Science.gov

Sample records for patient risk stratification

  1. Risk Stratification of Patients Presenting with Transient Loss of Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Puppala, Venkata Krishna; Akkaya, Mehmet; Dickinson, Oana; Benditt, David G

    2015-08-01

    Important goals in the initial evaluation of patients with transient loss of consciousness include determining whether the episode was syncope and choosing the venue for subsequent care. Patients who have high short-term risk of adverse outcomes need prompt hospitalization for diagnosis and/or treatment, whereas others may be safely referred for outpatient evaluation. This article summarizes the most important available risk assessment studies and points out key differences among the existing recommendations. Current risk stratification methods cannot replace critical assessment by an experienced physician, but they do provide much needed guidance and offer direction for future risk stratification consensus development. PMID:26115825

  2. Risk stratification of patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, David; Lobo, Jose Luis; Barrios, Deisy; Prandoni, Paolo; Yusen, Roger D

    2016-02-01

    Patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) who present with arterial hypotension or shock have a high risk of death (high-risk PE), and treatment guidelines recommend strong consideration of thrombolysis in this setting. For normotensive patients diagnosed with PE, risk stratification should aim to differentiate the group of patients deemed as having a low risk for early complications (all-cause mortality, recurrent venous thromboembolism, and major bleeding) (low-risk PE) from the group of patients at higher risk for PE-related complications (intermediate-high risk PE), so low-risk patients could undergo consideration of early outpatient treatment of PE and intermediate-high risk patients would undergo close observation and consideration of thrombolysis. Clinicians should also use risk stratification and eligibility criteria to identify a third group of patients that should not undergo escalated or home therapy (intermediate-low risk PE). Such patients should initiate standard therapy of PE while in the hospital. Clinical models [e.g., Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI), simplified PESI (sPESI)] may accurately identify those at low risk of dying shortly after the diagnosis of PE. For identification of intermediate-high risk patients with acute PE, studies have validated predictive models that use a combination of clinical, laboratory and imaging variables. PMID:26768476

  3. Heart rate variability in risk stratification of cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Huikuri, Heikki V; Stein, Phyllis K

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate (HR) variability has been extensively studied in cardiac patients, especially in patients surviving an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and also in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) or left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. The majority of studies have shown that patients with reduced or abnormal HR variability have an increased risk of mortality within a few years after an AMI or after a diagnosis of CHF/LV dysfunction. Various measures of HR dynamics, such as time-domain, spectral, and non-linear measures of HR variability have been used in risk stratification. The prognostic power of various measures, except of those reflecting rapid R-R interval oscillations, has been almost identical, albeit some non-linear HR variability measures, such as short-term fractal scaling exponent have provided somewhat better prognostic information than the others. Abnormal HR variability predicts both sudden and non-sudden cardiac death. Because of remodeling of the arrhythmia substrate after AMI, early measurement of HR variability to identify those at high risk should likely be repeated later in order to assess the risk of fatal arrhythmia events. Future randomized trials using HR variability/turbulence as one of the pre-defined inclusion criteria will show whether routine measurement of HR variability/turbulence will become a routine clinical tool for risk stratification of cardiac patients. PMID:24215747

  4. Risk stratification of patients with atrial fibrillation: Biomarkers and other future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Providência, Rui; Paiva, Luís; Barra, Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Risk stratification of atrial fibrillation (AF) and adequate thromboembolism prophylaxis is the cornerstone of treatment in patients with AF. Current risk stratification schemes such as the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores are based on clinical risk factors and suboptimally weight the risk/benefit of anticoagulation. Recently, the potential of biomarkers (troponin and NT-proBNP) in the RE-LY biomarker sub-analysis has been demonstrated. Echocardiography is also being evaluated as a possible approach to improve risk score performance. The authors present an overview on AF risk stratification and discuss future potential developments that may be introduced into our current risk stratification schemes. PMID:22761972

  5. Adrenomedullin for Risk Stratification of Emergency Patients With Nonspecific Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, Christian Hans; Messmer, Anna Sarah; Ghanim, Leyla; Ilsemann-Karakoumis, Julia; Giersdorf, Sven; Hertel, Sabine; Ernst, Susanne; Geigy, Nicolas; Bingisser, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with nonspecific complaints (NSC) presenting to the emergency department (ED) are at risk of life-threatening conditions. New stress biomarkers such as the midregional portion of adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) promise to support decision-making. This study tested the following hypotheses: biomarker-assisted disposition of patients with NSC will not increase mortality. Second, discharge from the ED will increase if clinical risk assessment is combined with low MR-proADM levels. Third, inappropriate disposition to a lower level of care will decrease, if clinical assessment is combined with high MR-proADM levels, and fourth that this algorithm is feasible in the ED setting. Prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled interventional feasibility study with a 30-day follow-up, including patients with NSC. Patients were randomly assigned to either the standard group (decision-making solely based on clinical assessment) or the Novum group (biomarker-assisted). Regarding disposition, patients were assigned to 1 of 3 risk classes: high-risk (admission to hospital), intermediate risk (community geriatric hospital), and low-risk patients (discharge). In the Novum group, in addition to clinical risk assessment, the information of the MR-proADM level was used. Unless there were overruling criteria, patients were transferred or discharged according to the risk assessment. Primary endpoint was 30-day mortality. Secondary endpoints were comparisons of patient disposition and related mortality rates, ED, and hospital length of stay and readmission. The final study cohort consisted of 398 patients (210 in the Standard group and 188 in the Novum group). Overruling, that is, disposition not according to the result of the proposed algorithm occurred in 51 cases. Baseline characteristics between Standard and Novum groups were similar. The mortality rate in the Novum group was 4.3%, as compared to the Standard group mortality of 6.2%, which was not significantly different (intention-to treat analysis). This was confirmed by the perprotocol analysis as well as by sensitivity analysis. For the secondary endpoints, no significant differences were detected. Biomarker-assisted disposition is safe in patients with NSC. Discharge rates did not increase. Feasibility could only partly be shown due to an unexpectedly high overruling rate. Inappropriate disposition to lower levels of care did not change. ClinicalTrials. gov Identifier: NCT00920491 PMID:26735540

  6. Cardiac risk stratification in patients undergoing endovascular aortic repair.

    PubMed

    Biagi, Paolo; de Donato, Gianmarco; Setacci, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is the preferred first treatment option in case of patients with advanced age and/or fit anatomy owing to shorter length of in hospital staying, less complications or laparotomy-related re-interventions, and lower initial costs. Although it is a less-invasive intervention, EVAR entails a risk similar to that of open aortic procedures for medical comorbidities, and a perioperative clinical evaluation is mandatory to minimize the early and late cardiovascular risk. In this brief review the determinants of cardiac risk (functional capacity, cardiac evaluation, non-invasive tests, bio markers and "specialist" cardiac tests) as well the most widely used predictive risk scores were analyzed. Taking into account that a preoperative cardiovascular assessment is conditioned by the urgency of the repair, in everyday practice rarely the patient undergoes over a complete and exhaustive cardiac assessment with the exclusion of few selected cases that do not represent the rule. Moreover most of models focused on perioperative mortality, tailored for open repair and then adjusted to EVAR or specifically retailed for this procedure show both differences and remarkable similarities. None defines the patient's cardiac risk "alone" (angina, recent myocardial infarction, chronic heart failure, arrhythmias). Actually they measure a "global" medical risk for they take into account of various comorbidities, such as previous stroke, kidney failure, including dialysis, diabetes, COPD, etc. that contribute to intra and perioperative mortality/morbidity and that may be heavier for prognosis. PMID:26474370

  7. Risk stratification for venous thromboembolism in hospitalized patients in a developing country: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Awidi, Abdallah; Obeidat, Nathir; Magablah, Ahmad; Bsoul, Nazzal

    2009-10-01

    Venous Thrombo-Embolism (VTE) is a serious complication in hospitalized patients but can be preventable. This prospective study addresses risk factors assessment and the use of heparin in this population. About 2,496 non pediatric patients were admitted to Jordan University Hospital between June 12, 2007 and July 19, 2007. A random sample of 624 patients consisting of every fourth admission was chosen. The stratification of risk factors was assessed using Caprini model and the ACCP score. The mean age of the patients (229 males and 395 females) was 45.34 +/- 18.3 years. More than 80% of the admitted patients were considered at high risk for VTE but heparin was used in only 26% of the patients. The majority of our patients constitute a high-risk population. Implementation of strategies including educational sessions and risk stratification guidelines can reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of VTE especially in developing countries. PMID:19023522

  8. [Immunophenotype characteristics of patients with multiple myeloma in different risk stratification].

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Ming-Xia; Wang, Yan-Fang; Ke, Xiao-Yan

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the immunophenotype characteristics of newly diagosised patients with multiple myeloma (MM) in different risk stratification in order to find the relationship between the immunophenotype and prognosis of MM. The expressions of CD45, CD38, CD138, CD56, CD19, CD117, CD13, CD20, CD22, CD34, Kappa, Lambda in bone marrow samples from 62 newly diagnosed MM patients were detected by using flow cytometric multiparametric direct immunofluorescence technique, CD45/SSC and CD38/SSC combination gating, then the immumophemotypic characteristics of patients in different risk stratification groups were analyzed and compared. The new risk stratification of all patients was carried out according to ISS stages (Interuational Staging System) and cytogenetic characteristics. The results indicated that all the malignant plasma cells commonly expressed CD38 (100%) and CD138 (100%); CD19? (6.5%) ,CD45? (22.6%), CD56? (59.6%) and monoclonal light chain (82%); but the expressions of CD117? (27.4%) , CD13? (17.7%) , CD20? (16.1%) were diverse. According to risk stratification, it is found that the standard-risk and high-risk groups had lower expression of CD56 (P = 0.022) and higher expression of CD117 (P = 0.011), compared with the low-risk group. It is concluded that the immunophenotype of MM is heterogeneity, the lower expression of CD56 and higher expression of CD117 may be associate with poor prognosis. PMID:25543486

  9. Midregional Proadrenomedullin Improves Risk Stratification beyond Surgical Risk Scores in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Schuetz, Philipp; Huber, Andreas; Müller, Beat; Maisano, Francesco; Taramasso, Maurizio; Moarof, Igal; Obeid, Slayman; Stähli, Barbara E.; Cahenzly, Martin; Binder, Ronald K.; Liebetrau, Christoph; Möllmann, Helge; Kim, Won-Keun; Hamm, Christian; Lüscher, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional surgical risk scores lack accuracy in risk stratification of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Elevated levels of midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) levels are associated with adverse outcome not only in patients with manifest chronic disease states, but also in the general population. Objectives We investigated the predictive value of MR-proADM for mortality in an unselected contemporary TAVR population. Methods We prospectively included 153 patients suffering from severe aortic stenosis who underwent TAVR from September 2013 to August 2014. This population was compared to an external validation cohort of 205 patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing TAVR. The primary endpoint was all cause mortality. Results During a median follow-up of 258 days, 17 out of 153 patients who underwent TAVR died (11%). Patients with MR-proADM levels above the 75th percentile (≥ 1.3 nmol/l) had higher mortality (31% vs. 4%, HR 8.9, 95% CI 3.0–26.0, P < 0.01), whereas patients with EuroSCORE II scores above the 75th percentile (> 6.8) only showed a trend towards higher mortality (18% vs. 9%, HR 2.1, 95% CI 0.8–5.6, P = 0.13). The Harrell’s C-statistic was 0.58 (95% CI 0.45–0.82) for the EuroSCORE II, and consideration of baseline MR-proADM levels significantly improved discrimination (AUC = 0.84, 95% CI 0.71–0.92, P = 0.01). In bivariate analysis adjusted for EuroSCORE II, MR-proADM levels ≥1.3 nmol/l persisted as an independent predictor of mortality (HR 9.9, 95% CI (3.1–31.3), P <0.01) and improved the model’s net reclassification index (0.89, 95% CI (0.28–1.59). These results were confirmed in the independent validation cohort. Conclusions Our study identified MR-proADM as a novel predictor of mortality in patients undergoing TAVR. In the future, MR-proADM should be added to the commonly used EuroSCORE II for better risk stratification of patients suffering from severe aortic stenosis. PMID:26630012

  10. [Updated criteria for diagnosis and risk stratification in patients with multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Djurdjevi?, Predrag; Andjelkovi?, Neboja; Bila, Jelena

    2011-12-01

    Search and disclosure of most adequate diagnostic criteria and prognostic indicators of disease represents one of the most difficult tasks in the understanding of any disease, which creates the way toward a more successful treatment and longer survival. The recent advances in research techniques that have helped refine the diagnostic work up and prognosis of myeloma include serum-free light chains, especially in oligosecretory myeloma, magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography in the diagnosis of bone diseases, cytogenetics and fluorescent in situ hibridization (FISH) technique to determine prognosis. The International Staging System and Durie/Salmon PLUS system are the current standards for staging myeloma. Newer risk stratification protocols are based on international staging system and chromosomal changes detected by conventional cytogenetics and FISH. These improved predictive risk stratification models have enabled the determination of prognosis in patients with myeloma which has a considerable influence on the choice of therapeutic algorism. Novel therapies enable a significant increase in achieving complete remission in a significant number of patients which also results in the definition of more precise criteria regarding the response to therapy. A firm and complete remission with a very good partial remission represent new categories defined by the international uniform criteria of response to therapy. This paper provides the current criteria for diagnosis, staging, risk stratification and response assessment of myeloma. PMID:22352190

  11. Value of planar 201Tl imaging in risk stratification of patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, R.S.; Watson, D.D. )

    1991-09-01

    Although exercise ECG testing has been shown to have important prognostic value after acute myocardial infarction, exercise 201Tl scintigraphy offers several potential advantages, including: (1) increased sensitivity for detecting residual myocardial ischemia; (2) the ability to localize ischemia to a specific area or areas subtended by a specific coronary artery; (3) the ability to identify exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction, which is manifested by increased lung uptake or transient left ventricular dilation; and (4) more reliable risk stratification of individual patients. The more optimal prognostic efficiency of 201Tl scintigraphy partially results from the fact that the error rate in falsely classifying patients as low risk is significantly smaller with 201Tl scintigraphy than with stress ECG. Because of these substantial advantages, there seems to be adequate rationale for recommending exercise perfusion imaging rather than exercise ECG alone as the preferred method for evaluating mortality and morbidity risks after acute myocardial infarction.

  12. Clinical Usefulness of Novel Serum and Imaging Biomarkers in Risk Stratification of Patients with Stable Angina

    PubMed Central

    Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Tsantes, Argirios

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators appear to be the most intriguing yet confusing subject, regarding the management of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The current inflammatory concept of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) led many investigators to concentrate on systemic markers of inflammation, as well as imaging techniques, which may be helpful in risk stratification and prognosis assessment for cardiovascular events. In this review, we try to depict many of the recently studied markers regarding stable angina (SA), their clinical usefulness, and possible future applications in the field. PMID:25045198

  13. Risk Stratification for Sudden Cardiac Death In Patients With Non-ischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shekha, Karthik; Ghosh, Joydeep; Thekkoott, Deepak; Greenberg, Yisachar

    2005-01-01

    Non ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) is a disorder of myocardium. It has varying etiologies. Albeit the varying etiologies of this heart muscle disorder, it presents with symptoms of heart failure, and rarely as sudden cardiac death (SCD). Manifestations of this disorder are in many ways similar to its counterpart, ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). A proportion of patients with NIDCM carries a grave prognosis and is prone to sudden cardiac death from sustained ventricular arrhythmias. Identification of this subgroup of patients who carry the risk of sudden cardiac death despite adequate medical management is a challenge .Yet another method is a blanket treatment of patients with this disorder with anti arrhythmic medications or anti tachyarrhythmia devices like implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD). However this modality of treatment could be a costly exercise even for affluent economies. In this review we try to analyze the existing data of risk stratification of NIDCM and its clinical implications in practice. PMID:16943952

  14. Isoniazid-induced polyneuropathy in a tuberculosis patient – implication for individual risk stratification with genotyping?

    PubMed Central

    Stettner, Mark; Steinberger, Daniela; Hartmann, Christian J; Pabst, Tatjana; Konta, Lidija; Hartung, Hans Peter; Kieseier, Bernd C

    2015-01-01

    Background Development of polyneuropathy (PNP) under treatment for tuberculosis (TB), including isoniazid (INH), is a highly relevant adverse drug effect. The NAT2 acetylation status is a predictor of potential toxic effects of INH. The question as to whether individual risk stratification by genotyping is useful to avoid suffering of patients and to lower costs for the health care system is of considerable clinical importance. Case Presentation After drug treatment for TB, including INH, a 23-year-old man developed severe PNP. During the treatment, laboratory results have been indicating incipient liver and renal injury. Later, molecular genetic analyses were performed and revealed a variation in the NAT2 gene and the c1/c2 genotype of the CYP2E1 gene, both described to contribute to an elevated risk for anti-tuberculostatic-induced liver damages (ATIL). Conclusion The combination of metabolizer genotypes should be taken into account as a cause for toxic effects and the development of PNP. Individual genotyping, performed before medication or at least if an elevation of liver parameters is observed, may reduce the risk of severe cases of PNP by early adjustment of treatment. Our case study indicates that evaluation of individual risk stratification with systematic pharmacogenetic genotyping of metabolizer gene combinations in the context of TB treatment should be addressed in clinical studies with larger cohorts. PMID:26355945

  15. Tools for risk stratification of sudden cardiac death: A review of the literature in different patient populations

    PubMed Central

    Ragupathi, Loheetha; Pavri, Behzad B.

    2014-01-01

    While various modalities to determine risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) have been reported in clinical studies, currently reduced left ventricular ejection fraction remains the cornerstone of SCD risk stratification. However, the absolute burden of SCD is greatest amongst populations without known cardiac disease. In this review, we summarize the evidence behind current guidelines for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) use for the prevention of SCD in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). We also evaluate the evidence for risk stratification tools beyond clinical guidelines in the general population, patients with IHD, and patients with other known or suspected medical conditions. PMID:24568833

  16. A Three-Gene Expression Signature Model for Risk Stratification of Patients with Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Idoia; Mayol, Gemma; Ríos, José; Domenech, Gema; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Oberthuer, André; Fischer, Matthias; Maris, John M.; Brodeur, Garrett M.; Hero, Barbara; Rodríguez, Eva; Suñol, Mariona; Galvan, Patricia; de Torres, Carmen; Mora, Jaume; Lavarino, Cinzia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Neuroblastoma is an embryonal tumor with contrasting clinical courses. Despite elaborate stratification strategies, precise clinical risk assessment still remains a challenge. The purpose of this study was to develop a PCR-based predictor model to improve clinical risk assessment of patients with neuroblastoma. Experimental Design The model was developed using real-time PCR gene expression data from 96 samples and tested on separate expression data sets obtained from real-time PCR and microarray studies comprising 362 patients. Results On the basis of our prior study of differentially expressed genes in favorable and unfavorable neuroblastoma subgroups, we identified three genes, CHD5, PAFAH1B1, and NME1, strongly associated with patient outcome. The expression pattern of these genes was used to develop a PCR-based single-score predictor model. The model discriminated patients into two groups with significantly different clinical outcome [set 1: 5-year overall survival (OS): 0.93 ± 0.03 vs. 0.53 ± 0.06, 5-year event-free survival (EFS): 0.85 ± 0.04 vs. 0.042 ± 0.06, both P < 0.001; set 2 OS: 0.97 ± 0.02 vs. 0.61 ± 0.1, P = 0.005, EFS: 0.91 ± 0.8 vs. 0.56 ± 0.1, P = 0.005; and set 3 OS: 0.99 ± 0.01 vs. 0.56 ± 0.06, EFS: 0.96 ± 0.02 vs. 0.43 ± 0.05, both P < 0.001]. Multivariate analysis showed that the model was an independent marker for survival (P < 0.001, for all). In comparison with accepted risk stratification systems, the model robustly classified patients in the total cohort and in different clinically relevant risk subgroups. Conclusion We propose for the first time in neuroblastoma, a technically simple PCR-based predictor model that could help refine current risk stratification systems. PMID:22328561

  17. Stratification of brachytherapy-treated intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients into favorable and unfavorable cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Wayne M.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Fiano, Ryan; Adamovich, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate biochemical failure (BF) and prostate cancer specific mortality (PCSM) in intermediate-risk (IR) brachytherapy patients stratified into favorable and unfavorable cohorts, and to compare those outcomes to patients with low (LR) and high-risk (HR) disease. Material and methods From March 1995 till February 2012, 2,502 consecutive patients underwent permanent interstitial brachytherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Patients were stratified into risk groups as per the NCCN guidelines with further stratification of the intermediate risk cohort into unfavorable (primary Gleason pattern 4, ≥ 50% positive biopsies or ≥ 2 IR features) and favorable cohorts. Median follow-up was 8.5 years. The brachytherapy prescription dose was prescribed to the prostate gland with generous periprostatic margins. Biochemical failure was defined as a PSA > 0.40 ng/ml after nadir. Patients with metastatic prostate cancer or non-metastatic castrate resistant disease who died of any cause were classified as dead of prostate cancer. Multiple parameters were evaluated for effect on outcomes. Results Fifteen year BF for LR, favorable IR, unfavorable IR, and HR were 1.4%, 2.2%, 7.1%, and 11.1% (p < 0.001), respectively. At 15 years, PCSM for LR, favorable IR, unfavorable IR, and HR was 0.3%, 0.6%, 2.2% and 4.6% (p < 0.001), respectively. In multivariate analysis, BF was best predicted by risk group, pre-implant PSA, percent positive biopsies, prostate volume, and ADT duration, while PCSM was most closely related to risk group, percent positive biopsies and prostate volume. Conclusions Patients with favorable IR disease have biochemical and PCSM outcomes comparable to those of patients with LR disease. Although unfavorable IR has greater than a 3-fold increased risk of BF and PCSM when compared to favorable IR, the outcomes remain superior to those men with HR disease. PMID:26816337

  18. Post-operative bleeding risk stratification in cardiac pulmonary bypass patients using artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Huang, Richard S P; Nedelcu, Elena; Bai, Yu; Wahed, Amer; Klein, Kimberly; Tint, Hlaing; Gregoric, Igor; Patel, Manish; Kar, Biswajit; Loyalka, Pranav; Nathan, Sriram; Radovancevic, Rajko; Nguyen, Andy N D

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of bleeding risk in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) patients plays a vital role in their postoperative management. Therefore, an artificial neural network (ANN) to analyze intra-operative laboratory data to predict postoperative bleeding was set up. The JustNN software (Neural Planner Software, Cheshire, England) was used. This ANN was trained using 15 intra-operative laboratory parameters paired with one output category - risk of bleeding, defined as units of blood components transfused in 48 hours. The ANN was trained with the first 39 CPB cases. The set of input parameters for this ANN was also determined, and the ANN was validated with the next 13 cases. The set of input parameters include five components: pro-thrombin time, platelet count, thromboelastograph-reaction time, D-Dimer, and thromboelastograph-coagulation index. The validation results show 9 cases (69.2%) with exact match, 3 cases (23.1%) with one-grading difference, and 1 case (7.7%) with two-grading difference between actual blood usage versus predicted blood usage. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first ANN developed for post-operative bleeding risk stratification of CPB patients. With promising results, we have started using this ANN to risk-stratify our CPB patients, and it has assisted us in predicting post-operative bleeding risk. PMID:25887872

  19. Perioperative risk stratification for a patient with severe obstructive sleep apnoea undergoing laparoscopic banding surgery.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Laurence; Tay, Stan; Lai, Chung Fei; Barnes, Maree

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), there is limited evidence to guide appropriate preoperative investigations, inpatient or outpatient surgery allocation, and the anticipated level of postoperative care. With reference to our institution's perioperative risk stratification, we describe the case of a 46-year-old Caucasian male with a body mass index of 51 kg/m(2) admitted for laparoscopic band insertion. Management based on our guidelines involved a preoperative polysomnography where the patient was confirmed to have severe OSA. His postoperative care was then managed in the high dependency care unit. He was discharged home on day 2 with no further sequelae. We provide evidence that adoption of this model of care can simplify clinical decision making and resource allocation with favourable patient outcomes. PMID:23370960

  20. Natriuretic peptides for risk stratification of patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Galvani, Marcello; Ferrini, Donatella; Ottani, Filippo

    2004-03-15

    Natriuretic peptides (BNP and NT-proBNP) have been shown to be useful tools for risk stratification of patients with acute myocardial ischemia encompassing the whole spectrum of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), particularly for prediction of mortality. Both BNP and NT-proBNP possess several characteristics of the ideal biomarker, showing independent and incremental prognostic value above traditional clinical, electrocardiographic, and biochemical (particularly troponin) risk indicators. Specifically, in ACS patients, BNP and NT-proBNP have powerful prognostic value both in patients without a history of previous heart failure or without clinical or instrumental signs of left ventricular dysfunction on admission or during hospital stay. They can also be easily and rapidly measured in an emergency context. We have performed a meta-analysis of available studies concerning the prognostic value of natriuretic peptides. Our results show that the prognostic value of natriuretic peptides is similar: (1) both at short- and long-term; (2) when natriuretic peptides are measured at first patient contact or during hospital stay; (3) for BNP or NT-proBNP; and (4) in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction or no ST elevation ACS. These data suggest that natriuretic peptide measurement should be integrated into routine evaluation of patients with an ACS. PMID:14987584

  1. Impact of gene expression profiling-based risk stratification in patients with myeloma receiving initial therapy with lenalidomide and dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shaji K; Uno, Hajime; Jacobus, Susanna J; Van Wier, Scott A; Ahmann, Greg J; Henderson, Kimberly J; Callander, Natalie S; Haug, Jessica L; Siegel, David S; Greipp, Philip R; Fonseca, Rafael; Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2011-10-20

    Detection of specific chromosomal abnormalities by FISH and metaphase cytogenetics allows risk stratification in multiple myeloma; however, gene expression profiling (GEP) based signatures may enable more specific risk categorization. We examined the utility of 2 GEP-based risk stratification systems among patients undergoing initial therapy with lenalidomide in the context of a phase 3 trial. Among 45 patients studied at baseline, 7 (16%) and 10 (22%), respectively, were high-risk using the GEP70 and GEP15 signatures. The median overall survival for the GEP70 high-risk group was 19 months versus not reached for the rest (hazard ratio = 14.1). Although the medians were not reached, the GEP15 also predicted a poor outcome among the high-risk patients. The C-statistic for the GEP70, GEP15, and FISH based risk stratification systems was 0.74, 0.7, and 0.7, respectively. Here we demonstrate the prognostic value for GEP risk stratification in a group of patients primarily treated with novel agents. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00098475. PMID:21860025

  2. Risk Stratification in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Melissa Gaik-Ming; de Mel, Sanjay; Chng, Wee Joo

    2016-04-01

    There are many prognostic variables in multiple myeloma and the difficulty is in deciding which is truly significant. The widely used International Staging System (ISS) does not incorporate genetics, age, and other important variables in its risk stratification. Although it has its own limitations, the recently published Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) that was built upon the framework of ISS, is a more comprehensive and predictive tool for multiple myeloma patients and should be henceforth utilised. We will review the current prognostic variables and their significance in this paper. PMID:26883334

  3. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance risk stratification in patients with clinically suspected myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of myocarditis is challenging due to its varying clinical presentation. Since myocarditis can be associated with significant 5-year mortality, and postmortem data show myocarditis in almost 10% of all adults suffering sudden cardiac death, individual risk stratification for patients with suspected myocarditis is of great clinical interest. We sought to demonstrate that patients with clinically suspected myocarditis and a normal cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) according to our definition have a good prognosis, independent of their clinical symptoms and other findings. Methods Prospective clinical long-term follow-up of consecutive patients undergoing CMR for work-up of clinically suspected myocarditis at our institution in 2007-2008. Results Follow-up was available for n = 405 patients (all-comers, 54.8% inpatients, 38% outpatient referrals from cardiologists). Median follow-up time was 1591 days. CMR diagnosis was “myocarditis” in 28.8%, “normal” in 55.6% and “other pathology” in 15.6%. Normal CMR was defined as normal left ventricular (LV) volumes and normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LV-EF) in the absence of late Gadolinium Enhancement (LGE). The overall mortality was 3.2%. There were seven cardiac deaths during follow-up, in addition one aborted SCD and two patients had appropriate internal cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks – all of these occurred in patients with abnormal CMR. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test showed significant difference for major adverse cardiac events (cardiac death, sudden cardiac death (SCD), ICD discharge, aborted SCD) between patients with normal and abnormal CMR (p = 0.0003). Conclusion In our unselected population of consecutive patients referred for CMR work-up of clinically suspected myocarditis, patients with normal CMR have a good prognosis independent of their clinical symptoms and other findings. PMID:24461053

  4. Risk Stratification of Ambulatory Patients with Advanced Heart Failure Undergoing Evaluation for Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Tomoko S.; Stevens, Gerin R; Jiang, Jeffrey; Schulze, P. Christian; Gukasyan, Natalie; Lippel, Matthew; Levin, Alison; Homma, Shunichi; Mancini, Donna; Farr, Maryjane

    2014-01-01

    Background Risk stratification of ambulatory heart failure (HF) patients has relied upon peak VO2 (pVO2) <14 mL/min/kg. We investigated whether additional clinical variables might further specify risk of death, ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation (INTERMACS<4) or heart transplantation (HTx; Status 1A or 1B) within one-year after HTx evaluation. We hypothesized that right ventricular stroke work index (RVSWI), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) and the Model for End-stage Liver Disease-Albumin score (MELD-A) would be additive prognostic predictors. Methods We retrospectively collected data on 151 ambulatory patients undergoing HTx evaluation. Primary outcomes were defined as HTx, LVAD or death within one-year following evaluation. Results Our cohort was 54.9±11.1 year-old, 79.1% male, 37.6% with ischemic etiology (LVEF 21±11% and pVO2 12.6±3.5ml/min/kg). Fifty outcomes (33.1%) occurred (27 HTx, 15 VAD, and 8 deaths). Univariate logistic regression showed significant association of RVSWI (mmHg-L/m2) (OR0.47, p=0.036), PCWP (mmHg) (OR2.65, p=0.007), and MELD-A (OR2.73, p=0.006) with one-year events. Stepwise regression showed independent correlation of RVSWI<5 (OR6.70; p<0.01), PCWP>20 (OR5.48; p<0.01), MELD-A>14 (OR3.72; p<0.01) and pVO2<14 (OR3.36; p=0.024) with one-year events. A scoring system was composed with MELD-A>14 and pVO2<14, 1 point each, and PCWP>20 and RVSWI<5, 2 points each. A cutoff at 4 demonstrated a 54% sensitivity and 88% specificity for one-year events. Conclusions Ambulatory HF patients have significant one-year event rates. Risk stratification based on exercise performance, left-sided congestion, right ventricular dysfunction and liver congestion allows prediction of one-year prognosis. This study endorses early and timely referral for VAD and/or transplant. PMID:23415315

  5. Prognostic value of angiopoietin-2 for death risk stratification in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jary, Marine; Vernerey, Dewi; Lecomte, Thierry; Dobi, Erion; Ghiringhelli, François; Monnien, Franck; Godet, Yann; Kim, Stefano; Bouché, Olivier; Fratte, Serge; Gonçalves, Anthony; Leger, Julie; Queiroz, Lise; Adotevi, Olivier; Bonnetain, Franck; Borg, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Background Baseline prognostic biomarkers stratifying treatment strategies in first-line metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are lacking. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) is proposed as a potential biomarker in several cancers. We therefore decided to establish the additional prognostic value of Ang-2 for overall survival (OS) in first-line mCRC patients. Methods We enrolled 177 patients treated with a bevacizumab containing chemotherapy in two prospective phase II clinical trials. Patient plasma samples were collected at baseline. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to measure Ang-2. Results The multivariable Cox model identified increased LDH (HR=1.60, 95%CI: 1.04–2.45, p=0.03) and Ang-2 log-transformation level (HR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.14–2.21, p=0.0065) as two significant independent OS prognostic factors. It exhibited good calibration (p=0.8) and discrimination (C-index: 0.64; 95%CI: 0.58–0.68). Ang-2 parameter inclusion in the GERCOR reference model significantly and strongly improved its discriminative ability since the C-statistic increased significantly from 0.61 to 0.63 (bootstrap mean difference=0.07, 95%CI: 0.069–0.077). Interestingly, the addition of Ang-2 binary information with a 5 ng/mL cut-off value to the GERCOR model allowed the reclassification of intermediate-risk profile patients (41%) into two subsets of low and high-risks. Conclusions Our study provides robust evidence in favour of baseline Ang-2 prognostic value for OS adding to the conventional factors. Its assessment appears to be useful for the improvement in risk stratification for patients with intermediate-risk profile. Impact Ang-2 ability to predict OS at diagnosis could be of interest in the selection of patients eligible to intermittent or sequential therapeutic strategies dedicated to the optimization of patient’s quality of life and chemotherapy cost-effectiveness. PMID:25583947

  6. Risk stratification of patients with hypertension using exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Kane, S.

    1985-05-01

    Hypertension (HT) is an important risk factor in coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiac morbidity and mortality. This study examined the value of clinical, ECG, exercise (EX) and thallium-201 imaging descriptors that identify patients (pts) with HT at high risk. The 337 pts in the study underwent EX thallium-201 testing for evaluation of chest pain due to suspected or proven CHD. The mean age was 55 years, of whom 79% were still on active anti-HT therapy at the time of the study. The EX thallium scintigrams were evaluated qualitatively and quantitively using circumferential profile analysis. The scans were abnormal in 162 pts (48%) and reversible perfusion defects were present in 106 of the 162 pts (65%). At a folllowup fo up to 74 months, (15 +- 9 mean +- SD), 11 pts had hard cardiac events: 2 died of cardiac causes and 9 had non-fatal acute myocardial infractions. There were no significant differences between those with and without events in age, EX heart rate and double product, EX duration, blood pressure and EX ECG changes. Univariate and multivariate survival analysis (Cox regression model) of important clinical, ECG, EX and thallium variables, identified the presence of abnormal EX images as the only predictor of outcome. (X/sup 2/ = 5.4, p< 0.02). No other variable provided additional prognostic information. Actuarial life table analysis showed that pts with abnormal images had significantly more events than those with normal images (p = 0.008, Mantel-Cox). Thus, EX thallium imaging is useful in risk stratification in pts with HT. The presence of abnormal images identify a subgroup at high risk for future events.

  7. A simple risk stratification model that predicts 1-year postoperative mortality rate in patients with solid-organ cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Wen-Chi; Wang, Frank; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Chen, Miao-Fen; Lu, Chang-Hsien; Wang, Cheng-Hsu; Lin, Yung-Chang; Yeh, Ta-Sen

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to construct a scoring system developed exclusively from the preoperative data that predicts 1-year postoperative mortality in patients with solid cancers. A total of 20,632 patients who had a curative resection for solid-organ cancers between 2007 and 2012 at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center were included in the derivation cohort. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to develop a risk model that predicts 1-year postoperative mortality. Patients were then stratified into four risk groups (low-, intermediate-, high-, and very high-risk) according to the total score (043) form mortality risk analysis. An independent cohort of 16,656 patients who underwent curative cancer surgeries at three other hospitals during the same study period (validation cohort) was enrolled to verify the risk model. Age, gender, cancer site, history of previous cancer, tumor stage, Charlson comorbidity index, American Society of Anesthesiologist score, admission type, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status were independently predictive of 1-year postoperative mortality. The 1-year postoperative mortality rates were 0.5%, 3.8%, 14.6%, and 33.8%, respectively, among the four risk groups in the derivation cohort (c-statistic, 0.80), compared with 0.9%, 4.2%, 14.6%, and 32.6%, respectively, in the validation cohort (c-statistic, 0.78). The risk stratification model also demonstrated good discrimination of long-term survival outcome of the four-tier risk groups (P<0.01 for both cohorts). The risk stratification model not only predicts 1-year postoperative mortality but also differentiates long-term survival outcome between the risk groups. PMID:26311149

  8. Risk stratification in extramammary Paget disease.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J M; Granter, S R; Werchniak, A E

    2015-07-01

    Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is an uncommon intraepithelial adenocarcinoma that involves body sites with apocrine glands such as the genital, perineal and perianal regions. Risk stratification and treatment planning for EMPD can be challenging. This review presents important prognostic information in EMPD to assist physicians with risk stratification of patients with EMPD. The best-understood prognostic factors are depth of invasion and involvement of extracutaneous sites. Tumours that invade into the reticular dermis or have a depth of > 1 mm are associated with poorer prognosis. Additionally, tumours spreading outside the skin into lymph nodes or other tissues are higher risk. There is an emerging understanding of the importance of tumour genetics in risk stratification, and we review the data on Ki-67, cyclin D1, Mucin 5AC and E-cadherin. There is less evidence supporting the importance of lesion site and patient age in risk stratification. This succinct review will be helpful in clinical practice and in EMPD research. PMID:26011765

  9. Arrhythmia risk stratification of patients after myocardial infarction using personalized heart models

    PubMed Central

    Arevalo, Hermenegild J.; Vadakkumpadan, Fijoy; Guallar, Eliseo; Jebb, Alexander; Malamas, Peter; Wu, Katherine C.; Trayanova, Natalia A.

    2016-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) from arrhythmias is a leading cause of mortality. For patients at high SCD risk, prophylactic insertion of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) reduces mortality. Current approaches to identify patients at risk for arrhythmia are, however, of low sensitivity and specificity, which results in a low rate of appropriate ICD therapy. Here, we develop a personalized approach to assess SCD risk in post-infarction patients based on cardiac imaging and computational modelling. We construct personalized three-dimensional computer models of post-infarction hearts from patients' clinical magnetic resonance imaging data and assess the propensity of each model to develop arrhythmia. In a proof-of-concept retrospective study, the virtual heart test significantly outperformed several existing clinical metrics in predicting future arrhythmic events. The robust and non-invasive personalized virtual heart risk assessment may have the potential to prevent SCD and avoid unnecessary ICD implantations. PMID:27164184

  10. Arrhythmia risk stratification of patients after myocardial infarction using personalized heart models.

    PubMed

    Arevalo, Hermenegild J; Vadakkumpadan, Fijoy; Guallar, Eliseo; Jebb, Alexander; Malamas, Peter; Wu, Katherine C; Trayanova, Natalia A

    2016-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) from arrhythmias is a leading cause of mortality. For patients at high SCD risk, prophylactic insertion of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) reduces mortality. Current approaches to identify patients at risk for arrhythmia are, however, of low sensitivity and specificity, which results in a low rate of appropriate ICD therapy. Here, we develop a personalized approach to assess SCD risk in post-infarction patients based on cardiac imaging and computational modelling. We construct personalized three-dimensional computer models of post-infarction hearts from patients' clinical magnetic resonance imaging data and assess the propensity of each model to develop arrhythmia. In a proof-of-concept retrospective study, the virtual heart test significantly outperformed several existing clinical metrics in predicting future arrhythmic events. The robust and non-invasive personalized virtual heart risk assessment may have the potential to prevent SCD and avoid unnecessary ICD implantations. PMID:27164184

  11. Proposal for a new risk stratification classification for meningioma based on patient age, WHO tumor grade, size, localization, and karyotype

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Patrcia Henriques; Sousa, Pablo; Otero, lvaro; Gonalves, Jesus Maria; Ruiz, Laura; de Oliveira, Catarina; Lopes, Maria Celeste; Orfao, Alberto; Tabernero, Maria Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Background Tumor recurrence remains the major clinical complication of meningiomas, the majority of recurrences occurring among WHO grade I/benign tumors. In the present study, we propose a new scoring system for the prognostic stratification of meningioma patients based on analysis of a large series of meningiomas followed for a median of >5 years. Methods Tumor cytogenetics were systematically investigated by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization in 302 meningioma samples, and the proposed classification was further validated in an independent series of cases (n = 132) analyzed by high-density (500K) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Results Overall, we found an adverse impact on patient relapse-free survival (RFS) for males, presence of brain edema, younger patients (<55 years), tumor size >50 mm, tumor localization at intraventricular and anterior cranial base areas, WHO grade II/III meningiomas, and complex karyotypes; the latter 5 variables showed an independent predictive value in multivariate analysis. Based on these parameters, a prognostic score was established for each individual case, and patients were stratified into 4 risk categories with significantly different (P < .001) outcomes. These included a good prognosis group, consisting of approximately 20% of cases, that showed a RFS of 100% 0% at 10 years and a very poor-prognosis group with a RFS rate of 0% 0% at 10 years. The prognostic impact of the scoring system proposed here was also retained when WHO grade I cases were considered separately (P < .001). Conclusions Based on this risk-stratification classification, different strategies may be adopted for follow-up, and eventually also for treatment, of meningioma patients at different risks for relapse. PMID:24536048

  12. Pain after total knee arthroplasty: a narrative review focusing on the stratification of patients at risk for persistent pain.

    PubMed

    Lavand'homme, P; Thienpont, E

    2015-10-01

    The patient with a painful arthritic knee awaiting total knee arthroplasty (TKA) requires a multidisciplinary approach. Optimal control of acute post-operative pain and the prevention of chronic persistent pain remains a challenge. The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether stratification of patients can help identify those who are at particular risk for severe acute or chronic pain. Intense acute post-operative pain, which is itself a risk factor for chronic pain, is more common in younger, obese female patients and those suffering from central pain sensitisation. Pre-operative pain, in the knee or elsewhere in the body, predisposes to central sensitisation. Pain due to osteoarthritis of the knee may also trigger neuropathic pain and may be associated with chronic medication like opioids, leading to a state of nociceptive sensitisation called 'opioid-induced hyperalgesia'. Finally, genetic and personality related risk factors may also put patients at a higher risk for the development of chronic pain. Those identified as at risk for chronic pain would benefit from specific peri-operative management including reduction in opioid intake pre-operatively, the peri-operative use of antihyperalgesic drugs such as ketamine and gabapentinoids, and a close post-operative follow-up in a dedicated chronic pain clinic. PMID:26430086

  13. Integration of Different Risk Assessment Tools to Improve Stratification of Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Paredes, S; Rocha, T; de Carvalho, P; Henriques, J; Morais, J; Ferreira, J

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) causes unaffordable social and health costs that tend to increase as the European population ages. In this context, clinical guidelines recommend the use of risk scores to predict the risk of a cardiovascular disease event. Some useful tools have been developed to predict the risk of occurrence of a cardiovascular disease event (e.g. hospitalization or death). However, these tools present some drawbacks. These problems are addressed through two methodologies: (i) combination of risk assessment tools: fusion of nave Bayes classifiers complemented with a genetic optimization algorithm and (ii) personalization of risk assessment: subtractive clustering applied to a reduced-dimensional space to create groups of patients. Validation was performed based on two ACS-NSTEMI patient data sets. This work improved the performance in relation to current risk assessment tools, achieving maximum values of sensitivity, specificity, and geometric mean of, respectively, 79.8, 83.8, and 80.9%. Additionally, it assured clinical interpretability, ability to incorporate of new risk factors, higher capability to deal with missing risk factors and avoiding the selection of a standard CVD risk assessment tool to be applied in the clinical practice. PMID:26215518

  14. Risk stratification and prognostic value of grace and timi risk scores for female patients with non-st segment elevation acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hang; Xue, Hao; Wang, Haotian; Chen, Yundai; Zhou, Shanshan; Tian, Feng; Hu, Shunying; Wang, Jing; Yang, Junjie; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the value of Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk scores for risk stratification and prognosis in female patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). Methods: Non-elderly (<65 years) and elderly (≥65 years) female patients with NSTE-ACS (totally 869 cases) were enrolled in this study. The patients were further divided into low, intermediate and high-risk groups according to their GRACE and TIMI scores. Patients were followed up for 1 year to record the mortality and incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Differences in mortality and MACE incidence between the two scoring systems were compared by the area under the ROC curve. Results: The area under ROC curve corresponding to the mortality and MACE incidence in any period by the GRACE scoring system was significantly larger than the TIMI scoring system in the elderly patients (P<0.05). Mortality and MACE incidence increased in parallel with the scores. Risk ratio values of Cox regression analysis based on GRACE and TIMI scores were greater than 1 (P<0.001). Conclusion: Both GRACE and TIMI were adoptable in clinical risk stratification and prognosis of female patients with NSTE-ACS at different age groups. GRACE showed better accuracy than the TIMI scores. PMID:26064307

  15. Developing and evaluating an automated appendicitis risk stratification algorithm for pediatric patients in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Deleger, Louise; Brodzinski, Holly; Zhai, Haijun; Li, Qi; Lingren, Todd; Kirkendall, Eric S; Alessandrini, Evaline; Solti, Imre

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a proposed natural language processing (NLP) and machine-learning based automated method to risk stratify abdominal pain patients by analyzing the content of the electronic health record (EHR). Methods We analyzed the EHRs of a random sample of 2100 pediatric emergency department (ED) patients with abdominal pain, including all with a final diagnosis of appendicitis. We developed an automated system to extract relevant elements from ED physician notes and lab values and to automatically assign a risk category for acute appendicitis (high, equivocal, or low), based on the Pediatric Appendicitis Score. We evaluated the performance of the system against a manually created gold standard (chart reviews by ED physicians) for recall, specificity, and precision. Results The system achieved an average F-measure of 0.867 (0.869 recall and 0.863 precision) for risk classification, which was comparable to physician experts. Recall/precision were 0.897/0.952 in the low-risk category, 0.855/0.886 in the high-risk category, and 0.854/0.766 in the equivocal-risk category. The information that the system required as input to achieve high F-measure was available within the first 4 h of the ED visit. Conclusions Automated appendicitis risk categorization based on EHR content, including information from clinical notes, shows comparable performance to physician chart reviewers as measured by their inter-annotator agreement and represents a promising new approach for computerized decision support to promote application of evidence-based medicine at the point of care. PMID:24130231

  16. Cardiovascular risk stratification in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: the 2MACE score.

    PubMed

    Pastori, Daniele; Farcomeni, Alessio; Poli, Daniela; Antonucci, Emilia; Angelico, Francesco; Del Ben, Maria; Cangemi, Roberto; Tanzilli, Gaetano; Lip, Gregory Yoke Hong; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Violi, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Recent findings suggest that patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF), in addition to having a high risk for ischemic stroke, are also at risk for myocardial infarction (MI). The aim of the study was to combine factors predicting Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (MACE) in AF patients, including fatal/nonfatal MI, cardiac revascularization, and cardiovascular death, into a simple risk score. Predictors of MACE were obtained from a prospective observational cohort study, including 1019 AF patients taking vitamin K antagonists from the Atherothrombosis Center, of Sapienza University of Rome. Thus, we derived the 2MACE score [2 points for Metabolic Syndrome and Age ≥75, 1 point for MI/revascularization, Congestive heart failure (ejection fraction ≤40 %), thrombo-Embolism (stroke/transient ischemic attack)], ranging from 0 to 7 points. To evaluate the 2MACE score, we included an external validation cohort of 1089 anticoagulated AF patients from the Thrombosis Centre of Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Firenze, Italy. At follow-up, 111 AF patients in the internal and 68 in the external cohort experienced a MACE. The 2MACE score showed a good ability in discriminating AF patients experiencing MACE both in the internal derivation cohort, with a c-index of 0.79 [95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 0.71-0.90, p < 0.001] and in the external validation cohort (c-index 0.66, 95 % CI 0.60-0.73, p < 0.001). The overall Hazard Ratio (HR) was 1.61 (95 % CI 1.40-1.85, p < 0.001) for each additional point. A 2MACE score ≥3 had the best combination of specificity and sensitivity, with an HR of 3.92 (95 % CI 2.41-6.40, p < 0.001). The new simple 2MACE score may help identifying AF patients at risk for cardiovascular events. PMID:26471883

  17. Risk Stratification of Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Using Aortic Augmentation Index

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Marianne; Husmann, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background Central augmentation index (cAIx) is an indicator for vascular stiffness. Obstructive and aneurysmatic vascular disease can affect pulse wave propagation and reflection, causing changes in central aortic pressures. Aim To assess and compare cAIx in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and / or abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods cAIx was assessed by radial applanation tonometry (Sphygmocor) in a total of 184 patients at a tertiary referral centre. Patients were grouped as having PAD only, AAA only, or both AAA and PAD. Differences in cAIx measurements between the three patient groups were tested by non-parametric tests and stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis to investigate associations with obstructive or aneurysmatic patterns of vascular disease. Results In the study sample of 184 patients, 130 had PAD only, 20 had AAA only, and 34 patients had both AAA and PAD. Mean cAIx (%) was 30.5 8.2 across all patients. It was significantly higher in females (35.2 6.1, n = 55) than males (28.4 8.2, n = 129), and significantly higher in patients over 80 years of age (34.4 6.9, n = 22) than in those under 80 years (30.0 8.2, n = 162). Intergroup comparison revealed a significant difference in cAIx between the three patient groups (AAA: 27.3 9.5; PAD: 31.4 7.8; AAA & PAD: 28.8 8.5). cAIx was significantly lower in patients with AAA, higher in patients with both AAA and PAD, and highest in patients with PAD only (beta = 0.21, p = 0.006). Conclusion Non-invasive assessment of arterial stiffness in high-risk patients indicates that cAIx differs according to the pattern of vascular disease. Measurements revealed significantly higher cAIx values for patients with obstructive peripheral arterial disease than for patients with aneurysmatic disease. PMID:26452151

  18. Usefulness of Relative Hypochromia in Risk Stratification for Nonanemic Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Hammadah, Muhammad; Brennan, Marie-Luise; Wu, Yuping; Hazen, Stanley L; Tang, W H Wilson

    2016-04-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of a reduction of hemoglobin (Hb) content in the erythrocytes as estimated by mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) on long-term clinical outcomes in nonanemic patients with heart failure (HF). We prospectively enrolled 1,579 subjects with HF who underwent coronary angiography enrolled in the GeneBank study with 5-year follow-up of all-cause mortality. Levels of Hb and MCHC were assessed at enrollment and after 6 months of follow-up. Anemia was defined as Hb levels <13 g/dl in men and <12 g/dl in women. In our nonanemic cohort (n = 785, 49.7%), mean Hb and median MCHC were 13.8 ± 1.1 g/dl and 34.3 g/dL (interquartile range 33.6 to 35), respectively. Nonanemic patients with heart failure with lower MCHC had higher mortality risk (quartiles 1 vs 4, hazard ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 3.3, p = 0.001). In a subset of nonanemic patients with persistent normal Hb on follow-up (n = 206), the mean time between baseline and follow-up MCHC levels was 169.3 ± 41.6 days. In comparison with patients with levels of MCHC more than the first quartile (≥33.6 g/dl) on baseline and follow-up, patients with persistently low MCHC (<33.6 g/dl) had a significantly increased mortality risk (log rank <0.001). All models remained significant even after adjusting for traditional cardiac risk factors, left ventricular ejection fraction, baseline Hb levels, and mean corpuscular volume. In conclusion, relative hypochromia is an independent predictor of increased mortality risk in patients with HF, even in the setting of normal Hb levels. PMID:26897638

  19. Risk stratification after myocardial infarction. Clinical overview

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, R.A. )

    1991-09-01

    Many patients with an acute myocardial infarction can be stratified into subgroups that are at high risk for morbidity and mortality on the basis of clinical characteristics that indicate recurrent myocardial ischemia, persistent left ventricular dysfunction, and/or recurrent cardiac arrhythmias. In patients with uncomplicated myocardial infarction the assessment of symptoms, physical findings, and ECG changes during predischarge exercise testing often identifies patients at increased risk for further cardiac events. Because of the suboptimum sensitivity and specificity of the exercise ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia, myocardial perfusion imaging with 201Tl and/or assessment of global and segmental ventricular function by two-dimensional echocardiography or radionuclide cineangiography during or immediately after exercise are often added to the predischarge risk stratification.

  20. Syncope: risk stratification and clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Suzanne Y G; Hoek, Amber E; Mollink, Susan M; Huff, J Stephen

    2014-04-01

    Syncope is a common occurrence in the emergency department, accounting for approximately 1% to 3% of presentations. Syncope is best defined as a brief loss of consciousness and postural tone followed by spontaneous and complete recovery. The spectrum of etiologies ranges from benign to life threatening, and a structured approach to evaluating these patients is key to providing care that is thorough, yet cost-effective. This issue reviews the most relevant evidence for managing and risk stratifying the syncope patient, beginning with a focused history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and tailored diagnostic testing. Several risk stratification decision rules are compared for performance in various scenarios, including how age and associated comorbidities may predict short-term and long-term adverse events. An algorithm for structured, evidence-based care of the syncope patient is included to ensure that patients requiring hospitalization are managed appropriately and those with benign causes are discharged safely. PMID:25105200

  1. Risk stratification in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy: Current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Okutucu, Sercan; Oto, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The clinical goals of risk stratification of sudden death are to identify subjects who are at high risk of, and eventually to reduce the incidence of, sudden death. Numerous studies have described risk stratification techniques for serious cardiac events in patients following myocardial infarction. However, relatively little information is available regarding nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. A number of diagnostic methods have been used for risk stratification of patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, including presence of syncope, ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring, programmed ventricular stimulation, QRS duration, QT interval dispersion, QT interval dynamicity, signal-averaged ECG, heart rate variability, heart rate turbulence, baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate recovery, exercise recovery ventricular ectopy, fragmented QRS and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. In this review, existing data regarding risk stratification of sudden cardiac death in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy will be summarized and its implications in clinical practice will be reviewed. PMID:20535711

  2. Risk stratification in acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Pesarini, Gabriele; Santini, Francesco; Geremia, Giulia; Zivelonghi, Carlo; Ribichini, Flavio

    2012-02-01

    Accurate and readily available systems for risk stratification and a wide array of antithrombotic agents, on top of classical anti-ischemic drugs, provide the noninvasive cardiologist admitting the patient in the CCU with an effective and reliable armamentarium for the safe management of most patients with ACS. From the interventionalist's perspective, the immediate knowledge of the coronary anatomy yields the most valuable information to address the most appropriate treatment. The sooner angiography is performed the higher the benefit for patients at moderate to high risk, but if performed by expert teams and with the correct use of modern drugs and devices, the invasive approach has the potential to reduce costs and length of hospital stay also in low-risk patients. Although still some reluctance remains to equalize treatment strategies for patients with STEMI to those with NSTEMI, such differences will likely disappear in the near future with upcoming new evidence. Cardiac surgery may represent a life-saving alternative for patients presenting with NSTEMI evolving in cardiogenic shock or with mechanical complications, or in patients unsuitable for PCI or with failed PCI attempts. In stabilized conditions after the treatment of the culprit lesion, patients with severe multivessel disease may benefit from cardiac surgery to complete myocardial revascularization. Indications for CABG in this setting should be evaluated in the context of a local "heart team" or through prespecified protocols in centers without cardiac surgery on site. PMID:22135119

  3. Artificial neural network modeling enhances risk stratification and can reduce downstream testing for patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes, negative cardiac biomarkers, and normal ECGs.

    PubMed

    Isma'eel, Hussain A; Cremer, Paul C; Khalaf, Shaden; Almedawar, Mohamad M; Elhajj, Imad H; Sakr, George E; Jaber, Wael A

    2016-04-01

    Despite uncertain yield, guidelines endorse routine stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes, unremarkable serial electrocardiograms, and negative troponin measurements. In these patients, outcome prediction and risk stratification models could spare unnecessary testing. This study therefore investigated the use of artificial neural networks (ANN) to improve risk stratification and prediction of MPI and angiographic results. We retrospectively identified 5354 consecutive patients referred from the emergency department for rest-stress MPI after serial negative troponins and normal ECGs. Patients were risk stratified according to thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) scores, ischemia was defined as >5 % reversible perfusion defect, and obstructive coronary artery disease was defined as >50 % angiographic obstruction. For ANN, the network architecture employed a systematic method where the number of neurons is changed incrementally, and bootstrapping was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the models. Compared to TIMI scores, ANN models provided improved discriminatory power. With regards to MPI, an ANN model could reduce testing by 59 % and maintain a 96 % negative predictive value (NPV) for ruling out ischemia. Application of an ANN model could also avoid 73 % of invasive coronary angiograms while maintaining a 98 % NPV for detecting obstructive CAD. An online calculator for clinical use was created using these models. The ANN models improved risk stratification when compared to the TIMI score. Our calculator could also reduce downstream testing while maintaining an excellent NPV, though further study is needed before the calculator can be used clinically. PMID:26626458

  4. Pharmacogenetic Risk Stratification in Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor-Treated Patients with Congestive Heart Failure: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nelveg-Kristensen, Karl Emil; Busk Madsen, Majbritt; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Køber, Lars; Egfjord, Martin; Berg Rasmussen, Henrik; Riis Hansen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence for pharmacogenetic risk stratification of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) treatment is limited. Therefore, in a cohort of ACEI-treated patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), we investigated the predictive value of two pharmacogenetic scores that previously were found to predict ACEI efficacy in patients with ischemic heart disease and hypertension, respectively. Score A combined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the angiotensin II receptor type 1 gene (rs275651 and rs5182) and the bradykinin receptor B1 gene (rs12050217). Score B combined SNPs of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (rs4343) and ABO blood group genes (rs495828 and rs8176746). Methods Danish patients with CHF enrolled in the previously reported Echocardiography and Heart Outcome Study were included. Subjects were genotyped and categorized according to pharmacogenetic scores A and B of ≤1, 2 and ≥3 each, and followed for up to 10 years. Difference in cumulative incidences of cardiovascular death and all-cause death were assessed by the cumulative incidence estimator. Survival was modeled by Cox proportional hazard analyses. Results We included 667 patients, of whom 80% were treated with ACEIs. Differences in cumulative incidences of cardiovascular death (P = 0.346 and P = 0.486) and all-cause death (P = 0.515 and P = 0.486) were not significant for score A and B, respectively. There was no difference in risk of cardiovascular death or all-cause death between subjects with score A ≤1 vs. 2 (HR 1.03 [95% CI 0.79–1.34] and HR 1.11 [95% CI 0.88–1.42]), score A ≤1 vs. ≥3 (HR 0.80 [95% CI 0.59–1.08] and HR 0.91 [95% CI 0.70–1.20]), score B ≤1 vs. 2 (HR 1.02 [95% CI 0.78–1.32] and HR 0.98 [95% CI 0.77–1.24]), and score B ≤1 vs. ≥3 (HR 1.03 [95% CI 0.75–1.41] and HR 1.05 [95% CI 0.79–1.40]), respectively. Conclusions We found no association between either of the analyzed pharmacogenetic scores and fatal outcomes in ACEI-treated patients with CHF. PMID:26633885

  5. Comparison of risk stratification tools in predicting outcomes of patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes treated with azanucleosides.

    PubMed

    Zeidan, A M; Sekeres, M A; Garcia-Manero, G; Steensma, D P; Zell, K; Barnard, J; Ali, N A; Zimmerman, C; Roboz, G; DeZern, A; Nazha, A; Jabbour, E; Kantarjian, H; Gore, S D; Maciejewski, J P; List, A; Komrokji, R

    2016-03-01

    Established prognostic tools in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) were largely derived from untreated patient cohorts. Although azanucleosides are standard therapies for higher-risk (HR)-MDS, the relative prognostic performance of existing prognostic tools among patients with HR-MDS receiving azanucleoside therapy is unknown. In the MDS Clinical Research Consortium database, we compared the prognostic utility of the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS), revised IPSS (IPSS-R), MD Anderson Prognostic Scoring System (MDAPSS), World Health Organization-based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) and the French Prognostic Scoring System (FPSS) among 632 patients who presented with HR-MDS and were treated with azanucleosides as the first-line therapy. Median follow-up from diagnosis was 15.7 months. No prognostic tool predicted the probability of achieving an objective response. Nonetheless, all five tools were associated with overall survival (OS, P=0.025 for the IPSS, P=0.011 for WPSS and P<0.001 for the other three tools). The corrected Akaike Information Criteria, which were used to compare OS with the different prognostic scoring systems as covariates (lower is better) were 4138 (MDAPSS), 4156 (FPSS), 4196 (IPSS-R), 4186 (WPSS) and 4196 (IPSS). Patients in the highest-risk groups of the prognostic tools had a median OS from diagnosis of 11-16 months and should be considered for up-front transplantation or experimental approaches. PMID:26464171

  6. Comparison of risk stratification tools in predicting outcomes of patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes treated with azanucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, AM; Sekeres, MA; Garcia-Manero, G; Steensma, DP; Zell, K; Barnard, J; Ali, NA; Zimmerman, C; Roboz, G; DeZern, A; Nazha, A; Jabbour, E; Kantarjian, H; Gore, SD; Maciejewski, JP; List, A; Komrokji, R

    2016-01-01

    Established prognostic tools in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) were largely derived from untreated patient cohorts. Although azanucleosides are standard therapies for higher-risk (HR)-MDS, the relative prognostic performance of existing prognostic tools among patients with HR-MDS receiving azanucleoside therapy is unknown. In the MDS Clinical Research Consortium database, we compared the prognostic utility of the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS), revised IPSS (IPSS-R), MD Anderson Prognostic Scoring System (MDAPSS), World Health Organization-based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) and the French Prognostic Scoring System (FPSS) among 632 patients who presented with HR-MDS and were treated with azanucleosides as the first-line therapy. Median follow-up from diagnosis was 15.7 months. No prognostic tool predicted the probability of achieving an objective response. Nonetheless, all five tools were associated with overall survival (OS, P = 0.025 for the IPSS, P = 0.011 for WPSS and P < 0.001 for the other three tools). The corrected Akaike Information Criteria, which were used to compare OS with the different prognostic scoring systems as covariates (lower is better) were 4138 (MDAPSS), 4156 (FPSS), 4196 (IPSS-R), 4186 (WPSS) and 4196 (IPSS). Patients in the highest-risk groups of the prognostic tools had a median OS from diagnosis of 11 16 months and should be considered for up-front transplantation or experimental approaches. PMID:26464171

  7. Risk Stratification in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: An Ongoing Process

    PubMed Central

    Omry-Orbach, Gal

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is an increasingly common malignancy, with a rapidly rising prevalence worldwide. The social and economic ramifications of the increase in thyroid cancer are multiple. Though mortality from thyroid cancer is low, and most patients will do well, the risk of recurrence is not insignificant, up to 30%. Therefore, it is important to accurately identify those patients who are more or less likely to be burdened by their disease over years and tailor their treatment plan accordingly. The goal of risk stratification is to do just that. The risk stratification process generally starts postoperatively with histopathologic staging, based on the AJCC/UICC staging system as well as others designed to predict mortality. These do not, however, accurately assess the risk of recurrence/persistence. Patients initially considered to be at high risk may ultimately do very well yet be burdened by frequent unnecessary monitoring. Conversely, patients initially thought to be low risk, may not respond to their initial treatment as expected and, if left unmonitored, may have higher morbidity. The concept of risk-adaptive management has been adopted, with an understanding that risk stratification for differentiated thyroid cancer is dynamic and ongoing. A multitude of variables not included in AJCC/UICC staging are used initially to classify patients as low, intermediate, or high risk for recurrence. Over the course of time, a response-to-therapy variable is incorporated, and patients essentially undergo continuous risk stratification. Additional tools such as biochemical markers, genetic mutations, and molecular markers have been added to this complex risk stratification process such that this is essentially a continuum of risk. In recent years, additional considerations have been discussed with a suggestion of pre-operative risk stratification based on certain clinical and/or biologic characteristics. With the increasing prevalence of thyroid cancer but stable mortality, this risk stratification may identify those in whom the risk of conventional surgical treatment may outweigh the benefit. This review aims to outline the process of risk stratification and highlight the important concepts that are involved and those that are continuously evolving. PMID:26886959

  8. Techniques for risk stratification of newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Birgitta; Deininger, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm caused by BCR-ABL, a constitutively active tyrosine kinase generated as a result of the t(9;22)(q34;q11). The natural history of CML is progression from a relatively benign chronic phase to an acute leukemia termed blast crisis. Imatinib, an inhibitor of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase activity, has a dramatic effect on the natural history of the disease. Despite the favorable outcomes with imatinib, a subset of patients have primary refractory disease, or experience relapse after an initial response. Recently identified molecular predictors of drug response might help predict outcome with tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy more accurately than clinical prognostication scores, but have not yet been introduced into clinical routine. These techniques include analysis of drug transport proteins, in vitro drug assays, measurement of imatinib plasma levels, BCR-ABL activity monitoring, and gene expression profiling. In this article we review the current status of these technologies, which may ultimately allow us to tailor therapy to a specific patient. PMID:21299455

  9. Risk stratification in cardiac amyloidosis: novel approaches.

    PubMed

    Kristen, Arnt V; Meyer, F Joachim; Perz, Jolanta B; Schonland, Stefan O; Hundemer, Michael; Hegenbart, Ute; Singer, Reinhard; Schnabel, Philipp A; Sack, Falk-Udo; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Katus, Hugo A; Dengler, Thomas J

    2005-09-27

    Amyloidosis is a term for diseases with extracellular deposition of insoluble beta-fibrillar proteins in different organs. The heart is primarily involved in more than half of patients with immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis or hereditary amyloidosis and associated with poor prognosis. Different traditional diagnostic tools that have been described for risk stratification lack of sufficient sensitivity and specificity for patient survival. Until November 2004 in 50 consecutive patients with light chain amyloidosis and 15 patients with hereditary amyloidosis electrocardiography, echocardiography, Holter monitoring, cardiopulmonary exercise test, lung function testing, tilt-test, and laboratory investigations have been performed at our department. Cardiac amyloidosis was found in 32 patients. Interventricular septum (14.3+/-0.5 mm vs. 12.3+/-0.7 mm, P<0.05), plasma NT-proBNP (7154+/-2122 ng/l vs. 380+/-113 ng/l; P<0.01), cardiac Troponin T (0.105+/-0.030 vs. 0.019+/-0.010 microg/l; P<0.05) were increased in patients with cardiac amyloidosis as compared to patients light chain amyloidosis but no cardiac involvement. Maximal inspiratory (Pimax) and expiratory (Pemax) mouth pressure were decreased with CA compared to controls. Correlation of NT-proBNP and interventricular septum thickness (r=0.53, P=0.029) as well as and Pimax (r=0.72, P<0.01) or Pemax (r=0.69; P<0.01) was noticed. A correlation of grade of arrhythmias in Holter monitoring and syncopes was not observed. Cardiac involvement of amyloid disease carries a poor prognosis and is not well characterized by classic heart failure determinants. Heart transplantation based on novel risk markers including NT-proBNP might be a suitable therapeutic approach for patients with manifest cardiac amyloidosis, but will require alternative patient selection and listing criteria. PMID:16286895

  10. Genetic markers used for risk stratification in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Segges, Priscilla; Braggio, Esteban

    2011-01-01

    While no specific genetic markers are required in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM), multiple genetic abnormalities and gene signatures are used in disease prognostication and risk stratification. This is particularly important for the adequate identification of the high-risk MM group, which does not benefit from any of the current therapies, and novel approaches need to be proposed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been employed for establishing risk-based stratification and still remains the most used genetic technique in the clinical routine. The incorporation of gene expression profiling (GEP) in the study of MM has shown to be a very powerful test in the patient stratification, but its incorporation in clinical routine depends on some technical and logistic resolutions. Thus, FISH still remains the gold standard test for detecting genomic abnormalities and outcome discrimination in MM. PMID:22567368

  11. Risk stratification of prostate cancer in the modern era

    PubMed Central

    Behesnilian, Andrew S.; Reiter, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review Novel tools have become available to the practicing urologist in recent years that endeavor to improve on commonly utilized prostate cancer (PCa) risk stratification techniques. In this review, we provide an overview of these modalities in the context of active surveillance. Recent Findings Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) has a rapidly growing body of evidence that suggests it provides the necessary sensitivity and NPV to rule out clinically significant disease. MRI-guided targeted biopsy has the potential to improve detection of clinically significant cancers and for rebiopsy of patients with continued suspicion for PCa. PSA isoforms and Prostate Health Index (PHI) outperform PSA alone and improve risk stratification when combined with established criteria, but need further prospective studies using template and MRI-targeted biopsies. Urinary biomarkers tend to fall short in predicting adverse pathology when used alone, but improve risk-stratification when used in conjunction and with established criteria. Finally, tissue biomarkers and gene assays allow for patient-specific molecular and genetic characterization of cancer phenotype, showing significant promise in predicting adverse pathology and in some cases have already been incorporated into and altered clinical practice. Summary These novel modalities show remarkable promise in improving the risk-stratification of patients with PCa, and as the body of evidence grows will likely become incorporated into major oncologic guidelines and standard urologic practice. Further prospective clinical studies are needed, as well as analysis of cost-effectiveness. PMID:25730325

  12. Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death: current approaches and predictive value.

    PubMed

    Lopera, Gustavo; Curtis, Anne B

    2009-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a serious public health problem; the annual incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in North America is approximately 166,200. Identifying patients at risk is a difficult proposition. At the present time, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) remains the single most important marker for risk stratification. According to current guidelines, most patients with LVEF <35% could benefit from prophylactic ICD implantation, particularly in the setting of symptomatic heart failure. Current risk stratification strategies fail to identify patients at risk of SCD in larger population groups encompassing a greater number of potential SCD victims. However, the best approach to identifying patients and the value of various risk stratification tools is not entirely clear. The goal of this review is to discuss the problem of SCD and the value of the different risk stratification markers and their potential clinical use either alone or in combination with other risk stratification markers. PMID:20066150

  13. Percutaneous biopsy for risk stratification of renal masses

    PubMed Central

    Blute, Michael L.; Drewry, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of abdominal imaging has led to identification of more patients with incidental renal masses, and renal mass biopsy (RMB) has become a popular method to evaluate unknown renal masses prior to definitive treatment. Pathologic data obtained from biopsy may be used to guide decisions for treatment and may include the presence or absence of malignant tumor, renal cell cancer subtype, tumor grade and the presence of other aggressive pathologic features. However, prior to using RMB for risk stratification, it is important to understand whether RMB findings are equivalent to pathologic analysis of surgical specimens and to identify any potential limitations of this approach. This review outlines the advantages and limitations of the current studies that evaluate RMB as a guide for treatment decision in patients with unknown renal masses. In multiple series, RMB has demonstrated low morbidity and a theoretical reduction in cost, if patients with benign tumors are identified from biopsy and can avoid subsequent treatment. However, when considering the routine use of RMB for risk stratification, it is important to note that biopsy may underestimate risk in some patients by undergrading, understaging or failing to identify aggressive tumor features. Future studies should focus on developing treatment algorithms that integrate RMB to identify the optimal use in risk stratification of patients with unknown renal masses. PMID:26425141

  14. Risk stratification model in elderly patients with multiple myeloma: clinical role of magnetic resonance imaging combined with international staging system and cytogenetic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Song, Moo-Kon; Chung, Joo-Seop; Lee, Je-Jung; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Song, Ik-Chan; Lee, Sang-Min; Shin, Dong-Yeop; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Lee, In-Sook

    2015-01-01

    The International Staging System (ISS) does not take into consideration the clinical role of imaging modalities in multiple myeloma (MM), even though these are important. Some studies have indicated a lack of impact of ISS in MM patients who receive novel agents. Therefore, accessible novel risk stratification might be needed in elderly MM patients receiving conventional therapy or novel agents. We analyzed 198 newly diagnosed and symptomatic MM patients who were not eligible for transplantation. The initial treatment regimen was therapy with melphalan-prednisone (MP, n = 44), thalidomide-cyclophosphamide-dexamethasone (n = 89) or bortezomib-MP (VMP, n = 65). The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pattern was normal in 34 patients, focal in 30 and diffuse/variegated in 134. High-risk cytogenetic abnormalities were not associated with the diffuse/variegated MRI pattern (p = 0.182). ISS stage III [progression-free survival (PFS) p = 0.005; overall survival (OS) p = 0.027], high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities (PFS p = 0.001; OS p < 0.001) and diffuse/variegated MRI pattern (PFS p < 0.001; OS p < 0.001) were independently associated with poorer PFS and OS. Patients were further stratified according to the 3 prognostic factors. The PFS and OS of the 3 groups differed significantly. The addition of the diffuse/variegated MRI pattern may improve the prognostic potential of the current staging system which includes ISS and cytogenetic abnormalities. PMID:25832367

  15. Distant Metastasis Risk Stratification for Patients Undergoing Curative Resection Followed by Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyubo; Chie, Eui Kyu; Jang, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun Whe; Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Tae-You; Bang, Yung-Jue; Ha, Sung W.; Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To analyze the prognostic factors predicting distant metastasis in patients undergoing adjuvant chemoradiation for extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 1995 and August 2006, 166 patients with EHBD cancer underwent resection with curative intent, followed by adjuvant chemoradiation. There were 120 males and 46 females, and median age was 61 years (range, 34-86). Postoperative radiotherapy was delivered to tumor bed and regional lymph nodes (median dose, 40 Gy; range, 34-56 Gy). A total of 157 patients also received fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy as a radiosensitizer, and fluoropyrimidine-based maintenance chemotherapy was administered to 127 patients. Median follow-up duration was 29 months. Results: The treatment failed for 97 patients, and the major pattern of failure was distant metastasis (76 patients, 78.4%). The 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rate was 49.4%. The most common site of distant failure was the liver (n = 36). On multivariate analysis, hilar tumor, tumor size {>=}2 cm, involved lymph node, and poorly differentiated tumor were associated with inferior distant metastasis-free survival (p = 0.0348, 0.0754, 0.0009, and 0.0078, respectively), whereas T stage was not (p = 0.8081). When patients were divided into four groups based on these risk factors, the 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rates for patients with 0, 1, 2, and 3 risk factors were 86.4%, 59.9%, 32.5%, and 0%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Despite maintenance chemotherapy, distant metastasis was the major pattern of failure in patients undergoing adjuvant chemoradiation for EHBD cancer after resection with curative intent. Intensified chemotherapy is warranted to improve the treatment outcome, especially in those with multiple risk factors.

