Sample records for patient risk stratification

  1. Risk stratification in emergency patients by copeptin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid risk stratification is a core task in emergency medicine. Identifying patients at high and low risk shortly after admission could help clinical decision-making regarding treatment, level of observation, allocation of resources and post discharge follow-up. The purpose of the present study was to determine short-, mid- and long-term mortality by plasma measurement of copeptin in unselected admitted patients. Method Consecutive patients >40-years-old admitted to an inner-city hospital were included. Within the first 24 hours after admission, a structured medical interview was conducted and self-reported medical history was recorded. All patients underwent a clinical examination, an echocardiographic evaluation and collection of blood for later measurement of risk markers. Results Plasma for copeptin measurement was available from 1,320 patients (average age 70.5 years, 59.4% women). Median follow-up time was 11.5 years (range 11.0 to 12.0 years). Copeptin was elevated (that is, above the 97.5 percentile in healthy individuals). Mortality within the first week was 2.7% (17/627) for patients with elevated copeptin (above the 97.5 percentile, that is, >11.3 pmol/L) compared to 0.1% (1/693) for patients with normal copeptin concentrations (that is, ?11.3 pmol/L) (P <0.01). Three-month mortality was 14.5% (91/627) for patients with elevated copeptin compared to 3.2% (22/693) for patients with normal copeptin. Similar figures for one-year mortality and for the entire observation period were 27.6% (173/627) versus 8.7% (60/693) and 82.9% (520/527) versus 57.5% (398/693) (P <0.01 for both), respectively. Using multivariable Cox regression analyses shows that elevated copeptin was significantly and independently related to short-, mid- and long-term mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios were 2.4 for three-month mortality, 1.9 for one-year mortality and 1.4 for mortality in the entire observation period. Conclusions In patients admitted to an inner-city hospital, copeptin was strongly associated with short-, mid- and long-term mortality. The results suggest that rapid copeptin measurement could be a useful tool for both disposition in an emergency department and for mid- and long-term risk assessment. PMID:24884642

  2. Risk stratification of ICU patients using arterial blood pressure waveforms

    E-print Network

    Sridharan, Mathura J

    2013-01-01

    Identifying patients at high risk for adverse events is very important to the practice of clinical medicine. Non-invasive ECG-based methods of risk stratification such as T wave Alterans, Morphological Variability, and ...

  3. Molecular risk stratification in advanced heart failure patients

    PubMed Central

    Lamirault, Guillaume; Meur, Nolwenn Le; Roussel, Jean-Christian; Cunff, Marie-France Le; Baron, Daniel; Bihouée, Audrey; Guisle, Isabelle; Raharijaona, Mahatsangy; Ramstein, Gérard; Teusan, Raluca; Chevalier, Catherine; Gueffet, Jean-Pierre; Trochu, Jean-Noël; Léger, Jean J; Houlgatte, Rémi; Steenman, Marja

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Risk stratification in advanced heart failure (HF) is crucial for the individualization of therapeutic strategy, in particular for heart transplantation and ventricular assist device implantation. We tested the hypothesis that cardiac gene expression profiling can distinguish between HF patients with different disease severity. We obtained tissue samples from both left (LV) and right (RV) ventricle of explanted hearts of 44 patients undergoing cardiac transplantation or ventricular assist device placement. Gene expression profiles were obtained using an in-house microarray containing 4217 muscular organ-relevant genes. Based on their clinical status, patients were classified into three HF-severity groups: deteriorating (n= 12), intermediate (n= 19) and stable (n= 13). Two-class statistical analysis of gene expression profiles of deteriorating and stable patients identified a 170-gene and a 129-gene predictor for LV and RV samples, respectively. The LV molecular predictor identified patients with stable and deteriorating status with a sensitivity of 88% and 92%, and a specificity of 100% and 96%, respectively. The RV molecular predictor identified patients with stable and deteriorating status with a sensitivity of 100% and 96%, and a specificity of 100% and 100%, respectively. The molecular prediction was reproducible across biological replicates in LV and RV samples. Gene expression profiling has the potential to reproducibly detect HF patients with highest HF severity with high sensitivity and specificity. In addition, not only LV but also RV samples could be used for molecular risk stratification with similar predictive power. PMID:19793385

  4. Risk stratification of cardiovascular patients using a novel classification tree induction algorithm with non-symmetric entropy measures

    E-print Network

    Singh, Anima, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Risk stratification allows clinicians to choose treatments consistent with a patient's risk profile. Risk stratification models that integrate information from several risk attributes can aid clinical decision making. One ...

  5. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Stratification based on Patient Family History Anand Krishnan 1

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Pancreatic Cancer Risk Stratification based on Patient Family History Anand Krishnan 1 , C. Max-prediction software was used to assess the lifetime risk scores of pancreatic cancer for each patient according to his sentences (accuracy 91.36%). Conclusion: The family history risk score will be used for patients' pancreatic

  6. Role of brain natriuretic peptide in risk stratification of patients with congestive heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörg Koglin; Sinan Pehlivanli; Martin Schwaiblmair; Michael Vogeser; Peter Cremer; Wolfgang vonScheidt

    2001-01-01

    ObjectivesUsing a prospective study design, we assessed the value of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) to identify patients with heart failure who have an increased risk of deterioration of their functional status. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between BNP and various clinical characteristics incorporated into an established survival model used for risk stratification.

  7. [Immunophenotype characteristics of patients with multiple myeloma in different risk stratification].

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Ming-Xia; Wang, Yan-Fang; Ke, Xiao-Yan

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the immunophenotype characteristics of newly diagosised patients with multiple myeloma (MM) in different risk stratification in order to find the relationship between the immunophenotype and prognosis of MM. The expressions of CD45, CD38, CD138, CD56, CD19, CD117, CD13, CD20, CD22, CD34, Kappa, Lambda in bone marrow samples from 62 newly diagnosed MM patients were detected by using flow cytometric multiparametric direct immunofluorescence technique, CD45/SSC and CD38/SSC combination gating, then the immumophemotypic characteristics of patients in different risk stratification groups were analyzed and compared. The new risk stratification of all patients was carried out according to ISS stages (Interuational Staging System) and cytogenetic characteristics. The results indicated that all the malignant plasma cells commonly expressed CD38 (100%) and CD138 (100%); CD19? (6.5%) ,CD45? (22.6%), CD56? (59.6%) and monoclonal light chain (82%); but the expressions of CD117? (27.4%) , CD13? (17.7%) , CD20? (16.1%) were diverse. According to risk stratification, it is found that the standard-risk and high-risk groups had lower expression of CD56 (P = 0.022) and higher expression of CD117 (P = 0.011), compared with the low-risk group. It is concluded that the immunophenotype of MM is heterogeneity, the lower expression of CD56 and higher expression of CD117 may be associate with poor prognosis. PMID:25543486

  8. Cardiovascular Disease Risk amongst African Black Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Need for Population Specific Stratification

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Ahmed; Tsang, Linda; Woodiwiss, Angela J.; Millen, Aletta M. E.; Norton, Gavin R.; Dessein, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) enhances the risk of cardiovascular disease to a similar extent as diabetes. Whereas atherogenesis remains poorly elucidated in RA, traditional and nontraditional risk factors associate similarly and additively with CVD in RA. Current recommendations on CVD risk stratification reportedly have important limitations. Further, reported data on CVD and its risk factors derive mostly from data obtained in the developed world. An earlier epidemiological health transition is intrinsic to persons living in rural areas and those undergoing urbanization. It is therefore conceivable that optimal CVD risk stratification differs amongst patients with RA from developing populations compared to those from developed populations. Herein, we briefly describe current CVD and its risk factor profiles in the African black population at large. Against this background, we review reported data on CVD risk and its potential stratification amongst African black compared to white patients with RA. Routinely assessed traditional and nontraditional CVD risk factors were consistently and independently related to atherosclerosis in African white but not black patients with RA. Circulating concentrations of novel CVD risk biomarkers including interleukin-6 and interleukin-5 adipokines were mostly similarly associated with both endothelial activation and atherosclerosis amongst African black and white RA patients. PMID:25157371

  9. Cytogenetic risk stratification of 417 patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia from a single institution.

    PubMed

    Tang, Guilin; Zhang, Liping; Fu, Bin; Hu, Jianhua; Lu, Xinyan; Hu, Shimin; Patel, Ankita; Goswami, Maitrayee; Khoury, Joseph D; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Wang, Sa A

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 30% of patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) have karyotypic abnormalities and this low frequency has made using cytogenetic data for the prognostication of CMML patients challenging. Recently, a three-tiered cytogenetic risk stratification system for CMML patients has been proposed by a Spanish study group. Here we assessed the prognostic impact of cytogenetic abnormalities on overall survival (OS) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) in 417 CMML patients from our institution. Overall, the Spanish cytogenetic risk effectively stratified patients into different risk groups, with a median OS of 33 months in the low-, 24 months in intermediate- and 14 months in the high-risk groups. Within the proposed high risk group, however, marked differences in OS were observed. Patients with isolated trisomy 8 showed a median OS of 22 months, similar to the intermediate-risk group (P?=?0.132), but significantly better than other patients in the high-risk group (P?=?0.018). Furthermore, patients with more than three chromosomal abnormalities showed a significantly shorter OS compared with patients with three abnormalities (8 vs. 15 months, P?=?0.004), suggesting possible a separate risk category. If we simply moved trisomy 8 to the intermediate risk category, the modified cytogenetic grouping would provide a better separation of OS and LFS; and its prognostic impact was independent of other risk parameters. Our study results strongly advocate for the incorporation of cytogenetic information in the risk model for CMML. PMID:24782398

  10. Value of planar 201Tl imaging in risk stratification of patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, R.S.; Watson, D.D. (Medical Center, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Although exercise ECG testing has been shown to have important prognostic value after acute myocardial infarction, exercise 201Tl scintigraphy offers several potential advantages, including: (1) increased sensitivity for detecting residual myocardial ischemia; (2) the ability to localize ischemia to a specific area or areas subtended by a specific coronary artery; (3) the ability to identify exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction, which is manifested by increased lung uptake or transient left ventricular dilation; and (4) more reliable risk stratification of individual patients. The more optimal prognostic efficiency of 201Tl scintigraphy partially results from the fact that the error rate in falsely classifying patients as low risk is significantly smaller with 201Tl scintigraphy than with stress ECG. Because of these substantial advantages, there seems to be adequate rationale for recommending exercise perfusion imaging rather than exercise ECG alone as the preferred method for evaluating mortality and morbidity risks after acute myocardial infarction.

  11. Clinical Usefulness of Novel Serum and Imaging Biomarkers in Risk Stratification of Patients with Stable Angina

    PubMed Central

    Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Tsantes, Argirios

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators appear to be the most intriguing yet confusing subject, regarding the management of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The current inflammatory concept of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) led many investigators to concentrate on systemic markers of inflammation, as well as imaging techniques, which may be helpful in risk stratification and prognosis assessment for cardiovascular events. In this review, we try to depict many of the recently studied markers regarding stable angina (SA), their clinical usefulness, and possible future applications in the field. PMID:25045198

  12. Expression of two parental imprinted miRNAs improves the risk stratification of neuroblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Gattolliat, Charles-Henry; Le Teuff, Gwénaël; Combaret, Valérie; Mussard, Eugénie; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Busson, Pierre; Bénard, Jean; Douc-Rasy, Sétha

    2014-01-01

    Age at diagnosis, stage, and MYCN amplification are the cornerstones of the risk-stratification score of neuroblastoma that enables defining patients at low- and high risk. Refinement of this stratification is needed to optimize standard treatment and to plan future clinical trials. We investigated whether two parental imprinted miRNAs (miR-487b and miR-516a-5p) may lead to a risk score with a better discrimination. Expression levels of maternal miR-487b and paternal miR-516a-5p were determined using quantitative RT-PCR both for 231 neuroblastoma tumors (derivation set) and 101 independent neuroblastoma tumors (validation set). Survival outcomes were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Multivariable Cox models were developed from derivation set and their performance evaluated using Akaike's information criterion (AIC) (goodness-of-fit) and time-dependent area under curves (discrimination). The selected model was validated using internal and external validation. The prognostic model including current prognostic factors plus miR-487b, miR-516a-5p, and interaction between two miRNAs was selected. Performance of this model was better in terms of both predictive ability (smallest AIC) and discrimination power (AUC close to 0.70). This model identifies three risk groups: high (3), intermediate (2), and low (1). Hazard ratios (HR) across risk groups were HR2/1 = 6.3 (2.7–14.6), HR3/1 = 14.8 (7.2–30.2) for OS and HR2/1 = 2.8 (1.5–5.4), HR3/1 = 7.2 (3.9–13.4) for DFS. The rank between these three risk groups was maintained and validated when performing internal and external validation. Expression of maternal miR-487b and paternal miR-516a-5p improves the risk stratification. This better discrimination at diagnosis is of clinical utility both for current and future treatments of neuroblastoma patients. PMID:24931722

  13. Validated risk stratification model accurately predicts low risk in patients with unstable angina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E Calvin; Lloyd W Klein; Elizabeth J VandenBerg; Peter Meyer; Joseph E Parrillo

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUNDIn the mid 1990s, two unstable angina risk prediction models were proposed but neither has been validated on separate population or compared.OBJECTIVESThe purpose of this study was to compare patient outcome among high, medium and low risk unstable angina patients defined by the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) guideline to similar risk groups defined by a validated

  14. Comparison of nonlinear methods symbolic dynamics, detrended fluctuation, and Poincaré plot analysis in risk stratification in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Andreas; Schroeder, Rico; Truebner, Sandra; Goernig, Matthias; Figulla, Hans Reiner; Schirdewan, Alexander

    2007-03-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) has an incidence of about 20/100 000 new cases per annum and accounts for nearly 10 000 deaths per year in the United States. Approximately 36% of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) suffer from cardiac death within five years after diagnosis. Currently applied methods for an early risk prediction in DCM patients are rather insufficient. The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of short-term nonlinear methods symbolic dynamics (STSD), detrended fluctuation (DFA), and Poincaré plot analysis (PPA) for risk stratification in these patients. From 91 DCM patients and 30 healthy subjects (REF), heart rate and blood pressure variability (HRV, BPV), STSD, DFA, and PPA were analyzed. Measures from BPV analysis, DFA, and PPA revealed highly significant differences (p<0.0011) discriminating REF and DCM. For risk stratification in DCM patients, four parameters from BPV analysis, STSD, and PPA revealed significant differences between low and high risk (maximum sensitivity: 90%, specificity: 90%). These results suggest that STSD and PPA are useful nonlinear methods for enhanced risk stratification in DCM patients.

  15. Update on pharmacological cardiac stress testing: efficacy, risk stratification and patient selection.

    PubMed

    Blankstein, Ron; Cannon, Christopher; Udelson, James

    2014-11-01

    Despite greater control of risk factors and improved treatments, coronary heart disease (CHD) remains a significant cause of mortality with 1 in every 4 deaths in the United States due to this disorder.(1) Cardiac stress tests have long been one of the most often utilized testing modalities used to identify patients suspected of having CHD, specifically coronary artery disease (CAD). These tests allow for noninvasive assessment of the coronary circulation and its ability to augment flow in response to physiologic demand. As with any diagnostic testing however, potential health risks as well as the financial burden of cardiovascular stress testing, must be weighed against the benefits and utility of the data procured. Given the rapidly evolving field of cardiac stress testing with respect to new risk stratification guidelines, new agents, and new assessment methods, it is difficult for physicians to remain up to date on the latest research and the benefits and risks of different testing modalities. A recent survey of primary care physicians and cardiologists conducted by the Elsevier Office of Continuing Medical Education found that approximately one-quarter of the cardiologists and primary care physicians surveyed do not feel confident identifying the factors which should be considered before ordering a cardiac stress test as part of pre-operative screening for a patient. Additionally, this survey also reported that primary care physicians reported a high degree of confidence in ordering the appropriate cardiac screening tests for patients yet, cardiologists reported that they frequently/somewhat frequently felt the need to change the test ordered by the internist. This educational intervention focuses on patient selection, exercise vs. pharmacologic stress testing, pharmacologic agents, and the importance of patient and doctor communication in ensuring the right test is recommended for the right patient. This CME Multimedia Activity is also available through the Website of The American Journal of Cardiology (www.amjmed.com). Click on the Multimedia button in the navigation bar for full access. Or access: http://elseviercme.com/538. PMID:25447629

  16. Risk Stratification of ICU Patients Using Topic Models Inferred from Unstructured Progress Notes

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Li-wei; Saeed, Mohammed; Long, William; Lee, Joon; Mark, Roger

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel approach for ICU patient risk stratification by combining the learned “topic” structure of clinical concepts (represented by UMLS codes) extracted from the unstructured nursing notes with physiologic data (from SAPS-I) for hospital mortality prediction. We used Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes (HDP), a non-parametric topic modeling technique, to automatically discover “topics” as shared groups of co-occurring UMLS clinical concepts. We evaluated the potential utility of the inferred topic structure in predicting hospital mortality using the nursing notes of 14,739 adult ICU patients (mortality 14.6%) from the MIMIC II database. Our results indicate that learned topic structure from the first 24-hour ICU nursing notes significantly improved the performance of the SAPS-I algorithm for hospital mortality prediction. The AUC for predicting hospital mortality from the first 24 hours of physiologic data and nursing text notes was 0.82. Using the physiologic data alone with the SAPS-I algorithm, an AUC of 0.72 was achieved. Thus, the clinical topics that were extracted and used to augment the SAPS-I algorithm significantly improved the performance of the baseline algorithm. PMID:23304322

  17. Risk stratification of patients with hypertension using exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Kane, S.

    1985-05-01

    Hypertension (HT) is an important risk factor in coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiac morbidity and mortality. This study examined the value of clinical, ECG, exercise (EX) and thallium-201 imaging descriptors that identify patients (pts) with HT at high risk. The 337 pts in the study underwent EX thallium-201 testing for evaluation of chest pain due to suspected or proven CHD. The mean age was 55 years, of whom 79% were still on active anti-HT therapy at the time of the study. The EX thallium scintigrams were evaluated qualitatively and quantitively using circumferential profile analysis. The scans were abnormal in 162 pts (48%) and reversible perfusion defects were present in 106 of the 162 pts (65%). At a folllowup fo up to 74 months, (15 +- 9 mean +- SD), 11 pts had hard cardiac events: 2 died of cardiac causes and 9 had non-fatal acute myocardial infractions. There were no significant differences between those with and without events in age, EX heart rate and double product, EX duration, blood pressure and EX ECG changes. Univariate and multivariate survival analysis (Cox regression model) of important clinical, ECG, EX and thallium variables, identified the presence of abnormal EX images as the only predictor of outcome. (X/sup 2/ = 5.4, p< 0.02). No other variable provided additional prognostic information. Actuarial life table analysis showed that pts with abnormal images had significantly more events than those with normal images (p = 0.008, Mantel-Cox). Thus, EX thallium imaging is useful in risk stratification in pts with HT. The presence of abnormal images identify a subgroup at high risk for future events.

  18. Prognostic Factors for Survival in Patients with High-Grade Meningioma and Recurrence-Risk Stratification for Application of Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Asaoka, Katsuyuki; Motegi, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Kanno, Hiromi; Onimaru, Rikiya; Ito, Yoichi M.; Shirato, Hiroki; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy for high-grade meningioma (HGM) is one of the essential treatment options for disease control. However, appropriate irradiation timing remains under debate. The object of this study is to discern which prognostic factors impact recurrence in HGM patients and to propose a risk-stratification system for the application of postoperative radiotherapy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 55 adult patients who were diagnosed with Grade II and III intracranial meningioma. Cox regression models were applied to the analysis for impact on early recurrence in HGM patients without postoperative radiotherapy. Results Grade III malignancy (P?=?0.0073) and transformed histology (P?=?0.047) proved to be significantly poor prognostic factors of early recurrence by multivariate analysis. The other candidates for recurrence factors were Simpson Grade 3–5 resection, preoperative Karnofsky Performance status ?=?15%. According to these prognostic factors, postoperative HGM patients could be stratified into three recurrence-risk groups. The prognoses were significantly different between each group, as the 3-year actual recurrence-free rates were 90% in low-risk group, 31% in intermediate-risk group, and 15% in high-risk group. Conclusion We propose recurrence-risk stratification for postoperative HGM patients using clinically available factors. Our results suggest that the prognosis for patients with high-risk HGMs is dismal, whereas HGM patients belonging to the low-risk group could have favorable prognoses. This stratification provides us with the criteria necessary to determine whether to apply adjuvant radiotherapy to postoperative HGM patients, and to also help identify potentially curable HGMs without adjuvant radiotherapy. PMID:24820480

  19. Risk stratification in very old adults: How to best gauge risk as the basis of management choices for patients aged over 80

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Susan P.; Saraf, Avantika

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in older adults, however, in the elderly accurate stratification of CVD risk to guide management decisions is challenging due to the heterogeneity of the population. Conventional assessment of CVD and therapeutic risk is based on extrapolation of guidelines developed from evidence demonstrated in younger individuals and fails to weight the increased burden of complications and multimorbidity. Using a comprehensive geriatric based assessment of older adults with CVD that includes an estimation of complexity of multimorbidity as well as traditional risk assessment provides a patient centered approach that allows for management decisions congruent with patient preferences. This review examines the complexity of risk stratification in adults over 80, assessment methods to augment current tools and the basis of management decisions to optimize patient and family centered goals. PMID:25216619

  20. Risk Stratification by the \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinz Rupp; Daniela Wagner; Thomas Rupp; Lisa-Maria Schulte; Bernhard Maisch

    The identification of risks associated with sudden cardiac death requires further investigations. The question was addressed whether parameters can be established which not only de- scribe an increased risk for an enhanced electrical instability of the heart but also of inflammatory events underlying plaque rupture. Emphasis is placed on dose-dependent effects of the long-chain omega-(?-)3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)

  1. Operative risk stratification in the older adult.

    PubMed

    Scandrett, Karen G; Zuckerbraun, Brian S; Peitzman, Andrew B

    2015-02-01

    As the population ages, the health care system must to adapt to the needs of the older population. Hospitalization risks are particularly significant in the frail geriatric patients, with costly and morbid consequences. Appropriate preoperative assessment can identify sources of increased risk and enable the surgical team to manage this risk, through "prehabilitation," intraoperative modification, and postoperative care. Geriatric preoperative assessment expands usual risk stratification and careful medication review to include screening for functional disability, cognitive impairment, nutritional deficiency, and frailty. The information gathered can also equip the surgeon to develop a patient-centered and realistic treatment plan. PMID:25459549

  2. Modern risk stratification in coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ginghina, C; Bejan, I; Ceck, C D

    2011-11-14

    The prevalence and impact of cardiovascular diseases in the world are growing. There are 2 million deaths due to cardiovascular disease each year in the European Union; the main cause of death being the coronary heart disease responsible for 16% of deaths in men and 15% in women. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Romania is estimated at 7 million people, of which 2.8 million have ischemic heart disease. In this epidemiological context, risk stratification is required for individualization of therapeutic strategies for each patient. The continuing evolution of the diagnosis and treatment techniques combines personalized medicine with the trend of therapeutic management leveling, based on guidelines and consensus, which are in constant update. The guidelines used in clinical practice have involved risk stratification and identification of patient groups in whom the risk-benefit ratio of using new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques has a positive value. Presence of several risk factors may indicate a more important total risk than the presence / significant increase from normal values of a single risk factor. Modern trends in risk stratification of patients with coronary heart disease are polarized between the use of simple data versus complex scores, traditional data versus new risk factors, generally valid scores versus personalized scores, depending on patient characteristics, type of coronary artery disease, with impact on the suggested therapy. All known information and techniques can be integrated in a complex system of risk assessment. The current trend in risk assessment is to identify coronary artery disease in early forms, before clinical manifestation, and to guide therapy, particularly in patients with intermediate risk, which can be classified in another class of risk based on new obtained information. PMID:22514570

  3. Thrombotic risk stratification using computational modeling in patients with coronary artery aneurysms following Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Dibyendu; Kahn, Andrew M; Kung, Ethan; Esmaily Moghadam, Mahdi; Shirinsky, Olga; Lyskina, Galina A; Burns, Jane C; Marsden, Alison L

    2014-11-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children and can result in life-threatening coronary artery aneurysms in up to 25 % of patients. These aneurysms put patients at risk of thrombus formation, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Clinicians must therefore decide which patients should be treated with anticoagulant medication, and/or surgical or percutaneous intervention. Current recommendations regarding initiation of anticoagulant therapy are based on anatomy alone with historical data suggesting that patients with aneurysms [Formula: see text]8 mm are at greatest risk of thrombosis. Given the multitude of variables that influence thrombus formation, we postulated that hemodynamic data derived from patient-specific simulations would more accurately predict risk of thrombosis than maximum diameter alone. Patient-specific blood flow simulations were performed on five KD patients with aneurysms and one KD patient with normal coronary arteries. Key hemodynamic and geometric parameters, including wall shear stress, particle residence time, and shape indices, were extracted from the models and simulations and compared with clinical outcomes. Preliminary fluid structure interaction simulations with radial expansion were performed, revealing modest differences in wall shear stress compared to the rigid wall case. Simulations provide compelling evidence that hemodynamic parameters may be a more accurate predictor of thrombotic risk than aneurysm diameter alone and motivate the need for follow-up studies with a larger cohort. These results suggest that a clinical index incorporating hemodynamic information be used in the future to select patients for anticoagulant therapy. PMID:24722951

  4. Risk Stratification by Regadenoson Stress Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients With Known or Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Siddique A.; Heydari, Bobak; Shah, Ravi V.; Murthy, Venkatesh L.; Yi Zhang, Ying; Blankstein, Ron; Steigner, Michael; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Kwong, Raymond Y.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and inducible ischemia on regadenoson cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) performed at 3.0 T. Regadenoson stress CMR MPI is increasingly used to assess patients with suspected ischemia; however, its value in patient prognostication and risk reclassification is only emerging. A total of 346 patients with suspected ischemia who were referred for regadenoson CMR were studied. The prognostic association of presence of inducible ischemia by CMR with MACEs was determined. In addition, we assessed the extent of net reclassification improvement by CMR beyond a clinical risk model. There were 52 MACEs during a median follow-up period of 1.9 years. Patients with inducible ischemia were fourfold more likely to experience MACEs (hazard ratio, 4.14, 95% confidence interval 2.37 to 7.24, p <0.0001). In the best overall model, presence of inducible ischemia conferred a 2.6-fold increased hazard for MACEs adjusted to known clinical risk markers (adjusted hazard ratio 2.59, 95% confidence interval 1.30 to 5.18, p = 0.0069). Patients with no inducible ischemia experienced a low rate of cardiac death and myocardial infarction (0.6% per patient-year), whereas those with inducible ischemia had an annual event rate of 3.2%. Net reclassification improvement across risk categories (low <5%, intermediate 5% to 10%, and high >10%) by CMR was 0.29 (95% confidence interval 0.15 to 0.44), and continuous net reclassification improvement was 0.58. In conclusion, in patients with clinical suspicion of myocardial ischemia, regadenoson stress CMR MPI provides robust risk stratification. CMR MPI negative for ischemia was associated with a very low annual rate of hard cardiac events. In addition, CMR MPI provides effective risk reclassification in a substantial proportion of patients. PMID:25173444

  5. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity as a risk stratification index for the short-term prognosis of type 2 diabetic patients with coronary artery disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michinari Nakamura; Takeshi Yamashita; Junji Yajima; Yuji Oikawa; Koichi Sagara; Akira Koike; Hajime Kirigaya; Kazuyuki Nagashima; Hitoshi Sawada; Tadanori Aizawa

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of diabetes is increasing, and the disease has become an important predictor of prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), although adverse events often occur without warning. Thus, risk stratification of diabetic CAD patients is important for secondary prevention. This study tests the hypothesis that brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker for arterial stiffness obtained by

  6. Modern risk stratification in coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Ginghina, C.; Bejan, I.; Ceck, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and impact of cardiovascular diseases in the world are growing. There are 2 million deaths due to cardiovascular disease each year in the European Union; the main cause of death being the coronary heart disease responsible for 16% of deaths in men and 15% in women. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Romania is estimated at 7 million people, of which 2.8 million have ischemic heart disease. In this epidemiological context, risk stratification is required for individualization of therapeutic strategies for each patient. The continuing evolution of the diagnosis and treatment techniques combines personalized medicine with the trend of therapeutic management leveling, based on guidelines and consensus, which are in constant update. The guidelines used in clinical practice have involved risk stratification and identification of patient groups in whom the risk-benefit ratio of using new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques has a positive value. Presence of several risk factors may indicate a more important total risk than the presence / significant increase from normal values of a single risk factor. Modern trends in risk stratification of patients with coronary heart disease are polarized between the use of simple data versus complex scores, traditional data versus new risk factors, generally valid scores versus personalized scores, depending on patient characteristics, type of coronary artery disease, with impact on the suggested therapy. All known information and techniques can be integrated in a complex system of risk assessment. The current trend in risk assessment is to identify coronary artery disease in early forms, before clinical manifestation, and to guide therapy, particularly in patients with intermediate risk, which can be classified in another class of risk based on new obtained information. Abbreviations: ACS = acute coronary syndrome; AMI = acute myocardial infarction; BNP = brain natriuretic peptide; BP = blood pressure; BPs = systolic blood pressure; CHD= coronary heart disease; CRP = C-reactive protein; CX= circumflex artery; EF= ejection fraction; LAD= left anterior descendending coronary artery; LV = feft ventricle; MI= myocardial infarction; NGAL= neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin; NT-proBNP = N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide; RCA= right coronary artery; RV= right ventricle PMID:22514570

  7. Risk stratification after myocardial infarction. Clinical overview

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, R.A. (Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Many patients with an acute myocardial infarction can be stratified into subgroups that are at high risk for morbidity and mortality on the basis of clinical characteristics that indicate recurrent myocardial ischemia, persistent left ventricular dysfunction, and/or recurrent cardiac arrhythmias. In patients with uncomplicated myocardial infarction the assessment of symptoms, physical findings, and ECG changes during predischarge exercise testing often identifies patients at increased risk for further cardiac events. Because of the suboptimum sensitivity and specificity of the exercise ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia, myocardial perfusion imaging with 201Tl and/or assessment of global and segmental ventricular function by two-dimensional echocardiography or radionuclide cineangiography during or immediately after exercise are often added to the predischarge risk stratification.

  8. Role of risk stratification after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kuriachan, Vikas; Exner, Derek V

    2009-02-01

    Despite advances in medical and surgical therapy for patients with heart disease, sudden cardiac death remains an important public health problem that prematurely ends the lives of more than 300,000 persons each year in North America. Many of these deaths occur in patients with a history of myocardial infarction (MI). Although severe left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction is used to identify patients at risk of sudden death after MI, most cardiac arrests occur in those with only mild LV dysfunction. Further, severe LV dysfunction is not a specific indicator for cardiac arrest. Risk stratification, to identify patients most likely to benefit from implantable defibrillator therapy after MI, is an essential area of investigation. Because the development of cardiac arrest is complex and likely requires the confluence of several factors, using a single test to predict the risk of sudden death or to guide implantable defibrillator therapy is unlikely to be successful. Tests that assess cardiac structure, including repolarization, and those that evaluate autonomic modulation and other factors have been developed with the goal of identifying patients at highest risk of cardiac arrest after MI. These tests, particularly in combination, appear to identify patients who may benefit from implantable defibrillator therapy after MI. Ongoing and planned randomized controlled trials will assess whether these tests can be used to guide implantable defibrillator therapy. Until the data from these studies are available, severe LV dysfunction remains the only proven approach to guide implantable defibrillator therapy after MI. PMID:19141257

  9. Exercise thallium-201 imaging for risk stratification of elderly patients with coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Heo, J.; Decoskey, D.; Askenase, A.; Segal, B.L.

    1988-02-01

    Although coronary artery disease (CAD) may be asymptomatic, it is the most common cause of death in elderly patients in the U.S. This study examined the prognosis of 449 patients with a mean age of 65 years using exercise thallium-201 imaging. At a follow-up of 25 months, 45 patients underwent coronary artery revascularization, 8 died of cardiac causes and 10 had nonfatal acute myocardial infarctions (AMIs). Thus, the total of patients with ''hard'' events was 18. The events included 12 of 276 patients with atypical or non-anginal symptoms versus 6 of 128 with typical angina (p = not significant); 7 of 51 patients (14%) with Q-wave AMI versus 11 of 353 (3%) without Q-wave AMI (p less than 0.001); 1 of 183 patients (1%) with normal versus 17 of 221 (8%) with abnormal exercise thallium-201 images (p less than 0.002); 10 of 76 patients (13%) with multi vessel thallium-201 abnormality vs 8 of 328 (2%) with no or 1-vessel thallium-201 abnormality (p less than 0.001) and 10 of 96 patients (10%) with greater than or equal to 3 abnormal segments by thallium-201 imaging (total segments = 9) versus 8 of 308 patients with no or less than 3 abnormal segments (p less than 0.001). The number of segments with thallium-201 defects was 1 +/- 2 patients without and 3 +/- 2 in patients with hard events (p less than 0.002).

  10. Plasma Cell Enrichment Enhances Detection of High-Risk Cytogenomic Abnormalities by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Improves Risk Stratification of Patients With Plasma Cell Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Gary; Muddasani, Ramya; Orlowski, Robert Z.; Abruzzo, Lynne V.; Qazilbash, Muzaffar H.; You, M. James; Wang, Yaping; Zhao, Ming; Chen, Su; Glitza, Isabella Claudia; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Context Methods for plasma cell enrichment in bone marrow (BM) specimens can increase the sensitivity of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for detecting cytogenomic abnormalities, but there is no published report using these methods to evaluate high-risk cytogenomic abnormalities in patients with treated plasma cell neoplasms (PCN) and clinicopathologic data in follow-up. Objective To evaluate the utility of plasma cell enrichment combined with FISH and follow-up data for high-risk cytogenomic abnormalities in post-therapy PCN patients. Design twenty-eight PCN patients with 22 treated were included in this study. Plasma cells were enriched in BM aspirates using a magnetic cell-sorting procedure to select CD138+ cells. Probes were chosen to assess for del(17p13/TP53), del(13q14/RB1), 1q21/CKS1B gain, IgH/FGFR3 and IgH/MAF. Clinicopathologic data were collected during clinical follow-up after plasma cell enrichment. Results Plasma cells in non-enriched specimens ranged from 1%–28% (median, 8%) compared with 28%–96% (median, 73%) in enriched specimens (p<0.0001). In a subset of treated-patients in clinical remission, FISH detected high-risk cytogenomic abnormalities only in plasma cell enriched samples. This approach also detected abnormalities in cases of solitary plasmacytoma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Conclusions Plasma cell enrichment of BM samples increases FISH sensitivity to detect high-risk cytogenomic abnormalities, particularly in treated-patients, and these results, in combination with data from clinical follow-up, can be of value to improve risk stratification and patient management. PMID:23627452

  11. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 for early risk stratification in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome: a multi-marker approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Möckel; Reinhold Müller; Jörn O. Vollert; Christian Müller; Oilver Danne; Ragnar Gareis; Thomas Störk; Rainer Dietz; Wolfgang Koenig

    2007-01-01

    Aims\\u000a   Numerous markers have been identified as useful predictors of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with suspected\\u000a acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, only little is known about the relative benefit of the single markers in risk stratification\\u000a and the best combination for optimising prognostic power.\\u000a \\u000a The aim of the present study was to define the role of the

  12. Risk stratification by analysis of electrocardiographic morphology following acute coronary syndromes

    E-print Network

    Sung, Philip Pohong

    2009-01-01

    Patients who have suffered an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are at elevated risk of future adverse events, including fatal arrhythmias or myocardial infarction. Risk stratification--he identification of high-risk patients--s ...

  13. A system for preoperative stratification of cataract patients according to risk of intraoperative complications: a prospective analysis of 1441 cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Muhtaseb; A Kalhoro; A Ionides

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To devise a simple, robust scoring system for assessing the risk of intraoperative complications in patients undergoing cataract surgery.Methods: 1441 consecutive patients undergoing phacoemulsification cataract surgery were assessed preoperatively according to weighted criteria. According to the points of risk they accumulated using this system, the patients were preoperatively allocated to one of four risk groups. Data were prospectively collected

  14. Surgical site infection risk factors and risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Florschutz, Anthony V; Fagan, Ryan P; Matar, Wadih Y; Sawyer, Robert G; Berrios-Torres, Sandra I

    2015-04-01

    Preoperative identification of the risk factors for surgical site infection and patient risk stratification are essential for deciding whether surgery is appropriate, educating patients on their individual risk of complications, and managing postoperative expectations. Early identification of these factors is also necessary to help guide both patient medical optimization and perioperative care planning. Several resources are currently available to track and analyze healthcare-associated infections, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network. In addition, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons are exploring collaborative opportunities for the codevelopment of a hip and/or knee arthroplasty national quality measure for periprosthetic joint infection. PMID:25808971

  15. Prognostic stratification of diabetic patients by exercise echocardiography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdou Elhendy; Adelaide M Arruda; Douglas W Mahoney; Patricia A Pellikka

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVESThe aim of this study was to assess the incremental value of exercise echocardiography for the risk stratification of diabetic patients.BACKGROUNDThere are currently insufficient outcome data in diabetic patients to define the role of stress echocardiography as a prognostic tool.METHODSWe studied the prognostic value of exercise echocardiography in 563 patients with diabetes mellitus (mean age 64 ± 11 years, 336

  16. Risk stratification using a new prognostic score for patients with secondary acute myeloid leukemia: results of the prospective AML96 trial.

    PubMed

    Stölzel, F; Pfirrmann, M; Aulitzky, W E; Kaufmann, M; Bodenstein, H; Bornhäuser, M; Röllig, C; Kramer, M; Mohr, B; Oelschlägel, U; Schmitz, N; Soucek, S; Thiede, C; Ehninger, G; Schaich, M

    2011-03-01

    Patients with secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML) are generally thought to have a poor prognosis. As there are no prognostic risk stratification models for patients with sAML available, the aim of this study was to obtain a scoring system. Prognostic factors influencing overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were analyzed in 305 sAML patients treated in the prospective AML96 trial. The obtained prognostic scoring system was then validated in an independent patient cohort included in the AML2003 and AML60+ trials. In addition to the known risk factors for AML, age and karyotype, we identified the absolute platelet count and the Nucleophosmin 1 mutational status at diagnosis as prognostic factors of sAML patients. A pronounced distribution of sAML patients into three score groups was achieved showing a 2-year OS/EFS of 52/44% for patients in the low-risk group, 21/12% in the intermediate-risk group and 7/3% in the high-risk group (both P<0.001). Validation of this scoring system in a second independent set of sAML patients revealed similar significantly different survival results. In conclusion, for the first time, a prognostic scoring system is provided for sAML patients, allowing differential treatment strategies in the future. PMID:21135859

  17. Risk stratification and prognostic performance of the predisposition, infection, response, and organ dysfunction (PIRO) scoring system in septic patients in the emergency department: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The predisposition, infection, response and organ dysfunction (PIRO) staging system was designed as a stratification tool to deal with the inherent heterogeneity of septic patients. The present study was conducted to assess the performance of PIRO in predicting multiple organ dysfunction (MOD), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and 28-day mortality in septic patients in the emergency department (ED), and to compare this scoring system with the Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis (MEDS) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) scores. Methods Consecutive septic patients (n?=?680) admitted to the ED of Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital were enrolled. PIRO, MEDS, and APACHE II scores were calculated for each patient on ED arrival. Organ function was reassessed within 3 days of enrollment. All patients were followed up for 28 days. Outcome criteria were the development of MOD within 3 days, ICU admission or death within 28 days after enrollment. The predictive ability of the four components of PIRO was analyzed separately. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and logistic regression analysis were used to assess the prognostic and risk stratification value of the scoring systems. Results Organ dysfunction independently predicted ICU admission, MOD, and 28-day mortality, with areas under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.888, 0.851, and 0.816, respectively. The predictive value of predisposition, infection, and response was weaker than that of organ dysfunction. A negative correlation was found between the response component and MOD, as well as mortality. PIRO, MEDS, and APACHE II scores significantly differed between patients who did and did not meet the outcome criteria (P?risk stratification and prognostic determinations in septic patients in the ED. PMID:24739219

  18. Reflex and Tonic Autonomic Markers for Risk Stratification in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Surviving Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Barthel, Petra; Bauer, Axel; Müller, Alexander; Junk, Nadine; Huster, Katharina M.; Ulm, Kurt; Malik, Marek; Schmidt, Georg

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diabetic postinfarction patients are at increased mortality risk compared with nondiabetic postinfarction patients. In a substantial number of these patients, diabetic cardiac neuropathy already preexists at the time of the infarction. In the current study we investigated if markers of autonomic dysfunction can further discriminate diabetic postinfarction patients into low- and high-risk groups. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We prospectively enrolled 481 patients with type 2 diabetes who survived acute myocardial infarction (MI), were aged ?80 years, and presented in sinus rhythm. Primary end point was total mortality at 5 years of follow-up. Severe autonomic failure (SAF) was defined as coincidence of abnormal autonomic reflex function (assessed by means of heart rate turbulence) and of abnormal autonomic tonic activity (assessed by means of deceleration capacity of heart rate). Multivariable risk analyses considered SAF and standard risk predictors including history of previous MI, arrhythmia on Holter monitoring, insulin treatment, and impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ?30%. RESULTS During follow-up, 83 of the 481 patients (17.3%) died. Of these, 24 deaths were sudden cardiac deaths and 21 nonsudden cardiac deaths. SAF identified a high-risk group of 58 patients with a 5-year mortality rate of 64.0% at a sensitivity level of 38.0%. Multivariately, SAF was the strongest predictor of mortality (hazard ratio 4.9 [95% CI 2.4–9.9]), followed by age ?65 years (3.4 [1.9–5.8]), and LVEF ?30% (2.6 [1.5–4.4]). CONCLUSIONS Combined abnormalities of autonomic reflex function and autonomic tonic activity identifies diabetic postinfarction patients with very poor prognoses. PMID:21680727

  19. Risk stratification of patients with acute chest pain without a rise in troponin: current practice in England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Dunham; Kirsty Challen; Darren Walter

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundPatients presenting with acute chest pain without a rise in cardiac troponins are considered to be at low risk of adverse cardiac events and are often considered for early discharge without further inpatient investigation. However, there is evidence that this commonly encountered patient group has a significant rate of early acute myocardial infarction and death.ObjectiveTo assess current practice in the

  20. Distant Metastasis Risk Stratification for Patients Undergoing Curative Resection Followed by Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyubo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chie, Eui Kyu, E-mail: ekchie93@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun Whe [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Tae-You; Bang, Yung-Jue [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sung W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To analyze the prognostic factors predicting distant metastasis in patients undergoing adjuvant chemoradiation for extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 1995 and August 2006, 166 patients with EHBD cancer underwent resection with curative intent, followed by adjuvant chemoradiation. There were 120 males and 46 females, and median age was 61 years (range, 34-86). Postoperative radiotherapy was delivered to tumor bed and regional lymph nodes (median dose, 40 Gy; range, 34-56 Gy). A total of 157 patients also received fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy as a radiosensitizer, and fluoropyrimidine-based maintenance chemotherapy was administered to 127 patients. Median follow-up duration was 29 months. Results: The treatment failed for 97 patients, and the major pattern of failure was distant metastasis (76 patients, 78.4%). The 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rate was 49.4%. The most common site of distant failure was the liver (n = 36). On multivariate analysis, hilar tumor, tumor size {>=}2 cm, involved lymph node, and poorly differentiated tumor were associated with inferior distant metastasis-free survival (p = 0.0348, 0.0754, 0.0009, and 0.0078, respectively), whereas T stage was not (p = 0.8081). When patients were divided into four groups based on these risk factors, the 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rates for patients with 0, 1, 2, and 3 risk factors were 86.4%, 59.9%, 32.5%, and 0%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Despite maintenance chemotherapy, distant metastasis was the major pattern of failure in patients undergoing adjuvant chemoradiation for EHBD cancer after resection with curative intent. Intensified chemotherapy is warranted to improve the treatment outcome, especially in those with multiple risk factors.

  1. Analysis of the heart rate variability and stratification of the risk of cardiac patients with Chagas’ disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Vizcardo; J. Jimenez; F. Moleiro; A. Marcano; A. Octavio; A. Rodriguez

    2007-01-01

    According to the World wide Organization of the Health, the number of people infected with the Tri-panosoma Cruzi is considered between 16 and 18 million, causal agent of the Chagaspsila disease, and in 100 million the people exposed to the affectation risk. When concluding in 1983 a study longitudinal epidemiologist in patients with the disease evaluated every 3 years, the

  2. Thyroid Incidentalomas: Epidemiology, Risk Stratification with Ultrasound and Workup

    PubMed Central

    Russ, Gilles; Leboulleux, Sophie; Leenhardt, Laurence; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    A thyroid incidentaloma is an unexpected, asymptomatic thyroid tumor fortuitously discovered during the investigation of an unrelated condition. The prevalence rate is 67% with ultrasonography (US) imaging, 15% with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the neck, and 1-2% with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography. In the absence of a history of external beam radiation or familial medullary thyroid cancer, the risk of malignancy ranges between 5 and 13% when discovered with US, CT or MRI, but is much higher if based on focal FDG uptake (30%). All patients with a thyroid incidentaloma, independent of the mode of detection, should undergo a dedicated neck US with risk stratification: US imaging allows a quantitative risk stratification of malignancy in thyroid nodules, named ‘reporting system’ or ‘TIRADs' (thyroid imaging reporting and data system). The reported sensitivity ranges from 87 to 95% for the detection of carcinomas and the negative predictive value from 88 to 99.8%. We suggest that the indications for fine-needle aspiration be based mainly on size and US risk stratification. However, the diagnosis and workup of thyroid incidentalomas leads to superfluous surgery for benign conditions, and excess diagnosis and treatment of papillary microcarcinomas, the vast majority of which would cause no harm. Recognizing this must form the basis of any decision as to supplementary investigations and whether to offer therapy, in a close dialogue between patient and physician. The current use of minimally invasive nonsurgical ablation options, as alternatives to surgery, is highlighted. PMID:25538897

  3. Life insurance: genomic stratification and risk classification

    PubMed Central

    Joly, Yann; Burton, Hilary; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Feze, Ida Ngueng; Dent, Tom; Pashayan, Nora; Chowdhury, Susmita; Foulkes, William; Hall, Alison; Hamet, Pavel; Kirwan, Nick; Macdonald, Angus; Simard, Jacques; Van Hoyweghen, Ine

    2014-01-01

    With the development and increasing accessibility of new genomic tools such as next-generation sequencing, genome-wide association studies, and genomic stratification models, the debate on genetic discrimination in the context of life insurance became even more complex, requiring a review of current practices and the exploration of new scenarios. In this perspective, a multidisciplinary group of international experts representing different interests revisited the genetics and life insurance debate during a 2-day symposium ‘Life insurance: breast cancer research and genetic risk prediction seminar' held in Quebec City, Canada on 24 and 25 September 2012. Having reviewed the current legal, social, and ethical issues on the use of genomic information in the context of life insurance, the Expert Group identified four main questions: (1) Have recent developments in genomics and related sciences changed the contours of the genetics and life insurance debate? (2) Are genomic results obtained in a research context relevant for life insurance underwriting? (3) Should predictive risk assessment and risk stratification models based on genomic data also be used for life insurance underwriting? (4) What positive actions could stakeholders in the debate take to alleviate concerns over the use of genomic information by life insurance underwriters? This paper presents a summary of the discussions and the specific action items recommended by the Expert Group. PMID:24129434

  4. Cardiac risk stratification in cardiac rehabilitation programs: a review of protocols

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Anne Kastelianne França; Barbosa, Marianne Penachini da Costa de Rezende; Bernardo, Aline Fernanda Barbosa; Vanderlei, Franciele Marques; Pacagnelli, Francis Lopes; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques

    2014-01-01

    Objective Gather and describe general characteristics of different protocols of risk stratification for cardiac patients undergoing exercise. Methods We conducted searches in LILACS, IBECS, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and SciELO electronic databases, using the following descriptors: Cardiovascular Disease, Rehabilitation Centers, Practice Guideline, Exercise and Risk Stratification in the past 20 years. Results Were selected eight studies addressing methods of risk stratification in patients undergoing exercise. Conclusion None of the methods described could cover every situation the patient can be subjected to; however, they are essential to exercise prescription. PMID:25140477

  5. Cardiac PET perfusion: prognosis, risk stratification, and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Dorbala, Sharmila; Di Carli, Marcelo F

    2014-09-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with PET has expanded significantly over the past decade. With the wider availability of PET scanners and the routine use of quantitative blood flow imaging, the clinical use of PET MPI is expected to increase further. PET MPI is a powerful tool to identify risk, to quantify risk, and to guide therapy in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. A large body of evidence supports the prognostic value of PET MPI and ejection fraction in intermediate- to high-risk subjects, in women, in obese individuals, and in post-coronary artery bypass grafting individuals. A normal perfusion study indicates low risk (<1% annualized rate of cardiac events of cardiac death and non-fatal myocardial infarction), while an abnormal study indicates high risk. With accurate risk stratification, high-quality images, and quantitation, PET MPI may transform the management of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. PMID:25234079

  6. Roles of Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiac Computed Tomography, and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance: Noninvasive Risk Stratification and a Conceptual Framework for the Selection of Noninvasive Imaging Tests in Patients with Known or Suspected Coronary Artery Disease*y

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel S. Berman; Rory Hachamovitch; Leslee J. Shaw; John D. Friedman; Sean W. Hayes; Louise E. J. Thomson; David S. Fieno; Guido Germano; Nathan D. Wong; Xingping Kang; Alan Rozanski

    This review deals with noninvasive imaging for risk stratification and with a conceptual approach to the selection of noninvasive tests in patients with suspected or known chronic coronary ar- tery disease (CAD). Already widely acknowledged with SPECT, there is an increasing body of literature data demonstrating thatCTcoronarycalciumassessmentisalsoofprognosticvalue. The amount of coronary atherosclerosis, as can be extrapolated from CT coronary calcium

  7. Recent advances in the management of chronic stable angina I: Approach to the patient, diagnosis, pathophysiology, risk stratification, and gender disparities

    PubMed Central

    Kones, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The potential importance of both prevention and personal responsibility in controlling heart disease, the leading cause of death in the USA and elsewhere, has attracted renewed attention. Coronary artery disease is preventable, using relatively simple and inexpensive lifestyle changes. The inexorable rise in the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, often in the risk cluster known as the metabolic syndrome, drives the ever-increasing incidence of heart disease. Population-wide improvements in personal health habits appear to be a fundamental, evidence based public health measure, yet numerous barriers prevent implementation. A common symptom in patients with coronary artery disease, classical angina refers to the typical chest pressure or discomfort that results when myocardial oxygen demand rises and coronary blood flow is reduced by fixed, atherosclerotic, obstructive lesions. Different forms of angina and diagnosis, with a short description of the significance of pain and silent ischemia, are discussed in this review. The well accepted concept of myocardial oxygen imbalance in the genesis of angina is presented with new data about clinical pathology of stable angina and acute coronary syndromes. The roles of stress electrocardiography and stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphic imaging are reviewed, along with the information these tests provide about risk and prognosis. Finally, the current status of gender disparities in heart disease is summarized. Enhanced risk stratification and identification of patients in whom procedures will meaningfully change management is an ongoing quest. Current guidelines emphasize efficient triage of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Many experts believe the predictive value of current decision protocols for coronary artery disease still needs improvement in order to optimize outcomes, yet avoid unnecessary coronary angiograms and radiation exposure. Coronary angiography remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of coronary artery obstructive disease. Part II of this two part series will address anti-ischemic therapies, new agents, cardiovascular risk reduction, options to treat refractory angina, and revascularization. PMID:20730020

  8. Performance And Agreement Of Risk Stratification Instruments For Postoperative Delirium In Persons Aged 50 Years Or Older

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Carolien J.; Absalom, Anthony R.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; van Leeuwen, Barbara L.; Izaks, Gerbrand J.

    2014-01-01

    Several risk stratification instruments for postoperative delirium in older people have been developed because early interventions may prevent delirium. We investigated the performance and agreement of nine commonly used risk stratification instruments in an independent validation cohort of consecutive elective and emergency surgical patients aged ?50 years with ?1 risk factor for postoperative delirium. Data was collected prospectively. Delirium was diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. The observed incidence of postoperative delirium was calculated per risk score per risk stratification instrument. In addition, the risk stratification instruments were compared in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), and positive and negative predictive value. Finally, the positive agreement between the risk stratification instruments was calculated. When data required for an exact implementation of the original risk stratification instruments was not available, we used alternative data that was comparable. The study population included 292 patients: 60% men; mean age (SD), 66 (8) years; 90% elective surgery. The incidence of postoperative delirium was 9%. The maximum observed incidence per risk score was 50% (95%CI, 15–85%); for eight risk stratification instruments, the maximum observed incidence per risk score was ?25%. The AUC (95%CI) for the risk stratification instruments varied between 0.50 (0.36–0.64) and 0.66 (0.48–0.83). No AUC was statistically significant from 0.50 (p?0.11). Positive predictive values of the risk stratification instruments varied between 0–25%, negative predictive values between 89–95%. Positive agreement varied between 0–66%. No risk stratification instrument showed clearly superior performance. In conclusion, in this independent validation cohort, the performance and agreement of commonly used risk stratification instruments for postoperative delirium was poor. Although some caution is needed because the risk stratification instruments were not implemented exactly as described in the original studies, we think that their usefulness in clinical practice can be questioned. PMID:25464335

  9. Risk Stratification By p16 Immunostaining of CIN1 Biopsies: A Retrospective Study of Patients From the Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine Trials.

    PubMed

    Mills, Anne M; Paquette, Cherie; Castle, Philip E; Stoler, Mark H

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies of p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) on CIN1 have suggested the likely utility of p16 in stratification of women at risk for subsequent CIN2/3. But those studies had limitations in statistical power, histologic diagnosis, and disease ascertainment. We conducted a retrospective study of p16 IHC on adjudicated CIN1 tissue diagnosed in young women participating in the placebo arm of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine trials. Tissue sections were stained with p16 IHC and hematoxylin and eosin. p16 IHC was scored using LAST criteria, and hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections were reviewed for concordance with the adjudicated diagnosis. p16 IHC, antecedent high-grade cytology, review diagnosis, and HPV16 detection were assessed as independent risk factors for subsequent CIN2/3. Five hundred twenty-four patients with CIN1 biopsies and complete data were identified, 63 (12.0%) of whom developed CIN2/3 in follow-up. p16 positivity (P=0.06), review diagnosis of CIN2/3 (P=0.04), HPV16 positivity (P=0.01), and antecedent high-grade cytology (P=0.02) were (marginally) associated with CIN2/3. In a logistic regression model, the associations with CIN2/3 (vs. other), expressed as odds ratios (95% confidence intervals), were 1.6 (0.91-2.8) for p16, 2.0 (1.0-3.7) for HPV16, and 2.2 (1.1-2.4) for antecedent high-grade cytology. The mean risks for CIN2/3 estimated from the model ranged from 7.6% for negative for all markers to 36.3% for positive for all 3 markers. p16 IHC does not risk stratify CIN1 patients in a manner that would alter recommended management for CIN1. This reinforces the LAST recommendations that p16 should only be used selectively for problematic scenarios, such as CIN2 because of its inherent lack of reproducibility, cases in which one is struggling between CIN1 and CIN2, and benign mimics of CIN3. PMID:25602791

  10. Gleason Pattern 5 Prostate Cancer: Further Stratification of Patients With High-Risk Disease and Implications for Future Randomized Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Nanda, Akash [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: ananda@partners.org; Chen, M.-H. [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Renshaw, Andrew A. [Department of Pathology, Baptist Hospital of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); D'Amico, Anthony V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To compare prostate-specific antigen (PSA) outcomes in a cohort of men with high-risk prostate cancer based on the presence or absence of any Gleason Grade 5 component (primary, secondary, or tertiary). Methods and Materials: Our study cohort consisted of 312 men with T1c-T3N0M0 prostate cancer with Gleason Scores of 7 with tertiary Grade 5, 8, or 9-10 who underwent radical prostatectomy or external beam radiotherapy with or without androgen suppression therapy. Cox regression multivariable analysis was used to assess whether a difference existed in risk of PSA recurrence in men with Gleason Score of 9-10 compared with those with Gleason Score of 8 and 7 with tertiary Grade 5, adjusting for treatment, age, and known prostate cancer prognostic factors. Results: After a median follow-up of 5.7 years, men with a Gleason Score of 8 had a lower risk of PSA recurrence than those with a Gleason Score of 9-10 (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-1.05; p = 0.09). Conversely, men with a Gleason Score of 7 with tertiary Grade 5 had a similar risk of PSA recurrence compared with men with a Gleason Score of 9-10 (hazard ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.60-1.94; p = 0.81). Median times to PSA failure for men with Gleason Scores of 9-10, 7 with tertiary Grade 5, and 8 were 4.5, 5.0, and 5.4 years, respectively. Conclusions: Our results highlight the importance of further substratification of the high-risk Gleason Score category of 8-10 into 8 vs. 9, 10, and 7 with tertiary Grade 5.

  11. Prognostic value of troponin i in cardiac risk stratification of cancer patients undergoing high-dose chemotherap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Cardinale; Maria T. Sandri; Alessandro Colombo

    2004-01-01

    Background—In patients with aggressive malignancies who are undergoing high-dose chemotherapy, even minimal elevation of troponin I (TnI) is associated with late left ventricular dysfunction. The time course of the subclinical myocardial damage and its impact on the clinical outcome have never been investigated previously. Methods and Results—In 703 cancer patients, we measured TnI soon after chemotherapy (early TnI) and 1

  12. Prognostic Value of Troponin I in Cardiac Risk Stratification of Cancer Patients Undergoing High-Dose Chemotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Cardinale; Maria T. Sandri; Alessandro Colombo; Nicola Colombo; Marina Boeri; Giuseppina Lamantia; Maurizio Civelli; Fedro Peccatori; Giovanni Martinelli; Cesare Fiorentini; Carlo M. Cipolla

    2004-01-01

    Background—In patients with aggressive malignancies who are undergoing high-dose chemotherapy, even minimal elevation of troponin I (TnI) is associated with late left ventricular dysfunction. The time course of the subclinical myocardial damage and its impact on the clinical outcome have never been investigated previously. Methods and Results—In 703 cancer patients, we measured TnI soon after chemotherapy (early TnI) and 1

  13. Natural history of Brugada Syndrome. Insights for risk stratification and management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia G. Priori; Carlo Napolitano; Maurizio Gasparini

    2002-01-01

    Background—Treatment of patients with Brugada syndrome is complicated by the incomplete information on the natural history of the disease related to the small number of cases reported. Furthermore, the value of programmed electrical stimulation (PES) for risk stratification is highly debated. The objective of this study was to search for novel parameters to identify patients at risk of sudden death.

  14. Multiple biomarker strategies for risk stratification in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Ordonez-Llanos, Jordi

    2015-03-30

    Biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases are indispensable tools for diagnosis and prognosis, and the use of biomarkers is now considered standard-of-care. New markers continue to be developed, but few prove to be substantially better than established markers. Heart failure (HF) risk stratification may be refined by the use of biomarkers for different pathobiological processes that established mortality risk factors do not directly reflect. Biomarkers that are currently available can provide information about at least seven pathobiological processes operative in HF, help to identify the specific processes involved in individual patients, and aid in constructing management plans. However, the additional prognostic information gained by any biomarker over a clinical risk model plus other biomarkers needs to be determined with adequate statistical tools. A major problem in selecting a biomarker profile is the proportional increase in economic burden; thus, the addition of any biomarker to a profile should be justified by adequate discrimination, calibration, reclassification, and likelihood analyses. This review assesses the value of multimarker strategies in both acutely decompensated (ADHF) and chronic HF. Most data on biomarkers have been derived from patient cohorts with chronic HF. However, risk prediction in patients admitted with ADHF remains a challenge. ADHF is not a single disease, it presents in various manners and different etiologies may underlie ADHF, which are reflected by different biomarkers. The optimal panel of markers, the change in these markers over time, and how these changes might help guide therapeutic interventions remain to be defined. PMID:25451945

  15. Risk stratification for ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in the era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Brogan, Richard A; Malkin, Christopher J; Batin, Phillip D; Simms, Alexander D; McLenachan, James M; Gale, Christopher P

    2014-01-01

    Acute coronary syndromes presenting with ST elevation are usually treated with emergency reperfusion/revascularisation therapy. In contrast current evidence and national guidelines recommend risk stratification for non ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) with the decision on revascularisation dependent on perceived clinical risk. Risk stratification for STEMI has no recommendation. Statistical risk scoring techniques in NSTEMI have been demonstrated to improve outcomes however their uptake has been poor perhaps due to questions over their discrimination and concern for application to individuals who may not have been adequately represented in clinical trials. STEMI is perceived to carry sufficient risk to warrant emergency coronary intervention [by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI)] even if this results in a delay to reperfusion with immediate thrombolysis. Immediate thrombolysis may be as effective in patients presenting early, or at low risk, but physicians are poor at assessing clinical and procedural risks and currently are not required to consider this. Inadequate data on risk stratification in STEMI inhibits the option of immediate fibrinolysis, which may be cost-effective. Currently the mode of reperfusion for STEMI defaults to emergency angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention ignoring alternative strategies. This review article examines the current risk scores and evidence base for risk stratification for STEMI patients. The requirements for an ideal STEMI risk score are discussed. PMID:25228966

  16. Risk stratification of HBV infection in Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Kao, Jia-Horng

    2014-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the major etiology of chronic liver disease worldwide and thus a global health problem, especially in Asia-Pacific region. The long-term outcomes of Asian HBV carriers vary widely; however, a significant proportion of them will finally develop end-stage liver disease. Over the past decade, several host and HBV factors predictive of clinical outcomes in Asian HBV carriers have been identified. The community-based REVEAL-HBV study illustrated the strong association between HBV-DNA level at study entry and risk of HCC over time, and male gender, older age, high serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, positive HBeAg, higher HBV-DNA level, HBV genotype C infection and core promoter mutation are independently associated with a higher hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk. Another hospital-based ERADICATE-B cohort further validated the HCC risk started to increase when HBV-DNA level was higher than 2,000 IU/mL. Of particular note, in patients with low viral load (HBV-DNA level <2,000 IU/mL), HBsAg level ?1,000 IU/mL was a new independent risk factor for HCC. With the results from REVEAL-HBV study, a risk calculator for predicting HCC in adult non-cirrhotic patients has been developed and validated by independent international cohorts (REACH-B). With the combination of HBV-DNA, HBsAg, and ALT levels, ERADICATE-B study proposed an algorithm to predict disease progression and categorize risk levels of HCC as well as corresponding management in Asian HBV carriers. The introduction of transient elastography may further enhance the predictive power. In conclusion, HBsAg level can complement HBV-DNA level for the risk stratification of disease progression in Asian adult patients with chronic HBV infection. PMID:25320724

  17. New Methods for the Analysis of Heartbeat Behavior in Risk Stratification

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Leon; Lerma, Claudia; Shrier, Alvin

    2011-01-01

    Developing better methods for risk stratification for tachyarrhythmic sudden cardiac remains a major challenge for physicians and scientists. Since the transition from sinus rhythm to ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation happens by different mechanisms in different people, it is unrealistic to think that a single measure will be adequate to provide a good index for risk stratification. We analyze the dynamical properties of ventricular premature complexes over 24?h in an effort to understand the underlying mechanisms of ventricular arrhythmias and to better understand the arrhythmias that occur in individual patients. Two dimensional density plots, called heartprints, correlate characteristic features of the dynamics of premature ventricular complexes and the sinus rate. Heartprints show distinctive characteristics in individual patients. Based on a better understanding of the natures of transitions from sinus rhythm to sudden cardiac and the mechanisms of arrhythmia prior to cardiac arrest, it should be possible to develop better methods for risk stratification. PMID:22144963

  18. Critical appraisal of inflammatory markers in cardiovascular risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Krintus, Magdalena; Kozinski, Marek; Kubica, Jacek; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2014-10-01

    Despite great progress in prevention strategies, pharmacotherapy and interventional treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD), cardiovascular events still constitute the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the modern world. Traditional risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, obesity, dyslipidemia, and positive family history account for the occurrence of the majority of these events, but not all of them. Adequate risk assessment remains the most challenging in individuals classified into low or intermediate risk categories. Inflammation plays a key role in the initiation and promotion of atherosclerosis and may lead to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) by the induction of plaque instability. For this reason, numerous inflammatory markers have been extensively investigated as potential candidates for the enhancement of cardiovascular risk assessment. This review aims to critically assess the clinical utility of well-established (C-reactive protein [CRP] and fibrinogen), newer (lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 [Lp-PLA2] and myeloperoxidase [MPO]) and novel (growth differentiation factor-15 [GDF-15]) inflammatory markers which, reflect different pathophysiological pathways underlying CAD. Although according to the traditional approach all discussed inflammatory markers were shown to be associated with the risk of future cardiovascular events in individuals with and without CAD, their clear clinical utility remains not fully elucidated. Current recommendations of numerous scientific societies predominantly advocate routine assessment of CRP in healthy people with intermediate cardiovascular risk. However, these recommendations substantially vary in their strength among particular societies. These discrepancies have a multifactorial background, including: (i) the strong prognostic value of CRP supported by solid scientific evidence and proven to be comparable in magnitude with that of total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or hypertension, (ii) favourable analytical characteristics of commercially available CRP assays, (iii) lack of CRP specificity and causal relationship between CRP concentration and cardiovascular risk, and (iv) CRP dependence on other classical risk factors. Of major importance, CRP measurement in healthy men ?50 years of age or healthy women ?60 years of age with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <130?mg/dL may be helpful in the selection of patients for statin therapy. Additionally, evaluation of CRP and fibrinogen or Lp-PLA2 may be considered to facilitate risk stratification in ACS patients and in healthy individuals with intermediate cardiovascular risk, respectively. Nevertheless, the clinical utility of CRP requires further investigation in a broad spectrum of CAD patients, while other promising inflammatory markers, particularly GDF-15 and Lp-PLA2, should be tested in individuals both with and without established CAD. Further studies should also focus on novel performance metrics such as measures of discrimination, calibration and reclassification, in order to better address the clinical utility of investigated biomarkers and to avoid misleadingly optimistic results. It also has to be emphasized that, due to the multifactorial pathogenesis of CAD, detailed risk stratification remains a complex process also involving, beyond assessment of inflammatory biomarkers, the patient's clinical characteristics, results of imaging examinations, electrocardiographic findings and other laboratory parameters (e.g. lipid profile, indices of renal function, markers of left ventricular overload and fibrosis, and biomarkers of myocardial necrosis, preferably cardiac troponins). PMID:24918900

  19. The need for improved risk stratification in chronic critical limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jayer; Modrall, J Gregory; Valentine, R James

    2014-12-01

    Vascular surgeons are well acquainted with chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI), the most severe manifestation of peripheral arterial disease, with patients presenting with ischemic rest pain or ulcerations, or both. Epidemiologic data predict a burgeoning epidemic of CLI within the United States, commensurate with the increasing incidence and prevalence of atherosclerotic risk factors, especially age and diabetes. Untreated, the risk of major amputation (above the ankle) or death, or both, ranges between 20% and 40% at 1 year. Current open and endovascular therapies have imperfect results, diverse treatment options, and recommendations that are often conflicting and confuse physicians, industry, and patients alike. The best treatment options are ideally evaluated by prospective, randomized controlled trials. However, these have proven impractical in CLI because the rapid evolution of devices and techniques has outstripped the ability to measure outcomes and compare treatment options. Alternatively, risk-stratifying models have been proposed to allow physicians, patients, and industry to objectively evaluate new therapeutics and devices as they evolve. These models are developed from prospective cohorts to identify and quantify variables that can subsequently predict outcome in individual patients. The risk stratification models can also compare CLI outcomes between physicians and institutions, supporting quality assessments, and compensation decisions within Accountable Care Organizations under the Affordable Health Care Act (ACA). Widespread adoption of risk-stratification schemes has yet to occur, despite the critical need for such a tool in CLI, because present models lack optimal predictive ability and generalizability. The passage of the ACA amplifies the importance of developing an improved risk-stratification tool to ensure equitable quality assessments and compensation. This review presents current risk-stratification models for CLI with a summary of the respective strengths and limitations of each. Future research is needed to simplify and improve the accuracy and generalizability of risk stratification in CLI. PMID:25214365

  20. Patient Stratification for Preventive Care in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Giannobile, W.V.; Braun, T.M.; Caplis, A.K.; Doucette-Stamm, L.; Duff, G.W.; Kornman, K.S.

