 14.7 months (range, 6 months to 8 years). Only 3 of 16 knees were still recommended for surgery after prolotherapy. Prolotherapy ameliorates chondromalacia patella symptoms and improves physical ability. Patients experience long-term improvement without requiring pain medications. Prolotherapy should be considered a first-line, conservative therapy for chondromalacia patella. PMID:24596471
Hauser, Ross A; Sprague, Ingrid Schaefer
A crucial aspect for the cognitive neuroscience of pain is the interplay between pain perception and body awareness. Here we report a novel neuropsychological condition in which right brain-damaged patients displayed a selective monothematic delusion of body ownership. Specifically, when both their own and the co-experimenter’s left arms were present, these patients claimed that the latter belonged to them. We reasoned that this was an ideal condition to examine whether pain perception can be “referred” to an alien arm subjectively experienced as one’s own. Seventeen patients (11 with, 6 without the delusion), and 10 healthy controls were administered a nociceptive stimulation protocol to assess pain perception. In the OWN condition, participants placed their arms on a table in front of them. In the ALIEN condition, the co-experimenter’s left (or right) arm was placed alongside the participants’ left (or right) arm, respectively. In the OWN condition, left (or right) participants’ hand dorsum were stimulated. In the ALIEN condition, left (or right) co-experimenter’s hand dorsum was stimulated. Participants had to rate the perceived pain on a 0–5 Likert scale (0?=?no pain, 5?=?maximal imaginable pain). Results showed that healthy controls and patients without delusion gave scores higher than zero only when their own hands were stimulated. On the contrary, patients with delusion gave scores higher than zero both when their own hands (left or right) were stimulated and when the co-experimenter’s left hand was stimulated. Our results show that in pathological conditions, a body part of another person can become so deeply embedded in one’s own somatosensory representation to effect the subjective feeling of pain. More in general, our findings are in line with a growing number of evidence emphasizing the role of the special and unique perceptual status of body ownership in giving rise to the phenomenological experience of pain.
Pia, Lorenzo; Garbarini, Francesca; Fossataro, Carlotta; Fornia, Luca; Berti, Anna
Background Although cervical pain is widespread, most victims are only mildly and occasionally affected. A minority, however, suffer chronic pain and/or functional impairments. Although there is abundant literature regarding nontraumatic neck pain, little focuses on diagnostic criteria. During the last decade, research on neck pain has been designed to evaluate underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, without noteworthy success. Independent researchers have investigated postural balance and cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility among patients with chronic neck pain, and have (in most cases) concluded the source of the problem is a reduced ability in the neck's proprioceptive system. Here, we investigated cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility and postural balance among patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain. Methods Ours was a two-group, observational pilot study of patients with complaints of continuous neck pain during the 3 months prior to recruitment. Thirteen patients with chronic neck pain of nontraumatic origin were recruited from an institutional outpatient clinic. Sixteen healthy persons were recruited as a control group. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility was assessed by exploring head repositioning accuracy and postural balance was measured with computerized static posturography. Results Parameters of cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility were not reduced. However, in one of six test movements (flexion), global repositioning errors were significantly larger in the experimental group than in the control group (p < .05). Measurements did not demonstrate any general impaired postural balance, and varied substantially among participants in both groups. Conclusion In patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain, we found statistically significant global repositioning errors in only one of six test movements. In this cohort, we found no evidence of impaired postural balance. Head repositioning accuracy and computerized static posturography are imperfect measures of functional proprioceptive impairments. Validity of (and procedures for using) these instruments demand further investigation. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN96873990
Palmgren, Per J; Andreasson, Daniel; Eriksson, Magnus; Hagglund, Andreas
Transient receptor potential channels are important mediators of thermal and mechanical stimuli and play an important role in neuropathic pain. The contribution of hereditary variants in the genes of transient receptor potential channels to neuropathic pain is unknown. We investigated the frequency of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1, transient receptor potential melastin 8 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and their impact on somatosensory abnormalities in neuropathic pain patients. Within the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (Deutscher Forscbungsverbund Neuropathischer Schmerz) 371 neuropathic pain patients were phenotypically characterized using standardized quantitative sensory testing. Pyrosequencing was employed to determine a total of eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms in transient receptor potential channel genes of the neuropathic pain patients and a cohort of 253 German healthy volunteers. Associations of quantitative sensory testing parameters and single nucleotide polymorphisms between and within groups and subgroups, based on sensory phenotypes, were analyzed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms frequencies did not differ between both the cohorts. However, in neuropathic pain patients transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 710G>A (rs920829, E179K) was associated with the presence of paradoxical heat sensation (p?=?0.03), and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 1911A>G (rs8065080, I585V) with cold hypoalgesia (p?=?0.0035). Two main subgroups characterized by preserved (1) and impaired (2) sensory function were identified. In subgroup 1 transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 1911A>G led to significantly less heat hyperalgesia, pinprick hyperalgesia and mechanical hypaesthesia (p?=?0.006, p?=?0.005 and p<0.001) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 1103C>G (rs222747, M315I) to cold hypaesthesia (p?=?0.002), but there was absence of associations in subgroup 2. In this study we found no evidence that genetic variants of transient receptor potential channels are involved in the expression of neuropathic pain, but transient receptor potential channel polymorphisms contributed significantly to the somatosensory abnormalities of neuropathic pain patients.