  16. Risk Stratification for Acute Kidney Injury: Are Biomarkers Enough?

    PubMed

    McMahon, Blaithin A; Koyner, Jay L

    2016-05-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication that is associated with several adverse outcomes in hospitalized patients. AKI significantly increases the risk of mortality, need for renal replacement therapy, and intensive care admission, and it also has serious economic ramifications. Effective risk stratification to identify patients at risk for severe AKI is essential for targeting our health care and research resources to tackle this important public health issue. The overwhelming majority of research in earlier diagnosis and risk stratification of AKI over the past 10 years has focused on novel biomarker development. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on other novel risk stratification tools than can be used in the prognostication of AKI. We discuss the utility of the furosemide stress test in predicting the severity of AKI and the renal angina index in predicting the occurrence of AKI. We also discuss NephroCheck, a prognostic test that measures tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 for the early detection of severe AKI. PMID:27113693

  17. Is risk stratification ever the same as 'profiling'?

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, R Scott; Stevens, Elizabeth R; Caplan, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    Physicians engage in risk stratification as a normative part of their professional duties. Risk stratification has the potential to be beneficial in many ways, and implicit recognition of this potential benefit underlies its acceptance as a cornerstone of the medical profession. However, risk stratification also has the potential to be harmful. We argue that 'profiling' is a term that corresponds to risk stratification strategies in which there is concern that ethical harms exceed likely or proven benefits. In the case of risk stratification for health goals, this would occur most frequently if benefits were obtained by threats to justice, autonomy or privacy. We discuss implications of the potential overlap between risk stratification and profiling for researchers and for clinicians, and we consider whether there are salient characteristics that make a particular risk stratification algorithm more or less likely to overlap with profiling, such as whether the risk stratification algorithm is based on voluntary versus non-voluntary characteristics, based on causal versus non-causal characteristics, or based on signifiers of historical disadvantage. We also discuss the ethical challenges created when a risk stratification scheme helps all subgroups but some more than others, or when risk stratification harms some subgroups but benefits the aggregate group. PMID:26796335

  18. Quantitative Risk Stratification of Oral Leukoplakia with Exfoliative Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyong; Liu, Xudong; Khawar, Waqaar; Zhang, Xinyan; Wang, Fan; Chen, Xiaoxin; Sun, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology has been widely used for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Test outcome is reported as “negative”, “atypical” (defined as abnormal epithelial changes of uncertain diagnostic significance), and “positive” (defined as definitive cellular evidence of epithelial dysplasia or carcinoma). The major challenge is how to properly manage the “atypical” patients in order to diagnose OSCC early and prevent OSCC. In this study, we collected exfoliative cytology data, histopathology data, and clinical data of normal subjects (n=102), oral leukoplakia (OLK) patients (n=82), and OSCC patients (n=93), and developed a data analysis procedure for quantitative risk stratification of OLK patients. This procedure involving a step called expert-guided data transformation and reconstruction (EdTAR) which allows automatic data processing and reconstruction and reveals informative signals for subsequent risk stratification. Modern machine learning techniques were utilized to build statistical prediction models on the reconstructed data. Among the several models tested using resampling methods for parameter pruning and performance evaluation, Support Vector Machine (SVM) was found to be optimal with a high sensitivity (median>0.98) and specificity (median>0.99). With the SVM model, we constructed an oral cancer risk index (OCRI) which may potentially guide clinical follow-up of OLK patients. One OLK patient with an initial OCRI of 0.88 developed OSCC after 40 months of follow-up. In conclusion, we have developed a statistical method for qualitative risk stratification of OLK patients. This method may potentially improve cost-effectiveness of clinical follow-up of OLK patients, and help design clinical chemoprevention trial for high-risk populations. PMID:25978541

  19. Quantitative risk stratification of oral leukoplakia with exfoliative cytology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Li, Jianying; Liu, Xiaoyong; Liu, Xudong; Khawar, Waqaar; Zhang, Xinyan; Wang, Fan; Chen, Xiaoxin; Sun, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology has been widely used for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Test outcome is reported as "negative", "atypical" (defined as abnormal epithelial changes of uncertain diagnostic significance), and "positive" (defined as definitive cellular evidence of epithelial dysplasia or carcinoma). The major challenge is how to properly manage the "atypical" patients in order to diagnose OSCC early and prevent OSCC. In this study, we collected exfoliative cytology data, histopathology data, and clinical data of normal subjects (n=102), oral leukoplakia (OLK) patients (n=82), and OSCC patients (n=93), and developed a data analysis procedure for quantitative risk stratification of OLK patients. This procedure involving a step called expert-guided data transformation and reconstruction (EdTAR) which allows automatic data processing and reconstruction and reveals informative signals for subsequent risk stratification. Modern machine learning techniques were utilized to build statistical prediction models on the reconstructed data. Among the several models tested using resampling methods for parameter pruning and performance evaluation, Support Vector Machine (SVM) was found to be optimal with a high sensitivity (median>0.98) and specificity (median>0.99). With the SVM model, we constructed an oral cancer risk index (OCRI) which may potentially guide clinical follow-up of OLK patients. One OLK patient with an initial OCRI of 0.88 developed OSCC after 40 months of follow-up. In conclusion, we have developed a statistical method for qualitative risk stratification of OLK patients. This method may potentially improve cost-effectiveness of clinical follow-up of OLK patients, and help design clinical chemoprevention trial for high-risk populations. PMID:25978541

  20. Morphomic analysis as an aid for preoperative risk stratification in patients undergoing major head and neck cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rinkinen, Jacob; Agarwal, Shailesh; Beauregard, Jeff; Aliu, Oluseyi; Benedict, Matthew; Buchman, Steven R.; Wang, Stewart C.; Levi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing major head and neck cancer surgery (MHNCS) may develop significant postoperative complications. To minimize the risk of complications, clinicians often assess multiple measures of preoperative health in terms of medical comorbidities. One emerging method to decrease surgical complications is preoperative assessment of patient frailty measured by specific tissue characteristics. We hypothesize that morphomic characteristics of the temporalis region serve as predictive markers for the development of complications after MHNCS. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 69 patients with available computed tomography (CT) imaging who underwent MHNCS from 2006–2012. To measure temporalis region characteristics, we used morphomic analysis of available preoperative CT scans to map out the region. All available CT scans had been performed as part of the patient’s routine work-up and were not ordered for morphomic analysis. We describe the correlation among temporalis fat pad volume (TFPV), mean zygomatic arch thickness, and incidence of postoperative complications. Results We noted significant difference in the zygomatic bone thickness and TFPV between patients who had medical complications, surgical complications, or total major complications and those who did not. Furthermore, by use of binary logistic regression, our data suggest decreased TFPV and zygomatic arch thickness are stronger predictors of developing postoperative complications than previously studies preoperative characteristics. Conclusions We describe morphomic analysis of the temporalis region in patients undergoing MHNCS to identify patients at risk for complications. Regional anatomic morphology may serve as a marker to objectively determine a patient’s overall health. Use of the temporalis region is appropriate in patients undergoing MHNCS because of the availability of preoperative scans as part of routine work up for head and/or neck cancer. PMID:25456114

  1. Risk stratification of T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia patients based on gene expression, mutations and copy number variation.

    PubMed

    Mirji, Gauri; Bhat, Jaydeep; Kode, Jyoti; Banavali, Shripad; Sengar, Manju; Khadke, Prashant; Sait, Osama; Chiplunkar, Shubhada

    2016-06-01

    Gene expression, copy number variations (CNV), mutations and survival were studied to delineate TCRγδ+T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) as a distinct subgroup from TCRαβ+T-ALL. Gene Ontology analysis showed that differential regulation of genes involved in pathways for leukemogenesis, apoptosis, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and antigen processing/presentation may offer a survival benefit to TCRγδ+T-ALL patients. Genes involved in disease biology and having equal expression in both the subgroups, were further analysed for mutations and CNV using droplet digital PCR. TCRγδ+T-ALL patients exhibited differential level of mutations for NOTCH1 and IKZF3; however BRAF mutations were detected at equal levels in both the subgroups. Although TCRγδ+T-ALL patients with these mutations demonstrated improved disease-free survival (DFS) as compared TCRαβ+T-ALL patients, it was not statistically significant. Patients with homozygous deletion of CDKN2A/CDKN2B showed poor DFS in each subgroup. TCRγδ+T-ALL patients with wild type/heterozygous deletion of CDKN2A/CDKN2B possess significantly better DFS over TCRαβ+T-ALL patients (p=0.017 and 0.045, respectively). Thus, the present study has for the first time demonstrated TCRγδ clonality and CDKN2A/CDKN2B CNV together as potential prognostic markers in management of T-ALL. Further understanding the functional significance of differentially regulated genes in T-ALL patients would aid in designing risk based treatment strategies in subset specific manner. PMID:27070758

  2. Spontaneous baroreceptor reflex sensitivity for risk stratification of heart failure patients: optimal cut-off and age effects.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Sónia; Scotto, Manuel G; Pinna, Gian Domenico; Maestri, Roberto; La Rovere, Maria Teresa; Ferreira, Paulo J S G

    2015-12-01

    Baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS) is an important prognostic factor because a reduced BRS has been associated with an adverse cardiovascular outcome. The threshold for a 'reduced' BRS was established by the ATRAMI study at BRS <3 ms/mmHg in patients with a previous myocardial infarction, and has been shown to improve risk assessment in many other cardiac dysfunctions. The successful application of this cut-off to other populations suggests that it may reflect an inherent property of baroreflex functioning, so our goal is to investigate whether it represents a 'natural' partition of BRS values. As reduced baroreflex responsiveness is also associated with ageing, we investigated whether a BRS estimate <3 ms/mmHg could be the result of a process of physiological senescence as well as a sign of BRS dysfunction. This study involved 228 chronic heart failure patients and 60 age-matched controls. Our novel method combined transfer function BRS estimation and automatic clustering of BRS probability distributions, to define indicative levels of different BRS activities. The analysis produced a fit clustering (cophenetic correlation coefficient 0.9 out of 1) and identified one group of homogeneous patients (well separated from the others by 3 ms/mmHg) with an increased BRS-based mortality risk [hazard ratio (HR): 3.19 (1.73, 5.89), P<0.001]. The age-dependent BRS cut-off, estimated by 5% quantile regression of log (BRS) with age (considering the age-matched controls), provides a similar mortality value [HR: 2.44 (1.37, 4.43), P=0.003]. In conclusion, the 3 ms/mmHg cut-off identifies two large clusters of homogeneous heart failure (HF) patients, thus supporting the hypothesis of a natural cut-off in the HF population. Furthermore, age was found to have no statistical impact on risk assessment, suggesting that there is no need to establish age-based cut-offs because 3 ms/mmHg optimally identifies patients at high mortality risk. PMID:26432088

  3. Cardiac PET Perfusion: Prognosis, Risk Stratification, Clinical Management

    PubMed Central

    Dorbala, Sharmila; Di Carli, Marcelo F.

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with positron emission tomography (PET) has expanded significantly over the past decade. With the wider availability of PET scanners and the routine use of quantitative blood flow imaging, the clinical use of PET MPI is expected to increase further. PET MPI is a powerful tool to identify risk, to quantify risk, and to guide therapy in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). A large body of evidence supports the prognostic value of PET MPI and ejection fraction in intermediate to high risk subjects, in women, in obese individuals and in post coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) individuals. A normal perfusion study indicates low risk (< 1% annualized rate of cardiac events of cardiac death and non-fatal myocardial infarction), while an abnormal study indicates high risk. With accurate risk stratification, high quality images, and quantitation PET MPI may transform the management of patients with known or suspected CAD. PMID:25234079

  4. Cardiac risk stratification in cardiac rehabilitation programs: a review of protocols

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Anne Kastelianne França; Barbosa, Marianne Penachini da Costa de Rezende; Bernardo, Aline Fernanda Barbosa; Vanderlei, Franciele Marques; Pacagnelli, Francis Lopes; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques

    2014-01-01

    Objective Gather and describe general characteristics of different protocols of risk stratification for cardiac patients undergoing exercise. Methods We conducted searches in LILACS, IBECS, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and SciELO electronic databases, using the following descriptors: Cardiovascular Disease, Rehabilitation Centers, Practice Guideline, Exercise and Risk Stratification in the past 20 years. Results Were selected eight studies addressing methods of risk stratification in patients undergoing exercise. Conclusion None of the methods described could cover every situation the patient can be subjected to; however, they are essential to exercise prescription. PMID:25140477

  5. Ventricular repolarization measures for arrhythmic risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Monitillo, Francesco; Leone, Marta; Rizzo, Caterina; Passantino, Andrea; Iacoviello, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Ventricular repolarization is a complex electrical phenomenon which represents a crucial stage in electrical cardiac activity. It is expressed on the surface electrocardiogram by the interval between the start of the QRS complex and the end of the T wave or U wave (QT). Several physiological, pathological and iatrogenic factors can influence ventricular repolarization. It has been demonstrated that small perturbations in this process can be a potential trigger of malignant arrhythmias, therefore the analysis of ventricular repolarization represents an interesting tool to implement risk stratification of arrhythmic events in different clinical settings. The aim of this review is to critically revise the traditional methods of static analysis of ventricular repolarization as well as those for dynamic evaluation, their prognostic significance and the possible application in daily clinical practice. PMID:26839657

  6. Stratification and Risk Reduction of Perioperative Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Ishag, Selma; Thakar, Charuhas V

    2016-03-01

    Perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. The incidence of AKI varies depending on preoperative risk factors and the surgical setting. Preoperative risk stratification is critical for informed consent and perioperative planning. Perioperative renal protection strategies are potentially invaluable in the prevention of AKI. Current advances in the development of biomarkers may offer the opportunity for early diagnosis and the implementation of therapeutic strategies. Increased awareness and concerted efforts by all perioperative physicians are needed to provide an improved outcome for surgical patients. PMID:26927741

  7. Noninvasive Risk Stratification of Lung Adenocarcinoma using Quantitative Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Raghunath, Sushravya; Maldonado, Fabien; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; DePew, Zackary S.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Peikert, Tobias; Robb, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the US and worldwide. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer and encompasses lesions with widely variable clinical outcomes. In the absence of noninvasive risk stratification, individualized patient management remains challenging. Consequently a subgroup of pulmonary nodules of the lung adenocarcinoma spectrum is likely treated more aggressively than necessary. Methods Consecutive patients with surgically resected pulmonary nodules of the lung adenocarcinoma spectrum (lesion size ≤ 3 cm, 2006–2009) and available pre-surgical high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging were identified at Mayo Clinic Rochester. All cases were classified using an unbiased Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield (CANARY) approach based on the quantification of pre-surgical HRCT characteristics. CANARY-based classification was independently correlated to postsurgical progression-free survival. Results CANARY analysis of 264 consecutive patients identified three distinct subgroups. Independent comparisons of 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) between these subgroups demonstrated statistically significant differences in 5-year DFS, 100%, 72.7% and 51.4%, respectively (p = 0.0005). Conclusions Non-invasive CANARY based risk stratification identifies subgroups of patients with pulmonary nodules of the adenocarcinoma spectrum characterized by distinct clinical outcomes. This technique may ultimately improve the current expert opinion-based approach to the management of these lesions by facilitating individualized patient management. PMID:25170645

  8. Clinical Risk Stratification for Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Judy; Yee, Raymond; Healey, Jeffrey S.; Birnie, David; Simpson, Christopher S.; Crystal, Eugene; Mangat, Iqwal; Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy; Wang, Xuesong; Krahn, Andrew D.; Dorian, Paul; Austin, Peter C.; Tu, Jack V.

    2015-01-01

    Background— A conceptualized model may be useful for understanding risk stratification of primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillators considering the competing risks of appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock versus mortality. Methods and Results— In a prospective, multicenter, population-based cohort with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% referred for primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator, we developed dual risk stratification models to determine the competing risks of appropriate defibrillator shock versus mortality using a Fine-Gray subdistribution hazard model. Among 7020 patients referred, 3445 underwent defibrillator implant (79.7% men, median, 66 years [25th, 75th: 58–73]). During 5918 person-years of follow-up, appropriate shock occurred in 204 patients (3.6 shocks/100 person-years) and 292 died (4.9 deaths/100 person-years). Competing risk predictors of appropriate shock included nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, serum creatinine concentration, digoxin or amiodarone use, and QRS duration near 130-ms peak. One-year cumulative incidence of appropriate shock was 0.9% in the lowest risk category, and 1.7%, 2.5%, 4.9%, and 9.3% in low, intermediate, high, and highest risk groups, respectively. Hazard ratios for appropriate shock ranged from 4.04 to 7.79 in the highest 3 deciles (all P≤0.001 versus lowest risk). Cumulative incidence of 1-year death was 0.6%, 1.9%, 3.3%, 6.2%, and 17.7% in lowest, low, intermediate, high, and highest risk groups, respectively. Mortality hazard ratios ranged from 11.48 to 36.22 in the highest 3 deciles (all P<0.001 versus lowest risk). Conclusions— Simultaneous estimation of risks of appropriate shock and mortality can be performed using clinical variables, providing a potential framework for identification of patients who are unlikely to benefit from prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator. PMID:26224792

  9. Recent advances in the management of chronic stable angina I: Approach to the patient, diagnosis, pathophysiology, risk stratification, and gender disparities

    PubMed Central

    Kones, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The potential importance of both prevention and personal responsibility in controlling heart disease, the leading cause of death in the USA and elsewhere, has attracted renewed attention. Coronary artery disease is preventable, using relatively simple and inexpensive lifestyle changes. The inexorable rise in the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, often in the risk cluster known as the metabolic syndrome, drives the ever-increasing incidence of heart disease. Population-wide improvements in personal health habits appear to be a fundamental, evidence based public health measure, yet numerous barriers prevent implementation. A common symptom in patients with coronary artery disease, classical angina refers to the typical chest pressure or discomfort that results when myocardial oxygen demand rises and coronary blood flow is reduced by fixed, atherosclerotic, obstructive lesions. Different forms of angina and diagnosis, with a short description of the significance of pain and silent ischemia, are discussed in this review. The well accepted concept of myocardial oxygen imbalance in the genesis of angina is presented with new data about clinical pathology of stable angina and acute coronary syndromes. The roles of stress electrocardiography and stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphic imaging are reviewed, along with the information these tests provide about risk and prognosis. Finally, the current status of gender disparities in heart disease is summarized. Enhanced risk stratification and identification of patients in whom procedures will meaningfully change management is an ongoing quest. Current guidelines emphasize efficient triage of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Many experts believe the predictive value of current decision protocols for coronary artery disease still needs improvement in order to optimize outcomes, yet avoid unnecessary coronary angiograms and radiation exposure. Coronary angiography remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of coronary artery obstructive disease. Part II of this two part series will address anti-ischemic therapies, new agents, cardiovascular risk reduction, options to treat refractory angina, and revascularization. PMID:20730020

  10. Recent advances in the management of chronic stable angina I: approach to the patient, diagnosis, pathophysiology, risk stratification, and gender disparities.

    PubMed

    Kones, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The potential importance of both prevention and personal responsibility in controlling heart disease, the leading cause of death in the USA and elsewhere, has attracted renewed attention. Coronary artery disease is preventable, using relatively simple and inexpensive lifestyle changes. The inexorable rise in the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, often in the risk cluster known as the metabolic syndrome, drives the ever-increasing incidence of heart disease. Population-wide improvements in personal health habits appear to be a fundamental, evidence based public health measure, yet numerous barriers prevent implementation. A common symptom in patients with coronary artery disease, classical angina refers to the typical chest pressure or discomfort that results when myocardial oxygen demand rises and coronary blood flow is reduced by fixed, atherosclerotic, obstructive lesions. Different forms of angina and diagnosis, with a short description of the significance of pain and silent ischemia, are discussed in this review. The well accepted concept of myocardial oxygen imbalance in the genesis of angina is presented with new data about clinical pathology of stable angina and acute coronary syndromes. The roles of stress electrocardiography and stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphic imaging are reviewed, along with the information these tests provide about risk and prognosis. Finally, the current status of gender disparities in heart disease is summarized. Enhanced risk stratification and identification of patients in whom procedures will meaningfully change management is an ongoing quest. Current guidelines emphasize efficient triage of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Many experts believe the predictive value of current decision protocols for coronary artery disease still needs improvement in order to optimize outcomes, yet avoid unnecessary coronary angiograms and radiation exposure. Coronary angiography remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of coronary artery obstructive disease. Part II of this two part series will address anti-ischemic therapies, new agents, cardiovascular risk reduction, options to treat refractory angina, and revascularization. PMID:20730020

  11. The Delayed Risk Stratification System in the Risk of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Walczyk, Agnieszka; Pałyga, Iwona; Gąsior-Perczak, Danuta; Gadawska-Juszczyk, Klaudia; Szymonek, Monika; Trybek, Tomasz; Lizis-Kolus, Katarzyna; Szyska-Skrobot, Dorota; Mikina, Estera; Hurej, Stefan; Słuszniak, Janusz; Mężyk, Ryszard; Góźdź, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Context There has been a marked increase in the detection of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) over the past few years, which has improved the prognosis. However, it is necessary to adjust treatment and monitoring strategies relative to the risk of an unfavourable disease course. Materials and Methods This retrospective study examined data from 916 patients with DTC who received treatment at a single centre between 2000 and 2013. The utility of the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and the European Thyroid Association (ETA) recommended systems for early assessment of the risk of recurrent/persistent disease was compared with that of the recently recommended delayed risk stratification (DRS) system. Results The PPV and NPV for the ATA (24.59% and 95.42%, respectively) and ETA (24.28% and 95.68%, respectively) were significantly lower than those for the DRS (56.76% and 98.5%, respectively) (p<0.0001). The proportion of variance for predicting the final outcome was 15.8% for ATA, 16.1% for ETA and 56.7% for the DRS. Recurrent disease was rare (1% of patients), and was nearly always identified in patients at intermediate/high risk according to the initial stratification (9/10 cases). Conclusions The DRS showed a better correlation with the risk of persistent disease than the early stratification systems and allows personalisation of follow-up. If clinicians plan to alter the intensity of surveillance, patients at intermediate/high risk according to the early stratification systems should remain within the specialized centers; however, low risk patients can be referred to endocrinologists or other appropriate practitioners for long-term follow-up, as these patients remained at low risk after risk re-stratification. PMID:27078258

  12. Risk stratification for wilms tumor: current approach and future directions.

    PubMed

    Dome, Jeffrey S; Perlman, Elizabeth J; Graf, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Wilms tumor, or nephroblastoma, has provided a paradigm for progressive improvement in clinical outcomes achieved through serial cooperative group studies. With modern surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy approaches, the overall survival rate for patients with Wilms tumor has reached 90%. Remarkably, the increase in survival has been achieved with a reduction in therapy for most patient subgroups, leading not only to more survivors, but also to healthier survivors. A key contributor to improved outcomes has been the development of clinical and biologic prognostic markers that have enabled risk-directed therapy. Whereas the early cooperative group studies used only tumor stage for risk stratification, current Children's Oncology Group (COG) and International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOP) protocols employ a multitude of prognostic factors to guide therapy. Prognostic factors used in the current generation of COG studies include stage, histology, patient age, tumor weight, completeness of lung nodule response, and loss of heterozygosity at chromosomes 1p and 16q. Future COG studies seek to incorporate gain of chromosome 1q and methylation pattern of chromosome 11p15 into the risk classification schema. Prognostic factors used in the current SIOP studies include stage, histology, tumor volume, and responsiveness to therapy. Future SIOP studies seek to incorporate absolute blastemal volume and novel molecular markers for resistant blastema into the risk stratification approach. PMID:24857079

  13. Thyroid Incidentalomas: Epidemiology, Risk Stratification with Ultrasound and Workup

    PubMed Central

    Russ, Gilles; Leboulleux, Sophie; Leenhardt, Laurence; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    A thyroid incidentaloma is an unexpected, asymptomatic thyroid tumor fortuitously discovered during the investigation of an unrelated condition. The prevalence rate is 67% with ultrasonography (US) imaging, 15% with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the neck, and 1-2% with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography. In the absence of a history of external beam radiation or familial medullary thyroid cancer, the risk of malignancy ranges between 5 and 13% when discovered with US, CT or MRI, but is much higher if based on focal FDG uptake (30%). All patients with a thyroid incidentaloma, independent of the mode of detection, should undergo a dedicated neck US with risk stratification: US imaging allows a quantitative risk stratification of malignancy in thyroid nodules, named ‘reporting system’ or ‘TIRADs' (thyroid imaging reporting and data system). The reported sensitivity ranges from 87 to 95% for the detection of carcinomas and the negative predictive value from 88 to 99.8%. We suggest that the indications for fine-needle aspiration be based mainly on size and US risk stratification. However, the diagnosis and workup of thyroid incidentalomas leads to superfluous surgery for benign conditions, and excess diagnosis and treatment of papillary microcarcinomas, the vast majority of which would cause no harm. Recognizing this must form the basis of any decision as to supplementary investigations and whether to offer therapy, in a close dialogue between patient and physician. The current use of minimally invasive nonsurgical ablation options, as alternatives to surgery, is highlighted. PMID:25538897

  14. Risk stratification in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes: Risk scores, biomarkers and clinical judgment

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, David; Grant, Patrick; Berry, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Undifferentiated chest pain is one of the most common reasons for emergency department attendance and admission to hospitals. Non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) is an important cause of chest pain, and accurate diagnosis and risk stratification in the emergency department must be a clinical priority. In the future, the incidence of NSTE-ACS will rise further as higher sensitivity troponin assays are implemented in clinical practice. In this article, we review contemporary approaches for the diagnosis and risk stratification of NSTE-ACS during emergency care. We consider the limitations of current practices and potential improvements. Clinical guidelines recommend an early invasive strategy in higher risk NSTE-ACS. The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score is a validated risk stratification tool which has incremental prognostic value for risk stratification compared with clinical assessment or troponin testing alone. In emergency medicine, there has been a limited adoption of the GRACE score in some countries (e.g. United Kingdom), in part related to a delay in obtaining timely blood biochemistry results. Age makes an exponential contribution to the GRACE score, and on an individual patient basis, the risk of younger patients with a flow-limiting culprit coronary artery lesion may be underestimated. The future incorporation of novel cardiac biomarkers into this diagnostic pathway may allow for earlier treatment stratification. The cost-effectiveness of the new diagnostic pathways based on high-sensitivity troponin and copeptin must also be established. Finally, diagnostic tests and risk scores may optimize patient care but they cannot replace patient-focused good clinical judgment. PMID:26753174

  15. Revisiting Wolff-Parkinson-White risk stratification: a malignant arrhythmia in a patient with intermittent pre-excitation.

    PubMed

    Paul, Erin A; Mone, Suzanne M; Liberman, Leonardo

    2016-04-01

    It has been reported that the presence of intermittent pre-excitation indicates low risk of rapid conduction via the accessory pathway in atrial fibrillation. We report a case of a 10-year-old boy with a history of intermittent pre-excitation who presented with atrial fibrillation with very rapid conduction. PMID:26388223

  16. Risk stratification and dental management of the patient with cardiovascular diseases. Part I: Etiology, epidemiology, and principles of medical management.

    PubMed

    Steinhauer, Tad; Bsoul, Samer A; Terezhalmy, Geza T

    2005-02-01

    The heart pumps blood through a system of blood vessels under the control of an electric conduction system to deliver oxygen to all cells of the body. When the blood volume becomes greater than the limited volume capacity of the vascular system, the patient develops hypertension. When the myocardium does not get enough oxygen because of coronary artery disease, the patient will experience angina pectoris. If oxygen deprivation to the myocardium persists, the patient may develop myocardial infarction. When the conduction system malfunctions, arrhythmias occur and the heart is unable to pump blood through the vascular system at a regular rate and rhythm. When the heart is no longer able to pump enough blood to meet the metabolic demands of the body for oxygen, the patient is said to have developed heart failure. In addition, many of the above conditions can lead to thromboembolic complications. These cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the United States and most other Western countries. In the United States alone, more than 1 million annual deaths and as many as three times that number of serious consequences can be attributed to these conditions. To provide care to patients with cardiovascular disease, oral health care providers must understand the disease, its treatment, and its impact on the patient's ability to undergo and respond to dental care. PMID:15732548

  17. Performance And Agreement Of Risk Stratification Instruments For Postoperative Delirium In Persons Aged 50 Years Or Older

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Carolien J.; Absalom, Anthony R.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; van Leeuwen, Barbara L.; Izaks, Gerbrand J.

    2014-01-01

    Several risk stratification instruments for postoperative delirium in older people have been developed because early interventions may prevent delirium. We investigated the performance and agreement of nine commonly used risk stratification instruments in an independent validation cohort of consecutive elective and emergency surgical patients aged ≥50 years with ≥1 risk factor for postoperative delirium. Data was collected prospectively. Delirium was diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. The observed incidence of postoperative delirium was calculated per risk score per risk stratification instrument. In addition, the risk stratification instruments were compared in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), and positive and negative predictive value. Finally, the positive agreement between the risk stratification instruments was calculated. When data required for an exact implementation of the original risk stratification instruments was not available, we used alternative data that was comparable. The study population included 292 patients: 60% men; mean age (SD), 66 (8) years; 90% elective surgery. The incidence of postoperative delirium was 9%. The maximum observed incidence per risk score was 50% (95%CI, 15–85%); for eight risk stratification instruments, the maximum observed incidence per risk score was ≤25%. The AUC (95%CI) for the risk stratification instruments varied between 0.50 (0.36–0.64) and 0.66 (0.48–0.83). No AUC was statistically significant from 0.50 (p≥0.11). Positive predictive values of the risk stratification instruments varied between 0–25%, negative predictive values between 89–95%. Positive agreement varied between 0–66%. No risk stratification instrument showed clearly superior performance. In conclusion, in this independent validation cohort, the performance and agreement of commonly used risk stratification instruments for postoperative delirium was poor. Although some caution is needed because the risk stratification instruments were not implemented exactly as described in the original studies, we think that their usefulness in clinical practice can be questioned. PMID:25464335

  18. Risk stratification by p16 immunostaining of CIN1 biopsies: a retrospective study of patients from the quadrivalent HPV vaccine trials.

    PubMed

    Mills, Anne M; Paquette, Cherie; Castle, Philip E; Stoler, Mark H

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies of p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) on CIN1 have suggested the likely utility of p16 in stratification of women at risk for subsequent CIN2/3. But those studies had limitations in statistical power, histologic diagnosis, and disease ascertainment. We conducted a retrospective study of p16 IHC on adjudicated CIN1 tissue diagnosed in young women participating in the placebo arm of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine trials. Tissue sections were stained with p16 IHC and hematoxylin and eosin. p16 IHC was scored using LAST criteria, and hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections were reviewed for concordance with the adjudicated diagnosis. p16 IHC, antecedent high-grade cytology, review diagnosis, and HPV16 detection were assessed as independent risk factors for subsequent CIN2/3. Five hundred twenty-four patients with CIN1 biopsies and complete data were identified, 63 (12.0%) of whom developed CIN2/3 in follow-up. p16 positivity (P=0.06), review diagnosis of CIN2/3 (P=0.04), HPV16 positivity (P=0.01), and antecedent high-grade cytology (P=0.02) were (marginally) associated with CIN2/3. In a logistic regression model, the associations with CIN2/3 (vs. other), expressed as odds ratios (95% confidence intervals), were 1.6 (0.91-2.8) for p16, 2.0 (1.0-3.7) for HPV16, and 2.2 (1.1-2.4) for antecedent high-grade cytology. The mean risks for CIN2/3 estimated from the model ranged from 7.6% for negative for all markers to 36.3% for positive for all 3 markers. p16 IHC does not risk stratify CIN1 patients in a manner that would alter recommended management for CIN1. This reinforces the LAST recommendations that p16 should only be used selectively for problematic scenarios, such as CIN2 because of its inherent lack of reproducibility, cases in which one is struggling between CIN1 and CIN2, and benign mimics of CIN3. PMID:25602791

  19. [Ventricular preexcitation: is risk stratification feasible?].

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Francesco; Mancuso, Paola; Chiatto, Mario; Calvelli, Antonio; De Donato, Vincenzo; Mazza, Salvatore; Spadafora, Gabriele

    2010-04-01

    The Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is a current debated clinical issue. Although the anatomical characteristics, polymorphic electrocardiographic features, and electrophysiological mechanisms of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death are well known, the identification of patients at risk of sudden cardiac death remains challenging. Owing to the lack of effective therapeutic strategies, in the pre-ablation era many studies have been conducted to define the prognostic value of clinical and instrumental tests, and to define the actual risk of sudden cardiac death in patients with ventricular preexcitation. Nowadays, radiofrequency transcatheter ablation of anomalous atrioventricular pathways is a strong therapeutic option for all patients, independent of the risk of sudden cardiac death. However, radiofrequency ablation is associated with serious complications, but many studies confirm an overall good prognosis for most of the patients with electrocardiographic pattern of ventricular preexcitation. The aim of this review is to assess the prognostic value of clinical and instrumental tests in patients with ventricular preexcitation, referring to the latest knowledge. PMID:20677574

  20. Role of risk stratification by SPECT, PET, and hybrid imaging in guiding management of stable patients with ischaemic heart disease: expert panel of the EANM cardiovascular committee and EACVI.

    PubMed

    Acampa, Wanda; Gaemperli, Oliver; Gimelli, Alessia; Knaapen, Paul; Schindler, Thomas H; Verberne, Hein J; Zellweger, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Risk stratification has become increasingly important in the management of patients with suspected or known ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Recent guidelines recommend that these patients have their care driven by risk assessment. The purpose of this position statement is to summarize current evidence on the value of cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and hybrid imaging in risk stratifying asymptomatic or symptomatic patients with suspected IHD, patients with stable disease, patients after coronary revascularization, heart failure patients, and specific patient population. In addition, this position statement evaluates the impact of imaging results on clinical decision-making and thereby its role in patient management. The document represents the opinion of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Cardiovascular Committee and of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) and intends to stimulate future research in this field. PMID:25902767

  1. Simplified risk stratification criteria for identification of patients with MRSA bacteremia at low risk of infective endocarditis: implications for avoiding routine transesophageal echocardiography in MRSA bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Buitron de la Vega, P; Tandon, P; Qureshi, W; Nasr, Y; Jayaprakash, R; Arshad, S; Moreno, D; Jacobsen, G; Ananthasubramaniam, K; Ramesh, M; Zervos, M

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia with low risk of infective endocarditis (IE) who might not require routine trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE). We retrospectively evaluated 398 patients presenting with MRSA bacteremia for the presence of the following clinical criteria: intravenous drug abuse (IVDA), long-term catheter, prolonged bacteremia, intra-cardiac device, prosthetic valve, hemodialysis dependency, vertebral/nonvertebral osteomyelitis, cardio-structural abnormality. IE was diagnosed using the modified Duke criteria. Of 398 patients with MRSA bacteremia, 26.4 % of cases were community-acquired, 56.3 % were health-care-associated, and 17.3 % were hospital-acquired. Of the group, 44 patients had definite IE, 119 had possible IE, and 235 had a rejected diagnosis. Out of 398 patients, 231 were evaluated with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) or TEE. All 44 patients with definite IE fulfilled at least one criterion (sensitivity 100 %). Finally, a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was obtained to evaluate the total risk score of our proposed criteria as a predictor of the presence of IE, and this was compared to the ROC curve of a previously proposed criteria. The area under the ROC curve for our criteria was 0.710, while the area under the ROC curve for the criteria previously proposed was 0.537 (p < 0.001). The p-value for comparing those 2 areas was less than 0.001, indicating statistical significance. Patients with MRSA bacteremia without any of our proposed clinical criteria have very low risk of developing IE and may not require routine TEE. PMID:26676855

  2. Stratification of ALS patients' survival: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Marin, Benoît; Couratier, Philippe; Arcuti, Simona; Copetti, Massimiliano; Fontana, Andrea; Nicol, Marie; Raymondeau, Marie; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Preux, Pierre Marie

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and patient risk stratification are areas of considerable research interest. We aimed (1) to describe the survival of a representative cohort of French ALS patients, and (2) to identify covariates associated with various patterns of survival using a risk classification analysis. ALS patients recruited in the FRALim register (2000-2013) were included. Time-to-death analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox model. A recursive partitioning and amalgamation (RECPAM) algorithm analysis identified subgroups of patients with different patterns of survival. Among 322 patients, median survival times were 26.2 and 15.6 months from time of onset and of diagnosis, respectively. Four groups of patients were identified, depending on their baseline characteristics and survival (1) ALSFRS-R slope >0.46/month and definite or probable ALS (median survival time (MST) 10.6 months); (2) ALSFRS-R slope >0.46/month and possible or probable laboratory-supported ALS (MST: 18.1 months); (3) ALSFRS-R slope ≤0.46/month and definite or probable ALS (MST: 22.5 months), and (4) ALSFRS-R slope ≤0.46/month and possible or probable laboratory-supported ALS (MST: 37.6 months). Median survival time is among the shortest ever reported by a worldwide population-based study. This is probably related to the age structure of the patients (the oldest identified to date), driven by the underlying population (30 % of subjects older than 60 years). Further research in the field of risk stratification could help physicians better anticipate prognosis of ALS patients, and help improve the design of randomized controlled trials. PMID:26518423

  3. Is a Pattern of Increasing Biomarker Concentrations Important for Long-Term Risk Stratification in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients Presenting Early after the Onset of Symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Kavsak, Peter A.; Newman, Alice M.; Ko, Dennis T.; Palomaki, Glenn E.; Lustig, Viliam; MacRae, Andrew R.; Jaffe, Allan S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Guidelines for treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) recommend observing a rise or fall in cardiac troponin (cTn) concentrations for assessing acute injury. It is unknown whether a rising pattern presages a more adverse long-term prognosis than elevations that do not change. The present study assessed whether a rising pattern of cardiac biomarkers was more prognostic than simple elevations. METHODS We measured N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (Roche), cTnT (Roche) and cTnI (Beckman Coulter) in 212 ACS patients. These biomarkers were measured in coincident EDTA and heparin plasma samples available from at least 2 different time points, an early first specimen obtained a median of 2 hours after onset of symptoms, interquartile range (IQR) 2– 4 hours, and a later second specimen obtained at 9 hours, IQR 9 –9 hours. The cTn concentration in the second specimen was used to classify myocardial necrosis (cTnI >0.04 ug/L; cTnT >0.01 ug/L). Outcomes [death, myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure (HF)] were obtained >8 years after the initial presentation. For patients with myocardial necrosis and a cTn concentration ratio (second/first measured concentrations) ≥1.00, the concentration ratios and the absolute concentrations in the second specimen were used to assess prognosis after 4 years. RESULTS In myocardial necrosis, the relative change (cTn2/cTn1) was greater for cTnI than for cTnT (P <0.01), whereas the relative change in NT-proBNP was the same regardless of which troponin was used to classify necrosis (P =0.71). The concentration ratio for cTnI, cTnT, and NT-proBNP was not useful for risk stratification (i.e., death/MI/HF; P ≥0.15). CONCLUSIONS A rise in cardiac troponin or NT-proBNP concentration in ACS patients presenting early after onset of pain is not helpful for long-term prognosis. PMID:18375487

  4. Risk stratification for ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in the era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Brogan, Richard A; Malkin, Christopher J; Batin, Phillip D; Simms, Alexander D; McLenachan, James M; Gale, Christopher P

    2014-01-01

    Acute coronary syndromes presenting with ST elevation are usually treated with emergency reperfusion/revascularisation therapy. In contrast current evidence and national guidelines recommend risk stratification for non ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) with the decision on revascularisation dependent on perceived clinical risk. Risk stratification for STEMI has no recommendation. Statistical risk scoring techniques in NSTEMI have been demonstrated to improve outcomes however their uptake has been poor perhaps due to questions over their discrimination and concern for application to individuals who may not have been adequately represented in clinical trials. STEMI is perceived to carry sufficient risk to warrant emergency coronary intervention [by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI)] even if this results in a delay to reperfusion with immediate thrombolysis. Immediate thrombolysis may be as effective in patients presenting early, or at low risk, but physicians are poor at assessing clinical and procedural risks and currently are not required to consider this. Inadequate data on risk stratification in STEMI inhibits the option of immediate fibrinolysis, which may be cost-effective. Currently the mode of reperfusion for STEMI defaults to emergency angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention ignoring alternative strategies. This review article examines the current risk scores and evidence base for risk stratification for STEMI patients. The requirements for an ideal STEMI risk score are discussed. PMID:25228966

  5. Perceived health and geriatric risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Bluestein, Daniel; Rutledge, Carolyn M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between perceived health and self-reported presence of certain geriatric conditions. Perceived health (the way people rate their own health) is a summary measure of health status that predicts functional decline, health care use, and mortality, but has not been examined as a measure of the prevalence of key geriatric conditions among older adults. DESIGN Cross-sectional surveys addressing perceived health and other study variables were mailed to practice patients. SETTING An urban university-based family medicine residency program. PARTICIPANTS In a random sample of 400 patients (from 1327 potential participants) older than 65 years (excluding those with known dementia), more than half (262) responded with usable surveys. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Self-reported geriatric syndromes, such as perceived memory loss, depression, falls, incontinence, weight loss, problems with walking, and difficulties with instrumental activities of daily living. RESULTS Of 262 respondents, 102 reported that they perceived their health as poor or fair and were much more likely than people who perceived their health as robust (good, very good, or excellent) to report memory impairment (49.6% vs 23.1%), depression (38.0% vs 13.5%), falls (26.5% vs 12.5%), incontinence (48.5% vs 34.6%), weight loss (33.3% vs 15.4%), needing help with walking (27.3% vs 13.1%), and difficulties with activities of daily living (57.6% vs 24.4%). CONCLUSION These results support the hypothesis that assessment of perceived health can help differentiate low-risk elderly people requiring usual surveillance for geriatric conditions from high-risk elderly people who require timely evaluation and management. PMID:17327894

  6. Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: systematic review of clinical risk markers.

    PubMed

    Christiaans, Imke; van Engelen, Klaartje; van Langen, Irene M; Birnie, Erwin; Bonsel, Gouke J; Elliott, Perry M; Wilde, Arthur A M

    2010-03-01

    We performed a systematic literature review of recommended 'major' and 'possible' clinical risk markers for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We searched the Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases for articles published between 1971 and 2007. We included English language reports on HCM patients containing follow-up data on the endpoint (sudden) cardiac death using survival analysis. Analysis was undertaken using the quality of reporting of meta-analyses (QUORUM) statement checklist. The quality was checked using a quality assessment form from the Cochrane Collaboration. Thirty studies met inclusion criteria and passed quality assessment. The use of the six major risk factors (previous cardiac arrest or sustained ventricular tachycardia, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, extreme left ventricular hypertrophy, unexplained syncope, abnormal blood pressure response, and family history of sudden death) in risk stratification for SCD as recommended by international guidelines was supported by the literature. In addition, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction seems associated with a higher risk of SCD. Our systematic review provides sound evidence for the use of the six major risk factors for SCD in the risk stratification of HCM patients. Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction could be included in the overall risk profile of patients with a marked left ventricular outflow gradient under basal conditions. PMID:20118111

  7. Patient Stratification for Preventive Care in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Giannobile, W.V.; Braun, T.M.; Caplis, A.K.; Doucette-Stamm, L.; Duff, G.W.; Kornman, K.S.

    2013-01-01

    Prevention reduces tooth loss, but little evidence supports biannual preventive care for all adults. We used risk-based approaches to test tooth loss association with 1 vs. 2 annual preventive visits in high-risk (HiR) and low-risk (LoR) patients. Insurance claims for 16 years for 5,117 adults were evaluated retrospectively for tooth extraction events. Patients were classified as HiR for progressive periodontitis if they had ≥ 1 of the risk factors (RFs) smoking, diabetes, interleukin-1 genotype; or as LoR if no RFs. LoR event rates were 13.8% and 16.4% for 2 or 1 annual preventive visits (absolute risk reduction, 2.6%; 95%CI, 0.5% to 5.8%; p = .092). HiR event rates were 16.9% and 22.1% for 2 and 1 preventive visits (absolute risk reduction, 5.2%; 95%CI, 1.8% to 8.4%; p = .002). Increasing RFs increased events (p < .001). Oral health care costs were not increased by any single RF, regardless of prevention frequency (p > .41), but multiple RFs increased costs vs. no (p < .001) or 1 RF (p = .001). For LoR individuals, the association between preventive dental visits and tooth loss was not significantly different whether the frequency was once or twice annually. A personalized medicine approach combining gene biomarkers with conventional risk factors to stratify populations may be useful in resource allocation for preventive dentistry (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01584479). PMID:23752171

  8. Electrophysiologic testing guided risk stratification approach for sudden cardiac death beyond the left ventricular ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Gatzoulis, Konstantinos A; Tsiachris, Dimitris; Arsenos, Petros; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death threats ischaemic and dilated cardiomyopathy patients. Anti- arrhythmic protection may be provided to these patients with implanted cardiac defibrillators (ICD), after an efficient risk stratification approach. The proposed risk stratifier of an impaired left ventricular ejection fraction has limited sensitivity meaning that a significant number of victims will remain undetectable by this risk stratification approach because they have a preserved left ventricular systolic function. Current risk stratification strategies focus on combinations of non invasive methods like T wave alternans, late potentials, heart rate turbulence, deceleration capacity and others, with invasive methods like the electrophysiologic study. In the presence of an electrically impaired substrate with formed post myocardial infarction fibrotic zones, programmed ventricular stimulation provides important prognostic information for the selection of the patients expected to benefit from an ICD implantation, while due to its high negative predictive value, patients at low risk level may also be detected. Clustering evidence from different research groups and electrophysiologic labs support an electrophysiologic testing guided risk stratification approach for sudden cardiac death. PMID:26839662

  9. Electrophysiologic testing guided risk stratification approach for sudden cardiac death beyond the left ventricular ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Gatzoulis, Konstantinos A; Tsiachris, Dimitris; Arsenos, Petros; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2016-01-26

    Sudden cardiac death threats ischaemic and dilated cardiomyopathy patients. Anti- arrhythmic protection may be provided to these patients with implanted cardiac defibrillators (ICD), after an efficient risk stratification approach. The proposed risk stratifier of an impaired left ventricular ejection fraction has limited sensitivity meaning that a significant number of victims will remain undetectable by this risk stratification approach because they have a preserved left ventricular systolic function. Current risk stratification strategies focus on combinations of non invasive methods like T wave alternans, late potentials, heart rate turbulence, deceleration capacity and others, with invasive methods like the electrophysiologic study. In the presence of an electrically impaired substrate with formed post myocardial infarction fibrotic zones, programmed ventricular stimulation provides important prognostic information for the selection of the patients expected to benefit from an ICD implantation, while due to its high negative predictive value, patients at low risk level may also be detected. Clustering evidence from different research groups and electrophysiologic labs support an electrophysiologic testing guided risk stratification approach for sudden cardiac death. PMID:26839662

  10. Diagnosis and risk stratification in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    van de Donk, Niels W C J; Sonneveld, Pieter

    2014-10-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a tumor of monoclonal plasma cells, which produce a monoclonal antibody and expand predominantly in the bone marrow. Patients present with hypercalcemia, renal impairment, anemia, and/or bone disease. Only patients with symptomatic MM require therapy, whereas asymptomatic patients receive regular follow-up. Survival of patients with MM is very heterogeneous. The variety in outcome is explained by host factors as well as tumor-related characteristics reflecting biology of the MM clone and tumor burden. The identification of cytogenetic abnormalities by fluorescence in situ hybridization is currently the most important and widely available prognostic factor in MM. PMID:25212883

  11. Raynaud’s phenomenon and digital ischemia: a practical approach to risk stratification, diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    McMahan, Zsuzsanna H.; Wigley, Fredrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Digital ischemia is a painful and often disfiguring event. Such an ischemic event often leads to tissue loss and can significantly affect the patient’s quality of life. Digital ischemia can be secondary to a vasculopathy, vasculitis, embolic disease, trauma, or extrinsic vascular compression. It is an especially serious complication in patients with scleroderma. Risk stratification of patients with scleroderma at risk for digital ischemia is now possible with clinical assessment and autoantibody profiles. Because there are a variety of conditions that lead to digital ischemia, it is important to understand the pathophysiology underlying each ischemic presentation in order to target therapy appropriately. Significant progress has been made in the last two decades in defining the pathophysiological processes leading to digital ischemia in rheumatic diseases. In this article we review the risk stratification, diagnosis, and management of patients with digital ischemia and provide a practical approach to therapy, particularly in scleroderma. PMID:26523153

  12. Risk stratification in multiple myeloma, part 1: characterization of high-risk disease.

    PubMed

    Biran, Noa; Jagannath, Sundar; Chari, Ajai

    2013-08-01

    Survival in multiple myeloma (MM) is variable, ranging from several months to more than 15 years. While survival has recently improved with the use of novel therapy, approximately 25% of patients have a median survival of 2 years or less. Accurate identification of high-risk patients, and risk stratification, are crucial in improving outcomes for all patients. In the first part of this two part series, we review the currently identified prognostic factors characterized by disease burden (Durie-Salmon staging system, International Staging System, magnetic resonance imaging, (18F) fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, presence of extramedullary disease or plasma-cell leukemia), host factors (age, performance status, and renal function), tumor biology (proliferation rate, conventional cytogenetics, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization, and gene expression profiling), and depth of response to therapy. Efforts have been made to identify ultra-high-risk patients by combining all the identified variables into a unifying comprehensive model. In the second part of this series, we will discuss the significance of these factors in the context of currently available therapies for MM, distinguishing between treatments that only improve outcomes of high-risk patients when compared with previous therapies, versus those that overcome high-risk status, thereby reclassifying these patients as standard risk. PMID:24518420

  13. Gene signature combinations improve prognostic stratification of multiple myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    Chng, W J; Chung, T-H; Kumar, S; Usmani, S; Munshi, N; Avet-Loiseau, H; Goldschmidt, H; Durie, B; Sonneveld, P

    2016-05-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell neoplasm with significant molecular heterogeneity. Gene expression profiling (GEP) has contributed significantly to our understanding of the underlying biology and has led to several prognostic gene signatures. However, the best way to apply these GEP signatures in clinical practice is unclear. In this study, we investigated the integration of proven prognostic signatures for improved patient risk stratification. Three publicly available MM GEP data sets that encompass newly diagnosed as well as relapsed patients were analyzed using standardized estimation of nine prognostic MM signature indices and simulations of signature index combinations. Cox regression analysis was used to assess the performance of simulated combination indices. Taking the average of multiple GEP signature indices was a simple but highly effective way of integrating multiple GEP signatures. Furthermore, although adding more signatures in general improved performance substantially, we identified a core signature combination, EMC92+HZDCD, as the top-performing prognostic signature combination across all data sets. In this study, we provided a rationale for gene signature integration and a practical strategy to choose an optimal risk score estimation in the presence of multiple prognostic signatures. PMID:26669975

  14. Risk stratification in autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases: Opportunities for clinicians and trialists.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Palak J; Corpechot, Christophe; Pares, Albert; Hirschfield, Gideon M

    2016-02-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are infrequent autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases, that disproportionate to their incidence and prevalence, remain very important causes of morbidity and mortality for patients with liver disease. Mechanistic insights spanning genetic risks and biological pathways to liver injury and fibrosis have led to a renewed interest in developing therapies beyond ursodeoxycholic acid that are aimed at both slowing disease course and improving quality of life. International cohort studies have facilitated a much greater understanding of disease heterogeneity, and in so doing highlight the opportunity to provide patients with a more individualized assessment of their risk of progressive liver disease, based on clinical, laboratory, or imaging findings. This has led to a new approach to patient care that focuses on risk stratification (both high and low risk); and furthermore allows such stratification tools to help identify patient subgroups at greatest potential benefit from inclusion in clinical trials. In this article, we review the applicability and validity of risk stratification in autoimmune cholestatic liver disease, highlighting strengths and weaknesses of current and emergent approaches. (Hepatology 2016;63:644-659). PMID:26290473

  15. Risk stratification algorithm for management of patients with dual modular taper total hip arthroplasty: consensus statement of the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and the Hip Society.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young-Min; Fehring, Thomas K; Lombardi, Adolph V; Barnes, C Lowry; Cabanela, Miguel E; Jacobs, Joshua J

    2014-11-01

    Although 'dual taper' modular stems with interchangeable modular necks have the potential to optimize hip biomechanical parameters, there is increasing concern regarding the occurrence of adverse local tissue reactions from mechanically assisted crevice corrosion at the neck-stem taper junction. A systematic treatment approach (risk stratification algorithm) based on the currently available data is recommended to optimize patient management. While specialized tests such as metal ion analysis and MARS MRI are useful modalities in evaluating for adverse tissue reactions, over-reliance on any single investigative tool in the clinical decision-making process should be avoided. There should be a low threshold to perform a systematic evaluation of patients with dual taper stem total hip arthroplasty as early recognition and diagnosis will facilitate the initiation of appropriate treatment. PMID:25189673

  16. Risk stratification using data from electronic medical records better predicts suicide risks than clinician assessments

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To date, our ability to accurately identify patients at high risk from suicidal behaviour, and thus to target interventions, has been fairly limited. This study examined a large pool of factors that are potentially associated with suicide risk from the comprehensive electronic medical record (EMR) and to derive a predictive model for 1–6 month risk. Methods 7,399 patients undergoing suicide risk assessment were followed up for 180 days. The dataset was divided into a derivation and validation cohorts of 4,911 and 2,488 respectively. Clinicians used an 18-point checklist of known risk factors to divide patients into low, medium, or high risk. Their predictive ability was compared with a risk stratification model derived from the EMR data. The model was based on the continuation-ratio ordinal regression method coupled with lasso (which stands for least absolute shrinkage and selection operator). Results In the year prior to suicide assessment, 66.8% of patients attended the emergency department (ED) and 41.8% had at least one hospital admission. Administrative and demographic data, along with information on prior self-harm episodes, as well as mental and physical health diagnoses were predictive of high-risk suicidal behaviour. Clinicians using the 18-point checklist were relatively poor in predicting patients at high-risk in 3 months (AUC 0.58, 95% CIs: 0.50 – 0.66). The model derived EMR was superior (AUC 0.79, 95% CIs: 0.72 – 0.84). At specificity of 0.72 (95% CIs: 0.70-0.73) the EMR model had sensitivity of 0.70 (95% CIs: 0.56-0.83). Conclusion Predictive models applied to data from the EMR could improve risk stratification of patients presenting with potential suicidal behaviour. The predictive factors include known risks for suicide, but also other information relating to general health and health service utilisation. PMID:24628849

  17. Vascular Disease and Risk Stratification for Ischemic Stroke and All-Cause Death in Heart Failure Patients without Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Melgaard, Line; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Rasmussen, Lars Hvilsted; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard

    2016-01-01

    Background Stroke and mortality risk among heart failure patients previously diagnosed with different manifestations of vascular disease is poorly described. We conducted an observational study to evaluate the stroke and mortality risk among heart failure patients without diagnosed atrial fibrillation and with peripheral artery disease (PAD) or prior myocardial infarction (MI). Methods Population-based cohort study of patients diagnosed with incident heart failure during 2000–2012 and without atrial fibrillation, identified by record linkage between nationwide registries in Denmark. Hazard rate ratios of ischemic stroke and all-cause death after 1 year of follow-up were used to compare patients with either: a PAD diagnosis; a prior MI diagnosis; or no vascular disease. Results 39,357 heart failure patients were included. When compared to heart failure patients with no vascular disease, PAD was associated with a higher 1-year rate of ischemic stroke (adjusted hazard rate ratio [HR]: 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08–1.65) and all-cause death (adjusted HR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.35–1.59), whereas prior MI was not (adjusted HR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.86–1.15 and 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89–1.00, for ischemic stroke and all-cause death, respectively). When comparing patients with PAD to patients with prior MI, PAD was associated with a higher rate of both outcomes. Conclusions Among incident heart failure patients without diagnosed atrial fibrillation, a previous diagnosis of PAD was associated with a significantly higher rate of the ischemic stroke and all-cause death compared to patients with no vascular disease or prior MI. Prevention strategies may be particularly relevant among HF patients with PAD. PMID:27015524

  18. Risk stratification of adult emergency department syncope patients to predict short-term serious outcomes after discharge (RiSEDS) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While Canadian ED physicians discharge most syncope patients with no specific further follow-up, approximately 5% will suffer serious outcomes after ED discharge. The goal of this study is to prospectively identify risk factors and to derive a clinical decision tool to accurately predict those at risk for serious outcomes after ED discharge within 30 days. Methods/Design We will conduct a prospective cohort study at 6 Canadian EDs to include adults with syncope and exclude patients with loss of consciousness > 5 minutes, mental status changes from baseline, obvious witnessed seizure, or head trauma prior to syncope. Emergency physicians will collect standardized clinical variables including historical features, physical findings, and results of immediately available tests (blood, ECG, and ED cardiac monitoring) prior to ED discharge/hospital admission. A second emergency physician will evaluate approximately 10% of study patients for interobserver agreement calculation of predictor variables. The primary outcome will be a composite serious outcome occurring within 30 days of ED discharge and includes three distinct categories: serious adverse events (death, arrhythmia); identification of serious underlying disease (structural heart disease, aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, severe pulmonary hypertension, subarachnoid hemorrhage, significant hemorrhage, myocardial infarction); or procedures to treat the cause of syncope. The secondary outcome will be any of the above serious outcomes either suspected or those occurring in the ED. A blinded Adjudication Committee will confirm all serious outcomes. Univariate analysis will be performed to compare the predictor variables in patients with and without primary outcome. Variables with p-values <0.2 and kappa values ≥0.60 will be selected for stepwise logistic regression to identify the risk factors and to develop the clinical decision tool. We will enroll 5,000 patients (with 125 positive for primary outcome) for robust identification of risk factors and clinical decision tool development. Discussion Once successfully developed, this tool will accurately risk-stratify adult syncope patients; however, validation and implementation will still be required. This program of research should lead to standardized care of syncope patients, and improve patient safety. PMID:24629180

  19. Stratification of the Risk of Sudden Death in Nonischemic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Maurício; Zimerman, Leandro Ioschpe; Rohde, Luis Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant therapeutic advancements, heart failure remains a highly prevalent clinical condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In 30%-40% patients, the etiology of heart failure is nonischemic. The implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is capable of preventing sudden death and decreasing total mortality in patients with nonischemic heart failure. However, a significant number of patients receiving ICD do not receive any kind of therapy during follow-up. Moreover, considering the situation in Brazil and several other countries, ICD cannot be implanted in all patients with nonischemic heart failure. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify patients at an increased risk of sudden death because these would benefit more than patients at a lower risk, despite the presence of heart failure in both risk groups. In this study, the authors review the primary available methods for the stratification of the risk of sudden death in patients with nonischemic heart failure. PMID:25352509

  20. Biomarkers of inflammation and cardiac remodeling: the quest of relevant companions for the risk stratification of heart failure patients is still ongoing.

    PubMed

    Gruson, Damien; Ahn, Sylvie A; Rousseau, Michel F

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a frequent chronic disease in elderly people and represents a major health and economic burden. The accurate diagnosis of HF and the identification of high risk patients is mandatory to select the appropriate therapy and care. HF is associated to cardiac remodeling and inflammation and to the release of neurohormones. If natriuretic peptides remain the biomarkers of choice for the diagnosis and the prognosis of HF, several biomarkers related to cardiac remodeling and inflammation are available for testing and may add valuable information for the risk estimation of HF patients and for the selection of the most appropriated therapy. Furthermore, the quest for new efficient biomarkers of cardiac remodeling and inflammation is still ongoing and new candidates have been identified for a potential use in daily clinical practices. However, before their potential translation to routine parameters several challenges ranging form the analytical validation to the cost-effectiveness estimation should be considered. PMID:22420239

  1. Risk stratification after myocardial infarction: is left ventricular ejection fraction enough to prevent sudden cardiac death?

    PubMed

    Dagres, Nikolaos; Hindricks, Gerhard

    2013-07-01

    Patients who have experienced a myocardial infarction (MI) are at increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). With the advent of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), accurate risk stratification has become very relevant. Numerous investigations have proven that a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) significantly increases the SCD risk. Furthermore, ICD implantation in patients with reduced LVEF confers significant survival benefit. As a result, LVEF is the cornerstone of current decision making for prophylactic ICD implantation after MI. However, LVEF as standalone risk stratifier has major limitations: (i) the majority of SCD cases occur in patients with preserved or moderately reduced LVEF, (ii) only relatively few patients with reduced LVEF will benefit from an ICD (most will never experience a threatening arrhythmic event, others have a high risk for non-sudden death), (iii) a reduced LVEF is a risk factor for both sudden and non-sudden death. Several other non-invasive and invasive risk stratifiers, such as ventricular ectopy, QRS duration, signal-averaged electrocardiogram, microvolt T-wave alternans, markers of autonomic tone as well as programmed ventricular stimulation, have been evaluated. However, none of these techniques has unequivocally demonstrated the efficacy when applied alone or in combination with LVEF. Apart from their limited sensitivity, most of them are risk factors for both sudden and non-sudden death. Considering the multiple mechanisms involved in SCD, it seems unlikely that a single test will prove adequate for all patients. A combination of clinical characteristics with selected stratification tools may significantly improve risk stratification in the future. PMID:23644180

  2. Combination of the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index and the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation score allows a better stratification of high-risk patients undergoing reduced-toxicity allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Barba, Pere; Martino, Rodrigo; Pérez-Simón, José Antonio; Fernández-Avilés, Francesc; Castillo, Nerea; Piñana, José Luis; López-Anglada, Lucía; Rovira, Montserrat; Bosch, Francesc; Carreras, Enric; Corral, Lucía López; Sierra, Jorge; Valcárcel, David

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether the integration of the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) and the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) score would improve individual capacity for stratification of high-risk HCT candidates. A total of 442 consecutive patients receiving an allogeneic HCT after reduced-toxicity conditioning was included. Final HCT-CI and EBMT scores were calculated and validated. Then, patients were grouped into a 6-category new combination model according to the HCT-CI (0, 1 to 2, ≥ 3) and EBMT scores (0 to 3, 4 to 7), and the model's predictive capacity was also evaluated. Median HCT-CI and EBMT scores were 3 and 4, respectively. Increased HCT-CI was associated with higher 4-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and lower 4-year overall survival (OS), whereas a high EBMT score was associated with higher 4-year NRM. The HCT-CI showed a trend for a better predictive capacity than the EBMT score (c-statistic .6 versus .54, P = .1). According to the new model, patients within HCT-CI of 0 and HCT-CI of 1 to 2 groups had similar risk of NRM independently of their EBMT score. Within the HCT-CI ≥ 3 group, patients with low EBMT score showed lower NRM (25% versus 40%, P = .04) and a trend to higher OS (52% versus 36%, P = .06) than patients with a high EBMT score. Moreover, patients with HCT-CI ≥ 3 and EBMT score 0 to 3 had similar outcomes than those with HCT-CI of 1 to 2. In conclusion, the combination of HCT-CI and the EBMT score is feasible and might contribute to a better identification of high-risk patients, improving selection of best allogeneic HCT candidates. PMID:24141006

  3. Novel Biomarkers for Risk Stratification and Identification of Life-threatening Cardiovascular Disease: Troponin and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Razzouk, Louai; Fusaro, Mario; Esquitin, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Chest pain and other symptoms that may represent acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are common reasons for emergency department (ED) presentations, accounting for over six million visits annually in the United States [1]. Chest pain is the second most common ED presentation in the United States. Delays in diagnosis and inaccurate risk stratification of chest pain can result in serious morbidity and mortality from ACS, pulmonary embolism (PE), aortic dissection and other serious pathology. Because of the high morbidity, mortality, and liability issues associated with both recognized and unrecognized cardiovascular pathology, an aggressive approach to the evaluation of this patient group has become the standard of care. Clinical history, physical examination and electrocardiography have a limited diagnostic and prognostic role in the evaluation of possible ACS, PE, and aortic dissection, so clinicians continue to seek more accurate means of risk stratification. Recent advances in diagnostic imaging techniques particularly computed-tomography of the coronary arteries and aorta, have significantly improved our ability to diagnose life-threatening cardiovascular disease. In an era where health care utilization and cost are major considerations in how disease is managed, it is crucial to risk-stratify patients quickly and efficiently. Historically, biomarkers have played a significant role in the diagnosis and risk stratification of several cardiovascular disease states including myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and pulmonary embolus. Multiple biomarkers have shown early promise in answering questions of risk stratification and early diagnosis of cardiovascular pathology however many do not yet have wide clinical availability. The goal of this review will be to discuss these novel biomarkers and describe their potential role in direct patient care. PMID:22708908

  4. Early risk stratification in pediatric type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Broe, Rebecca

    2015-03-01

    In the late 1980s all Danish children with type 1 diabetes were invited for a nationwide evaluation of glycemic control. Approximately 75% (n = 720) participated and have later been referred to as The Danish Cohort of Pediatric Diabetes 1987 (DCPD1987). The results were surprisingly poor glycemic control among these young patients which lead to a great emphasis on glycemic control in the Danish Pediatric Departments. In 1995 the participants were invited for yet another evaluation but this time with main focus on early signs of microvascular complications - 339 participated. The mean HbA1c had remained at high levels (9.6%) and 60% of the participants had some level of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR). However, as the patients with DR mostly had the very milder forms it was believed that stricter glycemic control would reverse or at least stop progression of the disease in accordance with results from the large intervention study DCCT. This was investigated further at follow-up in 2011. The first study in the present thesis aimed to describe the 16-year incidence, progression and regression of DR in 185 participants from the DCPD1987 cohort. The 16-year incidence of proliferative retinopathy (PDR), 2-step progression and regression of DR was 31.0, 64.4, and 0.0%, respectively. As expected, the participants with PDR at follow-up had significantly higher HbA1c-values at both baseline and follow-up than those without PDR. However; a significantly larger decrease in HbA1c was also observed in the group with PDR over the study period, which in accordance with DCCT should have prevented the development of PDR to some extent. A surprisingly high incidence of proliferative retinopathy amongst young patients with type 1 diabetes in Denmark was found despite improvements in HbA1c over time. The improvement in HbA1c was either too small or happened too late. This study highlights that sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy remain a major concern in type 1 diabetes and the importance of early glycemic control. Identifying high-risk patients at a very early stage is not only desired for prevention of diabetic retinopathy - neuropathy and nephropathy similarly remain frequent in type 1 diabetes. Early risk stratification will allow for timely implementation of effective interventions and for individualized screening and diabetes care. The second and third studies of this thesis provide the longest prospective studies to date on both retinal vessel calibers and retinal fractal dimensions and their predictive value on diabetic microvascular complications. Semi-automated computer software has been developed to measure smaller changes in the retinal vessels on retinal photographs. Two of the first parameters to be reliably estimated by these programs were retinal vessel calibers and retinal vascular fractal dimensions (a quantitative measure on vascular complexity). There is very limited knowledge on their predictive value on diabetic complications thus far. In the second and third study, a consistent relation between narrower retinal arteriolar calibers, wider retinal venular calibers, lower fractal dimensions and the 16-year incidences of diabetic neuropathy, nephropathy and proliferative retinopathy was found. This has never been shown before. The results on vessel analyzes provides indications of a common pathogenic pathway for diabetic microvascular complications and therefore a possibility of universal risk estimation for development of neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy in type 1 diabetes. PMID:25703648

  5. Diabetes Mellitus and Prediabetes on Kidney Transplant Waiting List- Prevalence, Metabolic Phenotyping and Risk Stratification Approach

    PubMed Central

    Guthoff, Martina; Vosseler, Dorothea; Langanke, Julia; Nadalin, Silvio; Königsrainer, Alfred; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Heyne, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a significant prognostic impact, little is known about disturbances in glucose metabolism among kidney transplant candidates. We assess the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and prediabetes on kidney transplant waiting list, its underlying pathophysiology and propose an approach for individual risk stratification. Methods All patients on active kidney transplant waiting list of a large European university hospital transplant center were metabolically phenotyped. Results Of 138 patients, 76 (55%) had disturbances in glucose metabolism. 22% of patients had known DM, 3% were newly diagnosed. 30% were detected to have prediabetes. Insulin sensitivity and-secretion indices allowed for identification of underlying pathophysiology and risk factors. Age independently affected insulin secretion, resulting in a relative risk for prediabetes of 2.95 (95%CI 1.38–4.83) with a cut-off at 48 years. Body mass index independently affected insulin sensitivity as a continuous variable. Conclusions The prevalence of DM or prediabetes on kidney transplant waiting list is as high as 55%, with more than one third of patients previously undiagnosed. Oral glucose tolerance test is mandatory to detect all patients at risk. Metabolic phenotyping allows for differentiation of underlying pathophysiology and provides a basis for early individual risk stratification and specific intervention to improve patient and allograft outcome. PMID:26398489

  6. [Genetic tools for risk-stratification in multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Braggio, Esteban; Albarracn Garramuo, Flavio

    2013-01-01

    Genetic studies have a central role in the study of multiple myeloma (MM), as they become a critical component in the risk-based stratification of the disease. Significant efforts have been made to identify genetic changes and signatures that can predict clinical outcome and include them in the routine clinical care. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) still remains the most used genetic technique in clinical practice, mostly due to its very straightforward implementation and the simplicity of data analysis. The advent of high-resolution genomics (i.e. array CGH, exome and whole genome sequencing) and transcriptomics tests (i.e. gene expression profiling - GEP, and mRNA sequencing) provide a comprehensive analysis of the already defined genetic prognostic factors and are helpful tools for the identification of potential novel disease markers on the MM tumor clone. Indeed, GEP has been successfully implemented in MM as a risk-stratification tool, holding the greatest power in outcome discrimination. Nevertheless, some technical and logistic intricacies (need of a highly purified tumor clone, cost of the assay and complexity of data analysis) need to be considered before the definitive incorporation of high-throughput technologies in routine clinical tests. Until then, FISH remains the standard tool for genomic abnormality detection and disease prognostication. PMID:23924539

  7. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, management as per risk stratification in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Ansar; Shiekh, Aejaz Aziz; Bhat, Gul Mohd; Lone, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this analysis was to address the outcome of GTN from a tertiary care centre of India. Materials and Methods: We undertook a retrospective and prospective review of GTN cases treated at our centre from 2006 to 2014. Patients of GTN were assigned to low-risk or high-risk categories as per the FIGO scoring system. The low-risk group was treated with combination of actinomycin-D and methotrexate (MTX) and the high-risk group received the EMA/CO regimen. Salvage therapy was EP/TP. Treatment was continued for 3 cycles after normalization of β-hCG level, after which the patients were kept on follow-up. Results: In total, 52 GTN patients were treated at our institution during this period; 21 were low-risk and 31 were in the high-risk category. The lung was the most common site of metastasis. All low risk patients achieved complete remission. Among high risk patients one patient died while receiving first cycle chemotherapy, one patient relapsed and 29 patients achieved complete remission. The single relapsed patient also achieved remission with 2nd line chemotherapy. Conclusion: 1. Two drug combination of Actinomycin-D and Methotrexate is a better alternative to single drug chemotherapy especially in developing countries were proper risk stratification is not always possible. 2. Patients with high disease burden should initially be treated with low dose chemotherapy to avoid life threatening visceral haemorrhage.