    2013-01-01

    Prevention reduces tooth loss, but little evidence supports biannual preventive care for all adults. We used risk-based approaches to test tooth loss association with 1 vs. 2 annual preventive visits in high-risk (HiR) and low-risk (LoR) patients. Insurance claims for 16 years for 5,117 adults were evaluated retrospectively for tooth extraction events. Patients were classified as HiR for progressive periodontitis if they had ? 1 of the risk factors (RFs) smoking, diabetes, interleukin-1 genotype; or as LoR if no RFs. LoR event rates were 13.8% and 16.4% for 2 or 1 annual preventive visits (absolute risk reduction, 2.6%; 95%CI, 0.5% to 5.8%; p = .092). HiR event rates were 16.9% and 22.1% for 2 and 1 preventive visits (absolute risk reduction, 5.2%; 95%CI, 1.8% to 8.4%; p = .002). Increasing RFs increased events (p < .001). Oral health care costs were not increased by any single RF, regardless of prevention frequency (p > .41), but multiple RFs increased costs vs. no (p < .001) or 1 RF (p = .001). For LoR individuals, the association between preventive dental visits and tooth loss was not significantly different whether the frequency was once or twice annually. A personalized medicine approach combining gene biomarkers with conventional risk factors to stratify populations may be useful in resource allocation for preventive dentistry (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01584479). PMID:23752171

  1. Buccal Spectral Markers for Lung Cancer Risk Stratification

    E-print Network

    Ottino, Julio M.

    Buccal Spectral Markers for Lung Cancer Risk Stratification Andrew J. Radosevich1 *, Nikhil N, United States of America Abstract Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the US with .150,000 deaths per year. In order to more effectively reduce lung cancer mortality, more sophisticated

  2. Prognostic stratification of colorectal cancer patients: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Nora I; Langner, Cord

    2014-01-01

    Tumor staging according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) system is currently regarded as the standard for staging of patients with colorectal cancer. This system provides the strongest prognostic information for patients with early stage disease and those with advanced disease. For patients with intermediate levels of disease, it is less able to predict disease outcome. Therefore, additional prognostic markers are needed to improve the management of affected patients. Ideal markers are readily assessable on hematoxylin and eosin-stained tumor slides, and in this way are easily applicable worldwide. This review summarizes the histological features of colorectal cancer that can be used for prognostic stratification. Specifically, we refer to the different histological variants of colorectal cancer that have been identified, each of these variants carrying distinct prognostic significance. Established markers of adverse outcomes are lymphatic and venous invasion, as well as perineural invasion, but underreporting still occurs in the routine setting. Tumor budding and tumor necrosis are recent advances that may help to identify patients at high risk for recurrence. The prognostic significance of the antitumor inflammatory response has been known for quite a long time, but a lack of standardization prevented its application in routine pathology. However, scales to assess intra- and peritumoral inflammation have recently emerged, and can be expected to strengthen the prognostic significance of the pathology report. PMID:25061338

  3. Elevated ?-arrestin1 expression correlated with risk stratification in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Long, Juan; Zhang, Peng-Hui; Li, Kang; Tan, Jun-Jie; Sun, Bin; Yu, Jie; Tu, Zhi-Guang; Zou, Lin

    2011-04-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the main subtype of childhood leukemia. Risk stratification is pivotal for ALL prognosis and individualized therapy. The current factors for risk stratification include clinical and laboratory features, cytogenetic characteristics of the blast, early response to chemotherapy, and genetic factors. Analyses of gene expression are becoming increasingly important in ALL risk stratification. ?-Arrestin1, a multifunctional scaffold protein mediating many intracellular signaling networks, has been shown to be involved in many tumors. However, little is known of ?-arrestin1 in leukemia. In this study, we found that ?-arrestin1 was significantly elevated in 155 newly diagnosed ALL patients, compared with 51 controls. Further analysis showed that ?-arrestin1 expression was positively related with risk classification and white blood cell count in ALL. Moreover, expression of Notch1, an essential gene for developing hematological cells and T-ALL, was found to be negatively correlated with ?-arrestin1 in ALL. In conclusion, ?-arrestin1 may be a useful predictor of risk stratification and prognosis of ALL, and thus of potential use in the design of individualized therapy strategies. PMID:21479985

  4. Outcomes of thalassemia patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation by using a standard myeloablative versus a novel reduced-toxicity conditioning regimen according to a new risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Anurathapan, Usanarat; Pakakasama, Samart; Mekjaruskul, Pimsiri; Sirachainan, Nongnuch; Songdej, Duantida; Chuansumrit, Ampaiwan; Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Jetsrisuparb, Arunee; Sanpakit, Kleebsabai; Pongtanakul, Bunchoo; Rujkijyanont, Piya; Meekaewkunchorn, Arunotai; Sruamsiri, Rosarin; Ungkanont, Artit; Issaragrisil, Surapol; Andersson, Borje S; Hongeng, Suradej

    2014-12-01

    Improving outcomes among class 3 thalassemia patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT) remains a challenge. Before HSCT, patients who were ? 7 years old and had a liver size ? 5 cm constitute what the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research defined as a very high-risk subset of a conventional high-risk class 3 group (here referred to as class 3 HR). We performed HSCT in 98 patients with related and unrelated donor stem cells. Seventy-six of the patients with age < 10 years received the more conventional myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimen (cyclophosphamide, busulfan, ± fludarabine); the remaining 22 patients with age ? 10 years and hepatomegaly (class 3 HR), and in several instances additional comorbidity problems, underwent HSCT with a novel reduced-toxicity conditioning (RTC) regimen (fludarabine and busulfan). We then compared the outcomes between these 2 groups (MAC versus RTC). Event-free survival (86% versus 90%) and overall survival (95% versus 90%) were not significantly different between the respective groups; however, there was a higher incidence of serious treatment-related complications in the MAC group, and although we experienced 6 graft failures in the MAC group (8%), there were none in the RTC group. Based on these results, we suggest that (1) class 3 HR thalassemia patients can safely receive HSCT with our novel RTC regimen and achieve the same excellent outcome as low/standard-risk thalassemia patients who received the standard MAC regimen, and further, (2) that this novel RTC approach should be tested in the low/standard-risk patient population. PMID:25064743

  5. Stratification of the Risk of Sudden Death in Nonischemic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Maurício; Zimerman, Leandro Ioschpe; Rohde, Luis Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant therapeutic advancements, heart failure remains a highly prevalent clinical condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In 30%-40% patients, the etiology of heart failure is nonischemic. The implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is capable of preventing sudden death and decreasing total mortality in patients with nonischemic heart failure. However, a significant number of patients receiving ICD do not receive any kind of therapy during follow-up. Moreover, considering the situation in Brazil and several other countries, ICD cannot be implanted in all patients with nonischemic heart failure. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify patients at an increased risk of sudden death because these would benefit more than patients at a lower risk, despite the presence of heart failure in both risk groups. In this study, the authors review the primary available methods for the stratification of the risk of sudden death in patients with nonischemic heart failure. PMID:25352509

  6. Risk stratification of adult emergency department syncope patients to predict short-term serious outcomes after discharge (RiSEDS) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While Canadian ED physicians discharge most syncope patients with no specific further follow-up, approximately 5% will suffer serious outcomes after ED discharge. The goal of this study is to prospectively identify risk factors and to derive a clinical decision tool to accurately predict those at risk for serious outcomes after ED discharge within 30 days. Methods/Design We will conduct a prospective cohort study at 6 Canadian EDs to include adults with syncope and exclude patients with loss of consciousness?>?5 minutes, mental status changes from baseline, obvious witnessed seizure, or head trauma prior to syncope. Emergency physicians will collect standardized clinical variables including historical features, physical findings, and results of immediately available tests (blood, ECG, and ED cardiac monitoring) prior to ED discharge/hospital admission. A second emergency physician will evaluate approximately 10% of study patients for interobserver agreement calculation of predictor variables. The primary outcome will be a composite serious outcome occurring within 30 days of ED discharge and includes three distinct categories: serious adverse events (death, arrhythmia); identification of serious underlying disease (structural heart disease, aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, severe pulmonary hypertension, subarachnoid hemorrhage, significant hemorrhage, myocardial infarction); or procedures to treat the cause of syncope. The secondary outcome will be any of the above serious outcomes either suspected or those occurring in the ED. A blinded Adjudication Committee will confirm all serious outcomes. Univariate analysis will be performed to compare the predictor variables in patients with and without primary outcome. Variables with p-values <0.2 and kappa values ?0.60 will be selected for stepwise logistic regression to identify the risk factors and to develop the clinical decision tool. We will enroll 5,000 patients (with 125 positive for primary outcome) for robust identification of risk factors and clinical decision tool development. Discussion Once successfully developed, this tool will accurately risk-stratify adult syncope patients; however, validation and implementation will still be required. This program of research should lead to standardized care of syncope patients, and improve patient safety. PMID:24629180

  7. A New Approach in Risk Stratification by Coronary CT Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Budoff, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    For a decade, coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) has been used as a promising noninvasive modality for the assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD) as well as cardiovascular risks. CCTA can provide more information incorporating the presence, extent, and severity of CAD; coronary plaque burden; and characteristics that highly correlate with those on invasive coronary angiography. Moreover, recent techniques of CCTA allow assessing hemodynamic significance of CAD. CCTA may be potentially used as a substitute for other invasive or noninvasive modalities. This review summarizes risk stratification by anatomical and hemodynamic information of CAD, coronary plaque characteristics, and burden observed on CCTA. PMID:25254142

  8. Risk stratification using a combination of cardiac troponin T and brain natriuretic peptide in patients hospitalized for worsening chronic heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junnichi Ishii; Masanori Nomura; Yuu Nakamura; Hiroyuki Naruse; Yoshihisa Mori; Takashi Ishikawa; Toshikazu Ando; Hiroshi Kurokawa; Takeshi Kondo; Youichi Nagamura; Kouji Ezaki; Hitoshi Hishida

    2002-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated whether the combination of admission measurements of a marker for myocardial cell injury and a marker for left ventricular overload would effectively risk stratify patients with acutely decompensated heart failure. We measured serum concentrations of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) using a second-generation assay, as well as serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and plasma atrial and brain natriuretic

  9. Biomarkers After Risk Stratification in Acute Chest Pain (from the BRIC Study)

    PubMed Central

    Mathewkutty, Shiny; Sethi, Sanjum S.; Aneja, Ashish; Shah, Kshitij; Iyengar, Rupa L.; Hermann, Luke; Khakimov, Sayyar; Razzouk, Louai; Esquitin, Ricardo; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Benjamin, Terrie-Ann; Grace, Marie; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Ramanathan, Krishnan; Ramanathan, Lakshmi; Chesebro, James; Farkouh, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Current models incompletely risk-stratify patients with acute chest pain. In this study, N-terminal proeB-type natriuretic peptide and cystatin C were incorporated into a contemporary chest pain triage algorithm in a clinically stratified population to improve acute coronary syndrome discrimination. Adult patients with chest pain presenting without myocardial infarction (n = 382) were prospectively enrolled from 2008 to 2009. After clinical risk stratification, N-terminal proeB-type natriuretic peptide and cystatin C were measured and standard care was performed. The primary end point was the result of a clinical stress test. The secondary end point was any major adverse cardiac event at 6 months. Associations were determined through multivariate stratified analyses. In the low-risk group, 76 of 78 patients with normal levels of the 2 biomarkers had normal stress test results (negative predictive value 97%). Normal biomarkers predicted normal stress test results with an odds ratio of 10.56 (p = 0.006). In contrast, 26 of 33 intermediate-risk patients with normal levels of the 2 biomarkers had normal stress test results (negative predictive value 79%). Biomarkers and stress test results were not associated in the intermediate-risk group (odds ratio 2.48, p = 0.09). There were 42 major adverse cardiac events in the overall cohort. No major adverse cardiac events occurred at 6 months in the low-risk subgroup that underwent stress testing. In conclusion, N-terminal proeB-type natriuretic peptide and cystatin C levels predict the results of stress tests in low-risk patients with chest pain but should not be substituted for stress testing in intermediate-risk patients. There is potential for their use in the early discharge of low-risk patients after clinical risk stratification. PMID:23218997

  10. Radioiodine scintigraphy with SPECT/CT: an important diagnostic tool for thyroid cancer staging and risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Avram, Anca M

    2012-05-01

    Staging and risk stratification predicate the postoperative management of thyroid cancer patients, determining not only the need for (131)I therapy or alternative options (conservative management without ablation, surgical reintervention, or external-beam radiation therapy) but also the long-term follow-up strategy. This paper presents the progress made in the field of thyroid cancer imaging by application of SPECT/CT technology to radioiodine scintigraphy in both diagnostic and post-therapy settings and reviews the impact of fusion radioiodine imaging on staging, risk stratification, and clinical management of patients with thyroid cancer. In addition, this paper addresses the role of preablation radioiodine imaging and provides nuclear medicine physicians with the background knowledge required for integrating information from fusion imaging into the clinical and histopathologic risk stratification for developing an individualized treatment plan for patients with thyroid cancer. PMID:22550280

  11. Radioiodine scintigraphy with SPECT/CT: an important diagnostic tool for thyroid cancer staging and risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Avram, Anca M

    2014-09-01

    Staging and risk stratification predicate the postoperative management of thyroid cancer patients, determining not only the need for (131)I therapy or alternative options (conservative management without ablation, surgical reintervention, or external-beam radiation therapy) but also the long-term follow-up strategy. This paper presents the progress made in the field of thyroid cancer imaging by application of SPECT/CT technology to radioiodine scintigraphy in both diagnostic and post-therapy settings and reviews the impact of fusion radioiodine imaging on staging, risk stratification, and clinical management of patients with thyroid cancer. In addition, this paper addresses the role of preablation radioiodine imaging and provides nuclear medicine physicians with the background knowledge required for integrating information from fusion imaging into the clinical and histopathologic risk stratification for developing an individualized treatment plan for patients with thyroid cancer. PMID:25190758

  12. [Stratification scores for risk in the context of acute coronary syndromes].

    PubMed

    Abou Tam, J; Buffet, P; Lorgis, L; Zeller, M; Gonzalez, S; L'Huillier, I; Beer, J C; Debin, R; Cottin, Y

    2005-08-01

    The patients presenting acute coronary syndrome with or without ST segment elevation form a heterogeneous population and thus the short and long-term risk of death or recurrent ischemic events can vary considerably. During ACS without ST elevation (unstable angina and non-ST elevation MI), the evaluation of risk is an essential step in the management of such patients, because it determines ulterior strategy. This evaluation is simple and reliable, and is principally based on three scores: the TIMI, the GRACE Score or the PURSUIT. Thanks to this stratification, high and medium-risk patients are able to benefit from early invasive management (stents and anti-GPIIb/IIIa) as recent studies have clearly shown. Even if immediate management of patients with non-ST elevation ACS does not take account of risk stratification, using such information in the medium and long-term does help determine the prognosis. Finally, the risk profile score, whatever the score used is today an essential tool, which helps qualify and especially compare patients included in international clinical studies. PMID:16104613

  13. Early risk stratification in pediatric type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Broe, Rebecca

    2015-03-01

    In the late 1980s all Danish children with type 1 diabetes were invited for a nationwide evaluation of glycemic control. Approximately 75% (n = 720) participated and have later been referred to as The Danish Cohort of Pediatric Diabetes 1987 (DCPD1987). The results were surprisingly poor glycemic control among these young patients which lead to a great emphasis on glycemic control in the Danish Pediatric Departments. In 1995 the participants were invited for yet another evaluation but this time with main focus on early signs of microvascular complications - 339 participated. The mean HbA1c had remained at high levels (9.6%) and 60% of the participants had some level of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR). However, as the patients with DR mostly had the very milder forms it was believed that stricter glycemic control would reverse or at least stop progression of the disease in accordance with results from the large intervention study DCCT. This was investigated further at follow-up in 2011. The first study in the present thesis aimed to describe the 16-year incidence, progression and regression of DR in 185 participants from the DCPD1987 cohort. The 16-year incidence of proliferative retinopathy (PDR), 2-step progression and regression of DR was 31.0, 64.4, and 0.0%, respectively. As expected, the participants with PDR at follow-up had significantly higher HbA1c-values at both baseline and follow-up than those without PDR. However; a significantly larger decrease in HbA1c was also observed in the group with PDR over the study period, which in accordance with DCCT should have prevented the development of PDR to some extent. A surprisingly high incidence of proliferative retinopathy amongst young patients with type 1 diabetes in Denmark was found despite improvements in HbA1c over time. The improvement in HbA1c was either too small or happened too late. This study highlights that sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy remain a major concern in type 1 diabetes and the importance of early glycemic control. Identifying high-risk patients at a very early stage is not only desired for prevention of diabetic retinopathy - neuropathy and nephropathy similarly remain frequent in type 1 diabetes. Early risk stratification will allow for timely implementation of effective interventions and for individualized screening and diabetes care. The second and third studies of this thesis provide the longest prospective studies to date on both retinal vessel calibers and retinal fractal dimensions and their predictive value on diabetic microvascular complications. Semi-automated computer software has been developed to measure smaller changes in the retinal vessels on retinal photographs. Two of the first parameters to be reliably estimated by these programs were retinal vessel calibers and retinal vascular fractal dimensions (a quantitative measure on vascular complexity). There is very limited knowledge on their predictive value on diabetic complications thus far. In the second and third study, a consistent relation between narrower retinal arteriolar calibers, wider retinal venular calibers, lower fractal dimensions and the 16-year incidences of diabetic neuropathy, nephropathy and proliferative retinopathy was found. This has never been shown before. The results on vessel analyzes provides indications of a common pathogenic pathway for diabetic microvascular complications and therefore a possibility of universal risk estimation for development of neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy in type 1 diabetes. PMID:25703648

  14. Short-term vs. long-term heart rate variability in ischemic cardiomyopathy risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Andreas; Schroeder, Rico; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Schulz, Steffen; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Vázquez, Rafael; Bayés de Luna, Antoni; Caminal, Pere

    2013-01-01

    In industrialized countries with aging populations, heart failure affects 0.3–2% of the general population. The investigation of 24 h-ECG recordings revealed the potential of nonlinear indices of heart rate variability (HRV) for enhanced risk stratification in patients with ischemic heart failure (IHF). However, long-term analyses are time-consuming, expensive, and delay the initial diagnosis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether 30 min short-term HRV analysis is sufficient for comparable risk stratification in IHF in comparison to 24 h-HRV analysis. From 256 IHF patients [221 at low risk (IHFLR) and 35 at high risk (IHFHR)] (a) 24 h beat-to-beat time series (b) the first 30 min segment (c) the 30 min most stationary day segment and (d) the 30 min most stationary night segment were investigated. We calculated linear (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear HRV analysis indices. Optimal parameter sets for risk stratification in IHF were determined for 24 h and for each 30 min segment by applying discriminant analysis on significant clinical and non-clinical indices. Long- and short-term HRV indices from frequency domain and particularly from nonlinear dynamics revealed high univariate significances (p < 0.01) discriminating between IHFLR and IHFHR. For multivariate risk stratification, optimal mixed parameter sets consisting of 5 indices (clinical and nonlinear) achieved 80.4% AUC (area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics) from 24 h HRV analysis, 84.3% AUC from first 30 min, 82.2 % AUC from daytime 30 min and 81.7% AUC from nighttime 30 min. The optimal parameter set obtained from the first 30 min showed nearly the same classification power when compared to the optimal 24 h-parameter set. As results from stationary daytime and nighttime, 30 min segments indicate that short-term analyses of 30 min may provide at least a comparable risk stratification power in IHF in comparison to a 24 h analysis period. PMID:24379785

  15. Patient stratification and genomics: flares, fizzlers and foxes

    E-print Network

    Smith, Kenneth GC

    2012-11-28

    will describe the use of whole genome transcriptome analysis of purified CD8 T cells to define two sub-groups within patients with a number of inflammatory diseases (including SLE, AAV, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis). These otherwise “invisible” groups... , Parkes M, Smith KGC: Gene expression profiling of CD8+ T cells predicts prognosis in patients with Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. J Clin Invest 2011, 121:4170-4179. doi:10.1186/1479-5876-10-S3-I5 Cite this article as: Smith: Patient stratification...

  16. Bleeding risk stratification in an era of aggressive management of acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Assi, Emad; Raposeiras-Roubín, Sergio; García-Acuña, José María; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Major bleeding is currently one of the most common non-cardiac complications observed in the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Hemorrhagic complications occur with a frequency of 1% to 10% during treatment for ACS. In fact, bleeding events are the most common extrinsic complication associated with ACS therapy. The identification of clinical characteristics and particularities of the antithrombin therapy associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic complications would make it possible to adopt prevention strategies, especially among those exposed to greater risk. The international societies of cardiology renewed emphasis on bleeding risk stratification in order to decide strategy and therapy for patients with ACS. With this review, we performed an update about the ACS bleeding risk scores most frequently used in daily clinical practice. PMID:25429326

  17. Advanced colorectal neoplasia risk stratification by penalized logistic regression

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yunzhi; Yu, Menggang; Wang, Sijian; Chappell, Richard; Imperiale, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the United States. To facilitate the efficiency of colorectal cancer screening, there is a need to stratify risk for colorectal cancer among the 90% of US residents who are considered “average risk.” In this article, we investigate such risk stratification rules for advanced colorectal neoplasia (colorectal cancer and advanced, precancerous polyps). We use a recently completed large cohort study of subjects who underwent a first screening colonoscopy. Logistic regression models have been used in the literature to estimate the risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia based on quantifiable risk factors. However, logistic regression may be prone to overfitting and instability in variable selection. Since most of the risk factors in our study have several categories, it was tempting to collapse these categories into fewer risk groups. We propose a penalized logistic regression method that automatically and simultaneously selects variables, groups categories, and estimates their coefficients by penalizing the L1-norm of both the coefficients and their differences. Hence, it encourages sparsity in the categories, i.e. grouping of the categories, and sparsity in the variables, i.e. variable selection. We apply the penalized logistic regression method to our data. The important variables are selected, with close categories simultaneously grouped, by penalized regression models with and without the interactions terms. The models are validated with 10-fold cross-validation. The receiver operating characteristic curves of the penalized regression models dominate the receiver operating characteristic curve of naive logistic regressions, indicating a superior discriminative performance. PMID:23907780

  18. Advanced colorectal neoplasia risk stratification by penalized logistic regression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yunzhi; Yu, Menggang; Wang, Sijian; Chappell, Richard; Imperiale, Thomas F

    2013-07-30

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the United States. To facilitate the efficiency of colorectal cancer screening, there is a need to stratify risk for colorectal cancer among the 90% of US residents who are considered "average risk." In this article, we investigate such risk stratification rules for advanced colorectal neoplasia (colorectal cancer and advanced, precancerous polyps). We use a recently completed large cohort study of subjects who underwent a first screening colonoscopy. Logistic regression models have been used in the literature to estimate the risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia based on quantifiable risk factors. However, logistic regression may be prone to overfitting and instability in variable selection. Since most of the risk factors in our study have several categories, it was tempting to collapse these categories into fewer risk groups. We propose a penalized logistic regression method that automatically and simultaneously selects variables, groups categories, and estimates their coefficients by penalizing the $$L1$$-norm of both the coefficients and their differences. Hence, it encourages sparsity in the categories, i.e. grouping of the categories, and sparsity in the variables, i.e. variable selection. We apply the penalized logistic regression method to our data. The important variables are selected, with close categories simultaneously grouped, by penalized regression models with and without the interactions terms. The models are validated with 10-fold cross-validation. The receiver operating characteristic curves of the penalized regression models dominate the receiver operating characteristic curve of naive logistic regressions, indicating a superior discriminative performance. PMID:23907780

  19. Percentage of Positive Biopsy Cores: A Better Risk Stratification Model for Prostate Cancer?

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jiayi; Vicini, Frank A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Williams, Scott G. [Peter Maccallum Cancer Centre and University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Ye Hong; McGrath, Samuel; Ghilezan, Mihai; Krauss, Daniel; Martinez, Alvaro A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Kestin, Larry L., E-mail: lkestin@comcast.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the prognostic value of the percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPC) and perineural invasion in predicting the clinical outcomes after radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer and to explore the possibilities to improve on existing risk-stratification models. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2004, 1,056 patients with clinical Stage T1c-T3N0M0 prostate cancer, who had four or more biopsy cores sampled and complete biopsy core data available, were treated with external beam RT, with or without a high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost at William Beaumont Hospital. The median follow-up was 7.6 years. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed with PPC, Gleason score, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen, T stage, PNI, radiation dose, androgen deprivation, age, prostate-specific antigen frequency, and follow-up duration. A new risk stratification (PPC classification) was empirically devised to incorporate PPC and replace the T stage. Results: On multivariate Cox regression analysis, the PPC was an independent predictor of distant metastasis, cause-specific survival, and overall survival (all p < .05). A PPC >50% was associated with significantly greater distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 4.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.86-8.61), and its independent predictive value remained significant with or without androgen deprivation therapy (all p < .05). In contrast, PNI and T stage were only predictive for locoregional recurrence. Combining the PPC ({<=}50% vs. >50%) with National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk stratification demonstrated added prognostic value of distant metastasis for the intermediate-risk (hazard ratio, 5.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.78-16.6) and high-risk (hazard ratio, 4.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.70-11.3) groups, regardless of the use of androgen deprivation and high-dose RT (all p < .05). The proposed PPC classification appears to provide improved stratification of the clinical outcomes relative to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network classification. Conclusions: The PPC is an independent and powerful predictor of clinical outcomes of prostate cancer after RT. A risk model replacing T stage with the PPC to reduce subjectivity demonstrated potentially improved stratification.

  20. Role of echocardiography in diagnosis and risk stratification in heart failure with left ventricular systolic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ciampi, Quirino; Villari, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the ventricle to fill with or eject blood. Echocardiography represents the "gold standard" in the assessment of LV systolic dysfunction and in the recognition of systolic heart failure, since dilatation of the LV results in alteration of intracardiac geometry and hemodynamics leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The functional mitral regurgitation is a consequence of adverse LV remodelling that occurs with a structurally normal valve and it is a marker of adverse prognosis. Diastolic dysfunction plays a major role in signs and symptoms of HF and in the risk stratification, and provides prognostic information independently in HF patients and impaired systolic function. Ultrasound lung comets are a simple echographic sign of extravascular lung water, more frequently associated with left ventricular diastolic and/or systolic dysfunction, which can integrate the clinical and pathophysiological information provided by conventional echocardiography and provide a useful information for prognostic stratification of HF patients. Contractile reserve is defined as the difference between values of an index of left ventricular contractility during peak stress and its baseline values and the presence of myocardial viability predicts a favorable outcome. A non-invasive echocardiographic method for the evaluation of force-frequency relationship has been proposed to assess the changes in contractility during stress echo. In conclusion, in HF patients, the evaluation of systolic, diastolic function and myocardial contractile reserve plays a fundamental role in the risk stratification. The highest risk is present in HF patients with a heart that is weak, big, noisy, stiff and wet. PMID:17910744

  1. Sudden death in adult congenital heart disease: risk stratification in 2014.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Edward P

    2014-10-01

    Arrhythmias and sudden death continue to plague a subset of adult patients with congenital heart disease. Despite investigative efforts spanning many decades, accurate identification of the high-risk patient remains challenging owing to a limited population size, relatively low event rate, and constantly evolving surgical approaches to the various malformations. Furthermore, until recently, most studies of the subject involved single-center formats with limited statistical power. The number of adult survivors has now reached a critical size where larger collaborative projects are beginning to generate more objective criteria for assessing risk. This review will provide an update on risk stratification for several of the major congenital cardiac lesions and outline the current recommendations for surveillance and management. PMID:25046858

  2. When to Perform Bone Scan in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Prostate Cancer: External Validation of the Currently Available Guidelines and Proposal of a Novel Risk Stratification Tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Briganti; Niccolò Passoni; Matteo Ferrari; Umberto Capitanio; Nazareno Suardi; Andrea Gallina; Luigi Filippo Da Pozzo; Maria Picchio; Valerio Di Girolamo; Andrea Salonia; Liugi Gianolli; Cristina Messa; Patrizio Rigatti; Francesco Montorsi

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundSeveral guidelines have indicated that in patients with well-differentiated or moderately well-differentiated prostate cancer (PCa), a staging bone scan may be omitted. However, the guidelines recommendations have not yet been externally validated.

  3. T-wave alternans and dispersion of the QT interval as risk stratification markers in patients susceptible to sustained ventricular arrhythmias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armoundas, A. A.; Osaka, M.; Mela, T.; Rosenbaum, D. S.; Ruskin, J. N.; Garan, H.; Cohen, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    T-wave alternans and QT dispersion were compared as predictors of the outcome of electrophysiologic study and arrhythmia-free survival in patients undergoing electrophysiologic evaluation. T-wave alternans was a highly significant predictor of these 2 outcome variables, whereas QT dispersion was not.

  4. A combined anatomic and electrophysiologic substrate based approach for sudden cardiac death risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Faisal M.; Zheng, Hui; Bigger, Thomas; Steinman, Richard; Ikeda, Takanori; Pedretti, Roberto F.E.; Salerno-Uriarte, Jorge A.; Klersy, Catherine; Chan, Paul S.; Bartone, Cheryl; Hohnloser, Stefan H.; Ruskin, Jeremy N.; Armoundas, Antonis A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) is the primary determinant for sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk stratification, in isolation, LVEF is a sub-optimal risk stratifier. We assessed whether a multi-marker strategy would provide more robust SCD risk stratification than LVEF alone. Methods We collected patient-level data (n=3355) from 6 studies assessing the prognostic utility of microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) testing. Two-thirds of the group was used for derivation (n=2242) and one-third for validation (n=1113). The discriminative capacity of the multivariable model was assessed using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (c-index). The primary endpoint was SCD at 24 months. Results In the derivation cohort, 59 patients experienced SCD by 24 months. Stepwise selection suggested that a model based on 3 parameters (LVEF, coronary artery disease [CAD] and MTWA status) provided optimal SCD risk prediction. In the derivation cohort, the c-index of the model was 0.817, which was significantly better than LVEF used as a single variable (0.637, p < 0.001). In the validation cohort, 36 patients experienced SCD by 24 months. The c-index of the model for predicting the primary endpoint was again significantly better than LVEF alone (0.774 vs. 0.671, p = 0.020). Conclusions A multivariable model based on presence of CAD, LVEF and MTWA status provides significantly more robust SCD risk prediction than LVEF as a single risk marker. These findings suggest that multi-marker strategies based on different aspects of the electro-anatomic substrate may be capable of improving primary prevention ICD treatment algorithms. PMID:24093856

  5. Adaptive index models for marker-based risk stratification

    E-print Network

    Tibshirani, Robeert

    for risk classification in Non- Hodgkins lymphoma (TIN-HsLPF (1993)). The IPI consists of one point. Shown are the survival curves from a set of patients with Non-Hodgkins lymphoma, for each of the levels curves from a set of patients with Non-Hodgkins lym- phoma, for ea

  6. Population-based genetic risk prediction and stratification for ovarian cancer: views from women at high risk.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Belinda; Meisel, Susanne F; Fraser, Lindsay; Side, Lucy; Gessler, Sue; Wardle, Jane; Lanceley, Anne

    2015-03-01

    There is an opportunity to improve outcomes for ovarian cancer (OC) through advances in risk stratification, early detection and diagnosis. A population-based OC genetic risk prediction and stratification program is being developed. A previous focus group study with individuals from the general population showed support for the proposed program. This qualitative interview study explores the attitudes of women at high risk of OC. Eight women participated in one-on-one, in-depth, semi-structured interviews to explore: experiences of learning of OC risk, risk perceptions, OC knowledge and awareness, and opinions on risk stratification approach. There was evidence of strong support for the proposed program. Benefits were seen as providing reassurance to women at low risk, and reducing worry in women at high risk through appropriate clinical management. Stratification into 'low' and 'high' risk groups was well-received. Participants were more hesitant about stratification to the 'intermediate' risk group. The data suggest formats to effectively communicate OC risk estimates will require careful thought. Interactions with GPs were highlighted as a barrier to OC risk assessment and diagnosis. These results are encouraging for the possible introduction and uptake of a risk prediction and stratification program for OC in the general population. PMID:25391615

  7. Risk stratification analysis of operative mortality in heart and thoracic aorta surgery: comparison between Parsonnet and EuroSCORE additive model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshito Kawachi; Atsuhiro Nakashima; Yoshihiro Toshima; Kouich Arinaga; Hiroshi Kawano

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose was to compare the performance of risk stratification model between Parsonnet and European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) in our patient database. Methods: From August 1994 to December 2000, 803 consecutive patients have undergone heart and thoracic aorta surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass and scored according to Parsonnet and EuroSCORE algorithm. The population was divided into

  8. Ventilatory inefficiency in major depressive disorder: A potential adjunct for cardiac risk stratification in depressive disorders?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Donath; Christian Puta; Silke Boettger; Hans Josef Mueller; Oliver Faude; Tim Meyer; Karl-Jürgen Bär; Holger H. W. Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundCardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) provides insights into ventilatory, cardiac and metabolic dysfunction in heart and lung diseases and might play a role in cardiac risk stratification in major depressive disorder (MDD).

  9. Improving clinical risk-stratification tools : instance-transfer for selecting relevant training data

    E-print Network

    Gong, Jen J. (Jen Jian)

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary problems in constructing risk-stratification models for medical applications is that the data are often noisy, incomplete, and suffer from high class-imbalance. This problem becomes more severe when the ...

  10. Diabetes and atrial fibrillation: stratification and prevention of stroke risks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although evidence is not very clear, diabetes is assumed to be an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). One reason for the lack of evidence could be that AF often is not detected due to its paroxysmal or asymptomatic character. A better understanding of the relationship between both diseases and improved detection of AF is necessary since the combination of both diseases dramatically increase the risk of strokes if not treated properly. Methods Available literature about diabetes as an independent risk factor for AF has been evaluated, and limitations of studies are discussed. Results Results from different trials and registers are contradictory concerning diabetes as an independent risk factor for AF. Reasons for these differences can be found in different study designs and neglecting patients with unknown AF. Conclusions Due to the increasing burden of disease of diabetes and AF as common risk factors for stroke, a systematic screening for AF in diabetes patients could provide a better understanding of their correlation and personalized prevention strategies. PMID:25302085

  11. IMWG consensus on risk stratification in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Chng, W J; Dispenzieri, A; Chim, C-S; Fonseca, R; Goldschmidt, H; Lentzsch, S; Munshi, N; Palumbo, A; Miguel, J S; Sonneveld, P; Cavo, M; Usmani, S; Durie, B G M; Avet-Loiseau, H

    2014-02-01

    Multiple myeloma is characterized by underlying clinical and biological heterogeneity, which translates to variable response to treatment and outcome. With the recent increase in treatment armamentarium and the projected further increase in approved therapeutic agents in the coming years, the issue of having some mechanism to dissect this heterogeneity and rationally apply treatment is coming to the fore. A number of robustly validated prognostic markers have been identified and the use of these markers in stratifying patients into different risk groups has been proposed. In this consensus statement, the International Myeloma Working Group propose well-defined and easily applicable risk categories based on current available information and suggests the use of this set of prognostic factors as gold standards in all clinical trials and form the basis of subsequent development of more complex prognostic system or better prognostic factors. At the same time, these risk categories serve as a framework to rationalize the use of therapies. PMID:23974982

  12. ECG Morphological Variability in Beat Space for Risk Stratification After Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yun; Syed, Zeeshan; Scirica, Benjamin M.; Morrow, David A.; Guttag, John V.; Stultz, Collin M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Identification of patients who are at high risk of adverse cardiovascular events after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains a major challenge in clinical cardiology. We hypothesized that quantifying variability in electrocardiogram (ECG) morphology may improve risk stratification post?ACS. Methods and Results We developed a new metric to quantify beat?to?beat morphologic changes in the ECG: morphologic variability in beat space (MVB), and compared our metric to published ECG metrics (heart rate variability [HRV], deceleration capacity [DC], T?wave alternans, heart rate turbulence, and severe autonomic failure). We tested the ability of these metrics to identify patients at high risk of cardiovascular death (CVD) using 1082 patients (1?year CVD rate, 4.5%) from the MERLIN?TIMI 36 (Metabolic Efficiency with Ranolazine for Less Ischemia in Non?ST?Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome—Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 36) clinical trial. DC, HRV/low frequency–high frequency, and MVB were all associated with CVD (hazard ratios [HRs] from 2.1 to 2.3 [P<0.05 for all] after adjusting for the TIMI risk score [TRS], left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF], and B?type natriuretic peptide [BNP]). In a cohort with low?to?moderate TRS (N=864; 1?year CVD rate, 2.7%), only MVB was significantly associated with CVD (HR, 3.0; P=0.01, after adjusting for LVEF and BNP). Conclusions ECG morphological variability in beat space contains prognostic information complementary to the clinical variables, LVEF and BNP, in patients with low?to?moderate TRS. ECG metrics could help to risk stratify patients who might not otherwise be considered at high risk of CVD post?ACS. PMID:24963105

  13. Definition of Disease-Risk Stratification Groups in Childhood Medulloblastoma Using Combined Clinical, Pathologic, and Molecular Variables

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, David W.; Kocak, Mehmet; Dalton, James; Megahed, Hisham; Lusher, Meryl E.; Ryan, Sarra L.; Zhao, Wei; Nicholson, Sarah Leigh; Taylor, Roger E.; Bailey, Simon; Clifford, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Medulloblastomas are heterogeneous and include relatively good-prognosis tumors characterized by Wnt pathway activation, as well as those that cannot be successfully treated with conventional therapy. Developing a practical therapeutic stratification that allows accurate identification of disease risk offers the potential to individualize adjuvant therapy and to minimize long-term adverse effects in a subgroup of survivors. Methods Using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue for immunohistochemistry, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and direct sequencing to identify tumors with a Wnt pathway signature and those harboring copy number abnormalities (CNAs) of potential prognostic significance (MYC/MYCN amplification, CNAs of chromosome 6 and 17), we evaluated clinical, pathologic, and molecular outcome indicators and stratification models in a cohort (n = 207) of patients with medulloblastoma 3 to 16 years of age from the International Society of Pediatric Oncology CNS9102 (PNET3) trial. Results Metastatic disease and large-cell/anaplastic (LC/A) phenotype were the clinicopathologic variables associated with poor progression-free survival (PFS). Nuclear immunoreactivity for ?-catenin, CTNNB1 mutation, and monosomy 6 all identified a group of good-prognosis patients. MYC amplification was associated with poor outcome, but other CNAs were not. Low-risk medulloblastomas were defined as ?-catenin nucleopositive tumors without metastasis at presentation, LC/A phenotype, or MYC amplification. High-risk medulloblastomas were defined as tumors with metastatic disease, LC/A phenotype, or MYC amplification. Low-risk, standard-risk, and high-risk categories of medulloblastoma had significantly (P < .0001) different outcomes. Conclusion Integrating assays of molecular biomarkers undertaken on routinely collected diagnostic FFPE tissue into stratification schemes for medulloblastoma alongside clinical and pathologic outcome indicators can refine current definition of disease risk and guide adjuvant therapy. PMID:20921458

  14. Buccal Spectral Markers for Lung Cancer Risk Stratification

    PubMed Central

    Radosevich, Andrew J.; Mutyal, Nikhil N.; Rogers, Jeremy D.; Gould, Bradley; Hensing, Thomas A.; Ray, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the US with >150,000 deaths per year. In order to more effectively reduce lung cancer mortality, more sophisticated screening paradigms are needed. Previously, our group demonstrated the use of low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) spectroscopy to detect and quantify the micro/nano-architectural correlates of colorectal and pancreatic field carcinogenesis. In the lung, the buccal (cheek) mucosa has been suggested as an excellent surrogate site in the “field of injury”. We, therefore, wanted to assess whether LEBS could similarly sense the presence of lung. To this end, we applied a fiber-optic LEBS probe to a dataset of 27 smokers without diagnosed lung cancer (controls) and 46 with lung cancer (cases), which was divided into a training and a blinded validation set (32 and 41 subjects, respectively). LEBS readings of the buccal mucosa were taken from the oral cavity applying gentle contact. The diagnostic LEBS marker was notably altered in patients harboring lung cancer compared to smoking controls. The prediction rule developed on training set data provided excellent diagnostics with 94% sensitivity, 80% specificity, and 95% accuracy. Applying the same threshold to the blinded validation set yielded 79% sensitivity and 83% specificity. These results were not confounded by patient demographics or impacted by cancer type or location. Moreover, the prediction rule was robust across all stages of cancer including stage I. We envision the use of LEBS as the first part of a two-step paradigm shift in lung cancer screening in which patients with high LEBS risk markers are funnelled into more invasive screening for confirmation. PMID:25299667

  15. Genetic Stratification in Myeloid Diseases: From Risk Assessment to Clinical Decision Support Tool

    PubMed Central

    Ofran, Yishai

    2014-01-01

    Genetic aberrations have become a dominant factor in the stratification of myeloid malignancies. Cytogenetic and a few mutation studies are the backbone of risk assessment models of myeloid malignancies which are a major consideration in clinical decisions, especially patient assignment for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Progress in our understanding of the genetic basis of the pathogenesis of myeloid malignancies and the growing capabilities of mass sequencing may add new roles for the clinical usage of genetic data. A few recently identified mutations recognized to be associated with specific diseases or clinical scenarios may soon become part of the diagnostic criteria of such conditions. Mutational studies may also advance our capabilities for a more efficient patient selection process, assigning the most effective therapy at the best timing for each patient. The clinical utility of genetic data is anticipated to advance further with the adoption of deep sequencing and next-generation sequencing techniques. We herein suggest some future potential applications of sequential genetic data to identify pending deteriorations at time points which are the best for aggressive interventions such as allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Genetics is moving from being mostly a prognostic factor to becoming a multitasking decision support tool for hematologists. Physicians must pay attention to advances in molecular hematology as it will soon be accessible and influential for most of our patients. PMID:25386341

  16. Genetic stratification in myeloid diseases: from risk assessment to clinical decision support tool.

    PubMed

    Ofran, Yishai

    2014-10-01

    Genetic aberrations have become a dominant factor in the stratification of myeloid malignancies. Cytogenetic and a few mutation studies are the backbone of risk assessment models of myeloid malignancies which are a major consideration in clinical decisions, especially patient assignment for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Progress in our understanding of the genetic basis of the pathogenesis of myeloid malignancies and the growing capabilities of mass sequencing may add new roles for the clinical usage of genetic data. A few recently identified mutations recognized to be associated with specific diseases or clinical scenarios may soon become part of the diagnostic criteria of such conditions. Mutational studies may also advance our capabilities for a more efficient patient selection process, assigning the most effective therapy at the best timing for each patient. The clinical utility of genetic data is anticipated to advance further with the adoption of deep sequencing and next-generation sequencing techniques. We herein suggest some future potential applications of sequential genetic data to identify pending deteriorations at time points which are the best for aggressive interventions such as allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Genetics is moving from being mostly a prognostic factor to becoming a multitasking decision support tool for hematologists. Physicians must pay attention to advances in molecular hematology as it will soon be accessible and influential for most of our patients. PMID:25386341

  17. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease heterogeneity: challenges for health risk assessment, stratification and management

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and hypothesis Heterogeneity in clinical manifestations and disease progression in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) lead to consequences for patient health risk assessment, stratification and management. Implicit with the classical "spill over" hypothesis is that COPD heterogeneity is driven by the pulmonary events of the disease. Alternatively, we hypothesized that COPD heterogeneities result from the interplay of mechanisms governing three conceptually different phenomena: 1) pulmonary disease, 2) systemic effects of COPD and 3) co-morbidity clustering, each of them with their own dynamics. Objective and method To explore the potential of a systems analysis of COPD heterogeneity focused on skeletal muscle dysfunction and on co-morbidity clustering aiming at generating predictive modeling with impact on patient management. To this end, strategies combining deterministic modeling and network medicine analyses of the Biobridge dataset were used to investigate the mechanisms of skeletal muscle dysfunction. An independent data driven analysis of co-morbidity clustering examining associated genes and pathways was performed using a large dataset (ICD9-CM data from Medicare, 13 million people). Finally, a targeted network analysis using the outcomes of the two approaches (skeletal muscle dysfunction and co-morbidity clustering) explored shared pathways between these phenomena. Results (1) Evidence of abnormal regulation of skeletal muscle bioenergetics and skeletal muscle remodeling showing a significant association with nitroso-redox disequilibrium was observed in COPD; (2) COPD patients presented higher risk for co-morbidity clustering than non-COPD patients increasing with ageing; and, (3) the on-going targeted network analyses suggests shared pathways between skeletal muscle dysfunction and co-morbidity clustering. Conclusions The results indicate the high potential of a systems approach to address COPD heterogeneity. Significant knowledge gaps were identified that are relevant to shape strategies aiming at fostering 4P Medicine for patients with COPD. PMID:25472887

  18. Cost-Sensitive Risk Stratification in the Diagnosis of Heart Disease

    E-print Network

    Carbonell, Jaime

    Cost-Sensitive Risk Stratification in the Diagnosis of Heart Disease Selen Uguroglu and Jaime disease. Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the US, causing more deaths than all types of cancers combined. Early diag- nosis of heart disease in women is harder than it is in men

  19. Sudden cardiac death in non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy: a critical appraisal of existing and potential risk stratification tools.

    PubMed

    Koutalas, Emmanuel; Kanoupakis, Emmanuel; Vardas, Panos

    2013-07-31

    Non ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy poses a significant risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and subsequent sudden cardiac death. The pathologic and electrophysiological substrate implicated to arrhythmogenesis has been quite adequately defined over the last decades and multiple forms of myocardial fibrosis - diffuse, patchy or gross scarring - are being studied regarding their arrhythmogenic potential. Moreover, the recent demonstration and continuous expansion of knowledge regarding causative genes in dilated cardiomyopathy open a new chapter in the field of diagnosis and prognosis of these patients. Numerous noninvasive and invasive methods have been used to stratify patients according to sudden cardiac death level of risk. Severely reduced left ventricular systolic myocardial function, expressed mostly by left ventricular ejection function, NYHA functional class, syncope and invasive electrophysiological study with programmed electrical stimulation have been incorporated into international guidelines, though leaving significant proportions of primary prevention patients out of stratification schemes. Electrocardiographic markers, signal-averaged ECG, heart rate variability, heart rate turbulence, baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate recovery and T-wave alternans have given conflicting results in non ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. During the last decade, cardiac magnetic resonance, especially with gadolinium enhancement, has made a step forward in defining the fibrotic substrate of such patients. Prospective studies have given promising results, demonstrating correlation between late gadolinium enhancement and ventricular arrhythmogenesis. Identification of patients with genetically caused dilated cardiomyopathy prone to sudden cardiac death and large prospective trials investigating cardiac magnetic resonance and its prognostic potential may be able to establish a new era in stratification schemes. PMID:22889703

  20. Electrocardiographic methods for diagnosis and risk stratification in the Brugada syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Naseef, Abdulrahman; Behr, Elijah R.; Batchvarov, Velislav N.

    2014-01-01

    The Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a malignant, genetically-determined, arrhythmic syndrome manifesting as syncope or sudden cardiac death (SCD) in individuals with structurally normal hearts. The diagnosis of the BrS is mainly based on the presence of a spontaneous or Na + channel blocker induced characteristic, electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern (type 1 or coved Brugada ECG pattern) typically seen in leads V1 and V2 recorded from the 4th to 2nd intercostal (i.c.) spaces. This pattern needs to be distinguished from similar ECG changes due to other causes (Brugada ECG phenocopies). This review focuses mainly on the ECG-based methods for diagnosis and arrhythmia risk assessment in the BrS. Presently, the main unresolved clinical problem is the identification of those patients at high risk of SCD who need implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), which is the only therapy with proven efficacy. Current guidelines recommend ICD implantation only in patients with spontaneous type 1 ECG pattern, and either history of aborted cardiac arrest or documented sustained VT (class I), or syncope of arrhythmic origin (class IIa) because they are at high risk of recurrent arrhythmic events (up to 10% or more annually for those with aborted cardiac arrest). The majority of BrS patients are asymptomatic when diagnosed and considered to have low risk (around 0.5% annually) and therefore not indicated for ICD. The majority of SCD victims in the BrS, however, had no symptoms prior to the fatal event and therefore were not protected with an ICD. While some ECG markers such as QRS fragmentation, infero-lateral early repolarisation, and abnormal late potentials on signal-averaged ECG are known to be linked to increased arrhythmic risk, they are not sufficiently sensitive or specific. Potential novel ECG-based strategies for risk stratification are discussed based on computerised methods for depolarisation and repolarisation analysis, a composite approach targeting several major components of ventricular arrhythmogenesis, and the collection of large digital ECG databases in genotyped BrS patients and their relatives. PMID:25870503

  1. Electrocardiographic methods for diagnosis and risk stratification in the Brugada syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naseef, Abdulrahman; Behr, Elijah R; Batchvarov, Velislav N

    2015-04-01

    The Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a malignant, genetically-determined, arrhythmic syndrome manifesting as syncope or sudden cardiac death (SCD) in individuals with structurally normal hearts. The diagnosis of the BrS is mainly based on the presence of a spontaneous or Na + channel blocker induced characteristic, electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern (type 1 or coved Brugada ECG pattern) typically seen in leads V1 and V2 recorded from the 4th to 2nd intercostal (i.c.) spaces. This pattern needs to be distinguished from similar ECG changes due to other causes (Brugada ECG phenocopies). This review focuses mainly on the ECG-based methods for diagnosis and arrhythmia risk assessment in the BrS. Presently, the main unresolved clinical problem is the identification of those patients at high risk of SCD who need implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), which is the only therapy with proven efficacy. Current guidelines recommend ICD implantation only in patients with spontaneous type 1 ECG pattern, and either history of aborted cardiac arrest or documented sustained VT (class I), or syncope of arrhythmic origin (class IIa) because they are at high risk of recurrent arrhythmic events (up to 10% or more annually for those with aborted cardiac arrest). The majority of BrS patients are asymptomatic when diagnosed and considered to have low risk (around 0.5% annually) and therefore not indicated for ICD. The majority of SCD victims in the BrS, however, had no symptoms prior to the fatal event and therefore were not protected with an ICD. While some ECG markers such as QRS fragmentation, infero-lateral early repolarisation, and abnormal late potentials on signal-averaged ECG are known to be linked to increased arrhythmic risk, they are not sufficiently sensitive or specific. Potential novel ECG-based strategies for risk stratification are discussed based on computerised methods for depolarisation and repolarisation analysis, a composite approach targeting several major components of ventricular arrhythmogenesis, and the collection of large digital ECG databases in genotyped BrS patients and their relatives. PMID:25870503

  2. Baseline Risk of Major Bleeding in Non-ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: The CRUSADE (Can Rapid risk stratification of Unstable angina patients Suppress ADverse outcomes with Early implementation of the ACC\\/AHA guidelines) Bleeding Score

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumeet Subherwal; Richard G. Bach; Anita Y. Chen; Brian F. Gage; Sunil V. Rao; L. Kristin Newby; Tracy Y. Wang; W. Brian Gibler; E. Magnus Ohman; Matthew T. Roe; Charles V. Pollack; Eric D. Peterson; Karen P. Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Background—Treatments for non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) reduce ischemic events but increase bleeding. Baseline prediction of bleeding risk can complement ischemic risk prediction for optimization of NSTEMI care; however, existing models are not well suited for this purpose. Methods and Results—We developed (n71 277) and validated (n17 857) a model that identifies 8 independent baseline predictors of in-hospital major bleeding among

  3. Genetic and Clinical Predictors for Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Stratification Among Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Wanqing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Shyr, Yu; Long, Jirong; Li, Guoliang; Li, Chun; Gu, Kai; Cai, Qiuyin; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background Most of the genetic variants identified from genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have not been validated in Asian women. No risk assessment model that incorporates both genetic and clinical predictors is currently available to predict breast cancer risk in this population. Methods We analyzed 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in recent genome-wide association studies mostly of women of European ancestry as being associated with the risk of breast cancer in 3039 case patients and 3082 control subjects who participated in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. All participants were interviewed in person to obtain information regarding known and suspected risk factors for breast cancer. The c statistic, a measure of discrimination ability with a value ranging from 0.5 (random classification) to 1.0 (perfect classification), was estimated to evaluate the contribution of genetic and established clinical predictors of breast cancer to a newly established risk assessment model for Chinese women. Clinical predictors included in the model were age at menarche, age at first live birth, waist-to-hip ratio, family history of breast cancer, and a previous diagnosis of benign breast disease. The utility of the models in risk stratification was evaluated by estimating the proportion of breast cancer patients in the general population that could be accounted for above a given risk threshold as predicted by the models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Eight SNPs (rs2046210, rs1219648, rs3817198, rs8051542, rs3803662, rs889312, rs10941679, and rs13281615), each of which reflected a genetically independent locus, were found to be associated with the risk of breast cancer. A dose–response association was observed between the risk of breast cancer and the genetic risk score, which is an aggregate measure of the effect of these eight SNPs (odds ratio for women in the highest quintile of genetic risk score vs those in the lowest = 1.85, 95% confidence interval = 1.58 to 2.18, Ptrend = 2.5 × 10?15). The genetic risk score, the waist-to-hip ratio, and a previous diagnosis of benign breast disease were the top three predictors of the risk of breast cancer, each contributing statistically significantly (P < .001) to the full risk assessment model. The model, with a c statistic of 0.6295 after adjustment for overfitting, showed promise for stratifying women into different risk groups; women in the top 30% risk group accounted for nearly 50% of the breast cancers diagnosed in the general population. Conclusion A risk assessment model that includes both genetic markers and clinical predictors may be useful to classify Asian women into relevant risk groups for cost-efficient screening and other prevention programs. PMID:20484103

  4. Plasma IL-8 is not an effective risk stratification tool for adults with vasopressor-dependent septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Calfee, Carolyn S.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Parsons, Polly E.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Matthay, Michael A.; Wong, Hector R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Plasma interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels of < 220 pg/ml have an excellent negative predictive value (94–95%) for death at 28 days in children with septic shock and thus may be useful for risk stratification in clinical trial enrollment in this population. Whether plasma IL-8 would have similar utility in adults with septic shock is unknown. Design, Setting, and Patients Analysis of plasma IL-8 levels in 192 adults with vasopressor-dependent septic shock enrolled in clinical trials of acute lung injury conducted by the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network Measurements and Main Results Plasma IL-8 levels ? 220 pg/ml were significantly associated with death at 28 days in this cohort (odds ratio 2.92, 95% CI 1.42–5.99; p=0.001). However, in contrast to the findings in pediatric septic shock, a plasma IL-8 cutoff below 220 pg/ml had a negative predictive value for death of only 74% (95% CI 66–81%) in adults with septic shock. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis found an area under the curve of 0.59 for plasma IL-8, indicating that plasma IL-8 is a poor predictor of mortality in this group. In adults under age 40, a plasma IL-8 cutoff < 220 pg/ml had a negative predictive value of 92%. Conclusions In contrast to similar pediatric patients, plasma IL-8 levels are not an effective risk stratification tool in older adults with septic shock. Future studies of biomarkers for risk stratification in critically ill subjects will need to be replicated in multiple different populations before being applied in screening for clinical trials. PMID:20386309

  5. Prediction of Failure in Vancomycin-Treated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection: a Clinically Useful Risk Stratification Tool?†

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Carol L.; Lu, Mei; Cheema, Faiqa; Osaki-Kiyan, Paola; Perri, Mary Beth; Donabedian, Susan; Haque, Nadia Z.; Zervos, Marcus J.

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of bloodstream infection (BSI) and is often associated with invasive infections and high rates of mortality. Vancomycin has remained the mainstay of therapy for serious Gram-positive infections, particularly MRSA BSI; however, therapeutic failures with vancomycin have been increasingly reported. We conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the factors (patient, strain, infection, and treatment) involved in the etiology and management of MRSA BSI to create a risk stratification tool for clinicians. This study included consecutive patients with MRSA BSI treated with vancomycin over 2 years in an inner-city hospital in Detroit, MI. Classification and regression tree analysis (CART) was used to develop a risk prediction model that characterized vancomycin-treated patients at high risk of clinical failure. Of all factors, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) score, with a cutoff point of 14, was found to be the strongest predictor of failure and was used to split the population into two groups. Forty-seven percent of the population had an APACHE-II score < 14, a value that was associated with low rates of clinical failure (11%) and mortality (4%). Fifty-four percent of the population had an APACHE-II score ? 14, which was associated with high rates of clinical failure (35%) and mortality (23%). The risk stratification model identified the interplay of three other predictors of failure, including the vancomycin MIC as determined by Vitek 2 analysis, the risk level of the source of BSI, and the USA300 strain type. This model can be a useful tool for clinicians to predict the likelihood of success or failure in vancomycin-treated patients with MRSA bloodstream infection. PMID:21825294

  6. Prediction of failure in vancomycin-treated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection: a clinically useful risk stratification tool.

    PubMed

    Moore, Carol L; Lu, Mei; Cheema, Faiqa; Osaki-Kiyan, Paola; Perri, Mary Beth; Donabedian, Susan; Haque, Nadia Z; Zervos, Marcus J

    2011-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of bloodstream infection (BSI) and is often associated with invasive infections and high rates of mortality. Vancomycin has remained the mainstay of therapy for serious Gram-positive infections, particularly MRSA BSI; however, therapeutic failures with vancomycin have been increasingly reported. We conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the factors (patient, strain, infection, and treatment) involved in the etiology and management of MRSA BSI to create a risk stratification tool for clinicians. This study included consecutive patients with MRSA BSI treated with vancomycin over 2 years in an inner-city hospital in Detroit, MI. Classification and regression tree analysis (CART) was used to develop a risk prediction model that characterized vancomycin-treated patients at high risk of clinical failure. Of all factors, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) score, with a cutoff point of 14, was found to be the strongest predictor of failure and was used to split the population into two groups. Forty-seven percent of the population had an APACHE-II score < 14, a value that was associated with low rates of clinical failure (11%) and mortality (4%). Fifty-four percent of the population had an APACHE-II score ? 14, which was associated with high rates of clinical failure (35%) and mortality (23%). The risk stratification model identified the interplay of three other predictors of failure, including the vancomycin MIC as determined by Vitek 2 analysis, the risk level of the source of BSI, and the USA300 strain type. This model can be a useful tool for clinicians to predict the likelihood of success or failure in vancomycin-treated patients with MRSA bloodstream infection. PMID:21825294

  7. Cardiovascular Evaluation, Risk Stratification, and Management of Postoperative Myocardial Infarction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Federico Pappalardo; Giulio Melisurgo

    \\u000a Cardiac complications (perioperative myocardial infarction and cardiac death) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality\\u000a in patients undergoing major vascular surgery. The incidence of these complications has been reported to be up to 25%. Compared\\u000a with open surgery, endovascular procedures are associated with fewer perioperative complications. However, long-term outcome\\u000a is similar for both open and endovascular procedures, suggesting that

  8. An operative dengue risk stratification system in Argentina based on geospatial technology.

    PubMed

    Porcasi, Ximena; Rotela, Camilo H; Introini, María V; Frutos, Nicolás; Lanfri, Sofía; Peralta, Gonzalo; De Elia, Estefanía A; Lanfri, Mario A; Scavuzzo, Carlos M

    2012-09-01

    Based on an agreement between the Ministry of Health and the National Space Activities Commission in Argentina, an integrated informatics platform for dengue risk using geospatial technology for the surveillance and prediction of risk areas for dengue fever has been designed. The task was focused on developing stratification based on environmental (historical and current), viral, social and entomological situation for >3,000 cities as part of a system. The platform, developed with open-source software with pattern design, following the European Space Agency standards for space informatics, delivers two products: a national risk map consisting of point vectors for each city/town/locality and an approximate 50 m resolution urban risk map modelling the risk inside selected high-risk cities. The operative system, architecture and tools used in the development are described, including a detailed list of end users' requirements. Additionally, an algorithm based on bibliography and landscape epidemiology concepts is presented and discussed. The system, in operation since September 2011, is capable of continuously improving the algorithms producing improved risk stratifications without a complete set of inputs. The platform was specifically developed for surveillance of dengue fever as this disease has reemerged in Argentina but the aim is to widen the scope to include also other relevant vector-borne diseases such as chagas, malaria and leishmaniasis as well as other countries belonging to south region of Latin America. PMID:23032281

  9. Response to initial therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer predicts the long-term outcome better than classical risk stratification systems.