Baron, Ralf; Maier, Christoph; Tolle, Thomas R.; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Berthele, Achim; Faltraco, Frank; Flor, Herta; Gierthmuhlen, Janne; Haenisch, Sierk; Huge, Volker; Magerl, Walter; Maihofner, Christian; Richter, Helmut; Rolke, Roman; Scherens, Andrea; Uceyler, Nurcan; Ufer, Mike; Wasner, Gunnar; Zhu, Jihong; Cascorbi, Ingolf
Background Chronic low back pain (CLBP) and chronic neck pain (CNP) have become a serious medical and socioeconomic problem in recent decades. Patients suffering from chronic pain seem to have a higher prevalence of sleep disorders. Purpose To calculate the prevalence of sleep deprivation in patients with CLBP and CNP and to evaluate the factors that may contribute to sleep impairment. Methods This study was a retrospective evaluation of 1016 patients with CNP and CLBP who consulted an orthopedic department at a university hospital. Factors assessed were gender, age, diagnosis, grade of sleep deprivation, pain intensity, chronification grade, and migrational background. Pearson’s chi-squared test was performed to calculate the relationship between these factors and the grade of sleep deprivation. Regression analysis was performed to explore the correlation between the grade of sleep deprivation and age, pain intensity, and chronification grade. Results A high prevalence of sleep deprivation (42.22%) was calculated in patients with CNP and CLBP, even when analgesics had been taken. About 19.88% of the patients reported serious sleep impairments (ie, <4 hours of sleep per night). The grade of sleep deprivation did not correlate with the gender or age distribution. A significant relationship was found between the grade of sleep deprivation and pain intensity, failed back surgery syndrome, and patients with a migrational background. There was a moderate relationship with intervertebral disc disease and no relationship with spinal stenosis. Conclusion Sleep disturbance should be assessed when treating patients with CNP or CLBP, especially in patients with higher pain intensity, failed back surgery syndrome, and a migrational background. Further research is needed to explore the complex relationship of sleep disturbance and chronic pain.
Artner, Juraj; Cakir, Balkan; Spiekermann, Jane-Anna; Kurz, Stephan; Leucht, Frank; Reichel, Heiko; Lattig, Friederike
Objective: We explored nurses' experiences when they encounter patients from cultures other than their own and their perception of what helps them deliver culturally competent care. Methods: Registered nurses from all shifts and units at Kaiser Permanente Santa Clara Medical Center were invited to complete a questionnaire. Within the time frame allowed, 111 nurses participated by returning completed questionnaires. A descriptive survey was conducted using a questionnaire that contained multiple-choice, fill-in-the-blank, and open-ended items. Results: A large majority of respondents reported that they drew on prior experience, including experience with friends and family, and through their education and training, and more than half also included travel experience and information obtained through the Internet and news media. They also expressed a desire for more training and continuing education, exposure to more diverse cultures, and availability of more interpreters. When respondents were asked to enumerate the cultures from which their patients have come, their answers were very specific, revealing that these nurses understood culture as going beyond ethnicity to include religious groups, sexual orientation, and social class (eg, homeless). Discussion: Our research confirmed our hypothesis that nurses are drawing heavily on prior experience, including family experiences and experiences with friends and coworkers from different cultures. Our findings also suggest that schools of nursing are providing valuable preparation for working with diverse populations. Our research was limited to one geographic area and by our purposeful exclusion of a demographic questionnaire. We recommend that this study be extended into other geographic areas. Our study also shows that nurses are drawing on their experiences in caring for patients from other cultures; therefore, we recommend that health care institutions consider exposing not only nurses but also other health care professionals to different cultures by creating activities that involve community projects in diverse communities, offering classes or seminars on different cultures and having an active cultural education program that would reach out to nurses. The experiences provided by such activities and programs would help nurses become more sensitive to the differences between cultures and not immediately judge patients or make assumptions about them.