  8. [Risk stratification in pre-hospital management of myocardial infarction with ST elevation: value of a risk score profile].

    PubMed

    Zeller, M; Ravisy, J; Beer, J C; Laurent, Y; Janin-Manificat, L; Cabrita, B; L'Huillier, I; Wolf, J E; Freysz, M; Cottin, Y

    2005-11-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate new tools of risk stratification in an unselected population of myocardial infarction (MI), usable in a pre-hospital situation, and to compare the risk profile of these patients with those of other clinical trials or myocardial infarction registries. The risk scores of death at 30 days (TIMI score and TIMI risk index) based on data available in the context of coronary emergencies, were applied to the population base of the MI observatory of myocardial infarction in the Côte d'Or (RICO). The risk profile was expressed by the smoothed graph of frequency distribution of each score. The TIMI score applied to the RICO population had a high discriminating power (c = 0.80) for mortality whereas TIMI risk index was less powerful (c = 0.57). The risk profile of the RICO population was comparable to that of InTIME II, ASSENT 2 and the NRMI with reperfusion registry. The NRMI without reperfusion and the MAGIC studies had different profiles characterised by a shift in the graph towards high risk patients. The authors conclude that risk stratification scores, like the TIMI score, are valuable tools for early triage in the management of MI patients. The risk profiles allow comparative analysis of risk levels of populations notably with respect to other registries and also with respect to randomised clinical trials. PMID:16379110

  9. Delirium risk stratification in consecutive unselected admissions to acute medicine: validation of externally derived risk scores

    PubMed Central

    Pendlebury, Sarah T.; Lovett, Nicola; Smith, Sarah C.; Cornish, Emily; Mehta, Ziyah; Rothwell, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: reliable delirium risk stratification will aid recognition, anticipation and prevention and will facilitate targeting of resources in clinical practice as well as identification of at-risk patients for research. Delirium risk scores have been derived for acute medicine, but none has been prospectively validated in external cohorts. We therefore aimed to determine the reliability of externally derived risk scores in a consecutive cohort of older acute medicine patients. Methods: consecutive patients aged ≥65 over two 8-week periods (2010, 2012) were screened prospectively for delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), and delirium was diagnosed using the DSM IV criteria. The reliability of existing delirium risk scores derived in acute medicine cohorts and simplified for use in routine clinical practice (USA, n = 2; Spain, n = 1; Indonesia, n = 1) was determined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Delirium was defined as prevalent (on admission), incident (occurring during admission) and any (prevalent + incident) delirium. Results: among 308 consecutive patients aged ≥65 (mean age/SD = 81/8 years, 164 (54%) female), existing delirium risk scores had AUCs for delirium similar to those reported in their original internal validations ranging from 0.69 to 0.76 for any delirium and 0.73 to 0.83 for incident delirium. All scores performed better than chance but no one score was clearly superior. Conclusions: externally derived delirium risk scores performed well in our independent acute medicine population with reliability unaffected by simplification and might therefore facilitate targeting of multicomponent interventions in routine clinical practice. PMID:26764396

  10. Short-term vs. long-term heart rate variability in ischemic cardiomyopathy risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Andreas; Schroeder, Rico; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Schulz, Steffen; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Vázquez, Rafael; Bayés de Luna, Antoni; Caminal, Pere

    2013-01-01

    In industrialized countries with aging populations, heart failure affects 0.3–2% of the general population. The investigation of 24 h-ECG recordings revealed the potential of nonlinear indices of heart rate variability (HRV) for enhanced risk stratification in patients with ischemic heart failure (IHF). However, long-term analyses are time-consuming, expensive, and delay the initial diagnosis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether 30 min short-term HRV analysis is sufficient for comparable risk stratification in IHF in comparison to 24 h-HRV analysis. From 256 IHF patients [221 at low risk (IHFLR) and 35 at high risk (IHFHR)] (a) 24 h beat-to-beat time series (b) the first 30 min segment (c) the 30 min most stationary day segment and (d) the 30 min most stationary night segment were investigated. We calculated linear (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear HRV analysis indices. Optimal parameter sets for risk stratification in IHF were determined for 24 h and for each 30 min segment by applying discriminant analysis on significant clinical and non-clinical indices. Long- and short-term HRV indices from frequency domain and particularly from nonlinear dynamics revealed high univariate significances (p < 0.01) discriminating between IHFLR and IHFHR. For multivariate risk stratification, optimal mixed parameter sets consisting of 5 indices (clinical and nonlinear) achieved 80.4% AUC (area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics) from 24 h HRV analysis, 84.3% AUC from first 30 min, 82.2 % AUC from daytime 30 min and 81.7% AUC from nighttime 30 min. The optimal parameter set obtained from the first 30 min showed nearly the same classification power when compared to the optimal 24 h-parameter set. As results from stationary daytime and nighttime, 30 min segments indicate that short-term analyses of 30 min may provide at least a comparable risk stratification power in IHF in comparison to a 24 h analysis period. PMID:24379785

  11. Prognostic value of cardiac biomarkers in the risk stratification of syncope: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Thiruganasambandamoorthy, Venkatesh; Ramaekers, Rosa; Rahman, Mohammed Omair; Stiell, Ian Gilmour; Sikora, Lindsey; Kelly, Sarah-Louise; Christ, Michael; Claret, Pierre-Geraud; Reed, Matthew James

    2015-12-01

    The role of cardiac biomarkers in risk stratification of syncope is unclear. We undertook a systematic review to assess their predictive value for short-term major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). We conducted a systematic review using MEDLINE, EMBASE, DARE and Cochrane databases from inception to July 2014. We included studies involving adult syncope patients that evaluated cardiac biomarker levels for risk stratification during acute management and excluded case reports, reviews and studies involving children. Primary outcome (MACE) included death, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, myocardial infarction (MI), structural heart disease, pulmonary embolism, significant hemorrhage or cardiac procedural interventions. Secondary outcome analysis assessed for prediction of MI, cardiac syncope and death. Two reviewers extracted patient-level data based on the cut-off reported. Pooled sensitivities and specificities were calculated using patient-level data. A total of 1862 articles were identified, and 11 studies with 4246 patients were included. Studies evaluated 3 biomarkers: contemporary troponin (2693 patients), natriuretic peptides (1353 patients) and high-sensitive troponin (819 patients). The pooled sensitivities and specificities for MACE were: contemporary troponin 0.29 (95 % CI 0.24, 0.34) and 0.88 (95 % CI 0.86, 0.89); natriuretic peptides 0.77 (95 % CI 0.69, 0.85) and 0.73 (95 % CI 0.70, 0.76); high-sensitive troponin 0.74 (95 % CI 0.65, 0.83) and 0.65 (95 % CI 0.62, 0.69), respectively. Natriuretic peptides and high-sensitive troponin showed good diagnostic characteristics for both primary and secondary outcomes. Natriuretic peptides and high-sensitive troponin might be useful in risk stratification. PMID:26498335

  12. [Cardiovascular risk stratification. Systolic, diastolic or pulse pressure?].

    PubMed

    Pede, S; Lombardo, M

    2001-04-01

    It is well known that hypertension is a highly prevalent condition in the population, carries a significant risk of adverse cardiovascular events and is therapeutically difficult to control. These factors render it "a major unsolved - but soluble - mass public health problem". One of the present-day aspects of the complexity of managing patients with high blood pressure (BP) derives from clinical and epidemiological data that have emerged over the past 10 years: the growing importance of the clinical significance of systolic and pulse BP. The pathophysiological basis of these data is based, on the one hand, on a better articulated definition of the components of BP, and on the other, on precise information concerning age-related modifications. The common definition of BP does not take into account pressure fluctuations occurring during the cardiac cycle; in fact, systolic and diastolic BP denote the extreme values of continuous variations in differential pressure. Diastolic BP reflects, to a greater extent, the trend of arterial resistances and mean BP (usually calculated as diastolic BP plus one third of the differential BP, and considered the "stable component" of the arterial sphygmogram) and has long been used as a diagnostic and therapeutic target. Systolic BP is more closely linked to variations in pulse BP (given from the difference between systolic and diastolic BP and considered the "dynamic component" of the arterial sphygmogram) and is produced by a group of factors including left ventricular ejection and the reflection of the sphygmic wave. As age increases, the walls of the aorta and the large elastic arteries progressively harden due to senile degenerative phenomena and the loss of elasticity as well as the progressive diffusion of atherosdclerotic lesions. This leads to the reduced capacity of the arterial wall to distend during the systole with a consequent increase in both systolic and pulse BP. These pathophysiological data have important clinical and prognostic implications and account for the possible diversity of significance to attribute to systolic, diastolic, mean and pulse BP, factors which, in their entirety, can represent an element, albeit partial, of resolvability of problems in managing hypertension. In fact, possibilities of diversification in the stratification of risk of the hypertensive patients may be considered on a pathophysiological basis, with the prospect of better aimed therapeutic interventions. On the whole, it appears that the clinical significance to attribute to pulse BP should be considered not as an alternative to that of systolic and diastolic BP, but rather in complementary terms, with age kept in careful consideration. In practice, by simplifying to a maximum the state of present knowledge, the values of systolic, diastolic, mean and pulse BP are all important in subjects under 60 years old. This indicates that the clinical significance to attribute to diastolic hypertension in young or middle-aged patients, which have been so accurately described by well-known meta-analyses, is not presently under discussion. What seems to change, with respect to the past, is the importance that should be attributed to the systolic and pulse BP in subjects of all ages and in particular to pulse BP in subjects over 60 years old: in these persons, the increase in pulse BP summarizes and integrates the adverse prognostic value of an elevated systolic BP and a low diastolic BP. It should be clearly understood that, in subjects over 60 years old, a high systolic BP and a low diastolic BP mean rigidity of the wall of the aorta and of the main elastic arteries; in these subjects, the isolated increase in diastolic BP, usually easily controllable by antihypertensive treatment, should not cause excessive clinical concern; instead, an increase in systolic BP - even if isolated - and, above all, an increase in pulse BP, should cause greater preoccupation, inasmuch as they are signs of consistent serious structural lesions. In other words, a 60-year-old subject with 150/90 mmHg would have a lesser risk of cardiovascular events, particularly cardiological events, than a contemporary with equal risk factors who has 150/50 mmHg. A large number of clinical studies suggest that an increase in pulse BP seems to predict cardiac ischemic events to a greater extent than the cerebrovascular events, which seem to be predicted to a greater extent by the mean BP. On the therapeutic level, the reference datum is represented by the unequivocal demonstration, furnished by wide scale interventional studies, that in hypertensive patients adequate pharmacological control of both the diastolic and systolic BP, particularly in the elderly, significantly reduces adverse consequences linked to the progression of atherosclerotic disease in the heart, brain and kidney. A degree of complexity is represented by the modest percent of patients in treatment who have BP values < 140/90 mmHg. Only a series of ad hoc studies will enable us to know when and if this negative situation can be resolved, even partially, by the clinical application of new knowledge in the pathophysiological field. From this point of view, it should be kept in mind that ACE-inhibitors, diuretics, dihydropyridinic calcium antagonists and vasopeptidase inhibitors seem to be more effective than beta-blockers in terms of preferential reduction of pulse BP. The contents of the reports that make up the Symposium constitute a valid base of knowledge and represent a concrete stimulus for research initiatives, which in the spirit of "operativeness" of the Area Prevenzione of the Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists, follow the objective of bringing together scientific and managerial needs. PMID:19397006

  13. Advances in stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: enhanced risk stratification combined with the newer oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Verheugt, Freek W A

    2013-06-01

    Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have an increased stroke risk compared with those in sinus rhythm, although the absolute risk for individual patients is modulated by the presence of various additional risk factors. Patient selection for oral anticoagulation for stroke prevention is based on risks of stroke and bleeding. Although CHADS2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, stroke or transient ischemic attack) is the most widely used scheme for evaluating stroke risk in patients with AF, several other stroke risk factors are not included; therefore, many patients' stroke risk may be underestimated, contributing to the underuse of anticoagulants. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of patients are categorized as being at moderate risk (CHADS2 = 1), and there has been some ambiguity regarding optimum thromboprophylaxis in this group. The refinement of CHADS2 , CHA2 DS2 -VASc (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age 75 years [2 points], Diabetes mellitus, Stroke or transient ischemic attack [2 points], Vascular disease, Age 65 to 74 years, Sex category [female]), considers additional risk factors. Its main advantage is its ability to identify patients truly at low risk of thromboembolism (CHA2 DS2 -VASc = 0), who are unlikely to benefit from antithrombotic therapy. For all others, an oral anticoagulant may be the preferred approach, simplifying clinical decision making. Implementation of CHA2 DS2 -VASc may also result in an increased proportion of patients receiving anticoagulation. The emergence of newer oral anticoagulants that can be given without routine coagulation monitoring, with improved benefit-risk profiles vs vitamin K antagonists, promises to simplify therapy for patients with AF at risk of stroke. This, coupled with advances in stroke risk stratification, is expected to improve patient outcomes and reduce the burden of AF-related stroke. PMID:23568790

  14. Bleeding risk stratification in an era of aggressive management of acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Assi, Emad; Raposeiras-Roubín, Sergio; García-Acuña, José María; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Major bleeding is currently one of the most common non-cardiac complications observed in the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Hemorrhagic complications occur with a frequency of 1% to 10% during treatment for ACS. In fact, bleeding events are the most common extrinsic complication associated with ACS therapy. The identification of clinical characteristics and particularities of the antithrombin therapy associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic complications would make it possible to adopt prevention strategies, especially among those exposed to greater risk. The international societies of cardiology renewed emphasis on bleeding risk stratification in order to decide strategy and therapy for patients with ACS. With this review, we performed an update about the ACS bleeding risk scores most frequently used in daily clinical practice. PMID:25429326

  15. The evolving field of prognostication and risk stratification in MDS: Recent developments and future directions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Ju; Podoltsev, Nikolai; Gore, Steven D; Zeidan, Amer M

    2016-01-01

    The clinical course of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is characterized by wide variability reflecting the underlying genetic and biological heterogeneity of the disease. Accurate prediction of outcomes for individual patients is an integral part of the evidence-based risk/benefit calculations that are necessary for tailoring the aggressiveness of therapeutic interventions. While several prognostication tools have been developed and validated for risk stratification, each of these systems has limitations. The recent progress in genomic sequencing techniques has led to discoveries of recurrent molecular mutations in MDS patients with independent impact on relevant clinical outcomes. Reliable assays of these mutations have already entered the clinic and efforts are currently ongoing to formally incorporate mutational analysis into the existing clinicopathologic risk stratification tools. Additionally, mutational analysis holds promise for going beyond prognostication to therapeutic selection and individualized treatment-specific prediction of outcomes; abilities that would revolutionize MDS patient care. Despite these exciting developments, the best way of incorporating molecular testing for use in prognostication and prediction of outcomes in clinical practice remains undefined and further research is warranted. PMID:26119927

  16. Percentage of Positive Biopsy Cores: A Better Risk Stratification Model for Prostate Cancer?

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jiayi; Vicini, Frank A.; Williams, Scott G.; Ye Hong; McGrath, Samuel; Ghilezan, Mihai; Krauss, Daniel; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Kestin, Larry L.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the prognostic value of the percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPC) and perineural invasion in predicting the clinical outcomes after radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer and to explore the possibilities to improve on existing risk-stratification models. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2004, 1,056 patients with clinical Stage T1c-T3N0M0 prostate cancer, who had four or more biopsy cores sampled and complete biopsy core data available, were treated with external beam RT, with or without a high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost at William Beaumont Hospital. The median follow-up was 7.6 years. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed with PPC, Gleason score, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen, T stage, PNI, radiation dose, androgen deprivation, age, prostate-specific antigen frequency, and follow-up duration. A new risk stratification (PPC classification) was empirically devised to incorporate PPC and replace the T stage. Results: On multivariate Cox regression analysis, the PPC was an independent predictor of distant metastasis, cause-specific survival, and overall survival (all p < .05). A PPC >50% was associated with significantly greater distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 4.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.86-8.61), and its independent predictive value remained significant with or without androgen deprivation therapy (all p < .05). In contrast, PNI and T stage were only predictive for locoregional recurrence. Combining the PPC ({<=}50% vs. >50%) with National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk stratification demonstrated added prognostic value of distant metastasis for the intermediate-risk (hazard ratio, 5.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.78-16.6) and high-risk (hazard ratio, 4.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.70-11.3) groups, regardless of the use of androgen deprivation and high-dose RT (all p < .05). The proposed PPC classification appears to provide improved stratification of the clinical outcomes relative to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network classification. Conclusions: The PPC is an independent and powerful predictor of clinical outcomes of prostate cancer after RT. A risk model replacing T stage with the PPC to reduce subjectivity demonstrated potentially improved stratification.

  17. Postoperative Stimulated Thyroglobulin Level and Recurrence Risk Stratification in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue; Liang, Jun; Li, Tian-Jun; Yang, Ke; Liang, Dong-Quan; Yu, Zhuang; Lin, Yan-Song

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postoperative preablative stimulated thyroglobulin (ps-Tg) has been evaluated in predicting prognosis and success of ablation regarding differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC); however, its relationship with recurrence risk and radioiodine decision-making remains uncertain, especially in Chinese DTC patients. We aimed to evaluate the association between ps-Tg and recurrence risk stratification in DTC, to provide incremental values for ps-Tg in postoperative assessment and radioiodine management. Methods: Seven hundred and seven patients with DTC were included; low-risk (L; n = 90), intermediate-risk (I; n = 283), and high-risk (H; n = 334, 117 with distant metastasis [M1]) patients were divided according to recurrence risk stratification. The M1 group was further analyzed regarding evidence of metastasis. Cut-off values of ps-Tg were obtained using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: Patients with more advanced disease at initial risk stratification were more likely to have higher ps-Tg levels (I vs. L: P < 0.05; H vs. I: P < 0.001; H vs. L: P < 0.001). The corresponding cut-off value of ps-Tg for distinguishing sensitivity and specificity in each of the two groups was 2.95 ng/ml (I vs. L: 61.5%, 63.3%), 29.5 ng/ml (H vs. I: 41.9%, 92.6%), 47.1 ng/ml (M1 vs. M0 in the H group: 79.5%, 88.9%) and 47.1 ng/ml (M1 vs. M0 in all patients: 79.5%, 93.7%). With the cut-off value at 47.1 ng/ml, ps-Tg was the only factor that could be used to identify distant metastases, and consequently if measured before radioiodine therapy would prevent 10.26% of patients with M1 from undertreatment. Conclusions: Ps-Tg, as an ongoing reassessment marker, favors differential recurrence risk grading and provides incremental values for radioiodine treatment decision-making. PMID:25881600

  18. Risk stratification and dental management of the patient with cardiovascular diseases. Part II: Oral disease burden and principles of dental management.

    PubMed

    Steinhauer, Tad; Bsoul, Samer A; Terezhalmy, Geza T

    2005-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the United States and most other Western countries. In the United States alone, more than 1 million annual deaths and as many as three times that number of serious consequences can be attributed to these conditions. To provide care to patients with cardiovascular disease, oral health care providers must understand the disease, its treatment, and its impact on the patient's ability to undergo and respond to dental care. PMID:15887507

  19. Selectively predictive calcium supplementation using NCCN risk stratification system after thyroidectomy with differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ronghao; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Fenghua; Fan, Jinchuan; Yuan, Ying; Li, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypocalcemia is a common complication following thyroidectomy. To explore reasonable and simple methods for predicting postoperative hypocalcemia and identify the optimal strategies for selective calcium supplement are meaningful for surgeon. Methods: Based on the NCCN risk stratification system, patients were divided into 4 groups (A-D): low-risk group A, who only underwent limited thyroidectomy (LT) and high-risk groups B, C and D, who had received total thyroidectomy (TT) and selective central and/or lateral neck dissection (SND). After surgery, group C patients were orally given calcium gluconate and group D patients were intravenously given calcium 2 g/day for 7 days, while group B patients did not receive any calcium supplement. Serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were collected before and after surgery. The incidence of asymptomatic and symptomatic hypocalcemia in each group was recorded. Results: A total of 132 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) were included who received surgical treatment. No a significant change was observed in serum calcium and PTH levels in group A, while significant decreases in serum calcium and PTH levels were seen in group B (P < 0.05). Intravenous calcium supplement in group D resulted in a more rapid recovery in serum calcium levels (P < 0.05). The incidences of symptomatic hypocalcemia and asymptomatic hypocalcemia were significantly lower in group A and group D respectively compared to the other groups (All P values < 0.05). In group B, a highest asymptomatic and symptomatic hypocalcemia incidence was detected. Conclusion: Selective calcium supplementation for DTC based on NCCN risk stratification system could be recommended for the high-risk patients. PMID:26885165

  20. Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy: Risk Stratification and Indications for Defibrillator Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zorzi, Alessandro; Rigato, Ilaria; Bauce, Barbara; Pilichou, Kalliopi; Basso, Cristina; Thiene, Gaetano; Iliceto, Sabino; Corrado, Domenico

    2016-06-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a genetically determined disease which predisposes to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. The main goal of ARVC therapy is prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the most effective therapy for interruption of potentially lethal ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Despite its life-saving potential, ICD implantation is associated with a high rate of complications and significant impact on quality of life. Accurate risk stratification is needed to identify individuals who most benefit from the therapy. While there is general agreement that patients with a history of cardiac arrest or hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia are at high risk of SCD and needs an ICD, indications for primary prevention remain a matter of debate. The article reviews the available scientific evidence and guidelines that may help to stratify the arrhythmic risk of ARVC patients and guide ICD implantation. Other therapeutic strategies, either alternative or additional to ICD, will be also addressed. PMID:27147509

  1. Emergence of molecular imaging of aortic aneurysm; implications for risk stratification and management

    PubMed Central

    Golestani, Reza; Sadeghi, Mehran M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Imaging cellular and molecular processes associated with aneurysm expansion, dissection, and rupture can potentially transform the management of patients with thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysm (TAA and AAA). Here, we review recent advances in molecular imaging of aortic aneurysm, focusing on imaging modalities with the greatest potential for clinical translation and application, PET, SPECT and MRI. Inflammation (e.g., with 18F-FDG, nanoparticles) and matrix remodeling (e.g., with matrix metalloproteinase-targeted tracers) are highlighted as promising targets for molecular imaging of aneurysm. Potential alternative or complementary approaches to molecular imaging for aneurysm risk stratification are briefly discussed. PMID:24381115

  2. Emergence of molecular imaging of aortic aneurysm: implications for risk stratification and management.

    PubMed

    Golestani, Reza; Sadeghi, Mehran M

    2014-04-01

    Imaging cellular and molecular processes associated with aneurysm expansion, dissection, and rupture can potentially transform the management of patients with thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Here, we review recent advances in molecular imaging of aortic aneurysm, focusing on imaging modalities with the greatest potential for clinical translation and application, PET, SPECT, and MRI. Inflammation (e.g., with (18)F-FDG, nanoparticles) and matrix remodeling (e.g., with matrix metalloproteinase-targeted tracers) are highlighted as promising targets for molecular imaging of aneurysm. Potential alternative or complementary approaches to molecular imaging for aneurysm risk stratification are briefly discussed. PMID:24381115

  3. T-wave alternans and dispersion of the QT interval as risk stratification markers in patients susceptible to sustained ventricular arrhythmias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armoundas, A. A.; Osaka, M.; Mela, T.; Rosenbaum, D. S.; Ruskin, J. N.; Garan, H.; Cohen, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    T-wave alternans and QT dispersion were compared as predictors of the outcome of electrophysiologic study and arrhythmia-free survival in patients undergoing electrophysiologic evaluation. T-wave alternans was a highly significant predictor of these 2 outcome variables, whereas QT dispersion was not.

  4. Independent and incremental value of severely enlarged left atrium in risk stratification of very elderly patients with chronic systolic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bajraktari, Gani; Fontanive, Paolo; Qirko, Spiro; Elezi, Shpend; Simioniuc, Anca; Huqi, Alda; Berisha, Venera; Dini, Frank L

    2012-01-01

    The authors sought to assess the impact on survival of demographic, clinical, and echo-Doppler parameters in patients with chronic heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction divided according to age groups. This study included 734 patients (age 69±11 years) who were classified into tertiles of age: I (22-66 years), II (67-76 years), and III (77-94 years). Severely enlarged left atrial size was defined as ≥52 mm in men and ≥47 mm in women. Multivariable analysis identified male sex (P=.018) and severely enlarged left atrium (P=.024) as significant correlates of all-cause mortality in the very elderly cohort, while restrictive filling pattern (RFP) (P=.004) and New York Heart Association class III or IV (P=.005) among patients of the first tertile and RFP (P=.028) among patients in the second tertile were independently associated with mortality after 30±21 months of follow-up. At the interactive stepwise model in the very elderly population, a severely enlarged left atrium, added to the model after clinical parameters and ejection fraction, moved the chi-square value from 20.7 to 25.8 (P=.048). RFP emerged as the single best predictor of all-cause mortality in the younger and intermediate ranges, whereas severely enlarged left atrium was the best predictor in the very elderly. PMID:22520934

  5. Consensus recommendations for risk stratification in multiple myeloma: report of the International Myeloma Workshop Consensus Panel 2.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Nikhil C; Anderson, Kenneth C; Bergsagel, P Leif; Shaughnessy, John; Palumbo, Antonio; Durie, Brian; Fonseca, Rafael; Stewart, A Keith; Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Dimopoulos, Meletios; Jagannath, Sundar; Hajek, Roman; Sezer, Orhan; Kyle, Robert; Sonneveld, Pieter; Cavo, Michele; Rajkumar, S Vincent; San Miguel, Jesus; Crowley, John; Avet-Loiseau, Herv

    2011-05-01

    A panel of members of the 2009 International Myeloma Workshop developed guidelines for risk stratification in multiple myeloma. The purpose of risk stratification is not to decide time of therapy but to prognosticate. There is general consensus that risk stratification is applicable to newly diagnosed patients; however, some genetic abnormalities characteristic of poor outcome at diagnosis may suggest poor outcome if only detected at the time of relapse. Thus, in good-risk patients, it is necessary to evaluate for high-risk features at relapse. Although detection of any cytogenetic abnormality is considered to suggest higher-risk disease, the specific abnormalities considered as poor risk are cytogenetically detected chromosomal 13 or 13q deletion, t(4;14) and del17p, and detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization of t(4;14), t(14;16), and del17p. Detection of 13q deletion by fluorescence in situ hybridization only, in absence of other abnormalities, is not considered a high-risk feature. High serum ?(2)-microglobulin level and International Staging System stages II and III, incorporating high ?(2)-microglobulin and low albumin, are considered to predict higher risk disease. There was a consensus that the high-risk features will change in the future, with introduction of other new agents or possibly new combinations. PMID:21292777

  6. Molecular Microscope Strategy to Improve Risk Stratification in Early Antibody-Mediated Kidney Allograft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Loupy, Alexandre; Lefaucheur, Carmen; Vernerey, Dewi; Chang, Jessica; Hidalgo, Luis G.; Beuscart, Thibaut; Verine, Jerome; Aubert, Olivier; Dubleumortier, Sbastien; Duong van Huyen, Jean-Paul; Jouven, Xavier; Glotz, Denis; Legendre, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) is the leading cause of kidney allograft loss. We investigated whether the addition of gene expression measurements to conventional methods could serve as a molecular microscope to identify kidneys with ABMR that are at high risk for failure. We studied 939 consecutive kidney recipients at Necker Hospital (20042010; principal cohort) and 321 kidney recipients at Saint Louis Hospital (20062010; validation cohort) and assessed patients with ABMR in the first 1 year post-transplant. In addition to conventional features, we assessed microarray-based gene expression in transplant biopsy specimens using relevant molecular measurements: the ABMR Molecular Score and endothelial donor-specific antibody-selective transcript set. The main outcomes were kidney transplant loss and progression to chronic transplant injury. We identified 74 patients with ABMR in the principal cohort and 54 patients with ABMR in the validation cohort. Conventional features independently associated with failure were donor age and humoral histologic score (g+ptc+v+cg+C4d). Adjusting for conventional features, ABMR Molecular Score (hazard ratio [HR], 2.22; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.37 to 3.58; P=0.001) and endothelial donor-specific antibody-selective transcripts (HR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.00 to 9.16; P<0.05) independently associated with an increased risk of graft loss. The results were replicated in the independent validation group. Adding a gene expression assessment to a traditional risk model improved the stratification of patients at risk for graft failure (continuous net reclassification improvement, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.57 to 1.46; P<0.001; integrated discrimination improvement, 0.16; P<0.001). Compared with conventional assessment, the addition of gene expression measurement in kidney transplants with ABMR improves stratification of patients at high risk for graft loss. PMID:24700874

  7. Molecular microscope strategy to improve risk stratification in early antibody-mediated kidney allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Loupy, Alexandre; Lefaucheur, Carmen; Vernerey, Dewi; Chang, Jessica; Hidalgo, Luis G; Beuscart, Thibaut; Verine, Jerome; Aubert, Olivier; Dubleumortier, Sébastien; Duong van Huyen, Jean-Paul; Jouven, Xavier; Glotz, Denis; Legendre, Christophe; Halloran, Philip F

    2014-10-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) is the leading cause of kidney allograft loss. We investigated whether the addition of gene expression measurements to conventional methods could serve as a molecular microscope to identify kidneys with ABMR that are at high risk for failure. We studied 939 consecutive kidney recipients at Necker Hospital (2004-2010; principal cohort) and 321 kidney recipients at Saint Louis Hospital (2006-2010; validation cohort) and assessed patients with ABMR in the first 1 year post-transplant. In addition to conventional features, we assessed microarray-based gene expression in transplant biopsy specimens using relevant molecular measurements: the ABMR Molecular Score and endothelial donor-specific antibody-selective transcript set. The main outcomes were kidney transplant loss and progression to chronic transplant injury. We identified 74 patients with ABMR in the principal cohort and 54 patients with ABMR in the validation cohort. Conventional features independently associated with failure were donor age and humoral histologic score (g+ptc+v+cg+C4d). Adjusting for conventional features, ABMR Molecular Score (hazard ratio [HR], 2.22; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.37 to 3.58; P=0.001) and endothelial donor-specific antibody-selective transcripts (HR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.00 to 9.16; P<0.05) independently associated with an increased risk of graft loss. The results were replicated in the independent validation group. Adding a gene expression assessment to a traditional risk model improved the stratification of patients at risk for graft failure (continuous net reclassification improvement, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.57 to 1.46; P<0.001; integrated discrimination improvement, 0.16; P<0.001). Compared with conventional assessment, the addition of gene expression measurement in kidney transplants with ABMR improves stratification of patients at high risk for graft loss. PMID:24700874

  8. Prediction of poor mobilization of autologous CD34+ cells with growth factor in multiple myeloma patients: implications for risk-stratification.

    PubMed

    Costa, Luciano J; Nista, Elizabeth J; Buadi, Francis K; Lacy, Martha Q; Dispenzieri, Angela; Kramer, Cindy P; Edwards, Kathy H; Kang, Yubin; Gertz, Morie A; Stuart, Robert K; Kumar, Shaji

    2014-02-01

    It is unknown whether clinical characteristics can successfully predict which multiple myeloma (MM) patients would be poor mobilizers with growth factor (GF) alone so they can be assigned to mobilization with chemotherapy+GF or GF+plerixafor. MM patients (N=477) who underwent autologous mobilization with GF were retrospectively reviewed and assigned into training and validation cohorts. In multiple regression analysis, age, platelet count at time of mobilization, type of GF utilized, and extent of exposure to lenalidomide independently correlated with peripheral blood (PB)-CD34+ and were integrated in a predicting score (PS) for poor mobilizers, defined as PB-CD34+<20/mm(3) 4days after initiation of GF. There was no correlation between institution, gender, time between diagnosis, and mobilization or plasma cells in the bone marrow at time of mobilization and PBCD34+. The PS cut-off found in the training cohort to have 90% sensitivity for prediction of poor mobilizers performed with 89.7% sensitivity but only 34.8% specificity in the validation cohort. Conversely, the PS cut-off developed to have 90% specificity performed with 86.9% specificity but only 37% sensitivity. We conclude that clinical characteristics identifiable before initiation of mobilization should not be used to stratify MM patients for different mobilization strategies. PMID:24211319

  9. Targeted individual prophylaxis offers superior risk stratification for cytomegalovirus reactivation after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sood, Siddharth; Haifer, Craig; Yu, Lijia; Pavlovic, Julie; Gow, Paul J; Jones, Robert M; Visvanathan, Kumar; Angus, Peter W; Testro, Adam G

    2015-12-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) can reactivate following liver transplantation. Management of patients currently considered low risk based on pretransplant serology remains contentious, with universal prophylaxis and preemptive strategies suffering from significant deficiencies. We hypothesized that a CMV-specific T cell assay performed early after transplant as part of a preemptive strategy could better stratify "low-risk" (recipient seropositive) patients. We conducted a prospective, blinded, observational study in 75 adult recipients. QuantiFERON-cytomegalovirus was performed both before and at multiple times after transplant. Low-risk patients (n = 58) were monitored as per unit protocol and treatment was commenced if CMV > 1000 copies/mL (DNAemia). Twenty patients needed antiviral treatment for other reasons and were censored (mainly for rejection or herpes simplex virus infection); 19/38 (50%) of the remaining low-risk patients developed DNAemia at mean 34.6 days after transplant. A week 2 result of <0.1 IU/mL was significantly associated with risk of subsequent DNAemia (hazard ratio [HR], 6.9; P = 0.002). The positive predictive value of 80% suggests these patients are inappropriately labeled low risk and are actually at high likelihood of CMV reactivation. A secondary cutoff of <0.2 IU/mL was associated with moderate risk (HR, 2.8; P = 0.01). In conclusion, a protocol based on a single early CMV-specific T cell based assay would offer improved risk stratification and individualization of patient management after transplant. This could offer improved drug and service utilization and potentially result in significant improvements over both currently used protocols to manage supposedly low-risk patients. PMID:26194446

  10. Surgical outcomes in phacoemulsification after application of a risk stratification system

    PubMed Central

    Tsinopoulos, Ioannis T; Lamprogiannis, Lampros P; Tsaousis, Konstantinos T; Mataftsi, Asimina; Symeonidis, Chrysanthos; Chalvatzis, Nikolaos T; Dimitrakos, Stavros A

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether application of a risk stratification system during preoperative assessment of cataract patients and subsequent allocation of patients to surgeons with matching experience may reduce intraoperative complications. Methods Nine hundred and fifty-three consecutive patients (1109 eyes) undergoing phacoemulsification cataract surgery were assigned to two groups, ie, group A (n = 498 patients, 578 eyes) and group B (n = 455 patients, 531 eyes). Patients from group A were allocated to surgeons with varying experience with only a rough estimate of the complexity of their surgery. Patients from group B were assigned to three risk groups (no added risk, low risk, and moderate-high risk) according to risk factors established during their preoperative assessment and were respectively allocated to resident surgeons, low-volume surgeons, or high-volume surgeons. Data were collected and entered into a computerized database. The intraoperative complication rate was calculated for each group. Results The intraoperative complication rate was significantly lower in group B than in group A (group A, 5.88%; group B, 3.2%; P < 0.05). Patients from group B with no added risk and allocated to resident surgeons had a significantly lower rate of intraoperative complications than those from group A allocated to resident surgeons (group A, 7.2%; group B, 3.08%; P < 0.05). Conclusion Our study demonstrates that allocation of cataract patients to surgeons matched for experience according to a uniform and reliable preoperative assessment of their risk of complications allows for better surgical outcomes, especially for resident surgeons. PMID:23717035

  11. Comparison of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events Risk Score Versus the Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress Adverse outcomes With Early Implementation of the ACC/AHA Guidelines Risk Score to Predict In-Hospital Mortality and Major Bleeding in Acute Coronary Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Manzano-Fernández, Sergio; Sánchez-Martínez, Marianela; Flores-Blanco, Pedro J; López-Cuenca, Ángel; Gómez-Molina, Miriam; Pastor-Pérez, Francisco J; Sánchez-Galian, María J; Cambronero-Sanchez, Francisco; Guerrero Pérez, Esther; García-Narbón, Andrea; de Las Heras-Gómez, Ignacio; Valdés, Mariano

    2016-04-01

    Risk assessment plays a major role in the management of acute coronary syndrome. The aim was to compare the performance of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) and the Can Rapid risk stratification of Unstable angina patients Suppress Adverse outcomes with Early implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Asociation guidelines (CRUSADE) risk scores to predict in-hospital mortality and major bleeding (MB) in 1,587 consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome. In-hospital deaths and bleeding complications were prospectively collected. Bleeding complications were defined according to CRUSADE and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) criteria. During the hospitalization, 71 patients (4.5%) died, 37 patients (2.3%) had BARC MB and 34 patients (2.1%) had CRUSADE MB. Receiver operating characteristic curves analyses showed GRACE risk score has better discrimination capacity than CRUSADE risk score for both, mortality (0.86 vs 0.79; p = 0.018) and BARC MB (0.80 vs 0.73; p = 0.028), but similar for CRUSADE MB (0.79 vs 0.79; p = 0.921). Both scores had low discrimination for predicting MB in the elderly (>75 years) and patients with atrial fibrillation, whereas CRUSADE risk score was especially poor for predicting MB in patients with <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or those treated with new antiplatelets. Reclassification analyses showed GRACE risk score was associated with a significant improvement in the predictive accuracy of CRUSADE risk score for predicting mortality (net reclassification improvement: 22.5%; p <0.001) and MB (net reclassification improvement: 17.6%; p = 0.033) but not for CRUSADE MB. In conclusion, GRACE risk score has a better predictive performance for predicting both in-hospital mortality and BARC MB. In light of these findings, we propose the GRACE score as a single score to predict these in-hospital complications. PMID:26857164

  12. Development of Inpatient Risk Stratification Models of Acute Kidney Injury for Use in Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Matheny, Michael E.; Miller, Randolph A.; Ikizler, T. Alp; Waitman, Lemuel R.; Denny, Joshua C.; Schildcrout, Jonathan S.; Dittus, Robert S.; Peterson, Josh F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients with hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (AKI) are at risk for increased mortality and further medical complications. Evaluating these patients with a prediction tool easily implemented within an electronic health record (EHR) would identify high risk patients prior to the development of AKI, and could prevent iatrogenically induced episodes of AKI and improve clinical management. Methods We used structured clinical data acquired from an EHR to identify patients with normal kidney function for admissions from August 1st, 1999 to July 31st, 2003. Using administrative, computerized provider order entry, and laboratory test data, we developed a 3-level risk stratification model to predict each of two severity levels of in-hospital AKI as defined by RIFLE criteria. The severity levels were defined as 150% or 200% of baseline serum creatinine. Model discrimination and calibration was evaluated using 10-fold cross-validation. Results Cross-validation of the models resulted in area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) curves of 0.75 (150% elevation) and 0.78 (200% elevation). Both models were adequately calibrated as measured by the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test chi-squared values of 9.7 (p = 0.29) and 12.7 (p = 0.12), respectively. Conclusions We generated risk prediction models for hospital-acquired AKI using only commonly available electronic data. The models identify patients at high risk for AKI who might benefit from early intervention or increased monitoring. PMID:20354229

  13. A new method for IVUS-based coronary artery disease risk stratification: A link between coronary & carotid ultrasound plaque burdens.

    PubMed

    Araki, Tadashi; Ikeda, Nobutaka; Shukla, Devarshi; Londhe, Narendra D; Shrivastava, Vimal K; Banchhor, Sumit K; Saba, Luca; Nicolaides, Andrew; Shafique, Shoaib; Laird, John R; Suri, Jasjit S

    2016-02-01

    Interventional cardiologists have a deep interest in risk stratification prior to stenting and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is most commonly adapted for screening, but current tools lack the ability for risk stratification based on grayscale plaque morphology. Our hypothesis is based on the genetic makeup of the atherosclerosis disease, that there is evidence of a link between coronary atherosclerosis disease and carotid plaque built up. This novel idea is explored in this study for coronary risk assessment and its classification of patients between high risk and low risk. This paper presents a strategy for coronary risk assessment by combining the IVUS grayscale plaque morphology and carotid B-mode ultrasound carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) - a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Support vector machine (SVM) learning paradigm is adapted for risk stratification, where both the learning and testing phases use tissue characteristics derived from six feature combinational spaces, which are then used by the SVM classifier with five different kernels sets. These six feature combinational spaces are designed using 56 novel feature sets. K-fold cross validation protocol with 10 trials per fold is used for optimization of best SVM-kernel and best feature combination set. IRB approved coronary IVUS and carotid B-mode ultrasound were jointly collected on 15 patients (2 days apart) via: (a) 40MHz catheter utilizing iMap (Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA, USA) with 2865 frames per patient (42,975 frames) and (b) linear probe B-mode carotid ultrasound (Toshiba scanner, Japan). Using the above protocol, the system shows the classification accuracy of 94.95% and AUC of 0.95 using optimized feature combination. This is the first system of its kind for risk stratification as a screening tool to prevent excessive cost burden and better patients' cardiovascular disease management, while validating our two hypotheses. PMID:26707374

  14. [Syncope and work: role of the occupational physician and global risk stratification].

    PubMed

    Barbic, F; Angaroni, L; Orlandi, M; Costantino, G; Dipaola, E; Borleri, D; Borchini, R; D'Adda, F; Perego, F; Borella, M; Galli, A; Solbiati, M; Scanella, E; Casazza, G; Seghizzi, P; Furlan, R

    2011-01-01

    Safety risk for subjects suffering from syncope while working has not been as yet addressed by occupational medicine. The present study was aimed at evaluating a new developed methodology for job tasks risk stratification in patients with syncope. During a work-shop on syncope and occupational risk, 149 occupational physicians (OP) with about 10 years of clinical experience were asked to fulfil a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) concerning the doctor's estimated potential damage (D) to the worker and the probability of a damage to occur (P) should syncope take place during the job task. Five job tasks characterized by different risk for safety (1, driving; 2, toxic products handling; 3, job performed closed to hot surfaces o free flames; 4, surgical activity; 5, office job) were identified. OP correctly stratified the risk associated to the different job tasks in patients with syncope. Unexpectedly, task #3 was given a risk similar to that obtained in drivers. This might be of paramount clinical and social importance when patients with syncope have to return to their job tasks. PMID:23393862

  15. Diabetes and atrial fibrillation: stratification and prevention of stroke risks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although evidence is not very clear, diabetes is assumed to be an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). One reason for the lack of evidence could be that AF often is not detected due to its paroxysmal or asymptomatic character. A better understanding of the relationship between both diseases and improved detection of AF is necessary since the combination of both diseases dramatically increase the risk of strokes if not treated properly. Methods Available literature about diabetes as an independent risk factor for AF has been evaluated, and limitations of studies are discussed. Results Results from different trials and registers are contradictory concerning diabetes as an independent risk factor for AF. Reasons for these differences can be found in different study designs and neglecting patients with unknown AF. Conclusions Due to the increasing burden of disease of diabetes and AF as common risk factors for stroke, a systematic screening for AF in diabetes patients could provide a better understanding of their correlation and personalized prevention strategies. PMID:25302085

  16. Risk stratification of childhood medulloblastoma in the molecular era: the current consensus.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Vijay; Remke, Marc; Bouffet, Eric; Bailey, Simon; Clifford, Steven C; Doz, Francois; Kool, Marcel; Dufour, Christelle; Vassal, Gilles; Milde, Till; Witt, Olaf; von Hoff, Katja; Pietsch, Torsten; Northcott, Paul A; Gajjar, Amar; Robinson, Giles W; Padovani, Laetitia; André, Nicolas; Massimino, Maura; Pizer, Barry; Packer, Roger; Rutkowski, Stefan; Pfister, Stefan M; Taylor, Michael D; Pomeroy, Scott L

    2016-06-01

    Historical risk stratification criteria for medulloblastoma rely primarily on clinicopathological variables pertaining to age, presence of metastases, extent of resection, histological subtypes and in some instances individual genetic aberrations such as MYC and MYCN amplification. In 2010, an international panel of experts established consensus defining four main subgroups of medulloblastoma (WNT, SHH, Group 3 and Group 4) delineated by transcriptional profiling. This has led to the current generation of biomarker-driven clinical trials assigning WNT tumors to a favorable prognosis group in addition to clinicopathological criteria including MYC and MYCN gene amplifications. However, outcome prediction of non-WNT subgroups is a challenge due to inconsistent survival reports. In 2015, a consensus conference was convened in Heidelberg with the objective to further refine the risk stratification in the context of subgroups and agree on a definition of risk groups of non-infant, childhood medulloblastoma (ages 3-17). Published and unpublished data over the past 5 years were reviewed, and a consensus was reached regarding the level of evidence for currently available biomarkers. The following risk groups were defined based on current survival rates: low risk (>90 % survival), average (standard) risk (75-90 % survival), high risk (50-75 % survival) and very high risk (<50 % survival) disease. The WNT subgroup and non-metastatic Group 4 tumors with whole chromosome 11 loss or whole chromosome 17 gain were recognized as low-risk tumors that may qualify for reduced therapy. High-risk strata were defined as patients with metastatic SHH or Group 4 tumors, or MYCN-amplified SHH medulloblastomas. Very high-risk patients are Group 3 with metastases or SHH with TP53 mutation. In addition, a number of consensus points were reached that should be standardized across future clinical trials. Although we anticipate new data will emerge from currently ongoing and recently completed clinical trials, this consensus can serve as an outline for prioritization of certain molecular subsets of tumors to define and validate risk groups as a basis for future clinical trials. PMID:27040285

  17. Future directions in risk stratification and therapy for advanced pediatric genitourinary rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Harel, Miriam; Ferrer, Fernando A; Shapiro, Linda H; Makari, John H

    2016-02-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) represents the most common soft tissue sarcoma in infants and children and the third most common pediatric solid tumor, accounting for 5% to 15% of all childhood solid tumors. Of these, 15% to 20% arise from the genitourinary tract, with the most common sites originating from the prostate, bladder, and paratesticular regions, followed by the vagina and uterus. Although upfront radical surgery was used at the initiation of Intergroup RMS Study-I (1972-1978), the treatment paradigm has shifted to include initial biopsy with the goal of organ preservation, systemic chemotherapy for all patients, and local control involving surgical resection with or without radiation therapy for most patients. Collaborative group clinical trials have led to dramatic improvement in survival rates from 1960 to 1996 among patients with low- or intermediate-risk disease; however, outcomes appear to have plateaued in more recent years, and the prognosis for patients with metastatic or relapsed/refractory disease remains poor. Current management goals include minimizing toxicity while maintaining the excellent outcomes in low-risk disease, as well as improving outcomes in patients with intermediate- and high-risk disease. Advances in genetic analysis have allowed further refinement in risk stratification of patients. Perhaps the most significant recent development in RMS research was the discovery of an association of alveolar RMS (ARMS) with translocations t(2;13) and t(1;13). Translocation fusion-positive tumors comprise 80% of ARMS and are more aggressive. Fusion-negative ARMS may have a clinical course similar to embryonal RMS. Future Children?s Oncology Group sarcoma studies will likely incorporate fusion status into risk stratification and treatment allocation. Newer radiotherapy modalities hold promise for providing local control of disease while minimizing morbidity. The addition of traditional cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents does not seem to improve outcomes in high-risk patients. Ultimately, the most substantial progress may arise from further elucidation of genetic and molecular pathways involved in RMS tumor formation in an effort to identify novel, targeted therapeutic approaches. PMID:26519985

  18. Combined Population Dynamics and Entropy Modelling Supports Patient Stratification in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Brehme, Marc; Koschmieder, Steffen; Montazeri, Maryam; Copland, Mhairi; Oehler, Vivian G; Radich, Jerald P; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Schuppert, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Modelling the parameters of multistep carcinogenesis is key for a better understanding of cancer progression, biomarker identification and the design of individualized therapies. Using chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) as a paradigm for hierarchical disease evolution we show that combined population dynamic modelling and CML patient biopsy genomic analysis enables patient stratification at unprecedented resolution. Linking CD34(+) similarity as a disease progression marker to patient-derived gene expression entropy separated established CML progression stages and uncovered additional heterogeneity within disease stages. Importantly, our patient data informed model enables quantitative approximation of individual patients' disease history within chronic phase (CP) and significantly separates "early" from "late" CP. Our findings provide a novel rationale for personalized and genome-informed disease progression risk assessment that is independent and complementary to conventional measures of CML disease burden and prognosis. PMID:27048866

  19. Adverse Drug Events-based Tumor Stratification for Ovarian Cancer Patients Receiving Platinum Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Zimmermann, Michael T.; Chute, Christopher G.; Jiang, Guoqian

    2015-01-01

    The underlying molecular mechanisms of adverse drug events (ADEs) associated with cancer therapy drugs may overlap with their antineoplastic mechanisms. In a previous study, we developed an ADE-based tumor stratification framework (known as ADEStrata) with a case study of breast cancer patients receiving aromatase inhibitors, and demonstrated that the prediction of per-patient ADE propensity simultaneously identifies high-risk patients experiencing poor outcomes. In this study, we aim to evaluate the ADEStrata framework with a different tumor type and chemotherapy class – ovarian cancer treated with platinum chemotherapeutic drugs. We identified a cohort of ovarian cancer patients receiving cisplatin (a standard platinum therapy) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) (n=156). We demonstrated that somatic variant prioritization guided by known ADEs associated with cisplatin could be used to stratify patients treated with cisplatin and uncover tumor subtypes with different clinical outcomes. PMID:26306234

  20. IMWG consensus on risk stratification in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Chng, W J; Dispenzieri, A; Chim, C-S; Fonseca, R; Goldschmidt, H; Lentzsch, S; Munshi, N; Palumbo, A; Miguel, J S; Sonneveld, P; Cavo, M; Usmani, S; Durie, B G M; Avet-Loiseau, H

    2014-02-01

    Multiple myeloma is characterized by underlying clinical and biological heterogeneity, which translates to variable response to treatment and outcome. With the recent increase in treatment armamentarium and the projected further increase in approved therapeutic agents in the coming years, the issue of having some mechanism to dissect this heterogeneity and rationally apply treatment is coming to the fore. A number of robustly validated prognostic markers have been identified and the use of these markers in stratifying patients into different risk groups has been proposed. In this consensus statement, the International Myeloma Working Group propose well-defined and easily applicable risk categories based on current available information and suggests the use of this set of prognostic factors as gold standards in all clinical trials and form the basis of subsequent development of more complex prognostic system or better prognostic factors. At the same time, these risk categories serve as a framework to rationalize the use of therapies. PMID:23974982

  1. Integration of genetic and epigenetic markers for risk stratification: opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Pashayan, Nora; Reisel, Daniel; Widschwendter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Common genetic susceptibility variants could be used for risk stratification in risk-tailored cancer screening and prevention programmes. Combining genetic variants with environmental risk factors would improve risk stratification. Epigenetic changes are surrogate markers of environmental exposures during individual’s lifetime. Integrating epigenetic markers, in lieu of environmental exposure data, with genetic markers would potentially improve risk stratification. Epigenetic changes are reversible and acquired gradually, providing potentials for prevention and early detection strategies. The epigenetic changes are tissue-specific and stage-of-development-specific, raising challenges in choice of sample and timing for evaluation of cancer-associated changes. The Horizon 2020 funded research programme, FORECEE, using empirical data, will investigate the value of integration of epigenomics with genomics for risk prediction and prevention of women-specific cancers. PMID:27053939

  2. The role of fluorescence in situ hybridization and gene expression profiling in myeloma risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Hose, Dirk; Seckinger, Anja; Jauch, Anna; Rme, Thierry; Moreaux, Jrme; Bertsch, Uta; Neben, Kai; Klein, Bernard; Goldschmidt, Hartmut

    2011-12-01

    Multiple myeloma patients' survival under treatment varies from a few months to more than 15 years. Clinical prognostic factors, especially beta2-microglobulin (B2M) and the international staging system (ISS), allow risk assessment to a certain extent, but do not identify patients at very high risk. As malignant plasma cells are characterized by a variety of chromosomal aberrations and changes in gene expression, a molecular characterization ofCD138-purified myeloma cells by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) and gene expression profiling (GEP) can be used for improved risk assessment, iFISH allows a risk stratification with presence of a translocation t(4;14) and/or deletion of 17p13 being the best documented adverse prognostic factors. A deletion of 13q14 is no longer considered to define adverse risk. Patients harbouring a t(4;14) seems to benefit from a bortezomib- or lenalidomide containing regimen, whereas patients with deletion 17p13 seem only to benefit from a high dose therapy approach using long term bortezomib (in induction and maintenance) and autologous tandem-transplantation as used in the GMMG-HD4 trial, or the total therapy 3 concept. Gene expression profiling allows the assessment of high risk scores (IFM, UAMS), remaining prognostic despite treatment with novel agents, and prognostic surrogates of biological factors (e.g. proliferation) and (prognostic) target gene expression (e.g. Aurora-kinase A). Thus, assessment of B2M and ISS-stage, iFISH, and GEP is considered extended routine diagnostics in therapy requiring multiple myeloma patients for risk assessment and, even now, to a certain extent selection of treatment. PMID:22352188

  3. Combined Population Dynamics and Entropy Modelling Supports Patient Stratification in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehme, Marc; Koschmieder, Steffen; Montazeri, Maryam; Copland, Mhairi; Oehler, Vivian G.; Radich, Jerald P.; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Schuppert, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Modelling the parameters of multistep carcinogenesis is key for a better understanding of cancer progression, biomarker identification and the design of individualized therapies. Using chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) as a paradigm for hierarchical disease evolution we show that combined population dynamic modelling and CML patient biopsy genomic analysis enables patient stratification at unprecedented resolution. Linking CD34+ similarity as a disease progression marker to patient-derived gene expression entropy separated established CML progression stages and uncovered additional heterogeneity within disease stages. Importantly, our patient data informed model enables quantitative approximation of individual patients’ disease history within chronic phase (CP) and significantly separates “early” from “late” CP. Our findings provide a novel rationale for personalized and genome-informed disease progression risk assessment that is independent and complementary to conventional measures of CML disease burden and prognosis.

  4. Combined Population Dynamics and Entropy Modelling Supports Patient Stratification in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Brehme, Marc; Koschmieder, Steffen; Montazeri, Maryam; Copland, Mhairi; Oehler, Vivian G.; Radich, Jerald P.; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Schuppert, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Modelling the parameters of multistep carcinogenesis is key for a better understanding of cancer progression, biomarker identification and the design of individualized therapies. Using chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) as a paradigm for hierarchical disease evolution we show that combined population dynamic modelling and CML patient biopsy genomic analysis enables patient stratification at unprecedented resolution. Linking CD34+ similarity as a disease progression marker to patient-derived gene expression entropy separated established CML progression stages and uncovered additional heterogeneity within disease stages. Importantly, our patient data informed model enables quantitative approximation of individual patients’ disease history within chronic phase (CP) and significantly separates “early” from “late” CP. Our findings provide a novel rationale for personalized and genome-informed disease progression risk assessment that is independent and complementary to conventional measures of CML disease burden and prognosis. PMID:27048866

  5. Prognostic factors and risk stratification in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Sameer A; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2016-04-01

    There is considerable heterogeneity in the clinical outcome of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). While some patients live for decades without any therapy, others die within years of diagnosis despite multiple treatments. To better counsel newly diagnosed CLL patients about their disease course, the Rai and Binet staging systems were developed four decades ago. A deeper understanding of the biologic and molecular aberrations contributing to the pathogenesis of CLL led to identification of novel prognostic markers such as immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene (IGHV) mutation status, leukemia-cell expression of CD38, ZAP-70, and CD49d, and cytogenetic abnormalities detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The advent of next-generation sequencing has provided unprecedented insights into the subclonal architecture of CLL and its impact on disease progression and survival. More recently, integrated prognostic scoring systems that incorporate clinical, biologic and genetic characteristics into a single risk score have been developed and appear to improve the accuracy of prognostication for individual patients. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art prognostic factors and will guide the practicing clinician in their care of patients with CLL. PMID:27040701

  6. Emergency department management of syncope: need for standardization and improved risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Thiruganasambandamoorthy, Venkatesh; Taljaard, Monica; Stiell, Ian G; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Murray, Heather; Vaidyanathan, Aparna; Rowe, Brian H; Calder, Lisa A; Lang, Eddy; McRae, Andrew; Sheldon, Robert; Wells, George A

    2015-08-01

    Variations in emergency department (ED) syncope management have not been well studied. The goals of this study were to assess variations in management, and emergency physicians' risk perception and disposition decision making. We conducted a prospective study of adults with syncope in six EDs in four cities over 32 months. We collected patient characteristics, ED management, disposition, physicians' prediction probabilities at index presentation and followed patients for 30 days for serious outcomes: death, myocardial infarction (MI), arrhythmia, structural heart disease, pulmonary embolism, significant hemorrhage, or procedural interventions. We used descriptive statistics, ROC curves, and regression analyses. We enrolled 3662 patients: mean age 54.3 years, and 12.9 % were hospitalized. Follow-up data were available for 3365 patients (91.9 %) and 345 patients (10.3 %) suffered serious outcomes: 120 (3.6 %) after ED disposition including 48 patients outside the hospital. After accounting for differences in patient case mix, the rates of ED investigations and disposition were significantly different (p < 0.0001) across the four study cities; as were the rates of 30-day serious outcomes (p < 0.0001) and serious outcomes after ED disposition (p = 0.0227). There was poor agreement between physician risk perception and both observed event rates and referral patterns (p < 0.0001). Only 76.7 % (95 % CI 68.1-83.6) of patients with serious outcomes were appropriately referred. There are large and unexplained differences in ED syncope management. Moreover, there is poor agreement between physician risk perception, disposition decision making, and serious outcomes after ED disposition. A valid risk-stratification tool might help standardize ED management and improve disposition decision making. PMID:25918108

  7. Urinary JCV-DNA testing during natalizumab treatment may increase accuracy of PML risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Laroni, A; Giacomazzi, C G; Grimaldi, L; Gallo, P; Sormani, M P; Bertolotto, A; McDermott, J L; Gandoglia, I; Martini, I; Vitello, G; Rinaldi, F; Barzon, L; Militello, V; Pizzorno, M; Bandini, F; Capello, E; Palù, G; Uccelli, A; Mancardi, G L; Varnier, O E

    2012-09-01

    The risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients treated with natalizumab for multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious concern. The presence of anti-JC virus antibodies is a risk factor for PML development, but 2.5 % of the patients result falsely-negative, while the prognostic relevance of testing JCV-DNA in biological fluids of treated patients is debated. Aim of this work was to evaluate the utility of testing JCV-DNA, together with anti-JCV antibodies, in biological samples of treated patients as a tool for PML risk stratification. 126 subjects from 5 MS Centers in Italy were included in the study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 63 patients testing JCV-DNA in blood, peripheral blood cells and urine. We longitudinally assessed the presence of JCV-DNA in a cohort of 33 subjects, one of which developed PML. We could test retrospectively serum samples from another PML case occurred during natalizumab therapy. Anti-JCV antibodies and urinary JCV-DNA were both tested in 73 patients. No changes in JCV-DNA status occurred during natalizumab treatment. The subject who developed PML in the longitudinal cohort had detectable JCV-DNA in urine at all time-points while serum or blood from both PML patients were always negative before the onset of disease and, in one case, after. Four subjects with JCV-DNA in urine and undetectable anti-JCV antibodies were retested for anti-JCV antibodies and three out of four resulted positive. In conclusion, testing JCV-DNA in urine is complementary to testing anti-JCV antibodies in identifying patients at risk of PML. PMID:22585413

  8. Prognostic factors and risk stratification in early mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Vonderheid, Eric C; Pavlov, Igor; Delgado, Julio C; Martins, Thomas B; Telang, Gladys H; Hess, Allan D; Kadin, Marshall E

    2014-01-01

    Available demographic, clinical, histologic, immunohistochemical and laboratory findings, including serum cytokine/cytokine receptor levels, obtained at initial evaluation in a cohort of 33 patients with mycosis fungoides (MF) at stages I-IIA who had subsequent progression of disease were compared against 70 stage-matched cases of MF without observed progression. Significant factors that correlated with both disease progression and overall survival were: (1) presence of large Pautrier microabscesses (10 or more atypical lymphocytes), (2) presence of atypical lymphocytes with hyperchromatic or vesicular nuclei in the dermal infiltrate, (3) less than 20% CD8 + cells in the dermal infiltrate and (4) above normal (> 122 U/mL) serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) level. Combination of these factors was used to construct prognostic groupings which, if validated, might be useful to identify patients with clinically early MF at highest risk for disease progression and poor outcome. PMID:23547839

  9. Genomics-based Approach and Prognostic Stratification Significance of Gene Mutations in Intermediate-risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bian-Hong; Li, Yong-Hui; Yu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia (IR-AML), which accounts for a substantial number of AML cases, is highly heterogeneous. We systematically summarize the latest research progress on the significance of gene mutations for prognostic stratification of IR-AML. Data Sources: We conducted a systemic search from the PubMed database up to October, 2014 using various search terms and their combinations including IR-AML, gene mutations, mutational analysis, prognosis, risk stratification, next generation sequencing (NGS). Study Selection: Clinical or basic research articles on NGS and the prognosis of gene mutations in IR-AML were included. Results: The advent of the era of whole-genome sequencing has led to the discovery of an increasing number of molecular genetics aberrations that involved in leukemogenesis, and some of them have been used for prognostic risk stratification. Several studies have consistently identified that some gene mutations have prognostic relevance, however, there are still many controversies for some genes because of lacking sufficient evidence. In addition, tumor cells harbor hundreds of mutated genes and multiple mutations often coexist, therefore, single mutational analysis is not sufficient to make accurate prognostic predictions. The comprehensive analysis of multiple mutations based on sophisticated genomic technologies has raised increasing interest in recent years. Conclusions: NGS represents a pioneering and helpful approach to prognostic risk stratification of IR-AML patients. Further large-scale studies for comprehensive molecular analysis are needed to provide guidance and a theoretical basis for IR-AML prognostic stratification and clinical management. PMID:26315090

  10. Risk stratification of thyroid nodules on ultrasonography with the French TI-RADS: description and reflections

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of ultrasonography places it in a key position for use in the risk stratification of thyroid nodules. The French proposal is a five-tier system, our version of a thyroid imaging reporting and database system (TI-RADS), which includes a standardized vocabulary and report and a quantified risk assessment. It allows the selection of the nodules that should be referred for fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Effort should be directed towards merging the different risk stratification systems utilized around the world and testing this unified system with multi-center studies. PMID:26324117

  11. Buccal Spectral Markers for Lung Cancer Risk Stratification

    PubMed Central

    Radosevich, Andrew J.; Mutyal, Nikhil N.; Rogers, Jeremy D.; Gould, Bradley; Hensing, Thomas A.; Ray, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the US with >150,000 deaths per year. In order to more effectively reduce lung cancer mortality, more sophisticated screening paradigms are needed. Previously, our group demonstrated the use of low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) spectroscopy to detect and quantify the micro/nano-architectural correlates of colorectal and pancreatic field carcinogenesis. In the lung, the buccal (cheek) mucosa has been suggested as an excellent surrogate site in the “field of injury”. We, therefore, wanted to assess whether LEBS could similarly sense the presence of lung. To this end, we applied a fiber-optic LEBS probe to a dataset of 27 smokers without diagnosed lung cancer (controls) and 46 with lung cancer (cases), which was divided into a training and a blinded validation set (32 and 41 subjects, respectively). LEBS readings of the buccal mucosa were taken from the oral cavity applying gentle contact. The diagnostic LEBS marker was notably altered in patients harboring lung cancer compared to smoking controls. The prediction rule developed on training set data provided excellent diagnostics with 94% sensitivity, 80% specificity, and 95% accuracy. Applying the same threshold to the blinded validation set yielded 79% sensitivity and 83% specificity. These results were not confounded by patient demographics or impacted by cancer type or location. Moreover, the prediction rule was robust across all stages of cancer including stage I. We envision the use of LEBS as the first part of a two-step paradigm shift in lung cancer screening in which patients with high LEBS risk markers are funnelled into more invasive screening for confirmation. PMID:25299667

  12. The RAG Model: A New Paradigm for Genetic Risk Stratification in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Prideaux, Steven M; Conway O'Brien, Emma; Chevassut, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Molecular studies have shown that multiple myeloma is a highly genetically heterogonous disease which may manifest itself as any number of diverse subtypes each with variable clinicopathological features and outcomes. Given this genetic heterogeneity, a universal approach to treatment of myeloma is unlikely to be successful for all patients and instead we should strive for the goal of personalised therapy using rationally informed targeted strategies. Current DNA sequencing technologies allow for whole genome and exome analysis of patient myeloma samples that yield vast amounts of genetic data and provide a mutational overview of the disease. However, the clinical utility of this information currently lags far behind the sequencing technology which is increasingly being incorporated into clinical practice. This paper attempts to address this shortcoming by proposing a novel genetically based "traffic-light" risk stratification system for myeloma, termed the RAG (Red, Amber, Green) model, which represents a simplified concept of how complex genetic data may be compressed into an aggregate risk score. The model aims to incorporate all known clinically important trisomies, translocations, and mutations in myeloma and utilise these to produce a score between 1.0 and 3.0 that can be incorporated into diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment algorithms for the patient. PMID:25295194

  13. Plasma copeptin for short term risk stratification in acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Wyzgał, Anna; Koć, Marcin; Pacho, Szymon; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Wawrzyniak, Radosław; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Ciurzyński, Michał; Kurnicka, Katarzyna; Goliszek, Sylwia; Paczyńska, Marzena; Palczewski, Piotr; Pruszczyk, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    Copeptin (COP) was reported to have prognostic value in various cardiovascular diseases. We hypothesized that COP levels reflect the severity of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and may be useful in prognostic assessment. Plasma COP concentrations were measured on the Kryptor Compact Plus platform (BRAHMS, Hennigsdorf, Germany). The study included 107 consecutive patients with diagnosed acute PE (47 males, 60 females), with median age of 65 years (range 20-88). High risk PE was diagnosed in 3 patients (2.8 %), intermediate risk in 69 (64.5 %), and low risk PE in 35 (32.7 %) patients. Control group included 64 subjects (25 males, 39 females; median age 52.5 year, range 17-87). Four patients (3.7 %) died during 30-day observation. Complicated clinical course (CCC) was experienced by 10 (9.3 %) patients. COP level was higher in PE patients than in controls [11.55 pmol/L (5.16-87.97), and 19.00 pmol/L (5.51-351.90), respectively, p < 0.0001], and reflected PE severity. COP plasma concentration in low risk PE was 14.67 nmol/L (5.51-59.61) and in intermediate/high risk PE 19.84 mol/L (5.64-351.90) p < 0.05. Median COP levels in nonsurvivors was higher than in survivors, 84.6 (28.48-351.9) pmol/L and 18.68 (5.512-210.1) pmol/L, respectively, p = 0.009. Subjects with CCC presented higher COP levels than patients with benign clinical course 53.1 (17.95-351.9) pmol/L and 18.16 (5.51-210.1) pmol/L, respectively, p = 0.001. Log-transformed plasma COP was the significant predictor of CCC, OR 16.5 95 % CI 23.2-111.9, p < 0.001. AUC-for prediction of CCC using plasma COP was 0.811 (95 % CI 0.676-0.927). The COP cut off value of 17.95 nmol/l had sensitivity of 100 %, specificity 49.5 %, positive predictive value of 16.9 % and negative predictive value of 100 %. We conclude that plasma COP levels can be regarded for promising marker of severity of acute PE and show potential in risk stratification of these patients. PMID:26438275

  14. Improved risk stratification in myeloma using a microRNA-based classifier.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ping; Agnelli, Luca; Walker, Brian A; Todoerti, Katia; Lionetti, Marta; Johnson, David C; Kaiser, Martin; Mirabella, Fabio; Wardell, Christopher; Gregory, Walter M; Davies, Faith E; Brewer, Daniel; Neri, Antonino; Morgan, Gareth J

    2013-08-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a heterogeneous disease. International Staging System/fluorescence hybridization (ISS/FISH)-based model and gene expression profiles (GEP) are effective approaches to define clinical outcome, although yet to be improved. The discovery of a class of small non-coding RNAs (micro RNAs, miRNAs) has revealed a new level of biological complexity underlying the regulation of gene expression. In this work, 163 presenting samples from MM patients were analysed by global miRNA profiling, and distinct miRNA expression characteristics in molecular subgroups with prognostic relevance (4p16, MAF and 11q13 translocations) were identified. Furthermore we developed an "outcome classifier", based on the expression of two miRNAs (MIR17 and MIR886-5p), which is able to stratify patients into three risk groups (median OS 19.4, 40.6 and 65.3 months, P = 0.001). The miRNA-based classifier significantly improved the predictive power of the ISS/FISH approach (P = 0.0004), and was independent of GEP-derived prognostic signatures (P < 0.002). Through integrative genomics analysis, we outlined the potential biological relevance of the miRNAs included in the classifier and their putative roles in regulating a large number of genes involved in MM biology. This is the first report showing that miRNAs can be built into molecular diagnostic strategies for risk stratification in MM. PMID:23718138

  15. Arrhythmic risk stratification after myocardial infarction using ambulatory electrocardiography signal averaging.

    PubMed

    Roche, Frédéric; DaCosta, Antoine; Karnib, Ibrahim; Triomphe, Géraldine; Roche, Christian; Isaaz, Karl; Geyssant, André; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude

    2002-05-01

    Ambulatory ECG had been proposed to examine the amplified high resolution signal-averaged electrocardiogram (SAECG). Clinical investigations are required to confirm the predictive value of such a high resolution technique in arrhythmic risk stratification. The prognostic value of ambulatory Holter SAECG was evaluated in 108 postinfarction patients for the purpose of predicting the occurrence of serious arrhythmic (SARR) events (sudden cardiac death [SCD], VT, or VF) in comparison with classical real-time SAECG. During the 42+/-8 months of follow-up, the sudden cardiac death mortality was 4.6% (five deaths), six (5.6%) patients had VT, and one (0.9%) VF. QRSd was found to be the most predictive parameter using ROC curves analysis for SAAR + outcome (W = 0.833 and W = 0.803 for 25-250 Hz and 40-250 Hz filters, respectively) followed by RMS (W = 0.766 and W = 0.721) and LAS (W = 0.759, W = 0.709) (all P < 0.01). Abnormal Holter SAECG for 25 and 40-Hz LP filter were significant predictors of SARR+ by log-rank test (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively). This study confirms that valuable prognostic information can be obtained from the ambulatory high resolution ECG technique and that Holter SAECG may predict arrhythmic risk in a postinfarction population. PMID:12049370

  16. Risk stratification of Ramadan fasting in person with diabetes.

    PubMed

    AlArouj, Monira

    2015-05-01

    The world population comprises of 23% Muslims. Ramadan is the holy month of the Islamic year during which all healthy Muslims observe fasts. Although children and sick people are exempted from fasting but many of this group, want to observe fasts despite the medical advice against it. This includes a subset of people with diabetes which carries a considerable risk. Hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia are among the main hazards. Majority of Muslims with diabetes can fast safely during Ramadan; However some are placed at a greater risk. Pre-Ramadan risk assessment, structured education and selection of appropriate medication has shown to minimize the risks associated with fasting among people with diabetes. PMID:26013777

  17. Evidence-based Guidelines for Precision Risk Stratification-Based Screening (PRSBS) for Colorectal Cancer: Lessons learned from the US Armed Forces: Consensus and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Avital, Itzhak; Langan, Russell C.; Summers, Thomas A.; Steele, Scott R.; Waldman, Scott A.; Backman, Vadim; Yee, Judy; Nissan, Aviram; Young, Patrick; Womeldorph, Craig; Mancusco, Paul; Mueller, Renee; Noto, Khristian; Grundfest, Warren; Bilchik, Anton J.; Protic, Mladjan; Daumer, Martin; Eberhardt, John; Man, Yan Gao; Brücher, Björn LDM; Stojadinovic, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the United States (U.S.), with estimates of 143,460 new cases and 51,690 deaths for the year 2012. Numerous organizations have published guidelines for CRC screening; however, these numerical estimates of incidence and disease-specific mortality have remained stable from years prior. Technological, genetic profiling, molecular and surgical advances in our modern era should allow us to improve risk stratification of patients with CRC and identify those who may benefit from preventive measures, early aggressive treatment, alternative treatment strategies, and/or frequent surveillance for the early detection of disease recurrence. To better negotiate future economic constraints and enhance patient outcomes, ultimately, we propose to apply the principals of personalized and precise cancer care to risk-stratify patients for CRC screening (Precision Risk Stratification-Based Screening, PRSBS). We believe that genetic, molecular, ethnic and socioeconomic disparities impact oncological outcomes in general, those related to CRC, in particular. This document highlights evidence-based screening recommendations and risk stratification methods in response to our CRC working group private-public consensus meeting held in March 2012. Our aim was to address how we could improve CRC risk stratification-based screening, and to provide a vision for the future to achieving superior survival rates for patients diagnosed with CRC. PMID:23459409

  18. Vascular versus myocardial dysfunction in acute coronary syndrome: Are the adhesion molecules as powerful as NT-proBNP for long-term risk stratification?