    PubMed

    Cano-Palomares, Albert; Castells, Ignasi; Capel, Ismael; Bella, Maria Rosa; Barcons, Santi; Serrano, Angel; Guirao, Xavier; Rigla, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Although differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) usually has an indolent course, some cases show a poor prognosis; therefore, risk stratification is required. The objective of this study is to compare the predictive ability of classical risk stratification systems proposed by the European Thyroid Association (ETA) and American Thyroid Association (ATA) with the system proposed by Tuttle et al. in 2010, based on the response to initial therapy (RIT). Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 176 cases of DTC with a median follow-up period of 7.0 years. Each patient was stratified using ETA, ATA, and RIT systems. Negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value (PPV) were determined. The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated in order to compare the predictive ability. Results. RIT showed a NPV of 97.7%, better than NPV of ETA and ATA systems (93.9% and 94.9%, resp.). ETA and ATA systems showed poor PPV (40.3% and 41%, resp.), while RIT showed a PPV of 70.8%. The area under ROC curve was 0.7535 for ETA, 0.7876 for ATA, and 0.9112 for RIT, showing statistical significant differences (P < 0.05). Conclusions. RIT predicts the long-term outcome of DTC better than ETA/ATA systems, becoming a useful system to adapt management strategies. PMID:25114681

  10. Response to Initial Therapy of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Predicts the Long-Term Outcome Better than Classical Risk Stratification Systems

    PubMed Central

    Castells, Ignasi; Barcons, Santi; Serrano, Angel; Guirao, Xavier; Rigla, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Although differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) usually has an indolent course, some cases show a poor prognosis; therefore, risk stratification is required. The objective of this study is to compare the predictive ability of classical risk stratification systems proposed by the European Thyroid Association (ETA) and American Thyroid Association (ATA) with the system proposed by Tuttle et al. in 2010, based on the response to initial therapy (RIT). Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 176 cases of DTC with a median follow-up period of 7.0 years. Each patient was stratified using ETA, ATA, and RIT systems. Negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value (PPV) were determined. The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated in order to compare the predictive ability. Results. RIT showed a NPV of 97.7%, better than NPV of ETA and ATA systems (93.9% and 94.9%, resp.). ETA and ATA systems showed poor PPV (40.3% and 41%, resp.), while RIT showed a PPV of 70.8%. The area under ROC curve was 0.7535 for ETA, 0.7876 for ATA, and 0.9112 for RIT, showing statistical significant differences (P < 0.05). Conclusions. RIT predicts the long-term outcome of DTC better than ETA/ATA systems, becoming a useful system to adapt management strategies. PMID:25114681

  11. An Official American Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline: Diagnosis, Risk Stratification, and Management of Pulmonary Hypertension of Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Klings, Elizabeth S.; Machado, Roberto F.; Barst, Robyn J.; Morris, Claudia R.; Mubarak, Kamal K.; Gordeuk, Victor R.; Kato, Gregory J.; Ataga, Kenneth I.; Gibbs, J. Simon; Castro, Oswaldo; Rosenzweig, Erika B.; Sood, Namita; Hsu, Lewis; Wilson, Kevin C.; Telen, Marilyn J.; DeCastro, Laura M.; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan; Steinberg, Martin H.; Badesch, David B.; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In adults with sickle cell disease (SCD), an increased tricuspid regurgitant velocity (TRV) measured by Doppler echocardiography, an increased serum N-terminal pro–brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) level, and pulmonary hypertension (PH) diagnosed by right heart catheterization (RHC) are independent risk factors for mortality. Methods: A multidisciplinary committee was formed by clinician-investigators experienced in the management of patients with PH and/or SCD. Clinically important questions were posed, related evidence was appraised, and questions were answered with evidence-based recommendations. Target audiences include all clinicians who take care of patients with SCD. Results: Mortality risk stratification guides decision making. An increased risk for mortality is defined as a TRV equal to or greater than 2.5 m/second, an NT-pro-BNP level equal to or greater than 160 pg/ml, or RHC-confirmed PH. For patients identified as having increased mortality risk, we make a strong recommendation for hydroxyurea as first-line therapy and a weak recommendation for chronic transfusions as an alternative therapy. For all patients with SCD with elevated TRV alone or elevated NT-pro-BNP alone, and for patients with SCD with RHC-confirmed PH with elevated pulmonary artery wedge pressure and low pulmonary vascular resistance, we make a strong recommendation against PAH-specific therapy. However, for select patients with SCD with RHC-confirmed PH who have elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, we make a weak recommendation for either prostacyclin agonist or endothelin receptor antagonist therapy and a strong recommendation against phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor therapy. Conclusions: Evidence-based recommendations for the management of patients with SCD with increased mortality risk are provided, but will require frequent reassessment and updating. PMID:24628312

  12. Incremental Prognostic Value of Myocardial Perfusion Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography for the Prediction of Cardiac Death Differential Stratification for Risk of Cardiac Death and Myocardial Infarction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rory Hachamovitch; Daniel S. Berman; Leslee J. Shaw; Hosen Kiat; Ishac Cohen; J. Arthur Cabico; John Friedman; George A. Diamond

    Background—The incremental prognostic value of stress single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the prediction of cardiac death as an individual end point and the implications for risk stratification are undefined. Methods and Results—We identified 5183 consecutive patients who underwent stress\\/rest SPECT and were followed up for the occurrence of cardiac death or myocardial infarction. Over a mean follow up

  13. Pulmonary embolism, part I: Epidemiology, risk factors and risk stratification, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    B?lohlávek, Jan; Dytrych, Vladimír; Linhart, Aleš

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is an important clinical entity with considerable mortality despite advances in diagnosis and treatment. In the present article, the authors offer a comprehensive review focused mainly on epidemiology, risk factors, risk stratification, pathophysiological considerations and clinical presentation. Diagnosis based on assessment of clinical likelihood, electrocardiography, chest x-ray, D-dimer levels, markers of myocardial injury and overload, and blood gases is discussed in detail. Special attention is devoted to the clinical use of computed tomography, pulmonary angiography and echocardiography in the setting of pulmonary embolism. PMID:23940438

  14. The value of exercise radionuclide ventriculography in risk stratification after coronary arterial bypass grafting

    SciTech Connect

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Goel, I.P.; Mundth, E.D.; Kane, S.; Schenk, C.

    1985-05-01

    Cardiac events after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) may be related to left ventricular (LV) function, residual coronary artery diseases (CAD), graft occlusion, and progression of CAD. This study examined the value of rest and exercise (EX) radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) done 3-6 mos after CABG in risk stratification in 212 pts. There were 185 men and 27 women, aged 57 +- 8 years (mean +- SD). During a followup period of up to 4 years, (15 +- 10 months), there were 23 cardiac events; 13 pts died of cardiac causes and 20 had non-fatal acute myocardial infarctions. The pts with and without events did not differ in: clinical presentation after CABG (most were asymptomatic), medications and ECG findings at rest and EX. The pts with events had lower EX systolic blood pressure (p < 0.01); resting LV ejection fraction (EF) (p = 0.002), and EX EF (40 +- 18% vs 54 +- 16%, p = 0.002). The change in EF (rest to EX) was not significantly different (l.6 +- 8.2%, vs 2.1 +- 9.2%). Survival analysis (Cox model) identified the EX EF as the best predictor of death and total events (X/sup 2/ = 4.3 and 2.4, p = 0.04 and 0.07 respectively). Actuarial life table analysis showed that the risk increased as the EX EF decreased when pts were grouped into EX EF greater than or equal to 50, 30-49, and <30%, (p < 0.001, Mantel-Cox). Thus, EX RNA is useful in risk stratification after CABG. The EX LVEF is an important descriptor that categorizes pts into different risks groups. The pts at high risk probably require more aggressive followup and continued medical therapy.

  15. Stratification of Risk of Early-Onset Sepsis in Newborns ?34 Weeks’ Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Puopolo, Karen M.; Wi, Soora; Turk, Benjamin J.; Kuzniewicz, Michael W.; Walsh, Eileen M.; Newman, Thomas B.; Zupancic, John; Lieberman, Ellice; Draper, David

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define a quantitative stratification algorithm for the risk of early-onset sepsis (EOS) in newborns ?34 weeks’ gestation. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective nested case-control study that used split validation. Data collected on each infant included sepsis risk at birth based on objective maternal factors, demographics, specific clinical milestones, and vital signs during the first 24 hours after birth. Using a combination of recursive partitioning and logistic regression, we developed a risk classification scheme for EOS on the derivation dataset. This scheme was then applied to the validation dataset. RESULTS: Using a base population of 608?014 live births ?34 weeks’ gestation at 14 hospitals between 1993 and 2007, we identified all 350 EOS cases <72 hours of age and frequency matched them by hospital and year of birth to 1063 controls. Using maternal and neonatal data, we defined a risk stratification scheme that divided the neonatal population into 3 groups: treat empirically (4.1% of all live births, 60.8% of all EOS cases, sepsis incidence of 8.4/1000 live births), observe and evaluate (11.1% of births, 23.4% of cases, 1.2/1000), and continued observation (84.8% of births, 15.7% of cases, incidence 0.11/1000). CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to combine objective maternal data with evolving objective neonatal clinical findings to define more efficient strategies for the evaluation and treatment of EOS in term and late preterm infants. Judicious application of our scheme could result in decreased antibiotic treatment in 80?000 to 240?000 US newborns each year. PMID:24366992

  16. Stratification of the risk of serious allergic cutaneous reactions with therapeutic management of trigeminal neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Shakib, Kaveh; Sinanan, Marcus

    2011-04-01

    Patients with the HLA-B*1502 allele have a high risk of serious allergic cutaneous reactions from antiepileptic drugs used in the management of trigeminal neuralgia. Awareness of this uncommon but potentially fatal reaction will help to avoid the use of these drugs in patients from racial groups at high risk. PMID:20430493

  17. iGPSe: A visual analytic system for integrative genomic based cancer patient stratification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancers are highly heterogeneous with different subtypes. These subtypes often possess different genetic variants, present different pathological phenotypes, and most importantly, show various clinical outcomes such as varied prognosis and response to treatment and likelihood for recurrence and metastasis. Recently, integrative genomics (or panomics) approaches are often adopted with the goal of combining multiple types of omics data to identify integrative biomarkers for stratification of patients into groups with different clinical outcomes. Results In this paper we present a visual analytic system called Interactive Genomics Patient Stratification explorer (iGPSe) which significantly reduces the computing burden for biomedical researchers in the process of exploring complicated integrative genomics data. Our system integrates unsupervised clustering with graph and parallel sets visualization and allows direct comparison of clinical outcomes via survival analysis. Using a breast cancer dataset obtained from the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, we are able to quickly explore different combinations of gene expression (mRNA) and microRNA features and identify potential combined markers for survival prediction. Conclusions Visualization plays an important role in the process of stratifying given population patients. Visual tools allowed for the selection of possibly features across various datasets for the given patient population. We essentially made a case for visualization for a very important problem in translational informatics. PMID:25000928

  18. Risk stratification with a point-of-care cardiac troponin T test in acute myocardial infarction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Magnus Ohman; Paul W Armstrong; Harvey D White; Christopher B Granger; Robert G Wilcox; W. Douglas Weaver; W. Brian Gibler; Amanda L Stebbins; Cresha Cianciolo; Robert M Califf; Eric J Topol

    1999-01-01

    Troponin T has been used successfully to risk stratify patients with acute coronary syndromes, but the utility of this approach using a rapid bedside assay in patients undergoing thrombolysis for ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction has not been assessed in a large population. We assessed whether a point-of-care, qualitative troponin T test at enrollment could independently risk-stratify patients randomized to

  19. Electrocardiologic and related methods of non-invasive detection and risk stratification in myocardial ischemia: state of the art and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, Thomas; Goernig, Matthias; Schuepbach, Michael; Sanz, Ernst; Pilgram, Roland; Seeck, Andrea; Voss, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Background: Electrocardiographic methods still provide the bulk of cardiovascular diagnostics. Cardiac ischemia is associated with typical alterations in cardiac biosignals that have to be measured, analyzed by mathematical algorithms and allegorized for further clinical diagnostics. The fast growing fields of biomedical engineering and applied sciences are intensely focused on generating new approaches to cardiac biosignal analysis for diagnosis and risk stratification in myocardial ischemia. Objectives: To present and review the state of the art in and new approaches to electrocardiologic methods for non-invasive detection and risk stratification in coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial ischemia; secondarily, to explore the future perspectives of these methods. Methods: In follow-up to the Expert Discussion at the 2008 Workshop on "Biosignal Analysis" of the German Society of Biomedical Engineering in Potsdam, Germany, we comprehensively searched the pertinent literature and databases and compiled the results into this review. Then, we categorized the state-of-the-art methods and selected new approaches based on their applications in detection and risk stratification of myocardial ischemia. Finally, we compared the pros and cons of the methods and explored their future potentials for cardiology. Results: Resting ECG, particularly suited for detecting ST-elevation myocardial infarctions, and exercise ECG, for the diagnosis of stable CAD, are state-of-the-art methods. New exercise-free methods for detecting stable CAD include cardiogoniometry (CGM); methods for detecting acute coronary syndrome without ST elevation are Body Surface Potential Mapping, functional imaging and CGM. Heart rate variability and blood pressure variability analyses, microvolt T-wave alternans and signal-averaged ECG mainly serve in detecting and stratifying the risk for lethal arrythmias in patients with myocardial ischemia or previous myocardial infarctions. Telemedicine and ambient-assisted living support the electrocardiological monitoring of at-risk patients. Conclusions: There are many promising methods for the exercise-free, non-invasive detection of CAD and myocardial ischemia in the stable and acute phases. In the coming years, these new methods will help enhance state-of-the-art procedures in routine diagnostics. The future can expect that equally novel methods for risk stratification and telemedicine will transition into clinical routine. PMID:21063467

  20. Impact of Primary Gleason Grade on Risk Stratification for Gleason Score 7 Prostate Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, Bridget F., E-mail: bridget.koontz@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Tsivian, Matvey [Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Mouraviev, Vladimir [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Sun, Leon [Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Vujaskovic, Zeljko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Moul, Judd [Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the primary Gleason grade (GG) in Gleason score (GS) 7 prostate cancers for risk of non-organ-confined disease with the goal of optimizing radiotherapy treatment option counseling. Methods: One thousand three hundred thirty-three patients with pathologic GS7 were identified in the Duke Prostate Center research database. Clinical factors including age, race, clinical stage, prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis, and pathologic stage were obtained. Data were stratified by prostate-specific antigen and clinical stage at diagnosis into adapted D'Amico risk groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed evaluating for association of primary GG with pathologic outcome. Results: Nine hundred seventy-nine patients had primary GG3 and 354 had GG4. On univariate analyses, GG4 was associated with an increased risk of non-organ-confined disease. On multivariate analysis, GG4 was independently associated with seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) but not extracapsular extension. Patients with otherwise low-risk disease and primary GG3 had a very low risk of SVI (4%). Conclusions: Primary GG4 in GS7 cancers is associated with increased risk of SVI compared with primary GG3. Otherwise low-risk patients with GS 3+4 have a very low risk of SVI and may be candidates for prostate-only radiotherapy modalities.

  1. A comparison of non-symmetric entropy-based classification trees and support vector machine for cardiovascular risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anima; Guttag, John V

    2011-01-01

    Classification tree-based risk stratification models generate easily interpretable classification rules. This feature makes classification tree-based models appealing for use in a clinical setting, provided that they have comparable accuracy to other methods. In this paper, we present and evaluate the performance of a non-symmetric entropy-based classification tree algorithm. The algorithm is designed to accommodate class imbalance found in many medical datasets. We evaluate the performance of this algorithm, and compare it to that of SVM-based classifiers, when applied to 4219 non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome patients. We generated SVM-based classifiers using three different strategies for handling class imbalance: cost-sensitive SVM learning, synthetic minority oversampling (SMOTE), and random majority undersampling. We used both linear and radial basis kernel-based SVMs. Our classification tree models outperformed SVM-based classifiers generated using each of the three techniques. On average, the classification tree models yielded a 14% improvement in G-score and a 21% improvement in F-score relative to the linear SVM classifiers with the best performance. Similarly, our classification tree models yielded a 12% improvement in G-score and a 21% improvement in the F-score over the best RBF kernel-based SVM classifiers. PMID:22254255

  2. Predictive risk stratification model: a progressive cluster-randomised trial in chronic conditions management (PRISMATIC) research protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An ageing population increases demand on health and social care. New approaches are needed to shift care from hospital to community and general practice. A predictive risk stratification tool (Prism) has been developed for general practice that estimates risk of an emergency hospital admission in the following year. We present a protocol for the evaluation of Prism. Methods/Design We will undertake a mixed methods progressive cluster-randomised trial. Practices begin as controls, delivering usual care without Prism. Practices will receive Prism and training randomly, and thereafter be able to use Prism with clinical and technical support. We will compare costs, processes of care, satisfaction and patient outcomes at baseline, 6 and 18 months, using routine data and postal questionnaires. We will assess technical performance by comparing predicted against actual emergency admissions. Focus groups and interviews will be undertaken to understand how Prism is perceived and adopted by practitioners and policy makers. We will model data using generalised linear models and survival analysis techniques to determine whether any differences exist between intervention and control groups. We will take account of covariates and explanatory factors. In the economic evaluation we will carry out a cost-effectiveness analysis to examine incremental cost per emergency admission to hospital avoided and will examine costs versus changes in primary and secondary outcomes in a cost-consequence analysis. We will also examine changes in quality of life of patients across the risk spectrum. We will record and transcribe focus groups and interviews and analyse them thematically. We have received full ethical and R&D approvals for the study and Information Governance Review Panel (IGRP) permission for the use of routine data. We will comply with the CONSORT guidelines and will disseminate the findings at national and international conferences and in peer-reviewed journals. Discussion The proposed study will provide information on costs and effects of Prism; how it is used in practice, barriers and facilitators to its implementation; and its perceived value in supporting the management of patients with and at risk of developing chronic conditions. Trial registration Controlled Clinical Trials ISRCTN no. ISRCTN55538212. PMID:24330749

  3. Frailty and cardiovascular disease: potential role of gait speed in surgical risk stratification in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Frailty is a state of late life decline and vulnerability, typified by physical weakness and decreased physiologic reserve. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of frailty share features with those of cardiovascular disease. Gait speed can be used as a measure of frailty and is a powerful predictor of mortality. Advancing age is a potent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has been associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Older adults comprise approximately half of cardiac surgery patients, and account for nearly 80% of the major complications and deaths following surgery. The ability of traditional risk models to predict mortality and major morbidity in older patients being considered for cardiac surgery may improve if frailty, as measured by gait speed, is included in their assessment. It is possible that in the future frailty assessment may assist in choosing among therapies (e.g., surgical vs. percutaneous aortic valve replacement for patients with aortic stenosis). PMID:25678904

  4. Therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient: stratifying risk in terms of severity and temporality.

    PubMed

    Wortzel, Hal S; Homaifar, Beeta; Matarazzo, Bridget; Brenner, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    This column is the third in a series describing a model for therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient. In the preceding column, we described augmenting clinical suicide risk assessment with structured instruments. In this column, we describe how clinicians can use the totality of available clinical data to offer a two-dimensional risk stratification that qualifies risk in terms of both severity and temporality. By offering two separate designations that reflect severity for both acute and chronic risk, conceptualizing and communicating a patient's risk for suicide is accomplished in a more nuanced way, providing the level of detail necessary when working with high risk individuals, especially those struggling with chronic suicidal ideation. Formulations reflecting suicide risk need to be accurate and facilitate good clinical decision-making in order to optimally balance the principles of autonomy, non-maleficence, and beneficence. Stratifying risk in terms of both severity and temporality helps identify situations in which involuntary hospitalization is warranted, while also helping to minimize unnecessary admissions. Hence, two-dimensional risk stratification that addresses both acute and chronic risk for suicide is an essential component of therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient. PMID:24419312

  5. Risk-benefit stratification as a guide to lidocaine prophylaxis of primary ventricular fibrillation in acute myocardial infarction: an analytic review.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, L.; Batsford, W. P.

    1979-01-01

    Early investigators suggested that ventricular fibrillation without heart failure in acute myocardial infarction was reliably preceded by warning arrhythmias, and that suppression of such arrhythmias with intravenous lidocaine could avoid the need for resuscitation. While the efficacy and safety of lidocaine have been substantiated, the reliability of warning arrhythmias as predictors for primary ventricular fibrillation has not. We present data showing that the risk of primary ventricular fibrillation is most dependent on the patient's age and the interval since the onset of his symptoms, rather than on the presence of warning arrhythmias. We have estimated that lidocaine prophylaxis would have to be given to about 12 patients in the highest risk group (patients under age 50 and within six hours of the onset of symptoms), compared to about 400 patients in the lowest risk group (patients above age 70 and more than 24 hours since the onset of symptoms), to prevent one episode of primary ventricular fibrillation in each group. We propose that these risk stratifications, as adapted to the conditions in specific hospitals, provide the most rational approach to lidocaine prophylaxis of primary ventricular fibrillation. PMID:392960

  6. A novel integrated cytogenetic and genomic classification refines risk stratification in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Moorman, Anthony V; Enshaei, Amir; Schwab, Claire; Wade, Rachel; Chilton, Lucy; Elliott, Alannah; Richardson, Stacey; Hancock, Jeremy; Kinsey, Sally E; Mitchell, Christopher D; Goulden, Nicholas; Vora, Ajay; Harrison, Christine J

    2014-08-28

    Recent genomic studies have provided a refined genetic map of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and increased the number of potential prognostic markers. Therefore, we integrated copy-number alteration data from the 8 most commonly deleted genes, subordinately, with established chromosomal abnormalities to derive a 2-tier genetic classification. The classification was developed using 809 ALL97/99 patients and validated using 742 United Kingdom (UK)ALL2003 patients. Good-risk (GR) genetic features included ETV6-RUNX1, high hyperdiploidy, normal copy-number status for all 8 genes, isolated deletions affecting ETV6/PAX5/BTG1, and ETV6 deletions with a single additional deletion of BTG1/PAX5/CDKN2A/B. All other genetic features were classified as poor risk (PR). Three-quarters of UKALL2003 patients had a GR genetic profile and a significantly improved event-free survival (EFS) (94%) compared with patients with a PR genetic profile (79%). This difference was driven by a lower relapse rate (4% vs 17%), was seen across all patient subgroups, and was independent of other risk factors. Even genetic GR patients with minimal residual disease (>0.01%) at day 29 had an EFS in excess of 90%. In conclusion, the integration of genomic and cytogenetic data defines 2 subgroups with distinct responses to treatment and identifies a large subset of children suitable for treatment deintensification. PMID:24957142

  7. Non-invasive risk stratification for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement--heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Gang, Yi; Malik, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a beat-to-beat variation in cardiac cycle length resulting from autonomic influence on the sinus node of patients in sinus rhythm. The importance of HRV as a risk stratifier has been well accepted, particularly in survivors of myocardial infarction. Large clinical trials are still needed to clarify the role of HRV in patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Given the significant association between HRV and the development of fatal arrhythmias/sudden cardiac death, HRV has been used in some clinical trials as one of the screening tests to select optimal candidates for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement, although its role in this area has not been fully established. Additional large prospective clinical trials are needed to further clarify the predictive value of existing or novel HRV parameters, on their own or in combination with other risk stratifiers, for assessing the risk of sudden cardiac death in a variety of clinical settings. PMID:19742432

  8. The Society for Vascular Surgery Lower Extremity Threatened Limb Classification System: risk stratification based on wound, ischemia, and foot infection (WIfI).

    PubMed

    Mills, Joseph L; Conte, Michael S; Armstrong, David G; Pomposelli, Frank B; Schanzer, Andres; Sidawy, Anton N; Andros, George

    2014-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia, first defined in 1982, was intended to delineate a subgroup of patients with a threatened lower extremity primarily because of chronic ischemia. It was the intent of the original authors that patients with diabetes be excluded or analyzed separately. The Fontaine and Rutherford Systems have been used to classify risk of amputation and likelihood of benefit from revascularization by subcategorizing patients into two groups: ischemic rest pain and tissue loss. Due to demographic shifts over the last 40 years, especially a dramatic rise in the incidence of diabetes mellitus and rapidly expanding techniques of revascularization, it has become increasingly difficult to perform meaningful outcomes analysis for patients with threatened limbs using these existing classification systems. Particularly in patients with diabetes, limb threat is part of a broad disease spectrum. Perfusion is only one determinant of outcome; wound extent and the presence and severity of infection also greatly impact the threat to a limb. Therefore, the Society for Vascular Surgery Lower Extremity Guidelines Committee undertook the task of creating a new classification of the threatened lower extremity that reflects these important considerations. We term this new framework, the Society for Vascular Surgery Lower Extremity Threatened Limb Classification System. Risk stratification is based on three major factors that impact amputation risk and clinical management: Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI). The implementation of this classification system is intended to permit more meaningful analysis of outcomes for various forms of therapy in this challenging, but heterogeneous population. PMID:24126108

  9. Assessment of PaO2/FiO2 for stratification of patients with moderate and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Jesús; Blanco, Jesús; del Campo, Rafael; Andaluz-Ojeda, David; Díaz-Domínguez, Francisco J; Muriel, Arturo; Córcoles, Virgilio; Suárez-Sipmann, Fernando; Tarancón, Concepción; González-Higueras, Elena; López, Julia; Blanch, Lluis; Pérez-Méndez, Lina; Fernández, Rosa Lidia; Kacmarek, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A recent update of the definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) proposed an empirical classification based on ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) at ARDS onset. Since the proposal did not mandate PaO2/FiO2 calculation under standardised ventilator settings (SVS), we hypothesised that a stratification based on baseline PaO2/FiO2 would not provide accurate assessment of lung injury severity. Design A prospective, multicentre, observational study. Setting A network of teaching hospitals. Participants 478 patients with eligible criteria for moderate (100patients were reclassified as severe, moderate, mild (200300). Primary and secondary outcomes Group severity and hospital mortality. Results At ARDS onset, 173 patients had a PaO2/FiO2?100 but only 38.7% met criteria for severe ARDS at 24 h under SVS. When assessed under SVS, 61.3% of patients with severe ARDS were reclassified as moderate, mild and non-ARDS, while lung severity and hospital mortality changed markedly with every PaO2/FiO2 category (p<0.000001). Our model of risk stratification outperformed the stratification using baseline PaO2/FiO2 and non-standardised PaO2/FiO2 at 24 h, when analysed by the predictive receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve: area under the ROC curve for stratification at baseline was 0.583 (95% CI 0.525 to 0.636), 0.605 (95% CI 0.552 to 0.658) at 24 h without SVS and 0.693 (95% CI 0.645 to 0.742) at 24 h under SVS (p<0.000001). Conclusions Our findings support the need for patient assessment under SVS at 24 h after ARDS onset to assess disease severity, and have implications for the diagnosis and management of ARDS patients. Trial registration numbers NCT00435110 and NCT00736892. PMID:25818272

  10. Cardiac Health Risk Stratification System (CHRiSS): a Bayesian-based decision support system for left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy.

    PubMed

    Loghmanpour, Natasha A; Druzdzel, Marek J; Antaki, James F

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the use of Bayesian Networks (BNs) for left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy; a treatment for end-stage heart failure that has been steadily growing in popularity over the past decade. Despite this growth, the number of LVAD implants performed annually remains a small fraction of the estimated population of patients who might benefit from this treatment. We believe that this demonstrates a need for an accurate stratification tool that can help identify LVAD candidates at the most appropriate point in the course of their disease. We derived BNs to predict mortality at five endpoints utilizing the Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) database: containing over 12,000 total enrolled patients from 153 hospital sites, collected since 2006 to the present day, and consisting of approximately 230 pre-implant clinical variables. Synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) was employed to address the uneven proportion of patients with negative outcomes and to improve the performance of the models. The resulting accuracy and area under the ROC curve (%) for predicted mortality were 30 day: 94.9 and 92.5; 90 day: 84.2 and 73.9; 6 month: 78.2 and 70.6; 1 year: 73.1 and 70.6; and 2 years: 71.4 and 70.8. To foster the translation of these models to clinical practice, they have been incorporated into a web-based application, the Cardiac Health Risk Stratification System (CHRiSS). As clinical experience with LVAD therapy continues to grow, and additional data is collected, we aim to continually update these BN models to improve their accuracy and maintain their relevance. Ongoing work also aims to extend the BN models to predict the risk of adverse events post-LVAD implant as additional factors for consideration in decision making. PMID:25397576

  11. Cardiac Health Risk Stratification System (CHRiSS): A Bayesian-Based Decision Support System for Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Loghmanpour, Natasha A.; Druzdzel, Marek J.; Antaki, James F.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the use of Bayesian Networks (BNs) for left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy; a treatment for end-stage heart failure that has been steadily growing in popularity over the past decade. Despite this growth, the number of LVAD implants performed annually remains a small fraction of the estimated population of patients who might benefit from this treatment. We believe that this demonstrates a need for an accurate stratification tool that can help identify LVAD candidates at the most appropriate point in the course of their disease. We derived BNs to predict mortality at five endpoints utilizing the Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) database: containing over 12,000 total enrolled patients from 153 hospital sites, collected since 2006 to the present day, and consisting of approximately 230 pre-implant clinical variables. Synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) was employed to address the uneven proportion of patients with negative outcomes and to improve the performance of the models. The resulting accuracy and area under the ROC curve (%) for predicted mortality were 30 day: 94.9 and 92.5; 90 day: 84.2 and 73.9; 6 month: 78.2 and 70.6; 1 year: 73.1 and 70.6; and 2 years: 71.4 and 70.8. To foster the translation of these models to clinical practice, they have been incorporated into a web-based application, the Cardiac Health Risk Stratification System (CHRiSS). As clinical experience with LVAD therapy continues to grow, and additional data is collected, we aim to continually update these BN models to improve their accuracy and maintain their relevance. Ongoing work also aims to extend the BN models to predict the risk of adverse events post-LVAD implant as additional factors for consideration in decision making. PMID:25397576

  12. Establishing a Gradient of Risk in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes Using Troponin I Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalid Al-Harbi; C. G. Suresh; Mohammad Zubaid; Abayomi O. Akanji

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of serum troponin I (TnI) estimations in the early risk stratification of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) subsequently diagnosed as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or unstable angina (UA). Subjects and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 86 patients admitted to the Coronary Care Unit of the Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital, Kuwait, with a diagnosis of

  13. Minimal Residual Disease-Based Risk Stratification in Chinese Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia by Flow Cytometry and Plasma DNA Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Suk Hang; Lau, Kin Mang; Li, Chi Kong; Chan, Natalie P. H.; Ip, Rosalina K. L.; Cheng, Chi Keung; Lee, Vincent; Shing, Matthew M. K.; Leung, Alex W. K.; Ha, Shau Yin; Cheuk, Daniel K. L.; Lee, Anselm C. W.; Li, Chak Ho; Luk, Chung Wing; Ling, Siu Cheung; Hrusak, Ondrej; Mejstrikova, Ester; Leung, Yonna; Ng, Margaret H. L.

    2013-01-01

    Minimal residual disease, or MRD, is an important prognostic indicator in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In ALL-IC-BFM 2002 study, we employed a standardized method of flow cytometry MRD monitoring for multiple centers internationally using uniformed gating, and determined the relevant MRD-based risk stratification strategies in our local patient cohort. We also evaluated a novel method of PCR MRD quantitation using peripheral blood plasma. For the bone marrow flow MRD study, patients could be stratified into 3 risk groups according to MRD level using a single time-point at day-15 (Model I) (I-A: <0.1%, I-B: 0.1–10%, I-C: >10%), or using two time-points at day-15 and day-33 (Model II) (II-A: day-15<10% and day-33<0.01%, II-B: day-15?10% or day-33?0.01% but not both, II-C: day-15?10% and day-33?0.01%), which showed significantly superior prediction of relapse (p?=?.00047 and <0.0001 respectively). Importantly, patients with good outcome (frequency: 56.0%, event-free survival: 90.1%) could be more accurately predicted by Model II. In peripheral blood plasma PCR MRD investigation, patients with day-15-MRD?10?4 were at a significantly higher risk of relapse (p?=?0.0117). By multivariate analysis, MRD results from both methods could independently predict patients’ prognosis, with 20–35-fold increase in risk of relapse for flow MRD I-C and II-C respectively, and 5.8-fold for patients having plasma MRD of ?10?4. We confirmed that MRD detection by flow cytometry is useful for prognostic evaluation in our Chinese cohort of childhood ALL after treatment. Moreover, peripheral blood plasma DNA MRD can be an alternative where bone marrow specimen is unavailable and as a less invasive method, which allows close monitoring. PMID:23936021

  14. Integrated e-Health approach based on vascular ultrasound and pulse wave analysis for asymptomatic atherosclerosis detection and cardiovascular risk stratification in the community.

    PubMed

    Santana, Daniel Bia; Zócalo, Yanina A; Armentano, Ricardo L

    2012-03-01

    New strategies are urgently needed to identify subjects at increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) development or complications. A National Public University Center (CUiiDARTE) was created in Uruguay, based on six main pillars: 1) integration of experts in different disciplines and creation of multidisciplinary teams, 2) incidence in public and professional education programs to give training in the use of new technologies and to shift the focus from ACVD treatment to disease prevention, 3) implementation of free vascular studies in the community (distributed rather than centralized healthcare), 4) innovation and application of e-Health and noninvasive technology and approaches, 5) design and development of a biomedical approach to determine the target population and patient workflow, and 6) improvement in individual risk estimation and differentiation between aging and ACVD-related arterial changes using population-based epidemiological and statistical patient-specific models. This work describes main features of CUiiDARTE project implementation, the scientific and technological steps and innovations done for individual risk stratification, and sub-clinical ACVD diagnosis. PMID:22271835

  15. Incorporating temporal EHR data in predictive models for risk stratification of renal function deterioration.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anima; Nadkarni, Girish; Gottesman, Omri; Ellis, Stephen B; Bottinger, Erwin P; Guttag, John V

    2015-02-01

    Predictive models built using temporal data in electronic health records (EHRs) can potentially play a major role in improving management of chronic diseases. However, these data present a multitude of technical challenges, including irregular sampling of data and varying length of available patient history. In this paper, we describe and evaluate three different approaches that use machine learning to build predictive models using temporal EHR data of a patient. The first approach is a commonly used non-temporal approach that aggregates values of the predictors in the patient's medical history. The other two approaches exploit the temporal dynamics of the data. The two temporal approaches vary in how they model temporal information and handle missing data. Using data from the EHR of Mount Sinai Medical Center, we learned and evaluated the models in the context of predicting loss of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the most common assessment of kidney function. Our results show that incorporating temporal information in patient's medical history can lead to better prediction of loss of kidney function. They also demonstrate that exactly how this information is incorporated is important. In particular, our results demonstrate that the relative importance of different predictors varies over time, and that using multi-task learning to account for this is an appropriate way to robustly capture the temporal dynamics in EHR data. Using a case study, we also demonstrate how the multi-task learning based model can yield predictive models with better performance for identifying patients at high risk of short-term loss of kidney function. PMID:25460205

  16. Noninvasive cardiac risk stratification of diabetic and nondiabetic uremic renal allograft candidates using dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging and radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.A.; Rimmer, J.; Haisch, C. (Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington (USA))

    1989-11-01

    The ability of noninvasive risk stratification using dipyridamole-thallium-201 (Tl-201) imaging and radionuclide ventriculography to predict perioperative and long-term cardiac events (myocardial infarction or cardiac death) was evaluated in 36 uremic diabetic and 29 nondiabetic candidates for renal allograft surgery. Of the 35 patients who underwent renal allograft surgery 8 +/- 7 months after the study, none had transient Tl-201 defects (although 13 had depressed left ventricular ejection fraction) and none developed perioperative cardiac events. During a mean follow-up of 23 +/- 11 months, 6 (9%) patients developed cardiac events. Logistic regression analysis was used to compare the predictive value of clinical data (including age, sex, diabetes, chest pain history, allograft recipient) and radionuclide data. Presence of transient Tl-201 defect and left ventricular ejection fraction were the only significant predictors of future cardiac events (p less than 0.01). No other patient variables, including diabetes or receiving a renal allograft, had either univariate or multivariate predictive value. All 3 patients with transient Tl-201 defects had cardiac events compared with only 3 of 62 (5%) patients without transient Tl-201 defect (p less than 0.0001). Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was lower in patients with cardiac events (44 +/- 13%) compared with patients without cardiac events (57 +/- 9%, p less than 0.005). Overall, 5 of 6 patients with cardiac events had either transient Tl-201 defects or depressed left ventricular ejection fraction. Dipyridamole-Tl-201 imaging and radionuclide ventriculography may be helpful in identifying uremic candidates for renal allograft surgery who are at low risk for perioperative and long-term cardiac events.

  17. Coronary CT and the Coronary Calcium Score, the Future of ED Risk Stratification?

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Friera, Leticia; Garcia-Alvarez, Ana; Guzman, Gabriela; Garcia, Mario J

    2012-01-01

    Accurate and efficient evaluation of acute chest pain remains clinically challenging because traditional diagnostic modalities have many limitations. Recent improvement in non-invasive imaging technologies could potentially improve both diagnostic efficiency and clinical outcomes of patients with acute chest pain while reducing unnecessary hospitalizations. However, there is still controversy regarding much of the evidence for these technologies. This article reviews the role of coronary artery calcium score and the coronary computed tomography in the assessment of individual coronary risk and their usefulness in the emergency department in facilitating appropriate disposition decisions. The evidence base and clinical applications for both techniques are also described, together with cost- effectiveness and radiation exposure considerations. PMID:22708911

  18. ECG Quantification of Myocardial Scar and Risk Stratification in MADIT-II

    PubMed Central

    Loring, Zak; Zareba, Wojciech; McNitt, Scott; Strauss, David G.; Wagner, Galen S.; Daubert, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) increases risk for both sudden cardiac death (SCD) and for heart failure (HF) death; however, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) reduce the incidence of SCD, not HF death. Distinguishing individuals at risk for HF death (non-SCD) vs. SCD could improve ICD patient selection. Objective This study evaluated whether electrocardiogram (ECG) quantification of myocardial infarction (MI) could discriminate risk for SCD vs. non-SCD. Methods Selvester QRS scoring was performed on 995 MADIT-II trial subjects’ ECGs to quantify MI size. MIs were categorized as small (0–3 QRS points), medium (4–7) or large (?8). Mortality, SCD and non-SCD rates in the conventional medical therapy (CMT) arm and mortality and ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF) rates in the ICD arm were analyzed by QRS score group. Both arms were analyzed to determine ICD efficacy by QRS score group. Results In the CMT arm, mortality, SCD and non-SCD rates were similar across QRS score groups (p=0.73. p=0.92 and p=0.77). The ICD arm showed similar rates of mortality (p=0.17) and VT/VF (p=0.24) across QRS score groups. ICD arm mortality was lower than CMT arm mortality across QRS score groups with greatest benefit in the large scar group. Conclusion Recently, QRS score was shown to be predictive of VT/VF in the SCD-HeFT population consisting of both ischemic and non-ischemic HF and having a maximum LVEF of 35% vs. 30% for MADIT-II. Our study found that QRS score did not add prognostic value in the MADIT-II population exhibiting relatively more severe cardiac dysfunction. PMID:24047486

  19. Unsupervised Similarity-Based Risk Stratification for Cardiovascular Events Using Long-Term Time-Series Data

    E-print Network

    Syed, Zeeshan

    In medicine, one often bases decisions upon a comparative analysis of patient data. In this paper, we build upon this observation and describe similarity-based algorithms to risk stratify patients for major adverse cardiac ...

  20. Stratification of risk for hospital admissions for injury related to fall: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Victor M; McCoy, Thomas H; Cagan, Andrew; Rosenfield, Hannah R; Murphy, Shawn N; Churchill, Susanne E; Kohane, Isaac S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the ability to stratify an individual patient’s hazard for falling could facilitate development of focused interventions aimed at reducing these adverse outcomes. Design Clinical and sociodemographic data from electronic health records were utilized to derive multiple logistic regression models of hospital readmissions for injuries related to falls. Drugs used at admission were summarized based on reported adverse effect frequencies in published drug labeling. Setting Two large academic medical centers in New England, United States. Participants The model was developed with 25?924 individuals age ?40 with an initial hospital discharge. The resulting model was then tested in an independent set of 13?032 inpatients drawn from the same hospital and 36?588 individuals discharged from a second large hospital during the same period. Main outcome measure Hospital readmissions for injury related to falls. Results Among 25?924 discharged individuals, 680 (2.6%) were evaluated in the emergency department or admitted to hospital for a fall within 30 days of discharge, 1635 (6.3%) within 180 days of discharge, 2360 (9.1%) within one year, and 3465 (13.4%) within two years. Older age, female sex, white or African-American race, public insurance, greater number of drugs taken on discharge, and score for burden of adverse effects were each independently associated with hazard for fall. For drug burden, presence of a drug with a frequency of adverse effects related to fall of 10% was associated with 3.5% increase in odds of falling over the next two years (odds ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.05). In an independent testing set, the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.65 for a fall within two years based on cross sectional data and 0.72 with the addition of prior utilization data including age adjusted Charlson comorbidity index. Portability was promising, with area under the curve of 0.71 for the longitudinal model in a second hospital system. Conclusions It is potentially useful to stratify risk of falls based on clinical features available as artifacts of routine clinical care. A web based tool can be used to calculate and visualize risk associated with drug treatment to facilitate further investigation and application.

  1. Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death: current status and challenges for the future†

    PubMed Central

    Wellens, Hein J.J.; Schwartz, Peter J.; Lindemans, Fred W.; Buxton, Alfred E.; Goldberger, Jeffrey J.; Hohnloser, Stefan H.; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Kääb, Stefan; La Rovere, Maria Teresa; Malik, Marek; Myerburg, Robert J.; Simoons, Maarten L.; Swedberg, Karl; Tijssen, Jan; Voors, Adriaan A.; Wilde, Arthur A.

    2014-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) remains a daunting problem. It is a major public health issue for several reasons: from its prevalence (20% of total mortality in the industrialized world) to the devastating psycho-social impact on society and on the families of victims often still in their prime, and it represents a challenge for medicine, and especially for cardiology. This text summarizes the discussions and opinions of a group of investigators with a long-standing interest in this field. We addressed the occurrence of SCD in individuals apparently healthy, in patients with heart disease and mild or severe cardiac dysfunction, and in those with genetically based arrhythmic diseases. Recognizing the need for more accurate registries of the global and regional distribution of SCD in these different categories, we focused on the assessment of risk for SCD in these four groups, looking at the significance of alterations in cardiac function, of signs of electrical instability identified by ECG abnormalities or by autonomic tests, and of the progressive impact of genetic screening. Special attention was given to the identification of areas of research more or less likely to provide useful information, and thereby more or less suitable for the investment of time and of research funds. PMID:24801071

  2. Immunology, genetics and microbiota in the COPD pathophysiology: potential scope for patient stratification.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Rajneesh; Olsson, Henric

    2015-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by sustained inflammation of the airways, leading to destruction of lung tissue and declining pulmonary function. Although smoking is the most obvious risk factor for COPD, only about 20% of smokers develop COPD and smoking cessation does not reverse progression of COPD, indicating that while smoking is an important cause or initiating factor, it is not the only driver of ongoing chronic inflammation and disease progression in COPD patients. We hypothesize that smoking-induced changes in lung microbiota, epithelial integrity and epigenetic control of gene expression result in autoantigen induction and perturbed immune regulation in genetically vunerable individuals. In our view, COPD patients may be stratified according to their immunological and inflammatory status related to specific changes in the lung microbiota (innate and adaptive immunity), presence of autoantigens (adaptive immunity: Th1-B-cell axis) and epigenetic modifications (inflammation and structural changes). PMID:25586213

  3. Usefulness of the CHADS2 score for prognostic stratification of patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shao-Sung; Chen, Ying-Hwa; Chan, Wan-Leong; Huang, Po-Hsun; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2014-11-01

    The Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) score and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score have been validated as predictors of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study was undertaken to determine whether the CHADS2 score had good accuracy for predicting clinical outcome in patients with AMI and to compare the discriminatory performance of the 3 risk scores (RSs). We calculated the TIMI RS, GRACE RS, and CHADS2 score for 747 consecutive patients with AMI. The study end point was the combined occurrence of MACE, including death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke. All patients were followed up for at least 3 years or until the occurrence of a major event. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the predictive ability of each score at different time points. Higher CHADS2 scores were associated with adverse outcome at discharge and 1-year and 3-year follow-ups (chi-square test for linear trend, p <0.001). Both CHADS2 score and GRACE RS demonstrated better discrimination than TIMI RS in predicting 1-year and 3-year MACE (p <0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the CHADS2 score was an independent predictor of future MACE in patients with AMI (hazard ratio 1.349, 95% confidence interval 1.196 to 1.522). In conclusion, the CHADS2 score provides potentially valuable prognostic information on clinical outcome when applied to patients with AMI. PMID:25205632

  4. Risk Stratification for Distal Pancreatectomy Utilizing ACS-NSQIP: Preoperative Factors Predict Morbidity and Mortality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaitlyn Jane Kelly; David Yu Greenblatt; Yin Wan; Robert J. Rettammel; Emily Winslow; Clifford S. Cho; Sharon M. Weber

    2011-01-01

    Background  Evaluation of risk factors for adverse outcomes following distal pancreatectomy (DP) has been limited to data collected from\\u000a retrospective, primarily single-institution studies. Using a large, multi-institutional prospectively collected dataset, we\\u000a sought to define the incidence of complications after DP, identify the preoperative and operative risk factors for the development\\u000a of complications, and develop a risk score that can be utilized

  5. Stratification of complexity: the Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery-1 method and the Aristotle Complexity Score--past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Marshall Lewis; Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip; Jenkins, Kathy J; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Clarke, David R; Lacour-Gayet, Francois

    2008-12-01

    Meaningful evaluation of quality of care must account for variations in the population of patients receiving treatment, or "case-mix". In adult cardiac surgery, empirical clinical data, initially from tens of thousands, and more recently hundreds of thousands of operations, have been used to develop risk-models, to increase the accuracy with which the outcome of a given procedure on a given patient can be predicted, and to compare outcomes on non-identical patient groups between centres, surgeons and eras. In the adult cardiac database of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, algorithms for risk-adjustment are based on over 1.5 million patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting and over 100,000 patients undergoing isolated replacement of the aortic valve or mitral valve. In the pediatric and congenital cardiac database of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, 61,014 operations are spread out over greater than 100 types of primary procedures. The problem of evaluating quality of care in the management of pediatric patients with cardiac diseases is very different, and in some ways a great deal more challenging, because of the smaller number of patients and the higher number of types of operations. In the field of pediatric cardiac surgery, the importance of the quantitation of the complexity of operations centers on the fact that outcomes analysis using raw measurements of mortality, without adjustment for complexity, is inadequate. Case-mix can vary greatly from program to program. Without stratification of complexity, the analysis of outcomes for congenital cardiac surgery will be flawed. Two major multi-institutional efforts have attempted to measure the complexity of pediatric cardiac operations: the Risk Adjustment in Congenital Heart Surgery-1 method and the Aristotle Complexity Score. Both systems were derived in large part from subjective probability, or expert opinion. Both systems are currently in wide use throughout the world and have been shown to correlate reasonably well with outcome. Efforts are underway to develop the next generation of these systems. The next generation will be based more on objective data, but will continue to utilize subjective probability where objective data is lacking. A goal, going forward, is to re-evaluate and further refine these tools so that, they can be, to a greater extent, derived from empirical data. During this process, ideally, the mortality elements of both the Aristotle Complexity Score and the Risk Adjustment in Congenital Heart Surgery-1 methodology will eventually unify and become one and the same. This review article examines these two systems of stratification of complexity and reviews the rationale for the development of each system, the current use of each system, the plans for future enhancement of each system, and the potential for unification of these two tools. PMID:19063787

  6. Patient stratification and identification of adverse event correlations in the space of 1190 drug related adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Roitmann, Eva; Eriksson, Robert; Brunak, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: New pharmacovigilance methods are needed as a consequence of the morbidity caused by drugs. We exploit fine-grained drug related adverse event information extracted by text mining from electronic medical records (EMRs) to stratify patients based on their adverse events and to determine adverse event co-occurrences. Methods: We analyzed the similarity of adverse event profiles of 2347 patients extracted from EMRs from a mental health center in Denmark. The patients were clustered based on their adverse event profiles and the similarities were presented as a network. The set of adverse events in each main patient cluster was evaluated. Co-occurrences of adverse events in patients (p-value < 0.01) were identified and presented as well. Results: We found that each cluster of patients typically had a most distinguishing adverse event. Examination of the co-occurrences of adverse events in patients led to the identification of potentially interesting adverse event correlations that may be further investigated as well as provide further patient stratification opportunities. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the feasibility of a novel approach in pharmacovigilance to stratify patients based on fine-grained adverse event profiles, which also makes it possible to identify adverse event correlations. Used on larger data sets, this data-driven method has the potential to reveal unknown patterns concerning adverse event occurrences. PMID:25249979

  7. Risk Stratification by the “EPA+DHA Level” and the “EPA\\/AA Ratio”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinz Rupp; Daniela Wagner; Thomas Rupp; Lisa-Maria Schulte; Bernhard Maisch

    2004-01-01

    The identification of risks associated with sudden cardiac death requires further investigations. The question was addressed whether parameters can be established which not only describe an increased risk for an enhanced electrical instability of the heart but also of inflammatory events underlying plaque rupture. Emphasis is placed on dose-dependent effects of the long-chain omega-(?-)3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and

  8. Approach to risk stratification in testicular germ cell tumors: a primer for radiologists.

    PubMed

    Wood, Monica J; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Sweeney, Christopher; Ramaiya, Nikhil H; Howard, Stephanie A

    2014-11-29

    Oncologists increasingly exploit differences in testicular germ cell tumors to deliver more personalized treatment. Imaging is essential in this process, aiding in the selection of risk-stratified management strategies. Consideration of relevant prognostic factors strengthens image interpretation, allowing for a more nuanced radiographic evaluation. This paper uses a clinically focused, stage-by-stage approach to delineate the risk factors for relapse and metastasis that radiologists should consider during staging, response assessment, and surveillance. PMID:25432868

  9. Association of BMI and Cardiovascular Risk Stratification in the Elderly African-American Females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fahad Javed; Emad F. Aziz; Manpreet S. Sabharwal; Girish N. Nadkarni; Shahzeb A. Khan; Juan P. Cordova; Alexandre M. Benjo; Dympna Gallagher; Eyal Herzog; Franz H. Messerli; F. Xavier Pi-Sunyer

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the association of BMI and risk of systemic hypertension in African-American females aged 65 years and older. In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, medical charts were randomly reviewed after obtaining institutional review board approval and data collection was conducted for height, weight, BMI, age, ethnicity, gender, and hypertension. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. The mean

  10. Underappreciated opportunities for high-density lipoprotein particles in risk stratification and potential targets of therapy.

    PubMed

    Rosenson, Robert S; Davidson, Michael H; Le, Ngoc-Anh; Burkle, Jaime; Pourfarzib, Ray

    2015-02-01

    The inverse relationship between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and coronary heart disease risk is well established. As a result, in recent years there have been significant resources focused on identifying therapies that raise HDL-C and ultimately reduce cardiovascular events. Unfortunately, a number of trials aimed at increasing HDL-C have failed to show improved outcomes, and hence, have cast doubt on the importance of HDL-C as a therapeutic target. HDL-C, however, is only one measure of HDL. HDL levels can also been estimated by quantifying apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) levels using enzyme immunoassay or by measuring HDL particle number (HDL-P) using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) or ion mobility. While these surrogate measures are correlated, they are not comparable. Lipoprotein-altering therapies have been shown to have different effects on HDL-C, apoA-I and HDL-P and several studies have demonstrated that HDL-P is a stronger predictor of coronary heart disease risk than HDL-C and/or apoA-I. This paper will review available evidence supporting the use of HDL-P as the biomarker of choice to assess the contribution of HDL to cardiovascular risk and as the primary goal of HDL-raising therapies. PMID:25702642

  11. Stratification of the severity of critically ill patients with classification trees

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Development of three classification trees (CT) based on the CART (Classification and Regression Trees), CHAID (Chi-Square Automatic Interaction Detection) and C4.5 methodologies for the calculation of probability of hospital mortality; the comparison of the results with the APACHE II, SAPS II and MPM II-24 scores, and with a model based on multiple logistic regression (LR). Methods Retrospective study of 2864 patients. Random partition (70:30) into a Development Set (DS) n = 1808 and Validation Set (VS) n = 808. Their properties of discrimination are compared with the ROC curve (AUC CI 95%), Percent of correct classification (PCC CI 95%); and the calibration with the Calibration Curve and the Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR CI 95%). Results CTs are produced with a different selection of variables and decision rules: CART (5 variables and 8 decision rules), CHAID (7 variables and 15 rules) and C4.5 (6 variables and 10 rules). The common variables were: inotropic therapy, Glasgow, age, (A-a)O2 gradient and antecedent of chronic illness. In VS: all the models achieved acceptable discrimination with AUC above 0.7. CT: CART (0.75(0.71-0.81)), CHAID (0.76(0.72-0.79)) and C4.5 (0.76(0.73-0.80)). PCC: CART (72(69-75)), CHAID (72(69-75)) and C4.5 (76(73-79)). Calibration (SMR) better in the CT: CART (1.04(0.95-1.31)), CHAID (1.06(0.97-1.15) and C4.5 (1.08(0.98-1.16)). Conclusion With different methodologies of CTs, trees are generated with different selection of variables and decision rules. The CTs are easy to interpret, and they stratify the risk of hospital mortality. The CTs should be taken into account for the classification of the prognosis of critically ill patients. PMID:20003229

  12. Somatostatin Treatment and Risk Stratification by Continuous Portal Pressure Monitoring During Acute Variceal Bleeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Càndid Villanueva; Jordi Ortiz; Josep Miñana; German Soriano; Miriam Sàbat; Jaume Boadas; Joaquim Balanzó

    2001-01-01

    Background & Aims: During acute variceal bleeding, several factors may lead to elevations of hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG), which may precipitate further hemorrhage. Whether somatostatin can suppress these increments is unknown. This study monitored somatostatin effects on HVPG during acute bleeding and assessed whether the changes affect outcome. Methods: In 40 patients with acute variceal bleeding treated with sclerotherapy,

  13. Galectin 3 complements BNP in risk stratification in acute heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Fermann, Gregory J.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Storrow, Alan B.; Hart, Kimberly; Sperling, Matthew; Roll, Susan; Weintraub, Neal L.; Miller, Karen F.; Maron, David J.; Naftilan, Allen J.; Mcpherson, John A.; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Christenson, Robert; Collins, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Galectin 3 (G3) is a mediator of fibrosis and remodeling in heart failure. Methods Patients diagnosed with and treated for Acute Heart Failure Syndromes were prospectively enrolled in the Decision Making in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure multicenter trial. Results Patients with a higher G3 had a history of renal disease, a lower heart rate and acute kidney injury. They also tended to have a history of HF and 30-day adverse events compared with B-type natriuretic peptide. Conclusion In Acute Heart Failure Syndromes, G3 levels do not provide prognostic value, but when used complementary to B-type natriuretic peptide, G3 is associated with renal dysfunction and may predict 30-day events. PMID:22998064

  14. The Cataract National Dataset electronic multicentre audit of 55 567 operations: risk stratification for posterior capsule rupture and vitreous loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Narendran; P Jaycock; R L Johnston; H Taylor; M Adams; D M Tole; R H Asaria; P Galloway; J M Sparrow

    2009-01-01

    AimsTo identify and quantify risk factors for posterior capsule rupture or vitreous loss or both (PCR or VL or both) during cataract surgery and provide a method of composite risk assessment for individual operations.MethodsThe Cataract National Dataset was extracted on 55 567 operations from 12 National Health Service (NHS) Trusts using an electronic patient record (EPR) system between November 2001

  15. When is risk stratification by race or ethnicity justified in medical care?

    PubMed

    Chin, Marshall H; Humikowski, Catherine A

    2002-03-01

    Issues of race and ethnicity have been controversial in both clinical care and medical education. In daily practice, many physicians struggle to be culturally competent and avoid racial stereotyping. One educational development that makes this goal more complex is the rise of clinical epidemiology and Bayesian thinking. These population-based, probabilistic approaches to medicine help guide the diagnostic and therapeutic pathways for patients, and are foundations of the evidence-based medicine movement. Can Bayesian thinking be applied effectively to issues of race and ethnicity in medical care, or are the dangers of prejudicial stereotyping too great? The authors draw upon lessons from recent cases of racial profiling, and develop a conceptual framework for thinking about ethnicity as a clinical tool. In their typology of ethnicity as a proxy, they argue that the costs of using ethnicity as a proxy for socioeconomic status and behavior are too high, but that ethnicity may appropriately be used as an initial proxy for history, language, culture, and health beliefs. They discuss their approach within the context of new curricula in cultural competence, and argue that viewing the patient within a wider cultural setting can help guide the initial clinical approach, but individualized care is mandatory. Also, physicians must remain sensitive to the changing nature of cultural norms; thus lifelong learning and flexibility are necessary. PMID:11891155

  16. Risk stratification in trauma and haemorrhagic shock: Scoring systems derived from the TraumaRegister DGU(®).

    PubMed

    Wutzler, Sebastian; Maegele, Marc; Wafaisade, Arasch; Wyen, Hendrik; Marzi, Ingo; Lefering, Rolf

    2014-10-01

    Scoring systems commonly attempt to reduce complex clinical situations into one-dimensional values by objectively valuing and combining a variety of clinical aspects. The aim is to allow for a comparison of selected patients or cohorts. To appreciate the true value of scoring systems in patients with multiple injuries it is necessary to understand the different purposes of quantifying the severity of specific injuries and overall trauma load, being: (1) clinical decision making; (2) triage; (3) planning of trauma systems and resources; (4) epidemiological and clinical research; (5) evaluation of outcome and trauma systems, including quality assessment; and (6) estimation of costs and allocation of resources. For the first two, easy-to estimate scores with immediate availability are necessary, mainly based on initial physiology. More sophisticated scores considering age, gender, injury pattern/severity and more are usually used for research and outcome evaluation, once the diagnostic and therapeutic process has been completed. For score development large numbers of data are necessary and thus, it appears as a logical consequence that large registries as the TraumaRegister DGU(®) of the German Trauma Society (TR-DGU) are used to derive and validate clinical scoring systems. A variety of scoring systems have been derived from this registry, the majority of them with focus on hospital mortality. The most important among these systems is probably the RISC score, which is currently used for quality assessment and outcome adjustment in the annual audit reports. This report summarizes the various scoring systems derived from the TraumaRegister DGU(®) over the recent years. PMID:25284230

  17. A Novel Risk Stratification to Predict Local-Regional Failures in Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder After Radical Cystectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Brian C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Guzzo, Thomas J. [Department of Urology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Urology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); He Jiwei [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Keefe, Stephen M. [Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Tucker, Kai; Bekelman, Justin E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hwang, Wei-Ting [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Vaughn, David J. [Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Malkowicz, S. Bruce [Department of Urology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Urology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Christodouleas, John P., E-mail: christojo@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Local-regional failures (LF) following radical cystectomy (RC) plus pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) with or without chemotherapy for invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma are more common than previously reported. Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) could reduce LF but currently has no defined role because of previously reported morbidity. Modern techniques with improved normal tissue sparing have rekindled interest in RT. We assessed the risk of LF and determined those factors that predict recurrence to facilitate patient selection for future adjuvant RT trials. Methods and Materials: From 1990-2008, 442 patients with urothelial bladder carcinoma at University of Pennsylvania were prospectively followed after RC plus PLND with or without chemotherapy with routine pelvic computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). One hundred thirty (29%) patients received chemotherapy. LF was any pelvic failure detected before or within 3 months of distant failure. Competing risk analyses identified factors predicting increased LF risk. Results: On univariate analysis, pathologic stage {>=}pT3, <10 nodes removed, positive margins, positive nodes, hydronephrosis, lymphovascular invasion, and mixed histology significantly predicted LF; node density was marginally predictive, but use of chemotherapy, number of positive nodes, type of surgical diversion, age, gender, race, smoking history, and body mass index were not. On multivariate analysis, only stage {>=}pT3 and <10 nodes removed were significant independent LF predictors with hazard ratios of 3.17 and 2.37, respectively (P<.01). Analysis identified 3 patient subgroups with significantly different LF risks: low-risk ({<=}pT2), intermediate-risk ({>=}pT3 and {>=}10 nodes removed), and high-risk ({>=}pT3 and <10 nodes) with 5-year LF rates of 8%, 23%, and 42%, respectively (P<.01). Conclusions: This series using routine CT and MRI surveillance to detect LF confirms that such failures are relatively common in cases of locally advanced disease and provides a rubric based on pathological stage and number of nodes removed that stratifies patients into 3 groups with significantly different LF risks to simplify patient selection for future adjuvant radiation therapy trials.