Cang-Wong, Celeste; Murphy, Susan O; Adelman, Toby
OBJECTIVE To identify barriers and facilitators to self-management of chronic musculoskeletal pain among patients with comorbid pain and depression. DESIGN A qualitative study using focus group methodology SETTING Veteran Affairs (VA) and University primary care clinics PATIENTS Recruited after participation in a clinical trial INTERVENTION The Stepped Care for Affective Disorders and Musculoskeletal Pain (SCAMP) trial tested an intervention of optimized anti-depressant therapy combined with a pain self-management program versus usual care for primary care patients with comorbid chronic pain and depression. OUTCOME MEASURES Thematic content analysis from focus group data was used to identify patient-perceived barriers and facilitators to self-management of chronic musculoskeletal pain. RESULTS Patients (N = 18) were 27 to 84 years old (M = 54.8), 61% women, 72% White, and 22% Black. Barriers to pain self-management included: 1) lack of support from friends and family; 2) limited resources (e.g. transportation, financial); 3) depression; 4) ineffectiveness of pain-relief strategies; 5) time constraints and other life priorities; 6) avoiding activity because of fear of pain exacerbation; 7) lack of tailoring strategies to meet personal needs; 8) not being able to maintain the use of strategies after study completion; 9) physical limitations; and 10) difficult patient-physician interactions. Facilitators to improve pain self-management included 1) encouragement from nurse care managers; 2) improving depression with treatment; 3) supportive family and friends; and 4) providing a menu of different self-management strategies to use. CONCLUSIONS Future research is needed to confirm these findings and to design interventions that capitalize on the facilitators identified while at the same time addressing the barriers to pain self-management.
Bair, Matthew J.; Matthias, Marianne S.; Nyland, Kathryn A.; Huffman, Monica A.; Stubbs, DaWana L.; Kroenke, Kurt; Damush, Teresa M.
ObjectiveThis retrospective study compared differences in preoperative pain and medication use in patients with moderate to severe pain who sought emergency endodontic care for teeth with irreversible pulpitis and for symptomatic teeth with necrotic pulps.
John M Nusstein; Mike Beck
This case report describes a young male patient with recurrent abdominal pain persisting for more than 16 months. Clinical investigations showed signs of inflammation and pancytopenia. A diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) was made 9 months after the onset of the abdominal pain, following endoscopic examinations that revealed evidence of a previously unknown hemorrhage. Regular monitoring indicated that the abdominal pain was associated with elevations in lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive proteins, and D-dimer levels. The patient started treatment with the complement inhibitor eculizumab shortly after it was approved for use in Japanese PNH patients with hemolysis. Resolution of the abdominal pain and normalization of clinical parameters were noted within 3 weeks from treatment initiation. PMID:24587926
Hino, Akihisa; Yamashita, Yukiko; Yamaguchi, Mitsuhiro; Azenishi, Yasuhiko
Approximately 20% of patients undergoing diagnostic angiography for the evaluation of chest pain are found to have a normal coronary angiogram. Although this finding is generally associated with a low risk of cardiac events, approximately half will continue to experience chest pain over the next 12 months. Therefore, the finding of normal angiography warrants further evaluation of the potential causes for the presenting chest pain if we are to improve the disability suffered by these patients. In this review, the potential non-cardiac and cardiac causes for the chest pain in patients with normal angiography are briefly discussed with an in-depth focus on coronary vasomotor disorders including coronary artery spasm (variant angina) and microvascular disorders such as syndrome X, microvascular angina, the coronary slow flow phenomenon and microvascular spasm. PMID:23448331
Di Fiore, David P; Beltrame, John F
Background: We evaluated the clinical effect of intermittent percutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) in patients with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Methods: A total of 15 patients (10 women and 5 men, mean age 60.0 years, range 41–78) with CPP were enrolled in an open prospective clinical trial. The patients had 12 weekly outpatient treatment sessions, each lasting 30 min.
Soo Woong Kim; Jae-Seung Paick; Ja Hyeon Ku
Forty-eight units were enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study to identify strengths and weaknesses of pain management in a German university teaching hospital. Patients had to be ?18 years old and able to speak German; intensive care, psychiatric, obstetric and pediatric units were excluded. Structured interviews were conducted by an independent researcher not involved in patient care. Patients were asked
Barbara Strohbuecker; Herbert Mayer; George C. M. Evers; Rainer Sabatowski
Background Due to the heterogeneous nature of chronic low back pain (CLBP), it is necessary to identify patient groups and evaluate treatments within these groups. We aimed to identify groups of patients with CLBP in the primary care setting. Methods We performed a k-means cluster analysis on a large data set (n?=?634) of primary care patients with CLBP. Variables of sociodemographic data, pain characteristics, psychological status (i.e., depression, anxiety, somatization), and the patient resources of resilience and coping strategies were included. Results We found three clusters that can be characterized as “pensioners with age-associated pain caused by degenerative diseases”, “middle-aged patients with high mental distress and poor coping resources”, and “middle-aged patients who are less pain-affected and better positioned with regard to their mental health”. Conclusions Our results supported current knowledge concerning groups of CLBP patients in primary care. In particular, we identified a group that was most disabled and distressed, and which was mainly characterized by psychological variables. As shown in our study, pain-related coping strategies and resilience were low in these patients and might be addressed in differentiating treatment strategies. Future studies should focus on the identification of this group in order to achieve effective treatment allocation. Trial registration German Clinical Trial Register DRKS00003123