    PubMed Central

    Kavsak, Peter A.; Ko, Dennis T.; Newman, Alice M.; Lustig, Viliam; Palomaki, Glenn E.; MacRae, Andrew R.; Jaffe, Allan S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine if elevations of adhesion molecules in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are useful for risk stratification. Design and methods A cell adhesion array (Randox Ltd.) and NT-proBNP were measured in 216 ACS patients. Results Kaplan–Meier and Cox models indicate early elevations of NT-proBNP but not the adhesion molecules are predictive of future death/myocardial infarction. Discussion Elevations of adhesion molecules early after pain onset in ACS are not useful for long-term risk stratification. PMID:18194671

  19. Primary vesico-ureteric reflux: The need for individualised risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Hidas, Guy; Nam, Alexander; Soltani, Tandis; Pribish, Maryellen; Watts, Blake; Khoury, Antoine E.

    2013-01-01

    The management of paediatric primary vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) has undergone serial changes over the last decade. As this disorder is extremely heterogeneous, and high-quality prospective data are limited, the treatment strategies vary among centres. Current treatment options include observation only, continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, and surgery. Surgical intervention is indicated if a child has a breakthrough urinary tract infection (UTI) while on continuous antibiotic prophylaxis or if there are renal scars present. After excluding a secondary cause of VUR the physician should consider the risk factors affecting the severity of VUR and manage the child accordingly. Those factors include demographic factors (age at presentation, gender, ethnicity) and clinical factors (VUR grade, unilateral vs. bilateral, presence of renal scars, initial presentation, the number of UTIs, and presence of any voiding or bowel dysfunction). In this review we summarise the major controversial issues in current reports on VUR and highlight the importance of individualised patient management according to their risk stratification. PMID:26579238

  20. Electrocardiographic methods for diagnosis and risk stratification in the Brugada syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Naseef, Abdulrahman; Behr, Elijah R.; Batchvarov, Velislav N.

    2014-01-01

    The Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a malignant, genetically-determined, arrhythmic syndrome manifesting as syncope or sudden cardiac death (SCD) in individuals with structurally normal hearts. The diagnosis of the BrS is mainly based on the presence of a spontaneous or Na+channel blocker induced characteristic, electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern (type 1 or coved Brugada ECG pattern) typically seen in leads V1 and V2 recorded from the 4th to 2nd intercostal (i.c.) spaces. This pattern needs to be distinguished from similar ECG changes due to other causes (Brugada ECG phenocopies). This review focuses mainly on the ECG-based methods for diagnosis and arrhythmia risk assessment in the BrS. Presently, the main unresolved clinical problem is the identification of those patients at high risk of SCD who need implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), which is the only therapy with proven efficacy. Current guidelines recommend ICD implantation only in patients with spontaneous type 1 ECG pattern, and either history of aborted cardiac arrest or documented sustained VT (class I), or syncope of arrhythmic origin (class IIa) because they are at high risk of recurrent arrhythmic events (up to 10% or more annually for those with aborted cardiac arrest). The majority of BrS patients are asymptomatic when diagnosed and considered to have low risk (around 0.5% annually) and therefore not indicated for ICD. The majority of SCD victims in the BrS, however, had no symptoms prior to the fatal event and therefore were not protected with an ICD. While some ECG markers such as QRS fragmentation, infero-lateral early repolarisation, and abnormal late potentials on signal-averaged ECG are known to be linked to increased arrhythmic risk, they are not sufficiently sensitive or specific. Potential novel ECG-based strategies for risk stratification are discussed based on computerised methods for depolarisation and repolarisation analysis, a composite approach targeting several major components of ventricular arrhythmogenesis, and the collection of large digital ECG databases in genotyped BrS patients and their relatives. PMID:25870503

  1. Iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy in risk stratification of sudden death in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Martins da Silva, Marta Inês; Vidigal Ferreira, Maria João; Morão Moreira, Ana Paula

    2013-06-01

    Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is a false neurotransmitter noradrenaline analogue that is taken up by the 'uptake 1' transporter mechanism in the cell membrane of presynaptic adrenergic neurons and accumulates in catecholamine storage vesicles. Since it is practically unmetabolized, it can be labeled with a radioisotope (iodine-123) in scintigraphic exams to noninvasively assess the functional status of the sympathetic innervation of organs with a significant adrenergic component, including the heart. Studies of its application in nuclear cardiology appear to confirm its value in the assessment of conditions such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmias and sudden death. Heart failure is a global problem, with an estimated prevalence of 2% in developed countries. Sudden cardiac death is the main cause of its high mortality. The autonomic nervous system dysfunction, including sympathetic hyperactivity, that accompanies chronic heart failure is associated with progressive myocardial remodeling, declining left ventricular function and worsening symptoms, and contributes to the development of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. Since 123I-MIBG cardiac scintigraphy can detect changes in the cardiac adrenergic system, there is considerable interest in its role in obtaining diagnostic and prognostic information in patients with heart failure. In this article we present a literature review on the use of 123I-MIBG scintigraphy for risk stratification of sudden death in patients with heart failure. PMID:23731734

  2. Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators at End of Battery Life: Opportunities for Risk (Re)-Stratification in ICD Recipients.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Faisal M; Quest, Tammie; Leon, Angel R; El-Chami, Mikhael F

    2016-02-01

    Although implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are frequently viewed as a lifelong commitment in that patients are routinely scheduled for generator exchange (GE) at end of battery life, several considerations should prompt a reevaluation of risks and benefits before GE. Compared with initial ICD implant, patients receiving replacement devices are older, and have more comorbidities and shorter life expectancy, all of which may limit the benefit of ICD therapy following GE. Additionally, GE is associated with significant complications, including infection, which may increase the risk of mortality. In this paper, we review recent data regarding opportunities for risk stratification before GE, with a particular focus on those with improved left ventricular function and those who have not experienced ICD therapies during the first battery life. We also provide a broader perspective on ICD therapy, focusing on how decisions regarding GE may affect goals of care at the end of life. PMID:26821633

  3. A national approach to diabetes foot risk stratification and foot care.

    PubMed

    Leese, G P; Stang, D; Pearson, D W

    2011-08-01

    The Scottish Diabetes Foot Action Group (SDG) has developed and introduced a national strategy plan for diabetic foot care across Scotland. This has involved the implementation of an evidence-based national foot screening and risk stratification programme that has already covered 61% of the population in just the first two years. Nationally agreed patient information foot leaflets and professional education material have been introduced, and a consensus for antibiotic use in the diabetic foot has been published. Information on multidisciplinary specialist foot services has been collected, indicating that 58% of Health Board areas have consultants with dedicated sessions in their job plan to a foot clinic, and 42% had integrated orthotic involvement. The SDG aims to increase these figures. Work has been undertaken to support local podiatry networks and improve communication between the specialist centre and the community. At a national level the SDG is working with Foot in Diabetes UK (FDUK) to recognize key podiatry skills by developing core competencies and a competency framework for the diabetes podiatrist and diabetes orthotist. The annual Scottish Diabetes Survey indicates some improvement in amputation rates with prevalence decreasing from 0.8% to 0.5%, and improved recording of foot ulceration at a national level. This national strategy has helped highlight the importance and difficulties facing diabetes foot care and should help to continue to improve the quality of care of people with diabetes who have foot-related problems. PMID:21873720

  4. An operative dengue risk stratification system in Argentina based on geospatial technology.

    PubMed

    Porcasi, Ximena; Rotela, Camilo H; Introini, María V; Frutos, Nicolás; Lanfri, Sofía; Peralta, Gonzalo; De Elia, Estefanía A; Lanfri, Mario A; Scavuzzo, Carlos M

    2012-09-01

    Based on an agreement between the Ministry of Health and the National Space Activities Commission in Argentina, an integrated informatics platform for dengue risk using geospatial technology for the surveillance and prediction of risk areas for dengue fever has been designed. The task was focused on developing stratification based on environmental (historical and current), viral, social and entomological situation for >3,000 cities as part of a system. The platform, developed with open-source software with pattern design, following the European Space Agency standards for space informatics, delivers two products: a national risk map consisting of point vectors for each city/town/locality and an approximate 50 m resolution urban risk map modelling the risk inside selected high-risk cities. The operative system, architecture and tools used in the development are described, including a detailed list of end users' requirements. Additionally, an algorithm based on bibliography and landscape epidemiology concepts is presented and discussed. The system, in operation since September 2011, is capable of continuously improving the algorithms producing improved risk stratifications without a complete set of inputs. The platform was specifically developed for surveillance of dengue fever as this disease has reemerged in Argentina but the aim is to widen the scope to include also other relevant vector-borne diseases such as chagas, malaria and leishmaniasis as well as other countries belonging to south region of Latin America. PMID:23032281

  5. Evidence for cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization risk stratification of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma in the era of novel therapie.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Prashant; Fonseca, Rafael; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Sinha, Shirshendu; Gertz, Morie A; Stewart, A Keith; Bergsagel, P Leif; Lacy, Martha Q; Dingli, David D; Ketterling, Rhett P; Buadi, Francis; Kyle, Robert A; Witzig, Thomas E; Greipp, Philip R; Dispenzieri, Angela; Kumar, Shaji

    2010-06-01

    Overall survival (OS) has improved with increasing use of novel agents in multiple myeloma (MM). However, the disease course remains highly variable, and the heterogeneity largely reflects different genetic abnormalities. We studied the impact of the Mayo risk-stratification model of MM on patient outcome in the era of novel therapies, evaluating each individual component of the model-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), conventional cytogenetics (CG), and the plasma cell labeling index-that segregates patients into high- and standard-risk categories. This report consists of 290 patients with newly diagnosed MM, predominantly treated with novel agents, who were risk-stratified at diagnosis and were followed up for OS. Of these patients, 81% had received primarily thalidomide (n=50), lenalidomide (n=199), or bortezomib (n=79) as frontline or salvage therapies. Our retrospective analysis validates the currently proposed Mayo risk-stratification model (median OS, 37 months vs not reached for high- and standard-risk patients, respectively; P=.003). Although the FISH or CG test identifies a high-risk cohort with hazard ratios of 2.1 (P=.006) and 2.5 (P=.006), respectively, the plasma cell labeling index cutoff of 3% fails to independently prognosticate patient risk (hazard ratio, 1.4; P=.41). In those stratified as standard-risk by one of the 2 tests (FISH or CG), the other test appears to be of additional prognostic significance. This study validates the high-risk features defined by FISH and CG in the Mayo risk-stratification model for patients with MM predominantly treated with novel therapies based on immunomodulatory agents. PMID:20511484

  6. From Philadelphia-Negative to JAK2-Positive: Effect of Genetic Discovery on Risk Stratification and Management.

    PubMed

    Pemmaraju, Naveen; Moliterno, Alison R

    2015-01-01

    The 2005 discovery of the JAK2 mutation redefined the diagnosis and natural history of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Most importantly, this improvement in the pathobiologic conceptualization has focused our evolution of this field from being defined as what it is not (e.g., Philadelphia [Ph]-negative) to what it is (e.g., JAK2-positive, CALR-positive) in the majority of MPN cases. In the ensuing 10 years, the field has experienced a paradigm shift in terms of understanding of the biologic basis of the development of MPNs, an explosion of knowledge of the genetics of MPNs, and has translated disease knowledge into effective targeted therapies. With greater uniformity and agreement on the diagnosis and differences among the individual MPNs, augmented by improved cytogenetic and molecular classification, attention has turned now to addressing the need for uniformity in risk stratification of patients in the clinic for both disease complications and disease transformation. This article will highlight the developments in the field with regard to risk stratification and prognostication in MPNs with focus on the clinical aspects of the patient who presents with either essential thrombocytosis (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), or myelofibrosis (MF). PMID:25993152

  7. Proposals for enhanced health risk assessment and stratification in an integrated care scenario

    PubMed Central

    Dueñas-Espín, Ivan; Vela, Emili; Pauws, Steffen; Bescos, Cristina; Cano, Isaac; Cleries, Montserrat; Contel, Joan Carles; de Manuel Keenoy, Esteban; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Gomez-Cabrero, David; Kaye, Rachelle; Lahr, Maarten M H; Lluch-Ariet, Magí; Moharra, Montserrat; Monterde, David; Mora, Joana; Nalin, Marco; Pavlickova, Andrea; Piera, Jordi; Ponce, Sara; Santaeugenia, Sebastià; Schonenberg, Helen; Störk, Stefan; Tegner, Jesper; Velickovski, Filip; Westerteicher, Christoph; Roca, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Population-based health risk assessment and stratification are considered highly relevant for large-scale implementation of integrated care by facilitating services design and case identification. The principal objective of the study was to analyse five health-risk assessment strategies and health indicators used in the five regions participating in the Advancing Care Coordination and Telehealth Deployment (ACT) programme (http://www.act-programme.eu). The second purpose was to elaborate on strategies toward enhanced health risk predictive modelling in the clinical scenario. Settings The five ACT regions: Scotland (UK), Basque Country (ES), Catalonia (ES), Lombardy (I) and Groningen (NL). Participants Responsible teams for regional data management in the five ACT regions. Primary and secondary outcome measures We characterised and compared risk assessment strategies among ACT regions by analysing operational health risk predictive modelling tools for population-based stratification, as well as available health indicators at regional level. The analysis of the risk assessment tool deployed in Catalonia in 2015 (GMAs, Adjusted Morbidity Groups) was used as a basis to propose how population-based analytics could contribute to clinical risk prediction. Results There was consensus on the need for a population health approach to generate health risk predictive modelling. However, this strategy was fully in place only in two ACT regions: Basque Country and Catalonia. We found marked differences among regions in health risk predictive modelling tools and health indicators, and identified key factors constraining their comparability. The research proposes means to overcome current limitations and the use of population-based health risk prediction for enhanced clinical risk assessment. Conclusions The results indicate the need for further efforts to improve both comparability and flexibility of current population-based health risk predictive modelling approaches. Applicability and impact of the proposals for enhanced clinical risk assessment require prospective evaluation. PMID:27084274

  8. A COMBINED MOLECULAR-PATHOLOGICAL SCORE IMPROVES RISK STRATIFICATION OF THYROID PAPILLARY MICROCARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    Niemeier, Leo A.; Akatsu, Haruko Kuffner; Song, Chi; Carty, Sally E.; Hodak, Steven P.; Yip, Linwah; Ferris, Robert L.; Tseng, George C.; Seethala, Raja R.; LeBeau, Shane O.; Stang, Michael T.; Coyne, Christopher; Johnson, Jonas T.; Stewart, Andrew F.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Thyroid papillary microcarcinoma (TPMC) is an incidentally discovered papillary carcinoma that is ≤ 1.0 cm in size. Most TPMCs are indolent, whereas some behave aggressively. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the combination of BRAF mutation and specific histopathological features allows risk stratification of TPMC. Methods A group of aggressive TPMC was selected based on the presence of lymph node metastasis or tumor recurrence. A group of non-aggressive tumors included TPMCs matched for age, gender, and tumor size, but with no extrathyroidal spread. Molecular analysis was performed and histological slides were scored for multiple histopathological criteria. A separate validation cohort of 40 TPMC was evaluated. Results BRAF mutation was detected in 77% of aggressive TPMC and 32% of non-aggressive tumors (p=0.001). Several histopathological features showed significant difference between the groups. Using multivariate regression analysis, a molecular-pathological (MP) score was developed that included BRAF status and three histopathological features: superficial tumor location, intraglandular tumor spread/multifocality, and tumor fibrosis. By adding the histologic criteria to BRAF status, sensitivity was increased from 77% to 96% and specificity from 68% to 80%. In the independent validation cohort, the MP score stratified tumors into low, moderate, and high risk groups, with the probability of lymph node metastases or tumor recurrence of 0, 20%, and 60%, respectively. Conclusions BRAF status together with several histopathological features allow clinical risk stratification of TPMC. The combined molecular-pathological risk stratification model is a better predictor of extrathyroidal tumor spread than either mutational or histopathological findings alone. PMID:21882177

  9. The Risk stratification Of Syncope in the Emergency department (ROSE) pilot study: a comparison of existing syncope guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Matthew J; Newby, David E; Coull, Andrew J; Jacques, Keith G; Prescott, Robin J; Gray, Alasdair J

    2007-01-01

    Aims This study was conducted as a feasibility pilot for the Risk stratification Of Syncope in the Emergency department (ROSE) study. The secondary aim was to compare the performance of our existing emergency department (ED) guidelines with existing clinical decision rules (Osservatorio Epidemiologico sulla Sincope nel Lazio (OESIL) Score and San Francisco Syncope Rule; SFSR) at predicting short‐term (1 week and 1 month) and medium‐term (3 months) serious outcomes for patients with syncope presenting to the ED. Methods This was a prospective cohort study. All patients presenting with syncope aged ⩾16 years between 7 November 2005 and 7 February 2006 were prospectively enrolled. Results 99 patients were recruited over a 3‐month period. 44 patients were admitted and 55 discharged from the ED. 11 patients had a serious outcome: 8 by 7 days and a further 3 by 3 months. Five patients died by 3 months and six others had an alternative serious outcome. All 11 patients had been admitted from the ED, 7 were at high risk, 4 were at medium risk and none were at low risk according to our existing ED guidelines. Percentages of serious outcomes were 0%, 2.9%, 8.0%, 22.7% and 37.5% for OESIL scores of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. 40 patients had none of the 5 SFSR high‐risk factors (0 serious outcomes = 0%) and 59 patients had an SFSR high‐risk factor (11 serious outcomes = 18.6%). The risk of serious outcome at 7 days, 1 month and 3 months was 8.1%, 8.1% and 11.1%, respectively. Conclusions A study to derive and validate a UK ED syncope clinical decision rule is feasible. This pilot study has evaluated the OESIL score, the SFSR and our existing ED guidelines, and has shown that each is able to identify an increased probability of medium‐term serious outcome in patients with syncope. The SFSR shows good sensitivity at the expense of an increase in admissions to hospital; however, our existing ED syncope guidelines and the OESIL Score, although being able to successfully risk stratify patients, are not sufficiently sensitive to be able to reduce admissions without missing patients at risk of a serious outcome. Undoubtedly there is a need for a simple UK‐derived clinical decision rule for patients presenting with syncope to enable safe, effective clinical care and to aid less experienced decision makers. PMID:17384381

  10. A new gender-specific model for skin autofluorescence risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muhammad S; Damanhouri, Zoheir A; Kimhofer, Torben; Mosli, Hala H; Holmes, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are believed to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of a variety of diseases including diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Non-invasive skin autofluorescence (SAF) measurement serves as a proxy for tissue accumulation of AGEs. We assessed reference SAF and skin reflectance (SR) values in a Saudi population (n = 1,999) and evaluated the existing risk stratification scale. The mean SAF of the study cohort was 2.06 (SD = 0.57) arbitrary units (AU), which is considerably higher than the values reported for other populations. We show a previously unreported and significant difference in SAF values between men and women, with median (range) values of 1.77 AU (0.79-4.84 AU) and 2.20 AU (0.75-4.59 AU) respectively (p-value « 0.01). Age, presence of diabetes and BMI were the most influential variables in determining SAF values in men, whilst in female participants, SR was also highly correlated with SAF. Diabetes, hypertension and obesity all showed strong association with SAF, particularly when gender differences were taken into account. We propose an adjusted, gender-specific disease risk stratification scheme for Middle Eastern populations. SAF is a potentially valuable clinical screening tool for cardiovascular risk assessment but risk scores should take gender and ethnicity into consideration for accurate diagnosis. PMID:25974028

  11. A new gender-specific model for skin autofluorescence risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Muhammad S.; Damanhouri, Zoheir A.; Kimhofer, Torben; Mosli, Hala H.; Holmes, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are believed to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of a variety of diseases including diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Non-invasive skin autofluorescence (SAF) measurement serves as a proxy for tissue accumulation of AGEs. We assessed reference SAF and skin reflectance (SR) values in a Saudi population (n = 1,999) and evaluated the existing risk stratification scale. The mean SAF of the study cohort was 2.06 (SD = 0.57) arbitrary units (AU), which is considerably higher than the values reported for other populations. We show a previously unreported and significant difference in SAF values between men and women, with median (range) values of 1.77 AU (0.79–4.84 AU) and 2.20 AU (0.75–4.59 AU) respectively (p-value « 0.01). Age, presence of diabetes and BMI were the most influential variables in determining SAF values in men, whilst in female participants, SR was also highly correlated with SAF. Diabetes, hypertension and obesity all showed strong association with SAF, particularly when gender differences were taken into account. We propose an adjusted, gender-specific disease risk stratification scheme for Middle Eastern populations. SAF is a potentially valuable clinical screening tool for cardiovascular risk assessment but risk scores should take gender and ethnicity into consideration for accurate diagnosis. PMID:25974028

  12. Histological pattern of Merkel cell carcinoma sentinel lymph node metastasis improves stratification of Stage III patients.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jennifer S; Prieto, Victor G; Elson, Paul J; Vilain, Ricardo E; Pulitzer, Melissa P; Scolyer, Richard A; Reynolds, Jordan P; Piliang, Melissa P; Ernstoff, Marc S; Gastman, Brian R; Billings, Steven D

    2016-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is used to stage Merkel cell carcinoma, but its prognostic value has been questioned. Furthermore, predictors of outcome in sentinel lymph node positive Merkel cell carcinoma patients are poorly defined. In breast carcinoma, isolated immunohistochemically positive tumor cells have no impact, but in melanoma they are considered significant. The significance of sentinel lymph node metastasis tumor burden (including isolated tumor cells) and pattern of involvement in Merkel cell carcinoma are unknown. In this study, 64 Merkel cell carcinomas involving sentinel lymph nodes and corresponding immunohistochemical stains were reviewed and clinicopathological predictors of outcome were sought. Five metastatic patterns were identified: (1) sheet-like (n=38, 59%); (2) non-solid parafollicular (n=4, 6%); (3) sinusoidal, (n=11, 17%); (4) perivascular hilar (n=1, 2%); and (5) rare scattered parenchymal cells (n=10, 16%). At the time of follow-up, 30/63 (48%) patients had died with 21 (33%) attributable to Merkel cell carcinoma. Patients with pattern 1 metastases had poorer overall survival compared with patients with patterns 2-5 metastases (P=0.03), with 22/30 (73%) deaths occurring in pattern 1 patients. Three (10%) deaths occurred in patients showing pattern 5, all of whom were immunosuppressed. Four (13%) deaths occurred in pattern 3 patients and 1 (3%) death occurred in a pattern 2 patient. In multivariable analysis, the number of positive sentinel lymph nodes (1 or 2 versus >2, P<0.0001), age (<70 versus ≥70, P=0.01), sentinel lymph node metastasis pattern (patterns 2-5 versus 1, P=0.02), and immune status (immunocompetent versus suppressed, P=0.03) were independent predictors of outcome, and could be used to stratify Stage III patients into three groups with markedly different outcomes. In Merkel cell carcinoma, the pattern of sentinel lymph node involvement provides important prognostic information and utilizing this data with other clinicopathological features facilitates risk stratification of Merkel cell carcinoma patients who may have management implications. PMID:26541273

  13. MRI Risk Stratification for Tumor Relapse in Rectal Cancer Achieving Pathological Complete Remission after Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy and Curative Resection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Honsoul; Myoung, Sungmin; Koom, Woong Sub; Kim, Nam Kyu; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Ahn, Joong Bae; Hur, Hyuk; Lim, Joon Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Rectal cancer patients achieving pCR are known to have an excellent prognosis, yet no widely accepted consensus on risk stratification and post-operative management (e.g., adjuvant therapy) has been established. This study aimed to identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) high-risk factors for tumor relapse in pathological complete remission (pCR) achieved by rectal cancer patients who have undergone neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT) and curative resection. Materials and Methods We analyzed 88 (male/female = 55/33, median age, 59.5 years [range 34–78]) pCR-proven rectal cancer patients who had undergone pre-CRT MRI, CRT, post-CRT MRI and curative surgery between July 2005 and December 2012. Patients were observed for post-operative tumor relapse. We analyzed the pre/post-CRT MRIs for parameters including mrT stage, mesorectal fascia (mrMRF) status, tumor volume, tumor regression grade (mrTRG), nodal status (mrN), and extramural vessel invasion (mrEMVI). We performed univariate analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results Post-operative tumor relapse occurred in seven patients (8.0%, n = 7/88) between 5.7 and 50.7 (median 16.8) months. No significant relevance was observed between tumor volume, volume reduction rate, mrTRG, mrT, or mrN status. Meanwhile, positive mrMRF (Ppre-CRT = 0.018, Ppre/post-CRT = 0.006) and mrEMVI (Ppre-CRT = 0.026, Ppre-/post-CRT = 0.008) were associated with higher incidence of post-operative tumor relapse. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed a higher risk of tumor relapse in patients with positive mrMRF (Ppre-CRT = 0.029, Ppre-/post-CRT = 0.009) or mrEMVI (Ppre-CRT = 0.024, Ppre-/post-CRT = 0.003). Conclusion Positive mrMRF and mrEMVI status was associated with a higher risk of post-operative tumor relapse of pCR achieved by rectal cancer patients, and therefore, can be applied for risk stratification and to individualize treatment plans. PMID:26730717

  14. An Official American Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline: Diagnosis, Risk Stratification, and Management of Pulmonary Hypertension of Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Klings, Elizabeth S.; Machado, Roberto F.; Barst, Robyn J.; Morris, Claudia R.; Mubarak, Kamal K.; Gordeuk, Victor R.; Kato, Gregory J.; Ataga, Kenneth I.; Gibbs, J. Simon; Castro, Oswaldo; Rosenzweig, Erika B.; Sood, Namita; Hsu, Lewis; Wilson, Kevin C.; Telen, Marilyn J.; DeCastro, Laura M.; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan; Steinberg, Martin H.; Badesch, David B.; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In adults with sickle cell disease (SCD), an increased tricuspid regurgitant velocity (TRV) measured by Doppler echocardiography, an increased serum N-terminal pro–brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) level, and pulmonary hypertension (PH) diagnosed by right heart catheterization (RHC) are independent risk factors for mortality. Methods: A multidisciplinary committee was formed by clinician-investigators experienced in the management of patients with PH and/or SCD. Clinically important questions were posed, related evidence was appraised, and questions were answered with evidence-based recommendations. Target audiences include all clinicians who take care of patients with SCD. Results: Mortality risk stratification guides decision making. An increased risk for mortality is defined as a TRV equal to or greater than 2.5 m/second, an NT-pro-BNP level equal to or greater than 160 pg/ml, or RHC-confirmed PH. For patients identified as having increased mortality risk, we make a strong recommendation for hydroxyurea as first-line therapy and a weak recommendation for chronic transfusions as an alternative therapy. For all patients with SCD with elevated TRV alone or elevated NT-pro-BNP alone, and for patients with SCD with RHC-confirmed PH with elevated pulmonary artery wedge pressure and low pulmonary vascular resistance, we make a strong recommendation against PAH-specific therapy. However, for select patients with SCD with RHC-confirmed PH who have elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, we make a weak recommendation for either prostacyclin agonist or endothelin receptor antagonist therapy and a strong recommendation against phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor therapy. Conclusions: Evidence-based recommendations for the management of patients with SCD with increased mortality risk are provided, but will require frequent reassessment and updating. PMID:24628312

  15. A Review on Carotid Ultrasound Atherosclerotic Tissue Characterization and Stroke Risk Stratification in Machine Learning Framework.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aditya M; Gupta, Ajay; Kumar, P Krishna; Rajan, Jeny; Saba, Luca; Nobutaka, Ikeda; Laird, John R; Nicolades, Andrew; Suri, Jasjit S

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (including stroke and heart attack) are identified as the leading cause of death in today's world. However, very little is understood about the arterial mechanics of plaque buildup, arterial fibrous cap rupture, and the role of abnormalities of the vasa vasorum. Recently, ultrasonic echogenicity characteristics and morphological characterization of carotid plaque types have been shown to have clinical utility in classification of stroke risks. Furthermore, this characterization supports aggressive and intensive medical therapy as well as procedures, including endarterectomy and stenting. This is the first state-of-the-art review to provide a comprehensive understanding of the field of ultrasonic vascular morphology tissue characterization. This paper presents fundamental and advanced ultrasonic tissue characterization and feature extraction methods for analyzing plaque. Additionally, the paper shows how the risk stratification is achieved using machine learning paradigms. More advanced methods need to be developed which can segment the carotid artery walls into multiple regions such as the bulb region and areas both proximal and distal to the bulb. Furthermore, multimodality imaging is needed for validation of such advanced methods for stroke and cardiovascular risk stratification. PMID:26233633

  16. The role of early 18F-FDG PET/CT in therapeutic management and ongoing risk stratification of high/intermediate-risk thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Triviño Ibáñez, E M; Muros, M A; Torres Vela, E; Llamas Elvira, J M

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the role in ongoing risk stratification of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) performed early after radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The aim of the study is to investigate whether 18F-FDG PET/CT performed early after RAI ablation is useful to detect disease and to influence therapy and ongoing risk stratification. Patients with high/intermediate risk of recurrent DTC were included. 18F-FDG PET/CT scan was performed within 6 months after RAI ablation. We confirmed results with other imaging techniques, pathology reports, or follow-up. We classified the patient response as excellent, acceptable, or incomplete. Modified Hicks criteria were used to evaluate clinical impact. We included 81 patients with high/intermediate risk of recurrent DTC. Forty-one (50.6 %) had positive uptake in 18F-FDG PET/CT, with negative (131)I whole-body scan ((131)I WBS). Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT were 92.5, 90.2, and 91.4 %, respectively. 18F-FDG PET/CT results had an impact on therapy in 38.3 % of patients. One year after initial therapy, 45.7 % showed excellent response, 8.6 % acceptable response, and 45.7 % incomplete response. A statistically significant relationship was found between negative 18F-FDG PET/CT and excellent response (80 vs. 12.2 %, p < 0.001; OR 52.8). 18F-FDG PET/CT scan performed early in surveillance of patients with high/intermediate-risk thyroid carcinoma provides important additional information not available with conventional follow-up methods and had a high impact on therapy. A negative 18F-FDG PET/CT predicts an excellent response to therapy in the new ongoing risk stratification. PMID:26224589

  17. Coronary artery calcium screening: does it perform better than other cardiovascular risk stratification tools?

    PubMed

    Zeb, Irfan; Budoff, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) has been advocated as one of the strongest cardiovascular risk prediction markers. It performs better across a wide range of Framingham risk categories (6%-10% and 10%-20% 10-year risk categories) and also helps in reclassifying the risk of these subjects into either higher or lower risk categories based on CAC scores. It also performs better among population subgroups where Framingham risk score does not perform well, especially young subjects, women, family history of premature coronary artery disease and ethnic differences in coronary risk. The absence of CAC is also associated with excellent prognosis, with 10-year event rate of 1%. Studies have also compared with other commonly used markers of cardiovascular disease risk such as Carotid intima-media thickness and highly sensitive C-reactive protein. CAC also performs better compared with carotid intima-media thickness and highly sensitive C-reactive protein in prediction of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease events. CAC scans are associated with relatively low radiation exposure (0.9-1.1 mSv) and provide information that can be used not only for risk stratification but also can be used to track the progression of atherosclerosis and the effects of statins. PMID:25807266

  18. Coronary Artery Calcium Screening: Does it Perform Better than Other Cardiovascular Risk Stratification Tools?

    PubMed Central

    Zeb, Irfan; Budoff, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) has been advocated as one of the strongest cardiovascular risk prediction markers. It performs better across a wide range of Framingham risk categories (6%–10% and 10%–20% 10-year risk categories) and also helps in reclassifying the risk of these subjects into either higher or lower risk categories based on CAC scores. It also performs better among population subgroups where Framingham risk score does not perform well, especially young subjects, women, family history of premature coronary artery disease and ethnic differences in coronary risk. The absence of CAC is also associated with excellent prognosis, with 10-year event rate of 1%. Studies have also compared with other commonly used markers of cardiovascular disease risk such as Carotid intima-media thickness and highly sensitive C-reactive protein. CAC also performs better compared with carotid intima-media thickness and highly sensitive C-reactive protein in prediction of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease events. CAC scans are associated with relatively low radiation exposure (0.9–1.1 mSv) and provide information that can be used not only for risk stratification but also can be used to track the progression of atherosclerosis and the effects of statins. PMID:25807266

  19. Stratification of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Based on Acetate Utilization.

    PubMed

    Björnson, Elias; Mukhopadhyay, Bani; Asplund, Anna; Pristovsek, Nusa; Cinar, Resat; Romeo, Stefano; Uhlen, Mathias; Kunos, George; Nielsen, Jens; Mardinoglu, Adil

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly form of liver cancer that is increasingly prevalent. We analyzed global gene expression profiling of 361 HCC tumors and 49 adjacent noncancerous liver samples by means of combinatorial network-based analysis. We investigated the correlation between transcriptome and proteome of HCC and reconstructed a functional genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) for HCC. We identified fundamental metabolic processes required for cell proliferation using the network centric view provided by the GEM. Our analysis revealed tight regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis (FAB) and highly significant deregulation of fatty acid oxidation in HCC. We predicted mitochondrial acetate as an emerging substrate for FAB through upregulation of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACSS1) in HCC. We analyzed heterogeneous expression of ACSS1 and ACSS2 between HCC patients stratified by high and low ACSS1 and ACSS2 expression and revealed that ACSS1 is associated with tumor growth and malignancy under hypoxic conditions in human HCC. PMID:26655911

  20. Usefulness of semiquantitative analysis of dipyridamole-thallium-201 redistribution for improving risk stratification before vascular surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, J.R.; Boucher, C.A.; Coley, C.M.; Guiney, T.E.; Strauss, H.W.; Eagle, K.A. )

    1990-08-15

    Preoperative dipyridamole-thallium-201 scanning is sensitive in identifying patients prone to ischemic cardiac complications after vascular surgery, but most patients with redistribution do not have an event after surgery. Therefore, its positive predictive value is limited. To determine which patients with thallium redistribution are at highest risk, dipyridamole-thallium-201 images were interpreted semiquantitatively. Sixty-two consecutive patients with redistribution on preoperative dipyridamole-thallium-201 planar imaging studies were identified. Each thallium scan was then analyzed independently by 2 observers for the number of myocardial segments out of 15, the number of thallium views out of 3 and the number of coronary artery territories with redistribution. Seventeen patients (27%) had postoperative ischemic events, including unstable angina pectoris, ischemic pulmonary edema, myocardial infarction and cardiac death. Thallium predictors of ischemic operative complications included thallium redistribution greater than or equal to 4 myocardial segments (p = 0.03), greater than or equal to 2 of the 3 planar views (p = 0.005) and greater than or equal to 2 coronary territories (p = 0.007). No patient with redistribution in only 1 view had an ischemic event (0 of 15). Thus, determining the extent of redistribution by dipyridamole-thallium-201 scanning improves risk stratification before vascular surgery. Patients with greater numbers of myocardial segments and greater numbers of coronary territories showing thallium-201 redistribution are at higher risk for ischemic cardiac complications. In contrast, when the extent of thallium redistribution is limited, there is a lower risk despite the presence of redistribution.

  1. Outcome Predictors in Prosthetic Joint Infections - Validation of a risk stratification score for Prosthetic Joint Infections in 120 cases.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, M D; Randau, T M; Friedrich, M J; Ploeger, M M; Schmolder, J; Strauss, A C; Pennekamp, P H; Vavken, P; Gravius, S

    2016-03-01

    Prosthetic joint infections are a major challenge in total joint arthroplasty, especially in times of accumulating drug resistancies. Even though predictive risk classifications are a widely accepted tool to define a suitable treatment protocol a classification is still missing considering the difficulty in treating the -causative pathogen antibiotically. In this study, we present and evaluate a new predictive risk stratification for prosthetic joint infections in 120 cases, treated with a two-stage exchange. Treatment outcomes in 120 patients with proven prosthetic joint infections in hip and knee prostheses were regressed on time of infection, systemic risk factors, local risk factors and the difficulty in treating the causing pathogen. The main outcome variable was "definitely free of infection" after two years as published. Age, gender, and BMI were included as covariables and analyzed in a logistic regression model. 66 male and 54 female patients, with a mean age at surgery of 68.3 years ± 12.0 and a mean BMI of 26.05 ± 6.21 were included in our survey and followed for 29.0 ± 11.3 months. We found a significant association (p < 0.001) between our score and the outcome parameters evaluated. Age, gender and BMI did not show a significant association with the outcome. These results show that our score is an independent and reliable predictor for the cure rate in prosthetic joint infections in hip and knee prostheses treated within a two-stage exchange protocol. Our score illustrates, that there is a statistically significant, sizable decrease in cure rate with an increase in score. In patients with prosthetic joint infections the validation of a risk score may help to identify patients with local and systemic risk factors or with infectious organisms identified as "difficult to treat" prior to the treatment or the decision about the treatment concept. Thus, appropriate extra care should be considered and provided. PMID:26984667

  2. The value of exercise radionuclide ventriculography in risk stratification after coronary arterial bypass grafting

    SciTech Connect

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Goel, I.P.; Mundth, E.D.; Kane, S.; Schenk, C.

    1985-05-01

    Cardiac events after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) may be related to left ventricular (LV) function, residual coronary artery diseases (CAD), graft occlusion, and progression of CAD. This study examined the value of rest and exercise (EX) radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) done 3-6 mos after CABG in risk stratification in 212 pts. There were 185 men and 27 women, aged 57 +- 8 years (mean +- SD). During a followup period of up to 4 years, (15 +- 10 months), there were 23 cardiac events; 13 pts died of cardiac causes and 20 had non-fatal acute myocardial infarctions. The pts with and without events did not differ in: clinical presentation after CABG (most were asymptomatic), medications and ECG findings at rest and EX. The pts with events had lower EX systolic blood pressure (p < 0.01); resting LV ejection fraction (EF) (p = 0.002), and EX EF (40 +- 18% vs 54 +- 16%, p = 0.002). The change in EF (rest to EX) was not significantly different (l.6 +- 8.2%, vs 2.1 +- 9.2%). Survival analysis (Cox model) identified the EX EF as the best predictor of death and total events (X/sup 2/ = 4.3 and 2.4, p = 0.04 and 0.07 respectively). Actuarial life table analysis showed that the risk increased as the EX EF decreased when pts were grouped into EX EF greater than or equal to 50, 30-49, and <30%, (p < 0.001, Mantel-Cox). Thus, EX RNA is useful in risk stratification after CABG. The EX LVEF is an important descriptor that categorizes pts into different risks groups. The pts at high risk probably require more aggressive followup and continued medical therapy.

  3. Applications of cellular systems biology in breast cancer patient stratification and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Critchley-Thorne, Rebecca J; Miller, Steven M; Taylor, D Lansing; Lingle, Wilma L

    2009-11-01

    Tumors are complex structures of malignant cells and stromal cells that function as an integrated system that promotes tumor progression. Immune cells and other stromal components serve vital cooperative functions that often support tumor growth and metastasis; stromal content and function are strongly associated with disease progression and clinical outcome in cancer patients. Cellular systems biology considers tissues and tumors, and the cells within them, as integrated and interactive networks that function in concert as a system. Assessment of tumors as a "system" within the system of a patient using the cellular systems biology approach has the potential to improve on the current diagnostic tools for breast cancer by creating high content profiles of an individual patient's tumor. The application of cellular systems biology (CSB) profiling to early drug discovery using cellular models of disease [1] and to drug development using the CellCiphr Cytotoxicity Profiling panels [2] can optimize the efficacy and decrease the potential toxicity of compounds taken into pre-clinical trials. However, it has become clear that patient sub-populations can respond differently to drug candidates in clinical trials due to patient variability. Therefore, cellular systems biology can also be a powerful approach to patient stratification for clinical trials and could become an important diagnostic tool. This review describes how the cellular systems biology approach can be applied to patient stratification and diagnostics in breast cancer, focusing on the advantages of quantifying functional biomarkers representing key tumor system processes in intact tissues from patients in order to make highly specific and sensitive predictions towards development of individualized medicine for breast cancer. We discuss the state-of-the-art of multiplexing of functional biomarkers in tissues and the practical utilization of the cellular systems biology approach in creating classifiers for patient stratification and diagnostics. PMID:19531004

  4. Non-Rhabdomyosarcoma Soft Tissue Sarcomas in Children: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis Validating COG Risk Stratifications

    SciTech Connect

    Waxweiler, Timothy V.; Rusthoven, Chad G.; Proper, Michelle S.; Cost, Carrye R.; Cost, Nicholas G.; Donaldson, Nathan; Garrington, Timothy; Greffe, Brian S.; Heare, Travis; Macy, Margaret E.; Liu, Arthur K.

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS) are a heterogeneous group of sarcomas that encompass over 35 histologies. With an incidence of ∼500 cases per year in the United States in those <20 years of age, NRSTS are rare and therefore difficult to study in pediatric populations. We used the large Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to validate the prognostic ability of the Children's Oncology Group (COG) risk classification system and to define patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Methods and Materials: From SEER data from 1988 to 2007, we identified patients ≤18 years of age with NRSTS. Data for age, sex, year of diagnosis, race, registry, histology, grade, primary size, primary site, stage, radiation therapy, and survival outcomes were analyzed. Patients with nonmetastatic grossly resected low-grade tumors of any size or high-grade tumors ≤5 cm were considered low risk. Cases of nonmetastatic tumors that were high grade, >5 cm, or unresectable were considered intermediate risk. Patients with nodal or distant metastases were considered high risk. Results: A total of 941 patients met the review criteria. On univariate analysis, black race, malignant peripheral nerve sheath (MPNST) histology, tumors >5 cm, nonextremity primary, lymph node involvement, radiation therapy, and higher risk group were associated with significantly worse overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). On multivariate analysis, MPNST histology, chemotherapy-resistant histology, and higher risk group were significantly poor prognostic factors for OS and CSS. Compared to low-risk patients, intermediate patients showed poorer OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.53-10.47, P<.001) and CSS (HR: 6.27; 95% CI: 3.44-11.43, P<.001), and high-risk patients had the worst OS (HR: 13.35, 95% CI: 8.18-21.76, P<.001) and CSS (HR: 14.65, 95% CI: 8.49-25.28, P<.001). Conclusions: The current COG risk group stratification for children with NRSTS has been validated with a large number of children in the SEER database.

  5. Stratification of Risk of Early-Onset Sepsis in Newborns ≥34 Weeks’ Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Puopolo, Karen M.; Wi, Soora; Turk, Benjamin J.; Kuzniewicz, Michael W.; Walsh, Eileen M.; Newman, Thomas B.; Zupancic, John; Lieberman, Ellice; Draper, David

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define a quantitative stratification algorithm for the risk of early-onset sepsis (EOS) in newborns ≥34 weeks’ gestation. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective nested case-control study that used split validation. Data collected on each infant included sepsis risk at birth based on objective maternal factors, demographics, specific clinical milestones, and vital signs during the first 24 hours after birth. Using a combination of recursive partitioning and logistic regression, we developed a risk classification scheme for EOS on the derivation dataset. This scheme was then applied to the validation dataset. RESULTS: Using a base population of 608 014 live births ≥34 weeks’ gestation at 14 hospitals between 1993 and 2007, we identified all 350 EOS cases <72 hours of age and frequency matched them by hospital and year of birth to 1063 controls. Using maternal and neonatal data, we defined a risk stratification scheme that divided the neonatal population into 3 groups: treat empirically (4.1% of all live births, 60.8% of all EOS cases, sepsis incidence of 8.4/1000 live births), observe and evaluate (11.1% of births, 23.4% of cases, 1.2/1000), and continued observation (84.8% of births, 15.7% of cases, incidence 0.11/1000). CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to combine objective maternal data with evolving objective neonatal clinical findings to define more efficient strategies for the evaluation and treatment of EOS in term and late preterm infants. Judicious application of our scheme could result in decreased antibiotic treatment in 80 000 to 240 000 US newborns each year. PMID:24366992

  6. New pattern-based personalized risk stratification system for endocervical adenocarcinoma with important clinical implications and surgical outcome.

    PubMed

    Roma, Andres A; Mistretta, Toni-Ann; De Vivar, Andrea Diaz; Park, Kay J; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Rasty, Golnar; Chanona-Vilchis, Jose G; Mikami, Yoshiki; Hong, Sung R; Teramoto, Norihiro; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Barbuto, Denise; Rutgers, Joanne K L; Silva, Elvio G

    2016-04-01

    We present a recently introduced three tier pattern-based histopathologic system to stratify endocervical adenocarcinoma (EAC) that better correlates with lymph node (LN) metastases than FIGO staging alone, and has the advantage of safely predicting node-negative disease in a large proportion of EAC patients. The system consists of stratifying EAC into one of three patterns: pattern A tumors characterized by well-demarcated glands frequently forming clusters or groups with relative lobular architecture and lacking destructive stromal invasion or lymphovascular invasion (LVI), pattern B tumors demonstrating localized destructive invasion (small clusters or individual tumor cells within desmoplastic stroma often arising from pattern A glands), and pattern C tumors with diffusely infiltrative glands and associated desmoplastic response. Three hundred and fifty-two cases were included; mean follow-up 52.8months. Seventy-three patients (21%) had pattern A tumors; all were stage I and there were no LN metastases or recurrences. Pattern B was seen in 90 tumors (26%); all were stage I and LVI was seen in 24 cases (26.6%). Nodal disease was found in only 4 (4.4%) pattern B tumors (one IA2, two IB1, one IB not further specified (NOS)), each of which showed LVI. Pattern C was found in 189 cases (54%), 117 had LVI (61.9%) and 17% were stage II or greater. Forty-five (23.8%) patients showed LN metastases (one IA1, 14 IB1, 5 IB2, 5 IB NOS, 11 II, 5 III and 4 IV) and recurrences were recorded in 41 (21.7%) patients. This new risk stratification system identifies a subset of stage I patients with essentially no risk of nodal disease, suggesting that patients with pattern A tumors can be spared lymphadenectomy. Patients with pattern B tumors rarely present with LN metastases, and sentinel LN examination could potentially identify these patients. Surgical treatment with nodal resection is justified in patients with pattern C tumors. PMID:27016227

  7. Stratification of Prognosis of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patients Using Combinatorial Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yong; Astvatsaturyan, Kristine; Cui, Xiaojiang; Zhang, Xiao; Fraass, Benedick; Bose, Shikha

    2016-01-01

    Background Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is highly diverse group of cancers, and generally considered an aggressive disease associated with poor survival. Stratification of TNBC is highly desired for both prognosis and treatment decisions to identify patients who may benefit from less aggressive therapy. Methods This study retrieved 192 consecutive non-metastasis TNBC patients who had undergone a resection of a primary tumor from 2008 to 2012. All samples were negative for ER, PR, and HER2/neu. Disease-free-survival (DFS) and overall-survival (OS) were evaluated for expression of immunohistochemical biomarkers (P53, Ki-67, CK5/6 and EGFR), as well as clinicopathological variables including age, tumor size, grade, lymph node status, pathologic tumor and nodal stages. The cutoff values of the basal biomarkers, EGFR and CK5/6, were estimated by time-dependent ROC curves. The prognostic values of combinatorial variables were identified by univariate and multivariate Cox analysis. Patients were stratified into different risk groups based on expression status of identified prognostic variables. Results Median age was 57 years (range, 28–92 years). Patients’ tumor stage and nodal stage were significantly associated with OS and DFS. EGFR and CK5/6 were significant prognostic variables at cutoff points of 15% (p = 0.001, AUC = 0.723), and 50% (p = 0.006, AUC = 0.675), respectively. Multivariate Cox analysis identified five significant variables: EGFR (p = 0.016), CK5/6 (p = 0.018), Ki-67 (p = 0.048), tumor stage (p = 0.010), and nodal stage (p = 0.003). Patients were stratified into low basal (EGFR≤15% and CK5/6≤50%) and high basal (EGFR>15% and/or CK5/6>50%) expression groups. In the low basal expression group, patients with low expressions of Ki-67, low tumor and nodal stage had significantly better survival than those with high expressions/stages of three variables, log-rank p = 0.015 (100% vs 68% at 50 months). In the high basal expression group, patient with high basal expression of both biomarkers (EGFR >15% and CK5/6 >50%) had worse survival (mean DFS = 25 months, 41.7% event rate) than those patient with high expression of either one marker (mean DFS = 34 months, 25.5% event rate). Conclusions Immunoexpression of basal biomarkers, EGFR and CK5/6, is useful in predicting survival of TNBC patients. Integrated with Ki-67, tumor and nodal stages, combinatorial biomarker analysis provides a feasible clinical solution to stratify patient risks and help clinical decision-making with respect to selecting the appropriate therapies for individual patients. PMID:26930401

  8. The use of molecular-based risk stratification and pharmacogenomics for outcome prediction and personalized therapeutic management of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah K; Heuck, Christoph J; Albino, Anthony P; Qu, Pingping; Zhang, Qing; Barlogie, Bart; Shaughnessy, John D

    2011-10-01

    Despite improvement in therapeutic efficacy, multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable with a median survival of approximately 10years. Gene-expression profiling (GEP) can be used to elucidate the molecular basis for resistance to chemotherapy through global assessment of molecular alterations that exist at diagnosis, after therapeutic treatment and that evolve during tumor progression. Unique GEP signatures associated with recurrent chromosomal translocations and ploidy changes have defined molecular classes with differing clinical features and outcomes. When compared to other stratification systems the GEP70 test remained a significant predictor of outcome, reduced the number of patients classified with a poor prognosis, and identified patients at increased risk of relapse despite their standard clinico-pathologic and genetic findings. GEP studies of serial samples showed that risk increases over time, with relapsed disease showing GEP shifts toward a signature of poor outcomes. GEP signatures of myeloma cells after therapy were prognostic for event-free and overall survival and thus may be used to identify novel strategies for overcoming drug resistance. This brief review will focus on the use of GEP of MM to define high-risk myeloma, and elucidate underlying mechanisms that are beginning to change clinical decision-making and inform drug design. PMID:22002477

  9. A two-stage clinical decision support system for early recognition and stratification of patients with sepsis: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Jason J; Greene, Tracy L; Haley, James M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the diagnostic accuracy of a two-stage clinical decision support system for early recognition and stratification of patients with sepsis. Design Observational cohort study employing a two-stage sepsis clinical decision support to recognise and stratify patients with sepsis. The stage one component was comprised of a cloud-based clinical decision support with 24/7 surveillance to detect patients at risk of sepsis. The cloud-based clinical decision support delivered notifications to the patients’ designated nurse, who then electronically contacted a provider. The second stage component comprised a sepsis screening and stratification form integrated into the patient electronic health record, essentially an evidence-based decision aid, used by providers to assess patients at bedside. Setting Urban, 284 acute bed community hospital in the USA; 16,000 hospitalisations annually. Participants Data on 2620 adult patients were collected retrospectively in 2014 after the clinical decision support was implemented. Main outcome measure ‘Suspected infection’ was the established gold standard to assess clinical decision support clinimetric performance. Results A sepsis alert activated on 417 (16%) of 2620 adult patients hospitalised. Applying ‘suspected infection’ as standard, the patient population characteristics showed 72% sensitivity and 73% positive predictive value. A postalert screening conducted by providers at bedside of 417 patients achieved 81% sensitivity and 94% positive predictive value. Providers documented against 89% patients with an alert activated by clinical decision support and completed 75% of bedside screening and stratification of patients with sepsis within one hour from notification. Conclusion A clinical decision support binary alarm system with cross-checking functionality improves early recognition and facilitates stratification of patients with sepsis. PMID:26688744

  10. Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis and early-stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia: diagnosis, natural history, and risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Strati, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal B lymphocytosis (MBL) is defined as the presence of a clonal B-cell population in the peripheral blood with fewer than 5 109/L B-cells and no other signs of a lymphoproliferative disorder. The majority of cases of MBL have the immunophenotype of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). MBL can be categorized as either low count or high count based on whether the B-cell count is above or below 0.5 109/L. Low-count MBL can be detected in ?5% of adults over the age of 40 years when assessed using standard-sensitivity flow cytometry assays. A number of biological and genetic characteristics distinguish low-count from high-count MBL. Whereas low-count MBL rarely progresses to CLL, high-count MBL progresses to CLL requiring therapy at a rate of 1% to 2% per year. High-count MBL is distinguished from Rai 0 CLL based on whether the B-cell count is above or below 5 109/L. Although individuals with both high-count MBL and CLL Rai stage 0 are at increased risk of infections and second cancers, the risk of progression requiring treatment and the potential to shorten life expectancy are greater for CLL. This review highlights challenging questions regarding the classification, risk stratification, management, and supportive care of patients with MBL and CLL. PMID:26065657

  11. Update on risk stratification and treatment of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Prashant; Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2011-10-01

    Multiple myeloma is the second most common hematologic malignancy. Chromosomal aberrations are important prognostic determinants that influence the clinical decision-making in newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). Patients are considered high-risk if any of the following features are detected: hypodiploidy, deletion 13 by cytogenetics, t(4;14), t(14;16), t(14;20) and/or 17 p deletion. In the absence of these features patients are considered standard risk. Outside of trials, risk-adapted therapy in the transplant-eligible high-risk patients advocates use of bortezomib-based induction therapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and bortezomib-based maintenance therapy. High-risk, transplant-ineligible patients should also utilize bortezomib as initial therapy since it is known to overcome the poor prognosis associated with some high-risk features. The goal of therapy in high-risk patients is to attain and maintain a state of complete remission as much as possible. In contrast, the standard-risk, transplant-eligible patients may be treated with either lenalidomide-dexamethasone or bortezomib-based therapy followed by ASCT. In such patients, ASCT can also be deferred until first relapse if the patients are tolerating initial therapy well. Lenalidomide maintenance therapy in the post-transplant setting in standard-risk patients is controversial and not recommended routinely. For transplant-ineligible standard-risk patients, multiple options exist, although in the absence direct comparisons, we prefer lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone over melphalan-based combinations. This review outlines evidence-based management approaches in NDMM, with a focus on risk-adapted therapy. PMID:22005834

  12. Biomarker-driven stratification of disease-risk in non-metastatic medulloblastoma: Results from the multi-center HIT-SIOP-PNET4 clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Lannering, Birgitta; Schwalbe, Ed C.; Hicks, Debbie; O' Toole, Kieran; Nicholson, Sarah Leigh; Goschzik, Tobias; zur Mühlen, Anja; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Doz, François; Rutkowski, Stefan; Gustafsson, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To improve stratification of risk-adapted treatment for non-metastatic (M0), standard-risk medulloblastoma patients by prospective evaluation of biomarkers of reported biological or prognostic significance, alongside clinico-pathological variables, within the multi-center HIT-SIOP-PNET4 trial. Methods Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues were collected from 338 M0 patients (>4.0 years at diagnosis) for pathology review and assessment of the WNT subgroup (MBWNT) and genomic copy-number defects (chromosome 17, MYC/MYCN, 9q22 (PTCH1) and DNA ploidy). Clinical characteristics were reviewed centrally. Results The favorable prognosis of MBWNT was confirmed, however better outcomes were observed for non-MBWNT tumors in this clinical risk-defined cohort compared to previous disease-wide clinical trials. Chromosome 17p/q defects were heterogeneous when assessed at the cellular copy-number level, and predicted poor prognosis when they occurred against a diploid (ch17(im)/diploid(cen)), but not polyploid, genetic background. These factors, together with post-surgical tumor residuum (R+) and radiotherapy delay, were supported as independent prognostic markers in multivariate testing. Notably, MYC and MYCN amplification were not associated with adverse outcome. In cross-validated survival models derived for the clinical standard-risk (M0/R0) disease group, (ch17(im)/diploid(cen); 14% of patients) predicted high disease-risk, while the outcomes of patients without (ch17(im)/diploid(cen)) did not differ significantly from MBWNT, allowing re-classification of 86% as favorable-risk. Conclusion Biomarkers, established previously in disease-wide studies, behave differently in clinically-defined standard-risk disease. Distinct biomarkers are required to assess disease-risk in this group, and define improved risk-stratification models. Routine testing for specific patterns of chromosome 17 imbalance at the cellular level, and MBWNT, provides a strong basis for incorporation into future trials. PMID:26420814

  13. Management of newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma: updated Mayo Stratification of Myeloma and Risk-Adapted Therapy (mSMART) consensus guidelines 2013.

    PubMed

    Mikhael, Joseph R; Dingli, David; Roy, Vivek; Reeder, Craig B; Buadi, Francis K; Hayman, Suzanne R; Dispenzieri, Angela; Fonseca, Rafael; Sher, Taimur; Kyle, Robert A; Lin, Yi; Russell, Stephen J; Kumar, Shaji; Bergsagel, P Leif; Zeldenrust, Steven R; Leung, Nelson; Drake, Matthew T; Kapoor, Prashant; Ansell, Stephen M; Witzig, Thomas E; Lust, John A; Dalton, Robert J; Gertz, Morie A; Stewart, A Keith; Stewart, Keith; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Chanan-Khan, Asher; Lacy, Martha Q

    2013-04-01

    Multiple myeloma remains an incurable neoplasm of plasma cells that affects more than 20,000 people annually in the United States. There has been a veritable revolution in this disease during the past decade, with dramatic improvements in our understanding of its pathogenesis, the development of several novel agents, and a concomitant doubling in overall survival. Because multiple myeloma is a complex and wide-ranging disorder, its management must be guided by disease- and patient-related factors; emerging as one of the most influential factors is risk stratification, primarily based on cytogenetic features. A risk-adapted approach provides optimal therapy to patients, ensuring intense therapy for aggressive disease and minimizing toxic effects, providing sufficient but less intense therapy for low-risk disease. This consensus statement reflects recommendations from more than 20 Mayo Clinic myeloma physicians, providing a practical approach for newly diagnosed patients with myeloma who are not enrolled in a clinical trial. PMID:23541011

  14. Urinary Proteomic Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Risk Stratification of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Multicentric Study

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, Andreas D.; Serra, Andreas L.; Siwy, Justyna; Poster, Diane; Krauer, Fabienne; Torres, Vicente E.; Mrug, Michal; Grantham, Jared J.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Bost, James E.; Mullen, William; Wüthrich, Rudolf P.; Mischak, Harald; Chapman, Arlene B.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment options for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) will likely become available in the near future, hence reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for the disease are strongly needed. Here, we aimed to define urinary proteomic patterns in ADPKD patients, which aid diagnosis and risk stratification. By capillary electrophoresis online coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS), we compared the urinary peptidome of 41 ADPKD patients to 189 healthy controls and identified 657 peptides with significantly altered excretion, of which 209 could be sequenced using tandem mass spectrometry. A support-vector-machine based diagnostic biomarker model based on the 142 most consistent peptide markers achieved a diagnostic sensitivity of 84.5% and specificity of 94.2% in an independent validation cohort, consisting of 251 ADPKD patients from five different centers and 86 healthy controls. The proteomic alterations in ADPKD included, but were not limited to markers previously associated with acute kidney injury (AKI). The diagnostic biomarker model was highly specific for ADPKD when tested in a cohort consisting of 481 patients with a variety of renal and extrarenal diseases, including AKI. Similar to ultrasound, sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic score depended on patient age and genotype. We were furthermore able to identify biomarkers for disease severity and progression. A proteomic severity score was developed to predict height adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV) based on proteomic analysis of 134 ADPKD patients and showed a correlation of r = 0.415 (p<0.0001) with htTKV in an independent validation cohort consisting of 158 ADPKD patients. In conclusion, the performance of peptidomic biomarker scores is superior to any other biochemical markers of ADPKD and the proteomic biomarker patterns are a promising tool for prognostic evaluation of ADPKD. PMID:23326375

  15. PATIENT-SPECIFIC DATA FUSION FOR CANCER STRATIFICATION AND PERSONALISED TREATMENT.

    PubMed

    Gligorijević, Vladimir; Malod-Dognin, Noël; Pržulj, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    According to Cancer Research UK, cancer is a leading cause of death accounting for more than one in four of all deaths in 2011. The recent advances in experimental technologies in cancer research have resulted in the accumulation of large amounts of patient-specific datasets, which provide complementary information on the same cancer type. We introduce a versatile data fusion (integration) framework that can effectively integrate somatic mutation data, molecular interactions and drug chemical data to address three key challenges in cancer research: stratification of patients into groups having different clinical outcomes, prediction of driver genes whose mutations trigger the onset and development of cancers, and repurposing of drugs treating particular cancer patient groups. Our new framework is based on graph-regularised non-negative matrix tri-factorization, a machine learning technique for co-clustering heterogeneous datasets. We apply our framework on ovarian cancer data to simultaneously cluster patients, genes and drugs by utilising all datasets.We demonstrate superior performance of our method over the state-of-the-art method, Network-based Stratification, in identifying three patient subgroups that have significant differences in survival outcomes and that are in good agreement with other clinical data. Also, we identify potential new driver genes that we obtain by analysing the gene clusters enriched in known drivers of ovarian cancer progression. We validated the top scoring genes identified as new drivers through database search and biomedical literature curation. Finally, we identify potential candidate drugs for repurposing that could be used in treatment of the identified patient subgroups by targeting their mutated gene products. We validated a large percentage of our drug-target predictions by using other databases and through literature curation. PMID:26776197

  16. A clinical risk stratification tool for predicting treatment resistance in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Perlis, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Background Early identification of depressed individuals at high risk for treatment-resistance could be helpful in selecting optimal setting and intensity of care. At present, validated tools to facilitate this risk stratification are rarely used in psychiatric practice. Methods Data were drawn from the first two treatment levels of a multicenter antidepressant effectiveness study in major depressive disorder, the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) cohort. This cohort was divided into training, testing, and validation subsets. Only clinical or sociodemographic variables available by, or readily amenable to, self-report were considered. Multivariate models were developed to discriminate individuals reaching remission with a first or second pharmacologic treatment trial from those not reaching remission despite two trials. Results A logistic regression model achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) exceeding 0.71 in training, testing and validation cohorts, and maintained good calibration across cohorts. Performance of three alternative models using machine learning approaches–a naïve Bayes classifier and a support vector machine, and a random forest model – was less consistent. Similar performance was observed between more and less severe depression, males and females, and primary versus specialty care sites. A web-based calculator was developed which implements this tool and provides graphical estimates of risk. Conclusion Risk for treatment-resistance among outpatients with major depressive disorder can be estimated using a simple model incorporating baseline sociodemographic and clinical features. Future studies should examine the performance of this model in other clinical populations and its utility in treatment selection or clinical trial design. Registration Sequential Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D); NCT00021528; www.star-d.org PMID:23380715

  17. Risk Stratification in Women with Gestational Diabetes According to and Beyond Current WHO Criteria.

    PubMed

    Much, D; Jaschinski, H; Lack, N; Hummel, S; Fchtenbusch, M; Hummel, M; Ziegler, A-G; Beyerlein, A

    2016-01-01

    The pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 'overt diabetes in pregnancy' were compared and the need for further subclassification was investigated with respect to postpartum outcome risk. Data from 944 women who had been uniformly diagnosed as having GDM in Munich, Germany, between 1998 and 2010, were re-classified into GDM and 'overt diabetes in pregnancy'. Pregnancy related outcomes in the offspring were derived from Bavarian birth registry data. Classification and regression trees were used to identify further GDM sub-phenotypes. In total, 88 women (9.3%) were re-classified as having 'overt diabetes in pregnancy'. Compared to women with GDM, women with 'overt diabetes in pregnancy' used insulin more frequently, and were at increased risk for large for gestational age infants [odds ratio 2.50 (95% confidence interval 1.02, 6.13)], preterm delivery [odds ratio 3.28 (1.02, 10.50)], and low APGAR-score at 5?min [odds ratio 12.70 (1.58, 102.2)]. In the 856 women with GDM, classification and regression tree analyses provided further risk stratification in that a combination of fasting glucose>5.3?mmol/l and 1-h glucose>11.1?mmol/l at GDM diagnosis predicted insulin requirement [OR 5.57 (3.75, 8.27) compared to the rest], and maternal body mass index (BMI)?35?kg/m(2) predicted large for gestational age status. The new differentiation between GDM and 'overt diabetes in pregnancy' is a first step towards refining classification relevant to fetal and maternal postpartum risk. A combination of glucose levels and maternal BMI at diagnosis of GDM may provide further improvement. PMID:26566100

  18. Advances in the translational genomics of neuroblastoma: From improving risk stratification and revealing novel biology to identifying actionable genomic alterations.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Kristopher R; Maris, John M

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal malignancy that commonly affects young children and is remarkably heterogenous in its malignant potential. Recently, the genetic basis of neuroblastoma has come into focus and not only has catalyzed a more comprehensive understanding of neuroblastoma tumorigenesis but also has revealed novel oncogenic vulnerabilities that are being therapeutically leveraged. Neuroblastoma is a model pediatric solid tumor in its use of recurrent genomic alterations, such as high-level MYCN (v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma-derived homolog) amplification, for risk stratification. Given the relative paucity of recurrent, activating, somatic point mutations or gene fusions in primary neuroblastoma tumors studied at initial diagnosis, innovative treatment approaches beyond small molecules targeting mutated or dysregulated kinases will be required moving forward to achieve noticeable improvements in overall patient survival. However, the clonally acquired, oncogenic aberrations in relapsed neuroblastomas are currently being defined and may offer an opportunity to improve patient outcomes with molecularly targeted therapy directed toward aberrantly regulated pathways in relapsed disease. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about neuroblastoma genetics and genomics, highlighting the improved prognostication and potential therapeutic opportunities that have arisen from recent advances in understanding germline predisposition, recurrent segmental chromosomal alterations, somatic point mutations and translocations, and clonal evolution in relapsed neuroblastoma. PMID:26539795

  19. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: Using risk stratification to guide follow-up.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Zia; Maennle, Diane; Russell, Kimberly; Boltri, John M

    2015-07-01

    Varying combinations of 3 measurable factors determine a patient's risk of progressing toward multiple myeloma and influence monitoring decisions. This review--and accompanying algorithm--can guide your approach. For monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) patients at low risk, repeat serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) in 6 months. If no significant elevation of M-protein is found, repeat SPE every 2 to 3 years. PMID:26324965

  20. The Benefits and Pitfalls of the Use of Risk Stratification Tools in Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Akshat; Dhurandhar, Vikrant; Bannon, Paul G; Newcomb, Andrew E

    2016-04-01

    Risk assessment tools are increasingly used in surgery. In cardiac surgery, risk models are used for patient counselling, surgical decision-making, performance benchmarking, clinical research, evaluation of new therapies and quality assurance, among others. However, they have numerous disadvantages which need to be considered. This article evaluates the utility of risk assessment tools in cardiac surgery including a discussion of their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:26857968

  1. Impact of Primary Gleason Grade on Risk Stratification for Gleason Score 7 Prostate Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, Bridget F.; Tsivian, Matvey; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Sun, Leon; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Moul, Judd; Lee, W. Robert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the primary Gleason grade (GG) in Gleason score (GS) 7 prostate cancers for risk of non-organ-confined disease with the goal of optimizing radiotherapy treatment option counseling. Methods: One thousand three hundred thirty-three patients with pathologic GS7 were identified in the Duke Prostate Center research database. Clinical factors including age, race, clinical stage, prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis, and pathologic stage were obtained. Data were stratified by prostate-specific antigen and clinical stage at diagnosis into adapted D'Amico risk groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed evaluating for association of primary GG with pathologic outcome. Results: Nine hundred seventy-nine patients had primary GG3 and 354 had GG4. On univariate analyses, GG4 was associated with an increased risk of non-organ-confined disease. On multivariate analysis, GG4 was independently associated with seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) but not extracapsular extension. Patients with otherwise low-risk disease and primary GG3 had a very low risk of SVI (4%). Conclusions: Primary GG4 in GS7 cancers is associated with increased risk of SVI compared with primary GG3. Otherwise low-risk patients with GS 3+4 have a very low risk of SVI and may be candidates for prostate-only radiotherapy modalities.