  18. The promise of pharmacogenetics: assessing the prospects for disease and patient stratification.

    PubMed

    Smart, Andrew; Martin, Paul

    2006-09-01

    Pharmacogenetics is an emerging biotechnology concerned with understanding the genetic basis of drug response, and promises to transform the development, marketing and prescription of medicines. This paper is concerned with analysing the move towards segmented drug markets, which is implicit in the commercial development of pharmacogenetics. It is claimed that in future who gets a particular drug will be determined by their genetic make up. Drawing on ideas from the sociology of expectations we examine how pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are constructing, responding to and realising particular 'visions' or expectations of pharmacogenetics and market stratification. We argue that the process of market segmentation remains uncertain, but that the outcome will be fashioned according to the convergence and divergence of the interests of key commercial actors. Qualitative data based both on interviews with industry executives and company documentation will be used to explore how different groups of companies are developing pharmacogenetics in distinct ways, and what consequences these different pathways might have for both clinical practice and health policy. In particular, the analysis will show a convergence of interests between biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies for creating segmented markets for new drugs, but a divergence of interest in segmenting established markets. Whilst biotechnology firms have a strong incentive to innovate, the pharmaceutical industry has no commercial interest in segmenting markets for existing products. This has important implications, as many of the claimed public health benefits of pharmacogenetics will derive from changing the prescribing of existing medicines. One significant implication of this is that biotechnology companies who wish to apply pharmacogenetics to existing medicines will have to explore an alternative convergence of interests with healthcare payers and providers (health insurers, HMOs, MCOs and national health systems). Healthcare providers may have a strong incentive to use pharmacogenetics to make the prescribing of existing medicine more cost-effective. However, we conclude by suggesting that a question mark hangs over their ability to provide the necessary economic and structural resources to bring such a vision to fruition. PMID:16980196

  19. Clinical Criteria Replenish High-Sensitive Troponin and Inflammatory Markers in the Stratification of Patients with Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Stähli, Barbara Elisabeth; Yonekawa, Keiko; Altwegg, Lukas Andreas; Wyss, Christophe; Hof, Danielle; Fischbacher, Philipp; Brauchlin, Andreas; Schulthess, Georg; Krayenbühl, Pierre-Alexandre; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Hersberger, Martin; Neidhart, Michel; Gay, Steffen; Novopashenny, Igor; Wolters, Regine; Frank, Michelle; Wischnewsky, Manfred Bernd; Lüscher, Thomas Felix; Maier, Willibald

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS), rapid triage is essential. The aim of this study was to establish a tool for risk prediction of 30-day cardiac events (CE) on admission. 30-day cardiac events (CE) were defined as early coronary revascularization, subsequent myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular death within 30 days. Methods and Results This single-centre, prospective cohort study included 377 consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected ACS and for whom troponin T measurements were requested on clinical grounds. Fifteen biomarkers were analyzed in the admission sample, and clinical parameters were assessed by the TIMI risk score for unstable angina/Non-ST myocardial infarction and the GRACE risk score. Sixty-nine (18%) patients presented with and 308 (82%) without ST-elevations, respectively. Coronary angiography was performed in 165 (44%) patients with subsequent percutaneous coronary intervention – accounting for the majority of CE – in 123 (33%) patients, respectively. Eleven out of 15 biomarkers were elevated in patients with CE compared to those without. High-sensitive troponin T (hs-cTnT) was the best univariate biomarker to predict CE in Non-ST-elevation patients (AUC 0.80), but did not yield incremental information above clinical TIMI risk score (AUC 0.80 vs 0.82, p?=?0.69). Equivalence testing of AUCs of risk models and non-inferiority testing demonstrated that the clinical TIMI risk score alone was non-inferior to its combination with hs-cTnT in predicting CE. Conclusions In patients presenting without ST-elevations, identification of those prone to CE is best based on clinical assessment based on TIMI risk score criteria and hs-cTnT. PMID:24892556

  20. Non-genetic risk factors and their influence on the management of patients in the clinic.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Teresa; Soto, Immaculada; Astermark, Jan

    2015-02-01

    The development of inhibitors is the most serious iatrogenic complication affecting patients with haemophilia. This complication is associated with impaired vital or functional prognosis, reduced quality of life and increased cost of treatment. The reasons why some patients develop antibodies to factor replacement and others do not remain unclear. It is however clear that inhibitor development results from a complex multifactorial interaction between genetic and non-genetic risk factors. Environmental influences implicated in increasing the risk of inhibitor formation can be viewed as modifiable risk factors. Therefore, identification of the non-genetic risk factors may offer the possibility of personalising haemophilia therapy by modifying treatment strategies in high-risk patients in the critical early phase of factor VIII exposure. In this article, we review the non-genetic factors reported as well as the potential impact of danger signals and the different scores for inhibitor development risk stratification. PMID:25560787

  1. Mean platelet volume on admission improves risk prediction in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaowei; Yang, Cuiling; Zhang, Yiming; Zhang, Hengliang; Yao, Yali

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the incremental predictive value of adding mean platelet volume (MPV) to the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score. The MPV and GRACE score were determined on admission in 509 consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Six-month mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) was the study end point. Overall, 61 (12%) patients reached the combined end point. Cox multivariate analysis showed that an elevated MPV was an independent predictor of 6-month mortality or MI in patients with ACS. The addition of MPV to the GRACE model improved its global fit and discriminatory capacity. The new model including MPV allowed adequate reclassification of 16% of the patients. In conclusion, the inclusion of MPV into the GRACE risk score could allow improved risk classification, thereby refining risk stratification of patients with ACS. PMID:24848783

  2. Gastroschisis in the United States 1988–2003: analysis and risk categorization of 4344 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Abdullah; M A Arnold; R Nabaweesi; A C Fischer; P M Colombani; K D Anderson; H Lau; D C Chang

    2007-01-01

    Objective:Gastroschisis is a rare congenital abdominal wall defect through which intraabdominal organs herniate and it requires surgical management soon after birth. The objectives of this study were to profile patient characteristics of this anomaly utilizing data from two large national databases and to validate previous risk stratification categories of infants born with this condition.Methods:An analysis was performed using 13 years

  3. Stratification of Patients With Liver Fibrosis Using Dual-Energy CT.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Peter; Sahani, Dushyant V; Fuentes-Orrego, Jorge M; Patino, Manuel; Ghosh, Asish; Mendonca, Paulo R S

    2015-03-01

    Assessing the severity of liver fibrosis has direct clinical implications for patient diagnosis and treatment. Liver biopsy, typically considered the gold standard, has limited clinical utility due to its invasiveness. Therefore, several imaging-based techniques for staging liver fibrosis have emerged, such as magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) and ultrasound elastography (USE), but they face challenges that include limited availability, high cost, poor patient compliance, low repeatability, and inaccuracy. Computed tomography (CT) can address many of these limitations, but is still hampered by inaccuracy in the presence of confounding factors, such as liver fat. Dual-energy CT (DECT), with its ability to discriminate between different tissue types, may offer a viable alternative to these methods. By combining the "multi-material decomposition" (MMD) algorithm with a biologically driven hypothesis we developed a method for assessing liver fibrosis from DECT images. On a twelve-patient cohort the method produced quantitative maps showing the spatial distribution of liver fibrosis, as well as a fibrosis score for each patient with statistically significant correlation with the severity of fibrosis across a wide range of disease severities. A preliminary comparison of the proposed algorithm against MRE showed good agreement between the two methods. Finally, the application of the algorithm to longitudinal DECT scans of the cohort produced highly repeatable results. We conclude that our algorithm can successfully stratify patients with liver fibrosis and can serve to supplement and augment current clinical practice and the role of DECT imaging in staging liver fibrosis. PMID:25181365

  4. A PRIM approach to predictive-signature development for patient stratification

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gong; Zhong, Hua; Belousov, Anton; Devanarayan, Viswanath

    2015-01-01

    Patients often respond differently to a treatment because of individual heterogeneity. Failures of clinical trials can be substantially reduced if, prior to an investigational treatment, patients are stratified into responders and nonresponders based on biological or demographic characteristics. These characteristics are captured by a predictive signature. In this paper, we propose a procedure to search for predictive signatures based on the approach of patient rule induction method. Specifically, we discuss selection of a proper objective function for the search, present its algorithm, and describe a resampling scheme that can enhance search performance. Through simulations, we characterize conditions under which the procedure works well. To demonstrate practical uses of the procedure, we apply it to two real-world data sets. We also compare the results with those obtained from a recent regression-based approach, Adaptive Index Models, and discuss their respective advantages. In this study, we focus on oncology applications with survival responses. PMID:25345685

  5. Traditional Chinese Medicine ZHENG Identification Provides a Novel Stratification Approach in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Kai-Li; Jiang, Rong-San; Lee, Chia-Lin; Chiang, Pei-Jung; Lin, Jui-Shan; Su, Yi-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Background. We aimed to apply the ZHENG identification to provide an easy and useful tool to stratify the patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) through exploring the correlation between the quantified scores of AR symptoms and the TCM ZHENGs. Methods. A total of 114 AR patients were enrolled in this observational study. All participants received the examinations of anterior rhinoscopy and acoustic rhinometry. Their blood samples were collected for measurement of total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), blood eosinophil count (Eos), and serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). They also received two questionnaire to assess the severity scores of AR symptoms and quantified TCM ZHENG scores. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine explanatory factors for the score of AR manifestations. Results. IgE and ECP level, duration of AR, the 2 derived TCMZHENG scores of “Yin-Xu ? Yang-Xu”, and “Qi-Xu + Blood-Xu” were 5 explanatory variables to predict the severity scores of AR symptoms. The patients who had higher scores of “Yin-Xu ? Yang-Xu” or “Qi-Xu + Blood-Xu” tended to manifest as “sneezer and runner” or “blockers,” respectively. Conclusions. The TCM ZHENG scores correlated with the severity scores of AR symptoms and provided an easy and useful tool to stratify the AR patients. PMID:22745648

  6. Benefit of Adjuvant Brachytherapy Versus External Beam Radiation for Early Breast Cancer: Impact of Patient Stratification on Breast Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Grace L.; Jiang, Jing; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Xu, Ying; Hoffman, Karen E.; Giordano, Sharon H.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Brachytherapy after lumpectomy is an increasingly popular breast cancer treatment, but data concerning its effectiveness are conflicting. Recently proposed “suitability” criteria guiding patient selection for brachytherapy have never been empirically validated. Methods Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare linked database, we compared women aged 66 years or older with invasive breast cancer (n=28,718) or ductal carcinoma in situ (n=7229) diagnosed from 2002 to 2007, treated with lumpectomy alone, brachytherapy, or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). The likelihood of breast preservation, measured by subsequent mastectomy risk, was compared by use of multivariate proportional hazards, further stratified by American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) brachytherapy suitability groups. We compared 1-year postoperative complications using the ?2 test and 5-year local toxicities using the log-rank test. Results For patients with invasive cancer, the 5-year subsequent mastectomy risk was 4.7% after lumpectomy alone (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1%–5.4%), 2.8% after brachytherapy (95% CI, 1.8%–4.3%), and 1.3% after EBRT (95% CI, 1.1%–1.5%) (P<.001). Compared with lumpectomy alone, brachytherapy achieved a more modest reduction in adjusted risk (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40–0.94) than achieved with EBRT (HR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.18–0.28). Relative risks did not differ when stratified by ASTRO suitability group (P=.84 for interaction), although ASTRO “suitable” patients did show a low absolute subsequent mastectomy risk, with a minimal absolute difference in risk after brachytherapy (1.6%; 95% CI, 0.7%–3.5%) versus EBRT (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.6%–1.1%). For patients with ductal carcinoma in situ, EBRT maintained a reduced risk of subsequent mastectomy (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.28–0.55; P<.001), whereas the small number of patients treated with brachytherapy (n=179) precluded definitive comparison with lumpectomy alone. In all patients, brachytherapy showed a higher postoperative infection risk (16.5% vs 9.9% after lumpectomy alone vs 11.4% after EBRT, P<.001); higher incidence of breast pain (22.9% vs 11.2% vs 16.7%, P<.001); and higher incidence of fat necrosis (15.3% vs 5.3% vs 7.7%, P<.001). Conclusions In this study era, brachytherapy showed lesser breast-preservation benefit compared with EBRT. Suitability criteria predicted differential absolute, but not relative, benefit in patients with invasive cancer. PMID:24268788

  7. Benefit of Adjuvant Brachytherapy Versus External Beam Radiation for Early Breast Cancer: Impact of Patient Stratification on Breast Preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Grace L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jiang, Jing [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Xu, Ying [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Giordano, Sharon H. [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hunt, Kelly K. [Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Smith, Benjamin D., E-mail: bsmith3@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Brachytherapy after lumpectomy is an increasingly popular breast cancer treatment, but data concerning its effectiveness are conflicting. Recently proposed “suitability” criteria guiding patient selection for brachytherapy have never been empirically validated. Methods: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare linked database, we compared women aged 66 years or older with invasive breast cancer (n=28,718) or ductal carcinoma in situ (n=7229) diagnosed from 2002 to 2007, treated with lumpectomy alone, brachytherapy, or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). The likelihood of breast preservation, measured by subsequent mastectomy risk, was compared by use of multivariate proportional hazards, further stratified by American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) brachytherapy suitability groups. We compared 1-year postoperative complications using the ?{sup 2} test and 5-year local toxicities using the log-rank test. Results: For patients with invasive cancer, the 5-year subsequent mastectomy risk was 4.7% after lumpectomy alone (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1%-5.4%), 2.8% after brachytherapy (95% CI, 1.8%-4.3%), and 1.3% after EBRT (95% CI, 1.1%-1.5%) (P<.001). Compared with lumpectomy alone, brachytherapy achieved a more modest reduction in adjusted risk (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40-0.94) than achieved with EBRT (HR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.18-0.28). Relative risks did not differ when stratified by ASTRO suitability group (P=.84 for interaction), although ASTRO “suitable” patients did show a low absolute subsequent mastectomy risk, with a minimal absolute difference in risk after brachytherapy (1.6%; 95% CI, 0.7%-3.5%) versus EBRT (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.6%-1.1%). For patients with ductal carcinoma in situ, EBRT maintained a reduced risk of subsequent mastectomy (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.28-0.55; P<.001), whereas the small number of patients treated with brachytherapy (n=179) precluded definitive comparison with lumpectomy alone. In all patients, brachytherapy showed a higher postoperative infection risk (16.5% vs 9.9% after lumpectomy alone vs 11.4% after EBRT, P<.001); higher incidence of breast pain (22.9% vs 11.2% vs 16.7%, P<.001); and higher incidence of fat necrosis (15.3% vs 5.3% vs 7.7%, P<.001). Conclusions: In this study era, brachytherapy showed lesser breast preservation benefit compared with EBRT. Suitability criteria predicted differential absolute, but not relative, benefit in patients with invasive cancer.

  8. Development and Validation of a Clinical Trial Patient Stratification Assay That Interrogates 27 Mutation Sites in MAPK Pathway Genes

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Russell; Marton, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Somatic mutations identified on genes related to the cancer-developing signaling pathways have drawn attention in the field of personalized medicine in recent years. Treatments developed to target a specific signaling pathway may not be effective when tumor activating mutations occur downstream of the target and bypass the targeted mechanism. For instance, mutations detected in KRAS/BRAF/NRAS genes can lead to EGFR-independent intracellular signaling pathway activation. Most patients with these mutations do not respond well to anti-EGFR treatment. In an effort to detect various mutations in FFPE tissue samples among multiple solid tumor types for patient stratification many mutation assays were evaluated. Since there were more than 30 specific mutations among three targeted RAS/RAF oncogenes that could activate MAPK pathway genes, a custom designed Single Nucleotide Primer Extension (SNPE) multiplexing mutation assay was developed and analytically validated as a clinical trial assay. Throughout the process of developing and validating the assay we overcame many technical challenges which include: the designing of PCR primers for FFPE tumor tissue samples versus normal blood samples, designing of probes for detecting consecutive nucleotide double mutations, the kinetics and thermodynamics aspects of probes competition among themselves and against target PCR templates, as well as validating an assay when positive control tumor tissue or cell lines with specific mutations are not available. We used Next Generation sequencing to resolve discordant calls between the SNPE mutation assay and Sanger sequencing. We also applied a triplicate rule to reduce potential false positives and false negatives, and proposed special considerations including pre-define a cut-off percentage for detecting very low mutant copies in the wild-type DNA background. PMID:23991070

  9. The Burden of Hard Atherosclerotic Plaques Does Not Promote Endoleak Development After Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair: A Risk Stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.petersen@i-med.ac.at; Glodny, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.glodny@i-med.ac.at [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Radiology (Austria)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To objectify the influence of the atherosclerotic burden in the proximal landing zone on the development of endoleaks after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) or thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) using objective aortic calcium scoring (ACS). Materials and Methods: This retrospective observation study included 267 patients who received an aortic endograft between 1997 and 2010 and for whom preoperative computed tomography (CT) was available to perform ACS using the CT-based V600 method. The mean follow-up period was 2 {+-} 2.3 years. Results: Type I endoleaks persisted in 45 patients (16.9%), type II in 34 (12.7%), type III in 8 (3%), and type IV or V in 3 patients, respectively (1.1% each). ACS in patients with type I endoleaks was not increased: 0.029 {+-} 0.061 ml compared with 0.075 {+-} 0.1349 ml in the rest of the patients, (p > 0.05; Whitney-Mann U-Test). There were significantly better results for the indication 'traumatic aortic rupture' than for the other indications (p < 0.05). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, age was an independent risk factor for the development of type I endoleaks in the thoracic aorta (Wald 9.5; p = 0.002), whereas ACS score was an independent protective factor (Wald 6.9; p = 0.009). In the abdominal aorta, neither age nor ACS influenced the development of endoleaks. Conclusion: Contrary to previous assumptions, TEVAR and EVAR can be carried out without increasing the risk of an endoleak of any type, even if there is a high atherosclerotic 'hard-plaque' burden of the aorta. The results are significantly better for traumatic aortic.

  10. TMA Navigator: Network inference, patient stratification and survival analysis with tissue microarray data.

    PubMed

    Lubbock, Alexander L R; Katz, Elad; Harrison, David J; Overton, Ian M

    2013-07-01

    Tissue microarrays (TMAs) allow multiplexed analysis of tissue samples and are frequently used to estimate biomarker protein expression in tumour biopsies. TMA Navigator (www.tmanavigator.org) is an open access web application for analysis of TMA data and related information, accommodating categorical, semi-continuous and continuous expression scores. Non-biological variation, or batch effects, can hinder data analysis and may be mitigated using the ComBat algorithm, which is incorporated with enhancements for automated application to TMA data. Unsupervised grouping of samples (patients) is provided according to Gaussian mixture modelling of marker scores, with cardinality selected by Bayesian information criterion regularization. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis is available, including comparison of groups identified by mixture modelling using the Mantel-Cox log-rank test. TMA Navigator also supports network inference approaches useful for TMA datasets, which often constitute comparatively few markers. Tissue and cell-type specific networks derived from TMA expression data offer insights into the molecular logic underlying pathophenotypes, towards more effective and personalized medicine. Output is interactive, and results may be exported for use with external programs. Private anonymous access is available, and user accounts may be generated for easier data management. PMID:23761446

  11. Improving the Identification of High Risk Precursor B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patients with Earlier Quantification of Minimal Residual Disease

    PubMed Central

    Karsa, Mawar; Dalla Pozza, Luciano; Venn, Nicola C.; Law, Tamara; Shi, Rachael; Giles, Jodie E.; Bahar, Anita Y.; Cross, Shamira; Catchpoole, Daniel; Haber, Michelle; Marshall, Glenn M.; Norris, Murray D.; Sutton, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The stratification of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) into treatment risk groups based on quantification of minimal residual disease (MRD) after induction therapy is now well accepted but the relapse rate of about 20% in intermediate risk patients remains a challenge. The purpose of this study was to further improve stratification by MRD measurement at an earlier stage. MRD was measured in stored day 15 bone marrow samples for pediatric patients enrolled on ANZCHOG ALL8 using Real-time Quantitative PCR to detect immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements with the same assays used at day 33 and day 79 in the original MRD stratification. MRD levels in bone marrow at day 15 and 33 were highly predictive of outcome in 223 precursor B-ALL patients (log rank Mantel-Cox tests both P<0.001) and identified patients with poor, intermediate and very good outcomes. The combined use of MRD at day 15 (?1×10?2) and day 33 (?5×1?5) identified a subgroup of medium risk precursor B-ALL patients as poor MRD responders with 5 year relapse-free survival of 55% compared to 84% for other medium risk patients (log rank Mantel-Cox test, P?=?0.0005). Risk stratification of precursor B-ALL but not T-ALL could be improved by using MRD measurement at day 15 and day 33 instead of day 33 and day 79 in similar BFM-based protocols for children with this disease. PMID:24146872

  12. Dipyridamole-thallium scanning in patients undergoing vascular surgery. Optimizing preoperative evaluation of cardiac risk

    SciTech Connect

    Eagle, K.A.; Singer, D.E.; Brewster, D.C.; Darling, R.C.; Mulley, A.G.; Boucher, C.A.

    1987-04-24

    Dipyridamole-thallium imaging has been suggested as a method of preoperatively assessing cardiac risk in patients undergoing major surgery. To define more clearly its proper role in preoperative assessment, we prospectively evaluated 111 patients undergoing vascular surgery. In the first set of 61 patients, our data confirmed the value of preoperative dipyridamole-thallium scanning in identifying the patients who suffered postoperative ischemic events. Events occurred in eight of 18 patients with reversible defects on preoperative imaging, compared with no events in 43 patients with no thallium redistribution (confidence interval for the risk difference: 0.624, 0.256). The results also suggested that clinical factors might allow identification of a low-risk subset of patients. To test the hypothesis that patients with no evidence of congestive heart failure, angina, prior myocardial infarction, or diabetes do not require further preoperative testing, we evaluated an additional 50 patients having vascular procedures. None of the 23 without the clinical markers had untoward outcomes, while ten of 27 patients with one or more of these clinical markers suffered postoperative ischemic events (confidence interval for the risk difference: 0.592, 0.148). In the clinical high-risk subset, further risk stratification is achieved with dipyridamole-thallium scanning.

  13. TCF7L2 variant genotypes and type 2 diabetes risk in Brazil: significant association, but not a significant tool for risk stratification in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Genetic polymorphisms of the TCF7L2 gene are strongly associated with large increments in type 2 diabetes risk in different populations worldwide. In this study, we aimed to confirm the effect of the TCF7L2 polymorphism rs7903146 on diabetes risk in a Brazilian population and to assess the use of this genetic marker in improving diabetes risk prediction in the general population. Methods We genotyped the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) rs7903146 of the TCF7L2 gene in 560 patients with known coronary disease enrolled in the MASS II (Medicine, Angioplasty, or Surgery Study) Trial and in 1,449 residents of Vitoria, in Southeast Brazil. The associations of this gene variant to diabetes risk and metabolic characteristics in these two different populations were analyzed. To access the potential benefit of using this marker for diabetes risk prediction in the general population we analyzed the impact of this genetic variant on a validated diabetes risk prediction tool based on clinical characteristics developed for the Brazilian general population. Results SNP rs7903146 of the TCF7L2 gene was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in the MASS-II population (OR = 1.57 per T allele, p = 0.0032), confirming, in the Brazilian population, previous reports of the literature. Addition of this polymorphism to an established clinical risk prediction score did not increased model accuracy (both area under ROC curve equal to 0.776). Conclusion TCF7L2 rs7903146 T allele is associated with a 1.57 increased risk for type 2 diabetes in a Brazilian cohort of patients with known coronary heart disease. However, the inclusion of this polymorphism in a risk prediction tool developed for the general population resulted in no improvement of performance. This is the first study, to our knowledge, that has confirmed this recent association in a South American population and adds to the great consistency of this finding in studies around the world. Finally, confirming the biological association of a genetic marker does not guarantee improvement on already established screening tools based solely on demographic variables. PMID:19055834

  14. Evaluation of Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Bloodstream Infections Due to Gram-Negative Bacteria According to Carbapenem MIC Stratification

    PubMed Central

    Esterly, John S.; Wagner, Jamie; McLaughlin, Milena M.; Postelnick, Michael J.; Qi, Chao

    2012-01-01

    Predictive modeling suggests that actual carbapenem MIC results are more predictive of clinical patient outcomes than categorical classification of the MIC as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant. Some have speculated that current CLSI guidelines' suggested thresholds are too high and that clinical success is more likely if the MIC value is ?1 mg/liter for certain organisms. Patients treated with carbapenems and with positive blood cultures for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, or extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteria were considered for evaluation in this clinical retrospective cohort study. Relevant patient demographics and microbiologic variables were collected, including carbapenem MIC. The primary objective was to define a risk-adjusted all-cause hospital mortality breakpoint for carbapenem MICs. Secondarily, we sought to determine if a similar breakpoint existed for indirect outcomes (e.g., time to mortality and length of stay [LOS] postinfection for survivors). Seventy-one patients met the criteria for study inclusion. Overall, 52 patients survived, and 19 died. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis determined a split of organism MIC between 2 and 4 mg/liter and predicted differences in mortality (16.1% versus 76.9%; P < 0.01). Logistic regression controlling for confounders identified each imipenem MIC doubling dilution as increasing the probability of death 2-fold (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 3.2). Secondary outcomes were similar between groups. This study revealed that patients with organisms that had a MIC of ?4 mg/liter had worse outcomes than patients whose isolates had a MIC of ?2 mg/liter, even after adjustment for confounding variables. We recommend additional clinical studies to better understand the susceptibility breakpoint for carbapenems. PMID:22777044

  15. Human CMV-specific T-cell responses in kidney transplantation; toward changing current risk-stratification paradigm.

    PubMed

    Lúcia, Marc; Crespo, Elena; Cruzado, Josep M; Grinyó, Josep M; Bestard, Oriol

    2014-07-01

    Despite the great efficacy of current antiviral preventive strategies, hCMV infection is still a major complication after renal transplantation, significantly challenging patient and graft survival. This issue seems to be explained because of the rather poor immunologic monitoring of the antiviral immune response. An important body of evidence has shown that monitoring the hCMV-specific T-cell response, at different time points of the transplant setting, seems to add crucial information for predicting the risk of viral infection, thus potentially helping individualization of therapeutic decision-making in clinical transplantation. While several immune-cellular assays have shown its capability for accurately monitoring hCMV-specific T-cell responses, only few such as the IFN-? ELISPOT and the ELISA based technology assays might be reliable for its application in the clinic. Nonetheless, an important effort has to be made among the transplant community to standardize and validate such immune assays. Noteworthy, large-scale prospective randomized trials are highly warranted to ultimately introduce them in current clinical practice as a part of the highly desired personalized medicine. PMID:24629072

  16. [Management of infection risk in asplenic patients].

    PubMed

    Dahyot-Fizelier, C; Debaene, B; Mimoz, O

    2013-04-01

    Each year in France 6000 to 9000 patients are splenectomised or spleen embolized. As spleen has immunological functions, it contributes to protect against infections. Thus, hypo or asplenia increase the risk of infection, especially the risk of Overwhelming Post-Splenectomy Infection (OPSI). OPSI is a medical emergency, characterized by aspecific symptoms, which may rapidly progress to fulminant infection and death in 50% of cases within 48 h. Encapsulated bacteria as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis are most of the time responsible of these infections in asplenic patients. To prevent OPSI, several measures are essential and must begin before a scheduled surgery or just after an urgent splenectomy. Patients must carry a card. The first proposed prevention measure is to enhance partial surgery when it's possible. Then, the two other measures, antibiotic prophylaxis and vaccination, shall be implemented whatever is the indication of surgery. Postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis by phenoxymethyl-penicillin is prescribed for two years minimum and lifelong prophylaxis should be offered to high risk of pneumococcal infection patients. Pneumococcal, H. influenzae type b and meningococcal vaccination should be administered 2 to 6 weeks before scheduled splenectomy and 2 weeks after urgent surgery. Yearly, patients must receive Influenza vaccination. As an interindividual variation exists in vaccinal response, measurement of serotype-specific antibodies can be used, if available, to individualized risk patients and to organize revaccination. Finally, to prevent OPSI, patient and next-of-kin must be educated about prevention measures and infectious risk to optimize patient's compliance. PMID:23538102

  17. Risk of neoplasia in renal transplant patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J London; S. M Farmery; J. P. A Lodge; E. J Will; A. M Davidson

    1995-01-01

    SummaryRenal allograft recipients are at an increased risk of neoplasia, although the extent of the problem has not been established in a typical European transplant population. To assess this risk we did a comprehensive, retrospective study of 918 patients transplanted at one centre over 24 years. The centre (Leeds) serves Yorkshire and Humberside, a region in northern England with a

  18. Role of Coronary Artery Calcium Score and Coronary CT Angiography in the Diagnosis and Risk Stratification of Individuals with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean R. Wilson; Fay Y. Lin; James K. Min

    Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, and has traditionally been assessed through a patient’s cardiovascular\\u000a risk profile that is comprised of a combination of genetic, social, physiologic, and environmental factors. A growing discordance\\u000a is being recognized in the ability of current risk estimation tools to predict outcomes versus that of actual measured outcomes.\\u000a Exciting new improvements

  19. Malaria ecotypes and stratification.

    PubMed

    Schapira, Allan; Boutsika, Konstantina

    2012-01-01

    To deal with the variability of malaria, control programmes need to stratify their malaria problem into a number of smaller units. Such stratification may be based on the epidemiology of malaria or on its determinants such as ecology. An ecotype classification was developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) around 1990, and it is time to assess its usefulness for current malaria control as well as for malaria modelling on the basis of published research. Journal and grey literature was searched for articles on malaria or Anopheles combined with ecology or stratification. It was found that all malaria in the world today could be assigned to one or more of the following ecotypes: savanna, plains and valleys; forest and forest fringe; foothill; mountain fringe and northern and southern fringes; desert fringe; coastal and urban. However, some areas are in transitional or mixed zones; furthermore, the implications of any ecotype depend on the biogeographical region, sometimes subregion, and finally, the knowledge on physiography needs to be supplemented by local information on natural, anthropic and health system processes including malaria control. Ecotyping can therefore not be seen as a shortcut to determine control interventions, but rather as a framework to supplement available epidemiological and entomological data so as to assess malaria situations at the local level, think through the particular risks and opportunities and reinforce intersectoral action. With these caveats, it does however emerge that several ecotypic distinctions are well defined and have relatively constant implications for control within certain biogeographic regions. Forest environments in the Indo-malay and the Neotropics are, with a few exceptions, associated with much higher malaria risk than in adjacent areas; the vectors are difficult to control, and the anthropic factors also often converge to impose constraints. Urban malaria in Africa is associated with lower risk than savanna malaria; larval control may be considered though its role is not so far well established. In contrast, urban malaria in the Indian subcontinent is associated with higher risks than most adjacent rural areas, and larval control has a definite, though not exclusive, role. Simulation modelling of cost-effectiveness of malaria control strategies in different scenarios should prioritize ecotypes where malaria control encounters serious technical problems. Further field research on malaria and ecology should be interdisciplinary, especially with geography, and pay more attention to juxtapositions and to anthropic elements, especially migration. PMID:22520442

  20. Radon: counseling patients about risk.

    PubMed

    Birrer, R B

    1990-09-01

    Exposure to radon and its decay products has increased as the United States has changed from an outdoor society to a largely indoor society. Radon, which is found primarily in the soil, enters houses and buildings through cracks, holes and pipes in foundation walls and floors. Although radon is suspected of being a significant cause of lung cancer, comparisons with other risk factors cannot yet be made. Radon levels in the home can be measured with commercially available kits. Guidelines for reducing the amount of radon in a home are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:2203238

  1. Cirrhosis and portal hypertension: The importance of risk stratification, the role of hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement

    PubMed Central

    Mura, Vincenzo La; Nicolini, Antonio; Tosetti, Giulia; Primignani, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Portal hypertension is the main prognostic factor in cirrhosis. The recent emergence of potent antiviral drugs and new algorithm of treatment for the management of complications due to portal hypertension have sensibly changed our perception of cirrhosis that can be now considered as a multistage liver disease whose mortality risk can be reduced by a tailored approach for any stage of risk. Experts recommend to move toward a pathophysiological classification of cirrhosis that considers both structural and functional changes. The hepatic venous pressure gradient HVPG, is the reference gold standard to estimate the severity of portal hypertension in cirrhosis. It correlates with both structural and functional changes that occur in cirrhosis and carries valuable prognostic information to stratify the mortality risk. This article provides a general overview of the pathophysiology and natural course of cirrhosis and portal hypertension. We propose a simplified classification of cirrhosis based on low, intermediate and high mortality stage. The prognostic information provided by HVPG is presented according to each stage. A comparison with prognostic models based on clinical and endoscopic variables is discussed in order to evidence the additional contribute given by HVPG on top of other clinical and instrumental variables widely used in clinical practice. PMID:25866605

  2. Molecular classification of diffuse cerebral WHO grade II/III gliomas using genome- and transcriptome-wide profiling improves stratification of prognostically distinct patient groups.

    PubMed

    Weller, Michael; Weber, Ruthild G; Willscher, Edith; Riehmer, Vera; Hentschel, Bettina; Kreuz, Markus; Felsberg, Jörg; Beyer, Ulrike; Löffler-Wirth, Henry; Kaulich, Kerstin; Steinbach, Joachim P; Hartmann, Christian; Gramatzki, Dorothee; Schramm, Johannes; Westphal, Manfred; Schackert, Gabriele; Simon, Matthias; Martens, Tobias; Boström, Jan; Hagel, Christian; Sabel, Michael; Krex, Dietmar; Tonn, Jörg C; Wick, Wolfgang; Noell, Susan; Schlegel, Uwe; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Pietsch, Torsten; Loeffler, Markus; von Deimling, Andreas; Binder, Hans; Reifenberger, Guido

    2015-05-01

    Cerebral gliomas of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II and III represent a major challenge in terms of histological classification and clinical management. Here, we asked whether large-scale genomic and transcriptomic profiling improves the definition of prognostically distinct entities. We performed microarray-based genome- and transcriptome-wide analyses of primary tumor samples from a prospective German Glioma Network cohort of 137 patients with cerebral gliomas, including 61 WHO grade II and 76 WHO grade III tumors. Integrative bioinformatic analyses were employed to define molecular subgroups, which were then related to histology, molecular biomarkers, including isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH1/2) mutation, 1p/19q co-deletion and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations, and patient outcome. Genomic profiling identified five distinct glioma groups, including three IDH1/2 mutant and two IDH1/2 wild-type groups. Expression profiling revealed evidence for eight transcriptionally different groups (five IDH1/2 mutant, three IDH1/2 wild type), which were only partially linked to the genomic groups. Correlation of DNA-based molecular stratification with clinical outcome allowed to define three major prognostic groups with characteristic genomic aberrations. The best prognosis was found in patients with IDH1/2 mutant and 1p/19q co-deleted tumors. Patients with IDH1/2 wild-type gliomas and glioblastoma-like genomic alterations, including gain on chromosome arm 7q (+7q), loss on chromosome arm 10q (-10q), TERT promoter mutation and oncogene amplification, displayed the worst outcome. Intermediate survival was seen in patients with IDH1/2 mutant, but 1p/19q intact, mostly astrocytic gliomas, and in patients with IDH1/2 wild-type gliomas lacking the +7q/-10q genotype and TERT promoter mutation. This molecular subgrouping stratified patients into prognostically distinct groups better than histological classification. Addition of gene expression data to this genomic classifier did not further improve prognostic stratification. In summary, DNA-based molecular profiling of WHO grade II and III gliomas distinguishes biologically distinct tumor groups and provides prognostically relevant information beyond histological classification as well as IDH1/2 mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion status. PMID:25783747

  3. Temporal trends in the use of invasive cardiac procedures for non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes according to initial risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Jedrzkiewicz, Sean; Goodman, Shaun G; Yan, Raymond T; Welsh, Robert C; Kornder, Jan; DeYoung, J Paul; Wong, Graham C; Rose, Barry; Grondin, François R; Gallo, Richard; Huang, Wei; Gore, Joel M; Yan, Andrew T

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current guidelines support an early invasive strategy in the management of high-risk non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS). Although studies in the 1990s suggested that high-risk patients received less aggressive treatment, there are limited data on the contemporary management patterns of NSTE-ACS in Canada. OBJECTIVE: To examine the in-hospital use of coronary angiography and revascularization in relation to risk among less selected patients with NSTE-ACS. METHODS: Data from the prospective, multicentre Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (main GRACE and expanded GRACE2) were used. Between June 1999 and September 2007, 7131 patients from across Canada with a final diagnosis of NSTE-ACS were included the study. The study population was stratified into low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups, based on their calculated GRACE risk score (a validated predictor of in-hospital mortality) and according to time of enrollment. RESULTS: While rates of in-hospital death and reinfarction were significantly (P<0.001) greater in higher-risk patients, the in-hospital use of cardiac catheterization in low- (64.7%), intermediate- (60.3%) and high-risk (42.3%) patients showed an inverse relationship (P<0.001). This trend persisted despite the increase in the overall rates of cardiac catheterization over time (47.9% in 1999 to 2003 versus 51.6% in 2004 to 2005 versus 63.8% in 2006 to 2007; P<0.001). After adjusting for confounders, intermediate-risk (adjusted OR 0.80 [95% CI 0.70 to 0.92], P=0.002) and high-risk (adjusted OR 0.38 [95% CI 0.29 to 0.48], P<0.001) patients remained less likely to undergo in-hospital cardiac catheterization. CONCLUSION: Despite the temporal increase in the use of invasive cardiac procedures, they remain paradoxically targeted toward low-risk patients with NSTE-ACS in contemporary practice. This treatment-risk paradox needs to be further addressed to maximize the benefits of invasive therapies in Canada. PMID:19898699

  4. Multiple Myeloma Patients at Various Cytogenetic Risks Benefit Differently from Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation as a Consolidation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Tianmei; Zhou, Lili; Xi, Hao; Fu, Weijun; Du, Juan; Zhang, Chunyang; Jiang, Hua; Hou, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate whether patients with multiple myeloma at various risks can still benefit the same from autologous stem cell transplantation consolidation in the era of novel agents. We retrospectively analyzed 67 consecutive myeloma patients receiving autologous stem cell transplantation after bortezomib and/or thalidomide based inductions. Totally 17 high-risk, 24 intermediate-risk, and 26 low-risk patients were enrolled, based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and ISS stage. Meanwhile, another 67 risk-, response depth-, and age-matched patients not proceeding to autologous stem cell transplantation were chosen as controls. Our preliminary data indicated that, in the high-risk subgroup, progression-free survival and overall survival were both significantly prolonged after autologous stem cell transplantation (P < 0.001 and P = 0.015) while, in the intermediate-risk subgroup, neither progression-free survival nor overall survival was prolonged significantly after autologous stem cell transplantation (P > 0.05), and in the low-risk subgroup, only progression-free survival was extended significantly (P = 0.012) after autologous stem cell transplantation. Multiple variables analysis further indicated that autologous stem cell transplantation and risk stratification were two independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Our results indicated that myeloma patients at different risks all benefit from autologous stem cell transplantation consolidation even in the era of novel agents. PMID:25688273

  5. Application of systematic coronary risk evaluation chart to identify chronic myeloid leukemia patients at risk of cardiovascular diseases during nilotinib treatment.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Molica, Matteo; Zacheo, Irene; Serrao, Alessandra; Alimena, Giuliana

    2015-03-01

    Nilotinib is currently approved for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic (CP) and accelerated phase (AP) after failure of imatinib and in newly diagnosed patients. Atherosclerotic events were retrospectively reported in patients with baseline cardiovascular risk factors during nilotinib treatment. We estimated the risk of developing atherosclerotic events in patients treated with second or first-line nilotinib, with a median follow-up of 48 months, by retrospectively applying the SCORE chart proposed by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and evaluating risk factors at baseline (diabetes, obesity, smoking, and hypertension). Overall, we enrolled in the study 82 CP patients treated frontline (42 CP patients at the dose of 600 mg BID) or after failure of other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (40 CP patients treated with 400 mg BID). The SCORE chart is based on the stratification of sex (male vs female), age (from 40 to 65 years), smoker vs non-smoker, systolic pressure (from 120 to 180 mm Hg), and cholesterol (measured in mmol/l, from 150 to 300 mg/dl). For statistical purposes, we considered patients subdivided in low, moderate, high (with a score >5), and very high risk. There were 48 males and 34 females, median age 51 years (range 22-84). According to WHO classification, 42 patients were classified as normal weight (BMI <25), 26 patients were overweight (BMI 26???30), and 14 were obese (BMI >30). Retrospective classification according to the SCORE chart revealed that 27 patients (33 %) were in the low-risk category, 30 patients (36 %) in the moderate risk category, and 24 patients (29 %) in the high risk. As regards risk factors, we revealed that 17 patients (20.7 %) had a concomitant type II controlled diabetes (without organ damage), 23 patients (28 %) were smokers, 29 patients (35 %) were receiving concomitant drugs for hypertension, and 15 patients (18 %) had concomitant dyslipidemia. Overall, the cumulative incidence of atherosclerotic events at 48 months was 8.5 % (95 % CI, 4.55-14.07): None of the low-risk patients according to the SCORE chart experienced atherosclerotic events compared to 10 % in the moderate risk category and 29 % in the high risk (p?=?0.002). Atherosclerotic-free survival was 100, 89, and 69 % in the low, moderate, and high-risk population, respectively (p?=?0.001). SCORE chart evaluation at disease baseline could be a valid tool to identify patients at high risk of atherosclerotic events during nilotinib treatment. PMID:25304102

  6. Competing risks analysis in mortality estimation for breast cancer patients from independent risk groups

    E-print Network

    Competing risks analysis in mortality estimation for breast cancer patients from independent risk This study quantifies breast cancer mortality in the presence of competing risks for complex patients. Breast risks framework is built to analyze the effect of patient risk factors and cancer charac- teristics

  7. An alternative approach to selecting patients for high-risk screening with breast MRI.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Alan B; Stough, Rebecca G

    2014-01-01

    Current guidelines for adding breast MRI to annual screening mammography are based entirely upon stratification of risk, with a heavy focus on lifetime calculations. This approach is fraught with difficulty due to the reliance on mathematical models that vary widely in their calculations, the inherent age discrimination of using lifetime risks rather than short-term incidence, and the failure to incorporate mammographic density, the latter being an independent risk as well as the greatest predictor of mammographic failure. By utilizing a system of patient selection similar to what was used in the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) 6666 trial for multi-modality imaging, 33 women without a prior diagnosis of breast cancer were found to harbor mammographically occult carcinoma through MRI screening. These 33 patients represent a 2% yield, closely approximating the yields seen in prospective MRI screening trials of women at very high risk of breast cancer. Using the "~20-25%" minimum established by the American Cancer Society and later the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, the Gail model would have prompted the use of MRI in only 9 of 33 (27.3%) patients, the Claus model 1 of 33 (3%), and the Tyrer-Cuzick model 12 of 33 (36.4%). Using all three models and opting for the highest calculated risk, then including BRCA-positivity, still would have identified only 16 of 33 (48.5%) patients with occult breast cancer discovered by MRI. Only one patient was BRCA-positive, and none had lobular carcinoma in situ, while 6 of 33 patients (18.2%) had atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH). Measures are proposed to refine patient selection for MRI screening through the use of short-term or categorical risks, mammographic density, while maintaining cost-effectiveness through longer MRI screening intervals. PMID:24387050

  8. Expression of Y-box-binding protein YB-1 allows stratification into long- and short-term survivors of head and neck cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kolk, A; Jubitz, N; Mengele, K; Mantwill, K; Bissinger, O; Schmitt, M; Kremer, M; Holm, P S

    2011-01-01

    Background: Histology-based classifications and clinical parameters of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are limited in their clinical capacity to provide information on prognosis and treatment choice of HNSCC. The primary aim of this study was to analyse Y-box-binding protein-1 (YB-1) protein expression in different grading groups of HNSCC patients, and to correlate these findings with the disease-specific survival (DSS). Methods: We investigated the expression and cellular localisation of the oncogenic transcription/translation factor YB-1 by immunohistochemistry on tissue micro arrays in a total of 365 HNSCC specimens and correlated expression data with clinico-pathological parameters including DSS. Results: Compared with control tissue from healthy individuals, a significantly (P<0.01) increased YB-1 protein expression was observed in high-grade HNSCC patients. By univariate survival data analysis, HNSCC patients with elevated YB-1 protein expression had a significantly (P<0.01) decreased DSS. By multivariate Cox regression analysis, high YB-1 expression and nuclear localisation retained its significance as a statistically independent (P<0.002) prognostic marker for DSS. Within grade 2 group of HNSCC patients, a subgroup defined by high nuclear and cytoplasmic YB-1 levels (co-expression pattern) in the cells of the tumour invasion front had a significantly poorer 5-year DSS rate of only 38% compared with overall 55% for grade 2 patients. Vice versa, the DSS rate was markedly increased to 74% for grade 2 cancer patients with low YB-1 protein expression at the same localisation. Conclusion: Our findings point to the fact that YB-1 expression in combination with histological classification in a double stratification strategy is superior to classical grading in the prediction of tumour progression in HNSCC. PMID:22095225

  9. Cardiac magnetic resonance and computed tomography angiography for clinical imaging of stable coronary artery disease. Diagnostic classification and risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Korosoglou, Grigorios; Giusca, Sorin; Gitsioudis, Gitsios; Erbel, Christian; Katus, Hugo A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in the pharmacologic and interventional treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD), atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of death in Western societies. X-ray coronary angiography has been the modality of choice for diagnosing the presence and extent of CAD. However, this technique is invasive and provides limited information on the composition of atherosclerotic plaque. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) have emerged as promising non-invasive techniques for the clinical imaging of CAD. Hereby, CCTA allows for visualization of coronary calcification, lumen narrowing and atherosclerotic plaque composition. In this regard, data from the CONFIRM Registry recently demonstrated that both atherosclerotic plaque burden and lumen narrowing exhibit incremental value for the prediction of future cardiac events. However, due to technical limitations with CCTA, resulting in false positive or negative results in the presence of severe calcification or motion artifacts, this technique cannot entirely replace invasive angiography at the present time. CMR on the other hand, provides accurate assessment of the myocardial function due to its high spatial and temporal resolution and intrinsic blood-to-tissue contrast. Hereby, regional wall motion and perfusion abnormalities, during dobutamine or vasodilator stress, precede the development of ST-segment depression and anginal symptoms enabling the detection of functionally significant CAD. While CT generally offers better spatial resolution, the versatility of CMR can provide information on myocardial function, perfusion, and viability, all without ionizing radiation for the patients. Technical developments with these 2 non-invasive imaging tools and their current implementation in the clinical imaging of CAD will be presented and discussed herein. PMID:25147526

  10. Cardiac risk telemonitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hutten; M. Hribernigg; G. Rauchegger

    2001-01-01

    Utilization of advanced information, telecommunication and implant technology for cardiac risk stratification and management is one of the greatest challenges for modern health care provision. Sudden cardiac death is the major contributor to overall cardiovascular mortality with approximately 60% of all coronary heart disease fatalities occurring annually. Although some high-risk patient groups have been identified with reasonable sensitivity and specificity

  11. Patient stratification in the management of acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis: the role of levofloxacin 750 mg.

    PubMed

    Martinez, F J; Grossman, R F; Zadeikis, N; Fisher, A C; Walker, K; Ambruzs, M E; Tennenberg, A M

    2005-06-01

    This is the first prospective clinical trial in which patients with acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis have been stratified by degree of underlying illness. Uncomplicated patients were randomised to levofloxacin 750 mg once daily (q.d.) for 3 days or azithromycin q.d. for 5 days. Complicated patients were randomised to levofloxacin 750 mg q.d. for 5 days or amoxicillin 875 mg/clavulanate 125 mg twice daily for 10 days. Regardless of therapy, complicated patients demonstrated lower clinical and microbiological success than uncomplicated patients. Clinical success for clinically evaluable patients was similar for levofloxacin and azithromycin (93.0 versus 90.1%, respectively), and levofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanate (79.2 versus 81.7%, respectively). For microbiologically evaluable patients, clinical response to levofloxacin for 3 days was superior to azithromycin for 5 days (96.3 versus 87.4%, respectively), and levofloxacin for 5 days was similar to amoxicillin/clavulanate for 10 days (81.4 versus 80.9%, respectively). Microbiological eradication was superior for levofloxacin for 3 days compared with azithromycin for 5 days (93.8 versus 82.8%, respectively), and similar for levofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanate for 10 days (81.4 versus 79.8%, respectively). In conclusion, levofloxacin 750 mg for 3 days was comparable to azithromycin for 5 days for uncomplicated patients with acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, while 5 days of 750 mg levofloxacin was comparable to 10 days of amoxicillin/clavulanate for complicated acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. PMID:15929954

  12. 18FDG-PET/CT for prognostic stratification of patients with multiple myeloma relapse after stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Malzahn, Uwe; Samnick, Samuel; Einsele, Herrmann; Buck, Andreas K.; Herrmann, Ken; Knop, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) in 37 patients with a history of multiple myeloma (MM) and suspected or confirmed recurrence after stem cell transplantation (SCT). All patients had been heavily pretreated. Time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were correlated to a number of different PET-derived as well as clinical parameters. Impact on patient management was assessed. Absence of FDG-avid MM foci was a positive prognostic factor for both TTP and OS (p<0.01). Presence of >10 focal lesions correlated with both TTP (p<0.01) and OS (p<0.05). Interestingly, presence of >10 lesions in the appendicular skeleton proved to have the strongest association with disease progression. Intensity of glucose uptake and presence of extramedullary disease were associated with shorter TTP (p=0.037 and p=0.049, respectively). Manifestations in soft tissue structures turned out to be a strong negative predictor for both, TTP and OS (p<0.01, respectively). PET resulted in a change of management in 30% of patients. Our data underline the prognostic value of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in MM patients also in the setting of post-SCT relapse. PET/CT has a significant impact on patient management. PMID:25277179

  13. Management of patients with risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Waldfahrer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This review addresses concomitant diseases and risk factors in patients treated for diseases of the ears, nose and throat in outpatient and hospital services. Besides heart disease, lung disease, liver disease and kidney disease, this article also covers disorders of coagulation (including therapy with new oral anticoagulants) and electrolyte imbalance. Special attention is paid to the prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of perioperative delirium. It is also intended to help optimise the preparation for surgical procedures and pharmacotherapy during the hospital stay. PMID:24403970

  14. Cancer risk in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Olov Adami; Joseph McLaughlin; Anders Ekbom; Christian Berne; Debra Silverman; David Hacker; Ingemar Persson

    1991-01-01

    Cancer incidence was ascertained in a population-based cohort of 51,008 patients in Uppsala, Sweden, who were given a discharge diagnosis of diabetes mellitus during 1965–83. Complete follow-up through 1984 with exclusion of the first year of observation showed that the observed number of cancers in females (1,294) was eight percent higher than expected (relative risk [RR]=1.1, 95 percent confidence interval

  15. Predicting risk in patients with acetaminophen overdose

    PubMed Central

    James, Laura P.; Gill, Prit; Simpson, Pippa

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is a very common cause of drug overdose and acute liver failure in the US and Europe. Mechanism-based biomarkers of APAP toxicity have the potential to improve the clinical management of patients with large dose ingestions of APAP. The current approach to the management of APAP toxicity is limited by imprecise and time-constrained risk assessments and late-stage markers of liver injury. A recent study of “low-risk” APAP overdose patients who all received treatment with N-acetylcysteine, found that cell-death biomarkers were more sensitive than alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and APAP concentrations in predicting the development of acute liver injury. The data suggest a potential role for new biomarkers to identify “low riskpatients following APAP overdose. However, a practical and ethical consideration that complicates predictive biomarker research in this area is the clinical need to deliver antidote treatment within 10 hours of APAP overdose. The treatment effect and time-dependent nature of N-acetylcysteine treatment must be considered in future “predictive” toxicology studies of APAP-induced liver injury. PMID:23984999

  16. Predicting risk in patients with acetaminophen overdose.

    PubMed

    James, Laura P; Gill, Prit; Simpson, Pippa

    2013-08-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is a very common cause of drug overdose and acute liver failure in the US and Europe. Mechanism-based biomarkers of APAP toxicity have the potential to improve the clinical management of patients with large-dose ingestions of APAP. The current approach to the management of APAP toxicity is limited by imprecise and time-constrained risk assessments and late-stage markers of liver injury. A recent study of 'low-risk' APAP overdose patients who all received treatment with N-acetylcysteine found that cell death biomarkers were more sensitive than alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and APAP concentrations in predicting the development of acute liver injury. The data suggest a potential role for new biomarkers to identify 'low-risk' patients following APAP overdose. However, a practical and ethical consideration that complicates predictive biomarker research in this area is the clinical need to deliver antidote treatment within 10 h of APAP overdose. The treatment effect and time-dependent nature of N-acetylcysteine treatment must be considered in future 'predictive' toxicology studies of APAP-induced liver injury. PMID:23984999

  17. Simple Stratification of Survival Using Bone Scan and Serum C-Reactive Protein in Prostate Cancer Patients with Metastases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Nakashima; Eiji Kikuchi; Akira Miyajima; Ken Nakagawa; Mototsugu Oya; Takashi Ohigashi; Masaru Murai

    2008-01-01

    Background: IL-6 has been reported to be a significant prognostic factor for prostate cancer and induces synthesis of C-reactive protein (CRP) by hepatocytes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical value of serum CRP in prostate cancer patients with metastases. Methods: The prognostic significance of serum CRP as well as tumor histology, extent of disease (EOD) on bone

  18. Stratification of the phase clouds and statistical effects of the non-Markovity in chaotic time series of human gait for healthy people and Parkinson patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulmetyev, Renat; Demin, Sergey; Emelyanova, Natalya; Gafarov, Fail; Hänggi, Peter

    2003-03-01

    In this work we develop a new method of diagnosing the nervous system diseases and a new approach in studying human gait dynamics with the help of the theory of discrete non-Markov random processes (Phys. Rev. E 62 (5) (2000) 6178, Phys. Rev. E 64 (2001) 066132, Phys. Rev. E 65 (2002) 046107, Physica A 303 (2002) 427). The stratification of the phase clouds and the statistical non-Markov effects in the time series of the dynamics of human gait are considered. We carried out the comparative analysis of the data of four age groups of healthy people: children (from 3 to 10 year olds), teenagers (from 11 to 14 year olds), young people (from 21 up to 29 year olds), elderly persons (from 71 to 77 year olds) and Parkinson patients. The full data set are analyzed with the help of the phase portraits of the four dynamic variables, the power spectra of the initial time correlation function and the memory functions of junior orders, the three first points in the spectra of the statistical non-Markov parameter. The received results allow to define the predisposition of the probationers to deflections in the central nervous system caused by Parkinson's disease. We have found out distinct differences between the five submitted groups. On this basis we offer a new method of diagnostics and forecasting Parkinson's disease.

  19. Heterogeneity in cost-effectiveness of lifestyle counseling for metabolic syndrome risk groups -primary care patients in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical trials have indicated that lifestyle interventions for patients with lifestyle-related cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors (the metabolic syndrome) are cost-effective. However, patient characteristics in primary care practice vary considerably, i.e. they exhibit heterogeneity in risk factors. The cost-effectiveness of lifestyle interventions is likely to differ over heterogeneous patient groups. Methods Patients (62 men, 80 women) in the Kalmar Metabolic Syndrome Program (KMSP) in primary care (Kalmar regional healthcare area, Sweden) were divided into three groups reflecting different profiles of metabolic risk factors (low, middle and high risk) and gender. A Markov model was used to predict future cardiovascular disease and diabetes, including complications (until age 85 years or death), with health effects measured as QALYs and costs from a societal perspective in Euro (EUR) 2012, discounted 3%. Simulations with risk factor levels at start and at 12 months follow-up were performed for each group, with an assumed 4-year sustainability of intervention effects. Results The program was estimated cost-saving for middle and high risk men, while the incremental cost vs. do-nothing varied between EUR 3,500 – 18,000 per QALY for other groups. There is heterogeneity in the cost-effectiveness over the risk groups but this does not affect the overall conclusion on the cost-effectiveness of the KMSP. Even the highest ICER (for high risk women) is considered moderately cost-effective in Sweden. The base case result was not sensitive to alternative data and methodology but considerably affected by sustainability assumptions. Alternative risk stratifications did not change the overall conclusion that KMSP is cost-effective. However, simple grouping with average risk factor levels over gender groups overestimate the cost-effectiveness. Conclusions Lifestyle counseling to prevent metabolic diseases is cost-effective in Swedish standard primary care settings. The use of risk stratification in the cost-effectiveness analysis established that the program was cost-effective for all patient groups, even for those with very high levels of lifestyle-related risk factors for the metabolic syndrome diseases. Heterogeneity in the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle interventions in primary care patients is expected, and should be considered in health policy decisions. PMID:23984906

  20. Dissecting DNA repair in adult high grade gliomas for patient stratification in the post-genomic era

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Christina; Agarwal, Devika; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M.A.; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Grundy, Richard; Auer, Dorothee T.; Walker, David; Lakhani, Ravi; Scott, Ian S.; Chan, Stephen; Ball, Graham; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Deregulation of multiple DNA repair pathways may contribute to aggressive biology and therapy resistance in gliomas. We evaluated transcript levels of 157 genes involved in DNA repair in an adult glioblastoma Test set (n=191) and validated in ‘The Cancer Genome Atlas’ (TCGA) cohort (n=508). A DNA repair prognostic index model was generated. Artificial neural network analysis (ANN) was conducted to investigate global gene interactions. Protein expression by immunohistochemistry was conducted in 61 tumours. A fourteen DNA repair gene expression panel was associated with poor survival in Test and TCGA cohorts. A Cox multivariate model revealed APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN as independently associated with poor prognosis. A DNA repair prognostic index incorporating APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN stratified patients in to three prognostic sub-groups with worsening survival. APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN also have predictive significance in patients who received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. ANN analysis of APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN revealed interactions with genes involved in transcription, hypoxia and metabolic regulation. At the protein level, low APE1 and low PTEN remain associated with poor prognosis. In conclusion, multiple DNA repair pathways operate to influence biology and clinical outcomes in adult high grade gliomas. PMID:25026297

  1. Triage of high-risk surgical patients for intensive care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia B Sobol; Hannah Wunsch

    2011-01-01

    Patients who undergo high-risk non-cardiac surgical procedures represent a large proportion of admissions to intensive care units (ICUs) in the developed world [1]. Ideally, surgeons, anesthesiologists, and intensivists admitting surgical patients to ICUs target the patients who will benefi t most from this highest level of postoperative care. However, accurately identifying which patients are at high risk of complications or

  2. Assessment of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients: a comparison of commonly used risk scoring programs

    PubMed Central

    Ulusoy, ?ükrü

    2013-01-01

    Several calculation modalities are used today for cardiovascular risk assessment. Cardiovascular risk assessment should be performed in all hypertensive patients. Risk assessment methods being based on the population in which the patient lives and the inclusion of factors such as ethnicity variations, socioeconomic status, and medication use will contribute to improvements in risk assessments. The results should be shared with the patient, and modifiable risk factors must be effectively treated. PMID:25019017

  3. Three-graded stratification of carbohydrate restriction by level of baseline hemoglobin A1c for type 2 diabetes patients with a moderate low-carbohydrate diet

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A moderate low-carbohydrate diet has been receiving attention in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). A fundamental issue has still to be addressed; how much carbohydrate delta-reduction (?carbohydrate) from baseline would be necessary to achieve a certain decrease in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. Objective We investigated the effects of three-graded stratification of carbohydrate restriction by patient baseline HbA1c levels on glycemic control and effects of ?carbohydrate on decreases in HbA1c levels (?HbA1c) in each group. Research design and methods We treated 122 outpatients with T2DM by three-graded carbohydrate restriction according to baseline HbA1c levels (??7.4% for Group 1, 7.5%-8.9% for Group 2 and???9.0% for Group 3) and assessed their HbA1c levels, doses of anti-diabetic drugs and macronutrient intakes over 6 months. Results At baseline, the mean HbA1c level and carbohydrate intake were 6.9?±?0.4% and 252?±?59 g/day for Group 1 (n?=?55), 8.1?±?0.4% and 282?±?85 g/day for Group 2 (n?=?41) and 10.6?±?1.4% and 309?±?88 g/day for Group 3 (n?=?26). Following three-graded carbohydrate restriction for 6 months significantly decreased mean carbohydrate intake (g/day) and HbA1c levels for all patients, from 274?±?78 to 168?±?52 g and from 8.1?±?1.6 to 7.1?±?0.9% (n?=?122, P?stratification of carbohydrate restriction according to baseline HbA1c levels may provide T2DM patients with optimal objectives for carbohydrate restriction and prevent restriction from being unnecessarily strict. PMID:25114711

  4. Septicemia in dialysis patients: Incidence, risk factors, and prognosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NEIL R. POWE; BERNARD JAAR; SUSAN L. FURTH; JUDITH HERMANN; WILLIAM BRIGGS

    1999-01-01

    Septicemia in dialysis patients: Incidence, risk factors, and prognosis.BackgroundInfection is second to cardiovascular disease as a cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and septicemia causes a majority of these infectious deaths. To identify patients at high risk and to characterize modifiable risk factors for septicemia, we examined the incidence, risk factors, and prognosis for septicemia in

  5. Composite risk scores and composite endpoints in the risk prediction of outcomes in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation. The Loire Valley Atrial Fibrillation Project.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, A; Fauchier, L; Bernard-Brunet, A; Clementy, N; Lip, G Y H

    2014-03-01

    Several validated risk stratification schemes for prediction of ischaemic stroke (IS)/thromboembolism (TE) and major bleeding are available for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). On the basis for multiple common risk factors for IS/TE and bleeding, it has been suggested that composite risk prediction scores may be more practical and user-friendly than separate scores for bleeding and IS/TE. In a long-term prospective hospital registry of anticoagulated patients with newly diagnosed AF, we compared the predictive value of existing risk prediction scores as well as composite risk scores, and also compared these risk scoring systems using composite endpoints. Endpoint 1 was the simple composite of IS and major bleeds. Endpoint 2 was based on a composite of IS plus intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Endpoint 3 was based on weighted coefficients for IS/TE and ICH. Endpoint 4 was a composite of stroke, cardiovascular death, TE and major bleeding. The incremental predictive value of these scores over CHADS2 (as reference) for composite endpoints was assessed using c-statistic, net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). Of 8,962 eligible individuals, 3,607 (40.2%) had NVAF and were on OAC at baseline. There were no statistically significant differences between the c-statistics of the various risk scores, compared with the CHADS2 score, regardless of the endpoint. For the various risk scores and various endpoints, NRI and IDI did not show significant improvement (?1%), compared with the CHADS2 score. In conclusion, composite risk scores did not significantly improve risk prediction of endpoints in patients with NVAF, regardless of how endpoints were defined. This would support individualised prediction of IS/TE and bleeding separately using different separate risk prediction tools, and not the use of composite scores or endpoints for everyday 'real world' clinical practice, to guide decisions on thromboprophylaxis. PMID:24452108

  6. Clinical risk scores to guide perioperative management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Barnett; Suneetha Ramani Moonesinghe

    2011-01-01

    Perioperative morbidity is associated with reduced long term survival. Comorbid disease, cardiovascular illness, and functional capacity can predispose patients to adverse surgical outcomes. Accurate risk stratification would facilitate informed patient consent and identify those individuals who may benefit from specific perioperative interventions. The ideal clinical risk scoring system would be objective, accurate, economical, simple to perform, based entirely on information

  7. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and Smoldering Multiple Myeloma: A review of the current understanding of epidemiology, biology, risk stratification and management of myeloma precursor disease

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Amit; Ghobrial, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The term monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) was coined in 1978. The recent advances in our knowledge about MGUS and smoldering MM (SMM) have helped us better understand the pathogenesis of myeloma. It appears that myeloma evolves from a precursor state in almost all cases. We do not completely understand the multistep process from the precursor state to myeloma but studies including whole genome sequencing will continue to help in improving our understanding of this process. The process of transformation may not be linear acquisition of changes but rather a branched heterogeneous process. Clinical features that are prognostic of rapid transformation have been identified but no specific molecular markers have been identified. Even with recent advances, multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease in the vast majority and intervening at the precursor state provides a unique opportunity to alter the natural history of the disease. A limitation is that a vast majority of patients with precursor disease especially low risk MGUS will never progress to myeloma in their lifetime and treating these patients is not only unnecessary but may be potentially harmful. The challenge is to identify a subset of patients with the precursor state that would definitely progress to myeloma and in whom interventions will have a meaningful impact. As our understanding of the molecular and genetic processes improves, these studies will guide the selection of high-risk patients more appropriately and ultimately direct a tailored management strategy to either delay progression to symptomatic myeloma or even “cure” a person at this premalignant stage. PMID:23224402

  8. Personalizing risk stratification by addition of PAK1 expression to TNM staging: improving the accuracy of clinical decision for gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Zongtai; Zou, Xiaofang; Xie, Liangxi; Chen, Hongcai; Chen, Yuping; Yeung, Sai-Ching Jim; Zhang, Hao

    2015-04-01

    Gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (GEJA) is an aggressive malignancy with an alarmingly rising incidence. TNM staging is widely used by oncologists to stratify prognosis as well as direct therapeutic strategies. However, inadequate lymphadenectomy is frequently encountered for GEJA and largely confounds prognosis resulting from TNM staging. Thus, a molecular biomarker, which can accurately forecast the risk of nodal metastasis in patients with inadequate lymphadenectomy, is required to guide precisely clinical decision. In this study, bioinformatics and pathological analysis identified that p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is associated with lymph nodal metastasis of GEJA. The PAK1 H-score was lower in the patients with negative lymph nodes than that in patients with positive (metastatic) lymph nodes (6.865?±?3.376, 9.370?±?2.530, respectively; p??7 and high PAK1 expression in PTs were associated with significantly increased risk of recurrence and cancer-related death. In conclusion, high PAK1 expression in PTs is predictive of node metastasis and can be easily integrated in the clinical decision process for personalized therapeutics of GEJA. PMID:25159681

  9. STRATIFICATION OF MATRIX PENCILS IN

    E-print Network

    Johansson, Stefan

    . Erik Elmroth, Pedher Johansson, Stefan Johansson, and Bo K°agstr¨om. Orbit and bundle stratification and notation, Paper I gives an introduction to stratification for orbits and bundles of matrices, matrix these two permutation matrices are provided. Paper II gives a short introduction to stratification of orbits

  10. No Increased Risk of Herpes Zoster Found in Cirrhotic Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ping-Hsun; Lin, Yi-Ting; Kuo, Chun-Nan; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Chang, Wei-Pin

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between liver cirrhosis (LC) and herpes zoster has rarely been studied. We investigated the hypothesis that LC, known as an immunodeficiency disease, may increase the risk of herpes zoster using a national health insurance database in Taiwan. Materials and Methods The study cohort included cirrhotic patients between 1998 and 2005 (n?=?4667), and a ratio of 1?5 randomly sampled age- and gender-matched control patients (n?=?23,335). All subjects were followed up for 5 years from the date of cohort entry to identify whether or not they had developed herpes zoster. Cox proportional-hazard regressions were performed to evaluate 5-year herpes zoster-free survival rates. Results Of all patients, 523 patients developed herpes zoster during the 5-year follow-up period, among whom 82 were LC patients and 441 were in the comparison cohort. The adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) of herpes zoster in patients with LC was not higher (AHR: 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.59–1.01, p?=?0.06) than that of the controls during the 5-year follow-up. No increased risk of herpes zoster was found in LC patients after stratification by age, gender, urbanization level, income, geographic region, and all comorbidities. Conclusions This large nationwide population-based cohort study suggests that there is no increased risk for herpes zoster among people who have LC compared to a matching population. PMID:24699628

  11. Early assessment of minimal residual disease in AML by flow cytometry during aplasia identifies patients at increased risk of relapse.