  2. Oral 4.02: Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging in risk stratification of thymic epithelial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yan; Ye, Jianding

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate the diagnostic performance of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) in risk stratification of thymic epithelial tumors. Methods Ninety-three patients with suspected thymic masses were prospectively included in the study to undergo DCE-MRI prior to surgery or biopsy. The time-intensity curves (TICs) were categorized with type I (with a slow, continuous increase), type II (with a plateau form), and type III (with a gradual decrease). The semi-quantitative parameters, including relative enhancement, maximum enhancement (ME), maximum relative enhancement, time-of-arrival, time-to-peak (TTP), wash-in rate, wash-out rate, and brevity of enhancement, were analyzed among the tumors. Results Thirty-eight low-risk thymomas, 34 high-risk thymomas, and 21 thymic carcinomas were revealed pathologically. Type II TICs were predominantly observed in high-risk thymomas (85.3%) and thymic carcinomas (100%), while type III TICs was mainly seen in low-risk thymomas (57.9%) (P=0.000). The mean RE of thymic carcinomas (190.35%±94.3%) was higher than that of high-risk thymomas (136.5%±55.7%) (P=0.044). The mean MEs of thymic carcinomas (1,236.1%±389.1%) and low-risk thymomas (1,169.1%±489.9%) were significantly higher than that of high-risk thymomas (928.2%±314.1%) (P=0.012), respectively. The mean MRE of thymic carcinomas (228.1%±99.5%) was higher than those of high-risk thymomas (163.4%±56.7%) (P=0.016). The TTP of low-risk thymomas (126.9±54.8 L/s) was the earliest, then were those of high-risk thymomas (170.6±48.2 L/s) and thymic carcinomas (185.9±33.3 L/s) (P=0.000). The WIR of low-risk thymomas (45.2±30.7 L/s) was the fastest, then were those of thymic carcinomas (35.6±17.5 L/s) and high-risk thymomas (25.4±8.3 L/s) (P=0.001). The cutoff RE and MRE to differentiate high-risk thymomas from thymic carcinomas were 154.1% (sensitivity, 69.4%; specificity, 78.9%; and AUC, 0.680) and 175.2% (sensitivity, 76.2%; specificity, 61.1%; and AUC, 0.688), respectively. The cutoff ME to differentiate high-risk thymomas from thymic carcinomas and low-risk thymomas were 951.6% (sensitivity, 81.0%; specificity, 51.4%; and AUC, 0.661). Conclusions According to the type of TICs and dynamic indices, DCE-MRI is of value in predicting low-risk thymomas, high-risk thymomas, and thymic carcinomas.

  3. Reassessment of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Improves Renal Risk Stratification in Nondialysis Chronic Kidney Disease: Long-Term Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Minutolo, Roberto; Gabbai, Francis B; Chiodini, Paolo; Garofalo, Carlo; Stanzione, Giovanna; Liberti, Maria Elena; Pacilio, Mario; Borrelli, Silvio; Provenzano, Michele; Conte, Giuseppe; De Nicola, Luca

    2015-09-01

    In nondialysis chronic kidney disease, ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) performs better than clinic BP in predicting outcome, but whether repeated assessment of ABP further refines prognosis remains ill-defined. We recruited 182 consecutive hypertensive patients with nondialysis chronic kidney disease who underwent 2 ABPs 12 months apart to evaluate the enhancement in risk stratification provided by a second ABP obtained 1 year after baseline on the risk (hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval) of composite renal end point (death, chronic dialysis, and estimated glomerular filtration rate decline ≥40%). The difference in daytime and nighttime systolic BP between the 2 ABPs (daytime and nighttime bias) was added to a survival model including baseline ABP. Net reclassification improvement was also calculated. Age was 65.6±13.4 years; 36% had diabetes mellitus and 36% had previous cardiovascular event; estimated glomerular filtration rate was 42.2±19.6 mL/min per 1.73 m(2), and clinic BP was 145±18/80±11 mm Hg. Baseline ABP (daytime, 131±16/75±10 and nighttime, 122±18/66±10 mm Hg) and daytime/nighttime BP goals (58.2% and 43.4%) did not change at month 12. Besides baseline ABP values, bias for daytime and nighttime systolic BP linearly associated with renal outcome (1.12, 1.04-1.21 and 1.18, 1.08-1.29 for every 5-mm Hg increase, respectively). Classification of patients at risk improved when considering nighttime systolic level at second ABP (net reclassification improvement, 0.224; 95% confidence interval, 0.005-0.435). Patients with first and second ABPs above target showed greater renal risk (2.15, 1.29-3.59 and 1.71, 1.07-2.72, for daytime and nighttime, respectively). In nondialysis chronic kidney disease, reassessment of ABP at 1 year further refines renal prognosis; such reassessment should specifically be considered in patients with uncontrolled BP at baseline. PMID:26150434

  4. Thrombocytosis: Diagnostic Evaluation, Thrombotic Risk Stratification, and Risk-Based Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Bleeker, Jonathan S.; Hogan, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Thrombocytosis is a commonly encountered clinical scenario, with a large proportion of cases discovered incidentally. The differential diagnosis for thrombocytosis is broad and the diagnostic process can be challenging. Thrombocytosis can be spurious, attributed to a reactive process or due to clonal disorder. This distinction is important as it carries implications for evaluation, prognosis, and treatment. Clonal thrombocytosis associated with the myeloproliferative neoplasms, especially essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera, carries a unique prognostic profile, with a markedly increased risk of thrombosis. This risk is the driving factor behind treatment strategies in these disorders. Clinical trials utilizing targeted therapies in thrombocytosis are ongoing with new therapeutic targets waiting to be explored. This paper will outline the mechanisms underlying thrombocytosis, the diagnostic evaluation of thrombocytosis, complications of thrombocytosis with a special focus on thrombotic risk as well as treatment options for clonal processes leading to thrombocytosis, including essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera. PMID:22084665

  5. Risk Stratification for Long-Term Mortality Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chuntao; Camacho, Fabian T.; King, Spencer B.; Walford, Gary; Holmes, David R.; Stamato, Nicholas J.; Berger, Peter B.; Sharma, Samin; Curtis, Jeptha P.; Venditti, Ferdinand J.; Jacobs, Alice K.; Hannan, Edward L.

    2014-01-01

    Background A simple risk score to predict long-term mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using pre-procedural risk factors is currently not available. In this study, we created one by simplifying the results of a Cox proportional hazards model. Methods and Results A total of 11,897 patients who underwent PCI from October through December 2003 in New York State were randomly divided into derivation and validation samples. Patients’ vital statuses were tracked using the National Death Index through the end of 2008. A Cox proportional hazards model was fit to predict death after PCI using the derivation sample, and a simplified risk score was created. The Cox model identified 12 separate risk factors for mortality including older age, extreme body mass indexes, multivessel disease, a lower ejection fraction, unstable hemodynamic state or shock, a number of comorbidities (cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and renal failure), and a history of coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The C statistics of this model when applied to the validation sample were 0.787, 0.785, and 0.773 for risks of death within 1, 3, and 5 years after PCI, respectively. In addition, the point-based risk score demonstrated good agreement between patients’ observed and predicted risks of death. Conclusions A simple risk score created from a more complicated Cox proportional hazards model can be used to accurately predict a patient's risk of long-term mortality after PCI. PMID:24425588

  6. Risk stratification in multiple myeloma, part 2: the significance of genetic risk factors in the era of currently available therapies.

    PubMed

    Biran, Noa; Jagannath, Sundar; Chari, Ajai

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a heterogeneous disease, and a variety of risk factors at the time of initial diagnosis can be used to stratify patients. In the first part of this 2-part series, we reviewed the currently identified prognostic factors, characterized by disease burden, host factors, tumor biology, and depth of response to therapy. However, these risk factors cannot be interpreted independently of therapies. Novel therapies have the potential to worsen or improve outcomes compared with conventional therapy in high-risk patients, or actually overcome the high-risk status, thereby resulting in reclassification as standard risk. For example, thalidomide (Thalomid, Celgene) is associated with worse outcomes in patients with high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities, such as deletion of chromosomes 13 and 17p, whereas proteasome inhibitors appear to overcome t(4;14). The second part of this series reviews the significance of various genetic risks in the era of novel therapies for MM. PMID:24518521

  7. Acute myeloid leukemia in the era of precision medicine: recent advances in diagnostic classification and risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Kansal, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a genetically heterogeneous myeloid malignancy that occurs more commonly in adults, and has an increasing incidence, most likely due to increasing age. Precise diagnostic classification of AML requires clinical and pathologic information, the latter including morphologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis. Risk stratification in AML requires cytogenetics evaluation as the most important predictor, with genetic mutations providing additional necessary information. AML with normal cytogenetics comprises about 40%-50% of all AML, and has been intensively investigated. The currently used 2008 World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic neoplasms has been proposed to be updated in 2016, also to include an update on the classification of AML, due to the continuously increasing application of genomic techniques that have led to major advances in our knowledge of the pathogenesis of AML. The purpose of this review is to describe some of these recent major advances in the diagnostic classification and risk stratification of AML. PMID:27144061

  8. Adverse Drug Event-based Stratification of Tumor Mutations: A Case Study of Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Aromatase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Zimmermann, Michael T.; Prodduturi, Naresh; Chute, Christopher G.; Jiang, Guoqian

    2014-01-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) are a critical factor for selecting cancer therapy options. The underlying molecular mechanisms of ADEs associated with cancer therapy drugs may overlap with their antineoplastic mechanisms; an aspect of toxicity. In the present study, we develop a novel knowledge-driven approach that provides an ADE-based stratification (ADEStrata) of tumor mutations. We demonstrate clinical utility of the ADEStrata approach through performing a case study of breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA) patients receiving aromatase inhibitors (AI) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) (n=212), focusing on the musculoskeletal adverse events (MS-AEs). We prioritized somatic variants in a manner that is guided by MS-AEs codified as 6 Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) terms. Pathway enrichment and hierarchical clustering of prioritized variants reveals clusters associated with overall survival. We demonstrated that the prediction of per-patient ADE propensity simultaneously identifies high-risk patients experiencing poor outcomes. In conclusion, the ADEStrata approach could produce clinically and biologically meaningful tumor subtypes that are potentially predictive of the drug response to the cancer therapy drugs. PMID:25954427

  9. Frailty and cardiovascular disease: potential role of gait speed in surgical risk stratification in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Frailty is a state of late life decline and vulnerability, typified by physical weakness and decreased physiologic reserve. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of frailty share features with those of cardiovascular disease. Gait speed can be used as a measure of frailty and is a powerful predictor of mortality. Advancing age is a potent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has been associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Older adults comprise approximately half of cardiac surgery patients, and account for nearly 80% of the major complications and deaths following surgery. The ability of traditional risk models to predict mortality and major morbidity in older patients being considered for cardiac surgery may improve if frailty, as measured by gait speed, is included in their assessment. It is possible that in the future frailty assessment may assist in choosing among therapies (e.g., surgical vs. percutaneous aortic valve replacement for patients with aortic stenosis). PMID:25678904

  10. Risk stratification in individuals with the Brugada type 1 ECG pattern without previous cardiac arrest: usefulness of a combined clinical and electrophysiologic approach

    PubMed Central

    Delise, Pietro; Allocca, Giuseppe; Marras, Elena; Giustetto, Carla; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Sciarra, Luigi; Calo, Leonardo; Proclemer, Alessandro; Marziali, Marta; Rebellato, Luca; Berton, Giuseppe; Coro, Leonardo; Sitta, Nadir

    2011-01-01

    Aims Risk stratification in individuals with type 1 Brugada electrocardiogram (ECG) pattern (type 1 ECG) for primary prevention of sudden death (SD). Methods and results Three hundred and twenty patients (258 males, median age 43 years) with type 1 ECG were enrolled. No patient had previous cardiac arrest. Fifty-four per cent of patients had a spontaneous and 46% a drug-induced type 1 ECG. One-third had syncope, two-thirds were asymptomatic. Two hundred and forty-five patients underwent electrophysiologic study (EPS) and 110 patients received an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD). During follow-up [median length 40 months (IQ20-67)], 17 patients had major arrhythmic events (MAE) (14 resuscitated ventricular fibrillation (VF) and three SD). Both a spontaneous type 1 ECG and syncope significantly increased the risk (2.6 and 3.0% event rate per year vs. 0.4 and 0.8%). Major arrhythmic events occurred in 14% of subjects with positive EPS, in no subjects with negative EPS and in 5.3% of subjects without EPS. All MAE occurred in subjects who had at least two potential risk factors (syncope, family history of SD, and positive EPS). Among these patients, those with spontaneous type 1 ECG had a 30% event rate. Conclusion (1) In subjects with the Brugada type 1 ECG, no single clinical risk factor, nor EPS alone, is able to identify subjects at highest risk; (2) a multiparametric approach (including syncope, family history of SD, and positive EPS) helps to identify populations at highest risk; (3) subjects at highest risk are those with a spontaneous type 1 ECG and at least two risk factors; (4) the remainder are at low risk. PMID:20978016

  11. RISK STRATIFICATION IN CRITICAL LIMB ISCHEMIA: DERIVATION AND VALIDATION OF A MODEL TO PREDICT AMPUTATION-FREE SURVIVAL USING MULTI-CENTER SURGICAL OUTCOMES DATA

    PubMed Central

    Schanzer, Andres; Mega, Jessica; Meadows, Judith; Samson, Russell H; Bandyk, Dennis F; Conte, Michael S

    2009-01-01

    Patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) are a heterogeneous population with respect to risk for mortality and limb loss, complicating clinical decision-making. Endovascular options, as compared to bypass, offer a tradeoff between reduced procedural risk and inferior durability. Risk stratified data predictive of amputation-free survival (AFS) may improve clinical decision making and allow for better assessment of new technology in the CLI population. METHODS This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from patients who underwent infrainguinal vein bypass surgery for CLI. Two datasets were used: the PREVENT III randomized trial (n=1404) and a multicenter registry (n=716) from 3 distinct vascular centers (2 academic, 1 community-based). The PREVENT III cohort was randomly assigned to a derivation set (n=953) and to a validation set (n=451). The primary endpoint was AFS. Predictors of AFS identified on univariate screen (inclusion threshold, p<0.20) were included in a stepwise selection Cox model. The resulting 5 significant predictors were assigned an integer score to stratify patients into 3 risk groups. The prediction rule was internally validated in the PREVENT III validation set and externally validated in the multicenter cohort. RESULTS The estimated 1 year AFS in the derivation, internal validation, and external validation sets were 76.3%, 72.5%, and 77.0%, respectively. In the derivation set, dialysis (HR 2.81, p<.0001), tissue loss (HR 2.22, p=.0004), age ≥75 (HR 1.64, p=.001), hematocrit ≤30 (HR 1.61, p=.012), and advanced CAD (HR 1.41, p=.021) were significant predictors for AFS in the multivariable model. An integer score, derived from the β coefficients, was used to generate 3 risk categories (low ≤ 3 [44.4% of cohort], medium 4–7 [46.7% of cohort], high ≥8 [8.8% of cohort]). Stratification of the patients, in each dataset, according to risk category yielded 3 significantly different Kaplan-Meier estimates for one year AFS (86%, 73%, and 45% for low, medium, and high risk groups respectively). For a given risk category, the AFS estimate was consistent between the derivation and validation sets. CONCLUSION Among patients selected to undergo surgical bypass for infrainguinal disease, this parsimonious risk stratification model reliably identified a category of CLI patients with a >50% chance of death or major amputation at 1 year. Calculation of a “PIII risk score” may be useful for surgical decision making and for clinical trial designs in the CLI population. PMID:19118735

  12. An Ultra-Deep Targeted Sequencing Gene Panel Improves the Prognostic Stratification of Patients With Advanced Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chun-Ta; Chen, Shu-Jen; Lee, Li-Yu; Hsueh, Chuen; Yang, Lan-Yan; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lin, Chih-Hung; Tsao, Chung-Kan; Chen, I-How; Chang, Kai-Ping; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Kang, Chung-Jan; Chen, Hua-Chien; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An improved prognostic stratification of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and pathologically positive (pN+) nodes is urgently needed. Here, we sought to examine whether an ultra-deep targeted sequencing (UDT-Seq) gene panel may improve the prognostic stratification in this patient group. A mutation-based signature affecting 10 genes (including genetic mutations in 6 oncogenes and 4 tumor suppressor genes) was devised to predict disease-free survival (DFS) in 345 primary tumor specimens obtained from pN+ OSCC patients. Of the 345 patients, 144 were extracapsular spread (ECS)-negative and 201 were ECS-positive. The 5-year locoregional control, distant metastases, disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival (OS) rates served as outcome measures. The UDT-Seq panel was an independent risk factor (RF) for 5-year locoregional control (P = 0.0067), distant metastases (P = 0.0001), DFS (P < 0.0001), disease-specific survival (DSS, P < 0.0001), and OS (P = 0.0003) in pN+ OSCC patients. The presence of ECS and pT3–4 disease were also independent RFs for DFS, DSS, and OS. A prognostic scoring system was formulated by summing up the significant covariates (UDT-Seq, ECS, pT3–4) separately for each survival endpoint. The presence of a positive UDT-Seq panel (n = 77) significantly improved risk stratification for all the survival endpoints as compared with traditional AJCC staging (P < 0.0001). Among ECS-negative patients, those with a UDT-Seq-positive panel (n = 31) had significantly worse DFS (P = 0.0005) and DSS (P = 0.0002). Among ECS-positive patients, those with a UDT-Seq-positive panel (n = 46) also had significantly worse DFS (P = 0.0032) and DSS (P = 0.0098). Our UDT-Seq gene panel consisting of clinically actionable genes was significantly associated with patient outcomes and provided better prognostic stratification than traditional AJCC staging. It was also able to predict prognosis in OSCC patients regardless of ECS presence. PMID:26937903

  13. The value of molecular stratification for CEBPA(DM) and NPM1(MUT) FLT3(WT) genotypes in older patients with acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Glenda J; Bustraan, Sophia; Hills, Robert K; Ali, Akbar; Goldstone, Anthony H; Burnett, Alan K; Linch, David C; Gale, Rosemary E

    2016-02-01

    Older adult patients (≥60 years) with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) are generally considered to be poor-risk and there is limited information available regarding risk stratification based on molecular characterization in this age group, particularly for the double-mutant CEBPA (CEBPA(DM) ) genotype. To investigate whether a molecular favourable-risk genotype can be identified, we investigated CEBPA, NPM1 and FLT3 status and prognostic impact in a cohort of 301 patients aged 60 years or more with intermediate-risk cytogenetics, all treated intensively. Overall survival (OS) at 1 year was highest in the 12 patients (4%) that were CEBPA(DM) compared to the 76 (28%) with a mutant NPM1 and wild-type FLT3 (NPM1(MUT) FLT3(WT) ) genotype or all other patients (75%, 54%, 33% respectively), with median survival 15·2, 13·6 and 6·6 months, although the benefit was short-term (OS at 3 years 17%, 29%, 12% respectively). Combination of the CEBPA(DM) and NPM1(MUT) FLT3(WT) genotype patients defined a molecular group with favourable prognosis (P < 0·0001 in multivariate analysis), with 57% of patients alive at 1 year compared to 33% for all other patients. Knowledge of genotype in older cytogenetically intermediate-risk patients might influence therapy decisions. PMID:26847745

  14. Stratification and monitoring of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk: recommendations from an expert group.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, C; Craner, M; Guadagno, J; Kapoor, R; Mazibrada, G; Molyneux, P; Nicholas, R; Palace, J; Pearson, O R; Rog, D; Young, C A

    2016-02-01

    The use of natalizumab for highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) is influenced by the occurrence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Through measurement of the anti-JCV antibody index, and in combination with the presence or absence of other known risk factors, it may be possible to stratify patients with MS according to their risk of developing PML during treatment with natalizumab and detect early suspected PML using MRI including a diffusion-weighted imaging sequence. This paper describes a practical consensus guideline for treating neurologists, based on current evidence, for the introduction into routine clinical practice of anti-JCV antibody index testing of immunosuppressant-naïve patients with MS, either currently being treated with, or initiating, natalizumab, based on their anti-JCV antibody status. Recommendations for the frequency and type of MRI screening in patients with varying index-associated PML risks are also discussed. This consensus paper presents a simple and pragmatic algorithm to support the introduction of anti-JCV antibody index testing and MRI monitoring into standard PML safety protocols, in order to allow some JCV positive patients who wish to begin or continue natalizumab treatment to be managed with a more individualised analysis of their PML risk. PMID:26492930

  15. Stratification and monitoring of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk: recommendations from an expert group

    PubMed Central

    McGuigan, C; Craner, M; Guadagno, J; Kapoor, R; Mazibrada, G; Molyneux, P; Nicholas, R; Palace, J; Pearson, O R; Rog, D; Young, C A

    2016-01-01

    The use of natalizumab for highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) is influenced by the occurrence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Through measurement of the anti-JCV antibody index, and in combination with the presence or absence of other known risk factors, it may be possible to stratify patients with MS according to their risk of developing PML during treatment with natalizumab and detect early suspected PML using MRI including a diffusion-weighted imaging sequence. This paper describes a practical consensus guideline for treating neurologists, based on current evidence, for the introduction into routine clinical practice of anti-JCV antibody index testing of immunosuppressant-naïve patients with MS, either currently being treated with, or initiating, natalizumab, based on their anti-JCV antibody status. Recommendations for the frequency and type of MRI screening in patients with varying index-associated PML risks are also discussed. This consensus paper presents a simple and pragmatic algorithm to support the introduction of anti-JCV antibody index testing and MRI monitoring into standard PML safety protocols, in order to allow some JCV positive patients who wish to begin or continue natalizumab treatment to be managed with a more individualised analysis of their PML risk. PMID:26492930

  16. A urine-based methylation signature for risk stratification within low-risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jatkoe, T A; Karnes, R J; Freedland, S J; Wang, Y; Le, A; Baden, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer overdiagnosis and overtreatment represents a major problem. Many men with low-grade disease on biopsy are undergraded and they harbour high-grade disease at prostatectomy with no reliable way to identify these men. We used a novel urine-based 2-gene methylation test to identify prostate cancers with aggressive features. Methods: Following a proof of concept study in 100 post-radical prostatectomy tissue samples, urine samples were tested from 665 men at multiple U.S. centers undergoing prostate needle biopsy for elevated prostate-specific antigen (2–10 ng ml−1). A prediction model was then developed from a combination of clinical factors and the urine-based markers. It was then prospectively tested for accurate prediction of adverse disease (surgical Gleason score ⩾7 and/or a pathological stage ⩾T3a) using urine from a separate cohort of 96 men before radical prostatectomy. Results: Among pre-prostatectomy men with a biopsy Gleason score <7, 41% had adverse disease of which 100% were correctly identified by the test with a negative predictive value of 100% (95% confidence interval, 86–100%). Conclusions: This urine-based test accurately identifies men with clinical low-risk disease who do not have adverse pathology in their prostates and would be excellent candidates for active surveillance. PMID:25695483

  17. The significance of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein for risk stratification of stent thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Blindt, Rüdiger; Stellbrink, Katja; de Taeye, Anita; Müller, Robert; Kiefer, Paul; Yagmur, Eray; Weber, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Hoffmann, Rainer

    2007-12-01

    Low-response to the P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-receptor antagonist clopidogrel was suggested to correspond to a higher incidence of stent thrombosis (ST). This prospective observational study assessed the capability of two platelet function assays, e.g. direct measurement of the phosphorylation status of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and ADP-induced platelet aggregation for definition of the individual risk to develop ST. Ninety-nine patients with an elevated high risk to develop ST were enrolled. All patients received a dual antiplatelet therapy consisting of 100 mg aspirin and 75 mg clopidogrel during an observation period of six months. Flow cytometry of VASP phosphorylation and densitometrically-determined measurement of ADP-induced platelet aggregation was performed 72-96 hours after stent implantation. These data were related to angiographically confirmed ST. Nine patients suffered from angiographically confirmed ST (9.1%). The meanVASP-platelet reactivity indices (VASP-PRI) and values for ADP-induced platelet aggregation in the ST group were significantly higher (60.8 +/- 13.0 and 60.9 +/- 13.1, respectively) compared to patients without ST (41.3 +/- 14.0 and 50.8 +/- 14.4, P < 0.001 vs. 0.048, respectively). There was a fair correlation between both methods using non-linear regression analysis (r = 0.332). In a multivariate analysis, VASP was the only independent predictor of ST and was superior to previously identified angiographic parameters. Receiver- operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed a cut-off value for VASP-PRI of <48% to be associated with low risk of ST. In conclusion, determination of VASP phosphorylation is superior to conventional platelet aggregometry and angiographic parameters for assessing the risk of ST. Patients with a VASP-PRI >48% seem to have a significantly increased risk. PMID:18064332

  18. Artificial Neural Networks and risk stratification models in Emergency Departments: The policy maker's perspective.

    PubMed

    Casagranda, Ivo; Costantino, Giorgio; Falavigna, Greta; Furlan, Raffaello; Ippoliti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of Emergency Department (ED) physicians is to discriminate between individuals at low risk, who can be safely discharged, and patients at high risk, who require prompt hospitalization. The problem of correctly classifying patients is an issue involving not only clinical but also managerial aspects, since reducing the rate of admission of patients to EDs could dramatically cut costs. Nevertheless, a trade-off might arise due to the need to find a balance between economic interests and the health conditions of patients. This work considers patients in EDs after a syncope event and presents a comparative analysis between two models: a multivariate logistic regression model, as proposed by the scientific community to stratify the expected risk of severe outcomes in the short and long run, and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), an innovative model. The analysis highlights differences in correct classification of severe outcomes at 10 days (98.30% vs. 94.07%) and 1 year (97.67% vs. 96.40%), pointing to the superiority of Neural Networks. According to the results, there is also a significant superiority of ANNs in terms of false negatives both at 10 days (3.70% vs. 5.93%) and at 1 year (2.33% vs. 10.07%). However, considering the false positives, the adoption of ANNs would cause an increase in hospital costs, highlighting the potential trade-off which policy makers might face. PMID:26744086

  19. Exploring the color feature power for psoriasis risk stratification and classification: A data mining paradigm.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Vimal K; Londhe, Narendra D; Sonawane, Rajendra S; Suri, Jasjit S

    2015-10-01

    A large percentage of dermatologist׳s decision in psoriasis disease assessment is based on color. The current computer-aided diagnosis systems for psoriasis risk stratification and classification lack the vigor of color paradigm. The paper presents an automated psoriasis computer-aided diagnosis (pCAD) system for classification of psoriasis skin images into psoriatic lesion and healthy skin, which solves the two major challenges: (i) fulfills the color feature requirements and (ii) selects the powerful dominant color features while retaining high classification accuracy. Fourteen color spaces are discovered for psoriasis disease analysis leading to 86 color features. The pCAD system is implemented in a support vector-based machine learning framework where the offline image data set is used for computing machine learning offline color machine learning parameters. These are then used for transformation of the online color features to predict the class labels for healthy vs. diseased cases. The above paradigm uses principal component analysis for color feature selection of dominant features, keeping the original color feature unaltered. Using the cross-validation protocol, the above machine learning protocol is compared against the standalone grayscale features with 60 features and against the combined grayscale and color feature set of 146. Using a fixed data size of 540 images with equal number of healthy and diseased, 10 fold cross-validation protocol, and SVM of polynomial kernel of type two, pCAD system shows an accuracy of 99.94% with sensitivity and specificity of 99.93% and 99.96%. Using a varying data size protocol, the mean classification accuracies for color, grayscale, and combined scenarios are: 92.85%, 93.83% and 93.99%, respectively. The reliability of the system in these three scenarios are: 94.42%, 97.39% and 96.00%, respectively. We conclude that pCAD system using color space alone is compatible to grayscale space or combined color and grayscale spaces. We validated our pCAD system against facial color databases and the results are consistent in accuracy and reliability. PMID:26298486

  20. A New Bayesian Network-Based Risk Stratification Model for Prediction of Short-term and Long-term LVAD Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Loghmanpour, Natasha A.; Kanwar, Manreet K.; Druzdzel, Marek J.; Benza, Raymond L.; Murali, Srinivas; Antaki, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Existing risk assessment tools for patient selection for left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) such as the Destination Therapy Risk Score (DTRS) and HeartMate II Risk Score (HMRS) have limited predictive ability. This study aims to overcome the limitations of traditional statistical methods by performing the first application of Bayesian analysis to the comprehensive INTERMACS dataset and comparing it to HMRS. We retrospectively analyzed 8,050 continuous flow (CF) LVAD patients and 226 pre-implant variables. We then derived Bayesian models for mortality at each of five time endpoints post-implant (30 day, 90 day, 6 month, 1 year, and 2 year), achieving accuracies of 95, 90, 90, 83, and 78%, Kappa values of 0.43, 0.37, 0.37, 0.45, and 0.43, and area under the ROC of 91, 82, 82, 80 and 81% respectively. This was in comparison to the HMRS with an ROC of 57 and 60% at 90-days and 1-year, respectively. Pre-implant interventions such as dialysis, ECMO, and ventilators were major contributing risk markers. Bayesian models have the ability to reliably represent the complex causal relationships of multiple variables on clinical outcomes. Their potential to develop a reliable risk stratification tool for use in clinical decision making on LVAD patients encourages further investigation. PMID:25710772

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: Risk Stratification of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) by the Primary Care Physician Using the NAFLD Fibrosis Score

    PubMed Central

    Tapper, Elliot B.; Hunink, M. G. Myriam; Afdhal, Nezam H.; Lai, Michelle; Sengupta, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Background The complications of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) are dependent on the presence of advanced fibrosis. Given the high prevalence of NAFLD in the US, the optimal evaluation of NAFLD likely involves triage by a primary care physician (PCP) with advanced disease managed by gastroenterologists. Methods We compared the cost-effectiveness of fibrosis risk-assessment strategies in a cohort of 10,000 simulated American patients with NAFLD performed in either PCP or referral clinics using a decision analytical microsimulation state-transition model. The strategies included use of vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE), the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), combination testing with NFS and VCTE, and liver biopsy (usual care by a specialist only). NFS and VCTE performance was obtained from a prospective cohort of 164 patients with NAFLD. Outcomes included cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) and correct classification of fibrosis. Results Risk-stratification by the PCP using the NFS alone costs $5,985 per QALY while usual care costs $7,229/QALY. In the microsimulation, at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000, the NFS alone in PCP clinic was the most cost-effective strategy in 94.2% of samples, followed by combination NFS/VCTE in the PCP clinic (5.6%) and usual care in 0.2%. The NFS based strategies yield the best biopsy-correct classification ratios (3.5) while the NFS/VCTE and usual care strategies yield more correct-classifications of advanced fibrosis at the cost of 3 and 37 additional biopsies per classification. Conclusion Risk-stratification of patients with NAFLD primary care clinic is a cost-effective strategy that should be formally explored in clinical practice. PMID:26905872

  2. The Society for Vascular Surgery Lower Extremity Threatened Limb Classification System: risk stratification based on wound, ischemia, and foot infection (WIfI).

    PubMed

    Mills, Joseph L; Conte, Michael S; Armstrong, David G; Pomposelli, Frank B; Schanzer, Andres; Sidawy, Anton N; Andros, George

    2014-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia, first defined in 1982, was intended to delineate a subgroup of patients with a threatened lower extremity primarily because of chronic ischemia. It was the intent of the original authors that patients with diabetes be excluded or analyzed separately. The Fontaine and Rutherford Systems have been used to classify risk of amputation and likelihood of benefit from revascularization by subcategorizing patients into two groups: ischemic rest pain and tissue loss. Due to demographic shifts over the last 40 years, especially a dramatic rise in the incidence of diabetes mellitus and rapidly expanding techniques of revascularization, it has become increasingly difficult to perform meaningful outcomes analysis for patients with threatened limbs using these existing classification systems. Particularly in patients with diabetes, limb threat is part of a broad disease spectrum. Perfusion is only one determinant of outcome; wound extent and the presence and severity of infection also greatly impact the threat to a limb. Therefore, the Society for Vascular Surgery Lower Extremity Guidelines Committee undertook the task of creating a new classification of the threatened lower extremity that reflects these important considerations. We term this new framework, the Society for Vascular Surgery Lower Extremity Threatened Limb Classification System. Risk stratification is based on three major factors that impact amputation risk and clinical management: Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI). The implementation of this classification system is intended to permit more meaningful analysis of outcomes for various forms of therapy in this challenging, but heterogeneous population. PMID:24126108

  3. Clinical utility of genetic signatures in selecting adjuvant treatment: Risk stratification for early vs. late recurrences.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Daniel F

    2015-11-01

    Adjuvant endocrine therapy (ET) reduces the odds of distant recurrence and mortality by nearly one-half in women with hormone receptor (HR) positive early stage breast cancer. While the risk of recurrence is lower for HR positive than negative patients during the first 5-7 years, HR positive patients suffer ongoing recurrences between 0.5 and 2% year over subsequent years. Extended adjuvant ET further reduces recurrence during this late phase of follow-up. ET is associated with post-menopausal side effects (hot flashes, sexual dysfunction, mood changes, and weight gain), and occasional major toxicities (thrombosis and endometrial cancer with tamoxifen; bone mineral loss and possibly heart disease with AIs) persist throughout therapy. Accurate and reliable estimates of the risk of recurrence after five years of ET for women with prior HR positive breast cancer would permit appropriate extended ET decisions. The risk of long-term relapse is related to lymph node status and size of tumor, but these are relatively crude. Several groups have investigated whether multi-parameter tumor biomarker tests might identify those patients whose risk of recurrence is so low that extended ET is not justified. These assays include IHC4, the 21-gene "OncotypeDX", the 12-gene "Endopredict," the PAM50, and the 2-gene "Breast Cancer Index (BCI)" assays. The clinical validity of all these tests for this use context have been established, with at least one paper for each that shows a statistically significant difference in risk of distant recurrence during the 5-10 years after the initial five years of adjuvant endocrine therapy. However, the stakes are high, and although each of these represents a "prospective retrospective" study, they require further validation in subsequent datasets before they should be considered to have "clinical utility" and are used to withhold potentially life-saving treatment. Perhaps more importantly, the clinical breast cancer community, and especially the patient, need to determine how low the risk of late recurrence needs to be to forego the toxicities and side effects of extended adjuvant ET. PMID:26238437

  4. Assessment of PaO2/FiO2 for stratification of patients with moderate and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Jesús; Blanco, Jesús; del Campo, Rafael; Andaluz-Ojeda, David; Díaz-Domínguez, Francisco J; Muriel, Arturo; Córcoles, Virgilio; Suárez-Sipmann, Fernando; Tarancón, Concepción; González-Higueras, Elena; López, Julia; Blanch, Lluis; Pérez-Méndez, Lina; Fernández, Rosa Lidia; Kacmarek, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A recent update of the definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) proposed an empirical classification based on ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) at ARDS onset. Since the proposal did not mandate PaO2/FiO2 calculation under standardised ventilator settings (SVS), we hypothesised that a stratification based on baseline PaO2/FiO2 would not provide accurate assessment of lung injury severity. Design A prospective, multicentre, observational study. Setting A network of teaching hospitals. Participants 478 patients with eligible criteria for moderate (100patients were reclassified as severe, moderate, mild (200300). Primary and secondary outcomes Group severity and hospital mortality. Results At ARDS onset, 173 patients had a PaO2/FiO2≤100 but only 38.7% met criteria for severe ARDS at 24 h under SVS. When assessed under SVS, 61.3% of patients with severe ARDS were reclassified as moderate, mild and non-ARDS, while lung severity and hospital mortality changed markedly with every PaO2/FiO2 category (p<0.000001). Our model of risk stratification outperformed the stratification using baseline PaO2/FiO2 and non-standardised PaO2/FiO2 at 24 h, when analysed by the predictive receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve: area under the ROC curve for stratification at baseline was 0.583 (95% CI 0.525 to 0.636), 0.605 (95% CI 0.552 to 0.658) at 24 h without SVS and 0.693 (95% CI 0.645 to 0.742) at 24 h under SVS (p<0.000001). Conclusions Our findings support the need for patient assessment under SVS at 24 h after ARDS onset to assess disease severity, and have implications for the diagnosis and management of ARDS patients. Trial registration numbers NCT00435110 and NCT00736892. PMID:25818272

  5. DrugTargetInspector: An assistance tool for patient treatment stratification.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Lara; Stöckel, Daniel; Kehl, Tim; Gerasch, Andreas; Ludwig, Nicole; Leidinger, Petra; Huwer, Hanno; Tenzer, Stefan; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Hildebrandt, Andreas; Kaufmann, Michael; Gessler, Manfred; Keller, Andreas; Meese, Eckart; Graf, Norbert; Lenhof, Hans-Peter

    2016-04-01

    Cancer is a large class of diseases that are characterized by a common set of features, known as the Hallmarks of cancer. One of these hallmarks is the acquisition of genome instability and mutations. This, combined with high proliferation rates and failure of repair mechanisms, leads to clonal evolution as well as a high genotypic and phenotypic diversity within the tumor. As a consequence, treatment and therapy of malignant tumors is still a grand challenge. Moreover, under selective pressure, e.g., caused by chemotherapy, resistant subpopulations can emerge that then may lead to relapse. In order to minimize the risk of developing multidrug-resistant tumor cell populations, optimal (combination) therapies have to be determined on the basis of an in-depth characterization of the tumor's genetic and phenotypic makeup, a process that is an important aspect of stratified medicine and precision medicine. We present DrugTargetInspector (DTI), an interactive assistance tool for treatment stratification. DTI analyzes genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic datasets and provides information on deregulated drug targets, enriched biological pathways, and deregulated subnetworks, as well as mutations and their potential effects on putative drug targets and genes of interest. To demonstrate DTI's broad scope of applicability, we present case studies on several cancer types and different types of input -omics data. DTI's integrative approach allows users to characterize the tumor under investigation based on various -omics datasets and to elucidate putative treatment options based on clinical decision guidelines, but also proposing additional points of intervention that might be neglected otherwise. DTI can be freely accessed at http://dti.bioinf.uni-sb.de. PMID:26501925

  6. Cardiac Health Risk Stratification System (CHRiSS): A Bayesian-Based Decision Support System for Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Loghmanpour, Natasha A.; Druzdzel, Marek J.; Antaki, James F.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the use of Bayesian Networks (BNs) for left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy; a treatment for end-stage heart failure that has been steadily growing in popularity over the past decade. Despite this growth, the number of LVAD implants performed annually remains a small fraction of the estimated population of patients who might benefit from this treatment. We believe that this demonstrates a need for an accurate stratification tool that can help identify LVAD candidates at the most appropriate point in the course of their disease. We derived BNs to predict mortality at five endpoints utilizing the Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) database: containing over 12,000 total enrolled patients from 153 hospital sites, collected since 2006 to the present day, and consisting of approximately 230 pre-implant clinical variables. Synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) was employed to address the uneven proportion of patients with negative outcomes and to improve the performance of the models. The resulting accuracy and area under the ROC curve (%) for predicted mortality were 30 day: 94.9 and 92.5; 90 day: 84.2 and 73.9; 6 month: 78.2 and 70.6; 1 year: 73.1 and 70.6; and 2 years: 71.4 and 70.8. To foster the translation of these models to clinical practice, they have been incorporated into a web-based application, the Cardiac Health Risk Stratification System (CHRiSS). As clinical experience with LVAD therapy continues to grow, and additional data is collected, we aim to continually update these BN models to improve their accuracy and maintain their relevance. Ongoing work also aims to extend the BN models to predict the risk of adverse events post-LVAD implant as additional factors for consideration in decision making. PMID:25397576

  7. Risk stratification for COPD diagnosis through an active search strategy in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Marcos, Pedro J; Malo de Molina, Rosa; Casamor, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify the percentage of undiagnosed patients with COPD through the implementation of an active search strategy in a selected subject population. Methods An observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted in a primary care setting in Spain. General practitioners gave their diagnostic impression of COPD (yes/no) on the basis of clinical criteria of subjects with respiratory symptoms and tobacco exposure. Subsequently, post-bronchodilator spirometry and quality-of-life tests were performed. Multivariate logistic regression techniques using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify the combination of variables that best discriminates COPD. Results A total of 2,758 patients were screened at 368 primary care centers, of which 1,725 patients were included in the study. Seven hundred and ninety-three patients (46%) were diagnosed with COPD. Clinical judgment resulted in suspected COPD in 1,393 (81%) of the subjects. The best variables to discriminate COPD were a history of lower respiratory tract infections, cough, and dyspnea. This combination identified COPD with a ROCAUC of 0.61 denoting a poor discriminative ability. Conclusion Employing an active search strategy leads to a new COPD diagnosis in almost half of the subjects. Screening of COPD with post-bronchodilator spirometry should be considered mandatory for any high-risk subject visiting the general practitioner clinic for any reason. PMID:27042035

  8. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia: 2016 update on diagnosis, risk stratification, and management.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Mrinal M; Tefferi, Ayalew

    2016-06-01

    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder characterized by overlapping features of myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative neoplasms. Diagnosis is based on the presence of persistent (>3 months) peripheral blood monocytosis (>1 × 10(9) /L), along with bone marrow dysplasia. Clonal cytogenetic abnormalities occur in ∼20-30% of patients, while >90% have gene mutations. Mutations involving TET2 (∼60%), SRSF2 (∼50%), ASXL1 (∼40%), and RAS (∼30%) are frequent; with only ASXL1 mutations negatively impacting overall survival. Two molecularly integrated, CMML-specific prognostic models include; the Groupe Français des Myélodysplasies (GFM) and the Molecular Mayo Model (MMM). The GFM model segregates patients into 3 groups based on: age >65 years, WBC >15 × 10(9) /L, anemia, platelets <100 × 10(9) /L, and ASXL1 mutation status, with respective median survivals of 56 (low), 27.4 (intermediate), and 9.2 (high) months. The MMM is based on ASXL1 mutational status, absolute monocyte count >10 × 10(9) /L, hemoglobin <10 g/dL, platelets <100 × 109/L and circulating immature myeloid cells. This model stratifies patients into four groups; high (≥3 risk factors), intermediate-2 (2 risk factors), intermediate-1 (1 risk factor) and low (no risk factors), with median survivals of 16, 31, 59, and 97 months, respectively. Hypomethylating agents such as 5-azacitidine and decitabine are commonly used, with overall response rates of ∼30-40% and complete remission rates of ∼7-17%. Allogeneic stem cell transplant is the only potentially curative option, but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Individualized therapy, including epigenetic modifiers and small molecule inhibitors, are exciting prospects. Am. J. Hematol. 91:632-642, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27185207

  9. Risk factors for long bone fracture non-union: a stratification approach based on the level of the existing scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Santolini, Emmanuele; West, Robert; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2015-12-01

    Non-union continues to be the most devastating complication after fracture fixation. Its treatment can be prolonged and often unpredictable. The burden to the patient, surgeon and health care system can be immense. Strategies to prevent it and or identify early its development are desirable in order to improve the clinical course of the affected patients and their outcomes. We undertook a systematic review of the literature in order to identify the most common and important risk factors based on the hierarchy of level of evidence. Accordingly, a stratification scale was formed which highlighted 10 risk factors including; an open method of fracture reduction, open fracture, presence of post-surgical fracture gap, smoking, infection, wedge or comminuted types of fracture, high degree of initial fracture displacement, lack of adequate mechanical stability provided by the implant used, fracture location in the poor zone of vascularity of the affected bone, and the presence of the fracture in the tibia. Clinicians should take in to account these findings when managing patients with long bone fractures, particularly the femur and tibia in order to minimise the risk of non-union. PMID:26747924

  10. EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly: 2016 update on diagnosis, risk-stratification, and management.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jorge J; Beltran, Brady E; Miranda, Roberto N; Young, Ken H; Chavez, Julio C; Sotomayor, Eduardo M

    2016-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly is a provisional entity included in the 2008 WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms. It is a disease typically seen in the elderly and thought to be associated with chronic EBV infection and severe immunosuppression with a component of immunosenescence. Recent research, however, has suggested that EBV-positive DLBCL can be seen in younger, immunocompetent patients. The diagnosis of EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly is made through a careful pathological evaluation. The differential diagnosis includes infectious mononucleosis (specifically in younger patients), lymphomatoid granulomatosis, Hodgkin lymphoma, and gray zone lymphoma, among others. Detection of EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) is considered standard for diagnosis; however, a clear cutoff for positivity has not been defined. The International Prognostic Index (IPI), and the Oyama score can be used for risk-stratification. The Oyama score includes age >70 years and presence of B symptoms. The expression of CD30 is emerging as a potential adverse, and targetable, prognostic factor. Patients with EBV-positive DLBCL should be staged and managed following similar guidelines than patients with EBV-negative DLBCL. It has been suggested, however, that EBV-positive patients have a worse prognosis than EBV-negative counterparts in the era of chemoimmunotherapy. There is an opportunity to study and develop targeted therapy in the management of patients with EBV-positive DLBCL. Am. J. Hematol. 91:530-537, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27093913

  11. Incorporating temporal EHR data in predictive models for risk stratification of renal function deterioration

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anima; Nadkarni, Girish; Gottesman, Omri; Ellis, Stephen B.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Guttag, John V.

    2015-01-01

    Predictive models built using temporal data in electronic health records (EHRs) can potentially play a major role in improving management of chronic diseases. However, these data present a multitude of technical challenges, including irregular sampling of data and varying length of available patient history. In this paper, we describe and evaluate three different approaches that use machine learning to build predictive models using temporal EHR data of a patient. The first approach is a commonly used non-temporal approach that aggregates values of the predictors in the patient’s medical history. The other two approaches exploit the temporal dynamics of the data. The two temporal approaches vary in how they model temporal information and handle missing data. Using data from the EHR of Mount Sinai Medical Center, we learned and evaluated the models in the context of predicting loss of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the most common assessment of kidney function. Our results show that incorporating temporal information in patient’s medical history can lead to better prediction of loss of kidney function. They also demonstrate that exactly how this information is incorporated is important. In particular, our results demonstrate that the relative importance of different predictors varies over time, and that using multi-task learning to account for this is an appropriate way to robustly capture the temporal dynamics in EHR data. Using a case study, we also demonstrate how the multi-task learning based model can yield predictive models with better performance for identifying patients at high risk of short-term loss of kidney function. PMID:25460205

  12. Therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient: safety planning.

    PubMed

    Matarazzo, Bridget B; Homaifar, Beeta Y; Wortzel, Hal S

    2014-05-01

    This column is the fourth in a series describing a model for therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient. Previous columns presented an overview of the therapeutic risk management model, provided recommendations for how to augment risk assessment using structured assessments, and discussed the importance of risk stratification in terms of both severity and temporality. This final column in the series discusses the safety planning intervention as a critical component of therapeutic risk management of suicide risk. We first present concerns related to the relatively common practice of using no-suicide contracts to manage risk. We then present the safety planning intervention as an alternative approach and provide recommendations for how to use this innovative strategy to therapeutically mitigate risk in the suicidal patient. PMID:24847995

  13. Noninvasive cardiac risk stratification of diabetic and nondiabetic uremic renal allograft candidates using dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging and radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.A.; Rimmer, J.; Haisch, C. )

    1989-11-01

    The ability of noninvasive risk stratification using dipyridamole-thallium-201 (Tl-201) imaging and radionuclide ventriculography to predict perioperative and long-term cardiac events (myocardial infarction or cardiac death) was evaluated in 36 uremic diabetic and 29 nondiabetic candidates for renal allograft surgery. Of the 35 patients who underwent renal allograft surgery 8 +/- 7 months after the study, none had transient Tl-201 defects (although 13 had depressed left ventricular ejection fraction) and none developed perioperative cardiac events. During a mean follow-up of 23 +/- 11 months, 6 (9%) patients developed cardiac events. Logistic regression analysis was used to compare the predictive value of clinical data (including age, sex, diabetes, chest pain history, allograft recipient) and radionuclide data. Presence of transient Tl-201 defect and left ventricular ejection fraction were the only significant predictors of future cardiac events (p less than 0.01). No other patient variables, including diabetes or receiving a renal allograft, had either univariate or multivariate predictive value. All 3 patients with transient Tl-201 defects had cardiac events compared with only 3 of 62 (5%) patients without transient Tl-201 defect (p less than 0.0001). Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was lower in patients with cardiac events (44 +/- 13%) compared with patients without cardiac events (57 +/- 9%, p less than 0.005). Overall, 5 of 6 patients with cardiac events had either transient Tl-201 defects or depressed left ventricular ejection fraction. Dipyridamole-Tl-201 imaging and radionuclide ventriculography may be helpful in identifying uremic candidates for renal allograft surgery who are at low risk for perioperative and long-term cardiac events.

  14. How can neuroimaging facilitate the diagnosis and stratification of patients with psychosis?

    PubMed Central

    Kempton, Matthew J.; McGuire, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of patients with psychosis are associated with improved outcome in terms of future functioning, symptoms and treatment response. Identifying neuroimaging biomarkers for illness onset and treatment response would lead to immediate clinical benefits. In this review we discuss if neuroimaging may be utilised to diagnose patients with psychosis, predict those who will develop the illness in those at high risk, and stratify patients. State-of-the-art developments in the field are critically examined including multicentre studies, longitudinal designs, multimodal imaging and machine learning as well as some of the challenges in utilising future neuroimaging biomarkers in clinical trials. As many of these developments are already being applied in neuroimaging studies of Alzheimer׳s disease, we discuss what lessons have been learned from this field and how they may be applied to research in psychosis. PMID:25092428

  15. Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death: current status and challenges for the future.

    PubMed

    Wellens, Hein J J; Schwartz, Peter J; Lindemans, Fred W; Buxton, Alfred E; Goldberger, Jeffrey J; Hohnloser, Stefan H; Huikuri, Heikki V; Kääb, Stefan; La Rovere, Maria Teresa; Malik, Marek; Myerburg, Robert J; Simoons, Maarten L; Swedberg, Karl; Tijssen, Jan; Voors, Adriaan A; Wilde, Arthur A

    2014-07-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) remains a daunting problem. It is a major public health issue for several reasons: from its prevalence (20% of total mortality in the industrialized world) to the devastating psycho-social impact on society and on the families of victims often still in their prime, and it represents a challenge for medicine, and especially for cardiology. This text summarizes the discussions and opinions of a group of investigators with a long-standing interest in this field. We addressed the occurrence of SCD in individuals apparently healthy, in patients with heart disease and mild or severe cardiac dysfunction, and in those with genetically based arrhythmic diseases. Recognizing the need for more accurate registries of the global and regional distribution of SCD in these different categories, we focused on the assessment of risk for SCD in these four groups, looking at the significance of alterations in cardiac function, of signs of electrical instability identified by ECG abnormalities or by autonomic tests, and of the progressive impact of genetic screening. Special attention was given to the identification of areas of research more or less likely to provide useful information, and thereby more or less suitable for the investment of time and of research funds. PMID:24801071

  16. Necrotizing Fasciitis in Hematological Patients: Enterobacteriaceae Predominance and Limited Utility of Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis Score.

    PubMed

    Foo, Rui Min; Tung, Moon Ley; Poon, Li Mei; Chan, Douglas; Smitasin, Nares; Koh, Liang Piu; Chng, Wee Joo; Chai, Louis Yi Ann

    2015-04-01

    Immune suppression is a recognized risk factor for necrotizing fasciitis. In patients with hematological malignancies, a profoundly immunocompromised group, the predominant causative organisms are Gram negative. Clinical presentation and outcomes in these patients are similar to the immunocompetent. The Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis score is not reliable for risk stratification of the disease. PMID:26180830

  17. Patient stratification and identification of adverse event correlations in the space of 1190 drug related adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Roitmann, Eva; Eriksson, Robert; Brunak, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: New pharmacovigilance methods are needed as a consequence of the morbidity caused by drugs. We exploit fine-grained drug related adverse event information extracted by text mining from electronic medical records (EMRs) to stratify patients based on their adverse events and to determine adverse event co-occurrences. Methods: We analyzed the similarity of adverse event profiles of 2347 patients extracted from EMRs from a mental health center in Denmark. The patients were clustered based on their adverse event profiles and the similarities were presented as a network. The set of adverse events in each main patient cluster was evaluated. Co-occurrences of adverse events in patients (p-value < 0.01) were identified and presented as well. Results: We found that each cluster of patients typically had a most distinguishing adverse event. Examination of the co-occurrences of adverse events in patients led to the identification of potentially interesting adverse event correlations that may be further investigated as well as provide further patient stratification opportunities. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the feasibility of a novel approach in pharmacovigilance to stratify patients based on fine-grained adverse event profiles, which also makes it possible to identify adverse event correlations. Used on larger data sets, this data-driven method has the potential to reveal unknown patterns concerning adverse event occurrences. PMID:25249979

  18. Sudden Cardiac Risk Stratification with Electrocardiographic Indices - A Review on Computational Processing, Technology Transfer, and Scientific Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno-Blanes, Francisco J.; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Barquero-Pérez, Óscar; García-Alberola, Arcadi; Rojo-Álvarez, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Great effort has been devoted in recent years to the development of sudden cardiac risk predictors as a function of electric cardiac signals, mainly obtained from the electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis. But these prediction techniques are still seldom used in clinical practice, partly due to its limited diagnostic accuracy and to the lack of consensus about the appropriate computational signal processing implementation. This paper addresses a three-fold approach, based on ECG indices, to structure this review on sudden cardiac risk stratification. First, throughout the computational techniques that had been widely proposed for obtaining these indices in technical literature. Second, over the scientific evidence, that although is supported by observational clinical studies, they are not always representative enough. And third, via the limited technology transfer of academy-accepted algorithms, requiring further meditation for future systems. We focus on three families of ECG derived indices which are tackled from the aforementioned viewpoints, namely, heart rate turbulence (HRT), heart rate variability (HRV), and T-wave alternans. In terms of computational algorithms, we still need clearer scientific evidence, standardizing, and benchmarking, siting on advanced algorithms applied over large and representative datasets. New scenarios like electronic health recordings, big data, long-term monitoring, and cloud databases, will eventually open new frameworks to foresee suitable new paradigms in the near future. PMID:27014083

  19. Sudden Cardiac Risk Stratification with Electrocardiographic Indices - A Review on Computational Processing, Technology Transfer, and Scientific Evidence.

    PubMed

    Gimeno-Blanes, Francisco J; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Barquero-Pérez, Óscar; García-Alberola, Arcadi; Rojo-Álvarez, José L

    2016-01-01

    Great effort has been devoted in recent years to the development of sudden cardiac risk predictors as a function of electric cardiac signals, mainly obtained from the electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis. But these prediction techniques are still seldom used in clinical practice, partly due to its limited diagnostic accuracy and to the lack of consensus about the appropriate computational signal processing implementation. This paper addresses a three-fold approach, based on ECG indices, to structure this review on sudden cardiac risk stratification. First, throughout the computational techniques that had been widely proposed for obtaining these indices in technical literature. Second, over the scientific evidence, that although is supported by observational clinical studies, they are not always representative enough. And third, via the limited technology transfer of academy-accepted algorithms, requiring further meditation for future systems. We focus on three families of ECG derived indices which are tackled from the aforementioned viewpoints, namely, heart rate turbulence (HRT), heart rate variability (HRV), and T-wave alternans. In terms of computational algorithms, we still need clearer scientific evidence, standardizing, and benchmarking, siting on advanced algorithms applied over large and representative datasets. New scenarios like electronic health recordings, big data, long-term monitoring, and cloud databases, will eventually open new frameworks to foresee suitable new paradigms in the near future. PMID:27014083

  20. Advances in Biophotonics Detection of Field Carcinogenesis for Colon Cancer Risk Stratification

    PubMed Central

    Backman, Vadim; Roy, Hemant K.

    2013-01-01

    The process of neoplastic transformation of the colon involves a progression through hyperproliferative epithelium through the aberrant crypt foci?small adenoma?large adenoma?invasive cancer?metastatic disease. These are orchestrated by sequential genetic and epigenetic events which provide the underpinnings of cellular alterations such as early induction in proliferation/suppression of apoptosis, along with the late stage increase in invasiveness. Colorectal cancer (CRC) averages 49-111 mutations per tumor encompassing 10-15 critical signaling pathways[1]. Accumulating such a high number of mutations requires a fertile mutational field, which is the hallmark of colon carcinogenesis. While genetic susceptibility to colorectal cancer is well-known, at least half of the risk is believed to be due to exogeneous factors (e.g., obesity, diet, exercise). Understanding these risk factors represents a promising mode of tailoring screening modality and intensity. However, previous attempts using these factors (i.e., NCI risk calculator) have only been modestly successful with an area under receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC) of just 0.61. One of the most important concepts is that risk is the interaction between these genetic and environmental components and is driven by the variety of polymorphisms. Thus, predicting risk is difficult given the complexity. On the other hand, the colonic mucosa represents the end product of the complex interplay between these multiple factors. The power of field carcinogenesis is that it reflects this interplay between genetics and environment. PMID:23459690

  1. Advances in biophotonics detection of field carcinogenesis for colon cancer risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Backman, Vadim; Roy, Hemant K

    2013-01-01

    The process of neoplastic transformation of the colon involves a progression through hyperproliferative epithelium through the aberrant crypt foci→small adenoma→large adenoma→invasive cancer→metastatic disease. These are orchestrated by sequential genetic and epigenetic events which provide the underpinnings of cellular alterations such as early induction in proliferation/suppression of apoptosis, along with the late stage increase in invasiveness. Colorectal cancer (CRC) averages 49-111 mutations per tumor encompassing 10-15 critical signaling pathways[1]. Accumulating such a high number of mutations requires a fertile mutational field, which is the hallmark of colon carcinogenesis.While genetic susceptibility to colorectal cancer is well-known, at least half of the risk is believed to be due to exogeneous factors (e.g., obesity, diet, exercise). Understanding these risk factors represents a promising mode of tailoring screening modality and intensity. However, previous attempts using these factors (i.e., NCI risk calculator) have only been modestly successful with an area under receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC) of just 0.61. One of the most important concepts is that risk is the interaction between these genetic and environmental components and is driven by the variety of polymorphisms. Thus, predicting risk is difficult given the complexity. On the other hand, the colonic mucosa represents the end product of the complex interplay between these multiple factors. The power of field carcinogenesis is that it reflects this interplay between genetics and environment. PMID:23459690

  2. Call for standardized definitions of osteoarthritis and risk stratification for clinical trials and clinical use.

    PubMed

    Kraus, V B; Blanco, F J; Englund, M; Karsdal, M A; Lohmander, L S

    2015-08-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a heterogeneous disorder. The goals of this review are (1) To stimulate use of standardized nomenclature for OA that could serve as building blocks for describing OA and defining OA phenotypes, in short to provide unifying disease concepts for a heterogeneous disorder; and (2) To stimulate establishment of ROAD (Risk of OA Development) and ROAP (Risk of OA Progression) tools analogous to the FRAX™ instrument for predicting risk of fracture in osteoporosis; and (3) To stimulate formulation of tools for identifying disease in its early preradiographic and/or molecular stages - REDI (Reliable Early Disease Identification). Consensus around more sensitive and specific diagnostic criteria for OA could spur development of disease modifying therapies for this entity that has proved so recalcitrant to date. We fully acknowledge that as we move forward, we expect to develop more sophisticated definitions, terminology and tools. PMID:25865392

  3. Malignancy Risk Stratification of Thyroid Nodules: Comparison between the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System and the 2014 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-03-01

    Purpose To compare malignancy risk stratification of thyroid nodules with the 2014 American Thyroid Association (ATA) management guidelines and the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS). Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. The requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. From November 2013 to July 2014, 1293 thyroid nodules in 1241 patients (mean age, 50.8 years ± 13.5) were included in this study. All nodules measured at least 10 mm. Solidity, hypoechogenicity or marked hypoechogenicity, microlobulated to irregular margin, microcalcifications or mixed calcifications, and nonparallel shape were considered suspicious features at ultrasonography (US). A TIRADS category and the US pattern as determined with ATA guidelines were assigned to each nodule. The correlation between the TIRADS category or ATA pattern and the malignancy rate was evaluated with the Spearman rank test. Results Of the 1293 thyroid nodules, 1059 (81.9%) were benign and 234 (18.1%) were malignant. Forty-four of the 1293 nodules (3.4%) did not meet the criteria for the ATA patterns and were classified as "not specified." The malignancy rates of TIRADS category 3, 4a, 4b, 4c, and 5 nodules were 1.9% (six of 316 nodules), 4.2% (17 of 408 nodules), 12.9% (33 of 256 nodules), 49.8% (130 of 261 nodules), and 92.3% (48 of 52 nodules), respectively, with significant differences between categories (P < .001). Malignancy rates of nodules with very low, low, intermediate, and high suspicion for malignancy with the ATA guidelines and not specified patterns were 2.7% (11 of 407 nodules), 3.1% (10 of 323 nodules), 16.7% (39 of 233 nodules), 58.0% (166 of 286 nodules), and 18.2% (eight of 44 nodules), respectively, with significant differences between patterns (P < .001). There was high correlation between classification with TIRADS (r = 1.000, P < .001) and ATA guidelines (r = 0.900, P = 0.037), without statistically significant differences (P = .873). Conclusion Both TIRADS and the ATA guidelines provide effective malignancy risk stratification for thyroid nodules. Nodules that do not meet the criteria for a specific pattern with the ATA guidelines have a relatively high risk of malignancy (18.2%). (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26348102

  4. Plasma Biomarkers for Prediction of Sudden Cardiac Death – Another Piece of the Risk Stratification Puzzle?

    PubMed Central

    Havmöller, Rasmus; Chugh, Sumeet S.

    2013-01-01

    Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) is responsible for an estimated 300,000 US deaths per year. Despite sophisticated resuscitation techniques and first responder systems, survival rates are very low. This is especially true for the majority of cases where the onset is unexpected and without prior cardiac symptoms; and further underscores the importance of finding better ways of early identification of subjects at risk of SCD. Although important contributions have been added from cohort studies as well as community-based studies, more pieces of the puzzle need to be solved. The use of plasma biomarkers is a common instrument for assessing cardiovascular risk in different subsets. In this review, we weigh the evidence regarding a potential role for plasma biomarkers in predicting SCD in the general population and suggest future investigative approaches that could be of clinical utility. PMID:22334431

  5. Underappreciated opportunities for high-density lipoprotein particles in risk stratification and potential targets of therapy.

    PubMed

    Rosenson, Robert S; Davidson, Michael H; Le, Ngoc-Anh; Burkle, Jaime; Pourfarzib, Ray

    2015-02-01

    The inverse relationship between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and coronary heart disease risk is well established. As a result, in recent years there have been significant resources focused on identifying therapies that raise HDL-C and ultimately reduce cardiovascular events. Unfortunately, a number of trials aimed at increasing HDL-C have failed to show improved outcomes, and hence, have cast doubt on the importance of HDL-C as a therapeutic target. HDL-C, however, is only one measure of HDL. HDL levels can also been estimated by quantifying apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) levels using enzyme immunoassay or by measuring HDL particle number (HDL-P) using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) or ion mobility. While these surrogate measures are correlated, they are not comparable. Lipoprotein-altering therapies have been shown to have different effects on HDL-C, apoA-I and HDL-P and several studies have demonstrated that HDL-P is a stronger predictor of coronary heart disease risk than HDL-C and/or apoA-I. This paper will review available evidence supporting the use of HDL-P as the biomarker of choice to assess the contribution of HDL to cardiovascular risk and as the primary goal of HDL-raising therapies. PMID:25702642

  6. Stratification of the severity of critically ill patients with classification trees

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Development of three classification trees (CT) based on the CART (Classification and Regression Trees), CHAID (Chi-Square Automatic Interaction Detection) and C4.5 methodologies for the calculation of probability of hospital mortality; the comparison of the results with the APACHE II, SAPS II and MPM II-24 scores, and with a model based on multiple logistic regression (LR). Methods Retrospective study of 2864 patients. Random partition (70:30) into a Development Set (DS) n = 1808 and Validation Set (VS) n = 808. Their properties of discrimination are compared with the ROC curve (AUC CI 95%), Percent of correct classification (PCC CI 95%); and the calibration with the Calibration Curve and the Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR CI 95%). Results CTs are produced with a different selection of variables and decision rules: CART (5 variables and 8 decision rules), CHAID (7 variables and 15 rules) and C4.5 (6 variables and 10 rules). The common variables were: inotropic therapy, Glasgow, age, (A-a)O2 gradient and antecedent of chronic illness. In VS: all the models achieved acceptable discrimination with AUC above 0.7. CT: CART (0.75(0.71-0.81)), CHAID (0.76(0.72-0.79)) and C4.5 (0.76(0.73-0.80)). PCC: CART (72(69-75)), CHAID (72(69-75)) and C4.5 (76(73-79)). Calibration (SMR) better in the CT: CART (1.04(0.95-1.31)), CHAID (1.06(0.97-1.15) and C4.5 (1.08(0.98-1.16)). Conclusion With different methodologies of CTs, trees are generated with different selection of variables and decision rules. The CTs are easy to interpret, and they stratify the risk of hospital mortality. The CTs should be taken into account for the classification of the prognosis of critically ill patients. PMID:20003229

  7. Usefulness of T-wave alternans in sudden death risk stratification and guiding medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Tuomo; Verrier, Richard L

    2010-07-01

    Visible T-wave alternans (TWA), a beat-to-beat alternation in the morphology and amplitude of the ST segment or T wave, has been observed for over a century to occur in association with life-threatening arrhythmias in patients with acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, and cardiac channelopathies. This compelling linkage prompted development of quantitative techniques leading to FDA-cleared commercial methodologies for measuring nonvisible levels of TWA in the frequency and time domains. The first aim of this review is to summarize evidence from more than a hundred studies enrolling a total of >12,000 patients that support the predictivity of TWA for cardiovascular mortality and sudden cardiac death. The second focus is on the usefulness of TWA in guiding therapy. Until recently, TWA has been used primarily in decision making for cardioverter-defibrillator implantation. Its potential utility in guiding pharmacologic therapy has been underappreciated. We review clinical literature supporting the usefulness of TWA as an index of antiarrhythmic effects and proarrhythmia for different drug classes. Beta-adrenergic and sodium channel-blocking agents are the most widely studied drugs in clinical TWA investigations, with both reducing TWA magnitude; the exception is patients in whom sodium channel blockade discloses the Brugada syndrome and provokes macroscopic TWA. An intriguing possibility is that TWA may help to detect beneficial effects of nonantiarrhythmic agents such as the angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan, which indirectly protects from arrhythmia through improving myocardial remodeling. We conclude that quantitative analysis of TWA has considerable potential to guide pharmacologic intervention and thereby serve as a therapeutic target. PMID:20645971

  8. A GMM-based breast cancer risk stratification using a resonance-frequency electrical impedance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lederman, Dror; Zheng, Bin; Wang, Xingwei; Sumkin, Jules H.; Gur, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors developed and tested a multiprobe-based resonance-frequency-based electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) system. The purpose of this study was to preliminarily assess the performance of this system in classifying younger women into two groups, those ultimately recommended for biopsy during imaging-based diagnostic workups that followed screening and those rated as negative during mammography. Methods: A seven probe-based REIS system was designed, assembled, and is currently being tested in the breast imaging facility. During an examination, contact is made with the nipple and six concentric points on the breast skin. For each measurement channel between the center probe and one of the six external probes, a set of electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) signal sweeps is performed and signal outputs ranging from 200 to 800 kHz at 5 kHz interval are recorded. An initial subset of 174 examinations from an ongoing prospective clinical study was selected for this preliminary analysis. An initial set of 35 features, 33 of which represented the corresponding EIS signal differences between the left and right breasts, was established. A Gaussian mixture model (GMM) classifier was developed to differentiate between “positive” (biopsy recommended) cases and “negative” (nonbiopsy) cases. Selecting an optimal feature set was performed using genetic algorithms with an area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) as the fitness criterion. Results: The recorded EIS signal sweeps showed that, in general, negative (nonbiopsy) examinations have a higher level of electrical impedance symmetry between the two breasts than positive (biopsy) examinations. Fourteen features were selected by genetic algorithm and used in the optimized GMM classifier. Using a leave-one-case-out test, the GMM classifier yielded a performance level of AUC=0.78, which compared favorably to other three widely used classifiers including support vector machine, classification tree, and linear discriminant analysis. These results also suggest that the REIS signal based GMM classifier could be used as a prescreening tool to correctly identify a fraction of younger women at higher risk of developing breast cancer (i.e., 47% sensitivity at 90% specificity). Conclusions: The study confirms that asymmetry in electrical impedance characteristics between two breasts provides valuable information regarding the presence of a developing breast abnormality; hence, REIS data may be useful in classifying younger women into two groups of “average” and “significantly higher than average” risk of having or developing a breast abnormality that would ultimately result in a later imaging-based recommendation for biopsy. PMID:21520878

  9. The promise of pharmacogenetics: assessing the prospects for disease and patient stratification.

    PubMed

    Smart, Andrew; Martin, Paul

    2006-09-01

    Pharmacogenetics is an emerging biotechnology concerned with understanding the genetic basis of drug response, and promises to transform the development, marketing and prescription of medicines. This paper is concerned with analysing the move towards segmented drug markets, which is implicit in the commercial development of pharmacogenetics. It is claimed that in future who gets a particular drug will be determined by their genetic make up. Drawing on ideas from the sociology of expectations we examine how pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are constructing, responding to and realising particular 'visions' or expectations of pharmacogenetics and market stratification. We argue that the process of market segmentation remains uncertain, but that the outcome will be fashioned according to the convergence and divergence of the interests of key commercial actors. Qualitative data based both on interviews with industry executives and company documentation will be used to explore how different groups of companies are developing pharmacogenetics in distinct ways, and what consequences these different pathways might have for both clinical practice and health policy. In particular, the analysis will show a convergence of interests between biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies for creating segmented markets for new drugs, but a divergence of interest in segmenting established markets. Whilst biotechnology firms have a strong incentive to innovate, the pharmaceutical industry has no commercial interest in segmenting markets for existing products. This has important implications, as many of the claimed public health benefits of pharmacogenetics will derive from changing the prescribing of existing medicines. One significant implication of this is that biotechnology companies who wish to apply pharmacogenetics to existing medicines will have to explore an alternative convergence of interests with healthcare payers and providers (health insurers, HMOs, MCOs and national health systems). Healthcare providers may have a strong incentive to use pharmacogenetics to make the prescribing of existing medicine more cost-effective. However, we conclude by suggesting that a question mark hangs over their ability to provide the necessary economic and structural resources to bring such a vision to fruition. PMID:16980196

  10. A Novel Risk Stratification to Predict Local-Regional Failures in Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder After Radical Cystectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Brian C.; Guzzo, Thomas J.; He Jiwei; Keefe, Stephen M.; Tucker, Kai; Bekelman, Justin E.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Vaughn, David J.; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Christodouleas, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Local-regional failures (LF) following radical cystectomy (RC) plus pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) with or without chemotherapy for invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma are more common than previously reported. Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) could reduce LF but currently has no defined role because of previously reported morbidity. Modern techniques with improved normal tissue sparing have rekindled interest in RT. We assessed the risk of LF and determined those factors that predict recurrence to facilitate patient selection for future adjuvant RT trials. Methods and Materials: From 1990-2008, 442 patients with urothelial bladder carcinoma at University of Pennsylvania were prospectively followed after RC plus PLND with or without chemotherapy with routine pelvic computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). One hundred thirty (29%) patients received chemotherapy. LF was any pelvic failure detected before or within 3 months of distant failure. Competing risk analyses identified factors predicting increased LF risk. Results: On univariate analysis, pathologic stage {>=}pT3, <10 nodes removed, positive margins, positive nodes, hydronephrosis, lymphovascular invasion, and mixed histology significantly predicted LF; node density was marginally predictive, but use of chemotherapy, number of positive nodes, type of surgical diversion, age, gender, race, smoking history, and body mass index were not. On multivariate analysis, only stage {>=}pT3 and <10 nodes removed were significant independent LF predictors with hazard ratios of 3.17 and 2.37, respectively (P<.01). Analysis identified 3 patient subgroups with significantly different LF risks: low-risk ({<=}pT2), intermediate-risk ({>=}pT3 and {>=}10 nodes removed), and high-risk ({>=}pT3 and <10 nodes) with 5-year LF rates of 8%, 23%, and 42%, respectively (P<.01). Conclusions: This series using routine CT and MRI surveillance to detect LF confirms that such failures are relatively common in cases of locally advanced disease and provides a rubric based on pathological stage and number of nodes removed that stratifies patients into 3 groups with significantly different LF risks to simplify patient selection for future adjuvant radiation therapy trials.

  11. Next-generation-sequencing-based risk stratification and identification of new genes involved in structural and sequence variations in near haploid lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cai; Bartenhagen, Christoph; Gombert, Michael; Okpanyi, Vera; Binder, Vera; Röttgers, Silja; Bradtke, Jutta; Teigler-Schlegel, Andrea; Harbott, Jochen; Ginzel, Sebastian; Thiele, Ralf; Fischer, Ute; Dugas, Martin; Hu, Jianda; Borkhardt, Arndt

    2013-06-01

    Near haploidy (23-29 chromosomes) is a numerical cytogenetic aberration in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) associated with particularly poor outcome. In contrast, high hyperdiploidy (51-67 chromosomes) has a favorable prognosis. Correct classification and appropriate risk stratification of near haploidy is frequently hampered by the presence of apparently high hyperdiploid clones that arise by endoreduplication of the original near haploid clone. We evaluated next-generation-sequencing (NGS) to distinguish between "high hyperdiploid" leukemic clones of near haploid and true high hyperdiploid origin. Five high hyperdiploid ALL cases and the "high hyperdiploid" cell line MHH-CALL-2, derived from a near haploid clone, were tested for uniparental isodisomy. NGS showed that all disomic chromosomes of MHH-CALL-2, but none of the patients, were of uniparental origin, thus reliably discriminating these subtypes. Whole-exome- and whole-genome-sequencing of MHH-CALL-2 revealed homozygous non-synonymous coding mutations predicted to be deleterious for the protein function of 63 genes, among them known cancer-associated genes, such as FANCA, NF1, TCF7L2, CARD11, EP400, histone demethylases, and transferases (KDM6B, KDM1A, PRDM11). Only eight of these were also, but heterozygously, mutated in the high hyperdiploid patients. Structural variations in MHH-CALL-2 include a homozygous deletion (MTAP/CDKN2A/CDKN2B/ANRIL), a homozygous inversion (NCKAP5), and an unbalanced translocation (FAM189A1). Together, the sequence variations provide MHH-CALL-2 with capabilities typically acquired during cancer development, e.g., loss of cell cycle control, enhanced proliferation, lack of DNA repair, cell death evasion, and disturbance of epigenetic gene regulation. Poorer prognosis of near haploid ALL most likely results from full penetrance of a large array of detrimental homozygous mutations. PMID:23508829

  12. Pure epithelioid PEComas (so-called epithelioid angiomyolipoma) of the kidney: A clinicopathologic study of 41 cases: detailed assessment of morphology and risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Nese, Nalan; Martignoni, Guido; Fletcher, Christopher D; Gupta, Ruta; Pan, Chin-Chan; Kim, Hyung; Ro, Jae Y; Hwang, Il S; Sato, Katsuaki; Bonetti, Franco; Pea, Maurizio; Amin, Mitual B; Hes, Ondrej; Svec, Alexandr; Kida, Masatoshi; Vankalakunti, Mahesha; Berel, Dror; Rogatko, Andre; Gown, Allen M; Amin, Mahul B

    2011-02-01

    Epithelioid angiomyolipomas (perivascular epithelioid cell tumors) of the kidney are defined as potentially malignant mesenchymal lesions that are closely related to classic angiomyolipoma. Although approximately 120 cases are published, mostly as case reports with variably used diagnostic criteria, the pathologic prognostic predictors of outcome are unknown. We analyzed the clinicopathologic parameters in a large series of 41 cases of pure epithelioid angiomyolipomas of the kidney, which we designate as pure (monotypic) epithelioid PEComas to contrast them from classic angiomyolipomas that are regarded by some as PEComas. We use the terminology "pure" to separate these cases from those that may have variable epithelioid components. The mean age of the patients was 40.7 years (range, 14 to 68 y). The male-to-female ratio was 1:1. Seventy-nine percent of patients were symptomatic at presentation with metastatic disease at onset in 12 cases. Follow-up and/or disease progression information were available for 33 of 41 cases (mean, 44.5 mo and median, 24.5 mo; range, 4 to 240); 9 patients had a history of associated tuberous sclerosis. Recurrence and metastasis were seen in 17% and 49% of patients; 33% of patients died of disease. Lymph node involvement was seen in 24% of patients; the liver (63%), lung (25%), and mesentery (18.8%) were the most common metastatic sites. Clinicopathologic parameters associated with disease progression (recurrence, metastasis, or death due to disease) in univariate analysis included associated tuberous sclerosis complex or concurrent angiomyolipoma (any metastasis, P=0.046), necrosis (metastasis at diagnosis, P=0.012), tumor size >7 cm (progression, P=0.021), extrarenal extension and/or renal vein involvement (progression, P=0.023), and carcinoma-like growth pattern (progression, P=0.040) (the 5 adverse prognostic parameters for pure epithelioid PEComas). Tumors with <2 adverse prognostic parameters (13 cases) were considered to be low risk for progression tumor, with 15% having disease progression. Tumors with 2 to 3 adverse prognostic parameters (14 cases) were considered to be "intermediate risk," with 64% having disease progression. Tumors with more than 4 or more adverse prognostic parameters (6 cases) were considered to be high risk, with all patients having disease progression. Of tumors with 3 or more adverse prognostic parameters, 80% had disease progression. An exact logistic regression analytic model showed that only carcinoma-like growth pattern and extrarenal extension and/or renal vein involvement were significant predictors of outcome (P=0.009 and 0.033, respectively). Our data of a large series with uniform definitional criteria confirm the malignant potential for pure epithelioid PEComas and provide adverse prognostic parameters for risk stratification in these patients. PMID:21263237

  13. Imaging of cardiovascular risk in patients with Turner's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Marin, A.; Weir-McCall, J.R.; Webb, D.J.; van Beek, E.J.R.; Mirsadraee, S.

    2015-01-01

    Turner's syndrome is a disorder defined by an absent or structurally abnormal second X chromosome and affects around 1 in 2000 newborn females. The standardised mortality ratio in Turner's syndrome is around three-times higher than in the general female population, mainly as a result of cardiovascular disorders. Most striking is the early age at which Turner's syndrome patients develop the life-threatening complications of cardiovascular disorders compared to the general population. The cardiovascular risk stratification in Turner's syndrome is challenging and imaging is not systematically used. The aim of this article is to review cardiovascular risks in this group of patients and discuss a systematic imaging approach for early identification of cardiovascular disorders in these patients. PMID:25917542

  14. Identification of the high risk emergency surgical patient: Which risk prediction model should be used?

    PubMed Central

    Stonelake, Stephen; Thomson, Peter; Suggett, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction National guidance states that all patients having emergency surgery should have a mortality risk assessment calculated on admission so that the ‘high risk’ patient can receive the appropriate seniority and level of care. We aimed to assess if peri-operative risk scoring tools could accurately calculate mortality and morbidity risk. Methods Mortality risk scores for 86 consecutive emergency laparotomies, were calculated using pre-operative (ASA, Lee index) and post-operative (POSSUM, P-POSSUM and CR-POSSUM) risk calculation tools. Morbidity risk scores were calculated using the POSSUM predicted morbidity and compared against actual morbidity according to the Clavien–Dindo classification. Results The actual mortality was 10.5%. The average predicted risk scores for all laparotomies were: ASA 26.5%, Lee Index 2.5%, POSSUM 29.5%, P-POSSUM 18.5%, CR-POSSUM 10.5%. Complications occurred following 67 laparotomies (78%). The majority (51%) of complications were classified as Clavien–Dindo grade 2–3 (non-life-threatening). Patients having a POSSUM morbidity risk of greater than 50% developed significantly more life-threatening complications (CD 4–5) compared with those who predicted less than or equal to 50% morbidity risk (P = 0.01). Discussion Pre-operative risk stratification remains a challenge because the Lee Index under-predicts and ASA over-predicts mortality risk. Post-operative risk scoring using the CR-POSSUM is more accurate and we suggest can be used to identify patients who require intensive care post-operatively. Conclusions In the absence of accurate risk scoring tools that can be used on admission to hospital it is not possible to reliably audit the achievement of national standards of care for the ‘high-risk’ patient. PMID:26468369

  15. Development and Validation of a Clinical Trial Patient Stratification Assay That Interrogates 27 Mutation Sites in MAPK Pathway Genes

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Russell; Marton, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Somatic mutations identified on genes related to the cancer-developing signaling pathways have drawn attention in the field of personalized medicine in recent years. Treatments developed to target a specific signaling pathway may not be effective when tumor activating mutations occur downstream of the target and bypass the targeted mechanism. For instance, mutations detected in KRAS/BRAF/NRAS genes can lead to EGFR-independent intracellular signaling pathway activation. Most patients with these mutations do not respond well to anti-EGFR treatment. In an effort to detect various mutations in FFPE tissue samples among multiple solid tumor types for patient stratification many mutation assays were evaluated. Since there were more than 30 specific mutations among three targeted RAS/RAF oncogenes that could activate MAPK pathway genes, a custom designed Single Nucleotide Primer Extension (SNPE) multiplexing mutation assay was developed and analytically validated as a clinical trial assay. Throughout the process of developing and validating the assay we overcame many technical challenges which include: the designing of PCR primers for FFPE tumor tissue samples versus normal blood samples, designing of probes for detecting consecutive nucleotide double mutations, the kinetics and thermodynamics aspects of probes competition among themselves and against target PCR templates, as well as validating an assay when positive control tumor tissue or cell lines with specific mutations are not available. We used Next Generation sequencing to resolve discordant calls between the SNPE mutation assay and Sanger sequencing. We also applied a triplicate rule to reduce potential false positives and false negatives, and proposed special considerations including pre-define a cut-off percentage for detecting very low mutant copies in the wild-type DNA background. PMID:23991070

  16. Gene-expression signatures in ovarian cancer: Promise and challenges for patient stratification.

    PubMed

    Konecny, Gottfried E; Winterhoff, Boris; Wang, Chen

    2016-05-01

    Microarray-based gene expression studies demonstrate that ovarian cancer is both a clinically diverse and molecularly heterogeneous disease compromising subtypes with distinct gene expression patterns that are each associated with statistically significant different clinical outcomes. The information provided by gene expression based assays is promising and deserves incorporation into clinical decision-making. Further studies are needed to determine which subtype signatures are most appropriate to select patients for a given therapy. This process will require the development of standardized molecular diagnostic assays that can be used for retrospective correlative studies and prospective validations of their clinical utility. Recent advances in assay development for FFPE tissues will facilitate accurate and cost-effective classification of ovarian cancer and help move the evolving molecular classification to clinic. The current review will summarize the development of gene expression based assays in ovarian cancer and will describe how the results of studies to date have expanded our appreciation of the heterogeneity of ovarian cancer. We discuss difficulties in the development and validation of molecular classifications in ovarian cancer and we provide future directions how we may be able to soon classify the disease in a manner that might have greater clinical utility. PMID:26827964

  17. The Burden of Hard Atherosclerotic Plaques Does Not Promote Endoleak Development After Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair: A Risk Stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Johannes Glodny, Bernhard

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To objectify the influence of the atherosclerotic burden in the proximal landing zone on the development of endoleaks after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) or thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) using objective aortic calcium scoring (ACS). Materials and Methods: This retrospective observation study included 267 patients who received an aortic endograft between 1997 and 2010 and for whom preoperative computed tomography (CT) was available to perform ACS using the CT-based V600 method. The mean follow-up period was 2 {+-} 2.3 years. Results: Type I endoleaks persisted in 45 patients (16.9%), type II in 34 (12.7%), type III in 8 (3%), and type IV or V in 3 patients, respectively (1.1% each). ACS in patients with type I endoleaks was not increased: 0.029 {+-} 0.061 ml compared with 0.075 {+-} 0.1349 ml in the rest of the patients, (p > 0.05; Whitney-Mann U-Test). There were significantly better results for the indication 'traumatic aortic rupture' than for the other indications (p < 0.05). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, age was an independent risk factor for the development of type I endoleaks in the thoracic aorta (Wald 9.5; p = 0.002), whereas ACS score was an independent protective factor (Wald 6.9; p = 0.009). In the abdominal aorta, neither age nor ACS influenced the development of endoleaks. Conclusion: Contrary to previous assumptions, TEVAR and EVAR can be carried out without increasing the risk of an endoleak of any type, even if there is a high atherosclerotic 'hard-plaque' burden of the aorta. The results are significantly better for traumatic aortic.

  18. Benefit of Adjuvant Brachytherapy Versus External Beam Radiation for Early Breast Cancer: Impact of Patient Stratification on Breast Preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Grace L.; Jiang, Jing; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Xu, Ying; Hoffman, Karen E.; Giordano, Sharon H.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Brachytherapy after lumpectomy is an increasingly popular breast cancer treatment, but data concerning its effectiveness are conflicting. Recently proposed “suitability” criteria guiding patient selection for brachytherapy have never been empirically validated. Methods: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare linked database, we compared women aged 66 years or older with invasive breast cancer (n=28,718) or ductal carcinoma in situ (n=7229) diagnosed from 2002 to 2007, treated with lumpectomy alone, brachytherapy, or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). The likelihood of breast preservation, measured by subsequent mastectomy risk, was compared by use of multivariate proportional hazards, further stratified by American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) brachytherapy suitability groups. We compared 1-year postoperative complications using the χ{sup 2} test and 5-year local toxicities using the log-rank test. Results: For patients with invasive cancer, the 5-year subsequent mastectomy risk was 4.7% after lumpectomy alone (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1%-5.4%), 2.8% after brachytherapy (95% CI, 1.8%-4.3%), and 1.3% after EBRT (95% CI, 1.1%-1.5%) (P<.001). Compared with lumpectomy alone, brachytherapy achieved a more modest reduction in adjusted risk (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40-0.94) than achieved with EBRT (HR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.18-0.28). Relative risks did not differ when stratified by ASTRO suitability group (P=.84 for interaction), although ASTRO “suitable” patients did show a low absolute subsequent mastectomy risk, with a minimal absolute difference in risk after brachytherapy (1.6%; 95% CI, 0.7%-3.5%) versus EBRT (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.6%-1.1%). For patients with ductal carcinoma in situ, EBRT maintained a reduced risk of subsequent mastectomy (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.28-0.55; P<.001), whereas the small number of patients treated with brachytherapy (n=179) precluded definitive comparison with lumpectomy alone. In all patients, brachytherapy showed a higher postoperative infection risk (16.5% vs 9.9% after lumpectomy alone vs 11.4% after EBRT, P<.001); higher incidence of breast pain (22.9% vs 11.2% vs 16.7%, P<.001); and higher incidence of fat necrosis (15.3% vs 5.3% vs 7.7%, P<.001). Conclusions: In this study era, brachytherapy showed lesser breast preservation benefit compared with EBRT. Suitability criteria predicted differential absolute, but not relative, benefit in patients with invasive cancer.

  19. Streptozocin-Based Chemotherapy in Patients with Advanced Neuroendocrine Neoplasms – Predictive and Prognostic Markers for Treatment Stratification

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Sebastian; Boch, Michael; Daniel, Hanna; Nimphius, Wilhelm; Müller, Daniela; Michl, Patrick; Rinke, Anja; Gress, Thomas Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Chemotherapy with streptozocin (STZ) in combination with 5-FU or doxorubicin (Dox) represents a standard of care for patients with metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNEN). However, predictive markers for patient selection are still missing. The aim of this study was a retrospective evaluation of the clinicopathological characteristics of pNEN patients receiving STZ-based chemotherapies and to identify predictive and prognostic markers. Patients and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 77 patients treated at our center between 1995 and 2013. The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods, respectively. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed. Results The median PFS (mPFS) in patients receiving STZ/5-FU/Dox was 16 months with a median OS (mOS) of 28 months. Objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) were 34% and 72%, respectively. Biochemical response and positive octreotide scintigraphy predicted objective response. Univariate analysis revealed Ki-67 > 10% and the absence of biochemical or objective response by imaging as independent risk factors for shorter PFS. Additionally, performance status (PS) and resection of the primary tumor were observed to influence mOS. Treatment was well tolerated with less than 10% grade 3 and 4 toxicities. Conclusions STZ-based chemotherapy is an effective and well-tolerated treatment option in patients with well differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms. Positive octreotide scintigraphy and biochemical response predict objective response. PMID:26630134

  20. Integration of copy number and transcriptomics provides risk stratification in prostate cancer: A discovery and validation cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ross-Adams, H.; Lamb, A.D.; Dunning, M.J.; Halim, S.; Lindberg, J.; Massie, C.M.; Egevad, L.A.; Russell, R.; Ramos-Montoya, A.; Vowler, S.L.; Sharma, N.L.; Kay, J.; Whitaker, H.; Clark, J.; Hurst, R.; Gnanapragasam, V.J.; Shah, N.C.; Warren, A.Y.; Cooper, C.S.; Lynch, A.G.; Stark, R.; Mills, I.G.; Grönberg, H.; Neal, D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the heterogeneous genotypes and phenotypes of prostate cancer is fundamental to improving the way we treat this disease. As yet, there are no validated descriptions of prostate cancer subgroups derived from integrated genomics linked with clinical outcome. Methods In a study of 482 tumour, benign and germline samples from 259 men with primary prostate cancer, we used integrative analysis of copy number alterations (CNA) and array transcriptomics to identify genomic loci that affect expression levels of mRNA in an expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) approach, to stratify patients into subgroups that we then associated with future clinical behaviour, and compared with either CNA or transcriptomics alone. Findings We identified five separate patient subgroups with distinct genomic alterations and expression profiles based on 100 discriminating genes in our separate discovery and validation sets of 125 and 103 men. These subgroups were able to consistently predict biochemical relapse (p = 0.0017 and p = 0.016 respectively) and were further validated in a third cohort with long-term follow-up (p = 0.027). We show the relative contributions of gene expression and copy number data on phenotype, and demonstrate the improved power gained from integrative analyses. We confirm alterations in six genes previously associated with prostate cancer (MAP3K7, MELK, RCBTB2, ELAC2, TPD52, ZBTB4), and also identify 94 genes not previously linked to prostate cancer progression that would not have been detected using either transcript or copy number data alone. We confirm a number of previously published molecular changes associated with high risk disease, including MYC amplification, and NKX3-1, RB1 and PTEN deletions, as well as over-expression of PCA3 and AMACR, and loss of MSMB in tumour tissue. A subset of the 100 genes outperforms established clinical predictors of poor prognosis (PSA, Gleason score), as well as previously published gene signatures (p = 0.0001). We further show how our molecular profiles can be used for the early detection of aggressive cases in a clinical setting, and inform treatment decisions. Interpretation For the first time in prostate cancer this study demonstrates the importance of integrated genomic analyses incorporating both benign and tumour tissue data in identifying molecular alterations leading to the generation of robust gene sets that are predictive of clinical outcome in independent patient cohorts. PMID:26501111

  1. Risk of Parkinson Disease Onset in Patients With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu; Chang, Ya-Hui; Chen, Hua-Fen; Su, Ying-Hwa; Su, Hui-Fang; Li, Chung-Yi

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We retrospectively assessed the age- and sex-specific incidence and relative risk of Parkinson disease (PD) in Taiwan’s diabetic population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Study cohort included 603,416 diabetic patients and 472,188 nondiabetic control subjects. Incidence rate and relative risk of PD (ICD-9-CM 332.0) were evaluated. RESULTS The incidence of PD was 3.59 and 2.15 per 10,000 person-years for the diabetic and control group, respectively, representing a covariate adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.61 (95% CI 1.56–1.66), which was substantially reduced to 1.37 (1.32–1.41) after adjusting for medical visits. Diabetes was associated with a significantly elevated risk of PD in all sex and age stratifications except in young women, with the highest HR noted for young men aged 21–40 years (2.10 [1.01–4.42]), followed by women aged 41–60 (2.05 [1.82–2.30]) and >60 years (1.65 [1.58–1.73]). CONCLUSIONS Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of PD onset in a Chinese population, and the relation is stronger in women and younger patients. PMID:22432112

  2. Predicting mortality in patients with acute heart failure: Role of risk scores

    PubMed Central

    Passantino, Andrea; Monitillo, Francesco; Iacoviello, Massimo; Scrutinio, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Acute heart failure is a leading cause of hospitalization and death, and it is an increasing burden on health care systems. The correct risk stratification of patients could improve clinical outcome and resources allocation, avoiding the overtreatment of low-risk subjects or the early, inappropriate discharge of high-risk patients. Many clinical scores have been derived and validated for in-hospital and post-discharge survival; predictive models include demographic, clinical, hemodynamic and laboratory variables. Data sets are derived from public registries, clinical trials, and retrospective data. Most models show a good capacity to discriminate patients who reach major clinical end-points, with C-indices generally higher than 0.70, but their applicability in real-world populations has been seldom evaluated. No study has evaluated if the use of risk score-based stratification might improve patient outcome. Some variables (age, blood pressure, sodium concentration, renal function) recur in most scores and should always be considered when evaluating the risk of an individual patient hospitalized for acute heart failure. Future studies will evaluate the emerging role of plasma biomarkers. PMID:26730296

  3. What's the risk? Assessment of patients with stable chest pain

    PubMed Central

    Cubukcu, Arzu; Anderson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the National Institute for Heath and Clinical Excellence published guidelines for the management of stable chest pain of recent onset. Implementation has occurred to various degrees throughout the NHS; however, its effectiveness has yet to be proved. A retrospective study was undertaken to assess the impact and relevance of this guideline, comparing the estimated risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) with angiographic outcomes. Findings were compared with the recently published equivalent European guideline. A total of 457 patients who attended a Rapid Access Chest Pain Clinic were retrospectively reviewed. CAD risk was assessed according to NICE guidelines and patients were separated into typical, atypical and non-anginal chest pain groups. Risk stratification using typicality of symptoms in conjunction with NICE risk scoring and exercise tolerance testing was used to determine the best clinical course for each patient. The results include non-anginal chest pain – 92% discharged without needing further testing; atypical angina – 15% discharged, 40% referred for stress echocardiography, 35% referred for angiogram and significant CAD revealed in 8%; typical angina – 4% discharged, 19% referred for stress echocardiography, 71% referred for angiogram and 40% demonstrated CAD. Both guidelines appear to overestimate the risk of CAD leading to an excessive number of coronary angiograms being undertaken to investigate patients with typical or atypical sounding angina, with a low pick up rate of CAD. Given the high negative predictive value of stress echocardiography and the confidence this brings, there is much scope for expanding its use and potentially reduce the numbers going for invasive angiography. PMID:26693332

  4. Body Mass Index as a Predictor of Sudden Cardiac Death and Usefulness of the Electrocardiogram for Risk Stratification.

    PubMed

    Eranti, Antti; Aro, Aapo L; Kerola, Tuomas; Tikkanen, Jani T; Rissanen, Harri A; Anttonen, Olli; Junttila, M Juhani; Knekt, Paul; Huikuri, Heikki V

    2016-02-01

    Evidence of the role of body mass index (BMI) as a risk factor for sudden cardiac death (SCD) is conflicting, and how electrocardiographic (ECG) SCD risk markers perform in subjects with different BMIs is not known. In this study, a general population cohort consisting of 10,543 middle-aged subjects (mean age 44 years, 52.7% men) was divided into groups of lean (BMI <20, n = 374), normal weight (BMI 20.0 to 24.9, n = 4,334), overweight (BMI 25.0 to 29.9, n = 4,390), and obese (BMI >30, n = 1,445) subjects. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for confounders were used to assess the risk for SCD associated with BMI and the risk for SCD associated with ECG abnormalities in subjects with different BMIs. The overweight and obese subjects were at increased risk for SCD (hazard ratios [95% CIs] were 1.33 [1.13 to 1.56], p = 0.001 and 1.79 [1.44 to 2.23], p <0.001 for overweight and obese subjects, respectively). The risk of non-SCD had a similar relation with BMI as SCD. Hazard ratios associated with ECG abnormalities were 3.03, 1.75, 1.74, and 1.34 in groups of lean, normal weight, overweight, and obese subjects, respectively, but no statistical significance was reached in the obese. ECG abnormalities improved integrated discrimination indexes and continuous net reclassification indexes statistically significantly only in the normal weight group. In conclusion, the overweight and obese are at increased risk for SCD but also for non-SCD, and ECG abnormalities are associated with increased risk of SCD also in normal weight subjects presenting with less traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26723105

  5. Dipyridamole-thallium scanning in patients undergoing vascular surgery. Optimizing preoperative evaluation of cardiac risk

    SciTech Connect

    Eagle, K.A.; Singer, D.E.; Brewster, D.C.; Darling, R.C.; Mulley, A.G.; Boucher, C.A.

    1987-04-24

    Dipyridamole-thallium imaging has been suggested as a method of preoperatively assessing cardiac risk in patients undergoing major surgery. To define more clearly its proper role in preoperative assessment, we prospectively evaluated 111 patients undergoing vascular surgery. In the first set of 61 patients, our data confirmed the value of preoperative dipyridamole-thallium scanning in identifying the patients who suffered postoperative ischemic events. Events occurred in eight of 18 patients with reversible defects on preoperative imaging, compared with no events in 43 patients with no thallium redistribution (confidence interval for the risk difference: 0.624, 0.256). The results also suggested that clinical factors might allow identification of a low-risk subset of patients. To test the hypothesis that patients with no evidence of congestive heart failure, angina, prior myocardial infarction, or diabetes do not require further preoperative testing, we evaluated an additional 50 patients having vascular procedures. None of the 23 without the clinical markers had untoward outcomes, while ten of 27 patients with one or more of these clinical markers suffered postoperative ischemic events (confidence interval for the risk difference: 0.592, 0.148). In the clinical high-risk subset, further risk stratification is achieved with dipyridamole-thallium scanning.

  6. Patient safety: latent risk factors.

    PubMed

    van Beuzekom, M; Boer, F; Akerboom, S; Hudson, P

    2010-07-01

    The person-centred analysis and prevention approach has long dominated proposals to improve patient safety in healthcare. In this approach, the focus is on the individual responsible for making an error. An alternative is the systems-centred approach, in which attention is paid to the organizational factors that create precursors for individual errors. This approach assumes that since humans are fallible, systems must be designed to prevent humans from making errors or to be tolerant to those errors. The questions raised by this approach might, for example, include asking why an individual had specific gaps in their knowledge, experience, or ability. The systems approach focuses on working conditions rather than on errors of individuals, as the likelihood of specific errors increases with unfavourable conditions. Since the factors that promote errors are not directly visible in the working environment, they are described as latent risk factors (LRFs). Safety failures in anaesthesia, in particular, and medicine, in general, result from multiple unfavourable LRFs, so we propose that effective interventions require that attention is paid to interactions between multiple factors and actors. Understanding how LRFs affect safety can enable us to design more effective control measures that will impact significantly on both individual performance and patient outcomes. PMID:20551026

  7. Lake Layers: Stratification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brothers, Chris; And Others

    This teacher guide and student workbook set contains two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on lake stratification and water quality. In the activities students model the seasonal temperature changes that occur in temperate lakes and observe the resulting stratification of lake waters. Students…

  8. Risk Stratification by Self-Measured Home Blood Pressure across Categories of Conventional Blood Pressure: A Participant-Level Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Brguljan-Hitij, Jana; Niiranen, Teemu J.; Hozawa, Atsushi; Boggia, José; Aparicio, Lucas S.; Hara, Azusa; Johansson, Jouni K.; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Tzourio, Christophe; Stergiou, George S.; Sandoya, Edgardo; Tsuji, Ichiro; Jula, Antti M.; Imai, Yutaka; Staessen, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Diseases Study 2010 reported that hypertension is worldwide the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease, causing 9.4 million deaths annually. We examined to what extent self-measurement of home blood pressure (HBP) refines risk stratification across increasing categories of conventional blood pressure (CBP). Methods and Findings This meta-analysis included 5,008 individuals randomly recruited from five populations (56.6% women; mean age, 57.1 y). All were not treated with antihypertensive drugs. In multivariable analyses, hazard ratios (HRs) associated with 10-mm Hg increases in systolic HBP were computed across CBP categories, using the following systolic/diastolic CBP thresholds (in mm Hg): optimal, <120/<80; normal, 120–129/80–84; high-normal, 130–139/85–89; mild hypertension, 140–159/90–99; and severe hypertension, ≥160/≥100. Over 8.3 y, 522 participants died, and 414, 225, and 194 had cardiovascular, cardiac, and cerebrovascular events, respectively. In participants with optimal or normal CBP, HRs for a composite cardiovascular end point associated with a 10-mm Hg higher systolic HBP were 1.28 (1.01–1.62) and 1.22 (1.00–1.49), respectively. At high-normal CBP and in mild hypertension, the HRs were 1.24 (1.03–1.49) and 1.20 (1.06–1.37), respectively, for all cardiovascular events and 1.33 (1.07–1.65) and 1.30 (1.09–1.56), respectively, for stroke. In severe hypertension, the HRs were not significant (p≥0.20). Among people with optimal, normal, and high-normal CBP, 67 (5.0%), 187 (18.4%), and 315 (30.3%), respectively, had masked hypertension (HBP≥130 mm Hg systolic or ≥85 mm Hg diastolic). Compared to true optimal CBP, masked hypertension was associated with a 2.3-fold (1.5–3.5) higher cardiovascular risk. A limitation was few data from low- and middle-income countries. Conclusions HBP substantially refines risk stratification at CBP levels assumed to carry no or only mildly increased risk, in particular in the presence of masked hypertension. Randomized trials could help determine the best use of CBP vs. HBP in guiding BP management. Our study identified a novel indication for HBP, which, in view of its low cost and the increased availability of electronic communication, might be globally applicable, even in remote areas or in low-resource settings. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24465187

  9. Treatment of Immunoglobulin Light Chain Amyloidosis: Mayo Stratification of Myeloma and Risk-Adapted Therapy (mSMART) Consensus Statement.

    PubMed

    Dispenzieri, Angela; Buadi, Francis; Kumar, Shaji K; Reeder, Craig B; Sher, Tamur; Lacy, Martha Q; Kyle, Robert A; Mikhael, Joseph R; Roy, Vivek; Leung, Nelson; Grogan, Martha; Kapoor, Prashant; Lust, John A; Dingli, David; Go, Ronald S; Hwa, Yi Lisa; Hayman, Suzanne R; Fonseca, Rafael; Ailawadhi, Sikander; Bergsagel, P Leif; Chanan-Khan, Ascher; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Russell, Stephen J; Stewart, Keith; Zeldenrust, Steven R; Gertz, Morie A

    2015-08-01

    Immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis) has an incidence of approximately 1 case per 100,000 person-years in Western countries. The rarity of the condition not only poses a challenge for making a prompt diagnosis but also makes evidenced decision making about treatment even more challenging. Physicians caring for patients with AL amyloidosis have been borrowing and customizing the therapies used for patients with multiple myeloma with varying degrees of success. One of the biggest failings in the science of the treatment of AL amyloidosis is the paucity of prospective trials, especially phase 3 trials. Herein, we present an extensive review of the literature with an aim of making recommendations in the context of the best evidence and expert opinion. PMID:26250727

  10. Systematic Review of Metabolic Syndrome Biomarkers: A Panel for Early Detection, Management, and Risk Stratification in the West Virginian Population

    PubMed Central

    Srikanthan, Krithika; Feyh, Andrew; Visweshwar, Haresh; Shapiro, Joseph I.; Sodhi, Komal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Metabolic syndrome represents a cluster of related metabolic abnormalities, including central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance, with central obesity and insulin resistance in particular recognized as causative factors. These metabolic derangements present significant risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which is commonly recognized as the primary clinical outcome, although other outcomes are possible. Metabolic syndrome is a progressive condition that encompasses a wide array of disorders with specific metabolic abnormalities presenting at different times. These abnormalities can be detected and monitored via serum biomarkers. This review will compile a list of promising biomarkers that are associated with metabolic syndrome and this panel can aid in early detection and management of metabolic syndrome in high risk populations, such as in West Virginia. Methods: A literature review was conducted using PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar to search for markers related to metabolic syndrome. Biomarkers searched included adipokines (leptin, adiponectin), neuropeptides (ghrelin), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10), markers of antioxidant status (OxLDL, PON-1, uric acid), and prothrombic factors (PAI-1). Results: According to the literature, the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), markers of pro-oxidant status (OxLDL, uric acid), and prothrombic factors (PAI-1) were elevated in metabolic syndrome. Additionally, leptin concentrations were found to be elevated in metabolic syndrome as well, likely due to leptin resistance. In contrast, concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10), ghrelin, adiponectin, and antioxidant factors (PON-1) were decreased in metabolic syndrome, and these decreases also correlated with specific disorders within the cluster. Conclusion: Based on the evidence presented within the literature, the aforementioned biomarkers correlate significantly with metabolic syndrome and could provide a minimally-invasive means for early detection and specific treatment of these disorders. Further research is encouraged to determine the efficacy of applying these biomarkers to diagnosis and treatment in a clinical setting. PMID:26816492

  11. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in Lower-Risk Patients With Aortic Stenosis: Is It Justified to Be the Preferred Treatment?

    PubMed

    Abdelghani, Mohammad; Serruys, Patrick W

    2016-04-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation underwent progressive improvements until it became the default therapy for inoperable patients, and a recommended therapy in high-risk operable patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. In the lower-risk patient strata, a currently costly therapy that still has important complications with questionable durability is competing with the established effective and still-improving surgical replacement. This report tries to weigh the clinical evidence, the recent technical improvements, the durability, and the cost-effectiveness claims supporting the adoption of transcatheter aortic valve implantation in intermediate-low risk patients. The importance of appropriate patients' risk stratification and a more comprehensive approach to estimate that risk are also emphasized in the present report. PMID:27076570

  12. Risk stratification in trauma and haemorrhagic shock: scoring systems derived from the TraumaRegister DGU(®).

    PubMed

    Wutzler, Sebastian; Maegele, Marc; Wafaisade, Arasch; Wyen, Hendrik; Marzi, Ingo; Lefering, Rolf

    2014-10-01

    Scoring systems commonly attempt to reduce complex clinical situations into one-dimensional values by objectively valuing and combining a variety of clinical aspects. The aim is to allow for a comparison of selected patients or cohorts. To appreciate the true value of scoring systems in patients with multiple injuries it is necessary to understand the different purposes of quantifying the severity of specific injuries and overall trauma load, being: (1) clinical decision making; (2) triage; (3) planning of trauma systems and resources; (4) epidemiological and clinical research; (5) evaluation of outcome and trauma systems, including quality assessment; and (6) estimation of costs and allocation of resources. For the first two, easy-to estimate scores with immediate availability are necessary, mainly based on initial physiology. More sophisticated scores considering age, gender, injury pattern/severity and more are usually used for research and outcome evaluation, once the diagnostic and therapeutic process has been completed. For score development large numbers of data are necessary and thus, it appears as a logical consequence that large registries as the TraumaRegister DGU(®) of the German Trauma Society (TR-DGU) are used to derive and validate clinical scoring systems. A variety of scoring systems have been derived from this registry, the majority of them with focus on hospital mortality. The most important among these systems is probably the RISC score, which is currently used for quality assessment and outcome adjustment in the annual audit reports. This report summarizes the various scoring systems derived from the TraumaRegister DGU(®) over the recent years. PMID:25284230

  13. Temporal trends in the use of invasive cardiac procedures for non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes according to initial risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Jedrzkiewicz, Sean; Goodman, Shaun G; Yan, Raymond T; Welsh, Robert C; Kornder, Jan; DeYoung, J Paul; Wong, Graham C; Rose, Barry; Grondin, François R; Gallo, Richard; Huang, Wei; Gore, Joel M; Yan, Andrew T

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current guidelines support an early invasive strategy in the management of high-risk non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS). Although studies in the 1990s suggested that high-risk patients received less aggressive treatment, there are limited data on the contemporary management patterns of NSTE-ACS in Canada. OBJECTIVE: To examine the in-hospital use of coronary angiography and revascularization in relation to risk among less selected patients with NSTE-ACS. METHODS: Data from the prospective, multicentre Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (main GRACE and expanded GRACE2) were used. Between June 1999 and September 2007, 7131 patients from across Canada with a final diagnosis of NSTE-ACS were included the study. The study population was stratified into low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups, based on their calculated GRACE risk score (a validated predictor of in-hospital mortality) and according to time of enrollment. RESULTS: While rates of in-hospital death and reinfarction were significantly (P<0.001) greater in higher-risk patients, the in-hospital use of cardiac catheterization in low- (64.7%), intermediate- (60.3%) and high-risk (42.3%) patients showed an inverse relationship (P<0.001). This trend persisted despite the increase in the overall rates of cardiac catheterization over time (47.9% in 1999 to 2003 versus 51.6% in 2004 to 2005 versus 63.8% in 2006 to 2007; P<0.001). After adjusting for confounders, intermediate-risk (adjusted OR 0.80 [95% CI 0.70 to 0.92], P=0.002) and high-risk (adjusted OR 0.38 [95% CI 0.29 to 0.48], P<0.001) patients remained less likely to undergo in-hospital cardiac catheterization. CONCLUSION: Despite the temporal increase in the use of invasive cardiac procedures, they remain paradoxically targeted toward low-risk patients with NSTE-ACS in contemporary practice. This treatment-risk paradox needs to be further addressed to maximize the benefits of invasive therapies in Canada. PMID:19898699

  14. Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tracy Y.; Li, Edmund K.; Tam, Lai-Shan

    2012-01-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis. In addition to skin and joint involvement, there is increasing evidence suggesting that patients with PsA also have an increase in risk of clinical and subclinical cardiovascular diseases, mostly due to accelerating atherosclerosis. Both conventional and nonconventional cardiovascular risk factors contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk in PsA. Chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in PsA, acting independently and/or synergistically with the conventional risk factors. In this paper, we discuss the current literature indicating that patients with PsA are at risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22645614

  15. [Clinical stratification of cardiogenic shock].

    PubMed

    Martínez Sánchez, Carlos Rodolfo; Martínez-Reding, Jesús Octavio; Lupi Herrera, Eulo

    2006-01-01

    Cardiogenic shock (CHC) associated to acute myocardial infarct has high mortality and their manifestations are heterogenous. In our institution historical mortality, was 98%, but with different methods of reperfusion, its reduced to 53%. In other hand, with opportune clinical stratification is useful to improve the treatment strategy. This stratification on basis in clinical signs: age, infarction location, cardiac frequency and systemic arterial pressure, and hemodynamical valuation with the use of right catheterism with quantification miocardial work parameters like "Cardiac power" that is the product of flow and arterial pressure and that is of utility to know the "Miocardial reserve". In our experience after reperfusion procedure patients with CHC and cardiac power less than 1.0 had highly mortality. PMID:17017114

  16. Initial clinical validation of Health Heritage, a patient-facing tool for personal and family history collection and cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Baumgart, Leigh A; Postula, Kristen J Vogel; Knaus, William A

    2016-04-01

    Personal and family health histories remain important independent risk factors for cancer; however they are currently not being well collected or used effectively. Health Heritage was designed to address this need. The purpose of this study was to validate the ability of Health Heritage to identify patients appropriate for further genetic evaluation and to accurately stratify cancer risk. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 100 random patients seen at an adult genetics clinic presenting with concern for an inherited predisposition to cancer. Relevant personal and family history obtained from the patients' medical records was entered into Health Heritage. Recommendations by Health Heritage were compared to national guidelines of eligibility for genetic evaluation. Agreement between Health Heritage referral for genetic evaluation and guideline eligibility for genetic evaluation was 97 % (sensitivity 98 % and specificity 88 %). Risk stratification for cancer was also compared between Health Heritage and those documented by a geneticist. For patients at increased risk for breast, ovarian, or colorectal cancer as determined by the geneticist, risk stratification by Health Heritage agreed 90, 93, and 75 %, respectively. Discordances in risk stratification were attributed to both complex situations better handled by the geneticist and Health Heritage's adherence to incorporating all information into its algorithms. Health Heritage is a clinically valid tool to identify patients appropriate for further genetic evaluation and to encourage them to confirm the assessment and management recommendations with cancer genetic experts. Health Heritage also provides an estimate of cancer risk that is complementary to a genetics team. PMID:26711915

  17. Cardiac magnetic resonance and computed tomography angiography for clinical imaging of stable coronary artery disease. Diagnostic classification and risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Korosoglou, Grigorios; Giusca, Sorin; Gitsioudis, Gitsios; Erbel, Christian; Katus, Hugo A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in the pharmacologic and interventional treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD), atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of death in Western societies. X-ray coronary angiography has been the modality of choice for diagnosing the presence and extent of CAD. However, this technique is invasive and provides limited information on the composition of atherosclerotic plaque. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) have emerged as promising non-invasive techniques for the clinical imaging of CAD. Hereby, CCTA allows for visualization of coronary calcification, lumen narrowing and atherosclerotic plaque composition. In this regard, data from the CONFIRM Registry recently demonstrated that both atherosclerotic plaque burden and lumen narrowing exhibit incremental value for the prediction of future cardiac events. However, due to technical limitations with CCTA, resulting in false positive or negative results in the presence of severe calcification or motion artifacts, this technique cannot entirely replace invasive angiography at the present time. CMR on the other hand, provides accurate assessment of the myocardial function due to its high spatial and temporal resolution and intrinsic blood-to-tissue contrast. Hereby, regional wall motion and perfusion abnormalities, during dobutamine or vasodilator stress, precede the development of ST-segment depression and anginal symptoms enabling the detection of functionally significant CAD. While CT generally offers better spatial resolution, the versatility of CMR can provide information on myocardial function, perfusion, and viability, all without ionizing radiation for the patients. Technical developments with these 2 non-invasive imaging tools and their current implementation in the clinical imaging of CAD will be presented and discussed herein. PMID:25147526

  18. CFD-based Thrombotic Risk Assessment in Kawasaki Disease Patients with Coronary Artery Aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Dibyendu; Kung, Ethan; Kahn, Andrew; Burns, Jane; Marsden, Alison

    2012-11-01

    Coronary aneurysms occur in 25% of untreated Kawasaki Disease (KD) patients and put patients at increased risk for myocardial infarction and sudden death. Clinical guidelines recommend using aneurysm diameter >8 mm as the arbitrary criterion for treating with anti-coagulation therapy. This study uses patient-specific modeling to non-invasively determine hemodynamic parameters and quantify thrombotic risk. Anatomic models were constructed from CT angiographic image data from 5 KD aneurysm patients and one normal control. CFD simulations were performed to obtain hemodynamic data including WSS and particle residence times (PRT). Thrombosis was clinically observed in 4/9 aneurysmal coronaries. Thrombosed vessels required twice as many cardiac cycles (mean 8.2 vs. 4.2) for particles to exit, and had lower mean WSS (1.3 compared to 2.8 dynes/cm2) compared to vessels with non-thrombosed aneurysms of similar max diameter. 1 KD patient in the cohort with acute thrombosis had diameter < 8 mm. Regions of low WSS and high PRT predicted by simulations correlated with regions of subsequent thrombus formation. Thrombotic risk stratification for KD aneurysms may be improved by incorporating both hemodynamic and geometric quantities. Current clinical guidelines to assess patient risk based only on aneurysm diameter may be misleading. Further prospective study is warranted to evaluate the utility of patient-specific modeling in risk stratifying KD patients with coronary aneurysms. NIH R21.

  19. Using Computational Approaches to Improve Risk-Stratified Patient Management: Rationale and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Bryan L; Sakaguchi, Farrant; Sheng, Xiaoming; Murtaugh, Maureen A

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases affect 52% of Americans and consume 86% of health care costs. A small portion of patients consume most health care resources and costs. More intensive patient management strategies, such as case management, are usually more effective at improving health outcomes, but are also more expensive. To use limited resources efficiently, risk stratification is commonly used in managing patients with chronic diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and heart disease. Patients are stratified based on predicted risk with patients at higher risk given more intensive care. The current risk-stratified patient management approach has 3 limitations resulting in many patients not receiving the most appropriate care, unnecessarily increased costs, and suboptimal health outcomes. First, using predictive models for health outcomes and costs is currently the best method for forecasting individual patient’s risk. Yet, accuracy of predictive models remains poor causing many patients to be misstratified. If an existing model were used to identify candidate patients for case management, enrollment would miss more than half of those who would benefit most, but include others unlikely to benefit, wasting limited resources. Existing models have been developed under the assumption that patient characteristics primarily influence outcomes and costs, leaving physician characteristics out of the models. In reality, both characteristics have an impact. Second, existing models usually give neither an explanation why a particular patient is predicted to be at high risk nor suggestions on interventions tailored to the patient’s specific case. As a result, many high-risk patients miss some suitable interventions. Third, thresholds for risk strata are suboptimal and determined heuristically with no quality guarantee. Objective The purpose of this study is to improve risk-stratified patient management so that more patients will receive the most appropriate care. Methods This study will (1) combine patient, physician profile, and environmental variable features to improve prediction accuracy of individual patient health outcomes and costs; (2) develop the first algorithm to explain prediction results and suggest tailored interventions; (3) develop the first algorithm to compute optimal thresholds for risk strata; and (4) conduct simulations to estimate outcomes of risk-stratified patient management for various configurations. The proposed techniques will be demonstrated on a test case of asthma patients. Results We are currently in the process of extracting clinical and administrative data from an integrated health care system’s enterprise data warehouse. We plan to complete this study in approximately 5 years. Conclusions Methods developed in this study will help transform risk-stratified patient management for better clinical outcomes, higher patient satisfaction and quality of life, reduced health care use, and lower costs. PMID:26503357

  20. Microbial signatures in post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome – toward patient stratification for improved diagnostics and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jalanka, Jonna; Salonen, Anne; Fuentes, Susana; de Vos, Willem M

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial and heterogeneous disorder estimated to affect over 10% of the Western population. A subset of the patients reports the start of the disease after an episode of gastroenteritis. The alterations in the intestinal microbiota of the post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS) patients were recently investigated in a British cohort and shown to differentiate from the healthy controls and resemble that of diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) patients. The altered 27 genus-like groups created a microbial signature, which could be used to objectively stratify patients and healthy controls. In this addendum, we combine the microbiota data derived from the British cohort with that of a recently reported Swedish PI-IBS cohort. Remarkably, robust and reproducible microbiota signatures were observed in these PI-IBS patients. We discuss these results with attention on the emerging role of microbiota in the classification, development and treatment of PI-IBS. PMID:26512631

  1. Cancer Risk in HBV Patients With Statin and Metformin Use

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-I.; Kuan, Ching-Feng; Fang, Yu-Ann; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Liu, Ju-Chi; Wu, Li-Li; Chang, Chun-Jen; Yang, Hsuan-Chia; Hwang, Jaulang; Miser, James S.; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) often causes chronic inflammation of the liver with an increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV-infected individuals may also have an increased incidence of nonliver cancers. Taking statin or metformin may decrease inflammation and infiltration, which may, as a result, reduce the risk of liver cancer or other major cancers in patients with HBV infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that statin and metformin could reduce the incidence of liver cancer (HCC) or nonliver cancers in patients with HBV. Using the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 to 2008, this cohort study comprised patients with a recorded diagnosis of HBV (N?=?71,847) between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2008. Each patient was followed-up until the end of 2008. The occurrence of HCC or a nonliver cancer was evaluated in patients who either were or were not taking statin or metformin. Cox proportional hazard regressions were used to evaluate the cancer incidence after adjusting for known confounding factors. In total, 71,824 HBV-infected patients comprised the study cohort. Our study showed that either metformin or statin use was associated with a reduction in the incidence of cancer. This was most prominent in patients taking both statin and metformin. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for patients using only statin were 0.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.480.57) for all cancers, 0.28 (95% CI, 0.230.35) for liver cancer, and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.570.70) for nonliver cancers. Patients taking only metformin had risk-adjusted HRs of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.750.90) for all cancers, 0.97 (95% CI, 0.841.14) for liver cancer, and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.670.84) for nonliver cancers. A dose-dependent effect of statin use for chemoprevention was observed for all cancers, including both liver cancer and nonliver cancers. A dose-dependent effect of metformin was also seen in liver cancer and nonliver cancers without stratification into different cumulative daily doses of statin use. This population-based cohort study investigated the protective effect of statin and metformin against cancer events in patients with HBV infection. Our study demonstrated that either statin or metformin served as independent chemopreventive agents with a doseresponse effect in reducing the incidence of cancer with a doseresponse effect of the agents and an additive or synergistic effect of combining statin and metformin use in reducing the incidence of many cancers. PMID:25674734

  2. Dry Eye Syndrome Risks in Patients With Fibromyalgia: A National Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Hsien; Yang, Tse-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chih-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Ming; Kuo, Chia-Nan; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The coexistence of fibromyalgia (FM) and dry eye syndrome (DES) has been previously reported. However, there are few studies on how patients with FM may develop concomitant DES. Patients with chronic widespread pain, like FM, chronic fatigue syndrome, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), was concerned for the rheumatic or psychosomatic disorders which might adequately reflect the long-term risk of DES.We retrieved data on FM patients from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan covering the years 2000 to 2011. Our FM population consisted of 25,777 patients versus 103,108 patients in the non-FM group: the overall incidence of DES in these populations was 7.37/10,000 and 4.81/10,000, respectively.Male FM patients had a higher incidence of DES, with a 1.39-fold DES risk for males and a 1.45-fold for females after adjustment for confounding factor. Notably, FM patients aged ≤49 years had an elevated 80% risk of DES compared with the non-FM group. Without comorbidities, FM patients had an approximately 1.40-fold risk of DES than those without FM. The additive effects of FM and IBS or FM and sleep disturbance were pointed out that the risk for DES would be elevated when the FM patients with IBS or sleep disturbance.FM patients have a higher incidence of DES than that of non-FM patients. They carry long-term DES risks from a relatively young age, particularly those with psychiatric problems. Risk stratification for a timely psychiatric medication intervention and risk modifications are not intended. PMID:26825913

  3. Cancer Stratification by Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Justus; Haberkorn, Uwe; Mier, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The lack of specificity of traditional cytotoxic drugs has triggered the development of anticancer agents that selectively address specific molecular targets. An intrinsic property of these specialized drugs is their limited applicability for specific patient subgroups. Consequently, the generation of information about tumor characteristics is the key to exploit the potential of these drugs. Currently, cancer stratification relies on three approaches: Gene expression analysis and cancer proteomics, immunohistochemistry and molecular imaging. In order to enable the precise localization of functionally expressed targets, molecular imaging combines highly selective biomarkers and intense signal sources. Thus, cancer stratification and localization are performed simultaneously. Many cancer types are characterized by altered receptor expression, such as somatostatin receptors, folate receptors or Her2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2). Similar correlations are also known for a multitude of transporters, such as glucose transporters, amino acid transporters or hNIS (human sodium iodide symporter), as well as cell specific proteins, such as the prostate specific membrane antigen, integrins, and CD20. This review provides a comprehensive description of the methods, targets and agents used in molecular imaging, to outline their application for cancer stratification. Emphasis is placed on radiotracers which are used to identify altered expression patterns of cancer associated markers. PMID:25749472

  4. Constipation Risk in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Sevim; Atar, Nurdan Yalcin; Ozturk, Nilgun; Mendes, Guler; Kuytak, Figen; Bakar, Esra; Dalgiran, Duygu; Ergin, Sumeyra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Problems regarding bowel elimination are quite common in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Objectives: To determine constipation risk before the surgery, bowel elimination during postoperative period, and the factors affecting bowel elimination. Patients and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It was conducted in a general surgery ward of a university hospital in Zonguldak, Turkey between January 2013 and May 2013. A total of 107 patients were included in the study, who were selected by convenience sampling. Constipation Risk Assessment Scale (CRAS), patient information form, medical and nursing records were used in the study. Results: The mean age of the patients was found to be 55.97 ± 15.74 (year). Most of the patients have undergone colon (37.4%) and stomach surgeries (21.5%). Open surgical intervention (83.2%) was performed on almost all patients (96.3%) under general anesthesia. Patients were at moderate risk for constipation with average scores of 11.71 before the surgery. A total of 77 patients (72%) did not have bowel elimination problem during postoperative period. The type of the surgery (P < 0.05), starting time for oral feeding after the surgery (P < 0.05), and mobilization (P < 0.05) were effective on postoperative bowel elimination. Conclusions: There is a risk for constipation after abdominal surgery. Postoperative practices are effective on the risk of constipation. PMID:26380107

  5. Comparison of the predictive value of four different risk scores for outcomes of patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Lev, Eli I; Kornowski, Ran; Vaknin-Assa, Hana; Porter, Avital; Teplitsky, Igal; Ben-Dor, Itsik; Brosh, David; Fuchs, Shmuel; Battler, Alexander; Assali, Abid

    2008-07-01

    Accurate risk stratification has an important role in the management of patients with acute coronary syndromes. Even in patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI), for whom early therapeutic options are well defined, risk stratification has an impact on early and late therapeutic decision making. We aimed to compare the prognostic value of 4 risk scores used to evaluate patients with STEMI. We conducted a prospective registry of all patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention for STEMI from January 2001 to June 2006. Excluded were patients with cardiogenic shock. A total of 855 consecutive patients were included in the analysis (age 60.5 +/- 13 years, 19% women, 28% with diabetes, and 48% with anterior wall myocardial infarction). For each patient, the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI), Controlled Abciximab and Device Investigation to Lower Late Angioplasty complications (CADILLAC), Primary Angioplasty in Myocardial Infarction (PAMI), and Global Registry for Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk scores were calculated using specific clinical variables and angiographic characteristics. Thirty-day and 1-year clinical outcomes were assessed. The predictive accuracy of the 4 risk scores was evaluated using the area under the curve or C statistic method. The CADILLAC, TIMI, and PAMI risk scores all had relatively high predictive accuracy for 30-day and 1-year mortality (C statistic range 0.72 to 0.82), with slight superiority of the CADILLAC score. These 3 risk scores also performed well for prediction of reinfarction at 30 days (C statistic range 0.6 to 0.7). The GRACE score did not perform as well and had low predictive accuracy for mortality (C statistic 0.47). In conclusion, risk stratification of patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention using the CADILLAC, TIMI, or PAMI risk scores provide important prognostic information and enables accurate identification of high-risk patients. PMID:18572028

  6. Transluminal Attenuation Gradient for Thrombotic Risk Assessment in Kawasaki Disease Patients with Coronary Artery Aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande Gutierrez, Noelia; Kahn, Andrew; Burns, Jane; Marsden, Alison

    2014-11-01

    Kawasaki Disease (KD) can result in coronary aneurysms in up to 25% of patients if not treated early putting patients at risk of thrombus formation, myocardial infarction and sudden death. Clinical guidelines for administering anti-coagulation therapy currently rely on anatomy alone. Previous studies including patient specific modeling and computer simulations in KD patients have suggested that hemodynamic data can predict regions susceptible to thrombus formation. In particular, high Particle Residence Time gradient (PRTg) regions have shown to correlate with regions of thrombus formation. Transluminal Attenuation Gradient (TAG) is determined from the change in radiological attenuation per vessel length. TAG has been used for characterizing coronary artery stenoses, however this approach has not yet been used in aneurysmal vessels. The aim of this study is to analyze the correlation between TAG and PRTg in KD patients with aneurysms and evaluate the use of TAG as an index to quantify thrombotic risk. Patient specific anatomic models for fluids simulations were constructed from CT angiographic image data from 3 KD aneurysm patients and one normal control. TAG values for the aneurysm patients were markedly lower than for the non-aneurysmal patient (mean -18.38 vs. -2). In addition, TAG values were compared to PRTg obtained for each patient. Thrombotic risk stratification for KD aneurysms may be improved by incorporating TAG and should be evaluated in future prospective studies.

  7. Managing suicide risk in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kasckow, John; Felmet, Kandi; Zisook, Sidney

    2011-02-01

    The management of suicide risk in patients with schizophrenia poses many challenges for clinicians. Compared with the general population, these patients have an 8.5-fold greater risk of suicide. This article reviews the literature dealing with the treatment of at-risk patients with schizophrenia. An integrated psychosocial and pharmacological approach to managing this population of patients is recommended. Although there is at least modest evidence suggesting that antipsychotic medications protect against suicidal risk, the evidence appears to be most favourable for second-generation antipsychotics, particularly clozapine, which is the only medication approved by the US FDA for preventing suicide in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, treating depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia is an important component of suicide risk reduction. While selective serotonin receptor inhibitors (SSRIs) ameliorate depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, they also appear to attenuate suicidal thoughts. Further research is needed to more effectively personalize the treatment of suicidal thoughts and behaviours and the prevention of suicide in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:21254789

  8. An Electronic Patient Risk Communication Board

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Kumiko; Caligtan, Christine A.; Benoit, Angela N.; Breydo, Eugene M.; Carroll, Diane L.; Keohane, Carol A.; Bates, David W.; Dykes, John S.; Dykes, Patricia C.

    2012-01-01

    Communication failures have been identified as the root cause of the majority of medical malpractice claims and patient safety violations. We believe it is essential to share key patient risk information with healthcare team members at the patient’s bedside. In this study, we developed an electronic Patient Risk Communication Board (ePRCB) to assist in bridging the communication gap between all health care team members. The goal of the ePRCB is to effectively communicate the patient’s key risk factors, such as a fall risk or risk of aspiration, to the healthcare team and to reduce adverse events caused by communication failures. The ePRCB will transmit patient risk information and tailored interventions with easy-to-understand icons on an LCD screen at the point of care. A set of patient risk reminder icons was developed and validated by focus groups. We used the results of the evaluation to refine the icons for the ePRCB. PMID:24199109

  9. A multidisciplinary approach to therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient.

    PubMed

    Grant, Cynthia L; Lusk, Jaimie L

    2015-01-01

    As health care trends toward a system of care approach, providers from various disciplines strive to collaborate to provide optimal care for their patients. While a multidisciplinary approach to suicide risk assessment and management has been identified as important for reducing suicidality, standardized clinical guidelines for such an approach do not yet exist. In this article, the authors propose the adoption of the therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient (TRMSP) to improve suicide risk assessment and management within multidisciplinary systems of care. The TRMSP, which has been fully articulated in previous articles, involves augmenting clinical risk assessment with structured instruments, stratifying risk in terms of both severity and temporality, and developing and documenting a safety plan. Augmenting clinical risk assessments with reliable and valid structured instruments serves several functions, including ensuring important aspects of suicide are addressed, establishing a baseline for suicidal thoughts and behaviors, facilitating interprofessional communication, and mitigating risk. Similarly, a two-dimensional risk stratification qualifying suicide risk in terms of both severity and temporality can enhance communication across providers and settings and improve understanding of acute crises in the context of chronic risk. Finally, safety planning interventions allow providers and patients to collaboratively create a personally meaningful plan for managing a suicidal crisis that can be continually modified across time with multiple providers in different care settings. In a busy care environment, the TRMSP can provide concrete guidance on conducting clinically and medicolegally sound suicide risk assessment and management. This collaborative and comprehensive process would potentially improve care of patients with suicidality, optimize clinical resources, decrease unnecessary and costly admissions, and mitigate medicolegal risk. The TRMSP may serve as a foundation for building a standardized, collaborative, stepped-care approach that patients, individual providers, and the health care system can all benefit from. PMID:26150725

  10. A multidisciplinary approach to therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Cynthia L; Lusk, Jaimie L

    2015-01-01

    As health care trends toward a system of care approach, providers from various disciplines strive to collaborate to provide optimal care for their patients. While a multidisciplinary approach to suicide risk assessment and management has been identified as important for reducing suicidality, standardized clinical guidelines for such an approach do not yet exist. In this article, the authors propose the adoption of the therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient (TRMSP) to improve suicide risk assessment and management within multidisciplinary systems of care. The TRMSP, which has been fully articulated in previous articles, involves augmenting clinical risk assessment with structured instruments, stratifying risk in terms of both severity and temporality, and developing and documenting a safety plan. Augmenting clinical risk assessments with reliable and valid structured instruments serves several functions, including ensuring important aspects of suicide are addressed, establishing a baseline for suicidal thoughts and behaviors, facilitating interprofessional communication, and mitigating risk. Similarly, a two-dimensional risk stratification qualifying suicide risk in terms of both severity and temporality can enhance communication across providers and settings and improve understanding of acute crises in the context of chronic risk. Finally, safety planning interventions allow providers and patients to collaboratively create a personally meaningful plan for managing a suicidal crisis that can be continually modified across time with multiple providers in different care settings. In a busy care environment, the TRMSP can provide concrete guidance on conducting clinically and medicolegally sound suicide risk assessment and management. This collaborative and comprehensive process would potentially improve care of patients with suicidality, optimize clinical resources, decrease unnecessary and costly admissions, and mitigate medicolegal risk. The TRMSP may serve as a foundation for building a standardized, collaborative, stepped-care approach that patients, individual providers, and the health care system can all benefit from. PMID:26150725

  11. Analysis of outcome following robotic assisted radical prostatectomy for patients with high risk prostate cancer as per D’Amico classification

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Narmada Prasad; Murugesan, Anandan; Kumar, Anand; Yadav, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Prognosis of prostate cancer depends on the risk stratification. D’Amico classification, the most commonly used risk stratification method is based on three factors, i.e., prostate specific antigen (PSA), Gleason grade and clinical stage. The impact of presence of multiple risk factors on prognosis after radical prostatectomy has not been studied in Indian patients. We analyzed the outcome of patients with high-risk disease undergoing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), as per D’Amico classification. Materials and Methods: Our study is a review of the data of all patients with high-risk prostate cancer who underwent RARP between July 2010 and January 2015. Preoperative, perioperative and outcome data were analyzed for patients with high-risk disease as per D’Amico classification. Results: Of 227 patients who underwent RARP, 90 (39.6%) were in the high-risk group. PSA > 20 ng/ml was the most common risk factor, present in 50 (55.6%) patients. All three risk factors were present in 3 patients, and single risk factor was present in 65 patients. Nine (10%) patients had lymphnode involvement, 18 (20%) had positive margin, and 38 (41.1%) had extraprostatic extension (EPE). Among these adverse outcomes, only EPE showed significant association with multiplicity of risk factors. At 12 months, 27.8% had biochemical recurrence (BCR). 92% of patients were continent at 12 months. Conclusion: About 92% of patients with high-risk disease were continent at 12 months, whereas less than one-third of the patients had BCR. EPE was the only outcome associated with multiplicity of risk factors. Adjuvant treatment is not required in two-thirds of patients. PMID:27127353

  12. Stratification of the phase clouds and statistical effects of the non-Markovity in chaotic time series of human gait for healthy people and Parkinson patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulmetyev, Renat; Demin, Sergey; Emelyanova, Natalya; Gafarov, Fail; Hänggi, Peter

    2003-03-01

    In this work we develop a new method of diagnosing the nervous system diseases and a new approach in studying human gait dynamics with the help of the theory of discrete non-Markov random processes (Phys. Rev. E 62 (5) (2000) 6178, Phys. Rev. E 64 (2001) 066132, Phys. Rev. E 65 (2002) 046107, Physica A 303 (2002) 427). The stratification of the phase clouds and the statistical non-Markov effects in the time series of the dynamics of human gait are considered. We carried out the comparative analysis of the data of four age groups of healthy people: children (from 3 to 10 year olds), teenagers (from 11 to 14 year olds), young people (from 21 up to 29 year olds), elderly persons (from 71 to 77 year olds) and Parkinson patients. The full data set are analyzed with the help of the phase portraits of the four dynamic variables, the power spectra of the initial time correlation function and the memory functions of junior orders, the three first points in the spectra of the statistical non-Markov parameter. The received results allow to define the predisposition of the probationers to deflections in the central nervous system caused by Parkinson's disease. We have found out distinct differences between the five submitted groups. On this basis we offer a new method of diagnostics and forecasting Parkinson's disease.

  13. Delirium Risk Factors in Elderly Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Elie, Michel; Cole, Martin G; Primeau, François J; Bellavance, François

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Delirium is frequent in elderly hospitalized patients. Many studies have examined its risk factors, but results have been quite variable. Thus, the goal of this study is to identify through systematic literature review the risk factors associated with the development of delirium in hospitalized geriatric patients. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS First, medline/current contentsdatabases were screened for relevant articles published from 1966 to December 1995, and from bibliographies of identified articles additional reports were selected. Second, the reports were screened by two different investigators and retained only if meeting the five following criteria: (1) original research in French or English; (2) prospective study; (3) patients over age 50; (4) minimum of one risk factor examined; (5) acceptable definition of delirium. Third, the methodology of each study was graded according to specific criteria for risk factor studies. Fourth, risk factors were identified and tabulated, unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) were computed, and where appropriate a combined OR with the Mantel-Haenszel estimator was calculated. Twenty-seven articles were retained meeting all of the above criteria. Among these studies, 11 were done on medical patients, 9 on surgical patients, 2 on medical and surgical patients, and 5 on psychiatric patients. In total 1,365 subjects with delirium were studied. Sixty-one different risk factors were examined, the five most common being dementia, medication, medical illness, age, and male gender. Mantel-Haenszel estimator was calculated for 10 risk factors, the most strongly associated being dementia (OR 5.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.2, 6.3), medical illness (OR 3.8; 95% CI 2.2, 6.4), alcohol abuse (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.9, 5.5), and depression (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3, 2.6). Methodologic weaknesses were present in many studies. CONCLUSIONS Despite methodologic limitations, certain risk factors for delirium seem to be consistent and could help identify high-risk patients. These risk factors include dementia, advanced age, and medical illness. Other risk factors appear to play a contributory role in the development of delirium in elderly hospitalized patients. PMID:9541379

  14. Comparison of Risk Scoring Systems to Predict the Outcome in ASA-PS V Patients Undergoing Surgery: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Yurtlu, Derya Arslan; Aksun, Murat; Ayvat, Pnar; Karahan, Nagihan; Koroglu, Lale; Aran, Gülcin Önder

    2016-03-01

    Operative decision in American Society of Anesthesiology Physical Status (ASA-PS) V patient is difficult as this group of patients expected to have high mortality rate. Another risk scoring system in this ASA-PS V subset of patients can aid to ease this decision.Data of ASA-PS V classified patients between 2011 and 2013 years in a single hospital were analyzed in this study. Predicted mortality of these patients was determined with acute physiology and chronic health evaluations (APACHE) II, simplified acute physiology score (SAPS II), Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), Porthsmouth physiological and operative severity score for enumeration of mortality and morbidity (P-POSSUM), Surgical apgar score (SAS), and Goldman cardiac risk index (GCRI) scores. Observed and predicted mortality rates according to the risk indexes in these patients were compared at survivor and nonsurvivor group of patients. Risk stratification was made with receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.Data of 89 patients were included in the analyses. Predicted mortality rates generated by APACHE II and SAPS II scoring systems were significantly different between survivor and nonsurvivor group of patients. Risk stratification with ROC analysis revealed that area under curve was 0.784 and 0.681 for SAPS II and APACHE II scoring systems, respectively. Highest sensitivity (77.3) is reached with SAPS II score.APACHE II and SAPS II are better predictive tools of mortality in ASA-PS V classified subset of patients. Discrimination power of SAPS II score is the best among the compared risk stratification scores. SAPS II can be suggested as an additional risk scoring system for ASA-PS V patients. PMID:27043696

  15. Dissecting DNA repair in adult high grade gliomas for patient stratification in the post-genomic era

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Christina; Agarwal, Devika; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M.A.; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Grundy, Richard; Auer, Dorothee T.; Walker, David; Lakhani, Ravi; Scott, Ian S.; Chan, Stephen; Ball, Graham; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Deregulation of multiple DNA repair pathways may contribute to aggressive biology and therapy resistance in gliomas. We evaluated transcript levels of 157 genes involved in DNA repair in an adult glioblastoma Test set (n=191) and validated in ‘The Cancer Genome Atlas’ (TCGA) cohort (n=508). A DNA repair prognostic index model was generated. Artificial neural network analysis (ANN) was conducted to investigate global gene interactions. Protein expression by immunohistochemistry was conducted in 61 tumours. A fourteen DNA repair gene expression panel was associated with poor survival in Test and TCGA cohorts. A Cox multivariate model revealed APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN as independently associated with poor prognosis. A DNA repair prognostic index incorporating APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN stratified patients in to three prognostic sub-groups with worsening survival. APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN also have predictive significance in patients who received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. ANN analysis of APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN revealed interactions with genes involved in transcription, hypoxia and metabolic regulation. At the protein level, low APE1 and low PTEN remain associated with poor prognosis. In conclusion, multiple DNA repair pathways operate to influence biology and clinical outcomes in adult high grade gliomas. PMID:25026297

  16. Radon: Counseling patients about risk

    SciTech Connect

    Birrer, R.B. )

    1990-09-01

    Exposure to radon and its decay products has increased as the United States has changed from an outdoor society to a largely indoor society. Radon, which is found primarily in the soil, enters houses and buildings through cracks, holes and pipes in foundation walls and floors. Although radon is suspected of being a significant cause of lung cancer, comparisons with other risk factors cannot yet be made. Radon levels in the home can be measured with commercially available kits. Guidelines for reducing the amount of radon in a home are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.18 references.