    PubMed

    Köhnke, T; Sauter, D; Ringel, K; Hoster, E; Laubender, R P; Hubmann, M; Bohlander, S K; Kakadia, P M; Schneider, S; Dufour, A; Sauerland, M-C; Berdel, W E; Büchner, T; Wörmann, B; Braess, J; Hiddemann, W; Spiekermann, K; Subklewe, M

    2015-02-01

    In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD) by flow cytometry (flow MRD) after induction and consolidation therapy has been shown to provide independent prognostic information. However, data on the value of earlier flow MRD assessment are lacking. Therefore, the value of flow MRD detection was determined during aplasia in 178 patients achieving complete remission after treatment according to AMLCG (AML Cooperative Group) induction protocols. Flow MRD positivity during aplasia predicted poor outcome (5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) 16% vs 43%, P<0.001) independently from age and cytogenetic risk group (hazard ratio for MRD positivity 1.71; P=0.009). Importantly, the prognosis of patients without detectable MRD was neither impacted by morphological blast count during aplasia nor by MRD status postinduction. Early flow MRD was also evaluated in the context of existing risk factors. Flow MRD was prognostic within the intermediate cytogenetic risk group (5-year RFS 15% vs 37%, P=0.016) as well as for patients with normal karyotype and NPM1 mutations (5-year RFS 13% vs 49%, P=0.02) or FLT3-ITD (3-year RFS rates 9% vs 44%, P=0.016). Early flow MRD assessment can improve current risk stratification approaches by prediction of RFS in AML and might facilitate adaptation of postremission therapy for patients at high risk of relapse. PMID:24912430

  12. Risk of malignancy in patients with celiac disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H. R Green; Aaron T Fleischauer; Govind Bhagat; Rishi Goyal; Bana Jabri; Alfred I Neugut

    2003-01-01

    PurposeStudies from Europe have demonstrated an increased risk of malignancy, especially non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, in patients with celiac disease. However, there are no data on the risk for similar patients in the United States. Our aim was to estimate the risk of malignancy in a cohort of patients with celiac disease compared with the general U.S. population and to determine if

  13. Venous thromboembolism risk prediction in ambulatory cancer patients: clinical significance of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet/lymphocyte ratio.

    PubMed

    Ferroni, Patrizia; Riondino, Silvia; Formica, Vincenzo; Cereda, Vittore; Tosetto, Livia; La Farina, Francesca; Valente, Maria Giovanna; Vergati, Matteo; Guadagni, Fiorella; Roselli, Mario

    2015-03-01

    Neutrophil/lymphocyte (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte (PLR) ratios might represent a yet unrecognized risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer out-patients receiving chemotherapy. Accordingly, this study was aimed at analyzing the significance of these novel markers in the risk prediction of a first VTE episode in a population representative of a general practice cohort. To this purpose, a mono-institutional cohort study was conducted to retrospectively analyze NLR and PLR in 810 consecutive cancer out-patients with primary or relapsing solid cancer at the start of a new chemotherapy regimen. Over a median follow-up of 9.2 months, VTE occurred in 6.7% of patients. Incidental VTE was diagnosed at time of restaging in 47% of cases. Median pre-chemotherapy NLR (p = 0.015) and PLR (p = 0.040) were significantly higher in patients with intermediate risk class who developed symptomatic VTE with a twofold increased VTE risk for both inflammation-based markers (NLR: p = 0.022; PLR: p = 0.037) and a worst 1-year VTE-free survival for patients with high NLR or PLR. However, only PLR (HR = 2.4, p = 0.027) confirmed to be an independent predictor of future VTE in patients in the intermediate risk class in multivariate analysis, together with ECOG performance status (HR = 3.4, p = 0.0002) and bevacizumab use (HR = 4.7, p = 0.012). We may, thus, conclude that PLR, but to a lesser extent NLR, could represent useful clinical predictors of VTE, especially in selected categories of patients such as those in the intermediate risk class in whom the assessment of PLR could allow a better risk stratification of VTE without additional costs to the national health systems. PMID:25042739

  14. Stroke Patients May Face Increased Risk of Suicide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript. Stroke Patients May Face Increased Risk of Suicide Danger is greatest in first two years after ... Wednesday, April 8, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Stroke Suicide WEDNESDAY, April 8, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Stroke patients ...

  15. [Risk factors for development of hypomagnesemia in the burned patient].

    PubMed

    Durán-Vega, Héctor César; Romero-Aviña, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez-Salgado, Jorge Eduardo; Silva-Díaz, Teresita; Ramos-Durón, Luis Ernesto; Carrera-Gómez, Francisco Javier

    2004-01-01

    Electrolyte abnormalities are common in the severely burned patient. There is little information with regard to the frequency and magnitude of hypomagnesemia, as well as on risk factors for this condition. We performed an observational, retrospective analysis of 35 burned patients treated at the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Service at the Hospital Central Sur PEMEX, Mexico City. We determined serum magnesium behavior and divided patients into two groups: the first included 11 patients with burns and hypomagnesemia, and the second, 24 patients with burns but without hypomagnesemia. Risk factor identification was performed. We found patient at risk was the one with more than 40% of 2nd or 3rd degree total burned body area, in day 4 or 10 after the burn, and with hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, or both, and without intravenous (i.v.) supplementation of magnesium. The best way to prevent or avoid major complications is to identify the high-risk patient, or to diagnose earlier. PMID:15633562

  16. A new proposal to risk stratify urothelial carcinomas of the upper urinary tract (UTUCs) in a predefinitive treatment setting: low-risk versus high-risk UTUCs.

    PubMed

    Rouprêt, Morgan; Colin, Pierre; Yates, David R

    2014-08-01

    Risk stratification of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) patients and tumours is crucial for highlighting that an alternative to radical extirpative surgery now exists and should be considered for all patients who qualify as having low-risk UTUC. PMID:24361259

  17. Comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with psoriasis*

    PubMed Central

    Baeta, Isabela Guimarães Ribeiro; Bittencourt, Flávia Vasques; Gontijo, Bernardo; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease and its pathogenesis involves an interaction between genetic, environmental, and immunological factors. Recent studies have suggested that the chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis may predispose to an association with other inflammatory diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. OBJECTIVES To describe the demographic, clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics of a sample of psoriasis patients; to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities in this group of patients; and to identify the cardiovascular risk profile using the Framingham risk score. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study involving the assessment of 190 patients. Participants underwent history and physical examination. They also completed a specific questionnaire about epidemiological data, past medical history, and comorbidities. The cardiovascular risk profile was calculated using the Framingham risk score. RESULTS Patients' mean age was 51.5 ± 14 years, and the predominant clinical presentation was plaque psoriasis (78.4%). We found an increased prevalence of systemic hypertension, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Increased waist circumference was also found in addition to a considerable prevalence of depression, smoking, and regular alcohol intake. Patients' cardiovascular risk was high according to the Framingham risk score, and 47.2% of patients had moderate or high risk of fatal and non-fatal coronary events in 10 years. CONCLUSIONS Patients had high prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities, and high cardiovascular risk according to the Framingham risk score. Further epidemiological studies are needed in Brazil for validation of our results. PMID:25184912

  18. Reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in maintenance dialysis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh; Gladys Block; Michael H. Humphreys; Joel D. Kopple

    2003-01-01

    Reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in maintenance dialysis patients. Conventional risk factors of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the general population such as body mass, serum cholesterol, and blood pressure are also found to relate to outcome in maintenance dialysis patients, but often in an opposite direction. Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension appear to be protective features that are associated

  19. Home Oxygen Raises Burn Risk for COPD Patients

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page, please enable JavaScript. Home Oxygen Raises Burn Risk for COPD Patients Smoking near unit can be hazardous, researchers report (* ... their burns. "The benefits of oxygen in COPD patients outweigh the modest risks of burn injury," said senior study author Dr. ...

  20. Risk of colorectal neoplasia in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EV Loftus Jr; WJ Sandborn; WJ Tremaine; DW Mahoney; AR Zinsmeister; KP Offord; LJ Melton

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studies implicating primary sclerosing cholangitis as a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis have been limited by small sample size and referral bias. The aim of this study was to determine the relative risk and cumulative incidence of colorectal neoplasia in a large sample of patients with sclerosing cholangitis. METHODS: A sample of

  1. [Assessment of risk of thromboembolism in patients undergoing surgery].

    PubMed

    Saenko, V F; Mazur, A P; Grubnik, V V; Filippenko, V A; Kobza, I I; Popik, M P; Kalinkin, O G; Krivoruchko, I A; Bo?ko, V V

    2003-08-01

    The risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in 1146 patients who were underwent operated for the diseases of digestive organs, for obliterating atherosclerosis of abdominal aorta and peripheral arteries, diseases of bones and joints were studied. The methods of VTE prevention in these patients were studied. To evaluate the risk of VTE we designed the special chart. Three levels of risk of VTE: low, moderate and high were distinguished. The specific prophylaxis of the VTE using low molecular weight heparin fraxiparine was given to the patients moderate (90.7%) and high (93.3%) risk degree. PMID:14610783

  2. Therapy Insight: managing cardiovascular risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon T Giles; Wendy Post; Roger S Blumenthal; Joan M Bathon

    2006-01-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation was recognized during the past decade as an important risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis and, more recently, for the development of heart failure. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality from ischemic cardiovascular events and heart failure. Epidemiologic and clinical studies indicate that RA is an independent risk factor

  3. Identification of a 20-gene expression-based risk score as a predictor of clinical outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Bou Samra, Elias; Klein, Bernard; Commes, Thérèse; Moreaux, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Despite the improvement in treatment options, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remains an incurable disease and patients show a heterogeneous clinical course requiring therapy for many of them. In the current work, we have built a 20-gene expression (GE)-based risk score predictive for patients overall survival and improving risk classification using microarray gene expression data. GE-based risk score allowed identifying a high-risk group associated with a significant shorter overall survival (OS) and time to treatment (TTT) (P ? .01), comprising 19.6% and 13.6% of the patients in two independent cohorts. GE-based risk score, and NRIP1 and TCF7 gene expression remained independent prognostic factors using multivariate Cox analyses and combination of GE-based risk score together with NRIP1 and TCF7 gene expression enabled the identification of three clinically distinct groups of CLL patients. Therefore, this GE-based risk score represents a powerful tool for risk stratification and outcome prediction of CLL patients and could thus be used to guide clinical and therapeutic decisions prospectively. PMID:24883311

  4. Preoperative evaluation and risk assessment of patients undergoing vascular surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Foëx

    2000-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications of anaesthesia and surgery remain frequent and have short- and long-term consequences. Identification of high-risk patients is an essential step in the management of patients with cardiovascular disease who are not always fully investigated before admission for non-cardiac surgery. Clinical risk indices allow the risk of complications to be evaluated. However, many indices are inadequate in vascular surgical

  5. Multiparameter flow cytometry for the identification of the Waldenström's clone in IgM-MGUS and Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia: new criteria for differential diagnosis and risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Paiva, B; Montes, M C; García-Sanz, R; Ocio, E M; Alonso, J; de Las Heras, N; Escalante, F; Cuello, R; de Coca, A G; Galende, J; Hernández, J; Sierra, M; Martin, A; Pardal, E; Bárez, A; Alonso, J; Suarez, L; González-López, T J; Perez, J J; Orfao, A; Vidríales, M-B; San Miguel, J F

    2014-01-01

    Although multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) has demonstrated clinical relevance in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)/myeloma, immunophenotypic studies on the full spectrum of Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia (WM) remain scanty. Herein, a comprehensive MFC analysis on bone marrow samples from 244 newly diagnosed patients with an immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal protein was performed, including 67 IgM-MGUS, 77 smoldering and 100 symptomatic WM. Our results show a progressive increase on the number and light-chain-isotype-positive B-cells from IgM-MGUS to smoldering and symptomatic WM (P<.001), with only 1% of IgM-MGUS patients showing >10% B cells or 100% light-chain-isotype-positive B-cells (P<.001). Complete light-chain restriction of the B-cell compartment was an independent prognostic factor for time-to progression in smoldering WM (median 26 months; HR: 19.8, P=0.001) and overall survival in symptomatic WM (median 44 months; HR: 2.6, P=0.004). The progressive accumulation of light-chain-isotype-positive B-cells accompanied the emergence of a characteristic Waldenstrom's phenotype (CD22(+dim) / CD25+ /CD27+ / IgM+) that differed from other B-NHL by negative expression of CD5, CD10, CD11c or CD103. In contrast to myeloma, light-chain-isotype-positive plasma cells in IgM monoclonal gammopathies show otherwise normal antigenic expression. Our results highlight the potential value of MFC immunophenotyping for the characterization of the Waldenström's clone, as well as for the differential diagnosis, risk of progression and survival in WM. PMID:23604227

  6. The Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 Polymorphism Rs10895304 Is Associated With Increased Recurrence Risk in Patients With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jaboin, Jerry J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Hwang, Misun; Lopater, Zachary [School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Chen Heidi [Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Ray, Geoffrey L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Howard University College of Medicine, Washington DC (United States); Perez, Carmen [School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Cai Qiuyin [Department of Medicine and Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Wills, Marcia L. [Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Lu Bo, E-mail: bo.lu@vanderbilt.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether selected high-risk matrix metalloproteinase-7 single nucleotide polymorphisms influence clinicopathologic outcomes in patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Two hundred twelve prostate cancer patients treated with radical prostatectomy were evaluated with a median follow-up of 9.8 years. Genotyping was performed using hybridization with custom-designed allele-specific probes. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms within the matrix metalloproteinase-7 gene were assessed with respect to age at diagnosis, margin status, extracapsular extension, lymph node involvement, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival in paraffin-embedded prostate tissue specimens from patients with early-stage prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy. Results: Rs10895304 was the sole significant polymorphism. The A/G genotype of rs10895304 had a statistically significant association with recurrence-free survival in postprostatectomy patients (p = 0.0061, log-rank test). The frequency of the risk-reducing genotype (A/A) was 74%, whereas that of the risk-enhancing genotypes (A/G and G/G) were 20% and 6%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression analyses detected a significant association between rs10895304 and recurrences after adjustment for known prognostic factors. The G allele of this polymorphism was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer recurrence (adjusted hazards ratio, 3.375; 95% confidence interval 1.567-7.269; p < 0.001). The other assayed polymorphisms were not significant, and no correlations were made to other clinical variables. Conclusions: The A/G genotype of rs10895304 is predictive of decreased recurrence-free survival in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Our data suggest that for this subset of patients, prostatectomy alone may not be adequate for local control. This is a novel and relevant marker that should be evaluated for improved risk stratification of patients who may be candidates for adjuvant radiation therapy to improve local control.

  7. When psychiatrists are liable: risk management and violent patients.

    PubMed

    Kroll, J; Mackenzie, T B

    1983-01-01

    In an era of rapid discharge and community treatment, psychiatrists must assess, with insufficient information, their patients' potential for committing a violent act outside of the hospital every time they authorize a pass or a discharge. The authors review court decisions on prediction of dangerousness and research data on the risk of homicide, assault, and suicide among released mental patients. They then discuss a risk-management approach to decision-making that consists of three components--risk assessment, risk evaluation, and risk reduction. The authors also provide a decision table that clinicians can use to identify factors that suggest a high risk of violence in a patient's current status, history, and treatment response. PMID:6826146

  8. Risk of vascular events in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Adam T.; Mallen, Christian D.; Muller, Sara; Belcher, John; Roddy, Edward; Helliwell, Toby; Hider, Samantha L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polymyalgia rheumatica is one of the most common inflammatory rheumatologic conditions in older adults. Other inflammatory rheumatologic disorders are associated with an excess risk of vascular disease. We investigated whether polymyalgia rheumatica is associated with an increased risk of vascular events. Methods: We used the General Practice Research Database to identify patients with a diagnosis of incident polymyalgia rheumatica between Jan. 1, 1987, and Dec. 31, 1999. Patients were matched by age, sex and practice with up to 5 patients without polymyalgia rheumatica. Patients were followed until their first vascular event (cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, peripheral vascular) or the end of available records (May 2011). All participants were free of vascular disease before the diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica (or matched date). We used Cox regression models to compare time to first vascular event in patients with and without polymyalgia rheumatica. Results: A total of 3249 patients with polymyalgia rheumatica and 12 735 patients without were included in the final sample. Over a median follow-up period of 7.8 (interquartile range 3.3–12.4) years, the rate of vascular events was higher among patients with polymyalgia rheumatica than among those without (36.1 v. 12.2 per 1000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 2.4–2.9). The increased risk of a vascular event was similar for each vascular disease end point. The magnitude of risk was higher in early disease and in patients younger than 60 years at diagnosis. Interpretation: Patients with polymyalgia rheumatica have an increased risk of vascular events. This risk is greatest in the youngest age groups. As with other forms of inflammatory arthritis, patients with polymyalgia rheumatica should have their vascular risk factors identified and actively managed to reduce this excess risk. PMID:25070989

  9. Evaluation of Periodontal Risk in Adult Patients using Two Different Risk Assessment Models – A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bade, Shruthi; Bollepalli, Appaiah Chowdary; Katuri, Kishore Kumar; Devulapalli, Narasimha Swamy; Swarna, Chakrapani

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the periodontal risk of individuals using periodontal risk assessment (PRA) model and modified PRA model. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients with chronic periodontitis, age 30-60 years were selected randomly and charting of the periodontal status was performed and those who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Parameters recorded were- percentage of sites with bleeding on probing (BOP), number of sites with pocket depths (PD) ? 5mm, number of the teeth lost, bone loss (BL)/age ratio, Clinical attachment loss(CAL)/age ratio, diabetic and smoking status, dental status, systemic factors like diabetes were assessed. All the risk factors were plotted on the radar chart in (PRA) and (mPRA) models, using Microsoft excel and periodontal risk were categorized as low, moderate and high risk. Results: Among 50 patients 31 were in low risk, 9 in moderate risk, and 10 in high risk identified by modified (PRA) model, whereas 28 patients were in low risk, 13 in moderate risk and 9 in high risk identified by (PRA). Statistical analysis demonstrated that there was no significant difference between the risk scores (X2 = 0.932 with degree of freedom = 2, P = 0.627). Conclusion: Both the periodontal risk models are effective in evaluating the risk factors and can be useful tool for predicting proper diagnosis, disease progression and therapeutic strategies during the supportive periodontal therapy.

  10. Perceptions of high-risk patients and their providers on the patient-centered medical home.

    PubMed

    Kangovi, Shreya; Kellom, Katherine; Sha, Christopher; Johnson, Sarah; Chanton, Casey; Carter, Tamala; Long, Judith A; Grande, David

    2015-01-01

    To explore perceptions of high-risk patients and their practice staff on the patient-centered medical home, we conducted a multisite qualitative study with chronically ill, low-income patients and their primary care practice staff (N = 51). There were 3 key findings. Both patients and staff described a trade-off: timely care from an unfamiliar provider versus delayed access to their personal physician. Staff were enthusiastic about enhancing access through strategies such as online communication, yet high-risk patients viewed these as access barriers. Practices lacked capacity to manage high-risk patients and therefore frequently referred them to the emergency room. PMID:25748262

  11. Are Adult Patients More Tolerant of Treatment Risks Than Parents of Juvenile Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, F. Reed; Özdemir, Semra; Mansfield, Carol; Hass, Steven; Siegel, Corey A.; Sands, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding patient-specific differences in risk tolerance for new treatments that offer improved efficacy can assist in making difficult regulatory and clinical decisions for new treatments that offer both the potential for greater effectiveness in relieving disease symptoms, but also risks of disabling or fatal side effects. The aim of this study is to elicit benefit-risk trade-off preferences for hypothetical treatments with varying efficacy and risk levels using a stated-choice (SC) survey. We derive estimates of “maximum acceptable risk” (MAR) that can help decisionmakers identify welfare-enhancing alternatives. In the case of children, parent caregivers are responsible for treatment decisions and their risk tolerance may be quite different than adult patients' own tolerance for treatment-related risks. We estimated and compared the willingness of Crohn's disease (CD) patients and parents of juvenile CD patients to accept serious adverse event (SAE) risks in exchange for symptom relief. The analyzed data were from 345 patients over the age of 18 and 150 parents of children under the age of 18. The estimation results provide strong evidence that adult patients and parents of juvenile patients are willing to accept tradeoffs between treatment efficacy and risks of SAEs. Parents of juvenile CD patients are about as risk tolerant for their children as adult CD patients are for themselves for improved treatment efficacy. SC surveys provide a systematic method for eliciting preferences for benefit-risk tradeoffs. Understanding patients' own risk perceptions and their willingness to accept risks in return for treatment benefits can help inform risk management decision making. PMID:18826414

  12. Network-based stratification of tumor mutations

    PubMed Central

    Hofree, Matan; Shen, John P.; Carter, Hannah; Gross, Andrew; Ideker, Trey

    2013-01-01

    Many forms of cancer have multiple subtypes with different causes and clinical outcomes. Somatic tumor genomes provide a rich new source of data for uncovering these subtypes but have proven difficult to compare as two tumors rarely share the same mutations. Here, we introduce a method called Network Based Stratification (NBS) which integrates somatic tumor genomes with gene networks. This approach allows for stratification of cancer into informative subtypes by clustering together patients with mutations in similar network regions. We demonstrate NBS in ovarian, uterine and lung cancer cohorts from The Cancer Genome Atlas. For each tissue, NBS identifies clear subtypes that are predictive of clinical outcomes such as patient survival, response to therapy or tumor histology. We identify network regions characteristic of each subtype and show how mutation-derived subtypes can be used to train an mRNA expression signature which provides similar information in the absence of DNA sequence. PMID:24037242

  13. Combined Biomarker Analysis for Risk of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Ying-Chang; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Yung-Chang; Chu, Pao-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) complicating ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) increases subsequent morbidity and mortality. We combined the biomarkers of heart failure (HF; B-type natriuretic peptide [BNP] and soluble ST2 [sST2]) and renal injury (NGAL [neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin] and cystatin C) in predicting the development of AKI in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods and Results From March 2010 to September 2013, 189 STEMI patients were sequentially enrolled and serum samples were collected at presentation for BNP, sST2, NGAL and cystatin C analysis. 37 patients (19.6%) developed AKI of varying severity within 48 hours of presentation. Univariate analysis showed age, Killip class ?2, hypertension, white blood cell counts, hemoglobin, estimated glomerular filtration rate, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and all the four biomarkers were predictive of AKI. Serum levels of the biomarkers were correlated with risk of AKI and the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) stage and all significantly discriminated AKI (area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve: BNP: 0.86, sST2: 0.74, NGAL: 0.75, cystatin C: 0.73; all P < 0.05). Elevation of ?2 of the biomarkers higher than the cutoff values derived from the ROC analysis improved AKI risk stratification, regardless of the creatine level (creatinine < 1.24 mg/dL: odds ratio [OR] 11.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.63-77.92, P = 0.014; creatinine ? 1.24: OR 15.0, 95% CI 1.23-183.6, P = 0.034). Conclusions In this study of STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI, the biomarkers of heart failure (BNP and sST2) and renal injury (NGAL and cystatin C) at presentation were predictive of AKI. High serum levels of the biomarkers were associated with an elevated risk and more advanced stage of AKI. Regardless of the creatinine level, elevation of ?2 of the biomarkers higher than the cutoff values indicated a further rise in AKI risk. Combined biomarker approach may assist in risk stratification of AKI in patients with STEMI. PMID:25853556

  14. Development of natural stratification technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, R. L.; Bellinger, F. O.

    1982-02-01

    The development of natural stratification of water in sensible heat storage tanks is studied, and comparisons of experimental data with diffusion theory equations are made. A simple 1-D model of stratification that gives a good results is presented and verified with measured tank performance. A stratification index is introduced that allows a rapid comparison to be made of tank performance data. A semi-empirical equation is given that will allow a prediction to be made regarding the tank operating performance providing that an empirical constant related to the mixing heights may be evaluated. A method to estimate a value for the constant is given for the case of a tank with a side inlet and outlet. Implications of stratification in regard to overall system control strategy are discussed. The goal is to provide system designers with the guidelines necessary to assure the establishment and maintenance of stratification and to take advantage of it.

  15. Treating Patients with High-Risk Smoldering Myeloma

    Cancer.gov

    In this phase III clinical trial, patients with smoldering myeloma classified as high risk for progression will be randomly assigned to undergo standard observation or six 4-week courses of treatment with the drug lenalidomide.

  16. The risk of suicide mortality in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Hassett, Afton L; Aquino, Jordan K; Ilgen, Mark A

    2014-08-01

    Chronic pain has long been considered an important risk factor for suicidal behavior. Less well understood are the factors associated with the increased risk for suicide death within chronic pain populations. The purpose of this review is to examine recent research with regard to rates of and risk factors for suicide mortality in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. We conclude that patients with a number of chronic pain states are at increased risk for suicide death, and that this risk appears to be due, at least in part, to other well-known correlates of pain such as depression and substance use disorders. However, in all likelihood, there are aspects of chronic pain itself that add uniquely to an individual's suicide risk profile. Lastly, we address a theoretical perspective and offer recommendations for clinical practice. PMID:24952608

  17. Inflammation enhances cardiovascular risk and mortality in hemodialysis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSEF ZIMMERMANN; SILKE HERRLINGER; ANTJE PRUY; THOMAS METZGER; CHRISTOPH WANNER

    1999-01-01

    Inflammation enhances cardiovascular risk and mortality in hemodialysis patients.BackgroundAtherosclerosis, a major problem in patients on chronic hemodialysis, has been characterized as an inflammatory disease. C-reactive protein (CRP), the prototypical acute phase protein in humans, is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in the general population. We hypothesize that several of the classic, as well as nontraditional, cardiovascular risk factors may respond

  18. [Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Skov, Lone; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2012-05-21

    Psoriasis is a chronic immunoinflammatory disease that affects 2-3% of the population and shares pathophysiologic mechanisms and risk factors with cardiovascular diseases. Studies have suggested psoriasis as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and Danish guidelines on cardiovascular risk factor modification in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis have recently been published. We provide a short review of the current evidence and the Danish guidelines. PMID:22640784

  19. Behavioral Risk Assessment of the Guarded Suicidal Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Robert I.

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals are trained to assess patients by direct observation and examination. Short inpatient length of stay, brief outpatient visits, emergency room evaluations, and other time-limited clinical settings require rapid assessment of suicide risk. Recognition of behavioral suicide risk factors can assist…

  20. Adaptive Patient Education Framework Featuring Personalized Cardiovascular Risk Management

    E-print Network

    Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    Adaptive Patient Education Framework Featuring Personalized Cardiovascular Risk Management Interventions Selena Davis and Syed Sibte Raza Abidi Health Informatics Laboratory, Faculty of Computer Science of cardiovascular risk. We present a web-based adaptive hypermedia system to create and deliver the personalized

  1. [Cardiovascular risk factors on the Framingham Risk Score among hypertensive patients attended by family health teams].

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Henderson Barbosa; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2014-06-01

    The Framingham Risk Score (FRS) is used to stratify cardiovascular risk. This study sought to identify the prevalence of risk factors used in the FRS and the use of drugs that reduce cardiovascular risk among hypertensive patients attended by the Family Health Strategy (FHS). It is cross-sectional study, which evaluated a random sample of hypertensive patients in the FHS in northern Minas Gerais. Data were collected through interviews and from medical records. 505 hypertensive patients were evaluated in 9 municipalities of the region, with a predominance of women; 325 (64.4%), mean age of 66.4 years. In 90% of hypertensive patients there was at least one associated risk factor. The grouping of three or more factors occurred in 79 (15.7%) patients. Dyslipidemia was found in 188 (37.2%), diabetes in 101 (20%) and smoking in 36 (7.1%). The use of anti-hypertensive drugs was observed in 481 (95.2%) patients. The use of other cardioprotective drugs was higher among patients with 3 or more risk factors: 45.6% used antiplatelet and 27.8% used lipid-lowering drugs. The prevalence of risk factors from the FRS in the population studied was quite high and the use of cardioprotective drugs was seen to be restricted. Strategies to increase the use of FRS may improve the management of hypertension in the FHS. PMID:24897474

  2. Unfavorable cardiovascular risk profiles in untreated and treated psoriasis patients.

    PubMed

    Wakkee, M; Thio, H B; Prens, E P; Sijbrands, E J G; Neumann, H A M

    2007-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk profile. The systemic inflammation present in psoriasis, various systemic treatments for psoriasis and an increased prevalence of unhealthy life style factors may all contribute to this unfavorable risk profile. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of what is known about these risk factors in psoriasis, the way they influence the cardiovascular risk of psoriasis patients, and what can be done to reduce this risk. Genetic studies demonstrate that psoriasis and cardiovascular disease share common pathogenic features in which, for example inflammatory cytokines like TNF-alpha and IL-1 play an important role. The chronic inflammation in psoriasis has an unfavorable effect on the cardiovascular risk profile. Multiple cardiovascular risk factors seem to be influenced; the blood pressure, oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, endothelial cell dysfunction, homocysteine levels and blood platelet adhesion. Moreover, classic cardiovascular risk factors like smoking and obesity that have an increased prevalence among patients with psoriasis, indirectly also worsen the cardiovascular risk profile by stimulating the psoriasis activity. Systemic treatments in psoriasis reduce the cardiovascular risk by diminishing the inflammation, but it should be taken into account that most therapies also have adverse cardiovascular effects like dyslipidemia, hyperhomocysteinemia and hypertension. As a consequence preventive measures may be indicated at least during long-term treatments. Prospective research is warranted to accurately estimate the increased cardiovascular risk in psoriasis, to determine the underlying processes and to consider preventive measures according to the absolute risk of cardiovascular disease. The present overview provides data to advice health care providers to pay more attention to the cardiovascular risk profile in psoriasis patients. PMID:16942772

  3. Increased Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Chih [Community Medicine Research Center and Institute of Public Health, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Otolaryngology, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Tumor Center, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Su, Yu-Chieh [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Tumor Center, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Ho, Hsu-Chueh [Department of Otolaryngology, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Tumor Center, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Hung, Shih-Kai; Lee, Moon-Sing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Tumor Center, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Wen-Yen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Tumor Center, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Chou, Pesus [Community Medicine Research Center and Institute of Public Health, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yung-Sung, E-mail: enttcd@hotmail.com [Division of Neurology, Department of Internal Medicine, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Radiation/chemoradiotherapy-induced carotid stenosis and cerebrovascular events in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) can cause severe disability and even death. This study aimed to estimate the risk of ischemic stroke in this patient population over more than 10 years of follow-up. Methods and Materials: The study cohorts consisted of all patients hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of NPC (n = 1094), whereas patients hospitalized for an appendectomy during 1997 and 1998 (n = 4376) acted as the control group and surrogate for the general population. Cox proportional hazard model was performed as a means of comparing the stroke-free survival rate between the two cohorts after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. Results: Of the 292 patients with ischemic strokes, 62 (5.7%) were from the NPC cohort and 230 (5.3%) were from the control group. NPC patients ages 35-54 had a 1.66 times (95% CI, 1.16-2.86; p = 0.009) higher risk of ischemic stroke after adjusting for patient characteristics, comorbidities, geographic region, urbanization level of residence, and socioeconomic status. There was no statistical difference in ischemic stroke risk between the NPC patients and appendectomy patients ages 55-64 years (hazard ratio = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.56-1.33; p = 0.524) after adjusting for other factors. Conclusions: Young NPC patients carry a higher risk for ischemic stroke than the general population. Besides regular examinations of carotid duplex, different irradiation strategies or using new technique of radiotherapy, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy, should be considered in young NPC patients.

  4. Epidemiology of cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Locatelli; Pietro Pozzoni; Francesca Tentori; Lucia Del Vecchio

    2003-01-01

    Background. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are highly prone to cardiovascular disease for a number of reasons. At the time of starting renal replacement treatment, their cardiovascular condition is already severely compromised, suggesting that cardiovascular risk factors begin to operate very early in the progression of CKD. Moreover, those patients reaching end-stage renal disease without cardiovascular abnormalities have a high

  5. Gun Safety Management with Patients at Risk for Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Robert I.

    2007-01-01

    Guns in the home are associated with a five-fold increase in suicide. All patients at risk for suicide must be asked if guns are available at home or easily accessible elsewhere, or if they have intent to buy or purchase a gun. Gun safety management requires a collaborative team approach including the clinician, patient, and designated person…

  6. Antipsychotic use in elderly patients and the risk of pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gambassi, Giovanni; Sultana, Janet; Trifirò, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Antipsychotics are frequently and increasingly prescribed off-label for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms associated with dementia, despite their modest efficacy. Instead, the safety profile of antipsychotics has been questioned repeatedly in recent years with various concerns, including death. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials found that one of the major causes of death associated with atypical antipsychotics use was pneumonia. Only few observational studies, however, have investigated the risk of pneumonia in elderly patients, especially among those receiving conventional antipsychotics. The aim of this editorial is to synthesize the current evidence from observational studies regarding the risk of pneumonia in elderly patients receiving either conventional or atypical antipsychotics. The studies conducted so far document that the risk of pneumonia is two- to threefold increased in a dose-dependent fashion with both classes compared to nonuse, with a possibly higher risk attributable to atypical antipsychotics. The risk seems to peak at the beginning of treatment (e.g., 7 - 30 days), and dissipates over time for both conventional and atypical antipsychotics. The risk-benefit ratio suggests that there will be 1 excess hospitalization for pneumonia for every 2 - 5 patients receiving any clinical improvement in symptoms. Considering the modest improvement in terms of efficacy, the risks associated with antipsychotics in elderly patients may outweigh their benefit. PMID:25431005

  7. Triaging patients at risk of influenza using a patient portal

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Titus L; Talbot, Thomas R; McClain, Taylor; Hennes, Robert; Stenner, Shane; Muse, Sue; Jirjis, Jim; Purcell Jackson, Gretchen

    2011-01-01

    Vanderbilt University has a widely adopted patient portal, MyHealthAtVanderbilt, which provides an infrastructure to deliver information that can empower patient decision making and enhance personalized healthcare. An interdisciplinary team has developed Flu Tool, a decision-support application targeted to patients with influenza-like illness and designed to be integrated into a patient portal. Flu Tool enables patients to make informed decisions about the level of care they require and guides them to seek timely treatment as appropriate. A pilot version of Flu Tool was deployed for a 9-week period during the 2010–2011 influenza season. During this time, Flu Tool was accessed 4040 times, and 1017 individual patients seen in the institution were diagnosed as having influenza. This early experience with Flu Tool suggests that healthcare consumers are willing to use patient-targeted decision support. The design, implementation, and lessons learned from the pilot release of Flu Tool are described as guidance for institutions implementing decision support through a patient portal infrastructure. PMID:22140208

  8. Risk of cardiovascular disease? A qualitative study of risk interpretation among patients with high cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown the importance of paying attention to lay peoples’ interpretations of risk of disease, in order to explain health-related behavior. However, risk interpretations interplay with social context in complex ways. The objective was to explore how asymptomatic patients with high cholesterol interpret risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods Fourteen patients with high cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease were interviewed, and patterns across patient accounts were identified and analysed from an ethnographic approach. Results Information from the general practitioner about high cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease was reinterpreted in everyday social life. The risk associated with fatty foods was weighed against the pleasures of social and cultural events in which this type of food was common and cherished. A positive mindset was applied as a strategy to lower the risk of having high cholesterol, but knowledge about risk was viewed as a cause of anxiety and self-absorption, and this anxiety made the body susceptible to disease, hampering the chances for healthy life. Conclusion Interpretations of high cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease are embedded in social relations and everyday life concerns. This should be addressed in general practice in preference-sensitive cases about risk-reducing medication. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01187056 PMID:24040920

  9. Risk Factors With Intravenous Sedation for Patients With Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Fumihiro; Tamaki, Yoh; Okumura, Hisa; Miwa, Zenzo; Ishikawa, Masaaki; Shimoyama, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Zenkou; Kunimori, Hitomi; Jinno, Shigeharu; Kohase, Hikaru; Fukayama, Haruhisa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with low peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and delayed recovery of dental patients with disabilities after intravenous sedation. A total of 1213 patients with disabilities were retrospectively investigated with respect to demographic parameters and sedation conditions. Multivariate logistic analyses were conducted for patients with an SpO2 <90% and a recovery period of >60 minutes to identify the risk factors for poor sedation conditions. A significant odds ratio related to decreased SpO2 was observed for age, sex, midazolam and propofol levels, concurrent use of nitrous oxide, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, and mental retardation. The most problematic patients were those diagnosed with Down syndrome (odds ratio, 3.003–7.978; 95% confidence interval; P < .001). Decision tree analysis showed an increased risk of decreased SpO2 in males with Down syndrome or after administration of >0.493 mg/kg propofol in combination with midazolam. An increased risk of delayed awakening was seen in patients aged less than 21 years and in males administered >0.032 mg/kg of midazolam. Intravenous sedation for dental patients with disabilities, particularly those with cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, or mental retardation, increases the risk of decreased SpO2. In addition, delayed recovery is expected after midazolam administration. PMID:24423418

  10. Risk factors of delirium in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyu Sung; Lee, Jin Kyu; Park, Jin Sik; Choi, Choong Hyeok

    2015-01-01

    Although postoperative delirium is a complicated disorder in elderly individuals, no study has been examined the risk factors associated with perioperative comorbidities and clinical laboratory data while specifically focusing on only total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In the present retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate the incidence and perioperative risk factors of postoperative delirium after TKA. Between April 2009 and May 2013, 287 patients (365 knees) aged >65 years who had undergone primary TKA were enrolled. These patients were assigned to the delirium group of 11 patients (11 knees) or the non-delirium group of 276 patients (354 knees). The incidence of delirium among the patients was 3.1% (11/365). Univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that a history of dementia, older age, lower body mass index (BMI) level, and a postoperative day 3 blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level of >14.9mg/dL were risk factors. However, multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that a history of dementia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 10.4, [1.09, 100]), older age (AOR: 1.15, [1.01, 1.31]), and a postoperative day 3 BUN level of >14.9mg/dL (AOR: 4.76, [1.15, 19.7]) were independent risk factors. Based on our findings, we believe that the surgeons should be careful to avoid the postoperative delirium and ensure the appropriate management for patients who have these risk factors. PMID:25704295

  11. Risk factors for open heart surgery in hemodialysis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuhiro Yamamura; Masataka Mitsuno; Hiroe Tanaka; Yasuhiko Kobayashi; Masaaki Ryomoto; Hiroyuki Nishi; Shinya Fukui; Noriko Tsujiya; Tetsuya Kajiyama; Yuji Miyamoto

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  There have been many reports on open heart surgery in hemodialysis patients; however, the mortality rates in these patients\\u000a are higher than those in nonhemodialysis patients. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for mortality\\u000a following open heart surgery in hemodialysis patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We evaluated 76 consecutive patients (76\\/2030 total open heart surgeries, 3.7%) who required hemodialysis

  12. ED boarding creates patient safety issues, increases risk of mortality.

    PubMed

    2013-03-01

    When patients stay in the emergency department waiting for an inpatient bed, it creates patient safety issues and increases the risk of mortality. Analyze what happens during the entire hospital stay to find out where there are roadblocks to timely patient throughput. Come up with ways to ensure that patients are moved to the next level of care as soon as it is appropriate. Begin discharge planning on day 1 and engage the patient and family early on, informing them of the anticipated discharge date. PMID:23484223

  13. Candidemia in intensive care unit patients: Risk factors for mortality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Voss; J. F. G. M. Meis; F. M. Verduyn Lunel; J. L. M. L. Noble; N. A. Foudraine

    1997-01-01

    Summary Aim of this study was to evaluate whether risk factors which predict the development of candidemia may also predict death in ICU patients with candidemia. During an 8-year-period all ICU patients whose blood cultures yieldedCandida species (n=40) were retrospectively evaluated in a case-control fashion. The average incidence ofCandida bloodstream infections was 5.5 per 10,000 patient days, ranging from 2.4

  14. Quantitative stratification of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A; Maldonado, Fabien; Peikert, Tobias; Moua, Teng; Ryu, Jay H; Bartholmai, Brian J; Robb, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs) are characterized by widespread pathological changes within the pulmonary tissue that impair the elasticity and gas exchange properties of the lungs. Clinical-radiological diagnosis of these diseases remains challenging and their clinical course is characterized by variable disease progression. These challenges have hindered the introduction of robust objective biomarkers for patient-specific prediction based on specific phenotypes in clinical practice for patients with DPLD. Therefore, strategies facilitating individualized clinical management, staging and identification of specific phenotypes linked to clinical disease outcomes or therapeutic responses are urgently needed. A classification schema consistently reflecting the radiological, clinical (lung function and clinical outcomes) and pathological features of a disease represents a critical need in modern pulmonary medicine. Herein, we report a quantitative stratification paradigm to identify subsets of DPLD patients with characteristic radiologic patterns in an unsupervised manner and demonstrate significant correlation of these self-organized disease groups with clinically accepted surrogate endpoints. The proposed consistent and reproducible technique could potentially transform diagnostic staging, clinical management and prognostication of DPLD patients as well as facilitate patient selection for clinical trials beyond the ability of current radiological tools. In addition, the sequential quantitative stratification of the type and extent of parenchymal process may allow standardized and objective monitoring of disease, early assessment of treatment response and mortality prediction for DPLD patients. PMID:24676019

  15. Quantitative Stratification of Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Maldonado, Fabien; Peikert, Tobias; Moua, Teng; Ryu, Jay H.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs) are characterized by widespread pathological changes within the pulmonary tissue that impair the elasticity and gas exchange properties of the lungs. Clinical-radiological diagnosis of these diseases remains challenging and their clinical course is characterized by variable disease progression. These challenges have hindered the introduction of robust objective biomarkers for patient-specific prediction based on specific phenotypes in clinical practice for patients with DPLD. Therefore, strategies facilitating individualized clinical management, staging and identification of specific phenotypes linked to clinical disease outcomes or therapeutic responses are urgently needed. A classification schema consistently reflecting the radiological, clinical (lung function and clinical outcomes) and pathological features of a disease represents a critical need in modern pulmonary medicine. Herein, we report a quantitative stratification paradigm to identify subsets of DPLD patients with characteristic radiologic patterns in an unsupervised manner and demonstrate significant correlation of these self-organized disease groups with clinically accepted surrogate endpoints. The proposed consistent and reproducible technique could potentially transform diagnostic staging, clinical management and prognostication of DPLD patients as well as facilitate patient selection for clinical trials beyond the ability of current radiological tools. In addition, the sequential quantitative stratification of the type and extent of parenchymal process may allow standardized and objective monitoring of disease, early assessment of treatment response and mortality prediction for DPLD patients. PMID:24676019

  16. Increased liver stiffness denotes hepatic dysfunction and mortality risk in critically ill non-cirrhotic patients at a medical ICU

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Hepatic dysfunction is a common finding in critically ill patients on the ICU and directly influences survival. Liver stiffness can be measured by the novel method of transient elastography (fibroscan) and is closely associated with hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease, but also is increased in patients with acute hepatitis, acute liver failure and cholestasis. We investigated liver stiffness as a potentially useful tool for early detection of patients with hepatic deterioration and risk stratification with respect to short- and long-term mortality. Methods We prospectively evaluated 108 consecutive critically ill patients at our medical intensive care unit (ICU) with subsequent longitudinal liver stiffness measurements (admission, Day 3, Day 7 and weekly thereafter) during the course of ICU treatment. Outcome was followed after discharge (median observation time 237 days). Results Liver stiffness could be reliably measured in 71% of ICU patients at admission (65% at Day 3, 63% at Day 7). Critically ill patients (n = 108) had significantly increased liver stiffness compared to sex- and age-matched standard care patients (n = 25). ICU patients with decompensated cirrhosis showed highest liver stiffness, whereas other critical diseases (for example, sepsis) and comorbidities (for example, diabetes, obesity) did not impact stiffness values. At admission to the ICU, liver stiffness is closely related to hepatic damage (liver synthesis, cholestasis, fibrosis markers). During the course of ICU treatment, fluid overload (renal failure, volume therapy) and increased central venous pressure (mechanical ventilation, heart failure) were major factors determining liver stiffness. Liver stiffness values > 18 kilopascal (kPa) at ICU admission were associated with increased ICU and long-term mortality, even in non-cirrhotic patients. Conclusions Considering that liver stiffness cannot be validly measured in about 30% of ICU patients, transient elastography performed at ICU admission might be a useful tool to early identify liver dysfunction and predict mortality in critically ill patients at a medical ICU. PMID:22082207

  17. Are burn patients really at risk for thrombotic events?

    PubMed

    Satahoo, Shevonne S; Parikh, Punam P; Naranjo, Daniel; Davis, James S; Duncan, Robert C; Pizano, Louis R; Namias, Nicholas; Schulman, Carl I

    2015-01-01

    There continues to be debate about the routine use of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis in burn patients. The concern is that routine prophylaxis may lead to adverse events. The debate hinges on the incidence of DVT and its relation to the risk-benefit ratio. This study seeks to estimate the true rate of DVT in burn patients, and to evaluate possible risk factors to its development. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried for all patients with age ?18 years with ICD-9 codes for burn injuries. Demographic data, comorbidities, burn data, length of stay, total charges, procedures, presence of central venous catheter, and mortality were recorded. Patients were classified based on the presence of DVT. Student's t-test, ? test, and logistic regression were performed. 36,638 burn patients were identified. DVT rate was 0.8%. Patients with DVT were older, had longer hospitalizations, more procedures, and higher charges. On logistic regression, black race, TBSA ?20%, history of previous venous thrombotic events, blood transfusion, and mechanical ventilation were the significant factors associated with DVT. Patients with DVT were almost twice as likely to die during the admission (P = .011). This is the largest series to date examining the risk factors for DVT in burn patients. DVT developed in approximately 0.8% of burn patients. Black race, TBSA ?20%, blood transfusions, and mechanical ventilation were associated with approximately 2-fold odds of developing DVT. Identification of these additional risk factors may allow targeted patient prophylaxis. Additionally, patients with DVT incurred higher total charges and longer hospitalization. PMID:25084492

  18. Myocardial infarction redefined: Impact on case-load and outcome of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome and nondiagnostic ECG at presentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Conti; Filippo Pieralli; Lucia Sammicheli; David Antoniucci; Riccarda Del Bene; Giuseppe Barletta

    2006-01-01

    Risk stratification of chest pain (CP) is still debated. Objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a risk stratification model for patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and nondiagnostic ECG at presentation, in whom the occurrence of myocardial infarction was either diagnosed following traditional (t-MI) or the recently redefined (r-MI) criteria.First-line 6-h work-up categorized 3068 patients

  19. Cardiovascular Risk In Adult Kidney Transplant Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reza Abdi; Jessamyn Bagley; Joseph V. Bonventre; Barry M. Brenner; Charles B. Carpenter; Anil K. Chandraker; David M. Charytan; Kenneth B. Christopher; Gary C. Curhan; Bradley M. Denker; John P. Forman; Markus H. Frank; M. D. Won; Kook Han; Dirk M. Hentschel; Li-Li Hsiao; Stephen Hsu; Benjamin D. Humphreys; John J. Iacomini; Takaharu Ichimura; Julie Lin; M. P. H. Colm; C. Magee; M. P. H. Edgar; L. Milford; David B. Mount; Nader Najafian; Shona Pendse; Martin R. Pollak; Stephen T. Reeders; Mohamed H. Sayegh; Julian L. Seifter; Jagesh V. Shah; Alice M. Sheridan; Ajay K. Singh; Theodore I. Steinman; Eric N. Taylor; Kathryn Tinckam; John K. Tucker; Wolfgang C. Winkelmayer; D. Xueli Yuan; D. Kambiz Zandi-Nejad; Jing Zhou

    More than 140,000 patients are living with a functioning kidney transplant in the United States. Although kidney transplantation confers relatively longer survival com- pared with any of the dialysis modalities, the life expectancy of kidney transplant recip- ients (KTRs) remains lower than that of the age- and sex-matched general population. 1 Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the single leading cause of

  20. Risk of cancer among rheumatoid arthritis patients in California

    PubMed Central

    Parikh-Patel, A.; Allen, M.; Cress, R.; White, R. H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate cancer risk among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in California. Methods The study cohort derived from statewide patient discharge records was followed via linkage with cancer registry data over the period 1991–2002. Age and sex adjusted standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to compare observed to expected numbers of cancers based on age, race, and sex specific incidence rates in the California population. Results Among the 84,475 RA patients, who were observed for 405,540 person-years, 5,533 incident cancers were diagnosed during the observation interval. The risk of developing lymphohematopoietic cancer was significantly higher in the cohort for both sexes. Males had significantly higher risks of lung, liver, and esophageal cancer, but a lower risk of prostate cancer. Females were at significantly decreased risk for several cancers including breast, ovary, uterus, cervix, and melanoma, with the risk reduction ranging from 15 to 57% lower than the general population. Hispanics had increased risks of leukemia, vagina/vulva, lung, and liver cancers. Conclusion Studies investigating the mechanisms that underlie the reported associations between RA and specific cancer types are needed. PMID:19184473

  1. Framingham cardiovascular risk in patients with obesity and periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Juliana Rico; dos Santos, Isac Pinheiro; de Camargo, Lilian Flosi; Zuza, Elizangela Partata; de Toledo, Benedicto Egbert Corrêa; Monteiro, Sally Cristina Moutinho

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a chronic inflammatory condition that has been associated to a risk factor for the development of periodontitis and cardiovascular disease; however, the relationship still needs to be clarified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular risk in obese patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 87 obese patients were evaluated for anthropometric data (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, body fat), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, glycemia and periodontal parameters (visible plaque index (VPI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal probing depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL)). Results: Patients were divided into two groups according to the periodontal characteristics found: Group O-PD: Obese patients with chronic periodontitis (n = 45), 22 men and 23 women; and Group O-sPD: Obese patients without chronic periodontitis (n = 42), 17 men and 25 women. Patients had a BMI mean of 35.2 (±5.1) kg/m2 . Group O-PD showed a similarity between the genders regarding age, SBP, DBP, cholesterol, HDL, GBI, VPI, PPD ?4 mm and CAL ?4 mm. O-PD women showed greater glycemia level and smoking occurrence, but O-PD men presented a 13% - risk over of developing coronary artery disease in 10 years than O-PD women, 9% - risk over than O-sPD men and 15% - risk over than O-sPD women, by the Framingham Score. Conclusions: It was concluded that obesity and periodontal disease are cardiovascular risk factors and that the two associated inflammatory conditions potentially increases the risk for heart diseases. PMID:24744538

  2. Prediction of cardiac risk in patients undergoing vascular surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Morise, A.P.; McDowell, D.E.; Savrin, R.A.; Goodwin, C.A.; Gabrielle, O.F.; Oliver, F.N.; Nullet, F.R.; Bekheit, S.; Jain, A.C.

    1987-03-01

    In an attempt to determine whether noninvasive cardiac testing could be used to assess cardiac risk in patients undergoing surgery for vascular disease, the authors studied 96 patients. Seventy-seven patients eventually underwent major vascular surgery with 11 (14%) experiencing a significant cardiac complication. Thallium imaging was much more likely to be positive (p less than 0.01) in patients with a cardiac complication; however, there was a significant number of patients with cardiac complications who had a positive history or electrocardiogram for myocardial infarction. When grouped by complication and history of infarction, thallium imaging, if negative, correctly predicted low cardiac risk in the group with a history of infarction. Thallium imaging, however, did not provide a clear separation of risk in those without a history of infarction. Age and coronary angiography, on the other hand, did reveal significant differences within the group without a history of infarction. The resting radionuclide ejection fraction followed a similar pattern to thallium imaging. It is concluded that a positive history of myocardial infarction at any time in the past is the strongest risk predictor in this population and that the predictive value of noninvasive testing is dependent on this factor. Considering these findings, a proposed scheme for assessing risk that will require further validation is presented.

  3. Clinical impact of the NKp30/B7-H6 axis in high-risk neuroblastoma patients.

    PubMed

    Semeraro, Michaela; Rusakiewicz, Sylvie; Minard-Colin, Véronique; Delahaye, Nicolas F; Enot, David; Vély, Frédéric; Marabelle, Aurélien; Papoular, Benjamin; Piperoglou, Christelle; Ponzoni, Mirco; Perri, Patrizia; Tchirkov, Andrei; Matta, Jessica; Lapierre, Valérie; Shekarian, Tala; Valsesia-Wittmann, Sandrine; Commo, Frédéric; Prada, Nicole; Poirier-Colame, Vichnou; Bressac, Brigitte; Cotteret, Sophie; Brugieres, Laurence; Farace, Françoise; Chaput, Nathalie; Kroemer, Guido; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Zitvogel, Laurence

    2015-04-15

    The immunosurveillance mechanisms governing high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB), a major pediatric malignancy, have been elusive. We identify a potential role for natural killer (NK) cells, in particular the interaction between the NK receptor NKp30 and its ligand, B7-H6, in the metastatic progression and survival of HR-NB after myeloablative multimodal chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation. NB cells expressing the NKp30 ligand B7-H6 stimulated NK cells in an NKp30-dependent manner. Serum concentration of soluble B7-H6 correlated with the down-regulation of NKp30, bone marrow metastases, and chemoresistance, and soluble B7-H6 contained in the serum of HR-NB patients inhibited NK cell functions in vitro. The expression of distinct NKp30 isoforms affecting the polarization of NK cell functions correlated with 10-year event-free survival in three independent cohorts of HR-NB in remission from metastases after induction chemotherapy (n = 196, P < 0.001), adding prognostic value to known risk factors such as N-Myc amplification and age >18 months. We conclude that the interaction between NKp30 and B7-H6 may contribute to the fate of NB patients and that both the expression of NKp30 isoforms on circulating NK cells and the concentration of soluble B7-H6 in the serum may be clinically useful as biomarkers for risk stratification. PMID:25877893

  4. Ethical issues in cardiovascular risk management: Patients need nurses' support.

    PubMed

    Loon, Marije S Koelewijn-van; van Dijk-de Vries, Anneke; van der Weijden, Trudy; Elwyn, Glyn; Widdershoven, Guy Am

    2013-11-19

    Involving patients in decisions on primary prevention can be questioned from an ethical perspective, due to a tension between health promotion activities and patient autonomy. A nurse-led intervention for prevention of cardiovascular diseases, including counselling (risk communication, and elements of shared decision-making and motivational interviewing) and supportive tools such as a decision aid, was implemented in primary care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nurse-led intervention from an ethical perspective by exploring in detail the experiences of patients with the intervention, and their views on the role of both the nurse and patient. The study had a qualitative design. 18 patients who had received the intervention participated. Data were gathered by in-depth interviews. The interviews were analysed using directed content analysis. The findings revealed that patients perceived the consultations not as an infringement on their autonomy, but as supportive to risk reduction efforts they tried but found hard to realise. They specifically emphasised the role of the nurse, and appreciated the nurse's realistic advice, encouragement, and help in understanding. Patients' views on and experiences with risk management are in line with notions of relational autonomy, caring cooperation and communicative action found in the literature. We conclude that patients define the relationship with the nurse as shared work in the process of developing a healthier lifestyle. PMID:24258253

  5. Risks and risk-analysis for the development of pressure ulcers in surgical patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bastiaan Paul Johan Aart Keller

    2006-01-01

    With prevalence figures of 13% for university hospitals and 23% for general hospitals, pressure ulcers are a major health care issue in The Netherlands. Pressure ulcers in surgical patients are frequently encountered, as is illustrated by reported incidence rates up to 66%. The number of patients at risk will probably also grow, due to an ageing population. In an extensive

  6. Risk assessment and psychosocial interventions for suicidal patients

    PubMed Central

    Chesin, Megan; Stanley, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Suicide is a leading cause of death in the US. Although factors elevating long-term risk for suicide are known and include bipolar disorder, signs of imminent suicide risk are difficult to study and not well-specified. Acute risk determinations must be made to determine the appropriate level of care to safeguard patients. To increase safety among at-risk patients in the short term and to decrease risk over time, psychosocial interventions to prevent suicide have been developed and tested in acute care and outpatient settings. Methods A narrative review of studies of imminent risk factors for suicide, suicide risk decision making, and psychosocial suicide prevention interventions was conducted. Results While some long-term risk factors of suicide have been established, accurate identification of individuals at imminent risk for suicide is difficult. Therefore, prevention efforts targeting individuals at high suicide behavior risk discharging from acute care settings tend to be generic and focus on psychoeducation and supportive follow-up contact. Data regarding the effectiveness of brief interventions (i.e., those not requiring more than one individualized treatment session) is mixed, showing better outcomes in the shorter term and when incidence of suicidal behavior or ideation is the outcome. With respect to longer term suicide prevention interventions (i.e., those with a minimum of 10 sessions), Dialectical Behavior Therapy has the largest evidence base. Conclusions To improve suicide prevention efforts, more rigorous study of imminent risk factors and psychosocial interventions is needed. Adaptations specific to individuals with bipolar disorder are possible and needed. PMID:23782460

  7. Novel biomarkers for asthma stratification and personalized therapy.

    PubMed

    Bartminski, Grzegorz; Crossley, Matthew; Turcanu, Victor

    2015-03-01

    A stepwise pharmacological treatment is currently recommended for all asthma patients and is personalized mainly on disease severity, aiming for the lowest disease-controlling step. Nevertheless, asthma comprises several related pathologies with similar clinical manifestations resulting from distinct underlying mechanisms. Therefore novel biomarkers could lead to asthma stratification and thus improve upon the current stepwise approach. The aim of this review is to update the reader with regard to different assays proposed in the recent asthma literature for measuring potential biomarkers for patient stratification and treatment personalization. Promising biomarkers are sputum eosinophils, serum periostin and exhaled nitric oxide. Periostin could differentiate between Th2-high and Th2-low asthma (Th2-high patients are more responsive to glucocorticoids) and the less-defined asthma types which often present a therapeutic challenge. Several other biomarkers, mainly cytokines, leukotrienes and exhaled air components, can be quantified in body fluids and exhaled breath and could also be useful for asthma stratification. PMID:25479456

  8. Innovative tools for assessing risks for severe adverse events in areas of overlapping Loa loa and other filarial distributions: the application of micro-stratification mapping

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The wide distribution of Loa loa infection (loiasis) throughout the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is a major obstacle to the plans to eliminate onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) because the standard drug regime is dependent on ivermectin, which cannot be used in co-endemic areas due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs). A better understanding of the micro-epidemiology, overlapping low and high risk areas, and how they relate to SAEs is critical to ensure safe and effective treatment. Findings Based on published data from the Bas Congo Province in DRC, this study used geographical information systems (GIS) to re-map and analyse onchocerciasis and loiasis prevalence (<20%, 20 to 40%, >40%) at 144 sites in relation to health district areas reporting SAEs. The new maps highlighted the contrasting patterns of the high prevalence sites, and significant geographical overlap between low onchocerciasis and high loiasis sites. Statistical analyses found that sites with medium to high loiasis prevalence were 10 to 16 times more likely to be in a SAE area than those with low prevalence of loiasis. Sites where both onchocerciasis and loiasis prevalence was >20% were also associated with SAE areas. Conclusions Collaborative efforts between the national onchocerciasis and LF programmes are critical as plans to scale interventions are moving forward and thus, alternative strategies needed in loiasis co-endemic areas which may include the new L. loa test and treat strategy using the Cellscope, or interventions such as integrated vector management, or anti Wolbachia therapy using doxycycline. PMID:24992829

  9. The Risk of Stroke in Patients with Psoriasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel M Gelfand; Erica D Dommasch; Daniel B Shin; Rahat S Azfar; Shanu K Kurd; Xingmei Wang; Andrea B Troxel

    2009-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic Th-1 and Th-17 inflammatory disease. Chronic inflammation has also been associated with atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of stroke in patients with psoriasis. We conducted a population-based cohort study of patients seen by general practitioners participating in the General Practice Research Database in the United Kingdom, 1987–2002. Mild

  10. Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarina van der Zee; Usman Baber; Sammy Elmariah; Jonathan Winston; Valentin Fuster

    2009-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease have a higher burden of cardiovascular disease, which increases in a dose-dependent fashion with worsening kidney function. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including advanced age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia, have an important role in the progression of cardiovascular disease in patients who have a reduced glomerular filtration rate, especially in those with mild-to-moderate kidney disease.

  11. Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels Predict Perioperative Events in Cardiac Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery: A Prospective Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Leibowitz; David Planer; David Rott; Yair Elitzur; Tova Chajek-Shaul; A. Teddy Weiss

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels correlate with prognosis in patients with cardiac disease and may be useful in the risk stratification of cardiac patients undergoing noncardiac surgery (NCS). The objective of this study was to examine whether BNP levels predict perioperative events in cardiac patients undergoing NCS. Methods: Patients undergoing NCS with at least 1 of the following criteria

  12. Safety of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Kuo; Hsieh, Tsai-Yuan

    2013-12-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a minimally invasive procedure. However, failure to transilluminate the anterior wall of the stomach or visualize the indentation of the physician's finger represents the most frequent obstacles encountered by the endoscopist in safely completing PEG tube placement. We described several methods to safely assess PEG placement in high-risk patients. An abdominal plain film after gastric insufflated with 500 mL of air is obtained before PEG in patients. The body of the stomach near the angularis, equidistant from the greater and lesser curves, was defined as the optimal gastric puncture point. The location of the puncture points varied greatly, being situated over the right upper quadrant in 31% of patients, left upper in 59%, left lower in 5%, and right lower quadrant in 5% of patients. If there is any question of safe puncture site selection, safe track technique can be used to provide the information of depth and angle of the puncture tract. Computed tomography can provide detailed anatomy and orientation along the PEG tube and show detailed anatomical images along the PEG tract. Computed tomography-guided PEG tube placement is used when there is difficulty either insufflating the stomach, or the patients had previous surgery, or anatomical problems. Full assessment of the position of the stomach and adjacent organs prior to gastric puncture may help minimize the risk for potential complications and provide safety for the high-risk patients. PMID:24251717

  13. Zolpidem Use and Risk of Fracture in Elderly Insomnia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dong-Yoon; Park, Soyoung; Rhee, Chul-Woo; Kim, Ye-Jee; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Lee, Joongyub

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the risk of fractures related with zolpidem in elderly insomnia patients. Methods Health claims data on the entire South Korean elderly population from January 2005 to June 2006 were extracted from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database. We applied a case-crossover design. Cases were defined as insomnia patients who had a fracture diagnosis. We set the hazard period of 1 day length prior to the fracture date and four control periods of the same length at 5, 10, 15, and 20 weeks prior to the fracture date. Time independent confounding factors such as age, gender, lifestyle, cognitive function level, mobility, socioeconomic status, residential environment, and comorbidity could be controlled using the casecrossover design. Time dependent confounding factors, especially co-medication of patients during the study period, were adjusted by conditional logistic regression analysis. The odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for the risk of fracture related to zolpidem. Results One thousand five hundred and eight cases of fracture were detected in insomnia patients during the study period. In our data, the use of zolpidem increased the risk of fracture significantly (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.72; 95% CI, 1.37 to 2.16). However, the association between benzodiazepine hypnotics and the risk of fracture was not statistically significant (aOR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.21). Likewise, the results were not statistically significant in stratified analysis with each benzodiazepine generic subgroup. Conclusions Zolpidem could increase the risk of fracture in elderly insomnia patients. Therefore zolpidem should be prescribed carefully and the elderly should be provided with sufficient patient education. PMID:22880153

  14. Suicidal ideation and risk factors in Korean migraine patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Young; Park, Sung-Pa

    2014-10-01

    Population-based studies have reported an increased risk of suicidal ideation in patients with migraine. However, there is some controversy as to whether migraine itself is a risk factor for suicidal ideation after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidities. We calculated the frequency of suicidal ideation among patients with migraine visiting a tertiary care hospital and determined its risk factors. Patients with migraine and healthy controls completed self-report questionnaires to assess depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation, and the frequency of suicidal ideation. Risk factors for suicidal ideation were investigated in terms of demographic, clinical, and psychiatric variables. One hundred eighty-five patients with migraine (156 females and 29 males; mean age 39.1 years) and 53 age and education-matched healthy controls participated in the study. The frequency of suicidal ideation was significantly greater in patients with migraine than healthy controls (odds ratio [OR]=5.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-22.10, p=0.003), but this significance was not sustained after adjusting for comorbid depression and anxiety. The risk of suicidal ideation in patients with migraine was associated with lower education levels, higher frequency of migraine attacks, stronger intensity of headaches, and presence of phonophobia, chronic migraine, depression, and anxiety. The strongest predictor was depression (OR=15.36, 95% CI 5.39-43.78, p<0.001), followed by the intensity of headache while completing the questionnaire (OR=1.293, 95% CI 1.077-1.553; p=0.006). The contribution of migraine-specific variables to suicidal ideation is trivial compared to that of depression and headache intensity. PMID:24998861

  15. A retrospective study of risk factors for poor outcomes in methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since its isolation, Methicillin-resistant Staphlococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a major cause of hospital acquired infection (HAI), adverse patient outcome and overall resource utilisation. It is endemic in Scotland and widespread in Western hospitals. MRSA has been the subject of widespread media interest- a manifestation of concerns about sterile surgical techniques and hospital cleanliness. This study aimed to investigate patient outcome of MRSA infections over the last decade at a major orthopaedic trauma centre. The objective was to establish the association of variables, such as patient age and inpatient residence, against patient outcome, in order to quantify significant relationships; facilitating the evaluation of management strategies with an aim to improving patient outcomes and targeting high-risk procedures. Methods This is a retrospective study of the rates and outcomes of MRSA infection in orthopaedic trauma at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. Data was collated using SPSS 14.0 for Windows(R). Shapiro-Wilkes testing was performed to investigate the normality of continuous data sets (e.g: age). Data was analysed using both Chi-Squared and Fisher's exact tests (in cases of expected values under 5) Results This study found significant associations between adverse patient outcome (persistent deep infection, osteomyelitis, the necessity for revision surgery, amputation and mortality) and the following patient variables: Length of inpatient stay, immuno-compromise, pre-admission residence in an institutional setting (such as a residential nursing home) and the number of antibiotics used in patient care. Despite 63% of all infections sampled resulting from proximal femoral fractures, no association between patient outcome and site of infection or diagnosis was found. Somewhat surprisingly, the relationship between age and outcome of infection was not proved to be significant, contradicting previous studies suggesting a statistical association. Antibiotic prophylaxis, previously identified as a factor in reducing overall incidence of MRSA infection, was not found to be significantly associated with outcome. Conclusions Early identification of high-risk patients as identified by this study could lead to more judicious use of therapeutic antibiotics and reductions in adverse outcome, as well as socioeconomic cost. These results could assist in more accurate risk stratification based on evidence based evaluation of the significance of the risk factors investigated. PMID:21605456

  16. Competing risks of death in younger and older postmenopausal breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Judy-Anne W; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Goss, Paul E; Ingle, James N; Muss, Hyman B; Dent, Susan F; Vandenberg, Ted A; Findlay, Brian; Gelmon, Karen A; Wilson, Carolyn F; Shepherd, Lois E; Pollak, Michael N

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To show a new paradigm of simultaneously testing whether breast cancer therapies impact other causes of death. METHODS: MA.14 allocated 667 postmenopausal women to 5 years of tamoxifen 20 mg/daily ± 2 years of octreotide 90 mg, given by depot intramuscular injections monthly. Event-free survival was the primary endpoint of MA.14; at median 7.9 years, the tamoxifen+octreotide and tamoxifen arms had similar event-free survival (P = 0.62). Overall survival was a secondary endpoint, and the two trial arms also had similar overall survival (P = 0.86). We used the median 9.8 years follow-up to examine by intention-to-treat, the multivariate time-to-breast cancer-specific (BrCa) and other cause (OC) mortality with log-normal survival analysis adjusted by treatment and stratification factors. We tested whether baseline factors including Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF binding protein-3, C-peptide, body mass index, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D were associated with (1) all cause mortality, and if so and (2) cause-specific mortality. We also fit step-wise forward cause-specific adjusted models. RESULTS: The analyses were performed on 329 patients allocated tamoxifen and 329 allocated tamoxifen+octreotide. The median age of MA.14 patients was 60.1 years: 447 (82%) < 70 years and 120 (18%) ? 70 years. There were 170 deaths: 106 (62.3%) BrCa; 55 (32.4%) OC, of which 24 were other malignancies, 31 other causes of death; 9 (5.3%) patients with unknown cause of death were excluded from competing risk assessments. BrCa and OC deaths were not significantly different by treatment arm (P = 0.40): tamoxifen patients experienced 50 BrCa and 32 OC deaths, while tamoxifen + octreotide patients experienced 56 BrCa and 23 OC deaths. Proportionately more deaths (P = 0.004) were from BrCa for patients < 70 years, where 70% of deaths were due to BrCa, compared to 54% for those ? 70 years of age. The proportion of deaths from OC increased with increasing body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.02). Higher pathologic T and N were associated with more BrCa deaths (P < 0.0001 and 0.002, respectively). The cumulative hazard plot for BrCa and OC mortality indicated the concurrent accrual of both types of death throughout follow-up, that is the existence of competing risks of mortality. MA.14 therapy did not impact mortality (P = 0.77). Three baseline patient and tumor characteristics were differentially associated with cause of death: older patients experienced more OC (P = 0.01) mortality; patients with T1 tumors and hormone receptor positive tumors had less BrCa mortality (respectively, P = 0.01, P = 0.06). Additionally, step-wise cause-specific models indicated that patients with node negative disease experienced less BrCa mortality (P = 0.002); there was weak evidence that, lower C-peptide (P = 0.08) was associated with less BrCa mortality, while higher BMI (P = 0.01) was associated with worse OC mortality. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate here a new paradigm of simultaneous testing of therapeutics directed at multiple diseases for which postmenopausal women are concurrently at risk. Octreotide LAR did not significantly impact breast cancer or other cause mortality, although different baseline factors influenced type of death. PMID:25493245

  17. Breast Cancer Patients Concerned about Genetic Risk, Survey Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast Cancer Patients Concerned About Genetic Risk, Survey Finds But ... Preidt Monday, April 6, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Breast Cancer Genetic Testing MONDAY, April 6, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

  18. Predicting psychosocial risk in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ganz, P A; Hirji, K; Sim, M S; Schag, C A; Fred, C; Polinsky, M L

    1993-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common neoplasm in North American women. The psychosocial impact of breast cancer has been extensively studied, and a number of investigators have attempted to characterize women who are at high risk for increased psychosocial morbidity. Although a detailed interview performed by a professional is the clinical standard for psychosocial assessment, such interviews are usually time-consuming and expensive, and thus are rarely performed. This study was designed to develop a strategy for the rapid identification of newly-diagnosed breast cancer patients at risk for psychosocial morbidity. A sample of 227 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients were interviewed systematically by a clinical social worker and were subsequently classified for risk of psychosocial distress in the year after diagnosis. In addition, these women completed a battery of standardized instruments designed to assess quality of life, rehabilitation needs and psychological distress. A logistic regression procedure was used to examine a wide range of variables for their ability to correctly classify the risk of psychosocial distress in this sample. The final model included the Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System (CARES) Psychosocial Summary Scale, the Karnofsky Performance Status score and age as the best predictors of psychosocial risk. Subsequently these three variables were used to construct a clinically usable risk prediction model. Additional research should be performed to validate this predictive model. PMID:8501990

  19. Assessing the detection of human papillomavirus late mRNA in liquid base cytology samples for risk stratification of cervical disease

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, George; Millan, David; Cuschieri, Kate; Cubie, Heather A; Graham, Sheila V

    2014-01-01

    Molecular human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is an important and developing tool for cervical disease management. However there is a requirement to develop new HPV tests that can differentiate between clinically significant and benign, clinically insignificant infection. Evidence would indicate that clinically significant infection is linked to an abortive HPV replication cycle. In particular the later stages of the replication cycle (i.e., production of late messenger (m) RNAs and proteins) appear compromised. Compared to current DNA-based tests which indicate only presence or absence of virus, detecting virus mRNAs by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) may give a more refined insight into viral activity and by implication, clinical relevance. A novel quantitative (q)RT-PCR assay was developed for the detection of mRNAs produced late in the viral replication cycle. Initially this was validated on HPV-containing cell lines before being applied to a panel of 223 clinical cervical samples representing the cervical disease spectrum (normal to high grade). Samples were also tested by a commercial assay which detects expression of early HPV E6/E7 oncoprotein mRNAs. Late mRNAs were found in samples associated with no, low and high grade disease and did not risk-stratify HPV infection. The data reveal hidden complexities within the virus replication cycle and associated lesion development. This suggests that future mRNA tests for cervical disease may require quantitative detection of specific novel viral mRNAs. J. Med. Virol. 86:627–633, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24142394

  20. Metabolomic profiling of schizophrenia patients at risk for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Paredes, R Madelaine; Quinones, Marlon; Marballi, Ketan; Gao, Xiaoli; Valdez, Celina; Ahuja, Seema S; Velligan, Dawn; Walss-Bass, Consuelo

    2014-08-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are commonly used to treat schizophrenia. However, SGAs cause metabolic disturbances that can manifest as metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a subset of patients. The causes for these metabolic disturbances remain unclear. We performed a comprehensive metabolomic profiling of 60 schizophrenia patients undergoing treatment with SGAs that puts them at high (clozapine, olanzapine), medium (quetiapine, risperidone), or low (ziprasidone, aripiprazole) risk for developing MetS, compared to a cohort of 20 healthy controls. Multiplex immunoassays were used to measure 13 metabolic hormones and adipokines in plasma. Mass spectrometry was used to determine levels of lipids and polar metabolites in 29 patients and 10 controls. We found that levels of insulin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) were significantly higher (p < 0.005) in patients at medium and high risk for MetS, compared to controls. These molecules are known to be increased in individuals with high body fat content and obesity. On the other hand, adiponectin, a molecule responsible for control of food intake and body weight, was significantly decreased in patients at medium and high risk for MetS (p < 0.005). Further, levels of dyacylglycerides (DG), tryacylglycerides (TG) and cholestenone were increased, whereas ?-Ketoglutarate and malate, important mediators of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, were significantly decreased in patients compared to controls. Our studies suggest that high- and medium-risk SGAs are associated with disruption of energy metabolism pathways. These findings may shed light on the molecular underpinnings of antipsychotic-induced MetS and aid in design of novel therapeutic approaches to reduce the side effects associated with these drugs. PMID:24565079

  1. Free Tissue Transfer for Limb Salvage in High-Risk Patients: Worth the Risk

    PubMed Central

    Endara, Matthew; Ducic, Ivica; Attinger, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Significance Mircosurgical free tissue transfer is a powerful tool in the arsenal of reconstructive surgeons, oftentimes as the final option in limb salvage before amputation. Patients presenting for limb salvage frequently carry with them multiple co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, end-stage renal disease, and peripheral vascular disease. Surgeons are oftentimes hesitant to attempt free tissue tranfer in these medically complex individuals due to beliefs that the patient would not tolerate prolonged anesthesia, the surgery is doomed to fail, or the patient would be better off with an amputation. Because amputees actually demonstrate higher mortality rates, the decision to not to proceed with limb salvage should be made with great care. Recent Advances By reviewing the success rates with free tissue transfer for limb salvage in high-risk patients, the target articles have shown that this option is indeed viable even in this patient population. Specifically, reasonable success rates are presented for limb salvage using free tissue transfer in patients with end-stage renal disease, a single-vessel leg and critical limb ischemia. Critical Issues The articles reviewed demonstrate that free tissue transfer for limb salvage in properly selected patients with end-stage renal disease or severe peripheral vascular disease is worth attempting. Before surgery, these patients must undergo a complete cardiac work-up regardless of previous cardiac history. Future Directions When necessary, free tissue transfer should be pursued by the reconstructive surgeon even in high-risk medically complex patients. PMID:24527327

  2. Lifetime risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma in patients with Barrett's esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Gatenby, Piers; Caygill, Christine; Wall, Christine; Bhatacharjee, Santanu; Ramus, James; Watson, Anthony; Winslet, Marc

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the lifetime risk of development of esophageal adenocarcinoma and/or high-grade dysplasia in patients diagnosed with Barrett’s esophagus. METHODS: Data were extracted from the United Kingdom National Barrett’s Oesophagus Registry on date of diagnosis, patient age and gender of 7877 patients from who had been registered from 35 United Kingdom centers. Life expectancy was evaluated from United Kingdom National Statistics data based upon gender and age at year at diagnosis. These data were then used with published estimates of annual adenocarcinoma and high-grade dysplasia incidences from meta-analyses and large population-based studies to estimate overall lifetime risk of development of these study endpoints. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis of Barrett’s esophagus was 61.6 years in males and 67.3 years in females. The mean life expectancy at diagnosis was 23.1 years in males, 20.7 years in females and 22.2 years overall. Using data from published meta-analyses, the lifetime risk of development of adenocarcinoma was between 1 in 8 and 1 in 14 and the lifetime risk of high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma was 1 in 5 to 1 in 6. Using data from 3 large recent population-based cohort studies the lifetime risk of adenocarcinoma was between 1 in 10 and 1 in 37 and of the combined end-point of high-grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma was between 1 in 8 and 1 in 20. Age at Barrett’s esophagus diagnosis is reducing and life expectancy is increasing, which will partially counter-balance lower annual cancer incidence. CONCLUSION: There is a significant lifetime risk of development of high-grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma in Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:25071359

  3. Risk of Bladder Cancer Among Diabetic Patients Treated With Pioglitazone

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, James D.; Ferrara, Assiamira; Peng, Tiffany; Hedderson, Monique; Bilker, Warren B.; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Vaughn, David J.; Nessel, Lisa; Selby, Joseph; Strom, Brian L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Some preclinical in vivo studies and limited human data suggest a possible increased risk of bladder cancer with pioglitazone therapy. This is an interim report of an ongoing cohort study examining the association between pioglitazone therapy and the risk of bladder cancer in patients with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study includes 193,099 patients in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California diabetes registry who were ?40 years of age between 1997 and 2002. Those with prior bladder cancer were excluded. Ever use of each diabetes medication (defined as two or more prescriptions within 6 months) was treated as a time-dependent variable. Cox regression–generated hazard ratios (HRs) compared pioglitazone use with nonpioglitazone use adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, diabetes medications, A1C, heart failure, household income, renal function, other bladder conditions, and smoking. RESULTS The group treated with pioglitazone comprised 30,173 patients. There were 90 cases of bladder cancer among pioglitazone users and 791 cases of bladder cancer among nonpioglitazone users. Overall, ever use of pioglitazone was not associated with risk of bladder cancer (HR 1.2 [95% CI 0.9–1.5]), with similar results in men and women (test for interaction P = 0.8). However, in the a priori category of >24 months of therapy, there was an increased risk (1.4 [1.03–2.0]). Ninety-five percent of cancers diagnosed among pioglitazone users were detected at early stage. CONCLUSIONS In this cohort of patients with diabetes, short-term use of pioglitazone was not associated with an increased incidence of bladder cancer, but use for more than 2 years was weakly associated with increased risk. PMID:21447663

  4. Risk Factors for Delirium after Spine Surgery in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jin Suk; Lee, Young Seok; Chung, Chan; Kim, Young Baeg

    2014-01-01

    Objective Postoperative delirium is a common complication in the elderly after surgery but few papers have reported after spinal surgery. We analyzed various risk factors for postoperative delirium after spine surgery. Methods Between May 2012 and September 2013, 70 patients over 60 years of age were examined. The patients were divided into two groups : Group A with delirium and Group B without delirium. Cognitive function was examined with the Mini-Mental State Examination-Korea (MMSE-K), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and Global Deterioration Scale (GDS). Information was also obtained on the patients' education level, underlying diseases, duration of hospital stay and laboratory findings. Intraoperative assessment included Bispectral index (BIS), type of surgery or anesthesia, blood pressure, fluid balance, estimated blood loss and duration of surgery. Results Postoperative delirium developed in 17 patients. The preoperative scores for the MMSE, CDR, and GDS in Group A were 19.1±5.4, 0.9±0.6, and 3.3±1.1. These were significantly lower than those of Group B (25.6±3.4, 0.5±0.2, and 2.1±0.7) (p<0.05). BIS was lower in Group A (30.2±6.8 compared to 35.4±5.6 in group B) (p<0.05). The number of BIS <40 were 5.1±3.1 times in Group A, 2.5±2.2 times in Group B (p<0.01). In addition, longer operation time and longer hospital stay were risk factors. Conclusion Precise analysis of risk factors for postoperative delirium seems to be more important in spinal surgery because the surgery is not usually expected to have an effect on brain function. Although no risk factors specific to spinal surgery were identified, the BIS may represent a valuable new intraoperative predictor of the risk of delirium. PMID:25289122

  5. Complications of coeliac disease: are all patients at risk?

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, C J R; Gillett, H R

    2006-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a common condition that is increasingly being recognised as a result of the development of sensitive and specific serology. The diagnosis of coeliac disease and its subsequent treatment with a gluten?free diet have implications for the patient, not just for symptom control but also for the possible effect on quality of life and risk of complications. Whether the mode of presentation of coeliac disease has an effect on survival or risk of complication is yet unclear. This article reviews the available evidence regarding these issues. PMID:17099088

  6. Baseline factors associated with treatment response in patients infected with hepatitis C virus 1b by stratification of IL28B polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Ling, Qihua; Chen, Jianjie; Zhou, Hua; Zhong, Jun; Chen, Yiyun; Ye, Qingyan; Zhuo, Yunhui; Min, Niehong; Shang, Binyi

    2015-04-01

    Although the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs12979860 in the IL28B gene is a better predictor of sustained virological response to treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) than other baseline factors, some CHC patients with the favorable C allele cannot achieve a sustained virological response when treated with peginterferon plus ribavirin. The aim of this study was to examine baseline factors as predictors of rapid virological response (RVR) and complete early virological response (cEVR) to peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin treatment in Chinese CHC patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b, with emphasis on the difference between the rs129860 CC and CT/TT genotypes. A total of 337 treatment-naïve patients participated in this study. All patients were treated with peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin at standard dosage. Serum samples from all patients were collected at baseline, week 4, and week 12 for testing of laboratory parameters, and IL28B genotypes were determined. Multivariate analysis showed that among rs12979860 CC genotype patients, glucose level and aspartate amino transferase (AST) activity were inversely associated with RVR, while abnormal platelet count and allergy inversely associated with cEVR. Among rs12979860 CT genotype patients, age below 40 years and short infection duration were associated with RVR, while age below 40 years, short infection duration, high body mass index (BMI), and no history of allergies were associated with cEVR. The baseline factors associated with the response to CHC treatment may depend on the IL28B genotype. Refinement of the baseline predictors based on IL28B genotypes may be useful for management of HCV infection. PMID:25687192

  7. Patient-specific radiation dose and cancer risk estimation in CT: Part II. Application to patients

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xiang; Samei, Ehsan; Segars, W. Paul; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Colsher, James G.; Toncheva, Greta; Yoshizumi, Terry T.; Frush, Donald P. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Department of Physics, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Duke Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Duke Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Current methods for estimating and reporting radiation dose from CT examinations are largely patient-generic; the body size and hence dose variation from patient to patient is not reflected. Furthermore, the current protocol designs rely on dose as a surrogate for the risk of cancer incidence, neglecting the strong dependence of risk on age and gender. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for estimating patient-specific radiation dose and cancer risk from CT examinations. Methods: The study included two patients (a 5-week-old female patient and a 12-year-old male patient), who underwent 64-slice CT examinations (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare) of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis at our institution in 2006. For each patient, a nonuniform rational B-spine (NURBS) based full-body computer model was created based on the patient's clinical CT data. Large organs and structures inside the image volume were individually segmented and modeled. Other organs were created by transforming an existing adult male or female full-body computer model (developed from visible human data) to match the framework defined by the segmented organs, referencing the organ volume and anthropometry data in ICRP Publication 89. A Monte Carlo program previously developed and validated for dose simulation on the LightSpeed VCT scanner was used to estimate patient-specific organ dose, from which effective dose and risks of cancer incidence were derived. Patient-specific organ dose and effective dose were compared with patient-generic CT dose quantities in current clinical use: the volume-weighted CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and the effective dose derived from the dose-length product (DLP). Results: The effective dose for the CT examination of the newborn patient (5.7 mSv) was higher but comparable to that for the CT examination of the teenager patient (4.9 mSv) due to the size-based clinical CT protocols at our institution, which employ lower scan techniques for smaller patients. However, the overall risk of cancer incidence attributable to the CT examination was much higher for the newborn (2.4 in 1000) than for the teenager (0.7 in 1000). For the two pediatric-aged patients in our study, CTDI{sub vol} underestimated dose to large organs in the scan coverage by 30%-48%. The effective dose derived from DLP using published conversion coefficients differed from that calculated using patient-specific organ dose values by -57% to 13%, when the tissue weighting factors of ICRP 60 were used, and by -63% to 28%, when the tissue weighting factors of ICRP 103 were used. Conclusions: It is possible to estimate patient-specific radiation dose and cancer risk from CT examinations by combining a validated Monte Carlo program with patient-specific anatomical models that are derived from the patients' clinical CT data and supplemented by transformed models of reference adults. With the construction of a large library of patient-specific computer models encompassing patients of all ages and weight percentiles, dose and risk can be estimated for any patient prior to or after a CT examination. Such information may aid in decisions for image utilization and can further guide the design and optimization of CT technologies and scan protocols.

  8. Reclassification of European patients' cardiovascular risk using the updated Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Halcox, Julian P; Tubach, Florence; Sazova, Ogün; Sweet, Stephen; Medina, Jesús

    2015-02-01

    Data from the European Study on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention and Management in Usual Daily Practice (EURIKA; ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT00882336) was used to assess the proportions of patients aged 50-65 years free of diabetes and not receiving lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) considered to be at low (<1%), intermediate (1% to <5%) and high (?5%) 10-year risk of cardiovascular mortality according to the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) algorithm and the updated algorithm that considers patients' total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels as independent variables (SCORE-HDL). Of 2321 patients analysed, 19.3%, 60.7% and 20.0% were considered to be at low, intermediate and high cardiovascular risk respectively according to SCORE, and 25.7%, 57.2% and 17.1% respectively according to SCORE-HDL. Thus, there was an overall trend towards reclassification from higher to lower risk categories when SCORE-HDL was compared with SCORE. PMID:24092875

  9. Risk and potential risk reduction in diabetes type 2 patients in Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertram Häussler; Ursula Berger; Oliver Mast; Wolfgang Thefeld

    2005-01-01

    Avoiding serious complications such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and amputations in diabetes patients is the main interest of long-term treatment. Given the considerable prevalence of diabetes type 2 in industrialized countries this is a major public health concern as well as a burden to health care systems. The present study estimated the current risk of major complications occurring in the

  10. Does Pomegranate intake attenuate cardiovascular risk factors in hemodialysis patients?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality among hemodialysis (HD) patients. It has been attributed, among other causes, to hypertension and dyslipidemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a year-long consumption of Pomegranate juice (PJ), on two traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors: hypertension and lipid profile, as well as on cardiovascular events. Methods 101 HD patients were randomized to receive 100 cc of PJ (0.7 mM polyphenols) or matching placebo juice, three times a week for one year. The primary endpoints were traditional CV risk factors; blood pressure and lipid profile. Systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure, plasma levels of triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol were monitored quarterly during the study year. Secondary endpoint was incidence of cardiovascular events. Results PJ consumption yielded a significant time response improvement in systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, triglycerides and HDL level; an improvement that was not observed in the placebo intake group. These beneficial outcomes were more pronounced among patients with hypertension, high level of triglycerides and low levels of HDL. Conclusion Regular PJ consumption by HD patients reduced systolic blood pressure and improved lipid profile. These favorable changes may reduce the accelerated atherosclerosis and high incidence of CVD among HD patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov registry, Identifier number: NCT00727519 PMID:24593225

  11. Risk factors for death in patients with severe asthma*

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Andréia Guedes Oliva; Souza-Machado, Carolina; Coelho, Renata Conceição Pereira; Franco, Priscila Abreu; Esquivel, Renata Miranda; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Cruz, Álvaro Augusto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for death among patients with severe asthma. METHODS: This was a nested case-control study. Among the patients with severe asthma treated between December of 2002 and December of 2010 at the Central Referral Outpatient Clinic of the Bahia State Asthma Control Program, in the city of Salvador, Brazil, we selected all those who died, as well as selecting other patients with severe asthma to be used as controls (at a ratio of 1:4). Data were collected from the medical charts of the patients, home visit reports, and death certificates. RESULTS: We selected 58 cases of deaths and 232 control cases. Most of the deaths were attributed to respiratory causes and occurred within a health care facility. Advanced age, unemployment, rhinitis, symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, long-standing asthma, and persistent airflow obstruction were common features in both groups. Multivariate analysis showed that male gender, FEV1 pre-bronchodilator < 60% of predicted, and the lack of control of asthma symptoms were significantly and independently associated with mortality in this sample of patients with severe asthma. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of outpatients with severe asthma, the deaths occurred predominantly due to respiratory causes and within a health care facility. Lack of asthma control and male gender were risk factors for mortality. PMID:25210958

  12. [Operational units for health risk management (patient safety)].

    PubMed

    Pardo Hernández, A; Claveria Fontán, A; García Urbaneja, M; López Barba, J

    2008-12-01

    In 1995 INSALUD began to develop performance measures in the field of risk management, and following transfer of powers to the regions, these led to the development of operational units in individual healthcare centres. These units, which consist of a group of health professionals, including managers, aim to identify, evaluate, analyse and deal with health risks, to enhance patient safety. Their organisational structure can vary in accordance with the needs, resources and philosophy of each individual organisation. This paper presents the experience of the risk management units developed in four Spanish regions: Madrid, the Basque Country, Galicia and INGESA (Ceuta and Melilla). It also includes reflections on assessment of their impact and on their future role in improving safety in healthcare services. PMID:19572456

  13. Screening for overt diabetes by oral glucose tolerance test: Stratification by fasting blood glucose and patients' age improve practicability of guidelines in cardiological routine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerstin Kempf; Reiner Füth; Wilfried Dinh; Lars Bansemir; Till Köhler; Alexander Bufe; Thomas Scheffold; Eberhard Standl; Stephan Martin; Mark Lankisch

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/objectivesGuidelines recommend screening all patients with cardiovascular disease by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Due to its time-consuming protocol, costs and overall inconvenience performance of OGTT is limited in cardiological routine. Thus, we aimed to identify easily available parameters that could help to reduce the numbers of OGTT needed.

  14. Nonembolic Predictors of Stroke Risk in Coronary Artery Bypass Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giulio Pompilio; Attilio A. Lotto; Marco Agrifoglio; Carlo Antona; Francesco Alamanni; Rita Spirito; Paolo Biglioli

    1999-01-01

    .   The aim of this study was to identify and stratify the most important nonembolic risk factors for stroke after coronary bypass\\u000a grafting. From June 1994 to June 1997 a series of 1532 patients (pts) underwent isolated myocardial revascularization on cardiopulmonary\\u000a bypass (CPB). A retrospective chart review selected 1417 pts in whom the presence of aortic calcification or left ventricular

  15. Patient-generated secure messages and eVisits on a patient portal: are patients at risk?

    PubMed Central

    North, Frederick; Crane, Sarah J; Stroebel, Robert J; Cha, Stephen S; Edell, Eric S; Tulledge-Scheitel, Sidna M

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient portals are becoming increasingly common, but the safety of patient messages and eVisits has not been well studied. Unlike patient-to-nurse telephonic communication, patient messages and eVisits involve an asynchronous process that could be hazardous if patients were using it for time-sensitive symptoms such as chest pain or dyspnea. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 7322 messages (6430 secure messages and 892 eVisits). To assess the overall risk associated with the messages, we looked for deaths within 30?days of the message and hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits within 7?days following the message. We also examined message content for symptoms of chest pain, breathing concerns, and other symptoms associated with high risk. Results Two deaths occurred within 30?days of a patient-generated message, but were not related to the message. There were six hospitalizations related to a previous secure message (0.09% of secure messages), and two hospitalizations related to a previous eVisit (0.22% of eVisits). High-risk symptoms were present in 3.5% of messages but a subject line search to identify these high-risk messages had a sensitivity of only 15% and a positive predictive value of 29%. Conclusions Patients use portal messages 3.5% of the time for potentially high-risk symptoms of chest pain, breathing concerns, abdominal pain, palpitations, lightheadedness, and vomiting. Death, hospitalization, or an ED visit was an infrequent outcome following a secure message or eVisit. Screening the message subject line for high-risk symptoms was not successful in identifying high-risk message content. PMID:23703826

  16. Surgical errors and risks – the head and neck cancer patient

    PubMed Central

    Harréus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck surgery is one of the basic principles of head and neck cancer therapy. Surgical errors and malpractice can have fatal consequences for the treated patients. It can lead to functional impairment and has impact in future chances for disease related survival. There are many risks for head and neck surgeons that can cause errors and malpractice. To avoid surgical mistakes, thorough preoperative management of patients is mandatory. As there are ensuring operability, cautious evaluation of preoperative diagnostics and operative planning. Moreover knowledge of anatomical structures of the head and neck, of the medical studies and data as well as qualification in modern surgical techniques and the surgeons ability for critical self assessment are basic and important prerequisites for head and neck surgeons in order to make out risks and to prevent from mistakes. Additionally it is important to have profound knowledge in nutrition management of cancer patients, wound healing and to realize and to be able to deal with complications, when they occur. Despite all precaution and surgical care, errors and mistakes cannot always be avoided. For that it is important to be able to deal with mistakes and to establish an appropriate and clear communication and management for such events. The manuscript comments on recognition and prevention of risks and mistakes in the preoperative, operative and postoperative phase of head and neck cancer surgery. PMID:24403972

  17. New Guidelines Call for No Heart Tests for Low-Risk Patients

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Call for No Heart Tests for Low-Risk Patients American College of Physicians advises against EKGs, stress ... Prevention TUESDAY, March 17, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Many patients who are at low risk for heart problems ...

  18. High Blood Sugar in Heart Failure Patients May Point to Risk of Early Death

    MedlinePLUS

    ... enable JavaScript. High Blood Sugar in Heart Failure Patients May Point to Risk of Early Death Even ... Checking the blood sugar levels of emergency department patients with heart failure can identify those at risk ...

  19. Preoperative evaluation and preparation of patients for orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Abel, Richard B; Rosenblatt, Meg A

    2014-12-01

    Orthopedic patients frequently have multiple comorbidities when they present for surgery. This article discusses risk stratification of this population and the preoperative work-up for patients with specific underlying conditions who often require orthopedic procedures. Preoperative strategies to decrease exposure to allogeneic blood and advantages of the Perioperative Surgical Home model in this unique population are discussed. PMID:25453668

  20. Clinical Utility of Microvolt T-wave Alternans Testing In Identifying Patients at High or Low Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Faisal M.; Ikeda, Takanori; Pedretti, Roberto F.E.; Salerno-Uriarte, Jorge A.; Chow, Theodore; Chan, Paul S.; Bartone, Cheryl; Hohnloser, Stefan H.; Cohen, Richard J.; Armoundas, Antonis A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) testing is a robust predictor of ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) in at-risk patients. However, recent studies have suggested that MTWA testing is not as good a predictor of “appropriate” implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy as it is a predictor of SCD in patients without ICDs. Objective We sought to evaluate the utility of MTWA testing for SCD risk stratification in patients without ICDs. Methods Patient-level data were obtained from five prospective studies of MTWA testing in patients with no history of ventricular arrhythmia or SCD. In these studies, ICDs were implanted in only a minority of patients and patients with ICDs were excluded from the analysis. We conducted a pooled analysis and examined the 2-year risk for SCD based on MTWA test result. Results The pooled cohort included 2883 patients. MTWA testing was positive in 856 (30%), negative in 1627 (56%) and indeterminate in 400 (14%) patients. Among patients with LVEF ? 35%, annual SCD event rates were 4.0%, 0.9% and 4.6% among the MTWA positive, negative and indeterminate groups. The SCD rate was significantly lower among patients with a negative MTWA test compared to either the positive or the indeterminate groups (p<0.001 for both comparisons). In patients with LVEF > 35%, annual SCD event rates were 3.0%, 0.3% and 0.3% among the MTWA positive, negative and indeterminate groups. The SCD rate associated with a positive test was significantly higher than either the negative (p<0.001) or the indeterminate groups (p=0.003). Conclusions In patients without ICDs, MTWA testing is a powerful predictor of SCD. Among patients with LVEF ? 35%, a negative MTWA test is associated with a low risk for SCD. Conversely, among patients with LVEF > 35%, a positive MTWA test identifies patients at significantly heightened SCD risk. These findings may have important implications for refining primary prevention ICD treatment algorithms. PMID:22406384

  1. Cardiovascular risk factor treatment targets and renal complications in high risk vascular patients: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To determine if recommended treatment targets, as specified in clinical practice guidelines for the management of cardiovascular disease, reduces the risk of renal complications in high risk patient populations. Methods This was a cohort study. Participants in Utrecht, The Netherlands either at risk of, or had cardiovascular disease were recruited. Cardiovascular treatment targets were achievement of control in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and low-density cholesterol, and treatment of albuminuria. Outcome measures were time to development of end stage renal failure or symptomatic renal atherosclerotic disease requiring intervention. Results The cohort consisted of 7,208 participants; 1,759 diabetics and 4,859 with clinically manifest vascular disease. The median age was 57 years and 67% were male. Overall, 29% of the cohort achieved the treatment target for systolic blood pressure, 39% for diastolic blood pressure, 28% for total cholesterol, 31% for LDL cholesterol and 78% for albuminuria. The incidence rate for end stage renal failure and renal atherosclerotic disease reduced linearly with each additional treatment target achieved (p value less than 0.001). Achievement of any two treatment targets reduced the risk of renal complications, hazard ratio 0.46 (95% CI 0.26-0.82). For patients with clinically manifest vascular disease and diabetes, the hazard ratios were 0.56 (95% CI 0.28 - 1.12) and 0.28 (95%CI 0.10 - 0.79) respectively. Conclusion Clinical guidelines for cardiovascular disease management do reduce risk of renal complications in high risk patients. Benefits are seen with attainment of any two treatment targets. PMID:21729268

  2. New Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Their Use for an Accurate Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    TAUTU, Oana-Florentina; DARABONT, Roxana; ONCIUL, Sebastian; DEACONU, Alexandru; COMANESCU, Ioana; ANDREI, Radu Dan; DRAGOESCU, Bogdan; CINTEZA, Mircea; DOROBANTU, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the predictive value of new cardiovascular (CV) risk factors for CV risk assessment in the adult Romanian hypertensive (HT) population. Methods: Hypertensive adults aged between 40-65 years of age, identified in national representative SEPHAR II survey were evaluated by anthropometric, BP and arterial stiffness measurements: aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao), aortic augmentation index (AIXao), revers time (RT) and central systolic blood pressure (SBPao), 12 lead ECGs and laboratory workup. Values above the 4th quartile of mean SBP' standard deviation (s.d.) defined increased BP variability. Log(TG/HDL-cholesterol) defined atherogenic index of plasma (AIP). Serum uric acid levels above 5.70 mg/dl for women and 7.0 mg/dl for males defined hyperuricemia (HUA). CV risk was assessed based on SCORE chart for high CV risk countries. Binary logistic regression using a stepwise likelihood ratio method (adjustments for major confounders and colliniarity analysis) was used in order to validate predictors of high and very high CV risk class. Results: The mean SBP value of the study group was 148.46±19.61 mmHg. Over forty percent of hypertensives had a high and very high CV risk. Predictors of high/very high CV risk category validated by regression analysis were: increased visit-to-visit BP variability (OR: 2.49; 95%CI: 1.67-3.73), PWVao (OR: 1.12; 95%CI: 1.02-1.22), RT (OR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.93-0.98), SBPao (OR: 1.01; 95%CI: 1.01-1.03) and AIP (OR: 7.08; 95%CI: 3.91-12.82). Conclusion: The results of our study suggests that the new CV risk factors such as increased BP variability, arterial stiffness indices and AIP are useful tools for a more accurate identification of hypertensives patients at high and very high CV risk. PMID:25705267

  3. [Identification of patients at risk of alcohol related damage].

    PubMed

    Aasland, O G; Amundsen, A; Bovim, G; Fauske, S; Mørland, J

    1990-05-10

    Alcohol is clearly underestimated as an etiological factor in clinical medicine. A number of acute and chronic medical conditions are related to alcohol consumption, even when there are no signs of alcohol dependence. This article describes a new screening instrument proposed and developed by the WHO, AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), to be used in hospitals and general medical settings. The clinical component of this instrument is based on analyses of regular patients where the level of consumption was used as the dependent variable. This makes it possible to assess the extent and risk of alcohol-related problems without actually discussing alcohol with the patient. The alcohol-specific component can be used for a more detailed exploration of the patient's use of alcohol. PMID:2339403

  4. Risk Factors for Ileus in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Meyer, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Constipation is a known side effect of psychotropics that possess high affinity for muscarinic cholinergic receptors. In severe cases, constipation progresses to ileus and bowel ischemia, with multiple fatalities related to sepsis and perforation described in the literature, primarily among patients with schizophrenia. A historical prospective database study was performed using registry data from psychiatric and somatic hospitals, combined with the prescription database to examine associations between medications and ileus. Only cases with an ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia (F20) and a concurrent diagnosis of ileus in the years 1996–2007 were included in the study. A total of 26?720 patients with schizophrenia were identified with 123 cases of ileus noted in the study period. Increasing age (OR: 1.03 CI: 1.01–1.04) and female sex (OR: 1.60 CI: 1.10–2.31) were associated with an increased risk of ileus. Treatment with clozapine (OR: 1.99 CI: 1.21–3.29), high-potency first-generation antipsychotics (OR: 1.81 CI: 1.01–3.23), tricyclic antidepressants (OR: 2.29 CI: 1.29–4.09), anticholinergics (OR: 1.48 CI: 1.00–2.19), and opioids (OR: 2.14 CI: 1.36–3.36) were associated with an increased risk of ileus. The onset of ileus occurred on average more than 3 years after the first prescription of the offending drug. Aripiprazole and amisulpride were not associated with ileus. Nine of the ileus cases (7.3%) had a fatal course. Treatment with clozapine (OR: 6.73 CI: 1.55–29.17) or anticholinergics (OR: 5.88 CI: 1.47–23.58) were associated with increased risk of fatal ileus. Patients receiving psychotropics associated with significant anticholinergic properties should undergo proper monitoring and interventions in order to minimize the burden of constipation and the risk of ileus. PMID:21112965

  5. Thyroid Cancer Risk Is Not Increased in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated thyroid cancer risk with regards to diabetes status and diabetes duration, and with the use of anti-diabetic drugs including sulfonylurea, metformin, insulin, acarbose, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, by using a population-based reimbursement database in Taiwan. Methods A random sample of 1,000,000 subjects covered by the National Health Insurance was recruited. After excluding patients with type 1 diabetes, 999730 subjects (495673 men and 504057 women) were recruited into the analyses. Logistic regression estimated the odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for independent variables including age, sex, diabetes status/duration, anti-diabetic drugs, other medications, comorbidities, living regions, occupation and examinations that might potentially lead to the diagnosis of thyroid cancer in various models. Results The diabetic patients had a significantly higher probability of receiving potential detection examinations (6.38% vs. 5.83%, P<0.0001). After multivariable-adjustment, the OR (95% CI) for diabetes status was 0.816 (0.652–1.021); and for diabetes duration <1 year, 1–3 years, 3–5 years and ?5 years vs. non-diabetes was 0.071 (0.010–0.507), 0.450 (0.250–0.813), 0.374 (0.203–0.689) and 1.159 (0.914–1.470), respectively. Among the anti-diabetic agents, only sulfonylurea was significantly associated with thyroid cancer, OR (95% CI): 1.882 (1.202–2.947). The OR (95% CI) for insulin, metformin, acarbose, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone was 1.701 (0.860–3.364), 0.696 (0.419–1.155), 0.581 (0.202–1.674), 0.522 (0.069–3.926) and 0.669 (0.230–1.948), respectively. Furthermore, patients with benign thyroid disease or other cancer, living in Kao-Ping/Eastern regions, or receiving potential detection examinations might have a significantly higher risk; and male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, vascular complications or use of statin, aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs might be associated with a significantly lower risk. Conclusions There is a lack of an overall association between diabetes and thyroid cancer, but patients with diabetes duration <5 years have a significantly lower risk. Sulfonylurea may increase the risk of thyroid cancer. PMID:23300866

  6. Infection risk in patients on multiple sclerosis therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Eric M; Berger, Joseph R

    2015-03-01

    The interface of multiple sclerosis (MS) and infection occurs on several levels. First, infectious disease has been postulated as a potential trigger, if not cause, of MS. Second, exacerbation of MS has been well-documented as a consequence of infection, and, lastly, infectious diseases have been recognized as a complication of the therapies currently employed in the treatment of MS. MS is a disease in which immune dysregulation is a key component. Examination of central nervous system (CNS) tissue of people affected by MS demonstrates immune cell infiltration, activation and inflammation. Therapies that alter the immune response have demonstrated efficacy in reducing relapse rates and evidence of brain inflammation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Despite the altered immune response in MS, there is a lack of evidence that these patients are at increased risk of infectious disease in the absence of treatment or debility. Links between infections and disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) used in MS will be discussed in this review, as well as estimates of occurrence and ways to potentially minimize these risks. We address infection in MS in a comprehensive fashion, including (1) the impact of infections on relapse rates in patients with MS; (2) a review of available infection data from pivotal trials and postmarketing studies for the approved and experimental DMTs, including frequency, types and severity of infections; and (3) relevant risk minimization strategies, particularly as they pertain to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PMID:25761739

  7. Cardiometabolic risk factors among HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We assessed the early effects of cART on CVD risk markers in a population with presumed low CVD risk. Methods Adult patients (n=118) in Lusaka, Zambia were recruited at the time of initiation of cART for HIV/AIDS. Cardiometabolic risk factors were measured before and 90?days after starting cART. Participants were grouped according to cART regimens: Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine (n=58); Stavudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine (n=43); and ‘other’ (Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Efavirenz, Stavudine + Lamivudine + Efavirenz, Tenofovir + Emtricitabine + Efavirenz or Tenofovir + Emtricitabine + Nevirapine, n=17). ANOVA was used to test whether changes in cardiometabolic risk markers varied by cART regimen. Results From baseline to 90?days after initiation of cART, the prevalence of low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<1.04?mmol/L for men and <1.30?mmol/L for women) significantly decreased (78.8% vs. 34.8%, P<0.001) while elevated total cholesterol (TC ?5.18?mmol/L, 5.1% vs. 11.9%, P=0.03) and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance ?3.0 (1.7% vs. 17.0%, P<0.001) significantly increased. The prevalence of TC:HDL-c ratio ?5.0 significantly decreased (44.9% vs. 6.8%, P<0.001). These changes in cardiometabolic risk markers were independent of the cART regimen. Conclusion Our results suggest that short-term cART is associated with a cardioprotective lipid profile in Zambia and a tendency towards insulin resistance regardless of the cART regimen. PMID:23575345

  8. Surgical mortality score: Risk management tool for auditing surgical performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vassilis G. Hadjianastassiou; Jan D. Poloniecki; Manolis C. Gavalas; David R. Goldhill

    2004-01-01

    Existing methods of risk adjustment in surgical audit are complex and costly. The present study aimed to develop a simple\\u000a risk stratification score for mortality and a robust audit tool using the existing resources of the hospital Patient Administration\\u000a System (PAS) database. This was an observational study for all patients undergoing surgical procedures over a two-year period,\\u000a at a London

  9. Risk-assessment-based approach to patients exposed to endoscopes contaminated with Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Robertson, P; Smith, A; Mead, A; Smith, I; Khanna, N; Wright, P; Joannidis, P; Boyd, S; Anderson, M; Hamilton, A; Shaw, D; Stewart, A

    2015-05-01

    Patients exposed to bronchoscopes contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa are at increased risk of pseudomonal infection. The optimal methods for management and mitigation of risk following exposure are controversial. This article describes a two-phase risk assessment following pseudomonal contamination of a family of 75 endoscopes, detected through routine surveillance and attributed to one endoscope washer-disinfector. An initial risk assessment identified 18 endoscopes as high risk, based on the presence of lumens used for irrigation or biopsy. Exposure was communicated to the patients' clinical teams and a further clinical risk assessment of the exposed patients was performed. No patients developed complications due to pseudomonal infection. PMID:25676110

  10. Combining clinical risk with D-dimer testing to rule out deep vein thrombosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaveh Ilkhanipour; Allan B. Wolfson; Heather Walker; Jason Cillo; Susan Rolniak; Pamela Cockley; David Mooradian; Sandra Kaplan

    2004-01-01

    We sought to determine whether the combination of low-intermediate clinical risk of acute lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and negative ELISA D-dimer assay can eliminate the need for duplex ultrasonography. Three hundred thirty-six patients prospectively underwent clinical risk stratification (low, intermediate, and high), D-dimer testing, and duplex ultrasonography. Thirteen of 145 intermediate-risk patients had acute DVT; 11 (85%) had

  11. Myocardial Infarction Risk Among Fracture Patients Receiving Bisphosphonates

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, Cory B.; Davis, Lisa A.; Zeringue, Angelique L.; Caplan, Liron; Wehmeier, Kent R.; Scherrer, Jeffrey F.; Xian, Hong; Cunningham, Francesca E.; McDonald, Jay R.; Arnold, Alexis; Eisen, Seth A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if bisphosphonates are associated with reduced risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Patients and Methods A cohort of 14,256 veterans 65 years or older with femoral or vertebral fractures was selected from national administrative databases operated by the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), and were derived from encounters at VA facilities between October 1, 1998, and September 30, 2006. The time-to-first AMI was assessed in relation to bisphosphonate exposure as determined by records from the Pharmacy Benefits Management Database (PBM). Time-to-event analysis was performed using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. An adjusted survival analysis curve and a Kaplan-Meier survival curve were analyzed. Results After controlling for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk factors and medications, bisphosphonate use was associated with an increased risk of incident AMI (HR 1.38; 95% CI, 1.08–1.77; P=0.012). The timing of AMI correlated closely with the timing of bisphosphonate therapy initiation. Conclusion These observations conflict with our hypothesis that bisphosphonates have anti-atherogenic effects, and may alter the risk-benefit ratio of bisphosphonate use for treatment of osteoporosis, especially in elderly men. However, further analysis and confirmation of these findings by prospective clinical trials is required. PMID:24388021

  12. Diabetes mellitus increases risk for colorectal adenomas in younger patients

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Hongha T; Ufere, Nneka; Yan, Yan; Wang, Jean S; Early, Dayna S; Elwing, Jill E

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine if diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increased risk of colorectal adenomas in younger subjects. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 375 patients undergoing index colonoscopy at a single tertiary care center in the United States. Three cohorts of patients matched for exam date and gender were compared: (1) ages 40-49 years with DM; (2) ages 40-49 years without DM; and (3) ages 50-59 years without DM. Data collected included demographics, co-morbidities, colonoscopy and pathology results. Adenoma detection rates (ADR) were calculated and compared. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between each cohort and ADR. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-five patients ages 40-49 with DM met study eligibility criteria. Patients in the other two cohorts were randomly selected, matching for date of exam and gender. ADR was 14.4% in those ages 40-49 years without DM, 30.4% in those ages 40-49 years with DM, and 32.0% in those ages 50-59 years without DM. Compared to those ages 40-49 years without DM, ADR was higher in those ages 40-49 years with DM (OR = 3.1; 95%CI: 1.5-6.4; P = 0.002) and those ages 50-59 years without DM (OR = 2.9; 95%CI: 1.5-5.6; P = 0.002). There was no difference between the ADR in those ages 40-49 years with DM and those ages 50-59 years without DM (P = 0.83). CONCLUSION: DM was associated with higher risk of colorectal adenomas in patients ages 40-49 years. These subjects harbored as many adenomas as those at the standard screening age of 50-59 years without DM. PMID:24944487

  13. Risk Factors of Lymph Edema in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shahpar, Haghighat; Atieh, Akbari; Maryam, Ansari; Fatemeh, Homaei Shandiz; Massoome, Najafi; Mandana, Ebrahimi; Masud, Yunesian; Hamid Reza, Mirzaei; Mohammad Esmaeil, Akbari

    2013-01-01

    Background. Lymphedema secondary to breast cancer treatment is a common and serious problem for disease survivors. The objective of the current study was to identify the risk factors of secondary lymphedema after breast carcinoma treatment. Materials & Methods. The breast cancer patients who were followed up in three centers in Tehran and Mashhad in 2010 were recruited in the study. The circumference measurement was used for defining lymphedema. Results. Among 410 breast cancer patients, 123 cases (30%) developed lymphedema. Variables such as low educational level, body mass index (BMI), higher stage of disease, number of involved lymph nodes, comorbid diseases, trauma, infection, and the time after surgery showed significant correlation with the development of lymphedema. In logistic regression analysis, increase of 1?kg/m2 in BMI (OR?=?1.09; 95%??CI 1.05–1.15), each number increase in lymph node involvement (OR?=?1.15; 95%??CI 1.08–1.21) and the increase of every 1 month after surgery (OR?=?1.01; 95%??CI 1.01–1.02) significantly increased the risk of lymphedema. Conclusion. The results of this study demonstrated that preserving a fitted BMI, emphasis on self-care, and educating preventive activities may have important roles in decreasing the lymphedema incidence and improving the patients' quality of life. PMID:23862068

  14. Transcranial Doppler Monitoring During Carotid Endarterectomy Helps to Identify Patients at Risk of Postoperative Hyperperfusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JE Dalman; ICM Beenakkers; FL Moll; JA Leusink; RGA Ackerstaff

    1999-01-01

    Objectives: to investigate whether transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring can identify patients at risk of hyperperfusion, and whether active postoperative treatment of selected patients decreases the risk of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Design: a case cohort study of 688 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) with intraoperative TCD monitoring. Methods: sixty-two patients (9%) fulfilled the TCD criteria for hyperperfusion, i.e. >100% increase of

  15. Stratification of complexity improves the utility and accuracy of outcomes analysis in a Multi-Institutional Congenital Heart Surgery Database: Application of the Risk Adjustment in Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) and Aristotle Systems in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Congenital Heart Surgery Database.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Jacobs, Marshall L; Lacour-Gayet, Francois G; Jenkins, Kathy J; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Bacha, Emile; Maruszewski, Bohdan; Clarke, David R; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Gaynor, J William; Spray, Thomas L; Stellin, Giovanni; O'Bien, Sean M; Elliott, Martin J; Mavroudis, Constantine

    2009-11-01

    Quality-of-care evaluation must take into account variations in "ase mix."This study reviewed the application of two case-mix complexity-adjustment tools in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Congenital Heart Surgery Database: the Aristotle Basic Complexity (ABC) score and the Risk Adjustment in Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) method. The 2006 STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database Report, the first STS report to incorporate both methods, included 45,635 operations from 47 centers. Each operation was assigned an ABC score in a range from 1.5 (lowest complexity) to 15 (highest complexity), an ABC level in a range from 1 (lowest complexity) to 4 (highest complexity), and a RACHS-1 category in a range from 1 (lowest risk) to 6 (highest risk). The overall discharge mortality was 3.9% (1,222/31,719 eligible cardiac index operations). Of the eligible cardiac index operations, 85.8% (27,202/31,719) were eligible for analysis by the RACHS-1 method, and 94.0% (29,813/31,719) were eligible for analysis by the ABC approach. With both RACHS-1 and ABC, as complexity increases, discharge mortality also ncreases. The ABC approach allows classification of more operations, whereas the RACHS-1 discriminates better at the higher end of complexity. Complexity stratification is a useful method for analyzing the impact of case mix on pediatric cardiac surgical outcomes. Both the RACHS-1 and ABC methods facilitate complexity stratification in the STS database. PMID:19771463

  16. A novel programme to evaluate and communicate 10-year risk of CHD reduces predicted risk and improves patients' modifiable risk factor profile

    PubMed Central

    Benner, J S; Erhardt, L; Flammer, M; Moller, R A; Rajicic, N; Changela, K; Yunis, C; Cherry, S B; Gaciong, Z; Johnson, E S; Sturkenboom, M C J M; García-Puig, J; Girerd, X

    2008-01-01

    Aims We assessed whether a novel programme to evaluate/communicate predicted coronary heart disease (CHD) risk could lower patients' predicted Framingham CHD risk vs. usual care. Methods The Risk Evaluation and Communication Health Outcomes and Utilization Trial was a prospective, controlled, cluster-randomised trial in nine European countries, among patients at moderate cardiovascular risk. Following baseline assessments, physicians in the intervention group calculated patients' predicted CHD risk and were instructed to advise patients according to a risk evaluation/communication programme. Usual care physicians did not calculate patients' risk and provided usual care only. The primary end-point was Framingham 10-year CHD risk at 6 months with intervention vs. usual care. Results Of 1103 patients across 100 sites, 524 patients receiving intervention, and 461 receiving usual care, were analysed for efficacy. After 6 months, mean predicted risks were 12.5% with intervention, and 13.7% with usual care [odds ratio = 0.896; p = 0.001, adjusted for risk at baseline (17.2% intervention; 16.9% usual care) and other covariates]. The proportion of patients achieving both blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets was significantly higher with intervention (25.4%) than usual care (14.1%; p < 0.001), and 29.3% of smokers in the intervention group quit smoking vs. 21.4% of those receiving usual care (p = 0.04). Conclusions A physician-implemented CHD risk evaluation/communication programme improved patients' modifiable risk factor profile, and lowered predicted CHD risk compared with usual care. By combining this strategy with more intensive treatment to reduce residual modifiable risk, we believe that substantial improvements in cardiovascular disease prevention could be achieved in clinical practice. PMID:18691228

  17. Exercise and cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sharman, James E; La Gerche, Andre; Coombes, Jeff S

    2015-02-01

    Evidence for the benefits of regular exercise is irrefutable and increasing physical activity levels should be a major goal at all levels of health care. People with hypertension are less physically active than those without hypertension and there is strong evidence supporting the blood pressure-lowering ability of regular exercise, especially in hypertensive individuals. This narrative review discusses evidence relating to exercise and cardiovascular (CV) risk in people with hypertension. Comparisons between aerobic, dynamic resistance, and static resistance exercise have been made along with the merit of different exercise volumes. High-intensity interval training and isometric resistance training appear to have strong CV protective effects, but with limited data in hypertensive people, more work is needed in this area. Screening recommendations, exercise prescriptions, and special considerations are provided as a guide to decrease CV risk among hypertensive people who exercise or wish to begin. It is recommended that hypertensive individuals should aim to perform moderate intensity aerobic exercise activity for at least 30 minutes on most (preferably all) days of the week in addition to resistance exercises on 2-3 days/week. Professionals with expertise in exercise prescription may provide additional benefit to patients with high CV risk or in whom more intense exercise training is planned. Despite lay and media perceptions, CV events associated with exercise are rare and the benefits of regular exercise far outweigh the risks. In summary, current evidence supports the assertion of exercise being a cornerstone therapy in reducing CV risk and in the prevention, treatment, and control of hypertension. PMID:25305061

  18. Long-term suicide risk in forensic psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Martin; Davies, Steffan; Hollin, Clive; Duggan, Conor

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study was to describe the rate of suicide and other causes of death in first admissions to a (medium) secure forensic psychiatric facility. All 595 patients were followed up for a maximum of 20 years. Death certificates were obtained and Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were calculated. At the June 2003 census, 57 patients (9.6%) had died of whom 18 (3.0%) had committed suicide; if deaths categorized as open verdicts are included the number rises to 26 (4.4%). The SMR for death by suicide was higher for a Mental Health Act classification of Mental Illness (SMR = 3,553) compared to Psychopathic Disorder (SMR = 1,892). The risks of mortality in this population are high from any cause, particularly from suicide. PMID:21293997

  19. Perioperative Glucose Control and Infection Risk in Older Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Lona

    2014-01-01

    The aging of the U.S. population is leading to an increasing number of surgical procedures performed on older adults. At the same time, the quality of medical care is being more closely scrutinized. Surgical site infection is a widely-assessed outcome. Evidence suggests that strict perioperative serum glucose control among patients with or without diabetes can lower the risk of these infections, but it is unclear whether this control should be applied to older surgical patients. In this clinical review, we discuss current research on perioperative serum glucose management for cardiothoracic, orthopedic, and general/colorectal surgery. In addition, we summarize clinical recommendations and quality-of-care process indicators provided by surgical, diabetes, and geriatric medical organizations. PMID:25431751

  20. Risk Factors for Mortality in Patients with Serratia marcescens Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Bean; Jeon, Yong Duk; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Jae Kyoung; Ann, Hea Won; Choi, Heun; Kim, Min Hyung; Song, Je Eun; Ahn, Jin Young; Jeong, Su Jin; Han, Sang Hoon; Choi, Jun Yong; Song, Young Goo; Kim, June Myung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Over the last 30 years, Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) has emerged as an important pathogen, and a common cause of nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with mortality in patients with S. marcescens bacteremia. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of 98 patients who had one or more blood cultures positive for S. marcescens between January 2006 and December 2012 in a tertiary care hospital in Seoul, South Korea. Multiple risk factors were compared with association with 28-day all-cause mortality. Results The 28-day mortality was 22.4% (22/98 episodes). In a univariate analysis, the onset of bacteremia during the intensive care unit stay (p=0.020), serum albumin level (p=0.011), serum C-reactive protein level (p=0.041), presence of indwelling urinary catheter (p=0.023), and Sequential Oran Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at the onset of bacteremia (p<0.001) were significantly different between patients in the fatal and non-fatal groups. In a multivariate analysis, lower serum albumin level and an elevated SOFA score were independently associated with 28-day mortality [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.206, 95% confidential interval (CI) 0.044-0.960, p=0.040, and adjusted OR 1.474, 95% CI 1.200-1.810, p<0.001, respectively]. Conclusion Lower serum albumin level and an elevated SOFA score were significantly associated with adverse outcomes in patients with S. marcescens bacteremia. PMID:25683980

  1. [Safe patient care: safety culture and risk management in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    St Pierre, M

    2013-04-01

    Safety culture is positioned at the heart of an organisation's vulnerability to error because of its role in framing organizational awareness to risk and in providing and sustaining effective strategies of risk management. Safety related attitudes of leadership and management play a crucial role in the development of a mature safety culture ("top-down process"). A type marker for organizational culture and thus a predictor for an organizations maturity in respect to safety is information flow and in particular an organization's general way of coping with information that suggests anomaly. As all values and beliefs, relationships, learning, and other aspects of organizational safety culture are about sharing and processing information, safety culture has been termed "informed culture". An informed culture is free of blame and open for information provided by incidents. "Incident reporting systems" are the backbone of a reporting culture, where good information flow is likely to support and encourage other kinds of cooperative behavior, such as problem solving, innovation, and inter-departmental bridging. Another facet of an informed culture is the free flow of information during perioperative patient care. The World Health Organisation's "safe surgery checklist" is the most prevalent example of a standardized information exchange aimed at preventing patient harm due to information deficit. In routine tasks mandatory standard operating procedures have gained widespread acceptance in guaranteeing the highest possible process quality.Technical and non-technical skills of healthcare professionals are the decisive human resource for an efficient and safe delivery of patient care and the avoidance of errors. The systematic enhancement of staff qualification by providing training opportunities can be a major investment in patient safety. In recent years several otorhinolaryngology departments have started to incorporate simulation based team trainings into their curriculum. PMID:23625714

  2. Safe patient care – safety culture and risk management in otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    St. Pierre, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Safety culture is positioned at the heart of an organization’s vulnerability to error because of its role in framing organizational awareness to risk and in providing and sustaining effective strategies of risk management. Safety related attitudes of leadership and management play a crucial role in the development of a mature safety culture (“top-down process”). A type marker for organizational culture and thus a predictor for an organization’s maturity in respect to safety is information flow and in particular an organization’s general way of coping with information that suggests anomaly. As all values and beliefs, relationships, learning, and other aspects of organizational safety culture are about sharing and processing information, safety culture has been termed “informed culture”. An informed culture is free of blame and open for information provided by incidents. “Incident reporting systems” are the backbone of a reporting culture, where good information flow is likely to support and encourage other kinds of cooperative behavior, such as problem solving, innovation, and inter-departmental bridging. Another facet of an informed culture is the free flow of information during perioperative patient care. The World Health Organization’s safe surgery checklist” is the most prevalent example of a standardized information exchange aimed at preventing patient harm due to information deficit. In routine tasks mandatory standard operating procedures have gained widespread acceptance in guaranteeing the highest possible process quality. Technical and non-technical skills of healthcare professionals are the decisive human resource for an efficient and safe delivery of patient care and the avoidance of errors. The systematic enhancement of staff qualification by providing training opportunities can be a major investment in patient safety. In recent years several otorhinolaryngology departments have started to incorporate stimulation based team trainings into their curriculum. PMID:24403977

  3. Risk Factors for Asymptomatic Ventricular Dysfunction in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Garza-García, Carlos; Rocío, Sánchez-Santillán; Orea-Tejeda, Arturo; Castillo-Martínez, Lilia; Eduardo, Canseco; López-Campos, José Luis; Keirns-Davis, Candace

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study was to describe echocardiographic abnormalities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, concurrent systemic comorbidities, rheumatologic clinical activity, serologic markers of rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory activity. Methods. In an observational, cross-sectional study, rheumatoid arthritis outpatients were included (n = 105). Conventional transthoracic echocardiographic variables were compared between patients with arthritis and non-RA controls (n = 41). For rheumatoid arthritis patients, articular activity and rheumatologic and inflammatory markers were obtained. Results. Ventricular dysfunction was found in 54.3% of the population: systolic (18.1%), diastolic (32.4%), and/or right (24.8%), with lower ejection fraction (P < 0.0001). Pulmonary hypertension was found in 46.9%. Other echocardiographic findings included increased left atrial diameter (P = 0.01), aortic diameter (P = 0.01), ventricular septum (P = 0.01), left ventricular posterior wall (P = 0.013), and right ventricular (P = 0.01) and atrial diameters compared to control subjects. Rheumatoid factor and anti-CCP antibodies levels were significantly elevated in cases with ventricular dysfunction. Angina and myocardial infarction, diabetes, and dyslipidemia were the main risk factors for ventricular dysfunction. Conclusions. Ventricular dysfunction is common in rheumatoid arthritis and associated with longer disease duration and increased serologic markers of rheumatoid arthritis. Screening for cardiac abnormalities should be considered in this kind of patients. PMID:24368945

  4. The Readmission Risk Flag: Using the Electronic Health Record to Automatically Identify Patients at Risk for 30-day Readmission

    PubMed Central

    Baillie, Charles A.; VanZandbergen, Christine; Tait, Gordon; Hanish, Asaf; Leas, Brian; French, Benjamin; Hanson, C. William; Behta, Maryam; Umscheid, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Identification of patients at high risk for readmission is a crucial step toward improving care and reducing readmissions. The adoption of electronic health records (EHR) may prove important to strategies designed to risk stratify patients and introduce targeted interventions. Objective To develop and implement an automated prediction model integrated into our health system’s EHR that identifies on admission patients at high risk for readmission within 30 days of discharge. Design Retrospective and prospective cohort. Setting Healthcare system consisting of three hospitals. Patients All adult patients admitted from August 2009 to September 2012. Interventions An automated readmission risk flag integrated into the EHR. Measures Thirty-day all-cause and 7-day unplanned healthcare system readmissions. Results Using retrospective data, a single risk factor, ?2 inpatient admissions in the past 12 months, was found to have the best balance of sensitivity (40%), positive predictive value (31%), and proportion of patients flagged (18%), with a c-statistic of 0.62. Sensitivity (39%), positive predictive value (30%), proportion of patients flagged (18%) and c-statistic (0.61) during the 12-month period after implementation of the risk flag were similar. There was no evidence for an effect of the intervention on 30-day all-cause and 7-day unplanned readmission rates in the 12-month period after implementation. Conclusions An automated prediction model was effectively integrated into an existing EHR and identified patients on admission who were at risk for readmission within 30 days of discharge. PMID:24227707

  5. Intensification treatment based on early FDG-PET in patients with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a phase II GELTAMO trial.