  17. The Heartmate Risk Score Predicts Morbidity and Mortality in Unselected LVAD Recipients and Risk Stratifies INTERMACS Class 1 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Adamo, Luigi; Nassif, Michael; Tibrewala, Anjan; Novak, Eric; Vader, Justin; Silvestry, Scott C.; Itoh, Akinobu; Ewald, Gregory A.; Mann, Douglas L.; LaRue, Shane J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Evaluation of the Heartmate Risk Score and of its potential benefits in clinical practice. Background The Heartmate Risk Score (HMRS) has been shown to correlate with mortality in the cohort of patients enrolled in the Heartmate II trials but its validity in unselected, “real world” populations remains unclear. Methods We identified a cohort of 269 consecutive patients who received a Heartmate II left ventricular assist device at our institution between June 2005 and June 2013. 90-day and two year mortality rates as well as frequency of several morbid events were compared by retrospectively assigned HMRS category groups. The analysis was repeated within the subgroup of INTERMACS class 1 patients. Results Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis showed that the HMRS correlated with 90-day mortality with an AUC of 0.70. Stratification in low, mid and high HMRS groups identified patients with increasing hazard of 90-day mortality, increasing long term mortality, increasing rate of GI bleeding events and increasing median number of days spent in the hospital in the first year post implant. Within INTERMACS class 1 patients, those in the highest HMRS group were found to have a relative risk of 90-day mortality 5.7 times higher than those in the lowest HMRS group (39.1% vs 6.9%, p=0.029). Conclusions HMRS is a valid clinical tool to stratify risk of morbidity and mortality after implant of Heartmate II devices in unselected patients and can be used to predict short term mortality risk in INTERMACS class 1 patients. PMID:25770410

  18. Migration and stratification

    PubMed Central

    Jasso, Guillermina

    2011-01-01

    Migration and stratification are increasingly intertwined. One day soon it will be impossible to understand one without the other. Both focus on life chances. Stratification is about differential life chances - who gets what and why - and migration is about improving life chances - getting more of the good things of life. To examine the interconnections of migration and stratification, we address a mix of old and new questions, carrying out analyses newly enabled by a unique new data set on recent legal immigrants to the United States (the New Immigrant Survey). We look at immigrant processing and lost documents, depression due to the visa process, presentation of self, the race-ethnic composition of an immigrant cohort (made possible by the data for the first time since 1961), black immigration from Africa and the Americas, skin-color diversity among couples formed by U.S. citizen sponsors and immigrant spouses, and English fluency among children age 8–12 and their immigrant parents. We find, inter alia, that children of previously illegal parents are especially more likely to be fluent in English, that native-born U.S. citizen women tend to marry darker, that immigrant applicants who go through the visa process while already in the United States are more likely to have their documents lost and to suffer visa depression, and that immigration, by introducing accomplished black immigrants from Africa (notably via the visa lottery), threatens to overturn racial and skin color associations with skill. Our analyses show the mutual embeddedness of migration and stratification in the unfolding of the immigrants' and their children's life chances and the impacts on the stratification structure of the United States. PMID:26321771

  19. High risk for obstructive sleep apnea in patients with acute myocardial infarction1

    PubMed Central

    Andrechuk, Carla Renata Silva; Ceolim, Maria Filomena

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: to stratify the risk for obstructive sleep apnea in patients with acute myocardial infarction, treated at a public, tertiary, teaching hospital of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify related sociodemographic and clinical factors. Method: cross-sectional analytical study with 113 patients (mean age 59.57 years, 70.8% male). A specific questionnaire was used for the sociodemographic and clinical characterization and the Berlin Questionnaire for the stratification of the risk of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Results: the prevalence of high risk was 60.2% and the outcome of clinical worsening during hospitalization was more frequent among these patients. The factors related to high risk were body mass index over 30 kg/m2, arterial hypertension and waist circumference indicative of cardiovascular risk, while older age (60 years and over) constituted a protective factor. Conclusion: considering the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and its relation to clinical worsening, it is suggested that nurses should monitor, in their clinical practice, people at high risk for this syndrome, guiding control measures of modifiable factors and aiming to prevent the associated complications, including worsening of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26487128

  20. Thrombolysis risk prediction: applying the SITS-SICH and SEDAN scores in South African patients.

    PubMed

    von Klemperer, A; Bateman, K; Owen, J; Bryer, A

    2014-01-01

    At present, the only specific medical treatment for acute ischaemic stroke is intravenous administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 4.5 hours of stroke onset. In the last year, two scores for risk stratification of intracranial haemorrhage have been derived from multicentric European trial groups, the Safe Implementation of Treatment in Stroke - Symptomatic IntraCerebral Haemorrhage risk score (SITS-SICH) and the SEDAN score. The aim of this study was to pilot their use in a cohort of patients treated at a South African tertiary hospital. Prospectively collected data were used from a cohort of 41 patients who underwent thrombolysis at Groote Schuur Hospital from 2000 to 2012. Computerised tomography brain imaging was available for review in 23 of these cases. The SITS-SICH and SEDAN scores were then applied and risk prediction was compared with outcomes. Two patients suffered symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (SICH), representing 4.9% (95% CI: 0-11.5%) of the cohort. This was comparable to the SICH rate in both the SITS-SICH (5.1%) and SEDAN (6.5%) cohorts. Patient scores in the Groote Schuur Hospital cohort appeared similar to those of the validation cohorts of both SITS-SICH and SEDAN. With increasing use of thrombolysis in a resource-constrained setting, these scores represent a potentially useful tool in patient selection of those most likely to benefit from intravenous thrombolysis, reducing risk for SICH and with the added benefit of curtailing cost. PMID:25629538

  1. Radiation risks for patients having X rays

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, J.; Thomas, J.W.

    1985-12-01

    In addition to radiation from naturally occurring radioactive materials and cosmic rays, individuals in developed countries receive radiation doses to bone marrow and gonads from the medical diagnostic use of X rays. A brief discussion of radiation epidemiology shows that deleterious effects are low even when doses are high. The concept of acceptable risk is introduced to help evaluate the small, but still existent, risks of radiation dose. Examples of bone marrow and gonadal doses for representative X-ray examinations are presented along with the current best estimates, per unit of X-ray dose, of the induction of leukemia or of genetic harm. The risk to the patient from an examination can then be compared with the normal risk of mortality from leukemia or of the occurrence of genetic defects. The risk increase is found to be very low. The risks to unborn children from radiographic examinations are also discussed. The benefit to the patient from information obtained from the examination must be balanced against the small risks.

  2. Strategies for Primary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease Based on Risk Stratification by the ACC/AHA Lipid Guidelines, ATP III Guidelines, Coronary Calcium Scoring, and C-Reactive Protein, and a Global Treat-All Strategy: A Comparative--Effectiveness Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Galper, Benjamin Z.; Wang, Y. Claire; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several approaches have been proposed for risk-stratification and primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD), but their comparative and cost-effectiveness is unknown. Methods We constructed a state-transition microsimulation model to compare multiple approaches to the primary prevention of CHD in a simulated cohort of men aged 45–75 and women 55–75. Risk-stratification strategies included the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines on the treatment of blood cholesterol, the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III guidelines, and approaches based on coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring and C-reactive protein (CRP). Additionally we assessed a treat-all strategy in which all individuals were prescribed either moderate-dose or high-dose statins and all males received low-dose aspirin. Outcome measures included CHD events, costs, medication-related side effects, radiation-attributable cancers, and quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs) over a 30-year timeframe. Results Treat-all with high-dose statins dominated all other strategies for both men and women, gaining 15.7 million QALYs, preventing 7.3 million myocardial infarctions, and saving over $238 billion, compared to the status quo, far outweighing its associated adverse events including bleeding, hepatitis, myopathy, and new-onset diabetes. ACC/AHA guidelines were more cost-effective than ATP III guidelines for both men and women despite placing 8.7 million more people on statins. For women at low CHD risk, treat-all with high-dose statins was more likely to cause a statin-related adverse event than to prevent a CHD event. Conclusions Despite leading to a greater proportion of the population placed on statin therapy, the ACC/AHA guidelines are more cost-effective than ATP III. Even so, at generic prices, treating all men and women with statins and all men with low-dose aspirin appears to be more cost-effective than all risk-stratification approaches for the primary prevention of CHD. Especially for low-CHD risk women, decisions on the appropriate primary prevention strategy should be based on shared decision making between patients and healthcare providers. PMID:26422204

  3. Risk of Malignant Neoplasms of Kidney and Bladder in a Cohort Study of the Diabetic Population in Taiwan With Age, Sex, and Geographic Area Stratifications

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua-Fen; Chen, Shwe-Winn; Chang, Ya-Hui; Li, Chung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Diabetes has been reported to increase the risk of malignant neoplasms of kidney and bladder, but the studies’ results are still inconclusive. Age, sex, and geographical area-specific incidence and relative risks of above neoplasms are also scarce in the literature. We prospectively investigated the age, sex, geographical area-specific incidence and relative risks of kidney and bladder neoplasms in diabetic population of Taiwan. Diabetic patients (n = 615,532) and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 614,871) were linked to inpatient claims (2000–2008) to identify the admissions for malignant neoplasm of kidney (International Classification of Diagnosis, 9th version, Clinical Modification: 189) and bladder (International Classification of Diagnosis, 9th version, Clinical Modification: 188). The person-year approach with Poisson assumption was used to evaluate the incidence density. We also estimated the age, sex, and geographical area-specific relative risks of above malignancy in relation to diabetes with Cox proportional hazard regression model. The overall incidence density of malignant neoplasm of kidney for diabetic men and women were 3.87 and 4.28 per 10,000 patient-years, respectively; the corresponding figures for malignant neoplasm of bladder were 5.73 and 3.25 per 10,000 patient-years. Compared with the controls, diabetic men were at significantly increased hazards of kidney (covariate adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18–1.46) and bladder aHR: 1.13, 95% CI 1.04–1.23). Diabetic women, on the contrary, only experienced significantly elevated hazard of kidney neoplasm (aHR: 1.14, 95% CI 1.04–1.26). Diabetic men aged >65 years showed the most significantly increased hazard of developing neoplasm of kidney (aHR: 1.40) and bladder (aHR: 1.13). The most significantly increased hazard of kidney neoplasm was noted for women diabetic patients aged >65 years. There was also a significant interactive effect of geographic area with diabetes on the incidence of kidney and bladder neoplasms in both sexes. Diabetic men >45 years and diabetic women >65 years were found to have significantly increased hazard of malignant neoplasm of kidney, but only diabetic men >65 years were at significantly increased hazard of bladder neoplasm. The significant geographic variations in incidence and relative hazard of kidney and bladder neoplasms warrant further investigations of the underlying reasons. PMID:26402804

  4. Analysis of risk factors for cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in patients with testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Bokemeyer, C; Berger, C C; Hartmann, J T; Kollmannsberger, C; Schmoll, H J; Kuczyk, M A; Kanz, L

    1998-04-01

    This study evaluates the degree and relevance of persisting ototoxicity after cisplatin-based standard-dose chemotherapy for testicular cancer, with emphasis on identification of potential factors for an increased risk of this late sequel. Hearing thresholds of 86 patients with a median age of 31 years (range 21-53 years) and a median follow-up time of 58 months (range 15-159 months) were assessed by conventional pure-tone audiometry. Interviews were conducted evaluating the patients' history with special regard to audiological risk factors, as well as circumstances of ototoxic symptoms. Details concerning treatment and patient variables were extracted retrospectively from the patients' charts. An additional screening programme assessed current body functions, blood parameters and other late toxicities. Symptomatic ototoxicity persisted in 20% of patients (59% tinnitus, 18% hearing loss, 23% both), while 10% had experienced completely reversible ototoxic symptoms for a duration of 1-18 months after treatment. Symptoms were bilateral in 81% of patients. Hearing thresholds were compatible with cisplatin-induced hearing loss in 42% of audiograms performed. Subjective (history) and objective (audiogram) findings were not always consistent. The following statistically significant risk factors for ototoxicity were established: high cumulative dose of cisplatin (P < 0.0001); history of noise exposure (P = 0.006). Additionally, high doses of vincristine (P = 0.001) seemed to result in reversible ototoxic symptoms. No other independent risk factors were identified. In conclusion, persisting ototoxicity represents a clinical sequel for approximately 20% of testicular cancer patients treated at standard dose but may affect more than 50% of patients receiving cumulative doses of cisplatin > 400 mg m(-2). Previous noise exposure may also result in a threefold increased risk for cisplatin ototoxicity. Future studies should use these risk factors as important stratification criteria for trials aiming at the evaluation and prevention of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. PMID:9579846

  5. Cancer Risk in Patients With Empyema

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Chung-Jen; Hu, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate cancer risk and possible risk factors in patients diagnosed with empyema. A total of 31,636 patients with newly diagnosed empyema between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2010 were included in this study. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare the cancer incidence in these empyema patients to that in the general population. Adjusted hazard ratios were also calculated to investigate whether characteristics increased cancer risk. During the 12-year study period, 2,654 cancers occurred in 31,636 patients with empyema, yielding an SIR of 2.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.57–2.78). We excluded cancer that occurred within 1 year to avoid surveillance bias. The cancer risk remained significantly increased (SIR 1.50, 95% CI 1.41–1.58). Specifically, patients with empyema had higher SIR of cancers of the head and neck (1.50, 95% CI 1.41–1.58), esophagus (2.56, 95% CI 1.92–3.33), stomach (1.49, 95% CI 1.16–1.89), liver and biliary tract (2.18, 95% CI 1.93–2.45), and lung and mediastinum (1.62, 95% CI 1.39–1.86). Age ≥ 60, male sex, diabetes mellitus, and liver cirrhosis were independent risk factors for cancer development. Our study demonstrates an increased incidence of cancer development in patients with empyema, and patients’ age ≥ 60, men, and those with diabetes mellitus and liver cirrhosis showed a higher incidence of developing cancer compared to the general population. The association between such kind of infection and secondary malignancy may be elucidated by further study. PMID:26945399

  6. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering multiple myeloma: a review of the current understanding of epidemiology, biology, risk stratification, and management of myeloma precursor disease.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Amit; Ghobrial, Irene M

    2013-03-01

    The term monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) was coined in 1978. The recent advances in our knowledge about MGUS and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) have helped us better understand the pathogenesis of myeloma. It seems that myeloma evolves from a precursor state in almost all cases. We do not completely understand the multistep process from the precursor state to myeloma, but studies like whole genome sequencing continue to improve our understanding of this process. The process of transformation may not be linear acquisition of changes, but rather a branched heterogeneous process. Clinical features that are prognostic of rapid transformation have been identified, but no specific molecular markers have been identified. Even with recent advances, multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease in the vast majority, and intervening at the precursor state provides a unique opportunity to alter the natural history of the disease. A limitation is that a vast majority of patients with precursor disease, especially low-risk MGUS, will never progress to myeloma in their lifetime, and treating these patients is not only unnecessary but may be potentially harmful. The challenge is to identify a subset of patients with the precursor state that would definitely progress to myeloma and in whom interventions will have a meaningful impact. As our understanding of the molecular and genetic processes improves, these studies will guide the selection of high-risk patients more appropriately and ultimately direct a tailored management strategy to either delay progression to symptomatic myeloma or even "cure" a person at this premalignant stage. PMID:23224402

  7. Application of systematic coronary risk evaluation chart to identify chronic myeloid leukemia patients at risk of cardiovascular diseases during nilotinib treatment.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Molica, Matteo; Zacheo, Irene; Serrao, Alessandra; Alimena, Giuliana

    2015-03-01

    Nilotinib is currently approved for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic (CP) and accelerated phase (AP) after failure of imatinib and in newly diagnosed patients. Atherosclerotic events were retrospectively reported in patients with baseline cardiovascular risk factors during nilotinib treatment. We estimated the risk of developing atherosclerotic events in patients treated with second or first-line nilotinib, with a median follow-up of 48 months, by retrospectively applying the SCORE chart proposed by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and evaluating risk factors at baseline (diabetes, obesity, smoking, and hypertension). Overall, we enrolled in the study 82 CP patients treated frontline (42 CP patients at the dose of 600 mg BID) or after failure of other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (40 CP patients treated with 400 mg BID). The SCORE chart is based on the stratification of sex (male vs female), age (from 40 to 65 years), smoker vs non-smoker, systolic pressure (from 120 to 180 mm Hg), and cholesterol (measured in mmol/l, from 150 to 300 mg/dl). For statistical purposes, we considered patients subdivided in low, moderate, high (with a score >5), and very high risk. There were 48 males and 34 females, median age 51 years (range 22-84). According to WHO classification, 42 patients were classified as normal weight (BMI <25), 26 patients were overweight (BMI 26 ≤ 30), and 14 were obese (BMI >30). Retrospective classification according to the SCORE chart revealed that 27 patients (33 %) were in the low-risk category, 30 patients (36 %) in the moderate risk category, and 24 patients (29 %) in the high risk. As regards risk factors, we revealed that 17 patients (20.7 %) had a concomitant type II controlled diabetes (without organ damage), 23 patients (28 %) were smokers, 29 patients (35 %) were receiving concomitant drugs for hypertension, and 15 patients (18 %) had concomitant dyslipidemia. Overall, the cumulative incidence of atherosclerotic events at 48 months was 8.5 % (95 % CI, 4.55-14.07): None of the low-risk patients according to the SCORE chart experienced atherosclerotic events compared to 10 % in the moderate risk category and 29 % in the high risk (p = 0.002). Atherosclerotic-free survival was 100, 89, and 69 % in the low, moderate, and high-risk population, respectively (p = 0.001). SCORE chart evaluation at disease baseline could be a valid tool to identify patients at high risk of atherosclerotic events during nilotinib treatment. PMID:25304102

  8. Risk of Migraine in Patients With Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yi-Hao; Chen, Kuan-Fei; Kao, Chia-Hung; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Hsia, Te-Chun; Chen, Chia-Hung; Liao, Wei-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Asthma has been described as an “acephalic migraine” and “pulmonary migraine.” However, no study has investigated the temporal frequency of migraine development in patients with asthma, and the results of previous studies may be difficult to generalize. We investigated the effect of asthma on the subsequent development of migraine by using a population-based data set in Taiwan. We retrieved our study sample from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Specifically, 25,560 patients aged 12 years and older with newly diagnosed asthma were identified as the asthma group, and 102,238 sex and age-matched patients without asthma were identified as the nonasthma group. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were employed to measure the risk of migraine for the asthmatic group compared with that for the nonasthmatic group. The risk of migraine in the asthmatic group was 1.45-fold higher (95% confidence interval 1.33–1.59) than that in the nonasthmatic group after adjustment for sex, age, the Charlson comorbidity index, common medications prescribed for patients with asthma, and annual outpatient department visits. An additional stratified analysis revealed that the risk of migraine remained significantly higher in both sexes and all age groups older than 20 years. Asthma could be an independent predisposing risk factor for migraine development in adults. PMID:26945388

  9. Surgical jejunostomy in aspiration risk patients.

    PubMed Central

    Weltz, C R; Morris, J B; Mullen, J L

    1992-01-01

    One hundred patients underwent laparotomy for independent jejunal feeding tube placement. Neurologic disease was present in 50%, and obtundation (28) and oropharyngeal dysmotility (25) were the most common indications for enteral feeding. The post-pyloric route was chosen because of aspiration risk in almost all (94%) patients. Postoperative (30-day) mortality rate was 21%, because of cardiopulmonary failure in most (18). One death resulted directly from aspiration of tube feeds. Two surgical complications required reoperation: one wound dehiscence and one small bowel obstruction. Four wound infections occurred. Two patients underwent reoperation after tube removal, and four tubes required fluoroscopically guided reinsertion for peritubular drainage (2), removal (1), and occlusion (1). Aspiration pneumonia was present in 18 patients preoperatively and in eight postoperatively. None of the patients with feeding-related preoperative aspiration pneumonia (13) had a recurrence while fed by jejunostomy. Three patients developed postoperative aspiration pneumonia before initiation of jejunostomy feedings. Jejunostomy may be performed with low morbidity rate and substantial reduction of feeding-related aspiration pneumonia, and is the feeding route of choice in aspiration risk patients. PMID:1546899

  10. Risk of Hand Syndromes in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu-Hsuan; Li, Chung-Yi; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Wang, Liang-Yi; Kuo, Ken N.; Jou, I-Ming; Hou, Wen-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the overall and cause-specific incidences of diabetic hand syndromes (DHS) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) by using age and sex stratifications. The DM and control cohorts comprised 606,152 patients with DM and 609,970 age- and sex-matched subjects, respectively, who were followed up from 2000 to 2008. We estimated the incidence densities (IDs) of overall and cause-specific DHS, namely carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), stenosing flexor tenosynovitis (SFT), limited joint mobility (LJM), and Dupuytren disease (DD), and calculated the hazard ratios (HRs) of DHS in relation to DM by using a Cox proportional hazards model with adjustment for potential confounders. Over a 9-year period, 51,207 patients with DM (8.45%) and 39,153 matched controls (6.42%) sought ambulatory care visits for various DHS, with an ID of 117.7 and 80.7 per 10,000 person-years, respectively. The highest cause-specific ID was observed for CTS, followed by SFT, LJM, and DD, regardless of the diabetic status. After adjustment for potential confounders, patients with DM had a significantly high HR of overall DHS (1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.48–1.53). Men and women aged <35 years had the highest HR (2.64, 95% CI = 2.15–3.24 and 2.99, 95% CI = 2.55–3.50, respectively). Cause-specific analyses revealed that DM was more strongly associated with SFT (HR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.86–1.95) and DD (HR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.39–2.39) than with CTS (HR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.28–1.34) and LJM (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.13–1.35). Men and younger patients with DM have the highest risk of DHS. Certain hand syndromes, such as SFT and DD, were more strongly associated with DM than with other syndromes and require the attention of clinicians. PMID:26469895

  11. Stratification of complexity in congenital heart surgery: comparative study of the Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) method, Aristotle basic score and Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardio- Thoracic Surgery (STS-EACTS) mortality score

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, Paulo Ernando Ferraz; Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira; dos Santos, Cecília Andrade; Esmeraldo, Isaac Melo; Chaves, Mariana Leal; Lins, Ricardo Felipe de Albuquerque; Lima, Ricardo de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether stratification of complexity models in congenital heart surgery (RACHS-1, Aristotle basic score and STS-EACTS mortality score) fit to our center and determine the best method of discriminating hospital mortality. Methods Surgical procedures in congenital heart diseases in patients under 18 years of age were allocated to the categories proposed by the stratification of complexity methods currently available. The outcome hospital mortality was calculated for each category from the three models. Statistical analysis was performed to verify whether the categories presented different mortalities. The discriminatory ability of the models was determined by calculating the area under the ROC curve and a comparison between the curves of the three models was performed. Results 360 patients were allocated according to the three methods. There was a statistically significant difference between the mortality categories: RACHS-1 (1) - 1.3%, (2) - 11.4%, (3)-27.3%, (4) - 50 %, (P<0.001); Aristotle basic score (1) - 1.1%, (2) - 12.2%, (3) - 34%, (4) - 64.7%, (P<0.001); and STS-EACTS mortality score (1) - 5.5 %, (2) - 13.6%, (3) - 18.7%, (4) - 35.8%, (P<0.001). The three models had similar accuracy by calculating the area under the ROC curve: RACHS-1- 0.738; STS-EACTS-0.739; Aristotle- 0.766. Conclusion The three models of stratification of complexity currently available in the literature are useful with different mortalities between the proposed categories with similar discriminatory capacity for hospital mortality. PMID:26107445

  12. Sensemaking of Patient Safety Risks and Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Battles, James B; Dixon, Nancy M; Borotkanics, Robert J; Rabin-Fastmen, Barbara; Kaplan, Harold S

    2006-01-01

    In order for organizations to become learning organizations, they must make sense of their environment and learn from safety events. Sensemaking, as described by Weick (1995), literally means making sense of events. The ultimate goal of sensemaking is to build the understanding that can inform and direct actions to eliminate risk and hazards that are a threat to patient safety. True sensemaking in patient safety must use both retrospective and prospective approach to learning. Sensemaking is as an essential part of the design process leading to risk informed design. Sensemaking serves as a conceptual framework to bring together well established approaches to assessment of risk and hazards: (1) at the single event level using root cause analysis (RCA), (2) at the processes level using failure modes effects analysis (FMEA) and (3) at the system level using probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The results of these separate or combined approaches are most effective when end users in conversation-based meetings add their expertise and knowledge to the data produced by the RCA, FMEA, and/or PRA in order to make sense of the risks and hazards. Without ownership engendered by such conversations, the possibility of effective action to eliminate or minimize them is greatly reduced. PMID:16898979

  13. Risk Models of Operative Morbidities in 16,930 Critically Ill Surgical Patients Based on a Japanese Nationwide Database

    PubMed Central

    Saze, Zenichiro; Miyata, Hiroaki; Konno, Hiroyuki; Gotoh, Mitsukazu; Anazawa, Takayuki; Tomotaki, Ai; Wakabayashi, Go; Mori, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate preoperative variables predictive of lethal morbidities in critically ill surgical patients at a national level. There is no report of risk stratification for morbidities associated with mortality in critically ill patients with acute diffuse peritonitis (ADP). We examined data from 16,930 patients operated during 2011 and 2012 in 1546 different hospitals for ADP identified in the National Clinical Database of Japan. We analyzed morbidities significantly associated with operative mortality. Based on 80% of the population, we calculated independent predictors for these morbidities. The risk factors were validated using the remaining 20%. The operative mortality was 14.1%. Morbidity of any grade occurred in 40.2% of patients. Morbidities correlated with mortality, including septic shock, progressive renal insufficiency, prolonged ventilation >48 hours, systemic sepsis, central nervous system (CNS) morbidities, acute renal failure and pneumonia, and surgical site infection (SSI), were selected for risk models. A total of 18 to 29 preoperative variables were selected per morbidity and yielded excellent C-indices for each (septic shock: 0.851; progressive renal insufficiency: 0.878; prolonged ventilation >48 h: 0.849; systemic sepsis: 0.839; CNS morbidities: 0.848; acute renal failure: 0.868; pneumonia: 0.830; and SSI: 0.688). We report the first risk stratification study on lethal morbidities in critically ill patients with ADP using a nationwide surgical database. These risk models will contribute to patient counseling and help predict which patients require more aggressive surgical and novel pharmacological interventions. PMID:26222854

  14. Risk Models of Operative Morbidities in 16,930 Critically Ill Surgical Patients Based on a Japanese Nationwide Database.

    PubMed

    Saze, Zenichiro; Miyata, Hiroaki; Konno, Hiroyuki; Gotoh, Mitsukazu; Anazawa, Takayuki; Tomotaki, Ai; Wakabayashi, Go; Mori, Masaki

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate preoperative variables predictive of lethal morbidities in critically ill surgical patients at a national level.There is no report of risk stratification for morbidities associated with mortality in critically ill patients with acute diffuse peritonitis (ADP).We examined data from 16,930 patients operated during 2011 and 2012 in 1546 different hospitals for ADP identified in the National Clinical Database of Japan. We analyzed morbidities significantly associated with operative mortality. Based on 80% of the population, we calculated independent predictors for these morbidities. The risk factors were validated using the remaining 20%.The operative mortality was 14.1%. Morbidity of any grade occurred in 40.2% of patients. Morbidities correlated with mortality, including septic shock, progressive renal insufficiency, prolonged ventilation >48 hours, systemic sepsis, central nervous system (CNS) morbidities, acute renal failure and pneumonia, and surgical site infection (SSI), were selected for risk models. A total of 18 to 29 preoperative variables were selected per morbidity and yielded excellent C-indices for each (septic shock: 0.851; progressive renal insufficiency: 0.878; prolonged ventilation >48 h: 0.849; systemic sepsis: 0.839; CNS morbidities: 0.848; acute renal failure: 0.868; pneumonia: 0.830; and SSI: 0.688).We report the first risk stratification study on lethal morbidities in critically ill patients with ADP using a nationwide surgical database. These risk models will contribute to patient counseling and help predict which patients require more aggressive surgical and novel pharmacological interventions. PMID:26222854

  15. [Patient's Risk Factors for Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Isono, Shiroh

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews patient's own risk factors for perioperative aspiration pneumonia. Maintaining the function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the airway protective reflex, and the oral hygiene are the most important to prevent the pneumonia. The LES is adversely affected by excessive stomach distention, some medication given in perioperative periods, and habitual smoking, as well as pathological status such as esophageal hiatus hernia and achalasia. Postapoplectic patients may have insufficient airway protective reflex including swallowing and laryngeal reflex. It is emphasized that the perioperative oral care is increasing in its importance for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:27004381

  16. Management of patients with risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Waldfahrer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This review addresses concomitant diseases and risk factors in patients treated for diseases of the ears, nose and throat in outpatient and hospital services. Besides heart disease, lung disease, liver disease and kidney disease, this article also covers disorders of coagulation (including therapy with new oral anticoagulants) and electrolyte imbalance. Special attention is paid to the prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of perioperative delirium. It is also intended to help optimise the preparation for surgical procedures and pharmacotherapy during the hospital stay. PMID:24403970

  17. Thromboprophylaxis and Incidence of Venous Thromboembolism in Patients With Hemophilia A or B Who Underwent High-Risk Orthopedic Surgeries.

    PubMed

    Raza, Shahzad; Kale, Gautam; Kim, Daniel; Akbar, Syed A; Holm, Lisa; Naidzionak, Ulad; Hossain, Akm M; Dong, Xiang; Doll, Donald C; Freter, Carl E; Hopkins, Tamara

    2016-03-01

    Total hip replacement (THR) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) carry a high risk of postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE); therefore, anticoagulation prophylaxis is recommended in these patients. Unfortunately, there are no guidelines about VTE prophylaxis in patients with hemophilia who underwent these high-risk surgeries. To determine whether these patients have high risk of VTE, we conducted a retrospective study on patients with hemophilia who underwent elective THR/TKA at our institute from 2004 to 2012. Postoperatively, we collected information on duration and method of factor VIII/IX infusion, VTE-prophylaxis, and complications. There were 23 patients with hemophilia, 18 (78%) with hemophilia A and 5 (22%) with hemophilia B, who underwent high-risk surgeries (39% THR and 61% TKA). The VTE prophylaxis included sequential compression device, 12 (52%), and prophylactic enoxaparin, 1 (4%). Ten (43%) patients did not receive VTE prophylaxis. At 1-year follow-up, we did not find any evidence of clinical VTE in our patients. Better risk stratification is needed to identify patients who would benefit from pharmacological prophylaxis. PMID:25008348

  18. Risk of Cerebrovascular Events in Pneumoconiosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Chieh-Sen; Ho, Shang-Chang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pneumoconiosis is a parenchymal lung disease that develops through the inhalation of inorganic dust at work. Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events are leading causes of mortality and adult disability worldwide. This retrospective cohort study investigated the association between pneumoconiosis, and cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events by using a nationwide population-based database in Taiwan. The data analyzed in this study was retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. We selected 6940 patients with pneumoconiosis from the database as our study cohort. Another 27,760 patients without pneumoconiosis were selected and matched with those with pneumoconiosis according to age and sex as the comparison cohort. We used univariate and multivariate Cox proportional-hazard regression analyses to determine the association between pneumoconiosis and the risk of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events after adjusting for medical comorbidities. After adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities, the patients with pneumoconiosis exhibited a significantly higher incidence of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.24) than did those without pneumoconiosis. The incidence of hemorrhagic stroke was higher, but not significant, in the pneumoconiosis patients (HR 1.20, 95% CI 0.99–1.46). No statistically significant differences were observed between the pneumoconiosis and nonpneumoconiosis groups in acute coronary syndrome (HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.95–1.26). The findings of this study reveal an association between pneumoconiosis and a higher risk of cerebrovascular events after adjustment for comorbidities. Healthcare providers should control the related risk factors for primary prevention of stroke in pneumoconiosis patients. PMID:26945404

  19. Stratification based on methylation of TBX2 and TBX3 into three molecular grades predicts progression in patients with pTa-bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Beukers, Willemien; Kandimalla, Raju; Masius, Roy G; Vermeij, Marcel; Kranse, Ries; van Leenders, Geert Jlh; Zwarthoff, Ellen C

    2015-04-01

    The potential risk of recurrence and progression in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer necessitates followup by cystoscopy. The risk of progression to muscle-invasive bladder cancer is estimated based on the European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer score, a combination of several clinicopathological variables. However, pathological assessment is not objective and reproducibility is insufficient. The use of molecular markers could contribute to the estimation of tumor aggressiveness. We recently demonstrated that methylation of GATA2, TBX2, TBX3, and ZIC4 genes could predict progression in Ta tumors. In this study, we aimed to validate the markers in a large patient set using DNA from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. PALGA: the Dutch Pathology Registry was used for patient selection. We included 192 patients with pTaG1/2 bladder cancer of whom 77 experienced progression. Methylation analysis was performed and log-rank analysis was used to calculate the predictive value of each methylation marker for developing progression over time. This analysis showed better progression-free survival in patients with low methylation rates compared with the patients with high methylation rates for all markers (P<0.001) during a followup of ten-years. The combined predictive effect of the methylation markers was analyzed with the Cox-regression method. In this analysis, TBX2, TBX3, and ZIC4 were independent predictors of progression. On the basis of methylation status of TBX2 and TBX3, patients were divided into three new molecular grade groups. Survival analysis showed that only 8% of patients in the low molecular grade group progressed within 5 years. This was 29 and 63% for the intermediate- and high-molecular grade groups. In conclusion, this new molecular-grade based on the combination of TBX2 and TBX3 methylation is an excellent marker for predicting progression to muscle-invasive bladder cancer in patients with primary pTaG1/2 bladder cancer. PMID:25394776

  20. Dementia Drug May Lower Risk of Falls Among Parkinson's Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dementia Drug May Lower Risk of Falls Among Parkinson's Patients Those who took rivastigmine in study were ... potential in reducing the risk of falls among Parkinson's patients, new research suggests. "With the degeneration of ...

  1. Personalized Predictive Modeling and Risk Factor Identification using Patient Similarity

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kenney; Sun, Jimeng; Hu, Jianying; Wang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Personalized predictive models are customized for an individual patient and trained using information from similar patients. Compared to global models trained on all patients, they have the potential to produce more accurate risk scores and capture more relevant risk factors for individual patients. This paper presents an approach for building personalized predictive models and generating personalized risk factor profiles. A locally supervised metric learning (LSML) similarity measure is trained for diabetes onset and used to find clinically similar patients. Personalized risk profiles are created by analyzing the parameters of the trained personalized logistic regression models. A 15,000 patient data set, derived from electronic health records, is used to evaluate the approach. The predictive results show that the personalized models can outperform the global model. Cluster analysis of the risk profiles show groups of patients with similar risk factors, differences in the top risk factors for different groups of patients and differences between the individual and global risk factors. PMID:26306255

  2. [Anesthesiological management of the high-risk surgical patient].

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, G; Avalle, M

    1980-03-01

    Evaluation of the anaesthesiological risk in surgical patients is described and an account is given of results obtained with an association of ketamin and NLA II in 57 high-risk patients subjected to general surgical management. PMID:7443059

  3. All High-Risk Patients Should Get Blood Pressure Meds

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156395.html All High-Risk Patients Should Get Blood Pressure Meds: ... blood pressure-lowering drugs should be offered to all patients at high risk of having a heart ...

  4. Further stratification of patients with multiple myeloma by International Staging System in combination with ratio of serum free ? to ? light chains.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Sui, Weiwei; Deng, Shuhui; An, Gang; Wang, Yafei; Xie, Zhenqing; Yao, Hongjing; Zhu, Guoqing; Zou, Dehui; Qi, Junyuan; Hao, Mu; Zhao, Yaozhong; Wang, Jianxiang; Chen, Tao; Qiu, Lugui

    2013-01-01

    The serum free light chain (sFlc) levels were measured for 122 Chinese patients with newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma (NDSMM), and ?/? ratios (rFlc) were calculated. The data were analyzed for the roles of sFlc and rFlc in the diagnosis and prognosis of MM. Abnormal sFlc and/or rFlc were detected in 99.2% of patients, demonstrating that the FLC assay is much more sensitive than the commonly used methods. Baseline sFlc and rFlc successfully predicted the overall survival (OS). The median OS was not reached (NR) versus 23 months for the low sFLC group (sFLC-? < 180 mg/L or sFLC-? < 592.5 mg/L) and high sFLC group (sFLC-? ? 180 mg/L or sFLC-? ? 592.5 mg/L) (p = 0.001), and NR versus 21 months for the low rFLC group (0.04 ? rFLC ? 25) and high rFLC group (p < 0.001), respectively. Interestingly, the significant differences in OS between the low and high rFLC groups were not changed by bortezomib chemotherapy. In addition, patients were further stratified by three novel poor-prognosis factors (?(2)-microglobulin [?2-MG] > 3.5 mg/L, albumin [ALB] < 35 g/L, rFLC > 25 or rFLC < 0.04) that were developed from combination of the rFlc with the International Staging System (ISS): the low risk group (no factor), the low-intermediate risk group (one factor), the high-intermediate risk group (two factors) and the high risk group (three factors). The median OS for those groups was NR, NR, 24 months and 13 months, respectively (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the sFLC assay was highly sensitive in the diagnosis of MM in Chinese patients. The prognostic potential of the ISS may be improved with the addition of rFLC. PMID:22712834

  5. A Novel Surface Electrocardiogram–Based Marker of Ventricular Arrhythmia Risk in Patients With Ischemic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nicolson, William B.; McCann, Gerry P.; Brown, Peter D.; Sandilands, Alastair J.; Stafford, Peter J.; Schlindwein, Fernando S.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Ng, G. André

    2012-01-01

    Background Better sudden cardiac death risk markers are needed in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). Increased heterogeneity of electrical restitution is an important mechanism underlying the risk of ventricular arrhythmia (VA). Our aim was to develop and test a novel quantitative surface electrocardiogram–based measure of VA risk in patients with ICM: the Regional Restitution Instability Index (R2I2). Methods and Results R2I2, the mean of the standard deviation of residuals from the mean gradient for each ECG lead at a range of diastolic intervals, was measured retrospectively from high-resolution 12-lead ECGs recorded during an electrophysiology study. Patient groups were as follows: Study group, 26 patients with ICM being assessed for implantable defibrillator; Control group, 29 patients with supraventricular tachycardia undergoing electrophysiology study; and Replication group, 40 further patients with ICM. R2I2 was significantly higher in the Study patients than in Controls (mean ± standard error of the mean: 1.09±0.06 versus 0.63±0.04, P<0.001). Over a median follow-up period of 23 months, 6 of 26 Study group patients had VA or death. R2I2 predicted VA or death independently of demographic factors, electrophysiology study result, left ventricular ejection fraction, or QRS duration (Cox model, P=0.029). R2I2 correlated with peri-infarct zone as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (r=0.51, P=0.024). The findings were replicated in the Replication group: R2I2 was significantly higher in 11 of 40 Replication patients experiencing VA (1.18±0.10 versus 0.92±0.05, P=0.019). In combined analysis of ICM cohorts, R2I2 ≥1.03 identified subjects with significantly higher risk of VA or death (43%) compared with R2I2 <1.03 (11%) (P=0.004). Conclusions In this pilot study, we have developed a novel VA risk marker, R2I2, and have shown that it correlated with a structural measure of arrhythmic risk and predicted risk of VA or death in patients with ICM. R2I2 may improve risk stratification and merits further evaluation. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e001552 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.001552.) PMID:23130163

  6. Incisional Reinforcement in High-Risk Patients

    PubMed Central

    Feldmann, Timothy F.; Young, Monica T.; Pigazzi, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    Hernia formation after surgical procedures continues to be an important cause of surgical morbidity. Incisional reinforcement at the time of the initial operation has been used in some patient populations to reduce the risk of subsequent hernia formation. In this article, reinforcement techniques in different surgical wounds are examined to identify situations in which hernia formation may be prevented. Mesh use for midline closure, pelvic floor reconstruction, and stoma site reinforcement is discussed. Additionally, the use of retention sutures, closure of the open abdomen, and reinforcement after component separation are examined using current literature. Although existing studies do not support the routine use of mesh reinforcement for all surgical incisions, certain patient populations appear to benefit from reinforcement with lower rates of subsequent hernia formation. The identification and characterization of these groups will guide the future use of mesh reinforcement in surgical incisions. PMID:25435823

  7. Composite risk scores and composite endpoints in the risk prediction of outcomes in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation. The Loire Valley Atrial Fibrillation Project.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, A; Fauchier, L; Bernard-Brunet, A; Clementy, N; Lip, G Y H

    2014-03-01

    Several validated risk stratification schemes for prediction of ischaemic stroke (IS)/thromboembolism (TE) and major bleeding are available for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). On the basis for multiple common risk factors for IS/TE and bleeding, it has been suggested that composite risk prediction scores may be more practical and user-friendly than separate scores for bleeding and IS/TE. In a long-term prospective hospital registry of anticoagulated patients with newly diagnosed AF, we compared the predictive value of existing risk prediction scores as well as composite risk scores, and also compared these risk scoring systems using composite endpoints. Endpoint 1 was the simple composite of IS and major bleeds. Endpoint 2 was based on a composite of IS plus intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Endpoint 3 was based on weighted coefficients for IS/TE and ICH. Endpoint 4 was a composite of stroke, cardiovascular death, TE and major bleeding. The incremental predictive value of these scores over CHADS2 (as reference) for composite endpoints was assessed using c-statistic, net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). Of 8,962 eligible individuals, 3,607 (40.2%) had NVAF and were on OAC at baseline. There were no statistically significant differences between the c-statistics of the various risk scores, compared with the CHADS2 score, regardless of the endpoint. For the various risk scores and various endpoints, NRI and IDI did not show significant improvement (≥1%), compared with the CHADS2 score. In conclusion, composite risk scores did not significantly improve risk prediction of endpoints in patients with NVAF, regardless of how endpoints were defined. This would support individualised prediction of IS/TE and bleeding separately using different separate risk prediction tools, and not the use of composite scores or endpoints for everyday 'real world' clinical practice, to guide decisions on thromboprophylaxis. PMID:24452108

  8. Risk Prediction Models of Locoregional Failure After Radical Cystectomy for Urothelial Carcinoma: External Validation in a Cohort of Korean Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, Ja Hyeon; Kim, Myong; Jeong, Chang Wook; Kwak, Cheol; Kim, Hyeon Hoe

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the predictive accuracy and general applicability of the locoregional failure model in a different cohort of patients treated with radical cystectomy. Methods and Materials: A total of 398 patients were included in the analysis. Death and isolated distant metastasis were considered competing events, and patients without any events were censored at the time of last follow-up. The model included the 3 variables pT classification, the number of lymph nodes identified, and margin status, as follows: low risk (≤pT2), intermediate risk (≥pT3 with ≥10 nodes removed and negative margins), and high risk (≥pT3 with <10 nodes removed or positive margins). Results: The bootstrap-corrected concordance index of the model 5 years after radical cystectomy was 66.2%. When the risk stratification was applied to the validation cohort, the 5-year locoregional failure estimates were 8.3%, 21.2%, and 46.3% for the low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk groups, respectively. The risk of locoregional failure differed significantly between the low-risk and intermediate-risk groups (subhazard ratio [SHR], 2.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-5.11; P<.001) and between the low-risk and high-risk groups (SHR, 4.28; 95% CI, 2.17-8.45; P<.001). Although decision curves were appropriately affected by the incidence of the competing risk, decisions about the value of the models are not likely to be affected because the model remains of value over a wide range of threshold probabilities. Conclusions: The model is not completely accurate, but it demonstrates a modest level of discrimination, adequate calibration, and meaningful net benefit gain for prediction of locoregional failure after radical cystectomy.

  9. Effect of Hypertension on Outcomes of High-Risk Patients After BCG-Treated Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dal Moro, Fabrizio; Bovo, Alberto; Crestani, Alessandro; Vettor, Roberto; Gardiman, Marina P.; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) is the most efficacious treatment for high-risk bladder cancer (BC) (Ta/T1 or carcinoma in situ) to reduce the risk of recurrence. Our aim was to evaluate whether hypertension and diabetes influence the outcome of patients with noninvasive BC treated with BCG instillations. In order to collect homogeneous data, we considered as “hypertensive” only those patients who had previous diagnosed hypertension and a history of taking medical therapy with antihypertensive drugs (AHT), and as “diabetic” only those prescribed oral antidiabetics or insulin (ADT). We analyzed 343 high-risk BC patients undergoing BCG (1995–2010) with a median follow-up of 116 months (range 48–238). The distribution of various kinds of AHT and antidiabetic drugs was homogeneous, with no significant differences (p > 0.05). In both univariate and multivariate analyses, the only statistically significant parameter prognostic for recurrence after BCG treatment was AHT. Recurrence-free survival curves showed a significant correlation with AHT (p = 0.0168, hazards ratio [HR] 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0692–1.9619); there was no correlation (p = 0.9040) with ADT (HR 0.9750, 95% CI 0.6457–1.4721). After stratification of AHT and ADT according to drug(s) prescribed, there were no significant differences in the BC recurrence rate (p > 0.05). In this study with a very long-term follow-up, hypertension alone (evaluated by AHT) revealed the increased risk of BC recurrence after BCG treatment. Several hypotheses have been formulated to support these findings, but further prospective studies are needed to both evaluate the real influence of hypertension and identify a possible prognostic factor to be used in selecting poor-prognosis BC patients as early candidates for surgical treatment. PMID:25738480

  10. Meta-Analysis of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization and Risk of Infection in Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zacharioudakis, Ioannis M.; Zervou, Fainareti N.; Ziakas, Panayiotis D.

    2014-01-01

    Patients undergoing dialysis are particularly vulnerable to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. We performed a meta-analysis of published studies to estimate the prevalence of MRSA colonization in dialysis patients, time trends, and long-term risk of subsequent MRSA infections. Our search of the PubMed and Embase databases returned 5743 nonduplicate citations, from which we identified 38 relevant studies that included data on 5596 dialysis patients. The estimated prevalence of MRSA colonization was 6.2% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 4.2% to 8.5%). The prevalence increased over time but remained stable after 2000. Stratification of patients according to dialysis modality and setting revealed that 7.2% (95% CI, 4.9% to 9.9%) of patients on hemodialysis were colonized with MRSA compared with 1.3% (95% CI, 0.5% to 2.4%) of patients on peritoneal dialysis (P=0.01), and that a statistically significant difference existed in the percentage of colonized inpatients and outpatients (14.2% [95% CI, 8.0% to 21.8%] versus 5.4% [95% CI, 3.5% to 7.7%], respectively; P=0.04). Notably, the risk of developing MRSA infections increased among colonized hemodialysis patients compared with noncolonized patients (relative risk, 11.5 [95% CI, 4.7 to 28.0]). The long-term (620 months) probability of developing a MRSA infection was 19% among colonized hemodialysis patients compared with only 2% among noncolonized patients. In summary, 6.2% of dialysis patients are MRSA colonized, and the average prevalence of colonization has remained stable since 2000. Colonization in hemodialysis patients is associated with increased risk of MRSA infection. PMID:24652802

  11. Risk factors for mortality in patients with mucormycosis.

    PubMed

    Spellberg, Brad; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Fredricks, David; Morris, Michele I; Perfect, John R; Chin-Hong, Peter V; Ibrahim, Ashraf S; Brass, Eric P

    2012-08-01

    Optimal clinical care and clinical investigation of patients with mucormycosis are limited by absence of controlled trials, and absence of well-defined predictors of mortality or clinical response. The Deferasirox-AmBisome Therapy for mucormycosis (DEFEAT Mucor) study was the first randomized clinical trial conducted on patients with mucormycosis, and demonstrated that adjunctive deferasirox therapy did not improve outcomes of the disease. The current study describes clinical factors from the 20 patients enrolled to identify those associated with 90-day mortality of the 11 (55%) patients who died by day 90. Age, diabetes mellitus, transplant status, or antifungal therapy were not associated with mortality. However, active malignancy or neutropenia at enrollment were associated with increased mortality. Pulmonary infection was linked with lower Kaplan-Meier survival compared to non-pulmonary infection. Higher baseline serum concentrations of iron and ferritin were also associated with mortality. No patient who progressed clinically during the first 14 days of study therapy survived; however, many patients who clinically improved during that time did not survive to 90 days. In contrast, day 30 clinical response was predictive of 90-day survival. These factors may be useful in defining enrollment randomization stratification critieria for future clinical trials, and in supporting clinical care of patients with mucormycosis. PMID:22435877

  12. Risk factors for mortality in patients with mucormycosis

    PubMed Central

    Spellberg, Brad; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios; Fredricks, David; Morris, Michele; Perfect, John; Chin-Hong, Peter; Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Brass, Eric P.

    2014-01-01

    Optimal clinical care and clinical investigation of patients with mucormycosis are limited by absence of controlled trials and predictors of mortality or clinical response. The Deferasirox-AmBisome Therapy for mucormycosis (DEFEAT Mucor) study was the first randomized clinical trial conducted for patients with mucormycosis, and demonstrated that adjunctive deferasirox therapy did not improve outcomes of the disease. The current study describes clinical factors from the 20 patients enrolled to identify those associated with 90-day mortality. Eleven (55%) patients died. Age, diabetes mellitus, transplant status, and antifungal therapy were not associated with mortality. However, active malignancy or neutropenia at enrollment were associated with increased mortality. Pulmonary infection was associated with worse Kaplan-Meier survival compared to non-pulmonary infection. Higher baseline serum iron and ferritin concentrations were also associated with mortality. No patient who progressed clinically during the first 14 days of study therapy survived, however many patients who clinically improved during that time did not survive to 90 days. In contrast, day 30 clinical response was predictive of 90-day survival. These factors may be useful in defining enrollment criteria and in randomization stratification for future clinical trials, and in supporting clinical care of patients with mucormycosis. PMID:22435877

  13. Using the STarT Back Tool: Does timing of stratification matter?

    PubMed

    Newell, D; Field, J; Pollard, D

    2015-08-01

    It is likely that individuals with nonspecific LBP (nsLBP) constitute a heterogenic group and targeting treatment appropriately to those most likely to respond is of major relevance. The STarT Back Tool (SBT) has been developed to stratify patients into risk groups to aid management choices. However, there is controversy over its generalisability and uncertainty as to the timing of use. This study investigated whether SBT categorisation early in a course of treatment would prove more prognostic than categorising patients at baseline. Seven hundred and forty nine patients over the age of 16 were recruited at 11 chiropractic clinics within the UK. The SBT was used to categorise these patients at presentation and 2 days following initial treatment with patient characteristics and condition specific markers also collected at baseline. The primary outcome was the Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) collected at 14, 30 and 90 days following the initial visit. In this population undergoing chiropractic care, patients had similar outcomes irrespective of their STarT back risk ranking. Multivariate prognostic models included only the post initial visit SBT as an independent predictor of favourable outcome for the medium risk group but only at 30 days. Follow up improvement was dominated by previous improvement in 30 and 90-day models. Over one third of patients swapped SBT risk groups in the 2 day period between initial stratification and post initial visit although there was little difference in eventual improvement at follow-up. Understanding the impact of timing of SBT stratification is indicated. PMID:25175750

  14. The extent of patients' understanding of the risk of treatments.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A J

    2001-09-01

    The scientific understanding of how people perceive and code risks and then use this information in decision making has progressed greatly in the last 20 years. There is considerable evidence that people employ simplifying heuristics in judgement and decision making. These heuristics may lead to bias in how people interpret information. However, much of our understanding of risk perception is based on laboratory studies. It is much less clear whether risk perception in the real world (as in the case of medical treatments) exhibits the same patterns and biases. This paper reviews the published literature on risk perception in patients who face substantial treatment risks. It examines how accurate patients' perception of risk is, what factors affect the perception of risk, and several possible explanations for why patients' risk perception is not always accurate. PMID:11533432

  15. The influence of disease and comorbidity risk assessments on the survival of MDS and oligoblastic AML patients treated with 5-azacitidine: A retrospective analysis in ten centers of the "Rete Ematologica Lombarda".

    PubMed

    Molteni, Alfredo; Riva, Marta; Borin, Lorenza; Bernardi, Massimo; Pelizzari, Anna Maria; Freyrie, Alessandra; Porta, Matteo Della; Nichelatti, Michele; Ravano, Emanuele; Quaresmini, Giulia; Mariotti, Jacopo; Caramazza, Domenica; Ubezio, Marta; Guarco, Simona; Gigli, Federica; Greco, Rosa; Cairoli, Roberto; Morra, Enrica

    2016-03-01

    5-Azacytidine is an effective therapy in high risk MDS and oligoblastic AML. This "real life" analysis was made on 185 patients treated with 5-azacytidine in 10 centers afferent to REL ("Rete Ematologica Lombarda"), a network in Lombardia region. The aim was to assess the influence of disease and comorbidity risk assessments on the survival. The results confirm the utility of 5-azacitidine in prolonging OS regardless of advanced age and the presence of comorbidities. They also encourage an early treatment since patients with IPSS-R High risk MDS have better outcome with respect to Very High risk ones. According to the IPSS cytogenetic risk, there was no difference in the outcome between Intermediate and High risk patients. Nevertheless, a poorer cytogenetic risk, according to the IPSS-R cytogenetic stratification, negatively influenced the outcome. PMID:26852003

  16. No increase in suicide risk among cardiopathic patients.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Lester, David; Iliceto, Paolo; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    A study comparing 100 patients with heart disease and 100 control patients with other internal medicine disorders found no increased risk of suicide in the cardiac patients, although there was a strong tendency for the patients with cardiac diseases to have more negative expectations for the future. The implications of the results are discussed. PMID:17478977

  17. Risk Prediction for Late-Stage Ovarian Cancer by Meta-analysis of 1525 Patient Samples

    PubMed Central

    Riester, Markus; Wei, Wei; Waldron, Levi; Culhane, Aedin C.; Trippa, Lorenzo; Oliva, Esther; Kim, Sung-hoon; Michor, Franziska; Huttenhower, Curtis; Parmigiani, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer causes more than 15000 deaths per year in the United States. The survival of patients is quite heterogeneous, and accurate prognostic tools would help with the clinical management of these patients. Methods We developed and validated two gene expression signatures, the first for predicting survival in advanced-stage, serous ovarian cancer and the second for predicting debulking status. We integrated 13 publicly available datasets totaling 1525 subjects. We trained prediction models using a meta-analysis variation on the compound covariable method, tested models by a “leave-one-dataset-out” procedure, and validated models in additional independent datasets. Selected genes from the debulking signature were validated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in two further independent cohorts of 179 and 78 patients, respectively. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The survival signature stratified patients into high- and low-risk groups (hazard ratio = 2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.84 to 2.61) statistically significantly better than the TCGA signature (P = .04). POSTN, CXCL14, FAP, NUAK1, PTCH1, and TGFBR2 were validated by qRT-PCR (P < .05) and POSTN, CXCL14, and phosphorylated Smad2/3 were validated by immunohistochemistry (P < .001) as independent predictors of debulking status. The sum of immunohistochemistry intensities for these three proteins provided a tool that classified 92.8% of samples correctly in high- and low-risk groups for suboptimal debulking (area under the curve = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.84 to 0.93). Conclusions Our survival signature provides the most accurate and validated prognostic model for early- and advanced-stage high-grade, serous ovarian cancer. The debulking signature accurately predicts the outcome of cytoreductive surgery, potentially allowing for stratification of patients for primary vs secondary cytoreduction. PMID:24700803

  18. [Assessing the cardiovascular risk in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus].

    PubMed

    Arnaud, L; Mathian, A; Bruckert, E; Amoura, Z

    2014-11-01

    Multiple factors contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk observed in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Among these are the so-called classical cardiovascular risk factors, the disease itself through its activity, treatments, and complications, and the thrombotic risk due to antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Observational studies suggest that most classical cardiovascular risk factors are observed more frequently in SLE patients than in the general population, and that these are insufficient to explain the increased cardiovascular risk observed in most studies. Given this high risk, adequate management of cardiovascular risk factors should be recommended in SLE patients. Paradoxically, the benefit due to the anti-inflammatory properties of treatments such as corticosteroids may exceed, in certain cases, their pro-atherogenic effect. Importantly, the tools that were developed for the estimation of cardiovascular risk at the individual level among the general population cannot be used reliably in SLE patients, as these tools appear to underestimate the true cardiovascular risk. The adequate indications and targets of cardiovascular treatments are therefore not fully known in SLE. A better understanding of the determinants of the cardiovascular risk in SLE will allow the identification and more tailored management of these high-risk patients. PMID:25234464

  19. Innovative tools for assessing risks for severe adverse events in areas of overlapping Loa loa and other filarial distributions: the application of micro-stratification mapping

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The wide distribution of Loa loa infection (loiasis) throughout the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is a major obstacle to the plans to eliminate onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) because the standard drug regime is dependent on ivermectin, which cannot be used in co-endemic areas due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs). A better understanding of the micro-epidemiology, overlapping low and high risk areas, and how they relate to SAEs is critical to ensure safe and effective treatment. Findings Based on published data from the Bas Congo Province in DRC, this study used geographical information systems (GIS) to re-map and analyse onchocerciasis and loiasis prevalence (<20%, 20 to 40%, >40%) at 144 sites in relation to health district areas reporting SAEs. The new maps highlighted the contrasting patterns of the high prevalence sites, and significant geographical overlap between low onchocerciasis and high loiasis sites. Statistical analyses found that sites with medium to high loiasis prevalence were 10 to 16 times more likely to be in a SAE area than those with low prevalence of loiasis. Sites where both onchocerciasis and loiasis prevalence was >20% were also associated with SAE areas. Conclusions Collaborative efforts between the national onchocerciasis and LF programmes are critical as plans to scale interventions are moving forward and thus, alternative strategies needed in loiasis co-endemic areas which may include the new L. loa test and treat strategy using the Cellscope, or interventions such as integrated vector management, or anti Wolbachia therapy using doxycycline. PMID:24992829

  20. Automated detection of dual p16/Ki67 nuclear immunoreactivity in liquid-based Pap tests for improved cervical cancer risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Gertych, Arkadiusz; Joseph, Anika O; Walts, Ann E; Bose, Shikha

    2012-05-01

    The Papanicolau (Pap) test is a routine cytological procedure for early detection of dysplastic lesions in cervical epithelium. A reliable screening method is crucial for triage of women at risk; however manual screening and interpretation are associated with relatively low sensitivity and substantial interobserver diagnostic variability. P16 and Ki67 biomarkers have been recently proposed as adjunctive tools in the diagnosis of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) associated dysplasias to supplement the morphological characteristics of cells by additional colorimetric features. In this study, an automated technique for the evaluation of dual p16/Ki67 immunoreactivity in cervical cell nuclei is introduced. Smears stained with p16 and Ki67 antibodies were digitized, and analyzed by algorithms we developed. Gradient-based radial symmetry operator and adaptive processing of symmetry image were employed to obtain the nuclear mask. This step was followed by the extraction of features including pixel data and immunoreactivity signature from each nucleus. The features were analyzed by two support vector machine classifiers to assign a nucleus into one of four types of immunoreactivity: p16 positive (p16(+)/Ki67(-)), Ki67 positive (p16(-)/Ki67(+)), dual p16/Ki67 positive (p16(+)/Ki67(+)) and negative (p16(-)/Ki67(-)), respectively. Results obtained by our method correlated well with readings by two cytopathologists (n = 18,068 cells); p16(+)/Ki67(+) nuclei were classified with respective precisions of 77.1% and 82.6%. Specificity in identification of p16(-)/Ki67(-) nuclei was better than 99.5%, and the sensitivity in detection of all immunopositive nuclei was 86.3 and 89.4%, respectively. We found that the quantitative characterization of immunoreactivity provided by the additional highlighting of classified nuclei can positively impact the efficacy and screening outcome of the Pap test. PMID:22215277

  1. Risk factors for major amputation in hospitalised diabetic foot patients.

    PubMed

    Namgoong, Sik; Jung, Suyoung; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2016-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are the main cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for major amputation in diabetic foot patients. Eight hundred and sixty diabetic patients were admitted to the diabetic wound centre of the Korea University Guro Hospital for foot ulcers between January 2010 and December 2013. Among them, 837 patients were successfully monitored until complete healing. Ulcers in 809 patients (96·7%) healed without major amputation and those in 28 patients (3·3%) healed with major amputation. Data of 88 potential risk factors including demographics, ulcer condition, vascularity, bioburden, neurology and serology were collected from patients in the two groups and compared. Among the 88 potential risk factors, statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed in 26 risk factors. In the univariate analysis, which was carried out for these 26 risk factors, statistically significant differences were observed in 22 risk factors. In a stepwise multiple logistic analysis, six of the 22 risk factors remained statistically significant. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios were 11·673 for ulcers penetrating into the bone, 8·683 for dialysis, 6·740 for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, 6·158 for hind foot ulcers, 0·641 for haemoglobin levels and 1·007 for fasting blood sugar levels. The risk factors for major amputation in diabetic foot patients were bony invasions, dialysis, GI disorders, hind foot locations, low levels of haemoglobin and elevated fasting blood sugar levels. PMID:26478562

  2. The Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 Polymorphism Rs10895304 Is Associated With Increased Recurrence Risk in Patients With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jaboin, Jerry J.; Hwang, Misun; Lopater, Zachary; Chen Heidi; Ray, Geoffrey L.; Perez, Carmen; Cai Qiuyin; Wills, Marcia L.; Lu Bo

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether selected high-risk matrix metalloproteinase-7 single nucleotide polymorphisms influence clinicopathologic outcomes in patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Two hundred twelve prostate cancer patients treated with radical prostatectomy were evaluated with a median follow-up of 9.8 years. Genotyping was performed using hybridization with custom-designed allele-specific probes. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms within the matrix metalloproteinase-7 gene were assessed with respect to age at diagnosis, margin status, extracapsular extension, lymph node involvement, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival in paraffin-embedded prostate tissue specimens from patients with early-stage prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy. Results: Rs10895304 was the sole significant polymorphism. The A/G genotype of rs10895304 had a statistically significant association with recurrence-free survival in postprostatectomy patients (p = 0.0061, log-rank test). The frequency of the risk-reducing genotype (A/A) was 74%, whereas that of the risk-enhancing genotypes (A/G and G/G) were 20% and 6%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression analyses detected a significant association between rs10895304 and recurrences after adjustment for known prognostic factors. The G allele of this polymorphism was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer recurrence (adjusted hazards ratio, 3.375; 95% confidence interval 1.567-7.269; p < 0.001). The other assayed polymorphisms were not significant, and no correlations were made to other clinical variables. Conclusions: The A/G genotype of rs10895304 is predictive of decreased recurrence-free survival in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Our data suggest that for this subset of patients, prostatectomy alone may not be adequate for local control. This is a novel and relevant marker that should be evaluated for improved risk stratification of patients who may be candidates for adjuvant radiation therapy to improve local control.

  3. Patient risk factors' influence on survival of posterior composites.

    PubMed

    van de Sande, F H; Opdam, N J; Rodolpho, P A Da Rosa; Correa, M B; Demarco, F F; Cenci, M S

    2013-07-01

    This practice-based retrospective study evaluated the survival of resin composite restorations in posterior teeth, focusing on the influence of potential patient risk factors. In total, 306 posterior composite restorations placed in 44 adult patients were investigated after 10 to 18 yrs. The history of each restoration was extracted from the dental records, and a clinical evaluation was performed with those still in situ. The patient risk status was assessed for caries and "occlusal-stress" (bruxism-related). Statistical analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox-regression multivariate analysis. In total, 30% of the restorations failed, of which 82% were found in patients with 1 or 2 risk factors. Secondary caries was the main reason of failure within caries-risk patients, whereas fracture was the main reason in "occlusal-stress-risk" patients. The patient variables gender and age did not significantly affect survival, but risk did (p < .001). Tooth type (p < .001), arch (p = .013), and pulpal vitality (p = .003) significantly affected restoration survival. Within the limits of this retrospective evaluation, the survival of restorations is affected by patient risk factors, which should be included in survival analyses of restorations. PMID:23690354

  4. Social Stratification in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodsky, Eric; Jackson, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Over the past half century, scholars in a variety of fields have contributed to our understanding of the relationship between higher education and social stratification. We review this literature, highlighting complementarities and inconsistencies. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: We situate our review of the…

  5. Rationale and design of three observational, prospective cohort studies including biobanking to evaluate and improve diagnostics, management strategies and risk stratification in venous thromboembolism: the VTEval Project

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Bernd; Ariza, Liana; Lamparter, Heidrun; Grossmann, Vera; Prochaska, Jürgen H; Ullmann, Alexander; Kindler, Florentina; Weisser, Gerhard; Walter, Ulrich; Lackner, Karl J; Espinola-Klein, Christine; Münzel, Thomas; Konstantinides, Stavros V; Wild, Philipp S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Venous thromboembolism (VTE) with its two manifestations deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major public health problem. The VTEval Project aims to investigate numerous research questions on diagnosis, clinical management, treatment and prognosis of VTE, which have remained uncertain to date. Methods and analysis The VTEval Project consists of three observational, prospective cohort studies on VTE comprising cohorts of individuals with a clinical suspicion of acute PE (with or without DVT), with a clinical suspicion of acute DVT (without symptomatic PE) and with an incidental diagnosis of VTE (PE or DVT). The VTEval Project expects to enrol a total of approximately 2000 individuals with subsequent active and passive follow-up investigations over a time period of 5 years per participant. Time points for active follow-up investigations are at months 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 after diagnosis (depending on the disease cohort); passive follow-up investigations via registry offices and the cancer registry are performed 48 and 60 months after diagnosis for all participants. Primary short-term outcome is defined by overall mortality (PE-related death and all other causes of death), primary long-term outcome by symptomatic VTE (PE-related death, recurrence of non-fatal PE or DVT). The VTEval Project includes three ‘all-comer’ studies and involves the standardised acquisition of high-quality data, covering the systematic assessment of VTE including symptoms, risk profile, psychosocial, environmental and lifestyle factors as well as clinical and subclinical disease, and it builds up a large state-of-the-art biorepository containing various materials from serial blood samplings. Ethics and dissemination The VTEval Project has been approved by the local data safety commissioner and the responsible ethics committee (reference no. 837.320.12 (8421-F)). Trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international scientific meetings. Trial registration number NCT02156401. PMID:26133379

  6. Managing cardiovascular risk in minority patients.

    PubMed Central

    Ferdinand, Keith C.

    2005-01-01

    In the United States, large and growing minority populations, including African Americans, Hispanic Americans and South Asians, are highly susceptible to the development of cardiovascular disease. Compared with Americans of other ancestries, these populations exhibit a higher prevalence of a number of risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity and diabetes mellitus. The clustering of risk factors in these groups is also greater than in white populations. Despite the considerable burden imposed by cardiovascular disease, African Americans, Hispanic Americans and South Asians remain inadequately targeted for risk-reduction strategies, including screening and treatment for dyslipidemia. In addition, these groups have traditionally been underrepresented in trials of lipid-modifying therapy. Large, ongoing epidemiologic and clinical trials will add to our knowledge of cardiovascular risk in these minority populations and contribute to recommendations to improve risk management. PMID:15868766

  7. Clinician-Patient Risk Discussion for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Seth S.; Sperling, Laurence S.; Blaha, Michael J.; Wilson, Peter W.F.; Gluckman, Ty J.; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Stone, Neil J.