    PubMed

    Pardal, Emilia; Coronado, Mónica; Martín, Alejandro; Grande, Carlos; Marín-Niebla, Ana; Panizo, Carlos; Bello, José Luis; Conde, Eulogio; Hernández, Miguel T; Arranz, Reyes; Bargay, Joan; González-Barca, Eva; Pérez-Ceballos, Elena; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Caballero, María Dolores

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a multicentre, phase II study of interim positron emission tomography (PET) as a guide to risk-adapted therapy in high-risk patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Patients achieving negative fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET after three courses of R-MegaCHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) received three additional courses, whereas PET-positive patients received two courses of R-IFE (rituximab, ifosfamide, etoposide) followed by BEAM (BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan) and autologous stem-cell transplantation. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). 71 patients (median age 55 years, range 25-69) were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 42·8 months (range 7·2-58·4), the estimated 4-year PFS and overall survival (OS) were 67% and 78%, respectively, for the global series. Patients in complete remission after interim PET (N = 36) had significantly better 3-year PFS than those with partial response (N = 30) [81% vs. 57%, Hazard ratio (HR) = 2·6, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·02-6·65] but not a statistically significant longer OS. A retrospective PET central review was done for 51 patients. According to semiquantitative analysis, 3-year PFS (81% vs. 33%; HR = 6·9, 95% CI = 2·35-20·6) and OS (95% vs. 33%, HR = 19·4, 95% CI = 3·89-97·0) were significantly better for negative than for positive interim PET patients. Early PET assessment is valuable for risk stratification in DLBCL; for this purpose semiquantitative evaluation is a better predictor than visual criteria. PMID:25066542

  6. Chemical stratification of the mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    A possible scenario for the chemical stratification of the earth's mantle is presented. Differentiation of the mantle by either the production of basaltic magmas or partial melting by the upper mantle is proposed to lead to a thick basalt layer, the lower part of which is converted to eclogite as the earth cools. Density estimates indicate that the eclogite formed would not be able to sink to below 670 km. The eclogite layer is thus demonstrated to be trapped as a result of whole-mantle convection and possible irreversible differentiation of the mantle into eclogite and overlying residual peridotite layers.

  7. Liver Stiffness Is Associated With Risk of Decompensation, Liver Cancer, and Death in Patients With Chronic Liver Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Siddharth; Fujii, Larissa L.; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Wang, Zhen; Asrani, Sumeet K.; Ehman, Richard L.; Kamath, Patrick S.; Talwalkar, Jayant A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Liver stiffness measurement (LSM), using elastography, can independently predict outcomes of patients with chronic liver diseases (CLDs). However, there is much variation in reporting and consistency of findings. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between LSM and outcomes of patients with CLDs. METHODS We performed a systematic review of the literature, through February 2013, for studies that followed up patients with CLDs prospectively for at least 6 months and reported the association between baseline LSM and subsequent development of decompensated cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as well as mortality. Summary relative risk (RR) estimates per unit of LSM and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using the random effects model. RESULTS Our final analysis included 17 studies, reporting on 7058 patients with CLDs. Baseline LSM was associated significantly with risk of hepatic decompensation (6 studies; RR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03–1.11), HCC (9 studies; RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.05–1.18), death (5 studies; RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.05–1.43), or a composite of these outcomes (7 studies; RR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.16–1.51). We observed considerable heterogeneity among studies—primarily in the magnitude of effect, rather than the direction of effect. This heterogeneity could not be explained by variations in study locations, etiologies and stages of CLD, techniques to measure liver stiffness, adjustment for covariates, or method of imputing relationship in the meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS Based on a meta-analysis of cohort studies, the degree of liver stiffness is associated with risk of decompensated cirrhosis, HCC, and death in patients with CLDs. LSM therefore might be used in risk stratification. PMID:23954643

  8. Relation between stroke volume index to risk of death in patients with low-gradient severe aortic stenosis and preserved left ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Maor, Elad; Beigel, Roy; Grupper, Avishay; Kuperstein, Rafael; Hai, Ilan; Medvedofsky, Diego; Perelstein, Olga; Mazin, Israel; Ziv, Asaf; Goldenberg, Ilan; Feinberg, Micha S; Ben Zekry, Sagit

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether assessment of stroke volume index (SVI) can be used to improve risk stratification among patients with low-gradient severe aortic stenosis and preserved ejection fraction (EF). Study population comprised 409 patients with aortic valve area ?1.00 cm(2), mean gradient <40 mm Hg, and a normal EF (?50%) who were followed up in a tertiary referral center from 2004 to 2012. Echocardiographic parameters and clinical data were collected. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to evaluate the association between SVI and the risk of all-cause mortality. Mean age of study patients was 78 ± 11 years, and 42% were men. The mean SVI was 39 ± 7 ml/m(2) (tertile 1 = 32 ± 4 ml/m(2); tertile 2 = 39 ± 1 ml/m(2); tertile 3 = 47 ± 4 ml/m(2)). Multivariate analysis showed that the SVI was the most powerful echocardiographic parameter associated with long-term outcome: each 5 ml/m(2) reduction in SVI was associated with a 20% increase in adjusted mortality risk (p = 0.01). Consistently, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the cumulative probability of survival during 3 years of follow-up was 60%, 72%, and 73% among patients in the low-, intermediate-, and high-SVI groups, respectively (p = 0.012). Our findings suggest that in patients with low-gradient severe aortic stenosis and preserved EF, there is a graded inverse relation between SVI and the risk of long-term mortality. PMID:24948491

  9. Effect of patient risk on the volume-outcome relationship in obstetric delivery services.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Soo; Kwak, Jin-Mi

    2014-12-01

    Health care organizations that offer more delivery services are assumed to provide better quality of care, and a higher rate of cesarean section (CS) is generally assumed to be an indicator of poor quality of care. This study analyzed whether the volume-outcome relationship in delivery services, measured by the rate of CS, differed depending on the risk status of delivery patients. Delivery claims were identified in the National Patient Sample (NPS) for 2009. The study hospitals were categorized into low and high delivery-volume groups, and patients were categorized into three risk groups (below average, medium, and high) based on their risk status. Risk factors were included in the adjustment model to identify differences among patients and produce risk-adjusted CS rates. Risk-adjusted CS rates did not differ significantly between patients in low- and high-volume hospitals when the sample was not divided according to risk status. However, when the sample was divided according to patient risk status, significant differences in risk-adjusted CS rates in the below-average- and medium-risk groups were revealed between low- and high-volume hospitals. No such significant difference was observed for the high-risk group. The largest difference in CS rates between low- and high-volume hospitals was observed in the medium-risk group, and the high-risk group showed the smallest difference between the two volume groups. The high-risk group had the highest CS rates, and the below-average-risk group had the lowest CS rates. Although we found the traditional volume-outcome relationship in delivery patients, the data also revealed that patient risk status influenced this relationship. Policies and interventions based on volume-outcome theory should differ according to patient risk status. PMID:24957418

  10. [Asplenia in the Hodgkin's patient].

    PubMed

    Gardembas-Pain, M; Mege, M; Pabot du Chatelard, P

    2003-09-01

    FEWER INDICATIONS AFTER SPLENECTOMY: Real therapeutic progress has been achieved over the last fifty years for patients with Hodgkin's disease known for their chronic immunodepression. Since the advent of effective chemotherapy protocols such as ABVD, and more recently intensive chemotherapy completed as needed with an autograft, splenectomy is no longer performed for therapeutic purposes but may be indicated for its contribution to diagnosis. STRATIFICATION OF RISK OF ASPLENISM: There remain however several questions concerning the infectious complications in these patients given chemotherapy and splenic radiotherapy. One of the objectives of this work was to propose a stratification of risk of asplenism as a function of treatments administered, the level of initial immunodepression, and the age of the patient. PMID:14631638

  11. The Impact of Vascular Access for In-Hospital Major Bleeding in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome at Moderate- to Very High-Bleeding Risk

    PubMed Central

    Park, Keun-Ho; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jung, Sang Sik; Kim, Moo Hyun; Yang, Hyoung-Mo; Yoon, Junghan; Rha, Seung Woon; Park, Keum Soo; Han, Kyoo Rok; Cho, Byung Ryul; Cha, Kwang Soo; Kim, Byung Ok; Hyon, Min Soo; Shin, Won-Yong; Choe, Hyunmin; Bae, Jang-Whan; Kim, Hee Yeol

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the impact of vascular access on in-hospital major bleeding (IHMB) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We analyzed 995 patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina at the Can Rapid risk stratification of Unstable angina patients Suppress ADverse outcomes with Early implementation of the ACC/AHA guidelines (CRUSADE) moderate- to very high-bleeding risk scores in trans-radial intervention (TRI) retrospective registry from 16 centers in Korea. A total of 402 patients received TRI and 593 patients did trans-femoral intervention (TFI). The primary end-point was IHMB as defined in the CRUSADE. There were no significant differences in in-hospital and 1-yr mortality rates between two groups. However, TRI had lower incidences of IHMB and blood transfusion than TFI (6.0% vs 9.4%, P = 0.048; 4.5% vs 9.4%, P = 0.003). The patients suffered from IHMB had higher incidences of in-hospital and 1-yr mortality than those free from IHMB (3.1% vs 15.0%, P < 0.001; 7.2% vs 30.0%, P < 0.001). TRI was an independent negative predictor of IHMB (odds ratio, 0.305; 95% confidence interval, 0.109-0.851; P = 0.003). In conclusions, IHMB is still significantly correlated with in-hospital and 1-yr mortality. Our study suggests that compared to TFI, TRI could reduce IHMB in patients with ACS at moderate- to very high-bleeding risk. PMID:24015035

  12. Safety and cost-effectiveness of MIDCABG in high-risk CABG patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dario F Del Rizzo; W. Douglas Boyd; Richard J Novick; F. Neil McKenzie; Nemish D Desai; Alan H Menkis

    1998-01-01

    Background. Myocardial revascularization without cardiopulmonary bypass has been proposed as a potential therapeutic alternative in high-risk patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. To evaluate this possibility we compared 15 high-risk (HR) patients in whom minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting was used as the method of revascularization with 41 consecutive patients who underwent conventional coronary artery bypass grafting during

  13. Thailand Diabetes Registry Project: Prevalence and Risk Factors of Stroke in Thai Diabetic Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nattachet Plengvidhya

    2006-01-01

    Results: The prevalence of stroke in the patients studied was 3.5%. Most of the patients were type 2 diabetes and had ischemic stroke. One of the risk factors associated with stroke was age greater than 60 years, and the risk appeared to be highest if the patients' age was greater than 70 years (adjust OR = 3.29, p = 0.012).

  14. The Use of Biomarkers for the Evaluation and Treatment of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy K. Saenger; Allan S. Jaffe

    2007-01-01

    The advent of inexpensive, highly accurate, and predictive markers of myocardial injury, inflammation, and hemodynamic stability has revolu- tionized the evaluation and treatment of patients who have acute coronary syndromes (ACSs). These blood biomarkers require small sample volumes, can be run expeditiously, and provide important information concerning the diagnosis, risk stratification, and treatment of these patients. To understand the use

  15. Obesity and type 2 diabetes: which patients are at risk?

    PubMed

    Garber, A J

    2012-05-01

    An estimated 72.5 million American adults are obese, and the growing US obesity epidemic is responsible for substantial increase in morbidity and mortality, as well as increased health care costs. Obesity results from a combination of personal and societal factors, but is often viewed as a character flaw rather than a medical condition. This leads to stigma and discrimination towards obese individuals and decreases the likelihood of effective intervention. Conditions related to obesity are increasingly common, such as metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), all of which indicate high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This paper reviews the progression from obesity to diabetes, identifying physiological changes that occur along this path as well as opportunities for patient identification and disease prevention. Patients with prediabetes (defined as having IFG, IGT or both) and/or metabolic syndrome require interventions designed to preserve insulin sensitivity and ?-cell function, both of which start to deteriorate prior to T2DM diagnosis. Lifestyle modification, including both healthy eating choices and increased physical activity, is essential for weight management and diabetes prevention. Although sustained weight loss is often considered by patients and physicians as being impossible to achieve, effective interventions do exist. Specifically, the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and programs modelled along its parameters have shown repeated successes, even with long-term maintenance. Recent setbacks in the development of medications for weight loss further stress the importance of lifestyle management. By viewing obesity as a metabolic disorder rather than a personal weakness, we can work with patients to address this increasingly prevalent condition and improve long-term health outcomes. PMID:22074144

  16. Risk factors for depression in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Artherholt, Samantha B; Hong, Fangxin; Berry, Donna L; Fann, Jesse R

    2014-07-01

    Despite the prevalence and known adverse impacts of depression after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), little is known about the trajectory of depression occurring after HCT, or which pretransplantation risk factors might help predict new or worsening post-HCT depression. This secondary analysis evaluated the relationships between pre-HCT patient-reported outcomes and demographic characteristics and post-HCT depression. A total of 228 adult HCT patients were evaluated pre-HCT (T1) and again at 6 to 7 weeks post-HCT (T2), using touch-screen computers in the transplantation clinic during participation in a larger trial. Measures evaluated included the Symptom Distress Scale, the EORTC QLQ-C30 for quality of life, a single-item pain intensity question, and the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 for measurement of depression. At T1, rates of depression were quite low, with only 6% of participants reporting moderate or higher depression. At T2, however, the prevalence of moderate or higher depression was 31%. We observed a strong linear relationship in PHQ-9 scores between T1 and T2 (P < .0001). Depression score at T1 was a significant predictor of depression score at T2 (P = .03), as was poorer emotional function at T1 (P < .01). Our results indicate that post-HCT depression is common, even in patients with a low pre-HCT depression score. Frequent screening for symptoms of depression at critical time points, including 6 to 7 weeks post-HCT, are needed in this population, followed by referrals to supportive care as appropriate. PMID:24650679

  17. Peri-operative risk management in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Di Nino, Gianfranco; Adversi, Marco; Samolsky Dekel, Boaz G; Fodale, Vincenzo; Rosa, Giovanni; Melotti, Rita M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to identify an evidence-based perioperative management for patients affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) that are scheduled to undergo surgery. This will minimize the negative effects of anesthesia and postoperative sedation and correct those perioperative variables possibly responsible for a decline in cognitive status and a worsening of AD. We here gather evidence on the importance of correct preoperative assessment regarding cognitive and functional status and the presence of preoperative delirium. The potential role of anesthesia, surgery, and postoperative analgosedation as risk factors for development of delirium are herein outlined. Finally, pain assessment instruments, as well as principles of management strategies for postoperative delirium in subjects with AD, are suggested. PMID:20930283

  18. Effect of Hypertension on Outcomes of High-Risk Patients After BCG-Treated Bladder Cancer: A Single-Institution Long Follow-Up Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Dal Moro, Fabrizio; Bovo, Alberto; Crestani, Alessandro; Vettor, Roberto; Gardiman, Marina P; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2015-03-01

    Immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most efficacious treatment for high-risk bladder cancer (BC) (Ta/T1 or carcinoma in situ) to reduce the risk of recurrence. Our aim was to evaluate whether hypertension and diabetes influence the outcome of patients with noninvasive BC treated with BCG instillations.In order to collect homogeneous data, we considered as "hypertensive" only those patients who had previous diagnosed hypertension and a history of taking medical therapy with antihypertensive drugs (AHT), and as "diabetic" only those prescribed oral antidiabetics or insulin (ADT).We analyzed 343 high-risk BC patients undergoing BCG (1995-2010) with a median follow-up of 116 months (range 48-238). The distribution of various kinds of AHT and antidiabetic drugs was homogeneous, with no significant differences (p?>?0.05).In both univariate and multivariate analyses, the only statistically significant parameter prognostic for recurrence after BCG treatment was AHT. Recurrence-free survival curves showed a significant correlation with AHT (p?=?0.0168, hazards ratio [HR] 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0692-1.9619); there was no correlation (p?=?0.9040) with ADT (HR 0.9750, 95% CI 0.6457-1.4721). After stratification of AHT and ADT according to drug(s) prescribed, there were no significant differences in the BC recurrence rate (p?>?0.05).In this study with a very long-term follow-up, hypertension alone (evaluated by AHT) revealed the increased risk of BC recurrence after BCG treatment.Several hypotheses have been formulated to support these findings, but further prospective studies are needed to both evaluate the real influence of hypertension and identify a possible prognostic factor to be used in selecting poor-prognosis BC patients as early candidates for surgical treatment. PMID:25738480

  19. Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Nonfunctional Adrenal Incidentaloma: Myth or Reality?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yesim Erbil; Nese Ozbey; Umut Barbaros; Haluk Recai Unalp; Artur Salmasl?oglu; Selçuk Özarmagan

    2009-01-01

    Background  It is not clear whether nonfunctional adrenal incidentaloma (NFA) increases the risk of atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome\\u000a or whether this type of adrenal tumor has been found more frequently in patients with cardiometabolic risk factors. We aimed\\u000a to determine the effects of NFA on cardiometabolic risk factors and endothelial function and to compare the patients with\\u000a a 1:1 cardiometabolic risk

  20. Risk factors target in patients with post-thyroidectomy bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Endong; Cai, Yefeng; Li, Quan; Cheng, Pu; Ni, Chunjue; Jin, Langping; Ji, Qianqing; Zhang, Xiaohua; Jin, Chun

    2014-01-01

    As the highly blood flow of thyroid gland post-thyroidectomy bleeding (PTB) is a serious and life-threatening complication. Our aim was to investigate factors that influenced bleeding after thyroidectomy. Between February 2008 and September 2012, the data of 4449 consecutive patients with thyroid diseases undergoing thyroidectomy were collected and analysed from the department of surgical oncology retrospectively. During the study period, 88 (2.0%) patients were identified to have clinically PTB. 6 risk factors were significantly related to PTB: gender (OR 3.243; 95% CI 2.078-5.061; P < 0.001), age (OR 1.025; 95% CI 1.006-1.043; P = 0.009), tumor size (OR 4.495; 95% CI 2.462-8.208; P < 0.001), postoperative hypertension (OR 2.195; 95% CI 1.006-1.043; P = 0.035), lymph node dissection (OR 3.384; 95% CI 2.146-5.339; P < 0.001) and Graves’ disease (OR 3.744; 95% CI 1.920-7.303; P < 0.001). We addressed the most common explicit source of bleeding by reexploration: infrahyoid muscles (30/88), beside the laryngeal recurrent nerve (22/88), subcutaneous tissue (10/88) and superior pole (10/88). In our study, male gender, older age, tumor size > 3 cm, postoperative hypertension (SP > 150 mmHg), lymph node dissection and Graves’ disease were independent risk factors for PTB. The sources of bleeding were identified more frequently in the infrahyoid muscles and beside the laryngeal recurrent nerve. It is helpful for surgeons to decide the potential bleeding points during the reexploration of PTB. PMID:25126188

  1. A multiplex RT-PCR assay for the detection of chimeric transcripts encoded by the risk-stratifying translocations of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Scurto; M Hsu Rocha; JR Kane; WK Williams; DM Haney; WP Conn; SA Shurtleff; JR Downing

    1998-01-01

    Modern therapy for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is based on the principle of risk stratification. One of the most important laboratory features used to accurately risk stratify patients is the presence of specific chromosomal translocation within the leukemic blasts. In this paper, we describe a multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the accurate, sensitive, and rapid identification

  2. STRATIFICATION OF LAKES Bertram Boehrer1

    E-print Network

    Jellinek, Mark

    overturns. Gradients may be a consequence of external inflows or groundwater seepage. In addition meromictic. Permanent stratification may also be created by episodic partial recharging of the deep water of stratification is required not only to prognosticate the future of our lakes but also to better interpret t

  3. Psoriasis and type 2 diabetes risk among psoriatic patients in a Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Armesto, Susana; Santos-Juanes, Jorge; Galache-Osuna, Cristina; Martinez-Camblor, Pablo; Coto, Eliecer; Coto-Segura, Pablo

    2012-05-01

    There is accumulating evidence showing a relationship between psoriasis and an increased risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors, including diabetes mellitus type 2 and ischemic heart disease. Our aim was to investigate if there is any difference in the diabetes risk profile among psoriatic patients based on clinical findings. To test this, we carried out a prospective and descriptive hospital-based study. Our results suggest that the highest risk of suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2 among psoriatic patients is in patients suffering from non-familial and late-onset disease and in patients suffering from psoriatic arthritis. PMID:22571562

  4. Social Stratification (Part I & II)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brent Marshall

    This exercise was developed for use in an upper-level sociology course that focuses on race and ethnicity. In this particular exercise, students complete a brief exercise in order to become acquainted with WebCHIP in order to complete the more lengthy Part II of the Social Stratification/Race and Ethnicity activity. This activity uses a customized data set made from the 1990 Census and guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!

  5. Stable density stratification solar pond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L. (inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A stable density-stratification solar pond for use in the collection and storage of solar thermal energy including a container having a first section characterized by an internal wall of a substantially cylindrical configuration and a second section having an internal wall of a substantially truncated conical configuration surmounting the first section in coaxial alignment therewith, the second section of said container being characterized by a base of a diameter substantially equal to the diameter of the first section and a truncated apex defining a solar energy acceptance opening is discussed. A body of immiscible liquids is disposed within the container and comprises a lower portion substantially filling the first section of the container and an upper portion substantially filling the second section of the container, said lower portion being an aqueous based liquid of a darker color than the upper portion and of a greater density. A protective cover plate is removably provided for covering the acceptance opening.

  6. Heart Failure Patients Who Struggle with Daily Tasks At Greatest Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Heart Failure Patients Who Struggle With Daily Tasks at Greatest Risk ... WEDNESDAY, Feb. 25, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Heart failure patients who struggle to perform daily tasks are at ...

  7. CT Scans Might Spot Heart Risks More Clearly in Patients with Chest Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Scans Might Spot Heart Risks More Clearly in Patients With Chest Pain Study found they changed treatments, ... a better job of diagnosing heart disease in patients with chest pain, compared to standard tests. A ...

  8. Breast Cancer Patients with High Density Mammograms Do Not Have Increased Risk of Death

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Immediate Release: Thursday, September 6, 2012 Breast cancer patients with high density mammograms do not have increased ... increase the risk of death among breast cancer patients, according to a study led by Gretchen L. ...

  9. Morbidity, mortality, and categorization of the risk of perioperative complications in lung cancer patients*

    PubMed Central

    Stanzani, Fabiana; Paisani, Denise de Moraes; de Oliveira, Anderson; de Souza, Rodrigo Caetano; Perfeito, João Aléssio Juliano; Faresin, Sonia Maria

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine morbidity and mortality rates by risk category in accordance with the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines, to determine what role pulmonary function tests play in this categorization process, and to identify risk factors for perioperative complications (PCs). METHODS: This was a historical cohort study based on preoperative and postoperative data collected for cases of lung cancer diagnosed or suspected between 2001 and 2010. RESULTS: Of the 239 patients evaluated, only 13 (5.4%) were classified as being at high risk of PCs. Predicted postoperative FEV1 (FEV1ppo) was sufficient to define the risk level in 156 patients (65.3%); however, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) was necessary for identifying those at high risk. Lung resection was performed in 145 patients. Overall morbidity and mortality rates were similar to those reported in other studies. However, morbidity and mortality rates for patients at an acceptable risk of PCs were 31.6% and 4.3%, respectively, whereas those for patients at high risk were 83.3% and 33.3%. Advanced age, COPD, lobe resection, and lower FEV1ppo were correlated with PCs. CONCLUSIONS: Although spirometry was sufficient for risk assessment in the majority of the population studied, CPET played a key role in the identification of high-risk patients, among whom the mortality rate was seven times higher than was that observed for those at an acceptable risk of PCs. The risk factors related to PCs coincided with those reported in previous studies. PMID:24626266

  10. Patient-specific radiation dose and cancer risk estimation in pediatric chest CT: a study in 30 patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Samei, Ehsan; Segars, W. Paul; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Colsher, James G.; Frush, Donald P.

    2010-04-01

    Radiation-dose awareness and optimization in CT can greatly benefit from a dosereporting system that provides radiation dose and cancer risk estimates specific to each patient and each CT examination. Recently, we reported a method for estimating patientspecific dose from pediatric chest CT. The purpose of this study is to extend that effort to patient-specific risk estimation and to a population of pediatric CT patients. Our study included thirty pediatric CT patients (16 males and 14 females; 0-16 years old), for whom full-body computer models were recently created based on the patients' clinical CT data. Using a validated Monte Carlo program, organ dose received by the thirty patients from a chest scan protocol (LightSpeed VCT, 120 kVp, 1.375 pitch, 40-mm collimation, pediatric body scan field-of-view) was simulated and used to estimate patient-specific effective dose. Risks of cancer incidence were calculated for radiosensitive organs using gender-, age-, and tissue-specific risk coefficients and were used to derive patientspecific effective risk. The thirty patients had normalized effective dose of 3.7-10.4 mSv/100 mAs and normalized effective risk of 0.5-5.8 cases/1000 exposed persons/100 mAs. Normalized lung dose and risk of lung cancer correlated strongly with average chest diameter (correlation coefficient: r = -0.98 to -0.99). Normalized effective risk also correlated strongly with average chest diameter (r = -0.97 to -0.98). These strong correlations can be used to estimate patient-specific dose and risk prior to or after an imaging study to potentially guide healthcare providers in justifying CT examinations and to guide individualized protocol design and optimization.

  11. Indications and therapeutic management of carotid stenosis in high-risk patients: SAPPHIRE and beyond.

    PubMed

    Munich, S A; Cress, M C; Krishna, C; Levy, E I

    2015-03-01

    Carotid artery revascularization is an effective means of stroke prevention in selected patients with carotid stenosis. Traditionally, carotid endarterectomy (CEA) was performed to achieve this goal. With the development of endovascular techniques and technologies, carotid artery stenting (CAS) has become a viable alternative to CEA, particularly in patients considered high risk for CEA. The Stenting and Angioplasty with Protection in Patients at High Risk for Endarterectomy (SAPPHIRE) study single-handedly catapulted CAS to the forefront of therapeutic options for high-risk patients. This study directly compared CAS to CEA in high-risk patients, finding CAS to be equally effective. Since SAPPHIRE, several studies have confirmed the safety and efficacy of CAS in high-risk patients, demonstrating acceptable 1-year morbidity (1-11.3%) and durable target-vessel patency (97.6-98.7%). PMID:25423134

  12. The preoperative cardiovascular evaluation of the intermediate-risk patient: New data, changing strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H. Wesorick; Kim A. Eagle

    2005-01-01

    The intermediate-risk preoperative patient can be defined as a patient without severely symptomatic or unstable heart disease who, nonetheless, has clinical predictors of adverse perioperative cardiovascular events. Newer data have created an awareness of competing considerations in managing these patients. There is still debate about how to appropriately select patients for noninvasive cardiac testing, invasive coronary testing, coronary revascularization, beta-blockers,

  13. Dipyridamole-thallium scanning in patients undergoing vascular surgery. Optimizing preoperative evaluation of cardiac risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Eagle; D. E. Singer; D. C. Brewster; R. C. Darling; A. G. Mulley; C. A. Boucher

    1987-01-01

    Dipyridamole-thallium imaging has been suggested as a method of preoperatively assessing cardiac risk in patients undergoing major surgery. To define more clearly its proper role in preoperative assessment, we prospectively evaluated 111 patients undergoing vascular surgery. In the first set of 61 patients, our data confirmed the value of preoperative dipyridamole-thallium scanning in identifying the patients who suffered postoperative ischemic

  14. Clinical review: How to optimize management of high-risk surgical patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rupert M Pearse; Andrew Rhodes; R Michael Grounds

    2004-01-01

    For many patients optimal perioperative care may require little or no additional medical management beyond that given by the anaesthetist and surgeon. However, the continued existence of a group of surgical patients at high risk for morbidity and mortality indicates an ongoing need to identify such patients and deliver optimal care throughout the perioperative period. A group of patients exists

  15. Maculopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2: associations with risk factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eckhard Zander; Sabine Herfurth; Beate Bohl; Peter Heinke; Uwe Herrmann; Klaus-Dieter Kohnert; Wolfgang Kerner

    2000-01-01

    AIMTo examine possible relation between diabetic maculopathy and various risk factors for diabetic complications in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2.METHODSCross sectional study of two cohorts of diabetic patients, comprising 1796 patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age 47 years, mean duration of diabetes 24 years) and 1563 patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age 62 years,

  16. Are urban safety-net hospitals losing low-risk Medicaid maternity patients?

    PubMed Central

    Gaskin, D J; Hadley, J; Freeman, V G

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine data on Medicaid and self-pay/charity maternity cases to address four questions: (1) Did safety-net hospitals' share of Medicaid patients decline while their shares of self-pay/charity-care patients increased from 1991 to 1994? (2) Did Medicaid patients' propensity to use safety-net hospitals decline during 1991-94? (3) Did self-pay/charity patients' propensity to use safety-net hospitals increase during 1991-94? (4) Did the change in Medicaid patients' use of safety-net hospitals differ for low- and high-risk patients? STUDY DESIGN: We use hospital discharge data to estimate logistic regression models of hospital choice for low-risk and high-risk Medicaid and self-pay/charity maternity patients for 25 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in five states for the years 1991 and 1994. We define low-risk patients as discharges without comorbidities and high-risk patients as discharges with comorbidities that may substantially increase hospital costs, length of stay, or morbidity. The five states are California, Florida, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York. The MSAs in the analysis are those with at least one safety-net hospital and a population of 500,000 or more. This study also uses data from the 1990 Census and AHA Annual Survey of Hospitals. The regression analysis estimates the change between 1991 and 1994 in the relative odds of a Medicaid or self-pay/charity patient using a safety-net hospital. We explore whether this change in the relative odds is related to the risk status of the patient. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The findings suggest that competition for Medicaid patients increased from 1991 to 1994. Over time, safety-net hospitals lost low-risk maternity Medicaid patients while services to high-risk maternity Medicaid patients and self-pay/charity maternity patients remained concentrated in safety-net hospitals. IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY: Safety-net hospitals use Medicaid patient revenues and public subsidies that are based on Medicaid patient volumes to subsidize care for uninsured and underinsured patients. If safety-net hospitals continue to lose their low-risk Medicaid patients, their ability to finance care for the medically indigent will be impaired. Increased hospital competition may improve access to hospital care for low-risk Medicaid patients, but policymakers should be cognizant of the potential reduction in access to hospital care for uninsured and underinsured patients. Public policymakers should ensure that safety-net hospitals have sufficient financial resources to care for these patients by subsidizing their care directly. PMID:11324742

  17. Predicting Patients with High Risk of Becoming High-Cost Healthcare Users in Ontario (Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Chechulin, Yuriy; Nazerian, Amir; Rais, Saad; Malikov, Kamil

    2014-01-01

    Literature and original analysis of healthcare costs have shown that a small proportion of patients consume the majority of healthcare resources. A proactive approach is to target interventions towards those patients who are at risk of becoming high-cost users (HCUs). This approach requires identifying high-risk patients accurately before substantial avoidable costs have been incurred and health status has deteriorated further. We developed a predictive model to identify patients at risk of becoming HCUs in Ontario. HCUs were defined as the top 5% of patients incurring the highest costs. Information was collected on various demographic and utilization characteristics. The modelling technique used was logistic regression. If the top 5% of patients at risk of becoming HCUs are followed, the sensitivity is 42.2% and specificity is 97%. Alternatives for implementation of the model include collaboration between different levels of healthcare services for personalized healthcare interventions and interventions addressing needs of patient cohorts with high-cost conditions. PMID:24726075

  18. Influence of risk grouping on therapeutic decisions in patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chuanzheng; Li, Chao; Hu, Zedong; Li, Xiaojiang; He, Jiehua; Song, Ming; Li, Guojun; Zhang, Fenghua; Li, Qiuli

    2015-04-01

    We investigated prognostic factors in 42 anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) patients from a single institution over a 30-year period and explored the use of risk grouping to guide therapeutic decisions. Univariable and multivariable differences in overall survival (OS) were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test as well as Cox proportional hazards model. Risk grouping in making therapeutic decisions for ATC patients was explored. The 1- and 3-year OS rates were 28.6 % and 18.5 %, respectively. Univariate analysis indicated that 4 pre-therapeutic factors of patients were related to poorer prognoses: age ? 55 years, white blood cell count ? 10.0 × 10(9)/L, blood platelet count ? 300.0 × 10(9)/L and advanced clinical tumor-node-metastasis stage. These factors were used to calculate the risk indices. Patients with total risk index scores of no more than 1 were considered to be in the low-risk group, and patients with scores ? 2 were considered to be in the high-risk group. The patients in the low-risk group had significantly better 1- and 3-year OS rates (90.9 % and 63.6 %, respectively) than those in the high-risk group (6.5 % and 3.2 %, respectively). Risk group and therapeutic regimen were the 2 factors that independently influenced survival according to multivariable analysis. Surgery that was combined with postoperative radiotherapy significantly benefited the patients in the low-risk group rather than the patients in the high-risk group. Risk grouping was a helpful tool of evaluating the prognoses and guiding the treatment of ATC patients. PMID:24718913

  19. MAPO index for risk assessment of patient manual handling in hospital wards: a validation study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Battevi; O. Menoni; M. Grazia Ricci; S. Cairoli

    2006-01-01

    Manual handling of disabled patients – as regards movement – is one of the major factors affecting acute low back pain of exposed nursing staff. In the absence of quantitative methods assessing this kind of risk, the Research Unit Ergonomics of Posture and Movement of Milan developed in 1997 a risk assessment method called Movement and Assistance of Hospital Patients (MAPO), which is applicable

  20. Environmental risk factors in the history of male patients of an infertility clinic.

    PubMed

    Effendy, I; Krause, W

    1987-06-01

    93 consecutive patients attending our andrologic department for marital infertility were asked for possible environmental risk factors including traumata, heat, noise, smoking, radiation, micro waves, pesticides, and plastics. The data were correlated to the mean seminal parameters. No significant differences were found between patients being positive for a certain risk factor and those being negative. PMID:3115146

  1. Identification of patients at risk for early death after conventional chemotherapy in solid tumours and lymphomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Ray-Coquard; H Ghesquière; T Bachelot; C Borg; P Biron; C Sebban; A LeCesne; F Chauvin; J-Y Blay

    2001-01-01

    1–5% of cancer patients treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy die within a month after the administration of chemotherapy. Risk factors for these early deaths (ED) are not well known. The purpose of this study was to establish a risk model for ED after chemotherapy applicable to all tumour types. The model was delineated in a series of 1051 cancer patients receiving

  2. Risk and natural history of colonic neoplasia in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TA Brentnall; RC Haggitt; PS Rabinovitch; MB Kimmey; MP Bronner; DS Levine; KV Kowdley; AC Stevens; DA Crispin; M Emond; CE Rubin

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) has been suggested as a risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis (UC); however, previous studies of this association have been limited by small numbers of patients with PSC or have been performed retrospectively. This study prospectively evaluates the risk and natural history of colonic tumorigenesis in patients with

  3. Predicting Future High-Cost Patients: A Real-World Risk Modeling Application

    E-print Network

    Liu, Huan

    specific challenges in this real-life health care application to build predictive risk models) predictive risk models using real-life data from the Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System (AHCCCSPredicting Future High-Cost Patients: A Real-World Risk Modeling Application Sai T. Moturu

  4. A risk-scoring scheme for suicide attempts among patients with bipolar disorder in a Thai patient cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ruengorn, Chidchanok; Sanichwankul, Kittipong; Niwatananun, Wirat; Mahatnirunkul, Suwat; Pumpaisalchai, Wanida; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2012-01-01

    Background In Thailand, risk factors associated with suicide attempts in bipolar disorder (BD) are rarely investigated, nor has a specific risk-scoring scheme to assist in the identification of BD patients at risk for attempting suicide been proposed. Objective To develop a simple risk-scoring scheme to identify patients with BD who may be at risk for attempting suicide. Methods Medical files of 489 patients diagnosed with BD at Suanprung Psychiatric Hospital between October 2006 and May 2009 were reviewed. Cases included BD patients hospitalized due to attempted suicide (n = 58), and seven controls were selected (per suicide case) among BD in- and out-patients who did not attempt suicide, with patients being visited the same day or within 1 week of case study (n = 431). Broad sociodemographic and clinical factors were gathered and analyzed using multivariate logistic regression, to obtain a set of risk factors. Scores for each indicator were weighted, assigned, and summed to create a total risk score, which was divided into low, moderate, and high-risk suicide attempt groups. Results Six statistically significant indicators associated with suicide attempts were included in the risk-scoring scheme: depression, psychotic symptom(s), number of previous suicide attempts, stressful life event(s), medication adherence, and BD treatment years. A total risk score (possible range ?1.5 to 11.5) explained an 88.6% probability of suicide attempts based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Likelihood ratios of suicide attempts with low risk scores (below 2.5), moderate risk scores (2.5–8.0), and high risk scores (above 8.0) were 0.11 (95% CI 0.04–0.32), 1.72 (95% CI 1.41–2.10), and 19.0 (95% CI 6.17–58.16), respectively. Conclusion The proposed risk-scoring scheme is BD-specific, comprising six key indicators for simple, routine assessment and classification of patients to three risk groups. Further validation is required before adopting this scheme in other clinical settings. PMID:22570578

  5. Practical Criteria for Screening Patients at High Risk for Diabetic Foot Ulceration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence A. Lavery; David G. Armstrong; Steven A. Vela; Terri L. Quebedeaux; John G. Fleischli

    1998-01-01

    Background: A comprehensive understanding of clini- cal risk factors for developing foot ulcerations would help clinicians to categorize patients by their risk status and schedule intervention resources accordingly to prevent amputation. Objective: To evaluate risk factors for foot ulcerations among persons with diabetes mellitus. Method: We enrolled 225 age-matched patients, 46.7% male, with a ratio of approximately 1:2 cases: controls

  6. Logistic or additive EuroSCORE for high-risk patients?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Michel; Francois Roques; Samer A. M Nashef

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether the use of the full logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) is superior to the standard additive EuroSCORE in predicting mortality in high-risk cardiac surgical patients. Methods: Both the simple additive EuroSCORE and the full logistic EuroSCORE were applied to 14,799 cardiac surgical patients from across Europe, of whom there were 4293 high-risk

  7. The risk for cancer or dysplasia in ulcerative colitis patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirti Shetty; Lisa Rybicki; Aaron Brzezinski; William D Carey; Bret A Lashner

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:Recent studies have implicated primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) as a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) in ulcerative colitis (UC). Our study was designed to define both the risk and the risk factors for CRC or dysplasia in a large UC cohort with PSC.METHODS:Patients with UC and PSC were compared with a random sample of UC controls without PSC. Patients

  8. Neural Based CAD and CAP Agent System Framework for High Risk Patients in Ubiquitous Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Insung Jung; Myeong-ho Lee; Sanghoon Bae

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the diagnosis, detection, and prediction of high risk patient status or level of\\u000a risk, based on the hospital domain server with agent based intelligent home medical service system. We have proposed a Computer\\u000a Aided Diagnosis and monitoring system framework for the high risk patient exploiting the ubiquitous artifacts available in\\u000a the con-temporary

  9. A Risk Prediction Score for Invasive Mold Disease in Patients with Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Stanzani, Marta; Lewis, Russell E.; Fiacchini, Mauro; Ricci, Paolo; Tumietto, Fabio; Viale, Pierluigi; Ambretti, Simone; Baccarani, Michele; Cavo, Michele; Vianelli, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Background A risk score for invasive mold disease (IMD) in patients with hematological malignancies could facilitate patient screening and improve the targeted use of antifungal prophylaxis. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 1,709 hospital admissions of 840 patients with hematological malignancies (2005-2008) to collect data on 17 epidemiological and treatment-related risk factors for IMD. Multivariate regression was used to develop a weighted risk score based on independent risk factors associated with proven or probable IMD, which was prospectively validated during 1,746 hospital admissions of 855 patients from 2009-2012. Results Of the 17 candidate variables analyzed, 11 correlated with IMD by univariate analysis, but only 4 risk factors (neutropenia, lymphocytopenia or lymphocyte dysfunction in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, malignancy status, and prior IMD) were retained in the final multivariate model, resulting in a weighted risk score 0-13. A risk score of < 6 discriminated patients with low (< 1%) versus higher incidence rates (> 5%) of IMD, with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.99, (95% CI 0.98-0.99). During 2009-2012, patients with a calculated risk score at admission of < 6 had significantly lower 90-day incidence rates of IMD compared to patients with scores > 6 (0.9% vs. 10.6%, P <0.001). Conclusion An objective, weighted risk score for IMD can accurately discriminate patients with hematological malignancies at low risk for developing mold disease, and could possibly facilitate “screening-out” of low risk patients less likely to benefit from intensive diagnostic monitoring or mold-directed antifungal prophylaxis. PMID:24086555

  10. HEALTHCARE RISK MODELING FOR MEDICAID PATIENTS The Impact of Sampling on the Prediction of High-Cost Patients

    E-print Network

    Liu, Huan

    for healthcare researchers and policy makers. One of the primary issues plaguing the healthcare systemHEALTHCARE RISK MODELING FOR MEDICAID PATIENTS The Impact of Sampling on the Prediction of High, AZ 85287 william.g.johnson@asu.edu Keywords: Predictive risk modeling, healthcare costs, high

  11. Stratification on the Skagit Bay tidal flats

    E-print Network

    Pavel, Vera L. (Vera Lynn)

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine density stratification may be controlled primarily by cross-shore processes (analogous to longitudinal control in narrow estuaries), or by both cross- and alongshore processes (typical of coastal plumes). Here ...

  12. Improvement of CVD risk assessment tools' performance through innovative patients' grouping strategies.

    PubMed

    Paredes, S; Rocha, T; de Carvalho, P; Henriques, J; Morais, J; Ferreira, J; Mendes, M

    2012-01-01

    There are available in the clinical community several practical risk tools to assess the risk of occurrence of a cardiovascular event. Although valuable, these tools typically present some lack of performance (low sensitivity/low specificity) when applied to a general (average) patient. This flaw is addressed in this work through an innovative personalization strategy that is supported on the evidence that current risk assessment tools perform differently among different populations/groups of patients. The proposed methodology is based on two main hypotheses: i) patients are grouped through a proper dimension reduction technique complemented with an unsupervised learning algorithm, ii) for each group the most suitable risk assessment tool can be selected improving the risk prediction performance. As a result, risk personalization is simply achieved by the identification of the group that patients belong to. The validation of the strategy is carried out through the combination of three current risk assessment tools (GRACE, TIMI, PURSUIT) developed to predict the risk of an event in coronary artery disease patients. The combination of these tools is validated with a real patient testing dataset: Santa Cruz Hospital, Portugal, N=460 ACS-NSTEMI patients. Considering the obtained results with the available dataset it is possible to state that the main objective of this work was achieved. PMID:23367273

  13. Patient- and cohort-specific dose and risk estimation for abdominopelvic CT: a study based on 100 patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiaoyu; Li, Xiang; Segars, W. Paul; Frush, Donald P.; Samei, Ehsan

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this work was twofold: (a) to estimate patient- and cohort-specific radiation dose and cancer risk index for abdominopelvic computer tomography (CT) scans; (b) to evaluate the effects of patient anatomical characteristics (size, age, and gender) and CT scanner model on dose and risk conversion coefficients. The study included 100 patient models (42 pediatric models, 58 adult models) and multi-detector array CT scanners from two commercial manufacturers (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare; SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare). A previously-validated Monte Carlo program was used to simulate organ dose for each patient model and each scanner, from which DLP-normalized-effective dose (k factor) and DLP-normalized-risk index values (q factor) were derived. The k factor showed exponential decrease with increasing patient size. For a given gender, q factor showed exponential decrease with both increasing patient size and patient age. The discrepancies in k and q factors across scanners were on average 8% and 15%, respectively. This study demonstrates the feasibility of estimating patient-specific organ dose and cohort-specific effective dose and risk index in abdominopelvic CT requiring only the knowledge of patient size, gender, and age.

  14. Is TAVI superior to surgery in high-risk patients? Insight into the concept of individual risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Benfari, G; Onorati, F; Rossi, A; Abbasciano, R; Zivelonghi, C; Salsano, A; Ribichini, F; Santini, F; Vassanelli, F; Mazzucco, A; Faggian, G

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of aortic valve stenosis (AS) is growing in developed countries because its prevalence increases with age. A growing number of elderly patients are currently referred to specialized centres to be evaluated for potential therapeutic strategies. Indeed, two techniques are nowadays able to treat high-risk AS patients: TAVI and surgical replacement (AVR). It is the purpose of the present review to summarize current knowledge on safety and efficacy of AVR and TAVI in high-risk patients; to focus on some aspects of recently published guidelines; to emphasize the growing importance of pre-operative individual risk assessment, which is considered the real crucial point for patient selection and trial's comparisons. Indeed, it is worth of noting that currently adopted risk-scores do not show satisfactory performances. Accordingly, it becomes of utmost importance to investigate several baseline but still neglected patients' characteristics (e.g. frailty, functional status, co-morbid conditions, etc.), as well as their pathogenetic relationships with interventional results and follow-up prognosis. All these items are emphasized in the present review. Finally, we have tried to anticipate future scenarios in terms of both ongoing clinical trials and improvements of risk-scores. PMID:25274462

  15. Seasonal variations in urinary risk factors among patients with nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, K.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-four hour urine specimens from 5,677 stone-forming patients throughout the United States were analyzed for seasonal variations in urinary risk factors for nephrolithiasis. Determinations were performed for urine volume, pH, calcium, oxalate, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, citrate, sulfate, uric acid, and the relative supersaturation (RS) of calcium oxalate, brushite, monosodium urate, and uric acid. Criteria for significant seasonal variation included a significant difference in monthly means of risk factors, seasonal grouping of the data by the Student-Newman-Keuls multiple range test, consistent year-to-year trends and a physiologically significant range. Minimum urine volume of 1.54 +/- 0.70 SD L/day occurred in October while a maximum urine volume of 1.76 +/- 0.78 SD L/day was observed during February. Minimum urine pH of 5.94 +/- 0.64 SD was observed during July and August while a maximum pH of 6.18 +/- 0.61 SD was observed during February. Daily urinary excretion of sodium was lowest during August, 158 +/- 74 SD mEq/day and highest during February 177 +/- 70 SD mEq/day. The RS of brushite and uric acid were found to display significant pH-dependent seasonal variation with a maximum RS of uric acid 2.26 +/- 1.98 SD in June and a low of 1.48 +/- 1.30 SD in February. Maximum RS of brushite 2.75 +/- 2.58 was observed during February. Minimum RS of brushite 1.93 +/- 1.70 SD was observed in June. Phosphorus excretion displayed seasonal variation about a spring-fall axis with a maximum value 1042 +/- 373 SD mg/day in April and a minimum value of 895 +/- 289 SD mg/day. Urine volume, sodium, and pH were significantly lower during the summer (June, July, August) than in the winter (December, January, February). The RS of uric acid was higher, but that of brushite and monosodium urate was lower in the summer than in the winter. The seasonal changes observed in urine volume, pH, sodium, and the RS of brushite and uric acid are consistent with summertime sweating and increased physical activity. Seasonal variations in phosphorus excretion are probably dietary in origin. The summertime was characterized by an increased propensity for the crystallization of uric acid but not of calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate.

  16. Risk factors for intubation of adult asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    LeSon, S; Gershwin, M E

    1995-01-01

    Our object was to describe demographic data from a population of adult asthmatics admitted to a regional tertiary medical center to identify risk factors for intubation. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all asthma admissions (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Code 493.9) excluding cases with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This included all patients with asthma 20 years and above admitted to the University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, from January 1, 1990 to June 30, 1993. A total of 375 asthma admissions were reviewed. There were 244 women (29 intubated) and 131 men (13 intubated) with a mean age of 40.7 (range 20-72) years. Of this group, 131 people were white, 140 black, 56 Hispanic, 42 Asian, and 6 American Indian. By National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Guidelines, there were 101 mild, 181 moderate, and 93 severe cases. Significant risk parameters identified for intubation were psychosocial problems [odds ratio (O.R.) 9.3; 95% confidence interval (C.I.) 6.8, 12.7], low socioeconomic group (O.R. 2.9; 95% C.I. 1.5, 5.8), little formal education (O.R. 5.4; 95% C.I. 2.8, 10.2), atopic allergy (O.R. 11.7; 95% C.I. 5.7, 23.7), duration of asthma > or = 15 years (O.R. 2.6; 95% C.I. 1.3, 5.3), previous intubation (O.R. 14.0; 95% C.I. 7.6, 25.6), upper respiratory infection (O.R. 4.0; 95% C.I. 2.2, 7.5), hospital admission for asthma within the last year (O.R. 5.3; 95% C.I. 2.7, 10.4), emergency room visit within the last year (O.R. 8.8; 95% C.I. 3.9, 20.1), and steroid dependency (O.R. 5.5; 95% C.I. 3.0, 10.2).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7559271

  17. Endothelial function in HIV-infected patients with low or mild cardiovascular risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan JoseRõ ´; Ines Suarez; Garcõ ´ a; Jorge Gomez Cerezo; Pilar Moreno Anaya; Pilar Garcõ ´; Juan Gonzalez Garcõ ´ a; JoseRamon Arribas Lopez; Francisco Javier Barbado Hernandez; Juan JoseVazquez Rodrõ ´ guez

    2006-01-01

    Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected patients is associated with metabolic side effects, which could cause an increased cardiovascular risk in these patients. Non-invasive study of endothelial function by brachial artery ultrasound can detect subclinical atherosclerosis. Several studies have assessed endothelial function in HIV-infected patients with associated cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine

  18. Patient safety in the operating room: an intervention study on latent risk factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Van Beuzekom; F. Boer; S. Akerboom; P. T. W. Hudson

    2012-01-01

    Background\\u000aPatient safety is one of the greatest challenges in healthcare. In the operating room errors are frequent and often consequential. This article describes an approach to a successful implementation of a patient safety program in the operating room, focussing on latent risk factors that influence patient safety. We performed an intervention to improve these latent risk factors (LRFs) and

  19. Telmisartan, Ramipril, or Both in Patients at High Risk for Vascular Events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Phil; Koon K. Teo; Janice Pogue; Leanne Dyal; Ingrid Copland; Helmut Schumacher; Boehringer Ingelheim; Gilles Dagenais; Peter Sleight; Craig Anderson

    2010-01-01

    Background In patients who have vascular disease or high-risk diabetes without heart failure, angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular causes, but the role of angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) in such patients is unknown. We compared the ACE inhibitor ramipril, the ARB telmisartan, and the combination of the two drugs in patients with vascular disease or high-risk diabetes. Methods

  20. Skin Cancer Risk and Sun Protection Learning by Helpers of Patients with Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Robinson; A. W. Rademaker

    1995-01-01

    Background. Knowledge-based skin cancer risk and prevention educational interventions by physicians and nurses were directed to subjects who had a nonmelanoma skin cancer. These high-risk patients asked relatives or friends to assist with postoperative care rendered after surgical removal of the skin cancer. The patient?s experience with the nonmelanoma skin cancer was expected to raise the awareness of the helper.

  1. Risk of myocardial infarction in psoriasis patients: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jashin J; Choi, Young M; Bebchuk, Judith D

    2014-08-26

    Abstract Background: Psoriasis may or may not be associated with a higher risk for myocardial infarction (MI). We sought to assess differences in MI incidence between control, mild psoriasis and severe psoriasis patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of Kaiser Permanente Southern California members with psoriasis between 1 January 2004 and 30 June 2012, assessing the risk and incidence rates of MI. Results: There were 50?865 control patients matched to 10?173 patients with mild psoriasis and 19?205 control patients matched to 3841 patients with severe psoriasis. The MI incidence per 1000 person-years for mild psoriasis controls, mild psoriasis, severe psoriasis controls and severe psoriasis were 4.9, 6.7, 3.7 and 5.1, respectively. Upon multivariable analysis, mild psoriasis patients had a significantly higher risk of MI compared to matched control patients {hazard ratio (HR)?=?1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 1.51]} and severe psoriasis patients had a significantly higher risk of MI compared to matched control patients [HR?=?1.28 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.60)]. Conclusion: Patients with psoriasis are at higher risk for MI compared to control patients. PMID:25102892

  2. Different risk factor profiles in young and elderly stroke patients with special reference to cardiac disorders.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, K; Siostrzonek, P; Lang, W; Gössinger, H; Oder, W; Ciciyasvilli, H; Kollegger, H; Mösslacher, H; Deecke, L

    1992-12-01

    The risk factors of ischemic cerebrovascular disorders in 77 young patients (< or = 40 years) were compared to those in 138 older patients (> 40 years). The risk factor profile of patients with juvenile stroke was considerably different from that of older patients. Migrainous headache and mitral valve prolapse occurred more frequently in the younger age group, whereas hypertension, diabetes mellitus, high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were found more often in older patients with stroke. 65% of the women under the age of 40 took oral contraceptives which compares to the baseline community value of 28% of women in childbearing age in this country. Cardiac disorders such as atrial fibrillation, left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary heart disease including a history of myocardial infarction, as well as mitral valve disease were demonstrated more often in the group of elderly patients. 7 out of 77 younger patients (9.1%), and 59 out of 138 older patients (42.8%) were considered to belong to a group with "high cardiac risk for stroke". The results of this study indicate that electrocardiographic screening is of prime importance for detecting cardiac risk factors. However, echocardiographic examination often yields additional diagnostic information, particularly in younger patients. The conflicting opinions concerning the relevance of certain risk factors for ischemic stroke could partly be explained by the fact that these risk factors are distributed unevenly depending on age. PMID:1460476

  3. Left Ventricular Structure and Function in Previously Untreated Hypertensive Patients: The Importance of Blood Pressure, the Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dip and Heart Rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamil Mayet; Manjit Shahi; Alun D. Hughes; Alice V. Stanton; Neil R. Poulter; Peter S. Sever; Rodney A. Foale; Simon A. Mc G. Thorn

    1995-01-01

    Background: Cardiac assessment is an important part of risk stratification in hypertensive patients. Left ventricular hypertrophy in particular is a powerful predictor of subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Previous studies assessing haemodynamic factors that may be responsible for cardiac changes in hypertensive patients have been performed in those previously treated for hypertension. To investigate more fully these haemodynamic relationships, a

  4. Predicted risks of radiogenic cardiac toxicity in two pediatric patients undergoing photon or proton radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hodgkin disease (HD) and medulloblastoma (MB) are common malignancies found in children and young adults, and radiotherapy is part of the standard treatment. It was reported that these patients who received radiation therapy have an increased risk of cardiovascular late effects. We compared the predicted risk of developing radiogenic cardiac toxicity after photon versus proton radiotherapies for a pediatric patient with HD and a pediatric patient with MB. Methods In the treatment plans, each patient’s heart was contoured in fine detail, including substructures of the pericardium and myocardium. Risk calculations took into account both therapeutic and stray radiation doses. We calculated the relative risk (RR) of cardiac toxicity using a linear risk model and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) values using relative seriality and Lyman models. Uncertainty analyses were also performed. Results The RR values of cardiac toxicity for the HD patient were 7.27 (proton) and 8.37 (photon), respectively; the RR values for the MB patient were 1.28 (proton) and 8.39 (photon), respectively. The predicted NTCP values for the HD patient were 2.17% (proton) and 2.67% (photon) for the myocardium, and were 2.11% (proton) and 1.92% (photon) for the whole heart. The predicted ratios of NTCP values (proton/photon) for the MB patient were much less than unity. Uncertainty analyses revealed that the predicted ratio of risk between proton and photon therapies was sensitive to uncertainties in the NTCP model parameters and the mean radiation weighting factor for neutrons, but was not sensitive to heart structure contours. The qualitative findings of the study were not sensitive to uncertainties in these factors. Conclusions We conclude that proton and photon radiotherapies confer similar predicted risks of cardiac toxicity for the HD patient in this study, and that proton therapy reduced the predicted risk for the MB patient in this study. PMID:23880421

  5. Dominant risk factors for retinopathy at clinical diagnosis in patients with type II diabetes mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hung T. Nguyen; Stephen D. Luzio; John Dolben; James West; Lyn Beck; Philip A. Coates; David R. Owens

    1996-01-01

    A study of 270 newly presenting, previously untreated, type II diabetic patents revealed that 38 patients (14%) had already developed diabetic retinopathy (DR). Among this group, 26 patients had lesions of background diabetic retinopathy and 12 patients already had maculopathy or preproliferative changes. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors influencing susceptibility to retinopathy, and to

  6. Dopamine therapy for patients at risk of renal dysfunction following cardiac surgery: science or fiction?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin B. C. Woo; Augustine T. M. Tang; Mark Patricke; Timothy L. Hooper; Donna Greenhalgh; Mark Patrick; Mark T. Jones

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the renoprotective role of renal-dose dopamine on cardiac surgical patients at high risk of postoperative renal dysfunction. The latter included older patients or those with pre-existing renal disease, elevated preoperative serum creatinine (Cr), poor ventricular function, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and unstable angina requiring intravenous therapy. Methods: Fifty patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) who fulfilled the

  7. Dopamine therapy for patients at risk of renal dysfunction following cardiac surgery: science or fiction?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin B. C Woo; Augustine T. M Tang; Ahmed El Gamel; Brian Keevil; Donna Greenhalgh; Mark Patrick; Mark T Jones; Timothy L Hooper

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the renoprotective role of renal-dose dopamine on cardiac surgical patients at high risk of postoperative renal dysfunction. The latter included older patients or those with pre-existing renal disease, elevated preoperative serum creatinine (Cr), poor ventricular function, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and unstable angina requiring intravenous therapy. Methods: Fifty patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) who fulfilled the

  8. Ethical Challenges in Conducting Research on Dying Patients and Those at High Risk of Dying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blair Henry; Damon C. Scales

    2012-01-01

    Clinical research to improve care across the broad spectrum of health care has led to better quantity and quality of life for many patients. However, imposing arbitrary restrictions that might result in the exclusion from clinical research of patients who are at the end of life, or patients with a high risk of dying, is undesirable. Such exclusions may violate

  9. Are There Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Suicidal Activity among Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Kalman J.; Harrow, Martin; Faull, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    Are there gender-specific risk factors for suicidal activity among patients with schizophrenia and depression? A total of 74 schizophrenia patients (51 men, 23 women) and 77 unipolar nonpsychotic depressed patients (26 men, 51 women) from the Chicago Follow-up Study were studied prospectively at 2 years posthospitalization and again at 7.5 years.…

  10. Open-Heart Surgery in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis: Indications, Risk Factors, and Clinical Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. An; Y. B. Xiao; Q. J. Zhong

    2007-01-01

    Background: Because of recent advances in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery, there are broadened indications to approach patients with a high operative risk. Meanwhile, there is an increasing number of patients with severe liver dysfunction subjected to open-heart surgery. This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the operative indications and clinical outcomes in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) undergoing open-heart surgery.

  11. Personalized Fall Risk Assessment Tool by using the Data Treasure contained in Mobile Electronic Patient Records.

    PubMed

    Eryilmaz, Elif; Ahrndt, Sebastian; Fähndrich, Johannes; Albayrak, Sahin

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a novel approach for combining multiple Electronic Patient Records (EPRs) to a self-learning fall risk assessment tool. This tool is used by a new type of home-visiting nurses to track the fall risk of their patients. In order to provide personalized healthcare for elderly people, we combine multiple EPRs using an agent-based architecture, where each patient is represented by an associated agent. The patient agents are enabled to negotiate about possible fallrisk indicators recognized in the specific patient population under care. We use distributed information fusion and opinion aggregation techniques to elaborate new fall-risk indicators and in consequence to adapt the fall risk assessment tool. PMID:25160214

  12. Algorithms for the diagnosis of deep-vein thrombosis in patients with low clinical pretest probability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Bucek; Nihat Koca; Markus Reiter; Markus Haumer; Thomas Zontsich; Erich Minar

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this current trial was to evaluate the rate of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients after low clinical risk stratification and to evaluate the value of D-dimer and different imaging techniques in the diagnostic algorithm. A total of 99 consecutive patients were included in this prospective trial. After clinical risk assessment, D-dimer was determined. Final diagnosis was based

  13. Venous thromboembolism risk and prophylaxis in hospitalised medically ill patients. The ENDORSE Global Survey.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Jean-Francois; Cohen, Alexander T; Tapson, Victor F; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Kakkar, Ajay K; Deslandes, Bruno; Huang, Wei; Anderson, Frederick A

    2010-04-01

    Limited data are available regarding the risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and VTE prophylaxis use in hospitalised medically ill patients. We analysed data from the global ENDORSE survey to evaluate VTE risk and prophylaxis use in this population according to diagnosis, baseline characteristics, and country. Data on patient characteristics, VTE risk, and prophylaxis use were abstracted from hospital charts. VTE risk and prophylaxis use were evaluated according to the 2004 American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guidelines. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify factors associated with use of ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. Data were evaluated for 37,356 hospitalised medical patients across 32 countries. VTE risk varied according to medical diagnosis, from 31.2% of patients with gastrointestinal/hepatobiliary diseases to 100% of patients with acute heart failure, active non-infectious respiratory disease, or pulmonary infection (global rate, 41.5%). Among those at risk for VTE, ACCP-recommended prophylaxis was used in 24.4% haemorrhagic stroke patients and 40-45% of cardiopulmonary disease patients (global rate, 39.5%). Large differences in prophylaxis use were observed among countries. Markers of disease severity, including central venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, and admission to intensive care units, were strongly associated with use of ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. In conclusion, VTE risk varies according to medical diagnosis. Less than 40% of at-risk hospitalised medical patients receive ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. Prophylaxis use appears to be associated with disease severity rather than medical diagnosis. These data support the necessity to improve implementation of available guidelines for evaluating VTE risk and providing prophylaxis to hospitalised medical patients. PMID:20135072

  14. Unfavorable cardiovascular risk profiles in untreated and treated psoriasis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Wakkee; H. B. Thio; E. P. Prens; E. J. G. Sijbrands; H. A. M. Neumann

    2007-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk profile. The systemic inflammation present in psoriasis, various systemic treatments for psoriasis and an increased prevalence of unhealthy life style factors may all contribute to this unfavorable risk profile. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of what is known about these

  15. Patients at High Risk of Cerebrovascular Disease: The REACH Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose M. Mostaza; Raquel Martín-Jadraque; Ignacio Vicente; Miguel A. San Martin; Carlos Lahoz

    2009-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. The identification of at-risk individuals is a high priority so that efficacious preventive measures can be implemented. Subjects with the highest risk of cerebrovascular diseases are those who already have had a stroke or a transient ischemic attack, and those with vascular disease in other

  16. Psychiatric Symptoms and Community Violence among High-Risk Patients: A Test of the Relationship at the Weekly Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeem, Jennifer L.; Schubert, Carol; Odgers, Candice; Mulvey, Edward P.; Gardner, William; Lidz, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Given the availability of violence risk assessment tools, clinicians are now better able to identify high-risk patients. Once these patients have been identified, clinicians must monitor risk state and intervene when necessary to prevent harm. Clinical practice is dominated by the assumption that increases in psychiatric symptoms elevate risk of…

  17. Risks and Benefits of Patient Positioning During Neurosurgical Care

    PubMed Central

    Rozet, Irene; Vavilala, Monica S.