    2016-01-01

    Successful implementation of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines hinges on a clear understanding of the clinician-patient risk discussion (CPRD). This is a dialogue between the clinician and patient about potential for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk reduction benefits, adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, and patient preferences. Designed especially for primary prevention patients, this process of shared decision making establishes the appropriateness of a statin for a specific patient. CPRD respects the autonomy of an individual striving to make an informed choice aligned with personal values and preferences. Dedicating sufficient time to high-quality CPRD offers an opportunity to strengthen clinician-patient relationships, patient engagement, and medication adherence. We review the guideline-recommended CPRD, the general concept of shared decision making and decision aids, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Risk Estimator application as an implementation tool, and address potential barriers to implementation. PMID:25835448

  8. Venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: risk assessment, prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Tukaye, Deepali N; Brink, Heidi; Baliga, Ragavendra

    2016-03-01

    Thrombosis and thromboembolic events contribute to significant morbidity in cancer patients. Venous thrombosis embolism (which includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) accounts for a large percentage of thromboembolic events. Appropriate identification of cancer patients at high risk for venous thromboembolism and management of thromboembolic event is crucial in improving the quality of care for cancer patients. However, thromboembolism in cancer patients is a complex problem and the management has to be tailored to each individual. The focus of this review is to understand the complex pathology, physiology and risk factors that drive the process of venous thrombosis and embolism in cancer patients and the current guidelines in management. PMID:26919091

  9. Biomarkers for diagnosis and prognostic stratification of aortic dissection: challenges and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Morello, Fulvio; Piler, Pavel; Novak, Miroslav; Kruzliak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Aortic dissection (AD) is a severe vascular disease associated with major morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of AD requires the performance of urgent aortic imaging exams such as computed tomography angiography, but the decision to perform these exams now essentially relies on clinical judgment. Several studies have identified a range of potential biomarkers stemming from the aortic extracellular matrix (matrix metalloproteinases, TGF-β, soluble elastin fragments), vascular smooth muscle cells (smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, creatine kinase, calponin), coagulation (D-dimer, platelets) and inflammation (C-reactive protein), whose circulating levels increase in patients affected by AD. Biomarkers of AD could be potentially used to screen patients with compatible symptoms, to identify patients at higher risk of AD, to rule out AD in patients with non-high clinical probability of AD and/or to obtain prognostic stratification of affected patients. This review will summarize available data and discuss present and future perspectives of circulating biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognostic stratification of AD. PMID:25307547

  10. Cancer risk in HBV patients with statin and metformin use: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-I; Kuan, Ching-Feng; Fang, Yu-Ann; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Liu, Ju-Chi; Wu, Li-Li; Chang, Chun-Jen; Yang, Hsuan-Chia; Hwang, Jaulang; Miser, James S; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2015-02-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) often causes chronic inflammation of the liver with an increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV-infected individuals may also have an increased incidence of nonliver cancers. Taking statin or metformin may decrease inflammation and infiltration, which may, as a result, reduce the risk of liver cancer or other major cancers in patients with HBV infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that statin and metformin could reduce the incidence of liver cancer (HCC) or nonliver cancers in patients with HBV.Using the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 to 2008, this cohort study comprised patients with a recorded diagnosis of HBV (N = 71,847) between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2008. Each patient was followed-up until the end of 2008. The occurrence of HCC or a nonliver cancer was evaluated in patients who either were or were not taking statin or metformin. Cox proportional hazard regressions were used to evaluate the cancer incidence after adjusting for known confounding factors.In total, 71,824 HBV-infected patients comprised the study cohort. Our study showed that either metformin or statin use was associated with a reduction in the incidence of cancer. This was most prominent in patients taking both statin and metformin. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for patients using only statin were 0.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-0.57) for all cancers, 0.28 (95% CI, 0.23-0.35) for liver cancer, and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.57-0.70) for nonliver cancers. Patients taking only metformin had risk-adjusted HRs of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.75-0.90) for all cancers, 0.97 (95% CI, 0.84-1.14) for liver cancer, and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.67-0.84) for nonliver cancers. A dose-dependent effect of statin use for chemoprevention was observed for all cancers, including both liver cancer and nonliver cancers. A dose-dependent effect of metformin was also seen in liver cancer and nonliver cancers without stratification into different cumulative daily doses of statin use.This population-based cohort study investigated the protective effect of statin and metformin against cancer events in patients with HBV infection. Our study demonstrated that either statin or metformin served as independent chemopreventive agents with a dose-response effect in reducing the incidence of cancer with a dose-response effect of the agents and an additive or synergistic effect of combining statin and metformin use in reducing the incidence of many cancers. PMID:25674734

  11. Increased Risk of Stroke in Patients With Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chun-Hung; Chen, Jiunn-Horng; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Neuropsychiatric diseases might enhance stroke development, possibly through inflammation and atherosclerosis. Approximately 25% to 40% of patients with stroke, largely younger patients, are not associated with any conventional stroke risk factors. In this research, we explored whether fibromyalgia (FM), a neuropsychosomatic disorder, increases stroke risk. From a claims dataset with one million enrollees sourced of the Taiwan National Health Insurance database, we selected 47,279 patients with FM and randomly selected 189,112 age- and sex-matched controls within a 3-year period from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2002. Stroke risk was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Comorbidities associated with increased stroke risk, such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, coronary heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and interstitial cystitis, were more prevalent in patients with FM and high stroke risk than in the controls. The overall stroke risk was 1.25-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21–1.30) higher in the FM group than in the non-FM group. Even without comorbidities, stroke risk was higher in patients with FM than in the controls (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.35–1.53, P < 0.001). The relative risk of stroke was 2.26-fold between FM and non-FM groups in younger patients (age <35 years, 95% CI: 1.86–2.75). This is the first investigation associating FM with an increased risk of stroke development. The outcomes imply that FM is a significant risk factor for stroke and that patients with FM, particularly younger patients, require close attention and rigorous measures for preventing stroke. PMID:26937918

  12. Frequency and Prioritization of Patient Health Risks from a Structured Health Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Siobhan M.; Glasgow, Russell E.; Bello, Ghalib; Ory, Marcia G.; Glenn, Beth A.; Sheinfeld-Gorin, Sherri N.; Sabo, Roy T.; Heurtin-Roberts, Suzanne; Johnson, Sallie Beth; Krist, Alex H.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To describe the frequency and patient-reported readiness to change, desire to discuss, and perceived importance of 13 health risk factors in a diverse range of primary care practices. METHODS Patients (n = 1,707) in 9 primary care practices in the My Own Health Report (MOHR) trial reported general, behavioral, and psychosocial risk factors (body mass index [BMI], health status, diet, physical activity, sleep, drug use, stress, anxiety or worry, and depression). We classified responses as “at risk” or “healthy” for each factor, and patients indicated their readiness to change and/or desire to discuss identified risk factors with providers. Patients also selected 1 of the factors they were ready to change as most important. We then calculated frequencies within and across these factors and examined variation by patient characteristics and across practices. RESULTS On average, patients had 5.8 (SD = 2.12; range, 0–13) unhealthy behaviors and mental health risk factors. About 55% of patients had more than 6 risk factors. On average, patients wanted to change 1.2 and discuss 0.7 risks. The most common risks were inadequate fruit/vegetable consumption (84.5%) and overweight/obesity (79.6%). Patients were most ready to change BMI (33.3%) and depression (30.7%), and most wanted to discuss depression (41.9%) and anxiety or worry (35.2%). Overall, patients rated health status as most important. CONCLUSIONS Implementing routine comprehensive health risk assessments in primary care will likely identify a high number of behavioral and psychosocial health risks. By soliciting patient priorities, providers and patients can better manage counseling and behavior change. PMID:25384812

  13. Combined Biomarker Analysis for Risk of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Ying-Chang; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Yung-Chang; Chu, Pao-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) complicating ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) increases subsequent morbidity and mortality. We combined the biomarkers of heart failure (HF; B-type natriuretic peptide [BNP] and soluble ST2 [sST2]) and renal injury (NGAL [neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin] and cystatin C) in predicting the development of AKI in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods and Results From March 2010 to September 2013, 189 STEMI patients were sequentially enrolled and serum samples were collected at presentation for BNP, sST2, NGAL and cystatin C analysis. 37 patients (19.6%) developed AKI of varying severity within 48 hours of presentation. Univariate analysis showed age, Killip class ≥2, hypertension, white blood cell counts, hemoglobin, estimated glomerular filtration rate, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and all the four biomarkers were predictive of AKI. Serum levels of the biomarkers were correlated with risk of AKI and the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) stage and all significantly discriminated AKI (area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve: BNP: 0.86, sST2: 0.74, NGAL: 0.75, cystatin C: 0.73; all P < 0.05). Elevation of ≥2 of the biomarkers higher than the cutoff values derived from the ROC analysis improved AKI risk stratification, regardless of the creatine level (creatinine < 1.24 mg/dL: odds ratio [OR] 11.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.63-77.92, P = 0.014; creatinine ≥ 1.24: OR 15.0, 95% CI 1.23-183.6, P = 0.034). Conclusions In this study of STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI, the biomarkers of heart failure (BNP and sST2) and renal injury (NGAL and cystatin C) at presentation were predictive of AKI. High serum levels of the biomarkers were associated with an elevated risk and more advanced stage of AKI. Regardless of the creatinine level, elevation of ≥2 of the biomarkers higher than the cutoff values indicated a further rise in AKI risk. Combined biomarker approach may assist in risk stratification of AKI in patients with STEMI. PMID:25853556

  14. Management in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Burns, Patrick; Highlander, Pete; Shinabarger, Andrew B

    2014-10-01

    Injuries to the foot and ankle are often missed or underestimated in patients with polytrauma and are a source of long-term limitations. Injures below the knee are among the highest causes for unemployment, longer sick leave, more pain, more follow-up appointments, and decreased overall outcome. As mortalities decrease for patients with polytrauma a greater emphasis on timely diagnosis and treatment of foot and ankle injuries is indicated. Geriatric patients represent nearly one-quarter of trauma admissions in the United States. This article discusses perioperative management and complications associated with foot and ankle injuries in polytrauma, and in diabetic and geriatric patients. PMID:25281513

  15. Risk of Nongenitourinary Cancers in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Chia-Hong; Sun, Li-Min; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Kao, Chia-Hung; Weng, Ming-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Little information is available regarding the risk of nongenitourinary (GU) cancers in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). The authors conducted a nationwide population-based study to investigate whether a higher risk of non-GU cancer is seen among patients with SCI. Data retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan were used in this study. A total of 41,900 patients diagnosed with SCI between 2000 and 2011 were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database and comprised the SCI cohort. Each of these patients was randomly frequency matched with 4 people from the general population (without SCI) according to age, sex, comorbidities, and index year. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals and determine how SCI affected non-GU cancer risk. No significant difference in overall non-GU cancer risk was observed between the SCI and control groups. The patients with SCI exhibited a significantly higher risk of developing esophageal, liver, and hematologic malignancies compared with those without SCI. By contrast, the SCI cohort had a significantly lower risk of colorectal cancer compared with the non-SCI cohort (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval = 0.69–0.93). Additional stratified analyses by sex, age, and follow-up duration revealed various correlations between SCI and non-GU cancer risk. The patients with SCI exhibited higher risk of esophageal, liver, and hematologic malignancies but a lower risk of colorectal cancer compared with those without SCI. The diverse patterns of cancer risk among the patients with SCI may be related to the complications of chronic SCI. PMID:26765443

  16. [Risk assessment for pressure ulcer in critical patients].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Flávia Sampaio Latini; Bastos, Marisa Antonini Ribeiro; Matozinhos, Fernanda Penido; Temponi, Hanrieti Rotelli; Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo

    2011-04-01

    Bedridden patients are in risk to developing pressure ulcers and represent a priority group to be studied to identify this condition. To reach this goal, specific instruments are used to assess this problem. The objective of this study was to analyze the risk factors to developing pressure ulcers in adult patients hospitalized in ICUs. This is a sectional analytical study, in which evaluations were performed on 140 patients, hospitalized in 22 ICUs, using the Braden scale. Results showed that patients hospitalized from 15 days or more showed some level of risk. The highest frequencies of pressure ulcers were found in patients in the following categories: sensorial perception (completely limited), moistness (constantly moist), mobility (completely immobilized), activity (bedridden), nutrition (adequate) and friction and shear (problem). In conclusion, the use of this scale is an important strategy when providing care to patients in intensive treatment. PMID:21655778

  17. Postoperative constipation risk assessment in Turkish orthopedic patients.

    PubMed

    Şendir, Merdiye; Büyükıylmaz, Funda; Aştı, Türkinaz; Gürpınar, Şengül; Yazgan, İlknur

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive, correlational study was conducted to describe constipation risk assessment and the affecting factors of constipation risk of patients who have undergone major orthopedic surgery. Data were collected using a patient information form and the Constipation Risk Assessment Scale (CRAS) on the second postoperative day. Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 11.5 for Windows. The mean age of the 83 patients studied was 53.75 ± 21.29 years. Subjects were hospitalized in the orthopedic wards for 14.39 ± 15.17 days, and their current bowel habit was 2.18 ± 1.80 stools per week. Of the sample, 63.9% were female, 69.9% of the patients had a history of previous surgery, 45.8% had hip/knee arthroplasty surgery, and 55.4% had bowel problems during the hospitalization period. Patients had a medium risk for constipation according to the CRAS subscale (gender, mobility, and pharmacological agents). Total CRAS score was 12.73 ± 4.75 (medium risk) on the second postoperative day. In addition, age, marital status, educational level, having a history of surgery, and bowel elimination problems did have a significant effect on constipation risk. On the basis of the findings from this study, nurses must learn the postoperative constipation risk of orthopedic patients to implement safe and effective interventions. PMID:22472670

  18. Risk-Adjusted Staffing to Improve Patient Value.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Sharon; Davidson, Nan; Woodard, Jim; Davis, Jennifer; Welton, John M

    2015-01-01

    The presence of hospital-acquired conditions, infections, or other adverse events are a reflection of inadequate patient safety and can have short and long-term impacts of quality of life for patients as well as financial implications for the hospital. Using unit-level information to develop a tool, the Patient Risk Assessment Profile, nurses on an inpatient surgical unit proactively assessed patient risk to guide staffing decisions and nurse-patient assignment with the goal to improve patient value, reduce adverse events, and avoid unnecessary hospital costs. Findings showed decreased adverse event rates for patient falls, catheter-acquired urinary tract infection, central line-acquired blood stream infection, and pressure ulcer prevalence after the intervention was implemented. In addition, end-of-shift over-time and patient cost per case decreased as well yielding an operational impact in hospital financial performance. PMID:26281277

  19. Helping patients decide: ten steps to better risk communication.

    PubMed

    Fagerlin, Angela; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Ubel, Peter A

    2011-10-01

    With increasing frequency, patients are being asked to make complex decisions about cancer screening, prevention, and treatment. These decisions are fraught with emotion and cognitive difficulty simultaneously. Many Americans have low numeracy skills making the cognitive demands even greater whenever, as is often the case, patients are presented with risk statistics and asked to make comparisons between the risks and benefits of multiple options and to make informed medical decisions. In this commentary, we highlight 10 methods that have been empirically shown to improve patients' understanding of risk and benefit information and/or their decision making. The methods range from presenting absolute risks using frequencies (rather than presenting relative risks) to using a risk format that clarifies how treatment changes risks from preexisting baseline levels to using plain language. We then provide recommendations for how health-care providers and health educators can best to communicate this complex medical information to patients, including using plain language, pictographs, and absolute risks instead of relative risks. PMID:21931068

  20. How can we identify the high-risk patient?

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, Ashwin; Beattie, W. Scott; Wijeysundera, Duminda N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Accurate and early identification of high-risk surgical patients allows for targeted use of perioperative monitoring and interventions that may improve their outcomes. This review summarizes current evidence on how information from the preoperative, operative, and immediate postoperative periods can help identify such individuals. Recent findings Simple risk indices, such as the Revised Cardiac Risk Index or American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status scale, and online calculators allow risk to be estimated with moderate accuracy using readily available preoperative clinical information. Both specific specialized tests (i.e., cardiopulmonary exercise testing and cardiac stress testing) and promising novel biomarkers (i.e., troponins and natriuretic peptides) can help refine these risk estimates before surgery. Estimates of perioperative risk can be further informed by information acquired during the operative and immediate postoperative periods, such as risk indices (i.e., surgical Apgar score), individual risk factors (i.e., intraoperative hypotension), or postoperative biomarkers (i.e., troponins and natriuretic peptides). Summary Preoperative clinical risk indices and risk calculators estimate surgical risk with moderate accuracy. Although novel biomarkers, specialized preoperative testing, and immediate postoperative risk indices show promise as methods to refine these risk estimates, more research is needed on how best to integrate risk information from these different sources. PMID:26083327

  1. Minimal residual disease monitoring by quantitative RT-PCR in core binding factor AML allows risk stratification and predicts relapse: results of the United Kingdom MRC AML-15 trial.

    PubMed

    Yin, John A Liu; O'Brien, Michelle A; Hills, Robert K; Daly, Sarah B; Wheatley, Keith; Burnett, Alan K

    2012-10-01

    The clinical value of serial minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring in core binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by quantitative RT-PCR was prospectively assessed in 278 patients [163 with t(8;21) and 115 with inv(16)] entered in the United Kingdom MRC AML 15 trial. CBF transcripts were normalized to 10(5) ABL copies. At remission, after course 1 induction chemotherapy, a > 3 log reduction in RUNX1-RUNX1T1 transcripts in BM in t(8;21) patients and a > 10 CBFB-MYH11 copy number in peripheral blood (PB) in inv(16) patients were the most useful prognostic variables for relapse risk on multivariate analysis. MRD levels after consolidation (course 3) were also informative. During follow-up, cut-off MRD thresholds in BM and PB associated with a 100% relapse rate were identified: for t(8;21) patients BM > 500 copies, PB > 100 copies; for inv(16) patients, BM > 50 copies and PB > 10 copies. Rising MRD levels on serial monitoring accurately predicted hematologic relapse. During follow-up, PB sampling was equally informative as BM for MRD detection. We conclude that MRD monitoring by quantitative RT-PCR at specific time points in CBF AML allows identification of patients at high risk of relapse and could now be incorporated in clinical trials to evaluate the role of risk directed/preemptive therapy. PMID:22875911

  2. Skipping Meds Greatly Ups Heart Patients' Risk of Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158000.html Skipping Meds Greatly Ups Heart Patients' Risk of Stroke: Study Fatal strokes ... During an average 5.5 years of follow-up, 532 died of stroke. The researchers used prescription ...

  3. Treating Patients with High-Risk Smoldering Myeloma

    Cancer.gov

    In this phase III clinical trial, patients with smoldering myeloma classified as high risk for progression will be randomly assigned to undergo standard observation or six 4-week courses of treatment with the drug lenalidomide.

  4. Aspirin increases the risk of venous thromboembolism in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Barmparas, Galinos; Jain, Monica; Mehrzadi, Devorah; Melo, Nicolas; Chung, Rex; Bloom, Matthew; Ley, Eric J; Margulies, Daniel R

    2014-10-01

    The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) for patients taking an antiplatelet agent is largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the association between antiplatelet agent use before admission with the risk of in-hospital VTE in surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients. A retrospective review of all patients admitted to the surgical ICU at a Level I trauma center over 30 months was performed. Patients who underwent diagnostic imaging for VTE were selected. Patients were divided based on whether or not antiplatelet agents were used before admission (APTA vs NAPTA). The primary outcome was VTE occurrence. A forward logistic regression model was used to identify factors independently associated with the primary outcome. During the study period, 461 (24%) patients met inclusion criteria: 70 (15%) APTA and 391 (85%) NAPTA. After adjusting for confounding factors, APTA patients were at a significantly higher risk for developing VTE (59 vs 40%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 3.0; adjusted P = 0.04). Whether or not antiplatelet agents were resumed during the hospital stay and the day on which they were resumed did not affect VTE risk. In conclusion, surgical ICU patients receiving antiplatelet agents before admission are at a significantly higher risk for development of VTE. PMID:25264630

  5. Unbiased stratification of left ventricles.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Rajagopalan; Shriram, K S; Suryanarayanan, Srikanth

    2008-01-01

    Image based quantitative stratification of the Left Ventricles (LV) across a population helps in unraveling the structure-function symbiosis of the heart. An unbiased, reference less grouping scheme that automatically determines the number of clusters and a physioanatomically relevant strategy that aligns the intra cluster LV shapes would enable the robust construction of pathology stratified cardiac atlas. This paper achieves this hitherto elusive stratification and alignment by adapting the conventional strategies routinely followed by clinicians. The individual LV shape models (N=127) are independently oriented to an "attitudinally consistent orientation" that captures the physioanatomic variations of the LV morphology. Affinity propagation technique based on the automatically identified inter-LV_landmark distances is used to group the LV shapes. The proposed algorithm is computationally efficient and, if the inter cluster variations are linked to pathology, could provide a clinically relevant cardiac atlas. PMID:18979790

  6. AKI in Low-Risk versus High-Risk Patients in Intensive Care

    PubMed Central

    Sileanu, Florentina E.; Murugan, Raghavan; Lucko, Nicole; Clermont, Gilles; Kane-Gill, Sandra L.; Handler, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives AKI in critically ill patients is usually part of multiorgan failure. However, nonrenal organ failure may not always precede AKI and patients without evidence of these organ failures may not be at low risk for AKI. This study examined the risk and outcomes associated with AKI in critically ill patients with and without cardiovascular or respiratory organ failures at presentation to the intensive care unit (ICU). Design, setting, participants, & measurements A large, academic medical center database, with records from July 2000 through October 2008, was used and the authors identified a low-risk cohort as patients without cardiovascular and respiratory organ failures defined as not receiving vasopressor support or mechanical ventilation within the first 24 hours of ICU admission. AKI was defined using Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. The primary end points were moderate to severe AKI (stages 2–3) and risk-adjusted hospital mortality. Results Of 40,152 critically ill patients, 44.9% received neither vasopressors nor mechanical ventilation on ICU day 1. Stages 2–3 AKI occurred less frequently in the low-risk patients versus high-risk patients within 24 hours (14.3% versus 29.1%) and within 1 week (25.7% versus 51.7%) of ICU admission. Patients developing AKI in both risk groups had higher risk of death before hospital discharge. However, the adjusted odds of hospital mortality were greater (odds ratio, 2.99; 95% confidence interval, 2.62 to 3.41) when AKI occurred in low-risk patients compared with those with respiratory or cardiovascular failures (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.09 to 1.3); interaction P<0.001. Conclusions Patients admitted to ICU without respiratory or cardiovascular failure have a substantial likelihood of developing AKI. Although survival for low-risk patients is better than for high-risk patients, the relative increase in mortality associated with AKI is actually greater for low-risk patients. Strategies aimed at preventing AKI should not exclude ICU patients without cardiovascular or respiratory organ failures. PMID:25424992

  7. Coordinating perioperative care for the 'high risk' general surgical patient using risk prediction scoring.

    PubMed

    Hafiz, Shaziz; Lees, Nicholas Peter

    2016-01-01

    Identifying 'high risk' (> 5% mortality score) emergency general surgical patients early, allows appropriate perioperative care to be allocated by securing critical care beds and ensuring the presence of senior surgeons and senior anesthetists intraoperatively. Scoring systems can be used to predict perioperative risk and coordinate resources perioperatively. Currently it is unclear which estimate of risk correlates with current resource deployment. A retrospective study was undertaken assessing the relationship between deployment of perioperative resources: senior surgeon, senior anesthetist and critical care bed. The study concluded that almost all high risk patients with high POSSUM mortality and morbidity scores had a consultant senior surgeon present intraoperatively. Critically unwell patients with higher operative severity and perioperative morbidity scores received higher care (HDU/ICU) beds postoperatively, ensuring that they received appropriate care if their condition deteriorated. Therefore POSSUM scoring should be used perioperatively in emergency cases to coordinate appropriate perioperative care for high risk general surgical patients. PMID:26901929

  8. Behavioral Risk Assessment of the Guarded Suicidal Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Robert I.

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals are trained to assess patients by direct observation and examination. Short inpatient length of stay, brief outpatient visits, emergency room evaluations, and other time-limited clinical settings require rapid assessment of suicide risk. Recognition of behavioral suicide risk factors can assist

  9. Behavioral Risk Assessment of the Guarded Suicidal Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Robert I.

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals are trained to assess patients by direct observation and examination. Short inpatient length of stay, brief outpatient visits, emergency room evaluations, and other time-limited clinical settings require rapid assessment of suicide risk. Recognition of behavioral suicide risk factors can assist…

  10. Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Improve the Stratification of Ischemic Stroke Risk in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Nambi, Vijay; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Chambless, Lloyd; Hu, Yijuan; Bang, Heejung; Coresh, Josef; Ni, Hanyu; Boerwinkle, Eric; Mosley, Thomas; Sharrett, Richey; Folsom, Aaron R.; Ballantyne, Christie M.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Inflammation plays a critical role in the development of vascular disease, and increased levels of the inflammatory biomarkers, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) have been shown to be associated with an increased risk for ischemic stroke. Methods In a prospective case– cohort (n=949) study in 12 762 apparently healthy, middle-aged men and women in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, we first examined whether Lp-PLA2 and hs-CRP levels improved the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) for 5-year ischemic stroke risk. We then examined how Lp-PLA2 and hs-CRP levels altered classification of individuals into low-, intermediate-, or high-risk categories compared with traditional risk factors. Results In a model using traditional risk factors alone, the AUC adjusted for optimism was 0.732, whereas adding hs-CRP improved the AUC to 0.743, and adding Lp-PLA2 significantly improved the AUC to 0.752. Addition of hs-CRP and Lp-PLA2 together in the model improved the AUC to 0.761, and the addition of the interaction between Lp-PLA2 and hs-CRP further significantly improved the AUC to 0.774. With the use of traditional risk factors to assess 5-year risk for ischemic stroke, 86% of participants were categorized as low risk (<2%); 11%, intermediate risk (2% to 5%); and 3%, high risk (>5%). The addition of hs-CRP, Lp-PLA2, and their interaction to the model reclassified 4%, 39%, and 34% of the low-, intermediate- and high-risk categories, respectively. Conclusion Lp-PLA2 and hs-CRP may be useful in individuals classified as intermediate risk for ischemic stroke by traditional risk factors. PMID:19095974

  11. Congenital heart disease and pregnancy: maternal and fetal risks.

    PubMed

    Earing, Michael G; Webb, Gary D

    2005-12-01

    Women with congenital heart disease (CHD) now comprise most patients with heart disease seen during pregnancy, accounting for 80% of all patients. In general, pregnancy is well tolerated in patients with CHD. For some women with particularly high-risk lesions and poor functional class, however, pregnancy poses significant risk for cardiovascular complications, including premature death. As result, preconception counseling and risk stratification are mandatory and should be done in all women of childbearing age with CHD. PMID:16325669

  12. Risk Prediction of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients With Cirrhosis: The ADRESS-HCC Risk Model

    PubMed Central

    Flemming, Jennifer A.; Yang, Ju Dong; Vittinghoff, Eric; Kim, W. Ray

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND All patients with cirrhosis are at risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This risk is not uniform because other patient-related factors influence the risk of HCC. The objective of the current study was to develop an HCC risk prediction model to estimate the 1-year probability of HCC to assist with patient counseling. METHODS Between 2002 and 2011, a cohort of 34,932 patients with cirrhosis was identified from a national liver transplantation waitlist database from the United States. Cox proportional hazards regression methods were used to develop and validate a risk prediction model for incident HCC. In the validation cohort, discrimination and calibration of the model was examined. External validation was conducted using patients with cirrhosis who were enrolled in the Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-term Treatment against Cirrhosis (HALT-C) study. RESULTS HCC developed in 1960 patients (5.6%) during a median follow-up of 1.3 years (interquartile range, 0.47 years-2.83 years). Six baseline clinical variables, including age, diabetes, race, etiology of cirrhosis, sex, and severity (ADRESS) of liver dysfunction were independently associated with HCC and were used to develop the ADRESS-HCC risk model. C-indices in the derivation and internal validation cohorts were 0.704 and 0.691, respectively. In the validation cohort, the predicted cumulative incidence of HCC by the ADRESS-HCC model closely matched the observed data. In patients with cirrhosis in the HALT-C cohort, the model stratified patients correctly according to the risk of developing HCC within 5 years. CONCLUSIONS The ADRESS-HCC risk model is a useful tool for predicting the 1-year risk of HCC among patients with cirrhosis. PMID:25042049

  13. Increased Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Su, Yu-Chieh; Ho, Hsu-Chueh; Hung, Shih-Kai; Lee, Moon-Sing; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Chou, Pesus; Huang, Yung-Sung

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Radiation/chemoradiotherapy-induced carotid stenosis and cerebrovascular events in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) can cause severe disability and even death. This study aimed to estimate the risk of ischemic stroke in this patient population over more than 10 years of follow-up. Methods and Materials: The study cohorts consisted of all patients hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of NPC (n = 1094), whereas patients hospitalized for an appendectomy during 1997 and 1998 (n = 4376) acted as the control group and surrogate for the general population. Cox proportional hazard model was performed as a means of comparing the stroke-free survival rate between the two cohorts after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. Results: Of the 292 patients with ischemic strokes, 62 (5.7%) were from the NPC cohort and 230 (5.3%) were from the control group. NPC patients ages 35-54 had a 1.66 times (95% CI, 1.16-2.86; p = 0.009) higher risk of ischemic stroke after adjusting for patient characteristics, comorbidities, geographic region, urbanization level of residence, and socioeconomic status. There was no statistical difference in ischemic stroke risk between the NPC patients and appendectomy patients ages 55-64 years (hazard ratio = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.56-1.33; p = 0.524) after adjusting for other factors. Conclusions: Young NPC patients carry a higher risk for ischemic stroke than the general population. Besides regular examinations of carotid duplex, different irradiation strategies or using new technique of radiotherapy, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy, should be considered in young NPC patients.

  14. Risk factors for osteoporosis in inflammatory bowel disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Carla Andrade; Lyra, Andre Castro; Rocha, Raquel; Santana, Genoile Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients exhibit higher risk for bone loss than the general population. The chronic inflammation causes a reduction in bone mineral density (BMD), which leads to osteopenia and osteoporosis. This article reviewed each risk factor for osteoporosis in IBD patients. Inflammation is one of the factors that contribute to osteoporosis in IBD patients, and the main system that is involved in bone loss is likely RANK/RANKL/osteoprotegerin. Smoking is a risk factor for bone loss and fractures, and many mechanisms have been proposed to explain this loss. Body composition also interferes in bone metabolism and increasing muscle mass may positively affect BMD. IBD patients frequently use corticosteroids, which stimulates osteoclastogenesis. IBD patients are also associated with vitamin D deficiency, which contributes to bone loss. However, infliximab therapy is associated with improvements in bone metabolism, but it is not clear whether the effects are because of inflammation improvement or infliximab use. Ulcerative colitis patients with proctocolectomy and ileal pouches and Crohn’s disease patients with ostomy are also at risk for bone loss, and these patients should be closely monitored. PMID:26600979

  15. Gun Safety Management with Patients at Risk for Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Robert I.

    2007-01-01

    Guns in the home are associated with a five-fold increase in suicide. All patients at risk for suicide must be asked if guns are available at home or easily accessible elsewhere, or if they have intent to buy or purchase a gun. Gun safety management requires a collaborative team approach including the clinician, patient, and designated person

  16. Risk factors for osteoporosis in inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    PubMed

    Lima, Carla Andrade; Lyra, Andre Castro; Rocha, Raquel; Santana, Genoile Oliveira

    2015-11-15

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients exhibit higher risk for bone loss than the general population. The chronic inflammation causes a reduction in bone mineral density (BMD), which leads to osteopenia and osteoporosis. This article reviewed each risk factor for osteoporosis in IBD patients. Inflammation is one of the factors that contribute to osteoporosis in IBD patients, and the main system that is involved in bone loss is likely RANK/RANKL/osteoprotegerin. Smoking is a risk factor for bone loss and fractures, and many mechanisms have been proposed to explain this loss. Body composition also interferes in bone metabolism and increasing muscle mass may positively affect BMD. IBD patients frequently use corticosteroids, which stimulates osteoclastogenesis. IBD patients are also associated with vitamin D deficiency, which contributes to bone loss. However, infliximab therapy is associated with improvements in bone metabolism, but it is not clear whether the effects are because of inflammation improvement or infliximab use. Ulcerative colitis patients with proctocolectomy and ileal pouches and Crohn's disease patients with ostomy are also at risk for bone loss, and these patients should be closely monitored. PMID:26600979

  17. Gun Safety Management with Patients at Risk for Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Robert I.

    2007-01-01

    Guns in the home are associated with a five-fold increase in suicide. All patients at risk for suicide must be asked if guns are available at home or easily accessible elsewhere, or if they have intent to buy or purchase a gun. Gun safety management requires a collaborative team approach including the clinician, patient, and designated person…

  18. The role of TMPRSS2:ERG in molecular stratification of PCa and its association with tumor aggressiveness: a study in Brazilian patients

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, Flávia C.; Faria, Eliney F.; Neto, Cristovam Scapulatempo; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Zanardo-Oliveira, Cleyton; Taboga, Sebastião R.; Campos, Silvana G. P.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent gene fusions between the genes TMPRSS2 and ERG have been described in prostate cancer (PCa) and are found in 27% to 79% of radical prostatectomy. This fusion transcription results in ERG overexpression, which can be detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and provide a potential diagnostic marker for PCa. Three tissue microarrays (TMAs) containing samples from 98 patients with PCa and one TMA of 27 samples from individuals without PCa were tested for ERG immunostaining, and the presence of TMPRSS2:ERG transcripts was confirmed by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed that 46.9% of tumors tested positive for ERG immunostaining, and this finding was consistent with the results of qRT-PCR testing (k = 0.694, p < 0.001). IHC had a specificity of 83.3% and a sensitivity of 81% in detecting TMPRSS2:ERG fusion. Patients with PSA < 4.0 ng/mL showed positive immunoreactivity for ERG (p = 0.031). Kaplan-Meier analysis suggested that ERG expression did not influence the time of biochemical recurrence. This study demonstrates that both IHC and qRT-PCR are useful tools in detecting TMPRSS2:ERG fusions. A correlation between ERG expression and clinical and pathological parameters was not found, but the frequency, specificity and recurrence of ERG in PCa suggests that it may be a potential adjunct diagnostic tool. PMID:25007891

  19. Risk of cardiovascular disease? A qualitative study of risk interpretation among patients with high cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown the importance of paying attention to lay peoples’ interpretations of risk of disease, in order to explain health-related behavior. However, risk interpretations interplay with social context in complex ways. The objective was to explore how asymptomatic patients with high cholesterol interpret risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods Fourteen patients with high cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease were interviewed, and patterns across patient accounts were identified and analysed from an ethnographic approach. Results Information from the general practitioner about high cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease was reinterpreted in everyday social life. The risk associated with fatty foods was weighed against the pleasures of social and cultural events in which this type of food was common and cherished. A positive mindset was applied as a strategy to lower the risk of having high cholesterol, but knowledge about risk was viewed as a cause of anxiety and self-absorption, and this anxiety made the body susceptible to disease, hampering the chances for healthy life. Conclusion Interpretations of high cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease are embedded in social relations and everyday life concerns. This should be addressed in general practice in preference-sensitive cases about risk-reducing medication. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01187056 PMID:24040920

  20. [Man at risk. Preventive strategies and risk management for patient safety].

    PubMed

    Grube, C; Schaper, N; Graf, B M

    2002-04-01

    Anaesthesia-related risk has been significantly reduced within the last decade. Nevertheless the risk and the possibility of dying or suffering permanent damage still exist. To improve patient safety, risk assessment and analysis must lead to the development of preventive strategies. For this purpose anaesthesia can rely on the concepts of other "high reliability" organisations such as aviation or nuclear power plants. Analyses of critical incidents in the different fields confirm that next to technical problems human factors account for most of the preventable mishaps. Human factors are responsible for individual mistakes as well as for organisational errors. Therefore besides traditional concepts of risk reduction (e.g. guidelines) new strategies (e.g. full-scale simulation) must be applied to minimise the negative impact of human factors on patient safety. Risk management has to consider technical, organisational and human factors to implement a higher standard of patient safety. PMID:12063713

  1. Clinical impact of the NKp30/B7-H6 axis in high-risk neuroblastoma patients.

    PubMed

    Semeraro, Michaela; Rusakiewicz, Sylvie; Minard-Colin, Véronique; Delahaye, Nicolas F; Enot, David; Vély, Frédéric; Marabelle, Aurélien; Papoular, Benjamin; Piperoglou, Christelle; Ponzoni, Mirco; Perri, Patrizia; Tchirkov, Andrei; Matta, Jessica; Lapierre, Valérie; Shekarian, Tala; Valsesia-Wittmann, Sandrine; Commo, Frédéric; Prada, Nicole; Poirier-Colame, Vichnou; Bressac, Brigitte; Cotteret, Sophie; Brugieres, Laurence; Farace, Françoise; Chaput, Nathalie; Kroemer, Guido; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Zitvogel, Laurence

    2015-04-15

    The immunosurveillance mechanisms governing high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB), a major pediatric malignancy, have been elusive. We identify a potential role for natural killer (NK) cells, in particular the interaction between the NK receptor NKp30 and its ligand, B7-H6, in the metastatic progression and survival of HR-NB after myeloablative multimodal chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation. NB cells expressing the NKp30 ligand B7-H6 stimulated NK cells in an NKp30-dependent manner. Serum concentration of soluble B7-H6 correlated with the down-regulation of NKp30, bone marrow metastases, and chemoresistance, and soluble B7-H6 contained in the serum of HR-NB patients inhibited NK cell functions in vitro. The expression of distinct NKp30 isoforms affecting the polarization of NK cell functions correlated with 10-year event-free survival in three independent cohorts of HR-NB in remission from metastases after induction chemotherapy (n = 196, P < 0.001), adding prognostic value to known risk factors such as N-Myc amplification and age >18 months. We conclude that the interaction between NKp30 and B7-H6 may contribute to the fate of NB patients and that both the expression of NKp30 isoforms on circulating NK cells and the concentration of soluble B7-H6 in the serum may be clinically useful as biomarkers for risk stratification. PMID:25877893

  2. Management of patients with high gastrointestinal risk on antiplatelet therapy.

    PubMed

    Cryer, Byron

    2009-06-01

    Increasing use of antiplatelet therapies is associated with increasing GI complications, such as ulceration and GI bleeding. Identification of high-risk patients and, in such patients, incorporation of strategies to reduce their GI risk would be clinically prudent. After assessment and treatment of H pylori in patients with prior ulcer or GI bleeding histories, further reduction in GI risk in other high-risk patients who require antiplatelet agents is primarily accomplished by prescribing drugs that when coadministered with antiplatelet agents protect against mucosal ulceration, primarily proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). However, observational studies indicate a higher cardiovascular event rate in patients taking PPIs along with clopidogrel and aspirin compared with that of patients undergoing dual antiplatelet therapy without PPIs. Whether concurrent use of a PPI with clopidogrel represents a safety concern or not is currently being evaluated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Until more specific regulatory guidance is available, current recommendations are that patients taking both PPIs and clopidogrel concurrently should probably continue to do so until more data become available. PMID:19446259

  3. Medicaid patients at high risk for frequent hospital admission: real-time identification and remediable risks.

    PubMed

    Raven, Maria C; Billings, John C; Goldfrank, Lewis R; Manheimer, Eric D; Gourevitch, Marc N

    2009-03-01

    Patients with frequent hospitalizations generate a disproportionate share of hospital visits and costs. Accurate determination of patients who might benefit from interventions is challenging: most patients with frequent admissions in 1 year would not continue to have them in the next. Our objective was to employ a validated regression algorithm to case-find Medicaid patients at high-risk for hospitalization in the next 12 months and identify intervention-amenable characteristics to reduce hospitalization risk. We obtained encounter data for 36,457 Medicaid patients with any visit to an urban public hospital from 2001 to 2006 and generated an algorithm-based score for hospitalization risk in the subsequent 12 months for each patient (0 = lowest, 100 = highest). To determine medical and social contributors to the current admission, we conducted in-depth interviews with high-risk hospitalized patients (scores >50) and analyzed associated Medicaid claims data. An algorithm-based risk score >50 was attained in 2,618 (7.2%) patients. The algorithm's positive predictive value was equal to 0.67. During the study period, 139 high-risk patients were admitted: 60 met inclusion criteria and 50 were interviewed. Fifty-six percent cited the Emergency Department as their usual source of care or had none. Sixty-eight percent had >1 chronic medical conditions, and 42% were admitted for conditions related to substance use. Sixty percent were homeless or precariously housed. Mean Medicaid expenditures for the interviewed patients were $39,188 and $84,040 per patient for the years immediately prior to and following study participation, respectively. Findings including high rates of substance use, homelessness, social isolation, and lack of a medical home will inform the design of interventions to improve community-based care and reduce hospitalizations and associated costs. PMID:19082899

  4. Chemical stratification of the mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    A possible scenario for the chemical stratification of the earth's mantle is presented. Differentiation of the mantle by either the production of basaltic magmas or partial melting by the upper mantle is proposed to lead to a thick basalt layer, the lower part of which is converted to eclogite as the earth cools. Density estimates indicate that the eclogite formed would not be able to sink to below 670 km. The eclogite layer is thus demonstrated to be trapped as a result of whole-mantle convection and possible irreversible differentiation of the mantle into eclogite and overlying residual peridotite layers.

  5. Prediction of cardiac risk in patients undergoing vascular surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Morise, A.P.; McDowell, D.E.; Savrin, R.A.; Goodwin, C.A.; Gabrielle, O.F.; Oliver, F.N.; Nullet, F.R.; Bekheit, S.; Jain, A.C.

    1987-03-01

    In an attempt to determine whether noninvasive cardiac testing could be used to assess cardiac risk in patients undergoing surgery for vascular disease, the authors studied 96 patients. Seventy-seven patients eventually underwent major vascular surgery with 11 (14%) experiencing a significant cardiac complication. Thallium imaging was much more likely to be positive (p less than 0.01) in patients with a cardiac complication; however, there was a significant number of patients with cardiac complications who had a positive history or electrocardiogram for myocardial infarction. When grouped by complication and history of infarction, thallium imaging, if negative, correctly predicted low cardiac risk in the group with a history of infarction. Thallium imaging, however, did not provide a clear separation of risk in those without a history of infarction. Age and coronary angiography, on the other hand, did reveal significant differences within the group without a history of infarction. The resting radionuclide ejection fraction followed a similar pattern to thallium imaging. It is concluded that a positive history of myocardial infarction at any time in the past is the strongest risk predictor in this population and that the predictive value of noninvasive testing is dependent on this factor. Considering these findings, a proposed scheme for assessing risk that will require further validation is presented.

  6. Increased Risk of Osteoporosis in Patients With Peptic Ulcer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chieh-Hsin; Tung, Yi-Ching; Chai, Chee-Yin; Lu, Ying-Yi; Su, Yu-Feng; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Kuo, Keng-Liang; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate osteoporosis risk in patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) using a nationwide population-based dataset. This Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) analysis included 27,132 patients aged 18 years and older who had been diagnosed with PUD (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] codes 531–534) during 1996 to 2010. The control group consisted of 27,132 randomly selected (age- and gender)-matched patients without PUD. The association between PUD and the risk of developing osteoporosis was estimated using a Cox proportional hazard regression model. During the follow-up period, osteoporosis was diagnosed in 2538 (9.35 %) patients in the PUD group and in 2259 (8.33 %) participants in the non-PUD group. After adjusting for covariates, osteoporosis risk was 1.85 times greater in the PUD group compared to the non-PUD group (13.99 vs 5.80 per 1000 person-years, respectively). Osteoporosis developed 1 year after PUD diagnosis. The 1-year follow-up period exhibited the highest significance between the 2 groups (hazard ratio [HR] = 63.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 28.19–142.74, P < 0.001). Osteoporosis risk was significantly higher in PUD patients with proton-pump-inhibitors (PPIs) use (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.03–1.34) compared to PUD patients without PPIs use. This study revealed a significant association between PUD and subsequent risk of osteoporosis. Therefore, PUD patients, especially those treated with PPIs, should be evaluated for subsequent risk of osteoporosis to minimize the occurrence of adverse events. PMID:27100415

  7. Cardiovascular risk factor management in patients with RA compared to matched non-RA patients

    PubMed Central

    Cawston, Helene; Bourhis, Francois; Al, Maiwenn; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P. M. H.; Liao, Katherine P.; Solomon, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. RA is associated with a 50–60% increase in risk of cardiovascular (CV) death. This study aimed to compare management of CV risk factors in RA and matched non-RA patients. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using UK clinical practice data. Patients presenting with an incident RA diagnosis were matched 1:4 to non-RA patients based on a propensity score for RA, entry year, CV risk category and treatment received at index date (date of RA diagnosis). Patients tested and treated for CV risk factors as well as those attaining CV risk factor management goals were evaluated in both groups. Results. Between 1987 and 2010, 24 859 RA patients were identified and matched to 87 304 non-RA patients. At index date, groups had similar baseline characteristics. Annual blood pressure, lipids and diabetes-related testing were similar in both groups, although CRP and ESR were higher in RA patients at diagnosis and decreased over time. RA patients prescribed antihypertensives increased from 38.2% at diagnosis to 45.7% at 5 years, from 14.0 to 20.6% for lipid-lowering treatments and from 5.1 to 6.4% for antidiabetics. Similar treatment percentages were observed in non-RA patients, although slightly lower for antihypertensives. Modest (2%) but significantly lower attainment of lipid and diabetes goals at 1 year was observed in RA patients. Conclusion. There were no differences between groups in the frequency of testing and treatment of CV risk factors. Higher CV risk in RA patients seems unlikely to be driven by differences in traditional CV risk factor management. PMID:26705329

  8. Nutritional risk assessment in critically ill cancer patients: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fruchtenicht, Ana Valéria Gonçalves; Poziomyck, Aline Kirjner; Kabke, Geórgia Brum; Loss, Sérgio Henrique; Antoniazzi, Jorge Luiz; Steemburgo, Thais; Moreira, Luis Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the main methods for nutritional risk assessment used in critically ill cancer patients and present the methods that better assess risks and predict relevant clinical outcomes in this group of patients, as well as to discuss the pros and cons of these methods according to the current literature. Methods The study consisted of a systematic review based on analysis of manuscripts retrieved from the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases by searching for the key words “nutritional risk assessment”, “critically ill” and “cancer”. Results Only 6 (17.7%) of 34 initially retrieved papers met the inclusion criteria and were selected for the review. The main outcomes of these studies were that resting energy expenditure was associated with undernourishment and overfeeding. The high Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score was significantly associated with low food intake, weight loss and malnutrition. In terms of biochemical markers, higher levels of creatinine, albumin and urea were significantly associated with lower mortality. The worst survival was found for patients with worse Eastern Cooperative Oncologic Group - performance status, high Glasgow Prognostic Score, low albumin, high Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score and high alkaline phosphatase levels. Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index values < 87 were significantly associated with mortality. A high Prognostic Inflammatory and Nutritional Index score was associated with abnormal nutritional status in critically ill cancer patients. Among the reviewed studies that examined weight and body mass index alone, no significant clinical outcome was found. Conclusion None of the methods reviewed helped to define risk among these patients. Therefore, assessment by a combination of weight loss and serum measurements, preferably in combination with other methods using scores such as Eastern Cooperative Oncologic Group - performance status, Glasgow Prognostic Score and Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, is suggested given that their use is simple, feasible and useful in such cases. PMID:26270855

  9. Radioiodine Treatment and Thyroid Hormone Suppression Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Adverse Effects Support the Trend toward Less Aggressive Treatment for Low-Risk Patients

    PubMed Central

    Klein Hesselink, E.N.; Links, T.P.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, the incidence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) has steadily increased, with especially a growing number of low-risk patients. Whereas DTC used to be treated rather aggressively, it is now acknowledged that aggressive treatment does not affect outcome for low-risk patients and that it can induce adverse effects. In this review an overview of the most clinically relevant adverse effects of radioiodine treatment and thyroid hormone suppression therapy (THST) is presented, and the trend toward less aggressive treatment for low-risk patients is outlined. Salivary gland dysfunction occurs in roughly 30% of patients, and is probably due to the concentration of radioiodine in the salivary glands by the sodium/iodide symporter. Beta radiation from radioiodine can result in sialoadenitis and eventually fibrosis and loss of salivary function. Furthermore, patients can experience bone marrow dysfunction following radioiodine treatment. Although this is in general subclinical and transient, patients that receive very high cumulative radioiodine doses may be at risk for more severe bone marrow dysfunction. THST can induce adverse cardiovascular effects in patients with DTC, such as diastolic and systolic dysfunction, and also adverse vascular and prothrombotic effects have been described. Finally, the effects of THST on bone formation and resorption are outlined; especially postmenopausal women with DTC on THST seem to be at risk of bone loss. In the past years, advances have been made in preventing low-risk patients from being overtreated. Improved biomarkers are still needed to further optimize risk stratification and personalize medicine. PMID:26279993

  10. Self-criticism of physicians, patient participation and risk competence

    PubMed Central

    Wolffsohn, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Self-criticism of physicians and patient participation are the pillars of modern medical ethics and medical programmes. Patients expect risk minimisation from physicians, mostly without realising how much they could actively do themselves in this respect. But what about the willingness of German people to take risks, how high is it really at present? Direct empirical data are not available, but results from general empirical research show that people’s willingness to take risks is probably rather low. Post-heroic societies of welfare states are less likely to take risks than supposedly heroic ones. Therefore, the question whether it is responsible for medical experts to transfer even more responsibility to non-medical laypeople becomes increasingly important in a social context. PMID:26195919

  11. Risk assessment and psychosocial interventions for suicidal patients

    PubMed Central

    Chesin, Megan; Stanley, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Suicide is a leading cause of death in the US. Although factors elevating long-term risk for suicide are known and include bipolar disorder, signs of imminent suicide risk are difficult to study and not well-specified. Acute risk determinations must be made to determine the appropriate level of care to safeguard patients. To increase safety among at-risk patients in the short term and to decrease risk over time, psychosocial interventions to prevent suicide have been developed and tested in acute care and outpatient settings. Methods A narrative review of studies of imminent risk factors for suicide, suicide risk decision making, and psychosocial suicide prevention interventions was conducted. Results While some long-term risk factors of suicide have been established, accurate identification of individuals at imminent risk for suicide is difficult. Therefore, prevention efforts targeting individuals at high suicide behavior risk discharging from acute care settings tend to be generic and focus on psychoeducation and supportive follow-up contact. Data regarding the effectiveness of brief interventions (i.e., those not requiring more than one individualized treatment session) is mixed, showing better outcomes in the shorter term and when incidence of suicidal behavior or ideation is the outcome. With respect to longer term suicide prevention interventions (i.e., those with a minimum of 10 sessions), Dialectical Behavior Therapy has the largest evidence base. Conclusions To improve suicide prevention efforts, more rigorous study of imminent risk factors and psychosocial interventions is needed. Adaptations specific to individuals with bipolar disorder are possible and needed. PMID:23782460

  12. Colonoscopy-induced ischemic colitis in patients without risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Ok; Kim, Sae Hee; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Chan Woong; Lee, Min Ji; Lee, Jin A; Koo, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Anna; Han, Hyun-Young; Kang, Dong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic colitis is the most common form of intestinal ischemia. It is a condition that is commonly seen in the elderly and among individuals with risk factors for ischemia. Common predisposing conditions for ischemic colitis are major vascular occlusion, small vessel disorder, shock, some medications, colonic obstructions and hematologic disorders. Ischemic colitis following colonoscopy is rare. Here, we report two cases of ischemic colitis after a routine screening colonoscopy in patients without risk factors for ischemia. PMID:24707156

  13. Medication Risk-Taking Behavior in Functional Dyspepsia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Brian E; Yu, Jerry; Crowell, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: No medication is approved for the treatment of functional dyspepsia (FD). The risks that patients would be willing to take to cure their FD symptoms are unknown. Methods: FD patients (Rome III criteria) were mailed a questionnaire that assessed demographics, medication use, and prior medication adverse events. Scales to measure FD severity, quality of life, anxiety, depression, impulsiveness, and risk-taking behavior were included. A standard gamble (SG) evaluated willingness to take risks associated with a theoretical FD medication. Data were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics. Results: One hundred and fourteen responses were analyzed (54.5% response rate). The mean age of the patients was 49.2 years; 84% were women and 96% were white. The mean duration of symptoms was 8.2 years (range 1–38 years). The most bothersome symptom was upper abdominal discomfort (25%), followed by upper abdominal pain (22%) and bloating (15%). Forty percent of respondents rated their FD symptoms as moderate and 31% as mild. Forty-six percent reported a side effect from a prescription medication used to treat FD. When asked about a hypothetical medication that could cure their FD symptoms, 49% of respondents reported that they would accept a mean 12.7% risk of sudden death for a 99% chance of cure. Conclusions: This prospective study suggests that FD patients are surprisingly willing to take significant risks with a hypothetical medication to cure their symptoms. To counsel patients effectively and assist in the development of informed, preference-based decisions regarding medication therapy, physicians need to elicit and understand FD patients' risk adversity. PMID:25569188

  14. Risk of Stroke in Patients With Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ching-Yuan; Yeh, Diana Yu-Wung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The association between spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) and stroke has not been reported, and this study aimed to explore this association. We used the National Health Insurance Research Database for conducting a nationwide, population-based, retrospective cohort study of patients newly hospitalized for SP from 2000 to 2010. A total of 2541 patients with newly diagnosed SP were included and compared with patients without SP. We observed that patients with SP were at higher risk for developing stroke, with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.56. In addition, these patients had a significantly higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke (adjusted HR = 2.22) than of ischemic stroke (adjusted HR = 1.48). The risk of stroke was the highest in the initial 4 months after hospitalization for SP (adjusted HR = 3.41, 95% confidence interval = 1.98–5.87). In conclusion, our study revealed a correlation between stroke and a history of SP, and the risk of stroke after SP was time sensitive. PMID:27100423

  15. Cancer Risk among Patients with Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Gadalla, Shahinaz M; Lund, Marie; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Gørtz, Sanne; Mueller, Christine M; Moxley, Richard T; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; Björkholm, Magnus; Shebl, Fatma M; Hilbert, James E; Landgren, Ola; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Greene, Mark H

    2012-01-01

    Context Myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD) is an autosomal dominant multisystem neuromuscular disorder characterized by unstable nucleotide repeat expansions. Case reports have suggested that MMD patients may be at increased risk of malignancy, putative risks which have never been quantified. Objective To quantitatively evaluate cancer risk in patients with MMD, overall, and by sex and age. Design, Setting, and Participants We identified 1,658 patients with an MMD discharge diagnosis in the Swedish Inpatient Hospital or Danish Patient Discharge Registries between 1977 and 2008. We linked these patients to their corresponding cancer registry. Patients were followed from date of first MMD-related inpatient or outpatient contact, to first cancer diagnosis, death, emigration, or completion of cancer registration. Main Outcome Measures Risks of all cancers combined, and by anatomic site, stratified by sex and age. Results 104 patients with an inpatient or outpatient discharge diagnosis of MMD developed cancer during post-discharge follow-up. This corresponds to an observed cancer rate of 73.4/10,000 person-years in MMD versus an expected rate of 36.9/10,000 in the general Swedish and Danish populations combined (SIR =2.0, 95% CI =1.6–2.4). Specifically, we observed significant excess risks of cancers of the endometrium (observed rate=16.1/10,000 person-years: SIR=7.6, 95%CI=4.0–13.2), brain (observed rate=4.9/10,000 person-years: SIR=5.3, 95%CI=2.3–10.4), ovary (observed rate=10.3/10,000 person-years: SIR=5.2, 95% CI=2.3–10.2), and colon (observed rate=7.1/10,000 person-years: SIR=2.9, 95%CI=1.5–5.1). Cancer risks were similar in females and males after excluding genital organ tumors (SIR=1.9, 95% CI=1.4–2.5 vs. 1.8, 95% CI=1.3–2.5, respectively, p-heterogeneity=0.81; observed rates=64.5 and 47.7/10,000 person-years in women and men, respectively), The same pattern of cancer excess was observed first in the Swedish, and then in the Danish cohorts, which were studied sequentially and initially analyzed independently. Conclusions MMD patients identified from the Swedish and Danish patient registries were at increased risk of cancer both overall and for selected anatomic sites. PMID:22166607

  16. Traditional Risk Factors Versus Biomarkers for Prediction of Secondary Events in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease: From the Heart and Soul Study

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Alexis L; Ku, Ivy A; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Christenson, Robert H; DeFilippi, Christopher R; Ganz, Peter; Ix, Joachim H; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Omland, Torbjrn; Sabatine, Marc S; Schiller, Nelson B; Shlipak, Michael G; Skali, Hicham; Takeuchi, Madoka; Vittinghoff, Eric; Whooley, Mary A

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) have widely varying prognoses and treatment options. Validated models for risk stratification of patients with CHD are needed. We sought to evaluate traditional and novel risk factors as predictors of secondary cardiovascular (CV) events, and to develop a prediction model that could be used to risk stratify patients with stable CHD. Methods and Results We used independent derivation (912 participants in the Heart and Soul Study) and validation (2876 participants in the PEACE trial) cohorts of patients with stable CHD to develop a risk prediction model using Cox proportional hazards models. The outcome was CV events, defined as myocardial infarction, stroke, or CV death. The annual rate of CV events was 3.4% in the derivation cohort and 2.2% in the validation cohort. With the exception of smoking, traditional risk factors (including age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes) did not emerge as the top predictors of secondary CV events. The top 4 predictors of secondary events were the following: N-terminal pro-type brain natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, and current smoking. The 5-year C-index for this 4-predictor model was 0.73 in the derivation cohort and 0.65 in the validation cohort. As compared with variables in the Framingham secondary events model, the Heart and Soul risk model resulted in net reclassification improvement of 0.47 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.73) in the derivation cohort and 0.18 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.40) in the validation cohort. Conclusions Novel risk factors are superior to traditional risk factors for predicting 5-year risk of secondary events in patients with stable CHD. PMID:26150476

  17. The expression level of BAALC-associated microRNA miR-3151 is an independent prognostic factor in younger patients with cytogenetic intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Beyá, M; Brunet, S; Nomdedéu, J; Cordeiro, A; Tormo, M; Escoda, L; Ribera, J M; Arnan, M; Heras, I; Gallardo, D; Bargay, J; Queipo de Llano, M P; Salamero, O; Martí, J M; Sampol, A; Pedro, C; Hoyos, M; Pratcorona, M; Castellano, J J; Nomdedeu, M; Risueño, R M; Sierra, J; Monzó, M; Navarro, A; Esteve, J

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease whose prognosis is mainly related to the biological risk conferred by cytogenetics and molecular profiling. In elderly patients (⩾60 years) with normal karyotype AML miR-3151 have been identified as a prognostic factor. However, miR-3151 prognostic value has not been examined in younger AML patients. In the present work, we have studied miR-3151 alone and in combination with BAALC, its host gene, in a cohort of 181 younger intermediate-risk AML (IR-AML) patients. Patients with higher expression of miR-3151 had shorter overall survival (P=0.0025), shorter leukemia-free survival (P=0.026) and higher cumulative incidence of relapse (P=0.082). Moreover, in the multivariate analysis miR-3151 emerged as independent prognostic marker in both the overall series and within the unfavorable molecular prognostic category. Interestingly, the combined determination of both miR-3151 and BAALC improved this prognostic stratification, with patients with low levels of both parameters showing a better outcome compared with those patients harboring increased levels of one or both markers (P=0.003). In addition, we studied the microRNA expression profile associated with miR-3151 identifying a six-microRNA signature. In conclusion, the analysis of miR-3151 and BAALC expression may well contribute to an improved prognostic stratification of younger patients with IR-AML. PMID:26430723

  18. Sarcopenia in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis: incidence rate, risk factors and its effect on survival risk.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongqi; Gong, Dehua; Jia, Fengyu; Xu, Bin; Liu, Zhihong

    2016-04-01

    Background Sarcopenia is a degenerative syndrome mainly characterized by the atrophy of skeletal muscle, along with the decrease of muscle strength and function. However, there are currently few studies concerning sarcopenia in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis dialysis (MHD). This study was aimed to investigate the incidence of sarcopenia in MHD patients and its influencing factors, as well as its impact on survival risk. Method All 131 MHD patients enrolled in our study were tested with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and grip strength. Demographic data was collected and anthropometric measurement and laboratory examination were conducted. Results The total incidence of sarcopenia within the 131 MHD patients was 13.7% and the incidence of sarcopenia in patients over 60 years was 33.3%. The dialysis duration, with or without diabetes, serum phosphorus and pre-albumin levels of sarcopenic patients were significantly different from those of non-sarcopenicones; the modified quantitative subjective global assessment (MQSGA) scores of sarcopenic patients were higher than those without sarcopenia. Multivariate analysis showed that dialysis duration, diabetes and serum phosphorus level were independent risk factors for sarcopenia in MHD patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a one-year survival of 88.9% in sarcopenic patients, which was significantly lower than non-sarcopenic patients. Conclusion The incidence of sarcopenia in MHD patients was high and increased gradually with age. Dialysis duration, diabetes, serum phosphorus level and malnutrition predisposed the patients to sarcopenia. One-year follow-up found that the mortality risk of sarcopenic patients was higher than that of non-sarcopenic patients. PMID:26738817

  19. Risk of Sleep Apnea in Hospitalized Older Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shear, Talia C.; Balachandran, Jay S.; Mokhlesi, Babak; Spampinato, Lisa M.; Knutson, Kristen L.; Meltzer, David O.; Arora, Vineet M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To assess the prevalence of undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among general medical inpatients and to investigate whether OSA risk is associated with in-hospital sleep quantity and quality. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: General medicine ward in academic medical center Participants: 424 hospitalized adult patients ≥ 50 years old without a sleep disorder diagnosis (mean age 65 years, 57% female, 72% African American). Main Measures: The Berlin questionnaire, a validated screen for determining risk of OSA, was administered to hospitalized medical patients. Sleep duration and efficiency were measured via wrist actigraphy. Self-reported sleep quality was evaluated using Karolinska Sleep Quality Index (KSQI). Key Results: Two of every 5 inpatients ≥ 50 years old (39.5%, n = 168) were found to be at high risk for OSA. Mean in-hospital sleep duration was ∼ 5 h and mean sleep efficiency was 70%. Using random effects linear regression models, we found that patients who screened at high risk for OSA obtained ∼ 40 min less sleep per night (-39.6 min [-66.5, -12.8], p = 0.004). These findings remained significant after controlling for African American race, sex, and age quartiles. In similar models, those patients who screened at high risk had ∼ 5.5% less sleep efficiency per night (-5.50 [-9.96, -1.05], p = 0.015). In multivariate analysis, patients at high risk for OSA also had lower self-reported sleep quality on KSQI (-0.101 [-0.164, -0.037], p = 0.002). Conclusion: Two of every 5 inpatients older than 50 years screened at high risk for OSA. Those screening at high risk have worse in-hospital sleep quantity and quality. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1067. Citation: Shear TC, Balachandran JS, Mokhlesi B, Spampinato LM, Knutson KL, Meltzer DO, Arora VM. Risk of sleep apnea in hospitalized older patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(10):1061-1066. PMID:25317085

  20. Risk assessment of the overweight and obese patient.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Robert F; Blatner, Dawn Jackson

    2005-05-01

    Risk assessment of the overweight and obese patient is an important and necessary first step in the treatment process. Risk classification begins with determination of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference for those with a BMI of 35 or less, and presence of comorbid conditions. With the exception of measuring a fasting blood glucose and lipid panel on all patients, other diagnostic laboratory tests are selected based on the patient's risk factor status. Understanding the reasons leading to and sustaining the patient's overweight and obesity is the next major step and is paramount to designing individualized and targeted treatment. This information is ascertained by having the patient graph his or her weight pattern with associated life events and by assessing detailed dietary and physical activity histories. Calculating estimated energy balance has both benefits and limitations in clinical practice. Pediatric and geriatric patients represent special populations that require additional focus. Improvement in the assessment process will likely be achieved by using a team approach along with future developments in practical measurement of body composition and energy expenditure. PMID:15867897

  1. [Risk factors for therapeutic noncompliance of patients with epilepsies].

    PubMed

    Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Sales-Carmona, Víctor; Ramos-Ramírez, Ricardo

    2002-01-01

    Inadequate compliance is a major contributor to unsuccessful treatment in epilepsies. To establish risk factors associated with therapeutic non-compliance in patients with epilepsy, we carried out a case-control study, nested into a cohort, with thirteen factors possibly implicated in therapeutic non-compliance. The patient's general characteristics, the illness, and patient-practitioner relationship were studied. Patients were followed during 6 months; during this time, serum levels and pill counts were registered. Of 150 patients, 66 were non-compliers and 84 were compliers. Seven of thirteen factors were statistically different with an odds ratio greater than 3 (p < 0.05). However, after log-lineal regression analysis, only the total number of pills per day and the subject's intellectual level were significant. These two factors increase 3.66 times the risk of non-compliance. We conclude that epileptic patients with a low intellectual level and more than three prescribed pills per day have a 3.66 times greater risk of non-compliance to anti epileptic treatment. PMID:12096392

  2. Managing CAP patients at risk of clinical failure.

    PubMed

    Welte, Tobias

    2015-02-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a curable disease. Both the European and American clinical practice guidelines provide algorithms how to manage patients with CAP. However, as populations worldwide are ageing and bacteria are becoming multidrug resistant, it is necessary to address the major factors that put patients at risk of poor outcome. These may include age, comorbidities, the settings where pneumonia was acquired or treated, the need for hospitalisation or ICU admission, likely causative pathogen (bacteria or virus) in a certain region and their local susceptibility pattern. One complicating fact is the lack of definite causative pathogen in approximately 50% of patients making it difficult to choose the most appropriate antibiotic treatment. When risk factors are present simultaneously in patients, fewer treatment options could be rather challenging for physicians. For example, the presence of comorbidities (renal, cardiac, hepatic) may exclude certain antibiotics due to potential adverse events. Assessing the severity of the disease and monitoring biomarkers, however, could help physicians to estimate patient prognosis once diagnosis is confirmed and treatment has been initiated. This review article addresses the most important risk factors of poor outcome in CAP patients. PMID:25434652

  3. Increased risk of colorectal neoplasia in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysis of 16 observational studies.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Han-Han; Jiang, Xue-Liang

    2016-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) carry an increased risk of colorectal neoplasia (dysplasia and cancer), whereas the association between PSC and the development of colorectal neoplasia in Crohn's disease (CD) is controversial. A meta-analysis was carried out to compare the risk of this neoplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with and without PSC. A systematic research of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed to identify studies that compared the risk of colorectal neoplasia (dysplasia and cancer) in patients with IBD with and without PSC. Quality assessment was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Pooled odds ratio (OR) was calculated using the random-effects model by STATA 12.0. A total of 16 studies (four cohort studies, 12 case-control studies; nine prospective studies and seven retrospective studies) were selected for further study. These studies included 13 379 IBD patients, of whom 1022 also had PSC. Patients with IBD and PSC were at an increased risk of colorectal dysplasia and cancer compared with patients with IBD alone [OR 3.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.14-4.90]. This increased risk was present even when the risk of colorectal cancer alone was analysed (OR 3.41; 95% CI: 2.13-5.48). Data only from patients with UC showed that PSC was associated with an increased risk for the development of colorectal neoplasia and cancer in patients with UC (OR 2.98; 95% CI: 1.54-5.76) (OR 3.01; 95% CI: 1.44-6.29), but there were high heterogeneity among studies (I=76.9 and 62.8%, respectively). Heterogeneity of the studies was affected by the study design (prospective or retrospective). The OR of colorectal neoplasia was 2.32 (95% CI: 0.70-7.70, P=0.133) and that of cancer was 2.91 (95% CI: 0.84-10.16, P=0.388) for patients with CD and concurrent PSC. Patients with IBD and PSC have a markedly higher risk for the development of colorectal neoplasia than patients with IBD, but not PSC. Stratification by IBD type show that the presence of PSC is associated with an increased risk for the development of colorectal neoplasia in patients with UC; however, there is a nonsignificant association in CD patients. When the risk of colorectal cancer alone is analysed, the conclusion does not change. PMID:26938805

  4. Influenza Vaccination Reduces Dementia Risk in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ju-Chi; Hsu, Yi-Ping; Kao, Pai-Feng; Hao, Wen-Rui; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Lin, Chao-Feng; Sung, Li-Chin; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Taiwan has the highest prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) worldwide. CKD, a manifestation of vascular diseases, is associated with a high risk of dementia. Here, we estimated the association between influenza vaccination and dementia risk in patients with CKD. Data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan were used in this study. The study cohort included all patients diagnosed with CKD (according to International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes) at healthcare facilities in Taiwan (n = 32,844) from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2007. Each patient was followed up to assess dementia risk or protective factors: demographic characteristics of age and sex; comorbidities of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cerebrovascular diseases, parkinsonism, epilepsy, substance and alcohol use disorders, mood disorder, anxiety disorder, psychotic disorder, and sleep disorder; urbanization level; monthly income; and statin, metformin, aspirin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) use. A propensity score was derived using a logistic regression model for estimating the effect of vaccination by accounting for covariates that predict receiving the intervention (vaccine). A time-dependent Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of dementia among vaccinated and unvaccinated CKD patients. The study population comprised 11,943 eligible patients with CKD; 5745 (48%) received influenza vaccination and the remaining 6198 (52%) did not. The adjusted HRs (aHRs) of dementia decreased in vaccinated patients compared with those in unvaccinated patients (influenza season, noninfluenza season, and all seasons: aHRs = 0.68, 0.58, and 0.64; P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, and P < 0.0001, respectively). In the sensitivity analysis, adjustments were made to estimate the association of age and sex; diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cerebrovascular diseases, anxiety disorder; and statin, metformin, ACEI, and aspirin use with the incidence of dementia in various models. A stronger protective effect against dementia risk was demonstrated during the noninfluenza season. Regardless of comorbidities or drug use, influenza vaccination was an independent protective factor and dose-dependently reduced the risk of dementia in CKD patients. Influenza vaccination exerts dose–response and synergistic protective effects against dementia in CKD patients with dementia risk factors by reducing the incidence of dementia. PMID:26945371

  5. Stable density stratification solar pond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A stable density-stratification solar pond for use in the collection and storage of solar thermal energy including a container having a first section characterized by an internal wall of a substantially cylindrical configuration and a second section having an internal wall of a substantially truncated conical configuration surmounting the first section in coaxial alignment therewith, the second section of said container being characterized by a base of a diameter substantially equal to the diameter of the first section and a truncated apex defining a solar energy acceptance opening is discussed. A body of immiscible liquids is disposed within the container and comprises a lower portion substantially filling the first section of the container and an upper portion substantially filling the second section of the container, said lower portion being an aqueous based liquid of a darker color than the upper portion and of a greater density. A protective cover plate is removably provided for covering the acceptance opening.

  6. Metformin use and lung cancer risk in patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sakoda, Lori C.; Ferrara, Assiamira; Achacoso, Ninah S.; Peng, Tiffany; Ehrlich, Samantha F.; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Habel, Laurel A.

    2015-01-01

    Methodologic biases may explain why observational studies examining metformin use in relation to lung cancer risk have produced inconsistent results. We conducted a cohort study to further investigate this relationship, accounting for potential biases. For 47,351 patients with diabetes aged ≥40 years, who completed a health-related survey administered between 1994 and 1996, data on prescribed diabetes medications were obtained from electronic pharmacy records. Follow-up for incident lung cancer occurred from January 1, 1997, until June 30, 2012. Using Cox regression, we estimated lung cancer risk associated with new use of metformin, along with total duration, recency, and cumulative dose (all modeled as time-dependent covariates), adjusting for potential confounding factors. During 428,557 person-years of follow-up, 747 patients were diagnosed with lung cancer. No association was found with duration, dose, or recency of metformin use and overall lung cancer risk. Among never smokers, however, ever use was inversely associated with lung cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.33-0.99), and risk appeared to decrease monotonically with longer use (≥5 years: HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.21-1.09). Among current smokers, corresponding risk estimates were >1.0, although not statistically significant. Consistent with this variation in effect by smoking history, longer use was suggestively associated with lower adenocarcinoma risk (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.40-1.17), but higher small cell carcinoma risk (HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 0.85-3.91). In this population, we found no evidence that metformin use affects overall lung cancer risk. The observed variation in association by smoking history and histology requires further confirmation. PMID:25644512

  7. Providing Appropriate Risk Information on Genome Editing for Patients.

    PubMed

    Araki, Motoko; Ishii, Tetsuya

    2016-02-01

    Genome editing, represented by CRISPR/Cas9, facilitates somatic and germline gene modifications in many species, including humans. However, one of key issues, off-target mutation deserves special consideration prior to clinical applications. We herein discuss the importance of risk information on genome editing for obtaining legitimate patient consent and social acceptance. PMID:26802361

  8. Downsizing, reengineering and patient safety: numbers, newness and resultant risk.

    PubMed

    Knox, G E; Kelley, M; Hodgson, S; Simpson, K R; Carrier, L; Berry, D

    1999-01-01

    Downsizing and reengineering are facts of life in contemporary healthcare organizations. In most instances, these organizational changes are undertaken in an attempt to increase productivity or cut operational costs with results measured in these terms. Less often considered are potential detrimental effects on patient safety or strategies, which might be used to minimize these risks. PMID:10620901

  9. Therapeutic Amenorrhea in Patients at Risk for Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Johnston, Meredith K.; Okoji, Olanma Y.; Armstrong, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    To examine the need for and evaluate the method of menses suppression in women at risk for thrombocytopenia. A systematic review of the published literature in MEDLINE using the search terms thrombocytopenia, menorrhagia, therapeutic amenorrhea, progestin intrauterine device, combination oral contraceptive—extended and cyclic, gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist, danazol, and progestins. There are an increased number of reproductive age women at risk for thrombocytopenia who would benefit from menses suppression. A number of effective medical regimens are available. In patients who fail medical therapy, endometrial ablation appears to be effective in women with thrombocytopenia. As a result of the increased number of women at risk for thrombocytopenia, there is a need for therapeutic amenorrhea. The type of regimen selected depends upon the patients need for contraception and the ability to tolerate estrogen-containing medications. For women who fail medical therapy, there are surgical options, which are associated with less morbidity than hysterectomy. PMID:18492296

  10. Dementia Risk in Irradiated Patients With Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Hua; Yen, Yu-Chun; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Lee, Fei-Peng; Lin, Kuan-Chou; Lai, Ming-Tang; Wu, Chia-Che; Chen, Tsung-Ming; Yuan, Sheng-Po; Chang, Chia-Lun; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer are treated through surgery, radiotherapy (RT), and chemotherapy (CT). Carotid artery damage and neurotoxicity were previously observed in these patients. This study estimated the dementia risk associated with different treatment modalities in a head and neck cancer population with long-term follow-up. Taiwan's National Health Insurance claims database and a cancer registry database from the Collaboration Center of Health Information Application were linked for the present analysis. Patients with head and neck cancer, treated from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2010, were included in the study. The follow-up duration was the period from the index date to December 31, 2012. Inclusion criteria were head and neck cancer; an age >20 years; and having undergone surgery, CT, concurrent CT, or surgery with adjuvant treatment. Exclusion criteria were another cancer diagnosed before the head and neck cancer, death or being diagnosed with dementia within 2 years after the treatment of the head and neck cancer, stroke before the index date, distant metastasis, in situ carcinoma, sarcoma, head and neck cancer recurrence, an unknown sex, and an age <20 years. In total, 20,135 patients were included. In patient groups that underwent surgery alone, surgery and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, and chemoradiotherapy alone, the dementia incidence per 1000 person-years was 1.44, 1.04, and 1.98, respectively. The crude hazard ratio (HR) of dementia was 1.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-2.81) in the RT with or without CT group. After adjustment for age, sex, clinical stage, and comorbidity, the HR was 1.92 (95% CI 1.14-3.24). Examining the dementia risk in patients who received different treatment modalities according to the Cox proportional-hazard model revealed that an age >65 years and having undergone RT with or without CT were risk factors (P < 0.001 and P = 0.015; and HRs of 16.5 and 1.92, respectively). The dementia risk in patients at different clinical stages was not significantly different among the various treatment groups, regardless of whether the patients received RT. However, younger (<65 y) patients who received RT with or without CT had a 2.96-fold (95% CI 1.24-7.08) higher risk of dementia and a 3.54-fold (95% CI 1.32-9.51) higher adjusted HR compared with the surgery-alone group. Patients who received a total radiation dose >6660 cGy exhibited a 1.69-fold (95% CI 0.97-2.95, P = 0.063) higher dementia risk compared with those who received a total radiation dose <6660 cGy. Receiving a higher radiation dose increased the dementia risk and persistently escalated the dementia incidence even 9 years after RT. Younger (<65 y) patients have a high risk of dementia after