    2007-01-01

    Positioning of the surgical patient is an important part of anesthesia care and attention to the physical and physiological consequences of positioning can help prevent serious adverse events and complications. The general principles of patient positioning of the anesthetized and awake neurosurgical patient are discussed in this chapter. PMID:17884711

  18. Substance Misuse Treatment for High Risk Chronic Pain Patients on Opioid Therapy: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jamison, Robert N.; Ross, Edgar L.; Michna, Edward; Chen, Li Q.; Holcomb, Caroline; Wasan, Ajay D.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain patients who show aberrant drug-related behavior often are discontinued from treatment when they are noncompliant with their use of opioids for pain. The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized trial in patients prescribed opioids for noncancer back pain who showed risk potential for or demonstration of opioid misuse to see if close monitoring and cognitive behavioral substance misuse counseling could increase overall compliance with opioids. Forty two patients meeting criteria for high risk for opioid misuse were randomized to either standard control (High-Risk Control; N=21) or experimental compliance treatment consisting of monthly urine screens, compliance checklists, and individual and group motivational counseling (High-Risk Experimental; N=21). Twenty patients who met criteria indicating low potential for misuse were recruited to a low-risk control group (Low-Risk Control). Patients were followed for 6 months and completed pre- and post-study questionnaires and monthly electronic diaries. Outcomes consisted of the percent with a positive Drug Misuse Index (DMI), which was a composite score of self-reported drug misuse (Prescription Drug Use Questionnaire), physician-reported abuse behavior (Addiction Behavior Checklist), and abnormal urine toxicology results. Significant differences were found between groups with 73.7 % of the High-Risk Control patients demonstrating positive scores on the DMI compared with 26.3% from the High-Risk Experimental group and 25.0% from the Low-Risk Controls (p<0.05). The results of this study demonstrate support for the benefits of a brief behavioral intervention in the management of opioid compliance among chronic back pain patient at high-risk for prescription opioid misuse. PMID:20334973

  19. Comparison of Methods for Renal Risk Prediction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes (ZODIAC-36)

    PubMed Central

    Riphagen, Ineke J.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Drion, Iefke; Alkhalaf, Alaa; van Diepen, Merel; Cao, Qi; Groenier, Klaas H.; Landman, Gijs W. D.; Navis, Gerjan; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with diabetes are at high risk of death prior to reaching end-stage renal disease, but most models predicting the risk of kidney disease do not take this competing risk into account. We aimed to compare the performance of Cox regression and competing risk models for prediction of early- and late-stage renal complications in type 2 diabetes. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes participating in the observational ZODIAC study were included. Prediction models for (micro)albuminuria and 50% increase in serum creatinine (SCr) were developed using Cox regression and competing risk analyses. Model performance was assessed by discrimination and calibration. Results During a total follow-up period of 10 years, 183 out of 640 patients (28.6%) with normoalbuminuria developed (micro)albuminuria, and 22 patients (3.4%) died without developing (micro)albuminuria (i.e. experienced the competing event). Seventy-nine out of 1,143 patients (6.9%) reached the renal end point of 50% increase in SCr, while 219 (19.2%) died without developing the renal end point. Performance of the Cox and competing risk models predicting (micro)albuminuria was similar and differences in predicted risks were small. However, the Cox model increasingly overestimated the risk of increase in SCr in presence of a substantial number of competing events, while the performance of the competing risk model was quite good. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrated that, in case of substantial numbers of competing events, it is important to account for the competing risk of death in renal risk prediction in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25775414

  20. Carotid artery: overview on current trials - selecting the low-risk patient.

    PubMed

    Czuriga-Kovács, K R; Brown, M M

    2015-04-01

    The ultimate goal of carotid stenosis treatment is the long-term prevention of stroke. While a large number of studies focusing on patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis have been carried out, fewer data are available from trials on asymptomatic and low-risk patients. Currently existing information on the optimal management of these patients is inconclusive and contradictory. Our aim was to review previous major trials conducted on carotid disease with a main focus on asymptomatic patients with carotid stenosis. Efforts to present currently ongoing trials involving asymptomatic carotid patients, to survey recent studies determining patients' risk for future stroke or periprocedural events, as well as to summarize data on promising structural and functional variables and biomarkers predicting future stroke risk have been made. PMID:25644832

  1. IMPROVING THE RISK-BENEFIT RELATIONSHIP AND INFORMED CONSENT FOR PATIENTS TREATED WITH HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE

    PubMed Central

    Flach, Allan J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of high-risk factors for hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy and compliance with the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) screening guidelines at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VASF) and to develop an approach to improve the risk-benefit relationship and informed consent during HCQ treatment. Methods All medical records of patients receiving HCQ were reviewed, with special attention to high-risk factors for retinopathy. The results were used to develop a method of enhancing the risk-benefit relationship and improving informed consent at the VASF. Results Of the 109 patients taking HCQ at the VASF, 87% had at least one high-risk factor for retinal toxicity and 47% had two or more risk factors. Thirty-four percent had no evidence of an eye examination having been performed. An approach has been developed to improve the risk-benefit and informed consent for patients using HCQ at the VASF. Conclusions A significant number of veterans taking HCQ may be at an increased risk for retinal toxicity. More than one-third of these patients may not be managed as recommended by the AAO. Methods to minimize these risks and improve informed consent are outlined. PMID:18427609

  2. Limitations of Risk Score Models in Patients with Acute Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Manini, Alex F.; Dannemann, Nina; Brown, David F.; Butler, Javed; Moselewski, Fabian; Nagurney, John T.; Nichols, John H.; Hoffmann, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Cardiac multidetector computed tomography (CMCT) has potential to be used as a screening test for patients with acute chest pain, but several tools are already used to risk-stratify this population. Risk models exist that stratify need for intensive-care (Goldman), short-term prognosis (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction, TIMI), and one-year events (Sanchis). We applied these cardiovascular risk models to candidates for CMCT and assessed sensitivity for prediction of in-hospital NSTEMI. We hypothesized that none of the models would achieve a sensitivity of 90% or greater, thereby justifying use of CMCT in patients with acute chest pain. Methods We analyzed TIMI, Goldman, and Sanchis in 148 consecutive patients with chest pain, non-diagnostic ECG, and negative initial cardiac biomarkers who previously met inclusion and exclusion criteria for the ROMICAT Study. NSTEMI was adjudicated and risk scores were categorized based on established criteria. Risk score agreement was assessed with weighted kappa statistics. Results Overall 17/148 (11%) patients had NSTEMI. For all risk models, sensitivity was poor (range 35–53%) and 95% confidence intervals did not cross above 77%. Agreement to risk-classify patients was poor to moderate (weighted kappa range 0.18–0.43). Patients categorized as “low risk” had non-zero rates of NSTEMI using all three scoring models (range 8–9%). Conclusions Available risk scores had poor sensitivity to detect NSTEMI in patients with acute chest pain. Because of the small number of patients in this data set, these findings require confirmation in larger studies. PMID:19041532

  3. Early identification and management of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Joshua; Wira, Charles R

    2014-11-01

    Severe sepsis and septic shock have great relevance to Emergency Medicine physicians because of their high prevalence, morbidity, and mortality. Treatment is time-sensitive, depends on early identification risk stratification, and has the potential to significantly improve patient outcomes. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of, and evidence basis for, the emergency department management of severe sepsis and septic shock. PMID:25441033

  4. Proteomic profiling in schizophrenia: enabling stratification for more effective treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder characterized by an array of clinical manifestations. Although the best known manifestations include serious effects on mood and behavior, patients can also display co-morbidities, including immune system or metabolic abnormalities. Thorough characterization of these conditions using proteomic profiling methods has increased our knowledge of these molecular differences and has helped to unravel the complexity and heterogeneity of this debilitating condition. This could lead to patient stratification through characterization of biochemically different subtypes of the disease. In addition, proteomic methods have recently been used for molecular characterization of the mechanism of action of antipsychotic medications in both preclinical models and patients. This has resulted in identification of molecular panels that show some promise for prediction of response or for monitoring treatment outcome. This review describes how proteomic profiling methods can impact the future of schizophrenia diagnosis and therapeutics, and facilitate personalized medicine approaches for more effective treatment management of schizophrenia patients. PMID:23531373

  5. Stratifying patients at the risk of heart failure hospitalization using existing device diagnostic thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vinod; Rathman, Lisa D.; Small, Roy S.; Whellan, David J.; Koehler, Jodi; Warman, Eduardo; Abraham, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart failure hospitalizations (HFHs) cost the US health care system ~$20 billion annually. Identifying patients at risk of HFH to enable timely intervention and prevent expensive hospitalization remains a challenge. Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and cardiac resynchronization devices with defibrillation capability (CRT-Ds) collect a host of diagnostic parameters that change with HF status and collectively have the potential to signal an increasing risk of HFH. These device-collected diagnostic parameters include activity, day and night heart rate, atrial tachycardia/atrial fibrillation (AT/AF) burden, mean rate during AT/AF, percent CRT pacing, number of shocks, and intrathoracic impedance. There are thresholds for these parameters that when crossed trigger a notification, referred to as device observation, which gets noted on the device report. We investigated if these existing device observations can stratify patients at varying risk of HFH. Methods We analyzed data from 775 patients (age: 69 ± 11 year, 68% male) with CRT-D devices followed for 13 ± 5 months with adjudicated HFHs. HFH rate was computed for increasing number of device observations. Data were analyzed by both excluding and including intrathoracic impedance. HFH risk was assessed at the time of a device interrogation session, and all the data between previous and current follow-up sessions were used to determine the HFH risk for the next 30 days. Results 2276 follow-up sessions in 775 patients were evaluated with 42 HFHs in 37 patients. Percentage of evaluations that were followed by an HFH within the next 30 days increased with increasing number of device observations. Patients with 3 or more device observations were at 42× HFH risk compared to patients with no device observation. Even after excluding intrathoracic impedance, the remaining device parameters effectively stratified patients at HFH risk. Conclusion Available device observations could provide an effective method to stratify patients at varying risk of heart failure hospitalization. PMID:25543319

  6. Internet based vascular risk factor management for patients with clinically manifest vascular disease: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether an internet based, nurse led vascular risk factor management programme promoting self management on top of usual care is more effective than usual care alone in reducing vascular risk factors in patients with clinically manifest vascular disease. Design Prospective randomised controlled trial. Setting Multicentre trial in secondary and tertiary healthcare setting. Participants 330 patients with a recent clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis in the coronary, cerebral, or peripheral arteries and with at least two treatable risk factors not at goal. Intervention Personalised website with an overview and actual status of patientsrisk factors and mail communication via the website with a nurse practitioner for 12 months; the intervention combined self management support, monitoring of disease control, and drug treatment. Main outcome measures The primary endpoint was the relative change in Framingham heart risk score after 1 year. Secondary endpoints were absolute changes in the levels of risk factors and the differences between groups in the change in proportion of patients reaching treatment goals for each risk factor. Results Participants’ mean age was 59.9 (SD 8.4) years, and most patients (n=246; 75%) were male. After 1 year, the relative change in Framingham heart risk score of the intervention group compared with the usual care group was ?14% (95% confidence interval ?25% to ?2%). At baseline, the Framingham heart risk score was higher in the intervention group than in the usual care group (16.1 (SD 10.6) v 14.0 (10.5)), so the outcome was adjusted for the separate variables of the Framingham heart risk score and for the baseline Framingham heart risk score. This produced a relative change of ?12% (?22% to ?3%) in Framingham heart risk score for the intervention group compared with the usual care group adjusted for the separate variables of the score and ?8% (?18% to 2%) adjusted for the baseline score. Of the individual risk factors, a difference between groups was observed in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (?0.3, ?0.5 to ?0.1, mmol/L) and smoking (?7.7%, ?14.9% to ?0.4%). Some other risk factors tended to improve (body mass index, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, renal function) or tended to worsen (glucose concentration, albuminuria). Conclusion An internet based, nurse led treatment programme on top of usual care for vascular risk factors had a small effect on lowering vascular risk and on lowering of some vascular risk factors in patients with vascular disease. Trial registration Clinical trials NCT00785031. PMID:22692651

  7. Social networks of health care providers and patients in cardiovascular risk management: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, preventive and clinical interventions for cardiovascular risk management have been implemented widely in primary care in the Netherlands. Although this has enhanced quality and outcomes of cardiovascular risk management, further improvement remains possible. In the planned observational study, we aim to examine the role of social networks of healthcare providers and patients in quality and outcomes of cardiovascular risk management. Methods/Design In a longitudinal observational study, data on social networks of approximately 300 primary care providers from 30 general practices and 900 cardiovascular patients will be collected twice, with a six month interval, using a mix of measures. Social networks are documented with specifically designed questionnaires for patients, relatives, and healthcare professionals. For each included patient, we will extract from medical records to gather data on clinical processes and cardiovascular risk predictors. Data on self-management and psychosocial outcomes of patients will be collected using questionnaires for patients. The analysis focuses on identifying network characteristics, which are associated with (changes in) cardiovascular risk management or self-management. Discussion This research will provide insight into the role of social networks of patients and providers in cardiovascular risk management in primary practice. Trial registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR4069. PMID:24942555

  8. No Increased Risk of Myocardial Infarction Among Patients with Ulcerative Colitis or Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Osterman, Mark T.; Yang, Yu-Xiao; Brensinger, Colleen; Forde, Kimberly A.; Lichtenstein, Gary R.; Lewis, James D.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and psoriasis have an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Studies of the risk of MI among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have provided inconsistent results. We aimed to determine the risk of first-time acute MI in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn’s disease (CD) compared to patients from general practice. METHODS We conducted 2 retrospective cohort studies using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). A total of 15,498 UC patients were matched to 144,605 patients from general practice patients (for age, sex, year of enrollment in the GPRD, and general practice of attendance) and followed for a mean of 4.7 years; 9,829 CD patients were matched to 92,987 patients from general practice and followed for a mean of 4.5 years. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, smoking status, body mass index, and aspirin use for each cohort. RESULTS Patients with UC had a significantly increased risk of first-time acute MI compared to patients from general practice in unadjusted, but not adjusted analysis (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98–1.27). Patients with CD did not have an increased risk of MI in either unadjusted or adjusted analysis (adjusted HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.89–1.34). CONCLUSIONS Unlike some other chronic inflammatory diseases, IBD is not associated with an increased risk of MI. PMID:21749853

  9. Detecting the Medically Compromised Patient in Dentistry by Means of the Medical Risk-Related History

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth C. Smeets; Karin J. M. de Jong; Louise Abraham-Inpijn

    1998-01-01

    Background. This study focuses on the detection of medically compromised dental patients in the Netherlands by means of a validated patient-administered medical risk-related history (MRRH). Due to social changes and scientific innovations in the past decade, more medically compromised patients will be needing special dental treatment.Methods. The medical problems of 29,424 dental patients (age 18 years and over) from 50

  10. Is Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy Overtreatment in Cervical Cancer Patients With Intermediate Risk Factors?

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Sang-Young, E-mail: ryu@kcch.re.k [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Il [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Byung-Ho [Center for Clinical Trials, National Cancer Center, Kyongi (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chul-Koo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kidong; Kim, Beob-Jong; Kim, Moon-Hong; Choi, Seok-Cheol; Lee, Eui-Don; Lee, Kyoung-Hee [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To determine whether adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) improves the outcome of cervical cancer patients with intermediate risk factors. Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and June 2006, the medical records of 735 patients who had undergone radical surgery for Stage IB-IIA cervical cancer were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 735 patients, 172 with two or more intermediate risk factors (i.e., lymphovascular space involvement, deep stromal invasion, and tumor size {>=}2 cm) were grouped as follows according to the adjuvant treatment received: 34 patients, no further treatment; 49 patients, RT; and 89 patients, CRT. The significance of the clinical parameters and recurrence-free survival of each group were analyzed. Results: Of the 172 patients with any of the intermediate risk factors, 137 (79.6%) had two or more intermediate risk factors. Of the 172 patients, 12 developed recurrences (6.4%)->(7.0%), with 6 in the pelvis and 6 in distant sites. All 12 recurrences occurred in those who had two or more intermediate risk factors (sensitivity, 100%); however, only six recurrences were detected in patients who met the Gynecologic Oncology Group criteria for the intermediate-risk group (sensitivity, 50%; Z test, p < .05). A statistically significant difference was found in the 3-year recurrence-free survival rate among the no further treatment, RT, and CRT groups (67.5%, 90.5%, and 97.5%, respectively; p < .05). The incidence of Grade 3-4 hematologic and gastrointestinal toxicities was not significantly different statistically between the RT and CRT groups (6.1% and 13.4%, respectively; p > .05). Conclusion: Postoperative adjuvant CRT can improve the outcome of cervical cancer patients with intermediate risk factors, with low increase in toxicity.

  11. Surgery in patients with portal hypertension: a preoperative checklist and strategies for attenuating risk.

    PubMed

    Im, Gene Y; Lubezky, Nir; Facciuto, Marcelo E; Schiano, Thomas D

    2014-05-01

    Patients with liver disease and portal hypertension are at increased risk of complications from surgery. Recent advances have allowed better optimization of patients with cirrhosis before surgery and a reduction in postoperative complications. Despite this progress, the estimation of surgical risk in a patient with cirrhosis is challenging. The MELD score has shown promise in predicting postoperative mortality compared with the Child-Turcotte-Pugh score. This article addresses current concepts in the perioperative evaluation of patients with liver disease and portal tension, including a preoperative liver assessment (POLA) checklist that may be useful towards mitigating perioperative complications. PMID:24679507

  12. When neurologist and patient disagree on reasonable risk: new challenges in prescribing for patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kachuck, Norman J

    2011-01-01

    New more powerful therapies for the treatment of multiple sclerosis may also confer a potential for unprecedented life-endangering side effects. How does a physician respond to a patient’s request for a treatment the benefit of which cannot be clearly established as worth its risk? The current challenge with prescription of natalizumab (Tysabri®, Biogen Idec) is used to illustrate how this conflict creates an opportunity to re-examine our goals as physicians and the nature of the physician–patient relationship. Understanding the physician’s role in that partnership, and the ethical and psychological issues impacting on how reasonable risk is determined, can improve the neurologist’s capacity to explicate such quandaries. Redefining what is required to mediate disagreement between doctors and patients about reasonable risk is at the heart of why many of us became physicians. However, such nuanced interpersonal dynamics of patient care can be neglected due to the time and resource pressures of our practices. These demands have increased the seductiveness of the efficiencies promoted by the trend toward the pseudo-objectification of evidence-based care, which has arguably monopolized the healing conversation often to the detriment of the shared narrative. We examine and attempt to reframe the fiduciary and biopsychosocial contretemps of the doctor and patient disagreeing on risk, emphasizing its humanistic, relational dimensions. PMID:21573081

  13. Identification of Patients at Risk for Ischaemic Cerebral Complications After Carotid Endarterectomy with TCD Monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Horn; A. R. Naylor; D. M. Laman; B. R. Chambers; J. L. Stork; T. V. Schroeder; M.-Y. Nielsen; V. G. Dunne; R. G. A. Ackerstaff

    2005-01-01

    ObjectivesTranscranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring for micro embolic signals (MES), directly after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) may identify patients at risk of developing ischaemic complications. In this retrospective multicentre study, this hypothesis was investigated.

  14. Breast Cancer Risk Associated With Common Weakly Penetrant Polymorphisms May Be Strongly Influenced by Patient Age

    Cancer.gov

    Title. Breast Cancer Risk Associated With Common Weakly Penetrant Polymorphisms May Be Strongly Influenced by Patient Age David Ralph1, Venkateswarlu Kondragunta1 , Dominique Lalo1, Sharmila Manjeshwar1,3, Ena Bromely2, Christopher Aston3, and Eldon

  15. Patients Have a Lower Risk of Dying in Level I Trauma Centers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... depression screening improves some maternal outcomes Elderly Health/Long-Term Care Study traces effects of patent expiration on infused chemotherapy use in the elderly Combination chemotherapy increases the risk for adverse events in elderly patients with colorectal ...

  16. Hypotension as a risk factor for acute kidney injury in ICU patients

    E-print Network

    Lehman, Li-Wei H.

    In the context of critical illness, hypotension may be associated with acute kidney injury (AKI). Using the MIMIC II database, we studied the risk of AKI in ICU patients as a function of both the severity and duration of ...

  17. Pitt study reports esophageal cancer risk higher in medically treated GERD patients with fewest symptoms:

    Cancer.gov

    Medically treated patients with mild or no symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are at higher risk for developing esophageal cancer than those with severe GERD symptoms, according to a University of Pittsburgh study...

  18. Can a Chronic Care Model Collaborative Reduce Heart Disease Risk in Patients with Diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    Mangione, Carol M.; Asch, Steven; Keesey, Joan; Rosen, Mayde; Schonlau, Matthias; Keeler, Emmett B.

    2007-01-01

    Background There is a need to identify effective practical interventions to decrease cardiovascular disease risk in patients with diabetes. Objective We examine the impact of participation in a collaborative implementing the chronic care model (CCM) on the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk in patients with diabetes. Design Controlled pre- and postintervention study. Patients/Participants Persons with diabetes receiving care at 13 health care organizations exposed to the CCM collaborative and controls receiving care in nonexposed sites. Measurements and Main Results Ten-year risk of cardiovascular disease; determined using a modified United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study risk engine score. A total number of 613 patients from CCM intervention sites and 557 patients from usual care control sites met the inclusion criteria. The baseline mean 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease was 31% for both the intervention group and the control group. Participants in both groups had improved blood pressure, lipid levels, and HbA1c levels during the observation period. Random intercept hierarchical regression models showed that the intervention group had a 2.1% (95% CI ?3.7%, ?0.5%) greater reduction in predicted risk for future cardiovascular events when compared to the control group. This would result in a reduced risk of one cardiovascular disease event for every 48 patients exposed to the intervention. Conclusions Over a 1-year interval, this collaborative intervention using the CCM lowered the cardiovascular disease risk factors of patients with diabetes who were cared for in the participating organization’s settings. Further work could enhance the impact of this promising multifactorial intervention on cardiovascular disease risk reduction. PMID:17356989

  19. Adjuvant therapy for high-risk renal cell carcinoma patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Kunkle; Naomi B. Haas; Robert G. Uzzo

    2007-01-01

    For most cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the standard of care is surgical resection as monotherapy or as part of a multimodal\\u000a approach. In patients with early localized disease, radical nephrectomy is associated with a favorable prognosis, whereas\\u000a patients with advanced disease are rarely cured. A significant number of patients undergoing surgery for localized RCC experience\\u000a recurrence, suggesting that

  20. Risk of hip\\/femur fractures in patients using antipsychotics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard W. K. Hugenholtz; Eibert R. Heerdink; Tjeerd P. van Staa; Willem A. Nolen; Antoine C. G. Egberts

    2005-01-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate whether use of antipsychotics is associated with hip\\/femur fractures and whether pharmacological differences between antipsychotics are related to the occurrence of fractures.A case-control study was conducted, in which cases were defined as patients with a hip\\/femur fracture. Each patient was matched to one control patient. The association between use of antipsychotics and

  1. The Prophylactic Use of Inferior Vena Cava Filters in Patients Undergoing High-Risk Spinal Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Leon; Heron Rodriguez; Rabih G. Tawk; Stephen L. Ondra; Nicos Labropoulos; Mark D. Morasch

    2005-01-01

    Prophylactic inferior vena cava filter (IVCF) placement is advocated in some high-risk groups. We sought data regarding safety and efficacy for prophylactic IVCF placement in patients at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) following major spinal reconstruction. Seventy-four spine surgery patients with contraindication to anticoagulation (44 females, 30 males; mean age 56.2) received prophylactic IVCFs. Criteria were (1) history of

  2. Increased Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Depressed Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Jeffrey F.; Garfield, Lauren D.; Chrusciel, Timothy; Hauptman, Paul J.; Carney, Robert M.; Freedland, Kenneth E.; Owen, Richard; True, William R.; Lustman, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate major depressive disorder (MDD), which complicates the course of type 2 diabetes and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. This risk may be due to a greater susceptibility for myocardial infarction (MI) in depressed patients with type 2 diabetes compared with nondepressed patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Veterans Administration electronic medical records were analyzed to identify a cohort free of cardiovascular disease in fiscal years 1999 and 2000, aged 25 to 80 years. ICD-9-CM codes were used to create a four-level risk group indicating 1) neither diabetes nor MDD (n = 214,749), 2) MDD alone (n = 77,568), 3) type 2 diabetes alone (n = 40,953), and 4) comorbid MDD and type 2 diabetes (n = 12,679). Age-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were computed before and after adjusting for baseline sociodemographic and time-dependent covariates. RESULTS After adjusting for covariates, patients with type 2 diabetes alone and patients with MDD alone were at ?30% increased risk for MI, and patients with type 2 diabetes and MDD were at 82% increased risk for MI (hazard ratio 1.82 [95% CI 1.69–1.97]) compared with patients without either condition. CONCLUSIONS Compared with patients with only diabetes or only MDD, individuals with type 2 diabetes and MDD are at increased risk for new-onset MI. Monitoring cardiovascular health in depressed patients with type 2 diabetes may reduce the risk of MI in this especially high-risk group. PMID:21680721

  3. The prevalence and consequences of malnutrition risk in elderly Albanian intensive care unit patients

    PubMed Central

    Shpata, Vjollca; Ohri, Ilir; Nurka, Tatjana; Prendushi, Xhensila

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Many investigators have reported rising numbers of elderly patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition risk in the ICU by comparing the prevalence of malnutrition between older adults (aged 65 years and above) and adults (aged 18–64 years), and to examine the negative consequences associated with risk of malnutrition in older adults. Materials and methods A prospective cohort study in the ICU of the University Hospital Center of Tirana, Albania, was conducted. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the effect of malnutrition risk on the length of ICU stay, the duration of being on the ventilator, the total complications, the infectious complications, and the mortality. Results In this study, 963 patients participated, of whom 459 patients (47.7%) were aged ?65 years. The prevalence of malnutrition risk at the time of ICU admission of the patients aged ?65 years old was 71.24%. Logistic regression adjusted for confounders showed that malnutrition risk was an independent risk factor of poor clinical outcome for elderly ICU patients, for 1) infections (odds ratio [OR] =4.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.61–7.31); 2) complications (OR =6.73; 95% CI: 4.26–10.62); 3) mortality (OR =2.68; 95% CI: 1.72–4.18); and 4) ICU length of stay >14 days (OR =5.18, 95% CI: 2.43–11.06). Conclusion Malnutrition risk is highly prevalent among elderly ICU patients, especially among severely ill patients with malignancy admitted to the emergency ward. ICU elderly patients at malnutrition risk will have higher complication and infection rates, longer duration of ICU stay, and increased mortality. Efforts should be made to implement a variety of nutritional care strategies, to change the nutritional practices not only at ward level, but nationally, according to the best clinical practice and recent guidelines. PMID:25733824

  4. Risk for Femoral Fractures in Parkinson’s Disease Patients with and without Severe Functional Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Benzinger, Petra; Rapp, Kilian; Maetzler, Walter; König, Hans-Helmut; Jaensch, Andrea; Klenk, Jochen; Büchele, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    Background Impaired balance is a major problem in patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) resulting in an increased risk of falls and fall-related fractures. Most studies which analyzed the risk of femoral fractures in patients with idiopathic PD were performed either in specialized centers or excluded very frail patients. The current study used a large population-based dataset in order to analyze the risk of femoral fractures in patients with idiopathic PD. Methods Data from more than 880.000 individuals aged 65 years or older and insured between 2004 and 2009 at a large German health insurance company were used for the analyses. Persons with idiopathic PD were identified by the dispensing of Parkinson-specific medication and by hospital diagnoses, if available. People without PD served as the reference group. Incident femoral fractures were obtained from hospital diagnoses. Analyses were stratified by gender and information on severe functional impairment (care need) as provided by reimbursement claims. Results Compared with the reference group, persons with idiopathic PD had a more than doubled risk to sustain a femoral fracture. The risk was higher in men (HR?=?2.61; 95%-CI: 2.28–2.98) than in women (HR?=?1.79; 95%-CI: 1.66–1.94). The increased risk was only observed in people without severe functional impairment. The sensitivity analysis using a refined definition of idiopathic PD patients yielded similar results. Conclusion The findings confirm the increased risk of femoral fractures in patients with idiopathic PD. The relative risk is particularly high in male PD patients and in patients without severe functional impairment. PMID:24853110

  5. Predictors of preoperative depressive risk in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Dunkel; Friederike Kendel; Elke Lehmkuhl; Birgit Babitsch; Sabine Oertelt-Prigione; Roland Hetzer; Vera Regitz-Zagrosek

    2009-01-01

    Aims  Depression is highly prevalent among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and represents a significant\\u000a risk factor for longer hospitalization, increasing health costs and worse outcomes. Nonetheless, preoperative depression is\\u000a rarely assessed in clinical practice, limiting the possibilities for effective prevention and care. Thus, we sought to develop\\u000a risk models to determine the depressive risk before CABG based

  6. Colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: the true impact of the risk.

    PubMed

    Herszényi, László; Barabás, Loránd; Miheller, Pál; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Patients with long-standing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The association between IBD and CRC is well supported, but reported risk estimates vary widely. Although recent evidence from population-based studies reports a decline in risk, CRC accounts for 10-15% of all deaths in IBD. The potential causes of recent epidemiological trends and the real magnitude of risk of CRC in IBD are subjects of debate. The molecular pathway leading to CRC differs from the classic adenoma-to-CRC sequence. Chronic inflammation contributes to the development of low- and high-grade dysplasia which may further convert into CRC. Patients with a young age at onset, long-standing and extensive colitis with severe inflammatory burden, a family history of sporadic CRC, and concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis are at greatest risk. The CRC risk in patients with colonic Crohn's disease is similar to that of ulcerative colitis. IBD-associated CRC can frequently be detected at late stages and at a younger age. The long-term prognosis of CRC may be poorer in patients with IBD than in those with sporadic CRC. Regular surveillance colonoscopies may permit earlier detection of CRC, with a corresponding improved prognosis. The interval between surveillance colonoscopies is dependent on each patient's personal risk profile. PMID:25531497

  7. Effects of Water Hardness on Urinary Risk Factors for Kidney Stones in Patients with Idiopathic Nephrolithiasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincenzo Bellizzi; Luca De Nicola; Roberto Minutolo; Domenico Russo; Bruno Cianciaruso; Michele Andreucci; Giuseppe Conte; Vittorio E. Andreucci

    1999-01-01

    Both amount and timing of dietary calcium intake influence the recurrence of renal calcium stones. We have evaluated whether the hardness of extra meal drinking water modifies the risk for calcium stones. The urinary levels of calcium, oxalate and citrate, i.e., the main urinary risk factors for calcium stones, were measured in 18 patients with idiopathic nephrolithiasis, maintained at fixed

  8. Congestive heart failure in dialysis patients: Prevalence, incidence, prognosis and risk factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D Harnett; Robert N Foley; Gloria M Kent; Paul E Barre; David Murray; Patrick S Parfrey

    1995-01-01

    Congestive heart failure in dialysis patients: Prevalence, incidence, prognosis and risk factors. Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in dialysis subjects. Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a common presenting symptom of cardiovascular disease in the dialysis population. Information regarding prevalence, incidence, risk factors and prognosis is crucial for planning rational interventional studies. A prospective multicenter cohort study

  9. Risk counseling and management in patients with lobular carcinoma in situ

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer R. Garreau; Joanne Nelson; Regan Look; Deb Walts; Diana Mahin; Louis Homer; Nathalie Johnson

    2005-01-01

    BackgroundThe understanding of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) has evolved since it was first described. LCIS once was thought to be a premalignant condition, but now it is considered a marker for increased risk for developing invasive breast cancer. We evaluated patient perception of risk, counseling, and subsequent management.

  10. Breast cancer patients with high density mammograms do not have increased risk of death

    Cancer.gov

    High mammographic breast density, which is a marker of increased risk of developing breast cancer, does not seem to increase the risk of death among breast cancer patients, according to a study led by Gretchen L. Gierach, Ph.D., of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health.

  11. How effective are pictograms in communicating risk to patients who drive under the influence of medicines?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Monteiro; R. Huiskes; J. van Weert; L. van Dijk; J. de Gier

    2011-01-01

    Background: Risk communication is a two way exchange of information, leading to a better understanding of risk. It can make use of pictograms which help patients to make decisions about their medicines. This study is part of the DRUID* project and will make use of pictograms related with medicines and driving. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of a pictogram in

  12. Differences in Risk Factors for Suicidality between African American and White Patients Vulnerable to Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderwerker, Lauren C.; Chen, Joyce H; Charpentier, Peter; Paulk, Mary Elizabeth; Michalski, Marion; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2007-01-01

    Risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts have been shown to differ between African Americans and Whites across the lifespan. In the present study, risk factors for suicidality were examined separately by race/ethnicity in a population of 131 older adult patients considered vulnerable to suicide due to substance abuse and/or medical frailty.…

  13. Breast cancer patients with high density mammograms do not have increased risk of death

    Cancer.gov

    High mammographic breast density, which is a marker of increased risk of developing breast cancer, does not seem to increase the risk of death among breast cancer patients, according to a study led by Gretchen L. Gierach, Ph.D., NCI. In the image above, a physician examines a digital mammogram of a dense breast and points to a potential tumor.

  14. Cancer Risk among the Relatives of Patients with Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Del Chiaro; Alessandro Zerbi; Massimo Falconi; Laura Bertacca; Marco Polese; Nora Sartori; Ugo Boggi; Giorgio Casari; Bianca Maria Longoni; Roberto Salvia; Maria Adelaide Caligo; Valerio Di Carlo; Paolo Pederzoli; Silvano Presciuttini; Franco Mosca

    2007-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death; the most consistently identified risk factors are smoking and family history. Our aims were to examine familial aggregations of pancreas and other cancers, and to determine the relative risk of the family members. Methods: We prospectively collected data on the families of patients presenting with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Smoking habits

  15. A typology for legal risk management in patient care in Australian hospitals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liza Newby

    1996-01-01

    The author reviewed the literature on legal risk management in patient care, and carried out research in two acute care hospitals. The hospital research involved auditing policies and procedures, interviewing key people in the hospital, reviewing external legal and policy trends, and examining selected complaints files and legal cases. The results were used to develop a 'typology' of legal risk

  16. Are patients with cirrhotic stage primary sclerosing cholangitis at risk for the development of hepatocellular cancer?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise M. Harnois; Gregory J. Gores; Jurgen Ludwig; Jeffery L. Steers; Nicholas F. LaRusso; Russell H. Wiesner

    1997-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The risk of cholangiocarcinoma in primary sclerosing cholangitis is widely recognized to be 8–30%, whereas the risk of acquiring hepatocellular carcinoma in primary sclerosing cholangitis is unknown. As in other chronic liver diseases, the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis undergoing evaluation for orthotopic liver transplantation would clearly impact on the candidacy, diagnostic evaluation,

  17. Medicare star excludes diabetes patients with poor CVD risk factor control.

    PubMed

    Schmittdiel, Julie; Raebel, Marsha; Dyer, Wendy; Steiner, John; Goodrich, Glenn; Karter, Andy; Nichols, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Objectives CMS recently added medication adherence to antihypertensives, antihyperlipidemics, and oral antihyperglycemics to its Medicare Star quality measures. These CMS metrics exclude patients with < 2 medication fills (ie, "early nonadherence") and patients concurrently taking insulin. This study examined the proportion of patients with diabetes prescribed cardiovascular disease (CVD) medications excluded from Star adherence metrics and assessed the relationship of both Star-defined adherence and exclusion from Star metrics with CVD risk factor control. Study Design Cross-sectional, population-based analysis of 129,040 patients with diabetes aged ? 65 years in 2010 from 3 Kaiser Permanente regions. Methods We estimated adjusted risk ratios to assess the relationship between achieving Star adherence and being excluded from Star adherence metrics, with CVD risk factor control (glycated hemoglobin [A1C] < 8.0%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] < 100 mg/dL, and systolic blood pressure [SBP] < 130 mm Hg) in patients with diabetes. Results Star metrics excluded 27% of patients with diabetes prescribed oral medications. Star-defined nonadherence was negatively associated with CVD risk factor control (risk ratio [RR], 0.95, 0.84, 0.96 for A1C, LDL-C, and SBP control, respectively; P < .001). Exclusion from Star metrics due to early nonadherence was also strongly associated with poor control (RR, 0.83, 0.56, 0.87 for A1C, LDL-C, and SBP control, respectively; P < .001). Exclusion for insulin use was negatively associated with A1C control (RR, 0.78; P < .0001). Conclusions Medicare Star adherence measures underestimate the prevalence of medication nonadherence in diabetes and exclude patients at high risk for poor CVD outcomes. Up to 3 million elderly patients with diabetes may be excluded from these measures nationally. Quality measures designed to encourage effective medication use should focus on all patients treated for CVD risk. PMID:25741874

  18. Evaluating the Risk of Re-identification of Patients from Hospital Prescription Records

    PubMed Central

    Emam, Khaled El; Dankar, Fida K; Vaillancourt, Régis; Roffey, Tyson; Lysyk, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Background: Pharmacies often provide prescription records to private research firms, on the assumption that these records are de-identified (i.e., identifying information has been removed). However, concerns have been expressed about the potential that patients can be re-identified from such records. Recently, a large private research firm requested prescription records from the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO), as part of a larger effort to develop a database of hospital prescription records across Canada. Objective: To evaluate the ability to re-identify patients from CHEO’S prescription records and to determine ways to appropriately de-identify the data if the risk was too high. Methods: The risk of re-identification was assessed for 18 months’ worth of prescription data. De-identification algorithms were developed to reduce the risk to an acceptable level while maintaining the quality of the data. Results: The probability of patients being re-identified from the original variables and data set requested by the private research firm was deemed quite high. A new de-identified record layout was developed, which had an acceptable level of re-identification risk. The new approach involved replacing the admission and discharge dates with the quarter and year of admission and the length of stay in days, reporting the patient’s age in weeks, and including only the first character of the patient’s postal code. Additional requirements were included in the data-sharing agreement with the private research firm (e.g., audit requirements and a protocol for notification of a breach of privacy). Conclusions: Without a formal analysis of the risk of re-identification, assurances of data anonymity may not be accurate. A formal risk analysis at one hospital produced a clinically relevant data set that also protects patient privacy and allows the hospital pharmacy to explicitly manage the risks of breach of patient privacy. PMID:22478909

  19. Cancer risk in a cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in California

    PubMed Central

    Parikh-Patel, A.; Allen, M.; Cress, R.; White, R. H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We conducted a retrospective cohort study to examine cancer risk in a large cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in California. Methods The cohort consisted of individuals with SLE derived from statewide patient discharge data during the period 1991–2002. SLE patients were followed using cancer registry data to examine patterns of cancer development. Standardized incidence ratios (SlRs) and 95% CI were calculated to compare the observed to expected numbers of cancers based on age-, race-, and sex-specific incidence rates in the California population. Results The 30,478 SLE patients were observed for 157,969 person-years. A total of 1,273 cancers occurred within the observation interval. Overall cancer risk was significantly elevated (SIR=1.14, 95% CI=1.07–1.20). SLE patients had higher risks of vagina/vulva (SIR=3.27, 95% CI=2.41–4.31) and liver cancers (SIR=2.70, 95% CI=1.54–4.24). Elevated risks of lung, kidney, and thyroid cancers and several hematopoietic malignancies were also observed. Individuals had significantly lower risks of several screenable cancers, including breast, cervix, and prostate. Conclusions These data suggest that risks of several cancer types are elevated among SLE patients. Detailed studies of endogenous and exogenous factors that drive these associations are needed. PMID:18386139

  20. Bed care for patients in palliative settings: considering risks to caregivers and bed surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fragala, Guy

    2015-02-01

    Ensuring patients are comfortable in bed is key to effective palliative care, but when moving and positioning patients in bed, health professionals face an occupational risk of injury. The turning and positioning (TAP) system is a new method of moving patients in bed, that evidence has shown to reduce the risk of injury to caregivers. Providing the correct bed surface is another aspect of bed care essential to the comfort of the palliative patient, and to aid wound prevention and treatment. It is important to take a patient-centred approach when considering the most appropriate bed surface patients. This article provides an overview and discussion of these two aspects of bed care for palliative patients. PMID:25715161

  1. The risk of elective orthopaedic surgery for haemophilia patients: Japanese single-centre experience.

    PubMed

    Hirose, J; Takedani, H; Koibuchi, T

    2013-11-01

    Haemophilic arthropathy causes pain and a severely restricted range of motion, and results in a significant reduction in quality of life. When conservative treatments have failed, orthopaedic surgery is recommended for these patients with severe haemophilic arthropathy. However, surgery for haemophilia patients is challenging due to high complication rate such as infection, delayed wound healing and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of early complications and identify preoperative risk factors of surgery for haemophilia patients. We report a series of haemophilia patients undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery between 2006 and 2012. During this period, 119 surgeries in 81 patients were prepared and 118 surgeries in 80 patients were actually performed. Four deep bacterial infections and four delayed wound healings occurred within 6 months postoperatively. One patient died preoperatively and four patients died postoperatively. Only the presence of inhibitor was a significant risk factor for infection. We found no risk factor related to delayed wound healing. Our data revealed alkaline phosphatase, albumin, platelet, alpha-fetoprotein, presence of ascites and child classification C as predictors of perioperative mortality following elective orthopaedic surgery. Our role is to identify potential patients who present with risk factors for complications and attempt to seek the best determination of treatment strategy for these people. PMID:23746133

  2. Screening for proteinuria in ‘at-riskpatients with spinal cord injuries: lessons learnt from failure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury patients may develop proteinuria as a result of glomerulosclerosis due to urosepsis, hydronephrosis, vesicoureteric reflux, and renal calculi. Proteinuria in turn contributes to progression of kidney disease. We report one paraplegic and two tetraplegic patients, who developed recurrent urine infections, urinary calculi, and hydronephrosis. These patients required several urological procedures (nephrostomy, cystoscopy and ureteric stenting, ureteroscopy and lithotripsy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy). These patients had not received antimuscarinic drugs nor had they undergone video-urodynamics. Proteinuria was detected only at a late stage, as testing for proteinuria was not performed during follow-up visits. Urine electrophoresis showed no monoclonal bands in any; Serum glomerular basement membrane antibody screen was negative. Serum neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies screen by fluorescence was negative. All patients were prescribed Ramipril 2.5 mg daily and there was no further deterioration of renal function. Spinal cord injury patients, who did not receive antimuscarinic drugs to reduce intravesical pressure, are at high risk for developing reflux nephropathy. When such patients develop glomerulosclerosis due to recurrent urosepsis, renal calculi, or hydronephrosis, risk of proteinuria is increased further. Take home message: (1) Screening for proteinuria should be performed regularly in the ‘at-riskpatients. (2) In the absence of other renal diseases causing proteinuria, spinal cord injury patients with significant proteinuria may be prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin-II receptor antagonist to slow progression of chronic renal disease and reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality. PMID:24955116

  3. Preoperative Assessment of Surgical Risk in Oncogeriatric Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICCARDO A. AUDISIO; WALTER E. LONGO; ANDREW P. Z BAR; DANIEL POPE

    Cancer is a prevalent disease in our aging population; however, few oncologists are familiar with caring for oncogeriatric patients. Surgery is presently the treat- ment of choice for most solid tumors, but it is frequently delivered in a suboptimal way in this patient subsetting. Undertreatment is often justified with the concern of an unsustainable toxicity, while overtreatment can be related

  4. Risk of Cancer in Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu-Wen; Hu, Li-Yu; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Teng, Chung-Jen; Kuan, Ai-Seon; Chen, San-Chi; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the risk of cancer among patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) by using a nationwide population-based data set. Method Patients newly diagnosed with IDA and without antecedent cancer between 2000 and 2010 were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancer types among patients with IDA were calculated. Results Patients with IDA exhibited an increased overall cancer risk (SIR: 2.15). Subgroup analysis showed that patients of both sexes and in all age groups had an increased SIR. After we excluded patients diagnosed with cancer within the first and first 5 years of IDA diagnosis, the SIRs remained significantly elevated at 1.43 and 1.30, respectively. In addition, the risks of pancreatic (SIR: 2.31), kidney (SIR: 2.23), liver (SIR: 1.94), and bladder cancers (SIR: 1.74) remained significantly increased after exclusion of patients diagnosed with cancer within 5 years after IDA diagnosis. Conclusion The overall cancer risk was significantly elevated among patients with IDA. After we excluded patients diagnosed with IDA and cancer within 1 and 5 years, the SIRs remained significantly elevated compared with those of the general population. The increased risk of cancer was not confined to gastrointestinal cancer when the SIRs of pancreatic, kidney, liver, and bladder cancers significantly increased after exclusion of patients diagnosed with IDA and cancer within the first 5 years. This finding may be caused by immune activities altered by IDA. Further study is necessary to determine the association between IDA and cancer risk. PMID:25781632

  5. Metformin Therapy and Risk of Cancer in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Franciosi, Monica; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Lapice, Emanuela; Strippoli, Giovanni F. M.; Pellegrini, Fabio; Nicolucci, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Diabetes treatments were related with either an increased or reduced risk of cancer. There is ongoing debate about a potential protective action of metformin. To summarize evidence on the association between metformin and risk of cancer and cancer mortality in patients with diabetes. Methods Data source: MEDLINE and EMBASE (January 1966-April 2012). We selected randomized studies comparing metformin and other hypoglycaemic agents and observational studies exploring the association between exposure to metformin and cancer. Outcomes were cancer mortality, all malignancies and site-specific cancers. Results Of 25307 citations identified, 12 randomized controlled trials (21,595 patients) and 41 observational studies (1,029,389 patients) met the inclusion criteria. In observational studies there was a significant association of exposure to metformin with the risk of cancer death [6 studies, 24,410 patients, OR:0.65, 95%CI: 0.53-0.80], all malignancies [18 studies, 561,836 patients, OR:0.73, 95%CI: 0.61-0.88], liver [8 studies, 312,742 patients, OR:0.34; 95%CI: 0.19-0.60] colorectal [12 studies, 871,365 patients, OR:0.83, 95%CI: 0.74–0.92], pancreas [9 studies, 847,248 patients, OR:0.56, 95%CI: 0.36–0.86], stomach [2 studies, 100701 patients, OR:0.83, 95%CI: 0.76–0.91], and esophagus cancer [2 studies, 100694 patients, OR:0.90, 95%CI: 0.83–0.98]. No significant difference of risk was observed in randomized trials. Metformin was not associated with the risk of: breast cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, uterus cancer, prostate cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, and melanoma. Conclusions/Interpretation Results suggest that Metformin might be associated with a significant reduction in the risk of cancer and cancer-related mortality. Randomized trials specifically designed to evaluate the efficacy of metformin as an anticancer agent are warranted. PMID:23936520

  6. Prognostic value of a single HVPG measurement and Doppler-ultrasound evaluation in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annalisa Berzigotti; Valentina Rossi; Carolina Tiani; Lucia Pierpaoli; Paola Zappoli; Anna Riili; Carla Serra; Pietro Andreone; Maria Cristina Morelli; Rita Golfieri; Cristina Rossi; Donatella Magalotti; Marco Zoli

    2011-01-01

    Background  In patients with cirrhosis the onset of clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH; i.e., hepatic venous pressure gradient\\u000a (HVPG) ? 10 mmHg) is associated with an increased risk of complications. However, most cirrhotic patients already have CSPH\\u000a at presentation, and limited information is available on further risk stratification in this population. This study assessed\\u000a the prognostic value of a single HVPG measurement and

  7. Benefits of First-Line Combination of Perindopril and Indapamide in Clinical Practice for Patients With Hypertension and Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faiez Zannad

    2007-01-01

    Because of the importance of attaining rapid and tight blood-pressure (BP) control, those guidelines that base treatment recommendations on a risk-stratification approach include combination therapies as first-line pharmacologic treatment options. Monotherapies were shown to be ineffective in many patients, and delays in BP control significantly increase the risk of cardiac events, stroke, and death. In diabetic patients in whom BP

  8. Relapse risk in patients with malignant diseases given allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after nonmyeloablative conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Kahl, Christoph; Storer, Barry E.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Mielcarek, Marco; Maris, Michael B.; Blume, Karl G.; Niederwieser, Dietger; Chauncey, Thomas R.; Forman, Stephen J.; Agura, Edward; Leis, Jose F.; Bruno, Benedetto; Langston, Amelia; Pulsipher, Michael A.; McSweeney, Peter A.; Wade, James C.; Epner, Elliot; Bo Petersen, Finn; Bethge, Wolfgang A.; Maloney, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) after nonmyeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies depends on graft-versus-tumor effects for eradication of cancer. Here, we estimated relapse risks according to disease characteristics. Between 1997 and 2006, 834 consecutive patients (median age, 55 years; range, 5-74 years) received related (n = 498) or unrelated (n = 336) HCT after 2 Gy total body irradiation alone (n = 171) or combined with fludarabine (90 mg/m2; n = 663). Relapse rates per patient year (PY) at risk, corrected for follow-up and competing nonrelapse mortality, were calculated for 29 different diseases and stages. The overall relapse rate per PY was 0.36. Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma (MM) in remission (CR), low-grade or mantle cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (CR + partial remission [PR]), and high-grade NHL-CR had the lowest rates (0.00-0.24; low risk). In contrast, patients with advanced myeloid and lymphoid malignancies had rates of more than 0.52 (high risk). Patients with lymphoproliferative diseases not in CR (except Hodgkin lymphoma and high-grade NHL) and myeloid malignancies in CR had rates of 0.26-0.37 (standard risk). In conclusion, patients with low-grade lymphoproliferative disorders experienced the lowest relapse rates, whereas patients with advanced myeloid and lymphoid malignancies had high relapse rates after nonmyeloablative HCT. The latter might benefit from cytoreductive treatment before HCT. PMID:17595333

  9. Risk factors for ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack in patients under age 50

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, A. W. M.; de Leeuw, F. E.

    2010-01-01

    To analyze risk factors for ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) in young adults under the age of 50. To make recommendations for additional research and practical consequences. From 97 patients with ischemic stroke or TIA under the age of 50, classical cardiovascular risk factors, coagulation disorders, history of migraine, use of oral contraceptives, cardiac abnormalities on ECG and echocardiography, and the results of duplex ultrasound were retrospectively analyzed. Literature was reviewed and compared to the results. 56.4% of the patients had hypertension, 12.1% increased total cholesterol, 20% hypertriglyceridemia, 31.5% an increased LDL-level, 32.6% a decreased HDL-level and 7.2% a disturbed glucose tolerance. Thrombophilia investigation was abnormal in 21 patients and auto-immune serology was abnormal in 15 patients. Ten of these patients were already known with a systemic disease associated with an increased risk for ischemic stroke (i.e. systemic lupus erythematosus). The ECG was abnormal in 16.7% of the cases, the echocardiography in 12.1% and duplex ultrasound of the carotid arteries was in 31.8% of the cases abnormal. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors are not only important in patients over the age of 50 with ischemic stroke or TIA, but also in this younger population under the age of 50. Thrombophilia investigation and/ or autoimmune serology should be restricted to patients without conventional cardiovascular risk factors and a history or other clinical symptoms associated with hypercoagulability and/ or autoimmune diseases. PMID:20532956

  10. Computerized identification of patients at high risk for hospital-acquired infection.

    PubMed

    Evans, R S; Burke, J P; Classen, D C; Gardner, R M; Menlove, R L; Goodrich, K M; Stevens, L E; Pestotnik, S L

    1992-02-01

    Surveillance for hospital-acquired infections is required in U.S. hospitals, and statistical methods have been used to predict the risk of infection. We used the HELP (Health Evaluation through Logical Processing) Hospital Information System at LDS Hospital to develop computerized methods to identify and verify hospital-acquired infections. The criteria for hospital-acquired infection are standardized and based on the guidelines of the Study of the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control and the Centers for Disease Control. The computer algorithms are automatically activated when key items of information, such as microbiology results, are reported. Computer surveillance identified more hospital-acquired infections than did traditional methods and has replaced manual surveillance in our 520-bed hospital. Data on verified hospital-acquired infections are electronically transferred to a microcomputer to facilitate outbreak investigation and the generation of reports on infection rates. Recently, we used the HELP system to employ statistical methods to automatically identify high-risk patients. Patient data from more than 6000 patients were used to develop a high-risk equation. Stepwise logistic regression identified 10 risk factors for nosocomial infection. The HELP system now uses this logistic-regression equation to monitor and determine the risk status for all hospitalized patients each day. The computer notifies infection control practitioners each morning of patients who are newly classified as being at high risk. Of 605 hospital-acquired infections during a 6-month period, 472 (78%) occurred in high-risk patients, and 380 (63%) were predicted before the onset of infection. Computerized regression equations to identify patients at risk of having hospital-acquired infections can help focus prevention efforts. PMID:1554148

  11. Cirrhosis patients have increased risk of complications after hip or knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Deleuran, Thomas; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Overgaard, Søren; Jepsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose The risk of complications in cirrhosis patients after orthopedic surgery is unclear. We examined this risk after total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Patients and methods Using Danish healthcare registries, we identified all Danish residents who underwent a THA or TKA for primary osteoarthritis in the period 1995–2011. We compared the risk of complications in patients with or without cirrhosis. Results The surgical technique was similar in the 363 cirrhosis patients and in 109,159 reference patients, but cirrhosis patients were more likely to have been under general anesthesia (34% vs. 23%), were younger (median age 66 vs. 69 years), had a predominance of males (54% vs. 41%), had more comorbidity, and had had more hospitalizations preoperatively. Their risk of intraoperative complications was similar to that for reference patients (2.5% vs. 2.0%), but they had greater risk of dying during hospitalization or within 30 days of discharge (1.4% vs. 0.4%; aOR = 3.9, 95% CI: 1.5–10); greater risk of postoperative transfer to an intensive care unit (0.6% vs. 0.06%; aOR = 5.8, CI: 1.3–25) or a medical department (4.4% vs. 2.5%; aOR = 1.7, CI: 0.99–2.9); greater risk of readmission within 30 days of discharge (15% vs. 8%; aOR = 1.8, CI: 1.3–2.4); and greater risk of deep prosthetic infection (3.1% vs. 1.4%) or revision (3.7% vs. 1.7%) within 1 year. The chance of having an uncomplicated procedure was 81.0% (CI: 76.6–85.0) for cirrhosis patients and 90.0% (CI: 89.6–90.0) for reference patients. Interpretation Cirrhosis patients had a higher risk of postoperative complications after THA or TKA for primary osteoarthritis than patients without cirrhosis. This may have implications for orthopedic surgeons’ postoperative management of cirrhosis patients, and preoperative assessment by a hepatologist may be indicated. PMID:25238440

  12. Clinical endpoints for developing pharmaceuticals to manage patients with sporadic or genetic risk of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rial, Nathaniel S.; Zell, Jason A.; Cohen, Alfred M.; Gerner, Eugene W.

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the morbidity and mortality from colorectal cancer, current clinical practice focuses on screening for early detection and polypectomy as a form of secondary prevention, complemented with surgical interventions when appropriate. No pharmaceutical agent is currently approved for use in clinical practice for the management of patients with risk of colorectal cancer. This article will review earlier attempts to develop pharmaceuticals for use in managing patients with sporadic or genetic risk of colorectal cancer. It will also discuss therapeutic endpoints under evaluation in current efforts to develop drugs for treating colorectal cancer risk factors. PMID:22928902

  13. Infection risk with bolus versus maintenance iron supplementation in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Brookhart, M Alan; Freburger, Janet K; Ellis, Alan R; Wang, Lily; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V

    2013-06-01

    Intravenous iron may promote bacterial growth and impair host defense, but the risk of infection associated with iron supplementation is not well defined. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of hemodialysis patients to compare the safety of bolus dosing, which provides a large amount of iron over a short period of time on an as-needed basis, with maintenance dosing, which provides smaller amounts of iron on a regular schedule to maintain iron repletion. Using clinical data from 117,050 patients of a large US dialysis provider merged with data from Medicare's ESRD program, we estimated the effects of iron dosing patterns during repeated 1-month exposure periods on risks of mortality and infection-related hospitalizations during the subsequent 3 months. Of 776,203 exposure/follow-up pairs, 13% involved bolus dosing, 49% involved maintenance dosing, and 38% did not include exposure to iron. Multivariable additive risk models found that patients receiving bolus versus maintenance iron were at increased risk of infection-related hospitalization (risk difference [RD], 25 additional events/1000 patient-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 16 to 33) during follow-up. Risks were largest among patients with a catheter (RD, 73 events/1000 patient-years; 95% CI, 48 to 99) and a recent infection (RD, 57 events/1000 patient-years; 95% CI, 19 to 99). We also observed an association between bolus dosing and infection-related mortality. Compared with no iron, maintenance dosing did not associate with increased risks for adverse outcomes. These results suggest that maintenance iron supplementation may result in fewer infections than bolus dosing, particularly among patients with a catheter. PMID:23787911

  14. The Risk of Cancer in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Li-Yu; Hung, Man-Hsin; Su, Tung-Ping; Huang, Min-Wei; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yen, Sang-Hue; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the risk of cancer among patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a nationwide population-based dataset. Methods We recruited newly-diagnosed GAD patients aged 20 years or older without antecedent cancer from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database between 2000–2010. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancers were calculated in GAD patients, and the subgroup of GAD patients diagnosed by psychiatric specialists. Results A total of 559 cancers developed among 19,793 GAD patients with a follow-up of 89,485 person-years (median follow-up of 4.34 years), leading to a significantly increased SIR of 1.14 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.24]. Male GAD patients had a significantly increased SIR overall (1.30, 95% CI 1.15–1.46) and for lung and prostate cancer (1.77, 95% CI 1.33–2.30 and 2.17, 95% CI 1.56–2.93, respectively). Patients over 80 years of age also had a significantly increased SIR (1.56, 95% CI 1.25–1.92), especially in males. However, psychiatrist-diagnosed GAD patients did not show increased cancer risk relative to the general population, perhaps due to having fewer physical comorbidities than non-psychiatrist-diagnosed GAD patients. Conclusion This study found that overall cancer risk is elevated among patients with GAD. The risk of lung and prostate cancer also increased in male patients with GAD. This increased cancer risk may be due to physical comorbidities and surveillance bias. Further prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:23460851

  15. Patients at High Risk for Ischemic Stroke: Identification and Actions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaime Gállego; Eduardo Martínez Vila; Roberto Muñoz

    2007-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of chronic inflammation. It is diffuse, multisystemic and affects the vascular, metabolic and immune systems. The traditional evaluation of risk is based on methods of clinical and biological assessments, and conventional imaging. The existence of symptomatic disease and the number of symptomatic sites of atherothrombosis are critical factors in predicting the recurrence of major vascular events.

  16. Nontraditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica Kendrick; Michel B Chonchol

    2008-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a reduced lifespan, and a substantial proportion of these individuals die from cardiovascular disease. Although a large percentage of patients with CKD have traditional cardiac risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension and abnormalities in cholesterol, interventions to address these factors—which have significantly decreased cardiovascular mortality in the general population—have not shown such benefit

  17. Risk factors for apical root resorption of maxillary anterior teeth in adult orthodontic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Davide Mirabella; Jon Årtun

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for apical root resorption in adult orthodontic patients. Standardized periapical radiographs of maxillary anterior teeth and cephalograms made before and after treatment and treatment charts of 343 adults, representing groups of consecutively treated patients from four orthodontic practices, were examined. Apical root resorption was calculated by subtracting posttreatment tooth length

  18. Intraluminal thrombus and risk of rupture in patient specific abdominal aortic aneurysm – FSI modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danny Bluestein; Kris Dumont; Matthieu De Beule; John Ricotta; Paul Impellizzeri; Benedict Verhegghe; Pascal Verdonck

    2009-01-01

    Recent numerical studies of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) suggest that intraluminal thrombus (ILT) may reduce the stress loading on the aneurysmal wall. Detailed fluid structure interaction (FSI) in the presence and absence of ILT may help predict AAA rupture risk better. Two patients, with varied AAA geometries and ILT structures, were studied and compared in detail. The patient specific 3D

  19. Frequency of and risk factors for poor cognitive performance in hemodialysis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are few detailed data on cognition in patients undergoing dialysis. We evaluated the frequency of and risk factors for poor cognitive performance using detailed neurocognitive testing. In this cross-sectional cohort study, 314 hemodialysis patients from 6 Boston-area hemodialysis units underwe...

  20. Reduced Kidney Function and Anemia as Risk Factors for Mortality in Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amin Al-Ahmad; William M. Rand; Guruprasad Manjunath; Marvin A. Konstam; Deeb N. Salem; Andrew S. Levey; Mark J. Sarnak

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We sought to evaluate the relationship between the level of kidney function, level of hematocrit and their interaction on all-cause mortality in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. BACKGROUND Anemia and reduced kidney function occur frequently in patients with heart failure. The level of hematocrit and its relationship with renal function have not been evaluated as risk factors for

  1. Computed tomographic colonography compared with colonoscopy in patients at increased risk for colorectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rogier E. van Gelder; C. Yung Nio; Jasper Florie; Joep F. Bartelsman; Pleun Snel; Steven W. de Jager; Sander J. van Deventer; Johan S. Laméris; Patrick M. M. Bossuyt; Jaap Stoker

    2004-01-01

    Background & Aims: To date, computed tomographic (CT) colonography has been compared with an imperfect test, colonoscopy, and has been mainly assessed in patients with positive screening test results or symptoms. Therefore, the available data may not apply to screening of patients with a personal or family history of colorectal polyps or cancer (increased risk). We prospectively investigated the ability

  2. Contemporary identification of patients at high risk of early prostate cancer recurrence after radical retropubic prostatectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William W Roberts; Erik J Bergstralh; Michael L Blute; Jeffrey M Slezak; Michael Carducci; Misop Han; Jonathan I Epstein; Mario A Eisenberger; Patrick C Walsh; Alan W Partin

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. To develop a model that will identify a contemporary cohort of patients at high risk of early prostate cancer recurrence (greater than 50% at 36 months) after radical retropubic prostatectomy for clinically localized disease. Data from this model will provide important information for patient selection and the design of prospective randomized trials of adjuvant therapies.Methods. Proportional hazards regression analysis

  3. SILENT MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA IN ASYMPTOMATIC PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE CORONARY RISK FACTORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Deljanin

    Summary. Myocardial ischemia which occurs in the absence of chest pain or its equivalents (silent myocardial ischemia) is common in patients with coronary artery disease. Silent myocardial ischemia may also be found in asymptomatic patients, particularly those with underlying risk factors. It is important for physicians to identify the existence of silent myocardial ischemia because it is predictive of increased

  4. Regional Anesthesia Does Not Increase the Risk of Postoperative Neuropathy in Patients Undergoing Ulnar Nerve Transposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Hebl; Terese T. Horlocker; Eric J. Sorenson; Darrell R. Schroeder

    2001-01-01

    The use of regional anesthetic techniques in patients with preexisting neuropathies has been widely debated. The possibility of needle- or catheter-induced trauma, local anesthetic toxicity, or neural ischemia during regional blockade may place patients with underlying mechanical, ischemic, or metabolic neurologic derangements at in- creased risk of progressive neural injury. We evaluated the safety of regional versus general anesthesia in

  5. Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity as a Marker of Cardiovascular Risk in Hypertensive Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Blacher; Roland Asmar; Saliha Djane; Gerard M. London; Michel E. Safar

    Large artery damage is a major contributory factor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of patients with hypertension. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), a classic evaluation of arterial distensibility, has never been ascertained as a cardiovascular risk marker. To determine the factors influencing aortic PWV and the potential predictor role of this measurement, we studied a cohort of 710 patients with essential

  6. Risk Factors for Development of Paradoxical Response During Antituberculosis Therapy in HIV-Negative Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. C. C. Cheng; W. C. Yam; P. C. Y. Woo; S. K. P. Lau; I. F. N. Hung; S. P. Y. Wong; W. C. Cheung; K. Y. Yuen

    2003-01-01

    The risk factors for development of paradoxical response were studied in a cohort of 104 patients with culture-documented Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Paradoxical deterioration occurred in 16 (15.4%) patients (case group) during antituberculosis therapy, involving lungs and pleura ( n=4), spine and paraspinal tissue ( n=5), intracranium ( n=3), peritoneum ( n=2), bone and joint ( n=1), and lymph node (

  7. Multiple Risk Assessment of Cardiovascular Surgery in Chronic Renal Failure Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bartlomiej Witczak; Anders Hartmann; Jan L. Svennevig

    2005-01-01

    Background. Chronic renal failure is a major risk factor in cardiovascular surgery. We evaluated results of cardio- vascular surgery in chronic renal failure patients (s- creatinine > 200 mol\\/L or established dialysis) at our center from 1990 to 2000. Methods. One hundred and six chronic renal failure patients underwent cardiovascular surgery (56 coronary artery bypass operations, 25 valve replacements with

  8. Aggression and Risk of Future Violence in Forensic Psychiatric Patients with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selenius, Heidi; Hellstrom, Ake; Belfrage, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexia does not cause criminal behaviour, but it may worsen aggressive behaviour tendencies. In this study, aggressive behaviour and risk of future violence were compared between forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia. Dyslexia was assessed using the Swedish phonological processing battery "The Pigeon". The patients filled in…

  9. TP53 gene mutations of lung cancer patients in upper northern Thailand and environmental risk factors

    E-print Network

    TP53 gene mutations of lung cancer patients in upper northern Thailand and environmental risk mutations are observed in about 40e70% of lung cancer tissues, and the hot spot codon mu- tations factors that influence TP53 gene mutation in lung cancer patients residing areas with high lung cancer

  10. Effects of exercise rehabilitation on cardiovascular risk factors in older patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Maria Izquierdo-Porrera; Andrew W Gardner; Claudia C Powell; Leslie I Katzel

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 6-month exercise rehabilitation program can improve cardiovascular risk factors in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Methods: Thirty-four patients (mean age, 68 ± 8 years; range 54-84 years) with PAOD with intermittent claudication (Fontaine stage II) and 14 longitudinal controls of comparable age with stage II PAOD enrolled

  11. Risk of osteoporotic fracture in a large population-based cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seo Young Kim; Sebastian Schneeweiss; Jun Liu; Gregory W Daniel; Chun-Lan Chang; Katie Garneau; Daniel H Solomon

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although osteoporosis has been reported to be more common in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), little is known whether the risk of osteoporotic fractures in these patients differs by age, sex, and anatomic site. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a health care utilization database. Incidence rates (IRs) and rate ratios (RRs) of osteoporotic fractures with 95%